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Sample records for pig slurry applied

  1. Nutrient Status and Contamination Risks from Digested Pig Slurry Applied on a Vegetable Crops Field

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaohui; Hua, Yumei; Deng, Liangwei

    2016-01-01

    The effects of applied digested pig slurry on a vegetable crops field were studied. The study included a 3-year investigation on nutrient characteristics, heavy metals contamination and hygienic risks of a vegetable crops field in Wuhan, China. The results showed that, after anaerobic digestion, abundant N, P and K remained in the digested pig slurry while fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs and hookworm eggs were highly reduced. High Cr, Zn and Cu contents in the digested pig slurry were found in spring. Digested pig slurry application to the vegetable crops field led to improved soil fertility. Plant-available P in the fertilized soils increased due to considerable increase in total P content and decrease in low-availability P fraction. The As content in the fertilized soils increased slightly but significantly (p = 0.003) compared with control. The Hg, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Cu contents in the fertilized soils did not exceed the maximum permissible contents for vegetable crops soils in China. However, high Zn accumulation should be of concern due to repeated applications of digested pig slurry. No fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs or hookworm eggs were detected in the fertilized soils. PMID:27058548

  2. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

    2014-01-01

    Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent. PMID:24995598

  3. Sorption of 17β-estradiol to pig slurry separates and soil in the soil-slurry environment.

    PubMed

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of freshwater by estrogens from manure applied to agricultural land is of grave concern because of the potentially harmful effects on aquatic life and human health. Recent developments in liquid manure (slurry) management include partial removal of particulate slurry dry matter (PSDM) by separation technologies, which may also remove parts of the estrogens and enhance infiltration of the slurry on field application and hence the interaction between estrogens and the soil matrix. This study investigated how 17β-estradiol (E2), a natural estrogen commonly found in pig manure, sorbs to agricultural soils, to different size fractions of pig slurry separates, and to soils amended with each size fraction to simulate conditions in the soil-slurry environment. A crude fiber fraction (SS1) was prepared by sieving (<500 μm) the solids removed by an on-farm separation process. Three other size fractions (SS2 > SS3 > SS4) were prepared from the liquid fraction of the separated slurry by sedimentation and centrifugation. Sorption experiments were conducted in 0.01 mol L(-1) CaCl(2) and in natural pig urine matrix. Sorption in 0.01 mol L(-1) CaCl(2) was higher than that in pig urine for all solids used. Sorption of E2 to soil increased with its organic carbon content for both liquid phases. The solid-liquid partition coefficients of slurry separates were 10 to 30 times higher than those of soils, but the organoic carbon normalized partition coefficient values, reflecting sorption per unit organic carbon, were lower for slurry separates. Mixing slurry separates with soil increased the sorption of E2 to the solid phase significantly in the order: SS1 < SS3 < SS2 for both liquid phases. In contrast, SS4 reduced the sorption of E2 to the solid phase by increasing the sorption to suspended or dissolved organic matter. The study suggested that potentially 50 to 75% of E2 in slurry can be removed from the liquid fraction of slurry by physical separation.

  4. Carbon dynamics in different soil types amended with pig slurry, pig manure and its biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanardag, Ibrahim H.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Büyükkiliç-Yanardaǧ, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet R.

    2014-05-01

    Determining the structure and components of soil and soil organic matter is very important in terms of sustainable agriculture and forestry and greenhouse gases emissions. Organic management can increase labile C and N in the short-term, and total soil C and N in the long-term, but less is known about how management practices may affect soil organic C (SOC)quality and stability. Methods to improve the management of livestock slurries to reduce the environmental impact and carbon losses are gaining importance. There is a need to find the best wastes treatment which enhances soil fertility but also carbon sequestration, to mitigate the effects of global warming. The objective of this study was to assess the short-term changes in SOC pools, using raw pig slurry, the solid phase of pig slurry, and its biochar as amendment in different soil types (Regosol, Luvisol and Kastanozem). The three different amendments were applied at 5 g C kg-1 soil. An unamended soil for each type was used as control. Soils were incubated in triplicate for 60 days at 25ºC and at 55% of their water holding capacity. Samples were sampled to monitor the evolution of soil organic and inorganic carbon, recalcitrant carbon, soluble carbon, carbon mineralization, SOC thermal distribution (thermogravimetric analysis - differential scanning calorimetry - quadrupole mass spectrometry), and characterization of functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)). Results showed that soils amended with raw pig slurry and the solid phase of the slurry showed higher values of soluble carbon, and higher carbon mineralization rates compared to biochar application, which showed values similar to controls. SOC increased at the end of incubation with biochar and the solid phase of the slurry applications in Kastanozem and Regosol. Thermogravimetric results showed an increased weight loss of the Regosol compared to Luvisol and Kastanozem, owing to the higher content of soil carbonates. Luvisol and

  5. Benefits and limitations of pig slurry to reclaim bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, Jose A.; Kabas, Sebla; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of pig slurry application on reclamation of mine soils from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain) were investigated in a field experiment. Exchangeable metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, soluble carbon, microbial biomass and three enzyme activities were periodically monitored during 67 days. In addition, one year after the application of the pig slurry, soil and developed vegetation was sampled. Results showed that only exchangeable Cd and Zn significantly decreased in the amended plots, mainly for Cd, with decreases of 98%. The rest of metals and chemical properties did not change with time after application of amendments, showing values not significantly different than those present before pig slurry application. Soluble carbon, microbial biomass carbon and the enzyme activities increased after the application of pig slurry. However, after various days these parameters started a decreasing trend until reaching values similar to the control from approximately day 25. Thus, mainly precipitation as phosphate from the waste was very effective for Cd immobilization. No increments were observed in soil organic carbon because the organic carbon applied with the slurry was too low to be significantly detected. Nonetheless, pig slurry is a good fertilizer owing to the high quantity of nutrients provided, needed to promote the development of vegetation. One year after application, a native vegetation cover (25-30%) was reached by spontaneous colonization. Triggered plant growth by the effect of amendment improved soil conditions, particularly by the help of the medium created by their rhizosphere systems. Increments in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and decreases in the exchangeable metals fraction concentration were observed in rhizospheric soils when compared to the bare soils. This improvement in soil quality mediated by vegetation was more efficient than the direct effect of the amendment. In

  6. Environmental assessment of nutrient recycling from biological pig slurry treatment--impact of fertilizer substitution and field emissions.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Doris; Hanhoun, Mary; Négri, Ophélie; Hélias, Arnaud

    2014-07-01

    Pig slurry treatment is an important means in reducing nitrogen loads applied to farmland. Solid phase separation prior to biological treatment further allows for recovering phosphorus with the solid phase. The organic residues from the pig slurry treatment can be applied as organic fertilizers to farmland replacing mineral fertilizers. The environmental impacts of nutrient recycling from aerobic, biological pig slurry treatment were evaluated applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. LCA results revealed that direct field emissions from organic fertilizer application and the amount of avoided mineral fertilizers dominated the environmental impacts. A modified plant available nitrogen calculation (PAN) was introduced taking into account calculated nitrogen emissions from organic fertilizer application. Additionally, an equation for calculating the quantity of avoided mineral fertilizers based on the modified PAN calculation was proposed, which accounted for nitrogen emissions from mineral fertilizer application.

  7. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-09-01

    Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables and fish ponds. Slurry may contain a variety of zoonotic pathogens, e.g. Salmonella spp., which are able to cause disease in humans either through direct contact with slurry or by fecal contamination of water and foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella spp. and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms with and 6 farms without toilet connected) located in Hanam province, Vietnam. Sampling of pig slurry and biogas effluent was done during two seasons. Results showed that the concentration of enterococci, E. coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores was overall reduced by only 1-2 log10-units in the biogas digesters when comparing raw slurry and biogas effluent. Salmonella spp. was found in both raw slurry and biogas effluent. A total of 19 Salmonella serovars were identified, with the main serovars being Salmonella Typhimurium (55/138), Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (19/138), Salmonella Weltevreden (9/138) and Salmonella Rissen (9/138). The Salmonella serovars showed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns to those previously reported from Vietnam. When promoting biogas, farmers should be made aware that effluent should only be used as fertilizer for crops not consumed raw and that indiscriminate discharge of effluent are likely to contaminate water recipients, e.g. drinking water sources, with pathogens. Relevant authorities should promote safe animal manure management

  8. Phosphorus, copper and zinc in solid and liquid fractions from full-scale and laboratory-separated pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Olga; Hjorth, Maibritt; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2012-09-01

    Pig slurry separation is a slurry treatment technique that can reduce excess loads of P, Cu and Zn to the arable land. This study investigated the effects of different commercial and laboratory separation treatments for pig slurry on P, Cu and Zn distribution into solid and liquid fractions. Solid and liquid separation fractions were collected from two commercial separators installed on the farm. Five different separation treatments were performed (polymer flocculation and drainage; coagulation with iron sulphate addition and polymer flocculation and drainage; ozonation and centrifugation; centrifugation only; and natural sedimentation) on sow and suckling piglet raw slurry. Particle size fractionation was performed on raw slurry and all separation fractions by sequential wet sieving and P, Cu and Zn concentrations were then measured in the particle size classes. Dry matter and total P, Cu and Zn were separated with higher efficiency when chemical pretreatments with flocculants and coagulants were introduced before mechanical separation at both commercial and laboratory scale. When solid fractions are utilized as crop fertilizer (primarily as P fertilizer), the loads of Cu and Zn to the soils are not markedly different than the loads applied with raw slurry. When liquid fractions are used as crop fertilizer (primarily as N fertilizer), the loads of Cu and Zn are markedly lower than those supplied with raw slurry. The loads of Cu and Zn introduced to the soil were lowest on application of the liquid fraction produced by optimized separation treatments that included flocculation and coagulation.

  9. The role of heterotrophic microorganism Galactomyces sp. Z3 in improving pig slurry bioleaching.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Zheng, Guanyu; Zhou, Lixiang; Liu, Fenwu; Zheng, Chaocheng; Cui, Chunhong

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of removing heavy metals and eliminating pathogens from pig slurry through bioleaching involving the fungus Galactomyces sp. Z3 and two acidophilic thiobacillus (A. ferrooxidans LX5 and A. thiooxidans TS6) was investigated. It was found that the isolated pig slurry dissolved organic matter (DOM) degrader Z3 was identified as Galactomyces sp. Z3, which could grow well at pH 2.5-7 and degrade pig slurry DOM from 1973 to 942 mg/l within 48 h. During the successive multi-batch bioleaching systems, the co-inoculation of pig slurry degrader Galactomyces sp. Z3 and the two Acidithiobacillus species could improve pig slurry bioleaching efficiency compared to the single system without Galactomyces sp. Z3. The removal efficiency of Zn and Cu exceeded 94% and 85%, respectively. In addition, the elimination efficiencies of pathogens, including both total coliform and faecal coliform counts, exceeded 99% after bioleaching treatment. However, the counts of Galactomyces sp. Z3 decreased with the fall of pH and did not restore to the initial level during successive multi-batch bioleaching systems, and it is necessary to re-inoculate Galactomyces sp. Z3 cells into the bioleaching system to maintain its role in degrading pig slurry DOM. Therefore, a bioleaching technique involving both Galactomyces sp. Z3 and Acidithiobacillus species is an efficient method for removing heavy metals and eliminating pathogens from pig slurry.

  10. Replacement of mineral fertilizers with anaerobically digested pig slurry in paddy fields: assessment of plant growth and grain quality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Wang, Minyan; Cao, Yucheng; Liang, Peng; Wu, Shengchun; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Christie, Peter

    2015-08-07

    Rice cultivation requires large quantities of irrigation water and mineral fertilizers. This provides an opportunity for the recycling of the plant nutrients in anaerobically digested pig slurry, large amounts of which are generated in Chinese pig farms. Hence, to promote the sustainable development of livestock and poultry breeding and rice production, a micro-plot field experiment was carried out to assess whether or not slurry can replace mineral fertilizers in rice paddy production in terms of plant tillering, grain quality, and yields. The results indicate that the total N content of the slurry can serve as an alternative source of N when compared to the control (450 kg ha(-1) commercial compound fertilizer (N/P2O5/K2O = 15:15:15) as basal fertilizer, 300 kg ha(-1) urea (N% = 46), and 150 kg ha(-1) commercial compound fertilizer as top-dressed fertilizer). No negative effects on plant growth or grain yield were observed, although there may be a potential risk due to an increase in grain Cu concentration. The amylose content and gel consistency of the rice grains were enhanced significantly by the use of slurry as a basal fertilizer, but the grain protein and total amino acid contents decreased. The results suggest that anaerobically digested pig slurry can replace mineral fertilizers in rice production when applied as a basal dressing together with urea and commercial compound fertilizer as top-dressed fertilizers.

  11. Carbon dynamics in an almond orchard soil amended with raw and treated pig slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez, Sara G.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel

    2010-05-01

    In SE Spain, intensive farming is very common which supposes the generation of great amounts of pig slurries. These residues cause many storage problems due to their pollution capacity. A good management of them is necessary to avoid damages to the environment. The use of this effluent as fertilizer is a usual practice that in the correct dose is a good amend and important for sustainable development, but in excess can be a risk of polluting and damaging soil, water and crop conditions. Pig slurry is a source of many nutrients and specially rich in organic matter. The main objective of this study is to determine changes in soil organic carbon dynamics resulting from raw and treated slurry amendments applied in different doses. The experimental area is an almond orchard located in Cartagena (SE Spain). The climate of the area is semiarid Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 18°C and mean annual rainfall of 275 mm. A total of 10 plots (12 m x 30 m) were designed, one of them being the control without fertilizer. Surface soil samples (0-25 cm) were collected in September 2009. Three different treatments were applied, raw slurry, the effluent obtained after solid-liquid separation and solid manure, all of them in three doses being the first one of 170 kg N/ha, (maximum permitted in nitrates directive 91/676/CEE), and the others two and three times the first one. Soil biochemical parameters are rapid indicators of changes in soil quality. According to this, total organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soluble carbon, and β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and arylesterase activities were measured in order to assess some soil biochemical conditions and carbon dynamics in terms of the different treatments. As we expected, the use of these organic fertilizers rich in organic matter, had an effect on soil carbon and soil microbial activity resulting in an increase in most of the parameters; total organic carbon and β-galactosidase activity showed the

  12. Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Slurry Storage: Impacts of Temperature and Potential Mitigation through Covering (Pig Slurry) or Acidification (Cattle Slurry).

    PubMed

    Misselbrook, Tom; Hunt, John; Perazzolo, Francesca; Provolo, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Storage of livestock slurries is a significant source of methane (CH) and ammonia (NH) emissions to the atmosphere, for which accurate quantification and potential mitigation methods are required. Methane and NH emissions were measured from pilot-scale cattle slurry (CS) and pig slurry (PS) stores under cool, temperate, and warm conditions (approximately 8, 11, and 17°C, respectively) and including two potential mitigation practices: (i) a clay granule floating cover (PS) and (ii) slurry acidification (CS). Cumulative emissions of both gases were influenced by mean temperature over the storage period. Methane emissions from the control treatments over the 2-mo storage periods for the cool, temperate, and warm periods were 0.3, 0.1, and 34.3 g CH kg slurry volatile solids for CS and 4.4, 20.1, and 27.7 g CH kg slurry volatile solids for PS. Respective NH emissions for each period were 4, 7, and 12% of initial slurry N content for CS and 12, 18, and 28% of initial slurry N content for PS. Covering PS with clay granules reduced NH emissions by 77% across the three storage periods but had no impact on CH emissions. Acidification of CS reduced CH and NH emissions by 61 and 75%, respectively, across the three storage periods. Nitrous oxide emissions were also monitored but were insignificant. The development of approaches that take into account the influence of storage timing (temperature) and duration on emission estimates for national emission inventory purposes is recommended.

  13. Pig slurry application and irrigation effects on nitrate leaching in Mediterranean soil lysimeters.

    PubMed

    Daudén, A; Quílez, D; Vera, M V

    2004-01-01

    Land application of animal manures, such as pig slurry (PS), is a common practice in intensive-farming agriculture. However, this practice has a pitfall consisting of the loss of nutrients, in particular nitrate, toward water courses. The objective of this study was to evaluate nitrate leaching for three application rates of pig slurry (50, 100, and 200 Mg ha(-1)) and a control treatment of mineral fertilizer (275 kg N ha(-1)) applied to corn grown in 10 drainage lysimeters. The effects of two irrigation regimes (low vs. high irrigation efficiency) were also analyzed. In the first two irrigation events, drainage NO(3)-N concentrations as high as 145 and 69 mg L(-1) were measured in the high and moderate PS rate treatments, respectively, in the low irrigation efficiency treatments. This indicates the fast transformation of the PS ammonium into nitrate and the subsequent leaching of the transformed nitrate. Drainage NO(3)-N concentration and load increased linearly by 0.69 mg NO(3)-N L(-1) and 4.6 kg NO(3)-N ha(-1), respectively, for each 10 kg N ha(-1) applied over the minimum of 275 kg N ha(-1). An increase in irrigation efficiency did not induce a significant increase of leachate concentration and the amount of nitrate leached decreased about 65%. Application of low PS doses before sowing complemented with sidedressing N application and a good irrigation management are the key factors to reduce nitrate contamination of water courses.

  14. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anne B.; Elsgaard, Lars; Triolo, Jin Mi; Sommer, Sven G.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment technologies such as anaerobic digestion. In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source. Fractions of degradable volatile solids (VSd, kg kg-1 VS) were estimated using an aerobic biodegradability assay and total organic C analyses. The VSd in pig and cattle slurry averaged 0.51 and 0.33 kg kg-1 VS, and it was estimated that on average 43 and 28% of VSd in fresh excreta from pigs and cattle, respectively, had been lost at the time of sampling. An empirical model of CH4 emissions from slurry was reparameterised based on experimental results. A sensitivity analysis indicated that predicted CH4 emissions were highly sensitive to uncertainties in the value of lnA of the Arrhenius equation, but much less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential of treatments such as anaerobic digestion, are discussed. PMID:27529692

  15. Are ammonia emissions from field-applied slurry substantially over-estimated in European emission inventories?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintermann, J.; Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.; Häni, C.; Hensen, A.; Loubet, B.; Flechard, C. R.

    2011-10-01

    The EMEP/EEA guidebook 2009 for agricultural emission inventories reports average ammonia (NH3) emission factors (EF) by volatilisation of 55% of the applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content for cattle slurry, and 35% losses for pig slurry, irrespective of the type of surface or slurry characteristics such as dry matter content and pH. In this review article, we compiled over 350 measurements of EFs published between 1991 and 2011. The standard slurry application technique during the early years of this period, when a large number of measurements were made, was spreading by splash plate, and as a result reference EFs given in many European inventories are predominantly based on this technique. However, slurry application practices have evolved since then, while there has also been a shift in measurement techniques and investigated plot sizes. We therefore classified the available measurements according to the flux measurement technique, measurement plot size, the year of measurement, and the year of publication. Medium size plots (usually circles between 20 to 50 m radius) generally yielded the highest EFs. The most commonly used measurement setups at this scale were based on the Integrated Horizontal Flux method (IHF or the ZINST method (a simplified IHF method)). Several empirical models were published in the years 1993 to 2003 predicting NH3 EFs as a function of meteorology and slurry characteristics (Menzi et al., 1998; Søgaard et al., 2002). More recent measurements that appeared subsequently show substantially lower EFs, and appear to indicate a need for a revision of the EF in emission inventories.

  16. Are ammonia emissions from field-applied slurry substantially over-estimated in European emission inventories?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintermann, J.; Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.; Häni, C.; Hensen, A.; Loubet, B.; Flechard, C. R.

    2012-05-01

    The EMEP/EEA guidebook 2009 for agricultural emission inventories reports an average ammonia (NH3) emission factor (EF) by volatilisation of 55% of the applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content for cattle slurry, and 35% losses for pig slurry, irrespective of the type of surface or slurry characteristics such as dry matter content and pH. In this review article, we compiled over 350 measurements of EFs published between 1991 and 2011. The standard slurry application technique during the early years of this period, when a large number of measurements were made, was spreading by splash plate, and as a result reference EFs given in many European inventories are predominantly based on this technique. However, slurry application practices have evolved since then, while there has also been a shift in measurement techniques and investigated plot sizes. We therefore classified the available measurements according to the flux measurement technique or measurement plot size and year of measurement. Medium size plots (usually circles between 20 to 50 m radius) generally yielded the highest EFs. The most commonly used measurement setups at this scale were based on the Integrated Horizontal Flux method (IHF or the ZINST method (a simplified IHF method)). Several empirical models were published in the years 1993 to 2003 predicting NH3 EFs as a function of meteorology and slurry characteristics (Menzi et al., 1998; Søgaard et al., 2002). More recent measurements show substantially lower EFs which calls for new measurement series in order to validate the various measurement approaches against each other and to derive revised inputs for inclusion into emission inventories.

  17. Response of maize yield, nitrate leaching, and soil nitrogen to pig slurry combined with mineral nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, María R; Quílez, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    The application of pig (Sus scrofa) slurry (PS) is a common fertilization practice that may affect nitrate concentrations and loads in drainage and receiving water bodies. To protect water resources, many agricultural areas are being designated as vulnerable to nitrate contamination, and there is a need for scientific data aiming at reducing nitrate exports from these vulnerable zones by optimizing N fertilization strategies. The objective of this work, conducted in drainage lysimeters in a 4-yr monoculture maize (Zea mays L.) crop, is to assess the effects of four fertilization strategies combining PS (30, 60, 90, and 120 t ha(-1)) and mineral N on yield, changes in soil mineral N, and concentration and mass of nitrate in drainage waters. Grain yield was not affected by treatments in the four experimental years, nor was the soil mineral N at the end of the experiment. Effects of fertilization strategies on nitrate concentration and mass in drainage waters were detected only after 3 yr of repeated PS applications. The mass of nitrate leached over the 4 yr was positively related to the total amount of N applied, either organic or mineral. In year 2003, precipitation in spring reduced N availability for the crop in treatments with rates > or = 60 t PS ha(-1). The N-budget revealed that the transport pathways for 25% of N inputs to the system are unknown. The presowing application of pig slurry at 30 t ha(-1) complemented with mineral N at side-dressing, was the most efficient from an environmental standpoint (4-yr average of 145 kg grain yield kg(-1) N leached).

  18. Assessment of Bacterial Community Assembly Patterns and Processes in Pig Manure Slurry

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Priyanka; Choi, Hong L.; Sudiarto, Sartika I. A.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community assembly patterns and processes are poorly understood in pig manure slurry. We collected pig manure slurry samples during the winter and summer seasons from eight commercial pig farms in South Korea. The V3 region of 16S rRNA genes was PCR amplified and sequenced using paired-end Illumina technology for in-depth characterization of bacterial community. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Tenericutes were the predominant bacterial phyla present in slurry samples. Bacterial taxonomic community composition was not influenced by the season; however, phylogenetic community composition was affected by seasonal variations. The community composition and diversity patterns were strongly influenced by pH. The bacterial diversity indices showed a unimodal relationship with pH. Phylogenetic signals were detected over only short phylogenetic distances, revealing that closely related bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) tend to co-occur in the same environment; hence, they are ecologically similar. Across all samples, a niche-based process, through strong environmental filtering imposed by pH, primarily governed bacterial community assembly; however, in samples close to the neutral pH range, the role of environmental filtering was decreased due to neutral community assembly. In summary, pH emerged as the major physico-chemical variable in pig manure slurry that regulates the relative importance of niche-based and neutral processes in shaping the community assembly of bacteria. PMID:26422375

  19. Environmental evaluation of transfer and treatment of excess pig slurry by life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Werf, Hayo van der; Paillat, Jean Marie; Le Bris, Bertrand

    2009-02-01

    Slurry management is a central topic in the agronomic and environmental analysis of intensive livestock production systems. The objective of this study is to compare the environmental performance of two scenarios of collective slurry management for the disposal of excess nitrogen from animal manure. The scenarios are the transfer of slurry and its injection to crop land, and the treatment of slurry in a collective biological treatment station. The study is based on a real case in the West of France, where a group of farmers is developing a collective plan for the disposal of almost 7000 m(3) of excess pig slurry. The evaluation is carried out by Life Cycle Assessment, where emissions and resource consumption are quantified and aggregated into four environmental impact categories: eutrophication, acidification, climate change, and non-renewable energy use. Ammonia emitted is the most important contributor to acidification and eutrophication, while methane contributes most to climate change. Both ammonia and methane are mostly emitted during the storage of slurry and, in the case of the treatment scenario, also during composting the solid fraction of the slurry. The two management strategies are similar with respect to climate change, whereas eutrophication and acidification are twice as large for treatment relative to transfer. Electricity needed for the treatment process is the main contributor to non-renewable energy use for the treatment scenario, while the transfer scenario represents a net energy saving, as energy saved by the reduction of mineral fertiliser use more than compensates for the energy needed for transport and injection of slurry. The overall environmental performance of transfer is better than that of treatment, as it involves less acidification, eutrophication and non-renewable energy use. The method employed and the results obtained in this study can provide elements for a transparent discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of contrasting

  20. Earthworm effects on gaseous emissions during vermifiltration of pig fresh slurry.

    PubMed

    Luth; Robin, Paul; Germain, Philippe; Lecomte, Marcel; Landrain, Brigitte; Li, Yinsheng; Cluzeau, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Treatment of liquid manure can result in the production of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane. Earthworms mix and transform nitrogen and carbon without consuming additional energy. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether earthworms modify the emissions of NH(3), N(2)O, CH(4) and CO(2) during vermifiltration of pig slurry. The experiment used mesocosms of around 50 L, made from a vermifilter treating the diluted manure of a swine house. Three levels of slurry were added to the mesocosms, with or without earthworms, during one month, in triplicate. Earthworm abundance and gas emissions were measured three and five times, respectively. There was a decrease in emissions of ammonia and nitrous oxide and a sink of methane in treatments with earthworms. We suggest that earthworm abundance can be used as a bioindicator of low energy input, and low greenhouse gas and ammonia output in systems using fresh slurry with water recycling.

  1. Slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ting; Lei, Hong

    2014-11-01

    With magnetic heads operating closer to hard disks, the hard disks must be ultra-smooth. The abrasive-free polishing (AFP) performance of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) as the initiator in H2O2-based slurry for hard disk substrate was investigated in our work, and the results showed that the slurry including CHP could improve the material removal rate (MRR) and also reduce surface roughness. Electron spin-resonance spectroscopy (EPR), electrochemical measurement and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were conducted to investigate the acting mechanism with CHP during the polishing process. Compared with the H2O2 slurry, the EPR analysis shows that the CHP-H2O2 slurry provides a higher concentration of the HOO free radical. In addition, the AES analysis shows the oxidization reaction occurs in the external layer of the substrate surface. Furthermore, electrochemical measurements reveal that CHP can promote the electrochemical effect in AFP and lead to the increase of MRR.

  2. Microbial community dynamics in continuous microbial fuel cells fed with synthetic wastewater and pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Sotres, Ana; Tey, Laura; Bonmatí, August; Viñas, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Two-chambered microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operating with synthetic wastewater and pig slurry were assessed. Additionally, the use of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES-Inh) was studied. The synthetic wastewater-fed MFC (MFCSW) showed a maximum power density (PDmax) of 2138mWm(-3), and the addition of BES-Inh (10mM) did not show any improvement in its performance (PDmax=2078mWm(-3)). When pig slurry was used as feed (MFCPS), PDmax increased up to 5623mWm(-3). The microbial community composition was affected by the type of substrate used. While, Pseudomonadaceae and Clostridiaceae were the most representative families within the acetate-based medium, Flavobacteriaceae, Chitinophagaceae, Comamonadaceae and Nitrosomonadaceae were predominant when pig slurry was used as feed. Otherwise, only the Eubacterial microbial community composition was strongly modified when adding BES-Inh, thus leading to an enrichment of the Bacteroidetes phylum. Oppositely, the Archaeal community was less affected by the addition of BES-Inh, and Methanosarcina sp., arose as the predominant family in both situations. Despite all the differences in microbial communities, 6 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to Bacteroidetes (Porphyromonadaceae and Marinilabiaceae) and Firmicutes (Clostridiales) were found to be common to both MFCs, also for different contents of COD and N-NH4(+), and therefore could be considered as the bioanode core microbiome.

  3. Fate of phosphorus from biological aerobic treatment of pig slurry. By-products characterization and recovery.

    PubMed

    Daumer, M L; Beline, F; Guiziou, F

    2003-11-01

    The fate of phosphorus distribution in the products obtained from biological aerobic treatment of pig slurry, e.g. separated solids, liquid effluent and sludge, was monitored in three different farm-scale units. Samples of raw slurry, solid products, aerated slurry, liquid effluent and sludge were characterised and analysed for their concentration in total phosphorus, nitrogen content and heavy metals (Cu and Zn). At each treatment stage, nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals mass balance between input and output was established. Moreover, liquid products were characterised and analysed both for their total and dissolved ortho-phosphate content. Separated solids, sludge and liquid effluent represented 5%, 15-40% and 75-83% of the mass of the raw slurry, respectively. A mechanical separation step prior to aeration allowed the export of 25-30% of total phosphorus for further use as organic fertiliser. A large amount of total phosphorus (e.g. 60-70%) was located in sludge while phosphorus remaining in liquid effluent was about 15-25%. Raw slurry separation and sufficient aeration allowed phosphorus to concentrate in the sludge. Insufficient aeration resulted in the release of phosphorus as dissolved ortho-phosphate within the liquid effluent. Finally, relevance of the agronomic use of the products was discussed and improvements of biological aerobic treatment to enhance phosphorus removal and/or recovery were considered.

  4. On-farm measurement of electrical conductivity for the estimation of ammonium nitrogen concentration in pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, M R; Quílez, D

    2012-01-01

    Pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) slurry (PS) is commonly applied as fertilizer to agricultural fields. Knowledge of PS nitrogen content is essential for good management, but PS nitrogen content is highly variable, not only between farms but also within a farm. Laboratory analysis of animal slurries is often expensive and impractical for routine farmer use. Therefore, when slurry is spread on land, its fertilizer value is generally unknown, resulting in the risk of pollution. In this work, two rapid and suitable for field use methods for determining PS ammonium N (NH(4)+-N) concentration (Quantofix and conductimetry) are evaluated. The electrical conductivity of a dilution 1 PS:9 distilled water had better results than Quantofix, did not need reagents, and gave a direct value of NH(4)+-N concentrations (range, 1.0-7.6 kg NH(4)+-N m(-3)). The conductimetry method allows the use of alternative waters with EC <1.9 dS m(-1) for dilution. This method is being introduced to farmers in northeast Spain to improve PS management and has been well received due to its low cost and ease of use.

  5. Effect of fertilising with pig slurry and chicken manure on GHG emissions from Mediterranean paddies.

    PubMed

    Maris, S C; Teira-Esmatges, M R; Bosch-Serra, A D; Moreno-García, B; Català, M M

    2016-11-01

    Soil fertilisation affects greenhouse gas emissions. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of different fertilisation strategies on N2O, CH4 emissions and on ecosystem respiration (CO2 emissions), during different periods of rice cultivation (rice crop, postharvest period, and seedling) under Mediterranean climate. Emissions were quantified weekly by the photoacoustic technique at two sites. At Site 1 (2011 and 2012), background treatments were 2 doses of chicken manure (CM): 90 and 170kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) (CM-90, CM-170), urea (U, 150kgNha(-1)) and no-N (control). Fifty kilogram N ha(-1) ammonium sulphate (AS) were topdress applied to all of them. At Site 2 (2012), background treatments were 2 doses of pig slurry (PS): 91 and 152kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) (PS-91, PS-152) and ammonium sulphate (AS) at 120kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) and no-N (control). Sixty kilogram NH4(+)-Nha(-1) as AS were topdress applied to AS and PS-91. During seedling, global warming potential (GWP) was ~3.5-17% of that of the whole rice crop for the CM treatments. The postharvest period was a net sink for CH4, and CO2 emissions only increased for the CM-170 treatment (up to 2MgCO2ha(-1)). The GWP of the entire rice crop reached 17Mg CO2-eqha(-1) for U, and was 14 for CM-170, and 37 for CM-90. The application of PS at agronomic doses (~170kgNha(-1)) allowed high yields (~7.4Mgha(-1)), the control of GWP (~6.5MgCO2-eqha(-1)), and a 13% reduction in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) to 0.89kgCO2-eqkg(-1) when compared to AS (1.02kgCO2-eqkg(-1)).

  6. Leaching of viruses and other microorganisms naturally occurring in pig slurry to tile drains on a well-structured loamy field in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krog, Jesper S.; Forslund, Anita; Larsen, Lars E.; Dalsgaard, Anders; Kjaer, Jeanne; Olsen, Preben; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2017-02-01

    The amount of animal manure used in modern agriculture is increasing due to the increase in global animal production. Pig slurry is known to contain zoonotic bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp., and viruses such as hepatitis E virus and group A rotavirus. Coliform bacteria, present in manure, have previously been shown to leach into tile drains. This poses a potential threat to aquatic environments and may also influence the quality of drinking water. As knowledge is especially scarce about the fate of viruses when applied to fields in natural settings, this project sets out to investigate the leaching potential of six different microorganisms: E. coli and Enterococcus spp. (detected by colony assay), somatic coliphages (using plaque assays), and hepatitis E virus, porcine circovirus type 2, and group A rotavirus (by real-time polymerase chain reaction). All six microorganisms leached through the soil entering the tile drains situated at 1-m depth the first day following pig slurry application. The leaching pattern of group A rotavirus differed substantially from the pattern for somatic coliphages, which are otherwise used as indicators for virus contamination. Furthermore, group A rotavirus was detected in monitoring wells at 3.5-m depth up to 2 months after pig slurry application. The detection of viral genomic material in drainage water and shallow groundwater signifies a potential hazard to human health that needs to be investigated further, as water reservoirs used for recreational use and drinking water are potentially contaminated with zoonotic pathogens.

  7. Deodorization of pig slurry and characterization of bacterial diversity using 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ok-Hwa; Raveendar, Sebastian; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Ji-Hun; Choi, Jung-Woo; Kim, Tae-Hun; Choi, Dong-Yoon; Jeon, Che Ok; Cho, Sung-Back; Lee, Kyung-Tai

    2014-11-01

    The concentration of major odor-causing compounds including phenols, indoles, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) in response to the addition of powdered horse radish (PHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC) was compared with control non-treated slurry (CNS) samples. A total of 97,465 rDNAs sequence reads were generated from three different samples (CNS, n = 2; PHR, n = 3; SMC, n = 3) using bar-coded pyrosequencing. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was lower in the PHR slurry compared with the other samples. A total of 11 phyla were observed in the slurry samples, while the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the slurry microbiome predominantly comprised members of the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria phyla. The rarefaction analysis showed the bacterial species richness varied among the treated samples. Overall, at the OTU level, 2,558 individual genera were classified, 276 genera were found among the three samples, and 1,832 additional genera were identified in the individual samples. A principal component analysis revealed the differences in microbial communities among the CNS, PHR, and SMC pig slurries. Correlation of the bacterial community structure with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) predicted pathways showed that the treatments altered the metabolic capabilities of the slurry microbiota. Overall, these results demonstrated that the PHR and S MC treatments significantly reduced the malodor compounds in pig slurry (P < 0.05).

  8. Nitrogen recovery from pig slurry in a two-chambered bioelectrochemical system.

    PubMed

    Sotres, A; Cerrillo, M; Viñas, M; Bonmatí, A

    2015-10-01

    Abiotic batch experiments showed that ammonia migration from anode to cathode was favored by an increase in voltage, from 39.9% to 44.6%, using synthetic media. A slight increase in ammonia migration was observed when using pig slurry, reaching a maximum of 49.9%. In a continuously MFC fed with pig slurry with a stripping/absorption unit coupled to the cathode chamber, the highest nitrogen flux (7.2 g N d(-1) m(-2)) was achieved using buffer as catholyte. Nitrogen flux increased to 10.3 g N d(-1) m(-2) when shifting to MEC mode. A clear improvement in nitrogen flux (25.5 g N d(-1) m(-2)) was observed when using NaCl as catholyte. Besides, ammonia stripping was favored, reaching a nitrogen recovery of 94.3% in the absorption column, due to the high pH reached in the cathode. The microbial community analysis revealed an enrichment of certain taxonomic Eubacterial and Archaeal groups when the system shifted from MFC to MEC mode.

  9. Long-term Effect of Pig Slurry Application on Soil Carbon Storage, Quality and Yield Sustainability in Murcia Region, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükkılıç Yanardaǧ, Asuman

    2013-04-01

    Sustainability of agriculture is now a major global concern, especially since the 1980s. Soil organic matter is very important in the proper functions of the soil, which is also a good indicator of soil quality. This is due to its influence on many of the chemical, physical, and biological processes that control the capacity of a soil to perform properly. Understanding of nutrient supply through organic matter mineralization in agricultural systems is essential for maintaining long-term quality and productivity. The composition of pig manure will have a profound impact on soil properties, quality and crop yield when used in agriculture. We studied the effects of pig slurry (PS) application as an organic fertilizer, trying to determine the optimum amount that can be added to the soil, and the effect on soil properties, quality, and productivity. We applied 3 different doses on silty loam soils: Single (D1), Double (D2), Triple (D3) and unfertilized plots (C) served as controls. Samples were collected at two different levels, surface (0-30 cm) and subsurface (30-60 cm). D1 application dose, which is the agronomic rate of N-requirement (170 kg N/ha/yr) (European Directive 91/676/CEE), is very appropriate in term of sustainable agriculture and also can improve physical, chemical and biological soil properties. Therefore that the long-term use of PS with low dose may necessarily enhance soil quality in the long term. There are many factors to be considered when attempting to assess the overall net impact of a management practice on productivity. Additions of pig manure to soils at agronomic rates (170 kg N ha-1 yr-1) to match crop nutrient requirements are expected to have a positive impact on soil productivity. Therefore, the benefits from the use of application depend on the management of PS, carbon and environmental quality. However, PS have high micronutrient contents, and for this reason the application of high doses can pollute soils and damage human, animal and

  10. Modelling the potential of slurry management technologies to reduce the constraints of environmental legislation on pig production.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Nicholas J; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Jensen, Rikke; Bruun, Sander; Søtoft, Lene F

    2013-11-30

    Limits on land applications of slurry nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are used to restrict losses of nutrients caused by livestock production. Here, we used a model to assess technologies that enable a more even geographic distribution of slurry nutrients to land. Technologies included were screw press slurry separation, with or without solid fraction composting, centrifuge separation with or without liquid fraction ammonia (NH3) stripping, and anaerobic digestion. Regulatory constraints were placed first on the application in slurry of N, then P, then N and P both on the producing (donor) and receiving (recipient) farms. Finally, a constraint preventing an increase in donor farm NH3 emissions was imposed. Separation had little effect on N losses per unit mass of slurry, but NH3 stripping led to a reduction. Centrifuge separation allowed a greater increase in pig production than a screw press, especially with P regulation. NH3 stripping was only advantageous with N regulation or when combined with NH3 scrubbing of pig housing ventilation air, when donor farm NH3 emissions were a constraint. There was a production penalty for using composting or anaerobic digestion. The choice of appropriate slurry management option therefore depends on the focus of the regulation. Nuanced and therefore complex regulations are necessary to take advantage of synergies and avoid cross-policy conflicts and incongruencies.

  11. Radical change of Zn speciation in pig slurry amended soil: Key role of nano-sized sulfide particles.

    PubMed

    Formentini, Thiago Augusto; Legros, Samuel; Fernandes, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo; Pinheiro, Adilson; Le Bars, Maureen; Levard, Clément; Mallmann, Fábio Joel Kochem; da Veiga, Milton; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    Spreading livestock manure as fertilizer on farmlands is a widespread practice. It represents the major source of heavy metal(loid)s (HM) input in agricultural soils. Since zinc (Zn) is present at high concentrations in manure, it poses special environmental concerns related to phytotoxicity, groundwater contamination, and introduction in the food chain. Therefore, investigations on the fate and behavior of manure-borne Zn, when it enters the soil environment, are necessary to predict the environmental effects. Nevertheless, long-term field studies assessing Zn speciation in the organic waste matrix, as well as within the soil after manure application, are lacking. This study was designed to fill this gap. Using SEM-EDS and XAS analysis, we reported the following new results: (i) ZnS made up 100% of the Zn speciation in the pig slurry (the highest proportion of ZnS ever observed in organic waste); and (ii) ZnS aggregates were about 1-μm diameter (the smallest particle size ever reported in pig slurry). Moreover, the pig slurry containing ZnS was spread on the soil over an 11-year period, totaling 22 applications, and the resulting Zn speciation within the amended soil was analyzed. Surprisingly, ZnS, i.e. the only species responsible for a nearly 2-fold increase in the Zn concentration within the amended soil, was not detected in this soil. Based on SEM-EDS and XAS observations, we put forward the hypothesis that Zn in the pig slurry consisted of nano-sized ZnS crystallites that further aggregated. The low stability of ZnS nanoparticles within oxic and complex environments such as the studied soil was the key explanation for the radical change in pig slurry-borne Zn speciation after long-term amendments.

  12. Effect of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) on microbial decomposition processes in stored pig-slurry solids.

    PubMed

    Vargová, M; Ondrasovicová, O; Sasáková, N; Ondrasovic, M; Novák, P; Krajnák, M

    1999-01-01

    The solid fraction (SF) of pig slurry obtained in the first stage of aerobic slurry treatment was amended with 1 and 2% zeolite (clinoptilolite) and stored for 12 weeks under anaerobic conditions or with turning after 3 and 6 weeks of storage. In addition to that SF was mixed with 2% zeolite, 50% (V/V) sawdust, and both sawdust and zeolite, and stored for 6 weeks with turning after 1 and 3 weeks. Plate counts of psychrophilic, mesophilic, coliform and fecal coliform bacteria, determined during the storage, corresponded to the development of temperature in the core of the substrates. An effect of amendment of SF with zeolite and sawdust on plate counts of selected bacteria was observed, dependent on the zeolite dose. The thermophilic phase was not reached in any of the investigated substrates. The populations of fecal coliforms in the substrate amended with 1% zeolite and turned after 3 and 6 weeks decreased after 11 weeks down to 500 CFU/g substrate.

  13. Survival of free-living Acholeplasma in aerated pig manure slurry revealed by 13C-labeled bacterial biomass probing

    PubMed Central

    Hanajima, Dai; Aoyagi, Tomo; Hori, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have been performed on microbial community succession and/or predominant taxa during the composting process; however, the ecophysiological roles of microorganisms are not well understood because microbial community structures are highly diverse and dynamic. Bacteria are the most important contributors to the organic-waste decomposition process, while decayed bacterial cells can serve as readily digested substrates for other microbial populations. In this study, we investigated the active bacterial species responsible for the assimilation of dead bacterial cells and their components in aerated pig manure slurry by using 13C-labeled bacterial biomass probing. After 3 days of forced aeration, 13C-labeled and unlabeled dead Escherichia coli cell suspensions were added to the slurry. The suspensions contained 13C-labeled and unlabeled bacterial cell components, possibly including the cell wall and membrane, as well as intracellular materials. RNA extracted from each slurry sample 2 h after addition of E. coli suspension was density-resolved by isopycnic centrifugation and analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, followed by cloning and sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. In the heavy isotopically labeled RNA fraction, the predominant 13C-assimilating population was identified as belonging to the genus Acholeplasma, which was not detected in control heavy RNA. Acholeplasma spp. have limited biosynthetic capabilities and possess a wide variety of transporters, resulting in their metabolic dependence on external carbon and energy sources. The prevalence of Acholeplasma spp. was further confirmed in aerated pig manure slurry from four different pig farms by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes; their relative abundance was ∼4.4%. Free-living Acholeplasma spp. had a competitive advantage for utilizing dead bacterial cells and their components more rapidly relative to other microbial populations, thus allowing the survival and prevalence

  14. Combination of batch experiments with continuous reactor data for ADM1 calibration: application to anaerobic digestion of pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Girault, R; Rousseau, P; Steyer, J P; Bernet, N; Béline, F

    2011-01-01

    Modelling anaerobic digestion processes is a key aspect of studying and optimizing digesters and related waste streams. However, for the satisfactory prediction of biogas production and effluent characteristics, some parameters have to be calibrated according to the characteristics of the substrates. This article describes a calibration procedure for the IWA 'Anaerobic Digestion Model no. 1' applied to the modelling of a digester for treatment of pig slurry. The most sensitive parameters were selected and calibrated combining results from a continuous digester and from batch trials run with the sludge sampled from the digester and the addition of specific substrates. According to the sensitivity analysis, acetoclastic methanogenesis, acetogenesis of propionate and acidogenesis of sugars were identified as the main sensitive steps in our case. The calibration procedure led us to modify slightly acetogenesis of propionate kinetic. However, acetoclastic methanogenesis and acidogenesis of sugars kinetics were significantly reduced by decreasing km and increasing Ks. Indeed, for instance, a decrease of km_ac from 8 to 7 day(-1) combined with an increase of Ks_ac from 0.15 to 1.5 kgCOD/m3 was necessary. After calibration, ADM1 provides an accurate simulation of the continuous reactor results.

  15. Effects of long term raw pig slurry inputs on nutrient and metal contamination of tropical volcanogenic soils, Uvéa Island (South Pacific).

    PubMed

    Gunkel-Grillon, P; Roth, E; Laporte-Magoni, C; Le Mestre, M

    2015-11-15

    In small Polynesian islands, family pig breeding is usually conducted without recovery of pig slurry. Raw pig slurry is spread onto the soil without any treatment. So far, most of the studies were carried out in temperate climate and for industrial digested pig slurry applications on agricultural lands. In the present case study, conducted in Uvéa Island, the aim is to determine if long term application of raw pig slurry on tropical soils, naturally rich in heavy metals has a significant influence on elements concentrations and mobility. Two types of tropical soils and two pig breeding systems, pig enclosure on small concrete pens or pig enclosure in large land pens, were investigated. Here we demonstrate that raw pig slurry inputs on soils can lead to an increase of total nitrogen and phosphorus content with high Contamination Factors. The Pollution Load Index values (1.3; 5.3; 2.5; 2.3) were indicative of multi-heavy metals pollution (Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni) in mixed calcareous soils of the coastal area and they are exchangeable while they are immobilized or less mobile in inland pure ferralitic soils. For mixed calcareous soils of the coastal area, family pig breeding represents a drainage risk of soluble species (phosphorus, inorganic nitrogen, Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni). For inland ferralitic soils, family pig breeding is more compatible with a sustainable management of the environment in Uvéa Island and by extension in volcanic tropical islands with respect to the investigated chemical elements.

  16. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.

    PubMed

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins).

  17. A full-scale study of treatment of pig slurry by composting: kinetic changes in chemical and microbial properties.

    PubMed

    Ros, M; García, C; Hernández, T

    2006-01-01

    Since the indiscriminate disposal of pig slurry can cause not only air pollution and bad odours but also nutrient pollution of ground waters and superficial waters, composting is sometimes used as one environmentally acceptable method for recycling pig manure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of composting pig slurry on its sanitation (evaluated by ecotoxicity assays and pathogen content determination), as well as to determine the effect of a carbon-rich bulking agent (wood shavings, WS) and the starting C/N ratio on the changes undergone by different chemical (volatile organic matter, C and N fractions) and microbiological (microbial biomass C, ATP, dehydrogenase activity, urease, protease, phosphatase, and beta-glucosidase activities) parameters during composting. Pig slurry mixed with bulking agent (P+WS) and the solid faction separated from it, both with (PSF+WS) and without bulking agent (PSF), were composted for 13 weeks. Samples for analysis were taken from composting piles at the start of the process and at 3, 6, 9, and 13 weeks after the beginning of composting. The total organic carbon, water soluble C and ammonium content decreased with composting, while Kjeldahl N and nitrate content increased. The nitrification process in the PSF+WS pile was more intense than in the PSF or P+WS composting piles. The pathogen content decreased with composting, as did phytotoxic compounds, while the germination index increased with compost age. Piles with bulking agent showed higher values of basal respiration, microbial biomass carbon, ATP and hydrolase activities during the composting process than piles without bulking agent.

  18. Survival of model bacterial strains and helminth eggs in the course of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Juris, P; Tóth, F; Lauková, A; Plachý, P; Dubinský, P; Sokol, J

    1996-05-01

    The effect of methanogenesis on the survival of model bacterial strains (Escherichia coli EC 5, Staphylococcus aureus SA 11, Enterococcus faecium CCM 4231) and non-embryonated helminth eggs (Ascaris suum) was investigated in pig slurry. Two pilot-plant experiments were carried out in two anaerobic digesters (800 and 1,000 litre) in a mesophilic thermal range (35-37 degrees C). The mean hydraulic retention time of the digesters was 20 days. The methanogenesis process was monitored by determining the following chemical parameters: pH, N-NH3, total dry matter (kg/day), organic matter (kg/day) production of methane by supplied and degraded organic matter (m3/kg). The results obtained allow us to state that the anaerobic stabilization of pig slurry in the mesophilic temperature range resulted in total devitalization of model bacterial strains E. coli EC 5 and Ent. faecium CCM 4231. St. aureus SA 11 cells, exposed to the above mentioned conditions, were also reduced in their number from 10.04 to 3.27 and from 8.69 to 2.77 log cfu/ml. It is assumed that the longer retention time of excrements in the digester could also result in total devitalization of St. aureus SA 11 cells. From the microbiological point of view, the above mentioned facts indicate a sufficient hygienization effect of the anaerobic fermentation on the contaminated pig excrements. The survival of A. suum eggs was little affected by the 20-day anaerobic mesophilic digestion of pig slurry. Only 17 or 18% (F1, F2) of the non-embryonated A. suum eggs were damaged after the 20-day exposure.

  19. Injection of Dicyandiamide-Treated Pig Slurry Reduced Ammonia Volatilization without Enhancing Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions from No-Till Corn in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aita, Celso; Gonzatto, Rogério; Miola, Ezequiel C C; B, Daniela; Santos, Dos; Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Chantigny, Martin H; Pujol, Stefen B; Giacomini, Diego A; Giacomini, Sandro J

    2014-05-01

    There is a lack of information on how placement in soil and nitrification inhibitors affects nitrous oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH) emissions from pig slurry (PS) applied under no-till (NT) conditions. Our objective was to determine the impact of injecting PS and treating it with the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on NH and NO emissions from soils under NT in subtropical southern Brazil. The emissions of these gases were compared for shallow (∼ 10 cm) injection and surface broadcasting of PS with and without DCD (8.1-10.0 kg ha; 6.5-8.4% of applied NH-N). Measurements were made at two sites during two summer growing seasons under NT corn crops. Injection reduced NH volatilization by 70% but increased NO emissions 2.4-fold (from 2628 to 6198 g NO N ha) compared with surface broadcast application. Adding DCD to PS inhibited nitrification and reduced NO emissions by an average of 28% (730 g NO-N ha) for surface broadcast and 66% (4105 g NO-N ha) for injection but did not increase NH volatilization. Consequently, NO emission factors were much higher for injection (3.6%) than for surface broadcast (1.3%) application and were reduced (0.9%) when DCD was added to injected PS. In conclusion, the injection of DCD-treated slurry is a recommendable practice for reducing NH and NO emissions when applying PS on NT corn in southern Brazil.

  20. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tambone, Fulvia Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  1. Pig slurry acidification and separation techniques affect soil N and C turnover and N2O emissions from solid, liquid and biochar fractions.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Muñoz, B; Case, S D C; Jensen, L S

    2016-03-01

    The combined effects of pig slurry acidification, subsequent separation techniques and biochar production from the solid fraction on N mineralisation and N2O and CO2 emissions in soil were investigated in an incubation experiment. Acidification of pig slurry increased N availability from the separated solid fractions in soil, but did not affect N2O and CO2 emissions. However acidification reduced soil N and C turnover from the liquid fraction. The use of more advanced separation techniques (flocculation and drainage > decanting centrifuge > screw press) increased N mineralisation from acidified solid fractions, but also increased N2O and CO2 emissions in soil amended with the liquid fraction. Finally, the biochar production from the solid fraction of pig slurry resulted in a very recalcitrant material, which reduced N and C mineralisation in soil compared to the raw solid fractions.

  2. Effect of Storage Period on the Changes of Odorous Compound Concentrations and Bacterial Ecology for Identifying the Cause of Odor Production from Pig Slurry

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ok Hwa; Cho, Sung Back; Han, Deug Woo; Lee, Sang Ryoung; Kwag, Jeong Hoon; Park, Sung Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Odor from buildings where pigs are housed is generated by anaerobic fermentation of undigested materials in pig slurry stored for several weeks in pit. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of storage period on the level of odorous compounds in pig slurry and on its bacterial community. A slurry sample (15 L) was taken from the pit of a finisher pig building and incubated in acryl chambers for six- weeks. Slurry for analysis was sampled every two-week. Levels of odorous compounds in the slurry sample were drastically changed after two weeks of storage period; levels of phenols and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were decreased (P<0.05), whereas indoles and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) were increased (P<0.05). Among dominant bacteria, Bacteroides and Porphyromonadacese_uc_g revealed a strong positive correlation with the levels of phenols and SCFAs. Populations of AC160630_g, Acholeplasmatales_uc_g, Mollicutes_uc_g and Cloacamonas_f_uc_g positively correlated with indole and BCFAs content. Taken together, levels of odorous compounds were increased after two weeks of storage, possibly because of changes in the predominant bacterial groups to those that use protein as a carbon source in the hypo-carbohydrate conditions. PMID:27642752

  3. Increasing energy and lysine in diets for growing-finishing pigs in hot environmental conditions: consequences on performance, digestibility, slurry composition, and gas emission.

    PubMed

    Cerisuelo, A; Torres, A; Lainez, M; Moset, V

    2012-05-01

    The influence of dietary nutrient concentration on growth performance, manure composition, and gas emission was studied in pigs in hot environmental conditions. A total of 64 intact males and 64 females [(Landrace × Large White) × Pietrain] weighing 63.1 ± 9.7 kg were divided into 2 dietary treatments: high (HD: 14.39 MJ of DE/kg and 1.11% Lys) and low (LD: 13.97 MJ of DE/kg and 1.01% Lys) in energy and Lys contents. Pigs were allocated to 32 split-sex pens with 4 pigs/pen and 16 pens/treatment. Average productive performance was recorded for 41 d (phase 1). After phase 1, 12 females of 103.3 ± 3.15 kg (6 per treatment) were selected and housed individually, and feces and slurry were collected during 3 and 4 consecutive days, respectively, to calculate nutrient digestibility and measure gas emissions (phase 2). For gas emission measurements, slurry was pooled by treatment and stored for 76 d. Initial composition of slurry and pH were analyzed. Maximum and minimum temperatures registered in the barn throughout the growing period were 35.1 and 18.1°C, respectively. Animals fed the HD diet grew more efficiently than pigs fed the LD diet (G:F, 0.43 vs. 0.40; SEM = 0.01; P < 0.05). Fat digestibility was greater in HD compared with LD pigs (88.0 vs. 84.9%; SEM = 0.9; P < 0.05). Slurry from pigs fed the LD diet showed greater DM, OM, total N, and VFA contents than slurry from pigs fed the HD diet. Cumulative NH(3), CO(2), and especially CH(4) emissions were greater in the HD slurry compared with the LD slurry (192.4 vs. 210.g of NH(3)/m(3); 2,712 vs. 3,210 g of CO(2)/m(3); 1,502 vs. 2,647 mL of CH(4)/kg of OM). Increasing feed density in the present study led to a more efficient growth, a decreased nutrient concentration in the slurry, and a greater gas emission.

  4. The impact of fouling on the process performance of the thermal treatment of pig slurry using tubular heat exchangers.

    PubMed

    Cunault, C; Burton, C H; Pourcher, A M

    2013-03-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the kinetics of fouling and their influence on the performance of a thermal treatment process used for sanitisation of pig slurry. Two temperatures (55 °C and 80 °C) were investigated. One trial was carried out at 55 °C and 80 °C in which the slurry was not re-circulated and one trial at 80 °C in which 100% or 50% of the slurry was re-circulated. Fouling of the heat exchangers was assessed by on-line monitoring of the drop in pressure, changes in treatment temperature, heat transfer coefficients, heat recycling rate, and energy consumption. Similar energy consumption of around 38 kWh m(-3) of effluent was observed at the two temperatures. The operating periods prior to excessive fouling or blockage were 18 days at 55 °C and four days at 80 °C. Recycling treated manure to obtain 50% dilution of the raw feed increased the viable operating period to 14 days at 80 °C but doubled energy consumption. At 55 °C, the significant drop in the target temperature (>7 °C) with fouling severely jeopardised the process. The nature of the decline in performance suggests that the main fouling mechanisms were bio-fouling at 55 °C and organic/mineral deposits at 80 °C. Recycling treated manure enabled the operating period to be extended but increased the total cost of heating. One hundred percent recycling showed that the fouling potential of the manure was largely eliminated after one thermal treatment, suggesting a pretreatment may be advantageous.

  5. Carbon mineralization, microbial activity and metal dynamics in tailing ponds amended with pig slurry and marble waste.

    PubMed

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Carmona, Dora M; Acosta, Jose A; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; de Vreng, Arno

    2013-03-01

    A field experiment was set up in Cartagena-La Unión Mining District, SE Spain, aimed at evaluating the short-term effects of pig slurry (PS) amendment alone and together with marble waste (MW) on organic matter mineralization, microbial activity and stabilization of heavy metals in two tailing ponds. These structures pose environmental risk owing to high metals contents, low organic matter and nutrients, and null vegetation. Carbon mineralization, exchangeable metals and microbiological properties were monitored during 67 d. The application of amendments led to a rapid decrease of exchangeable metals concentrations, except for Cu, with decreases up to 98%, 75% and 97% for Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively. The combined addition of MW+PS was the treatment with greater reduction in metals concentrations. The addition of PS caused a significant increase in respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots respiration was lower than in PS plots. The mineralized C from the pig slurry was low, approximately 25-30% and 4-12% for PS and MW+PS treatments, respectively. Soluble carbon (Csol), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities increased after the application of the organic amendment. However, after 3d these parameters started a decreasing trend reaching similar values than control from approximately day 25 for Csol and MBC. The PS treatment promoted highest values in enzyme activities, which remained high upon time. Arylesterase activity increased in the MW+PS treatment. Thus, the remediation techniques used improved soil microbiological status and reduced metal availability. The combined application of PS+MW reduced the degradability of the organic compounds.

  6. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter degradation and humification during composting of pig slurry in different scenarios.

    PubMed

    Martín-Mata, J; Lahoz-Ramos, C; Bustamante, M A; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Moral, R; Santos, A; Sáez, J A; Bernal, M P

    2016-09-01

    In this work, different analytical techniques (thermal analysis, (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy) have been used to study the organic matter changes during the co-composting of pig slurry with cotton gin waste. To ensure the validity of the findings, the composting process was developed in different scenarios: under experimental pilot plant conditions, using the static pile system, and under real conditions on a pig farm, using the turning pile system. Also, the thermal stability index (R1) was determined before and after an extraction with water, to evaluate the effect of eliminating water-soluble inorganic salts on the thermal analysis. The results of the thermal methods showed the degradation of the most labile organic matter during composting; R1 increased during composting in all piles, without any influence of the presence of water-soluble inorganic ions in the sample. The NMR showed a decrease in the abundance of the carbohydrate molecules and an increase in the aliphatic materials during composting, due to a concentration effect. Also, FT-IR spectroscopy was a useful technique to study the trends of polysaccharides and nitrate, as indicators of organic matter transformations during composting.

  7. Degradation of sulfadiazine by Microbacterium lacus strain SDZm4, isolated from lysimeters previously manured with slurry from sulfadiazine-medicated pigs.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Wolfgang; Herbst, Michael; Hofmann, Diana; Koeppchen, Stephan; Kummer, Sirgit; Thiele, Björn; Groeneweg, Joost

    2013-04-01

    Sulfadiazine (SDZ)-degrading bacterial cultures were enriched from the topsoil layer of lysimeters that were formerly treated with manure from pigs medicated with (14)C-labeled SDZ. The loss of about 35% of the applied radioactivity after an incubation period of 3 years was attributed to CO2 release due to mineralization processes in the lysimeters. Microcosm experiments with moist soil and soil slurries originating from these lysimeters confirmed the presumed mineralization potential, and an SDZ-degrading bacterium was isolated. It was identified as Microbacterium lacus, denoted strain SDZm4. During degradation studies with M. lacus strain SDZm4 using pyrimidine-ring labeled SDZ, SDZ disappeared completely but no (14)CO2 was released during 10 days of incubation. The entire applied radioactivity (AR) remained in solution and could be assigned to 2-aminopyrimidine. In contrast, for parallel incubations but with phenyl ring-labeled SDZ, 56% of the AR was released as (14)CO2, 16% was linked to biomass, and 21% remained as dissolved, not yet identified (14)C. Thus, it was shown that M. lacus extensively mineralized and partly assimilated the phenyl moiety of the SDZ molecule while forming equimolar amounts of 2-aminopyrimidine. This partial degradation might be an important step in the complete mineralization of SDZ by soil microorganisms.

  8. Enhancing soil infiltration reduces gaseous emissions and improves N uptake from applied dairy slurry.

    PubMed

    Bhandral, R; Bittman, S; Kowalenko, G; Buckley, K; Chantigny, M H; Hunt, D E; Bounaix, F; Friesen, A

    2009-01-01

    Rapid infiltration of liquid manure into the soil reduces emissions of ammonia (NH(3)) into the atmosphere. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of two low-cost methods of assisting infiltration of applied dairy slurry on emissions of NH(3), nitrous oxide (N(2)O), and on crop N uptake. The two methods were removing of solids by settling-decantation to make the manure less viscous and mechanically aerating the soil. Ammonia emissions were measured with wind tunnels as percentage of applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) while emissions of N(2)O were measured with vented chambers. Mechanically aerating the soil before manure application significantly reduced emissions of NH(3) relative to the nonaerated soil in spring (38.6 to 20.3% of applied TAN), summer (41.1 to 26.4% of applied TAN) and fall (27.7 to 13.6% of applied TAN) trials. Decantation of manure had no effect on NH(3) emissions in spring, tended to increase emissions in summer and significantly decreased emissions in fall (30.3 to 11.1% of applied TAN). Combining the two abatement techniques reduced NH(3) emission by 82% in fall, under cool weather conditions typical of manure spreading. The two abatement techniques generally did not significantly affect N(2)O emissions. Uptake of applied N by Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was generally significantly greater with decanted than from whole manure but the effect of aeration was generally small and not significant. The study shows that low cost methods that assist manure infiltration into the soil may be used to greatly reduce ammonia loss without increasing N(2)O emissions, but efficacy of abatement methods is affected by weather conditions.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of a New Methanobacterium formicicum KOR-1 from an Anaerobic Digester Using Pig Slurry

    PubMed Central

    Battumur, Urantulkhuur; Yoon, Young-Man; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A new methanogen was isolated from an anaerobic digester using pig slurry in South Korea. Only one strain, designated KOR-1, was characterized in detail. Cells of KOR-1 were straight or crooked rods, non-motile, 5 to 15 μm long and 0.7 μm wide. They stained Gram-positive and produced methane from H2+CO2 and formate. Strain KOR-1 grew optimally at 38°C. The optimum pH for growth was 7.0. The strain grew at 0.5% to 3.0% NaCl, with optimum growth at 2.5% NaCl. The G+C content of genomic DNA of strain KOR-1 was 41 mol%. The strain tolerated ampicillin, penicillin G, kanamycin and streptomycin but tetracycline inhibited cell growth. A large fragment of the 16S rRNA gene (~1,350 bp) was obtained from the isolate and sequenced. Comparison of 16S rRNA genes revealed that strain KOR–1 is related to Methanobacterium formicicum (98%, sequence similarity), Methanobacterium bryantii (95%) and Methanobacterium ivanovii (93%). Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced mcrA gene sequences confirmed the closest relative as based on mcrA gene sequence analysis was Methanobacterium formicicum strain (97% nucleic acid sequence identity). On the basis of physiological and phylogenetic characteristics, strain KOR-1 is proposed as a new strain within the genus Methanobacterium, Methanobacterium formicicum KOR-1. PMID:26949961

  10. Characteristics and composition of fouling caused by pig slurry in a tubular heat exchanger--recommended cleaning systems.

    PubMed

    Cunault, C; Coquinot, Y; Burton, C H; Picard, S; Pourcher, A M

    2013-03-15

    The structure and composition of the fouling deposits caused by pig slurry heated in a tubular heat exchanger were characterized to understand their formation and thus be able to minimize fouling and define effective routine cleaning methods. Two temperatures (55 °C and 80 °C) were investigated. Two types of fouling were identified: organic/mineral and biofilm. The first only formed at temperatures above 50 °C, often during the heating phase, and was the main problem encountered in treatments at 80 °C. Organic/mineral deposits formed a thin compact sub-layer and a thick porous top layer composed of 67-76% minerals, 9-15% proteins, 8-20% carbohydrates and 0-5% fats. Biofilms formed at temperatures between 25 °C and 70 °C in both the cooling and heating sections of the exchanger. This type of fouling predominated at temperatures below 55 °C. The biofilm covered a thin mineral base layer. Strongly acidic or alkaline washing cycle are recommended to clean Type I deposits, while in-line gas-rumbling is recommended for Type II fouling.

  11. Modeling field-scale vertical movement of zinc and copper in a pig slurry-amended soil in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mallmann, Fábio Joel Kochem; dos Santos, Danilo Rheinheimer; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Cella, Cesar; Simůnek, Jirka; van Oort, Folkert

    2012-12-01

    Organic amendments often represent a source of trace metals (TMs) in soils, which may partly leach into the groundwater. The objectives of this study were (1) to validate Hydrus-2D for modeling the transport of Zn and Cu in an Alfisol amended with pig slurry (PS) by comparing numerical simulations and experimental field data, and (2) to model the next 50 years of TM movements under scenarios of suspended or continued PS amendments. First, between 2000 and 2008, we collected detailed Zn and Cu data from a soil profile in Santa Maria, Brazil. Two hypotheses about Zn and Cu reactivity with the solid phase were tested, considering physical, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics of six soil layers. Using a two-site sorption model with a sorption kinetic rate adjusted based on laboratory EDTA extractions, Hydrus simulations of the vertical TM transport were found to satisfactorily describe the soil Zn and Cu concentration profiles. Second, the long-term fate of Zn and Cu in the soil was assessed using the validated parameterized model. Numerical simulations showed that Zn and Cu did not present risks for groundwater pollution. However, future Cu accumulation in the surface soil layer would exceed the Brazilian threshold for agricultural soils.

  12. Strength properties of cement slurries with lightweights applied in oil and gas wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubnov, A. S.; Boyko, I. A.; Khorev, V. S.

    2015-02-01

    The article is focused on the cement stone strength properties resulted from lightweight cement slurries that meet GOST-1581-96 (state Standards) requirements. Exfoliated vermiculite, hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (HAMs), diatomite and perlite were used as lightweighting additives.

  13. Evaluation of the slurry management strategy and the integration of the composting technology in a pig farm - Agronomical and environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Sáez, José A; Clemente, Rafael; Bustamante, M Ángeles; Yañez, David; Bernal, M Pilar

    2017-05-01

    The changes in livestock production systems towards intensification frequently lead to an excess of manure generation with respect to the agricultural land available for its soil application. However, treatment technologies can help in the management of manures, especially in N-surplus areas. An integrated slurry treatment system based on solid-liquid separation, aerobic treatment of the liquid and composting the solid fraction was evaluated in a pig farm (sows and piglets) in the South of Spain. Solid fraction separation using a filter band connected to a screw press had low efficiency (38%), which was greatly improved incorporating a rotatory sieve (61%). The depuration system was very efficient for the liquid, with total removal of 84% total solids, 87% volatile solids, and 98% phosphorus. Two composting systems were tested through mechanical turning of: 1- a mixture of solid fraction stored for 1 month after solid-liquid separation and cereal straw; 2- recently-separated solid fraction mixed with cotton gin waste. System 2 was recommended for the farm, as it exhibited a fast temperature rise and a long thermophilic phase to ensure compost sanitisation, and high recovery of nutrients (TN 77%, P and K > 85%) and organic matter (45%). The composts obtained were mature, stable and showed a high degree of humification of their organic matter, absence of phytotoxicity and concentrations of nutrients similar to other composts from pig manure or separated slurry solids. However, the introduction of slurry from piglets into the solid-liquid separation system should be avoided in order to reduce the content of Zn in the compost, which lowers its quality. The slurry separation followed by composting of the solid fraction using a passive windrow system, and aeration of the liquid phase, was the most recommendable procedure for the reduction of GHG emissions on the farm.

  14. Utilization of wasted sardine oil as co-substrate with pig slurry for biogas production--a pilot experience of decentralized industrial organic waste management in a Portuguese pig farm.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, L; Duarte, E; Figueiredo, D

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to demonstrate in a pig farm and in real conditions, the possibilities to co-digest wasted sardine oil (WSO) and pig slurry (PS) at farm scale. A biogas mobile pilot plant, was set up in the farm and operated in real conditions during 4 months. Dynamic mesophilic (35-37 °C) continuous pilot trials were performed during four different periods of time. In each period a different organic loading rate (OLR) based on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was operated sequentially, with pig slurry (PS) (OLR = 1.6 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)) and with mixtures of WSO:PS with a volumetric composition (% v/v) of 2:98 (OLR = 3.0 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)), 3:97 (OLR = 3.7 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)) and 5:95 (OLR = 5.2 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)). Biomass adapted very fast in metabolise the WSO and biogas productivity was raised substantially for different compositions of WSO:PS. Process stability indicators pH and Total volatile fatty acids/bicarbonate alkalinity (T-VFA/BA) ratio, suggests that the co-digestion process was robust. It was concluded that WSO could be easily co-digested in farm scale biogas plants.

  15. Applying functional genomics research to the study of pig reproduction.

    PubMed

    Pomp, D; Caetano, A R; Bertani, G R; Gladney, C D; Johnson, R K

    2001-01-01

    Functional genomics is an experimental approach that incorporates genome-wide or system-wide experimentation, expanding the scope of biological investigation from studying single genes to studying potentially all genes at once in a systematic manner. This technology is highly appealing because of its high throughput and relatively low cost. Furthermore, analysis of gene expression using microarrays is likely to be more biologically relevant than the conventional paradigm of reductionism, because it has the potential to uncover new biological connections between genes and biochemical pathways. However, functional genomics is still in its infancy, especially with regard to the study of pig reproduction. Currently, efforts are centred on developing the necessary resources to enable high throughput evaluation and comparison of gene expression. However, it is clear that in the near future functional genomics will be applied on a large scale to study the biology and physiology of reproduction in pigs, and to understand better the complex nature of genetic control over polygenic characteristics, such as ovulation rate and litter size. We can look forward to generating a significant amount of new data on differences in gene expression between genotypes, treatments, or at various temporal and spatial coordinates within a variety of reproductively relevant systems. Along with this capability will be the challenge of collating, analysing and interpreting datasets that are orders of magnitude more extensive and complex than those currently used. Furthermore, integration of functional genomics with traditional genetic approaches and with detailed analysis of the proteome and relevant whole animal phenotypes will be required to make full use of this powerful new experimental paradigm as a beneficial research tool.

  16. Impact of raw pig slurry and pig farming practices on physicochemical parameters and on atmospheric N2O and CH 4 emissions of tropical soils, Uvéa Island (South Pacific).

    PubMed

    Roth, E; Gunkel-Grillon, P; Joly, L; Thomas, X; Decarpenterie, T; Mappe-Fogaing, I; Laporte-Magoni, C; Dumelié, N; Durry, G

    2014-09-01

    Emissions of CH4 and N2O related to private pig farming under a tropical climate in Uvéa Island were studied in this paper. Physicochemical soil parameters such as nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, Kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, pH and moisture were measured. Gaseous soil emissions as well as physicochemical parameters were compared in two private pig farming strategies encountered on this island on two different soils (calcareous and ferralitic) in order to determine the best pig farming management: in small concrete pens or in large land pens. Ammonium levels were higher in control areas while nitrate and nitrite levels were higher in soils with pig slurry inputs, indicating that nitrification was the predominant process related to N2O emissions. Nitrate contents in soils near concrete pens were important (≥ 55 μg N/g) and can thus be a threat for the groundwater. For both pig farming strategies, N2O and CH4 fluxes can reach high levels up to 1 mg N/m(2)/h and 1 mg C/m(2)/h, respectively. CH4 emissions near concrete pens were very high (≥ 10.4 mg C/m(2)/h). Former land pens converted into agricultural land recover low N2O emission rates (≤ 0.03 mg N/m(2)/h), and methane uptake dominates. N2O emissions were related to nitrate content whereas CH4 emissions were found to be moisture dependent. As a result relating to the physicochemical parameters as well as to the gaseous emissions, we demonstrate that pig farming in large land pens is the best strategy for sustainable family pig breeding in Uvéa Islands and therefore in similar small tropical islands.

  17. Pig feeding strategy coupled with effluent management - fresh or stored slurry, solid phase separation - on methane potential and methane conversion factors during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarret, Guillaume; Martinez, José; Dourmad, Jean-Yves

    2011-11-01

    In the guideline for the determination of methane (CH 4) emission from animal manure (IPCC) the amount of CH 4 emitted is generally calculated according to an equation combining the amount of organic matter (OM) or volatile solids excreted, the ultimate CH 4 potential ( B0) of excreta and a system-specific methane conversion factor (MCF, %) that reflects the portion of B0 that is really converted into CH 4. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the modification of dietary crude protein and fibre levels on B0 of pig slurry and on subsequent MCF according to different strategies of slurry management. Five experimental diets differing mainly in their crude protein and fibre content were compared. Two types of measurement of CH 4 emission were performed. The first was the measurement of B0 of slurry using biomethanogene potential (BMP) test. The second consisted in a storage simulation, which was performed on different kinds of effluents: fresh slurry (FSl), stored slurry (SSl), and faeces mixed with water (FaW). The type of diet and the type of effluent affected ( P < 0.001) CH 4 production after 30, 50 and 100 days. Moreover, the interaction between type of effluent and type of diet was significant for CH 4 emission and for MCF. CH 4 production was the highest for BMP, the average production of CH 4 during storage from FaW, FSl and SSl samples representing 77%, 58% and 64% of the B0 value. The dynamic of CH 4 production during BMP tests was rather similar for all dietary treatments whereas it differed for storage simulation studies with significant effects of dietary CP and fibre contents. The results from this study indicate that the type of diet has a significant but rather limited effect on B0 value of effluent. The effect of diet is much more marked on MCF, with lower values for high protein diets, and higher values for high fibre diets. MCF is also affected by manure management, the values measured on separated faeces from urine

  18. Zeolite Combined with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride Mixed with Agricultural Slurries Reduces Carbon Losses in Runoff from Grassed Soil Boxes.

    PubMed

    Murnane, J G; Brennan, R B; Fenton, O; Healy, M G

    2016-11-01

    Carbon (C) losses from agricultural soils to surface waters can migrate through water treatment plants and result in the formation of disinfection by-products, which are potentially harmful to human health. This study aimed to quantify total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic C losses in runoff after application of dairy slurry, pig slurry, or milk house wash water (MWW) to land and to mitigate these losses through coamendment of the slurries with zeolite (2.36-3.35 mm clinoptilolite) and liquid polyaluminum chloride (PAC) (10% AlO) for dairy and pig slurries or liquid aluminum sulfate (alum) (8% AlO) for MWW. Four treatments under repeated 30-min simulated rainfall events (9.6 mm h) were examined in a laboratory study using grassed soil runoff boxes (0.225 m wide, 1 m long; 10% slope): control soil, unamended slurries, PAC-amended dairy and pig slurries (13.3 and 11.7 kg t, respectively), alum-amended MWW (3.2 kg t), combined zeolite and PAC-amended dairy (160 and 13.3 kg t zeolite and PAC, respectively) and pig slurries (158 and 11.7 kg t zeolite and PAC, respectively), and combined zeolite and alum-amended MWW (72 and 3.2 kg t zeolite and alum, respectively). The unamended and amended slurries were applied at net rates of 31, 34, and 50 t ha for pig and dairy slurries and MWW, respectively. Significant reductions of TOC in runoff compared with unamended slurries were measured for PAC-amended dairy and pig slurries (52 and 56%, respectively) but not for alum-amended MWW. Dual zeolite and alum-amended MWW significantly reduced TOC in runoff compared with alum amendment only. We conclude that use of PAC-amended dairy and pig slurries and dual zeolite and alum-amended MWW, although effective, may not be economically viable to reduce TOC losses from organic slurries given the relatively low amounts of TOC measured in runoff from unamended slurries compared with the amounts applied.

  19. Nitrogen transformations under different conditions in open ponds by means of microalgae-bacteria consortium treating pig slurry.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Cristina; Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; García-González, Maria Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Four open ponds inoculated with microalgae-bacteria consortium treating different swine slurries (fresh and anaerobically digested) were evaluated in terms of nitrogen transformation under optimal and real conditions of temperature and illumination. Ammonium complete depletion was not achieved. Ponds operated under real conditions presented lower ammonium removal. Elimination capacities were around 26 mg N/Ld and were subsequently increased with increasing inlet ammonium loading rate. Different nitrogen transformation was observed depending on substrate source. When anaerobically digested slurry was fed to the ponds, nitrification followed by biomass uptake and denitrification were the main nitrogen transformation taking place depending on inlet ammonium loading rate and operational conditions. Ponds fed with fresh slurry exhibited denitrification as the main nitrogen removal mechanism for the pond operated under real conditions while under optimal conditions stripping, denitrification and biomass uptake contributed similarly. Therefore, this study confirmed that the so-claimed nitrogen recovery by microalgae biomass is frequently overestimated.

  20. Slurry Erosion and Corrosion Behavior of Some Engineering Polymers Applied by Low-Pressure Flame Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Carlos Roberto Camello; Mojena, Miguel Angel Reyes; Rovere, Carlos Alberto Della; de Souza, Natalia Ferraresso Cardoso; Fals, Hipolito Domingo Carvajal

    2016-11-01

    The erosive wear and corrosion resistance of three types of flame spray-deposited polymer coatings was analyzed. The erosive wear test was performed in slurry pot tester with rotational movement using distilled water and mix quartz particles (300 g/l). Two impact angles of the particles were used, reaching 4.15 m/s average impact velocity. Corrosion resistance of the polymer coatings and degradation behavior were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a solution of 0.5 M sodium chloride at room temperature for a total immersion time of 1 year. The interpretation of the results was made according to the Bode plot. It is proven a better slurry erosion wear performance for PEEK and PA12 coatings when the particles impact at 90° angle. For impact angle of 30°, there is no significant difference in the erosion performance of PEEK, PEI, and PA12 coatings. No major changes occurred in the impedance module for PA12 and PEEK samples, indicating that these coatings can protect the steel substrate for extended periods of time. The lower PEI performance is believed to be related to the improper choice of spraying parameters, as the spray conditions were kept constant for the three feedstock materials.

  1. Use of Zeolite with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride Amendments to Mitigate Runoff Losses of Phosphorus, Nitrogen, and Suspended Solids from Agricultural Wastes Applied to Grassed Soils.

    PubMed

    Murnane, J G; Brennan, R B; Healy, M G; Fenton, O

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse pollutant losses containing phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), and suspended solids (SS) can occur when agricultural wastes are applied to soil. This study aimed to mitigate P, N, and SS losses in runoff from grassed soils, onto which three types of agricultural wastes (dairy slurry, pig slurry, and dairy-soiled water [DSW]), were applied by combining amendments of either zeolite and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) with dairy and pig slurries or zeolite and alum with DSW. Four treatments were investigated in rainfall simulation studies: (i) control soil, (ii) agricultural wastes, (iii) dairy and pig slurries amended with PAC and DSW amended with alum, and (iv) dairy and pig slurries amended with zeolite and PAC and DSW amended with zeolite and alum. Our data showed that combined amendments of zeolite and PAC applied to dairy and pig slurries reduced total P (TP) in runoff by 87 and 81%, respectively, compared with unamended slurries. A combined amendment of zeolite and alum applied to DSW reduced TP in runoff by 50% compared with unamended DSW. The corresponding reductions in total N (TN) were 56% for dairy slurry and 45% for both pig slurry and DSW. Use of combined amendments reduced SS in runoff by 73 and 44% for dairy and pig slurries and 25% for DSW compared with unamended controls, but these results were not significantly different from those using chemical amendments only. The findings of this study are that combined amendments of zeolite and either PAC or alum reduce TP and TN losses in runoff to a greater extent than the use of single PAC or alum amendments and are most effective when used with dairy slurry and pig slurry but less effective when used with DSW.

  2. Simulation with models of increasing complexity of CO2 emissions and nitrogen mineralisation, after soil application of labelled pig slurry and maize stalks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechini, Luca; Marino Gallina, Pietro; Geromel, Gabriele; Corti, Martina; Cavalli, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    High amounts of nitrogen are available per unit area in regions with intensive livestock operations. In swine farms, pig slurries are frequently incorporated in the soil together with maize stalks. Simulation models may help to understand nitrogen dynamics associated with animal manure and crop residue decomposition in the soil, and to support the definition of best management practices. The objective of this work was to test the ability of different models to simulate CO2 emissions and nitrogen mineralisation during a laboratory incubation (under optimal soil water content and constant temperature) of maize stalks (ST) and pig slurry (PS). A loam soil was amended with labelled (15N) or unlabelled maize stalks and pig slurries, in the presence of ammonium sulphate (AS). These treatments were established: unfertilised soil; ST15 + AS + PS; ST + AS15 + PS; and ST + AS + PS15. During 180 days, we measured CO2 emissions; microbial biomass C, N, and 15N; and soil mineral N (SMN and SM-15N). Three models of increasing complexity were calibrated using measured data. The models were two modifications of ICBM 2B/N (Kätterer and Andrén, 2001) and CN-SIM (Petersen et al., 2005). The three models simulated rather accurately the emissions of CO2 throughout the incubation period (Relative Root Mean Squared Error, RRMSE = 8-25). The simplest model (with one pool for ST and one for PS) strongly overestimated SMN immobilisation from day 3 to day 21, both in the treatments with AS15 and PS15 (RRMSE = 27-30%). The other two models represented rather well the dynamics of SMN in the soil (RRMSE = 21-25%), simulating a fast increase of nitrate concentration in the first days, and slower rates of nitrification thereafter. Worse performances were obtained with all models for the simulation of SM-15N in the treatment with ST15 (RRMSE = 64-104%): experimental data showed positive mineralization of stalk-derived N from the beginning of the incubation, while models strongly underestimated

  3. Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.

    PubMed

    Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens.

  4. The ototoxic effect of boric acid solutions applied into the middle ear of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Oztürkcan, Sedat; Dündar, Riza; Katilmis, Hüseyin; Ilknur, Ali Ekber; Aktaş, Sinem; Haciömeroğlu, Senem

    2009-05-01

    This study analyzed the ototoxic effects of boric acid solutions. Boric acid solutions have been used as otologic preparations for many years. Boric acid is commonly found in solutions prepared with alcohol or distilled water but can also be found in a powder form. These preparations are used for both their antiseptic and acidic qualities in external and middle ear infections. We investigated the ototoxic effect of boric acid solutions on guinea pigs. We are unaware of any similar, previously published study of this subject in English. The study was conducted on 28 young albino guinea pigs. Prior to application of the boric acid solution under general anesthesia, an Auditory Brainstem Response (ABRs) test was applied to the right ear of the guinea pigs. Following the test, a perforation was created on the tympanic membrane of the right ear of each guinea pig and small gelfoam pieces were inserted into the perforated area. Test solutions were administered to the middle ear for 10 days by means of a transcanal route. Fifteen days after inserting the gelfoams in all of the guinea pigs, we anasthesized the guinea pigs and removed the gelfoams from the perforated region of the ear and then performed an ABRs on each guinea pig. The ABRs were within the normal range before the applications. After the application, no significant changes were detected in the ABRs thresholds in neither the saline group nor the group administered boric acid and distilled water solution; however, significant changes were detected in the ABRs thresholds of the Gentamicine and boric acid and alcohol solution groups. We believe that a 4% boric acid solution prepared with distilled water can be a more reliable preparation than a 4% boric acid solution prepared with alcohol.

  5. Behavioral recovery induced by applied electric fields after spinal cord hemisection in guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Borgens, R.B.; Blight, A.R.; McGinnis, M.E.

    1987-10-16

    Applied electric fields were used to promote axonal regeneration in spinal cords of adult guinea pigs. A propriospinal intersegmental reflex (the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex) was used to test lateral tract function after hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord. An electrical field (200 microvolts per millimeter, cathode rostral) applied across the lesion led to functional recovery of the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex in 25 percent of experimental animals, whereas the functional deficit remained in control animals, which were implanted with inactive stimulators.

  6. Ammonia emission after slurry application to grassland in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häni, Christoph; Sintermann, Jörg; Kupper, Thomas; Jocher, Markus; Neftel, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Loss of ammonia (NH3) after field application of livestock slurry contributes between 30% and 50% of agricultural NH3 emissions from European countries. The objectives of this study were to re-evaluate NH3 emissions following application of cattle and pig slurry to grassland in Switzerland and to investigate the effectiveness of abatement techniques. In 17 field experiments, NH3 emissions were determined with a micrometeorological approach, relating the emission to the measured concentration by means of atmospheric dispersion modelling. The cattle slurry applied exhibited an average dry matter content of 3.3% (range between 1.0% and 6.7% dry matter). The emission after application of cattle slurry spread with a splash plate (referred to as reference technique) ranged from 10% to 47% of applied Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (% of TAN) and averaged to 25% of TAN. This range of losses is lower by approx. a factor of two compared to measurements from earlier Swiss experiments. Applications with trailing hose and trailing shoe systems yielded an average reduction of 51% and 53%, respectively, relative to the reference technique. A regression analysis showed that the dry matter content of the slurry and the air temperature are important drivers for NH3 emission.

  7. Soil N and P availability for field applied slurry from swine fed traditional and low phytate corn diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine (Sus scrofa) slurry contains nutrients essential for crop production but usually contains more P relative to N than is required by most crops. Land application at rates to meet the crop N needs results in accumulation of excess P creating the potential for negative environmental impacts. Diet ...

  8. Effect of topically applied povidone-iodine on transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Yagiz, Recep; Tas, Abdullah; Uzun, Cem; Adali, Mustafa Kemal; Koten, Muhsin; Karasalihoglu, Ahmet Rifat

    2003-09-01

    The possible cochlear toxicity of topically applied povidone-iodine solution was investigated in guinea pigs by measuring transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs). Seven adult pigmented guinea pigs (14 ears) with a normal acoustic pinna reflex were used. After the baseline TEOAE measurements, 0.1 mL of povidone-iodine solution was applied transtympanically into the middle ear in the study group. Saline solution and gentamicin were used as negative and positive control, respectively. TEOAE measurements were repeated on the 10th day, and four weeks after the first application. Tympanometric measurements were also carried out for both ears of all animals at the end of the study. Responses in all ears, which had povidone-iodine applied to them, disappeared in a way similar to those recorded in gentamicin-treated ears. Tympanometric measurements at the end of the study showed 'type A' tympanograms in all ears of all animals. The present study showed that povidone-iodine could have a cochleotoxic effect in guinea pigs. A study in humans with TEOAE before and after middle-ear surgery, where povidone-iodine can reach into the middle-ear cavity, may be useful for evaluating this result for clinical practice.

  9. A new kind of chelating agent with low pH value applied in the TSV CMP slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Hong; Yuling, Liu; Baoguo, Zhang; Xinhuan, Niu; Liying, Han

    2015-12-01

    TSV (through silicon via) is an emerging technology, which can realize micromation compared with the conventional packaging and extend Moore's law. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is one of the most important steps in the process of TSV manufacture, and it is an enabling technology to extend Moore's law in the past two decades. Low pressure, low abrasive and low pH value are the main requirements for copper interconnection. In this paper, the effect of different kinds of TSV slurry with FA/O II or FA/O IV type chelating agent on CMP are studied. All kinds of slurry used in this study are alkaline with no added inhibitors. From the experiment results, it can be seen that the copper removal rate and surface roughness achieved by using the FA/O IV type chelating agent with a low pH value is superior to using the FA/O II type chelating agent. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308), the Fund Project of Hebei Provincial Department of Education, China (No. QN2014208), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. E2013202247), and the Colleges and Universities Scientific Research Project of Hebei Province, China (No. Z2014088).

  10. The occurrence of intestinal parasites in swine slurry and their removal in activated sludge plants.

    PubMed

    Reinoso, Roberto; Becares, Eloy

    2008-09-01

    Thirteen intensive pig farms and two activated sludge treatment plants for pig slurry in north-western Spain were studied from April 2005 to June 2006 in order to evaluate the presence of enteric pathogens (Cryptosporidium, Giardia and helminths) and the efficiency with which they were removed. These parasites were present on 53%, 7% and 38% of the farms studied, respectively, with concentrations of 10(4)-10(5) oocysts per litre (/L) for Cryptosporidium, 10(3)cysts/L for Giardia and 10(2)-10(3) eggs/L for helminths. The overall removal of parasites in the pig slurry treatment plants ranged from 86.7% to over 99.99%. The results revealed a constant reduction at each stage of the treatment system, with activated sludge processes being the most effective treatment in reducing pathogens in pig slurry, 78-81% for Cryptosporidium oocysts and over 99.9% for helminth eggs. A heat drying procedure for sludge removed 4.3 log units of Cryptosporidium oocysts, demonstrating the excellent effectiveness of this treatment for reducing pathogens in sludge intended to be applied to land.

  11. Effect of Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial on slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions in growing pigs fed with high fibre-based diets.

    PubMed

    Prenafeta-Boldú, F X; Fernández, B; Viñas, M; Lizardo, R; Brufau, J; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Walsh, M C; Awati, A

    2017-02-01

    A 26-day trial with 18 Pietrain×(Landrace×Duroc) pigs was conducted to investigate the effect of two dose levels of a specifically selected Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial (DFM) product, on the emission of environmentally harmful gasses (methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide) from manure. Pigs were assigned to one of three treatments in a randomized complete block design according to their sex and initial BW. Each treatment contained three replications with two pigs per pen. The test treatments included a Bacillus spp. DFM containing 3×108 colony-forming unit/g, added at a low (250 mg/kg) and high (500 mg/kg) dose to an antibiotic free high fibre-based diet, and a non-supplemented control diet. Manure from pigs fed with the supplemented diets emitted lower amounts of atmospheric contaminants. The most significant reduction was observed with low DFM supplementation, in which methane and ammonia volatilization decreased (P40% and 50%, respectively, on fresh weight basis in relation to the control. Microbiome analysis of manure by high through put sequencing techniques on eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes highlighted the complex interactions between indigenous gut microflora and inoculated Bacillus spp. The tested Bacillus DFM could be considered as a best available technique in reducing the environmental impacts of growing pigs fed with high fibre-based diets.

  12. Application of PTR-MS for measuring odorant emissions from soil application of manure slurry.

    PubMed

    Feilberg, Anders; Bildsoe, Pernille; Nyord, Tavs

    2015-01-09

    Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are emitted together with ammonia (NH3) from manure slurry applied as a fertilizer, but little is known about the composition and temporal variation of the emissions. In this work, a laboratory method based on dynamic flux chambers packed with soil has been used to measure emissions from untreated pig slurry and slurry treated by solid-liquid separation and ozonation. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to provide time resolved data for a range of VOC, NH3 and H2S. VOC included organic sulfur compounds, carboxylic acids, phenols, indoles, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. H2S emission was remarkably observed to take place only in the initial minutes after slurry application, which is explained by its high partitioning into the air phase. Long-term odor effects are therefore assessed to be mainly due to other volatile compounds with low odor threshold values, such as 4-methylphenol. PTR-MS signal assignment was verified by comparison to a photo-acoustic analyzer (NH3) and to thermal desorption GC/MS (VOC). Due to initial rapid changes in odorant emissions and low concentrations of odorants, PTR-MS is assessed to be a very useful method for assessing odor following field application of slurry. The effects of treatments on odorant emissions are discussed.

  13. Application of PTR-MS for Measuring Odorant Emissions from Soil Application of Manure Slurry

    PubMed Central

    Feilberg, Anders; Bildsoe, Pernille; Nyord, Tavs

    2015-01-01

    Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are emitted together with ammonia (NH3) from manure slurry applied as a fertilizer, but little is known about the composition and temporal variation of the emissions. In this work, a laboratory method based on dynamic flux chambers packed with soil has been used to measure emissions from untreated pig slurry and slurry treated by solid-liquid separation and ozonation. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to provide time resolved data for a range of VOC, NH3 and H2S. VOC included organic sulfur compounds, carboxylic acids, phenols, indoles, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. H2S emission was remarkably observed to take place only in the initial minutes after slurry application, which is explained by its high partitioning into the air phase. Long-term odor effects are therefore assessed to be mainly due to other volatile compounds with low odor threshold values, such as 4-methylphenol. PTR-MS signal assignment was verified by comparison to a photo-acoustic analyzer (NH3) and to thermal desorption GC/MS (VOC). Due to initial rapid changes in odorant emissions and low concentrations of odorants, PTR-MS is assessed to be a very useful method for assessing odor following field application of slurry. The effects of treatments on odorant emissions are discussed. PMID:25585103

  14. Filtering reprecipitated slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher permeate fluxes than non reprecipitated slurry. Washing reprecipitated slurry may require a defoamer because reprecipitation encourages foaming.

  15. Filtering reprecipitated slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-12-31

    As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher permeate fluxes than non reprecipitated slurry. Washing reprecipitated slurry may require a defoamer because reprecipitation encourages foaming.

  16. Co-digestion of animal slurry can increase short-term nitrogen recovery by crops.

    PubMed

    de Boer, H C

    2008-01-01

    Co-digestion changes slurry characteristics and is supposed to increase short-term nitrogen (N) uptake by crops after application. A higher N uptake from slurry reduces the need for additional mineral N fertilizer. If farmers apply co-digested slurry (CS), a higher N recovery has to be taken into account to prevent losses to the environment. Since data on the effects of co-digestion on N recovery by crops are scarce, a pot experiment was performed. The apparent N recovery (ANR) of five different co-digested pig slurries was compared with their raw source slurries (RS) during 105 d after a single fertilization of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), grown under controlled conditions. Slurry was mixed with sandy soil and grass was cut every 35 d. The results show that co-digestion increased (p < 0.05) the ANR at first cut on average from 39 to 50%, at second cut from 7 to 9% (p < 0.05), and had no effect on ANR at third cut (3%). The ANR increase at first cut was likely due to an increase of the NH(4)-N/total N ratio along with a decrease of the organic C/total N ratio of slurry during co-digestion. Field application may under certain circumstances decrease N fertilizer value of CS, due to a higher NH(3) emission compared to RS. A potential ANR increase may then be reduced, absent, or even become a decrease. Under comparable NH(3) emissions, however, CS can in the short term be more valuable as an N fertilizer than RS, and fertilizer savings can likely be realized.

  17. Comparison of raw dairy manure slurry and anaerobically digested slurry as N sources for grass forage production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study was conducted to determine how raw dairy slurry and anaerobically digested slurry (dairy slurry and food waste) applied via broadcast and subsurface deposition to reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) affected forage biomass, N uptake, apparent nitrogen recovery (ANR), and soil nitrate...

  18. Reagent use efficiency with removal of nitrogen from pig slurry via struvite: A study on magnesium oxide and related by-products.

    PubMed

    Romero-Güiza, M S; Tait, S; Astals, S; Del Valle-Zermeño, R; Martínez, M; Mata-Alvarez, J; Chimenos, J M

    2015-11-01

    Controlled struvite formation has been attracting increasing attention as a near mature technology to recover nutrients from wastewater. However, struvite feasibility is generally limited by the high cost of chemical reagents. With the aim to understand and control reagent use efficiency, experiments and equilibrium model simulations examined inorganic nitrogen (TAN) removal from pig manure via struvite with added magnesium and phosphate reagents. Four industrial magnesium oxide (MgO), a commercial product and three by-products from magnesite calcination, were tested with phosphate added as a highly soluble potassium salt. TAN removal extents with the MgOs ranged from 47 to 72%, with the highest grade MgO providing the greatest extent of TAN removal. However, model analysis showed that all the MgO reagents were poorly soluble (only about 40% of added magnesium actually dissolved). The model results suggested that this poor dissolution was due to kinetic limitations, not solubility constraints. A further set of additional reagents (termed stabilization agents) were prepared by pre-treating the MgO reagents with phosphoric acid, and were tested separately as a source of both magnesium and phosphate. Results showed that acid pre-treatment of moderate to highly reactive MgOs (soft to medium-burnt) primarily formed bobierrite as the stabilizing agent, whereas the pre-treatment of very low reactivity MgOs (dead-burnt) mostly formed newberyite. The newberyite stabilizing agents achieved very high TAN removal extents of about 80%, which is significant, considering that these were formed from dead-burnt/low-grade MgOs. However, the bobierrite stabilizing agents achieved a substantially lower TAN removal extent than their medium-to-high reactivity precursor MgOs. Again, model analysis showed that the bobierrite stabilizing agents were poorly soluble, due to kinetic limitations, not solubility constraints. In contrast, the model suggested that the newberyite stabilizing

  19. Sizing pumps for slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Akhtar, S.Z.

    1996-11-01

    Slurry characteristics have a significant impact on centrifugal pump performance. For instance, as particle size increases or the percent solids concentration increases, pump head and efficiency decrease. Therefore, before a slurry pump is selected, it is important to define the slurry characteristics as accurately as possible. The effect of the slurry characteristics on the head and efficiency of the centrifugal pump will be emphasized (the effect on flowrate is less significant). The effect of slurry characteristics is more predominant in smaller pumps (with smaller diameter impellers) than in larger pumps. The data and relationship between the various slurry parameters have been developed from correlations and nomographs published by pump vendors from their field data and test results. The information helps to avoid specifying an undersized pump/motor assembly for slurry service.

  20. Rheology Modifiers Applied to Kaolin-Bentonite Slurries for SRNL WTP Pulse Jets Tank Pilot Work in Support of RPP at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIAM, DANIEL

    2005-02-09

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to find and characterize the impact of rheological modifiers to a clay (Kaolin-Bentonite) slurry having 23.1 total wt percent solids, 1.165 g/ml, and Bingham Plastic yield stress of 13 Pa and plastic viscosity of 24 mPa-sec. The primary objective was to find rheological modifiers when blended with this clay slurry that would provide a vane yield stress of 300 Pa when the slurry was undisturbed for 24 hours. A secondary objective was to find a modifier that after shearing would produce a Bingham Plastic yield stress of 30 Pa and plastic viscosity of 30 mPa-sec. Two parallel paths were chosen with one examining a variety of organic/inorganic modifiers and another using just the inorganic modifier Laponite (R). The addition of organic modifiers hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, and hydroxypropylcellulose at a target 0.50 wt percent dramatically increased the vane yield stress over the range 311 - 724 Pa, and also increased the Bingham plastic yield stress and plastic viscosities over the range 33-112 Pa and 27-166 mPa-sec, respectively. The organic modifiers also showed elastic behavior, yielding a very unpredictable up flow curve. The 0.50 wt percent addition of inorganic modifiers magnesium aluminum silicate and hydrate magnesium aluminum silicate only increased the vane yield stress to 36-46 Pa and had little impact on the Bingham Plastic parameters. A range of an inorganic (2-4 wt percent magnesium aluminum silicate) and combination of a range of an inorganic (2-3 wt percent magnesium aluminum silicate) and organic (0.03-0.05 wt percent sodium carboxymethylcellulose) modifiers were then tested. These results showed that the target vane yield stress could be obtained but the Bingham Plastic yield stress and plastic viscosity were 3 times too high. Reducing the organic modifier weight percent by a few hundredths, the Bingham Plastic yield stress could be obtained, but then the vane yield stress

  1. Agronomic measures of P, Q/I parameters and lysimeter-collectable P in subsurface soil horizons of a long-term slurry experiment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R; Xia, L

    2001-01-01

    Soils from a long-term slurry experiment established in 1970 at Hillsborough, Northern Ireland, were used in the experiment. The site has a clay loam soil overlying Silurian shale. Seven treatments were used with three replicate plots per treatment under the following manurial regimes: (1) mineral fertiliser supplying 200 kg N, 32 kg P and 160 kg K ha(-1) yr(-1); (2)-(4) pig slurry applied at 50, 100 or 200 m3 ha(-1) yr(-1); (5)-(7) cow slurry applied at 50, 100 or 200 m3 ha(-1) yr(-1). Agronomic measures of P determined on subsurface layers down to 90 cm were compared with sorption isotherm data and rates of desorption. Adsorption isotherms were fitted using a standard Langmuir model. Data were compared with soluble (molybdate-reactive) P levels in soil water collected at 35 and 90 cm using PTFE suction cup lysimeters. Agronomically available P was concentrated in the top 30 cm of soil in all treatments. The accumulation of P in surface layers of the plots was significantly greater in the pig slurry treatments compared to the cow slurry, reflecting the history of P amendments. Nevertheless, over a period of a year, molybdate-reactive phosphorus (MRP) concentrations in lysimeter collections was consistently higher at 35 cm depth in the highest cow slurry treatment (7) compared to the equivalent pig slurry treatment (4). Either the movement of soluble P down the profile is facilitated by the higher organic content of cow slurry or P movement is not directly related to P accumulation in the soils. In addition, it is hypothesised that P movement down the soil profile depends upon two separate mechanisms. First, a 'break' point above which the accumulated P in the surface horizons is less strongly held and therefore amenable to dissolution and movement down the profile. Second, a mechanism by which some solute P from the surface horizons can travel rapidly through horizons of low P status to greater depth in the soil, i.e., by preferential flow.

  2. Ultrasound Analysis of Slurries

    DOEpatents

    Soong, Yee and Blackwell, Arthur G.

    2005-11-01

    An autoclave reactor allows for the ultrasonic analysis of slurry concentration and particle size distribution at elevated temperatures and pressures while maintaining the temperature- and pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transducers under ambient conditions. The reactor vessel is a hollow stainless steel cylinder containing the slurry which includes a stirrer and a N, gas source for directing gas bubbles through the slurry. Input and output transducers are connected to opposed lateral portions of the hollow cylinder for respectively directing sound waves through the slurry and receiving these sound waves after transmission through the slurry, where changes in sound wave velocity and amplitude can be used to measure slurry parameters. Ultrasonic adapters connect the transducers to the reactor vessel in a sealed manner and isolate the transducers from the hostile conditions within the vessel without ultrasonic signal distortion or losses.

  3. Ultrasound Analysis Of Slurries

    DOEpatents

    Soong, Yee; Blackwell, Arthur G.

    2005-11-01

    An autoclave reactor allows for the ultrasonic analysis of slurry concentration and particle size distribution at elevated temperatures and pressures while maintaining the temperature- and pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transducers under ambient conditions. The reactor vessel is a hollow stainless steel cylinder containing the slurry which includes a stirrer and a N.sub.2 gas source for directing gas bubbles through the slurry. Input and output transducers are connected to opposed lateral portions of the hollow cylinder for respectively directing sound waves through the slurry and receiving these sound waves after transmission through the slurry, where changes in sound wave velocity and amplitude can be used to measure slurry parameters. Ultrasonic adapters connect the transducers to the reactor vessel in a sealed manner and isolate the transducers from the hostile conditions within the vessel without ultrasonic signal distortion or losses.

  4. Mn2O3 Slurry Achieving Reduction of Slurry Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishii, Sadahiro; Nakamura, Ko; Hanawa, Kenzo; Watanabe, Satoru; Arimoto, Yoshihiro; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Doi, Toshiro K.

    2012-04-01

    Fumed silica is widely used for SiO2 chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). In semiconductor processes, only fresh slurry is used, the used slurry being disposed of. We have demonstrated that Mn2O3 abrasive slurry polishes dielectric SiO2 film, giving 4 times the removal rate of conventional fumed silica slurry. The higher removal rate reduces the total amount of slurry used, consequently reducing the amount of used slurry waste. The removal rate of Mn2O3 slurry remains constant for solid concentrations between l and 10 wt %, and stays constant without pad conditioning. These characteristics are very useful for slurry reuse. Remanufacture of Mn2O3 slurry from used slurry has been demonstrated, and the removal rates of the remanufactured and fresh slurries are the same. Reuse and remanufacturing drastically reduce the amount of waste.

  5. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kauffeld, M.; WANG, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.

    2011-01-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. PMID:21528014

  6. Effects of dairy slurry on the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry onto growing alfalfa. Our objectives were to determine the effects of dairy-slurry application on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages. Dairy slurry was applie...

  7. Development of a Model for Planning Transportation and Application of Digested Slurry to Farmlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, Masaru; Nakamura, Masato; Aihara, Hideki; Shimizu, Natsuki; Yuyama, Yoshito

    The authors developed a model for planning the transportation and application of digested slurry to farmlands as a fertilizer. The model requires the following parameters, daily production of the digested slurry, concentrations of fertilizer elements in the digested slurry, distances from the plant to each field where the slurry will be applied and application loads of slurry for each field. According to the data, the model simulates daily workloads for transportation of digested slurry from the plant to the fields by a vacuum truck and application of slurry to each field with a spreader. The model calculates the daily changes in digested slurry storage at the plant. Validity of the model was confirmed by data obtained from a pilot scale plant. The model is a useful tool for planning the transportation and application of digested slurry to farmland as a fertilizer.

  8. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  9. The influence of additives on rheological properties of limestone slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, B.; Bartosik, A.

    2014-08-01

    Limestone slurry appears in the lime production process as the result of rinsing the processed material. It consists of particles with diameter smaller than 2 mm and the water that is a carrier of solid fraction. Slurry is directed to the settling tank, where the solid phase sediments and the excess water through the transfer system is recovered for re-circulation. Collected at the bottom of the tank sludge is deposited in a landfill located on the premises. Rheological properties of limestone slurry hinder its further free transport in the pipeline due to generated flow resistance. To improve this state of affairs, chemical treatment of drilling fluid, could be applied, of which the main task is to give the slurry properties suitable for the conditions encountered in hydrotransport. This treatment consists of applying chemical additives to slurry in sufficient quantity. Such additives are called as deflocculants or thinners or dispersants, and are chemical compounds which added to aqueous solution are intended to push away suspended particles from each other. The paper presents the results of research allowing reduction of shear stress in limestone slurry. Results demonstrate rheological properties of limestone slurry with and without the addition of modified substances which causes decrease of slurry viscosity, and as a consequence slurry shear stress for adopted shear rate. Achieving the desired effects increases the degree of dispersion of the solid phase suspended in the carrier liquid and improving its ability to smooth flow with decreased friction.

  10. Perilymph pharmacokinetics of locally-applied gentamicin in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Salt, A N; Hartsock, J J; Gill, R M; King, E; Kraus, F B; Plontke, S K

    2016-12-01

    Intratympanic gentamicin therapy is widely used clinically to suppress the vestibular symptoms of Meniere's disease. Dosing in humans was empirically established and we still know remarkably little about where gentamicin enters the inner ear, where it reaches in the inner ear and what time course it follows after local applications. In this study, gentamicin was applied to the round window niche as a 20 μL bolus of 40 mg/ml solution. Ten 2 μL samples of perilymph were collected sequentially from the lateral semi-circular canal (LSCC) at times from 1 to 4 h after application. Gentamicin concentration was typically highest in samples originating from the vestibule and was lower in samples originating from scala tympani. To interpret these results, perilymph elimination kinetics for gentamicin was quantified by loading the entire perilymph space by injection at the LSCC with a 500 μg/ml gentamicin solution followed by sequential perilymph sampling from the LSCC after different delay times. This allowed concentration decline in perilymph to be followed with time. Gentamicin was retained well in scala vestibuli and the vestibule but declined rapidly at the base of scala tympani, dominated by interactions of perilymph with CSF, as reported for other substances. Quantitative analysis, taking into account perilymph kinetics for gentamicin, showed that more gentamicin entered at the round window membrane (57%) than at the stapes (35%) but the lower concentrations found in scala tympani were due to greater losses there. The gentamicin levels found in perilymph of the vestibule, which are higher than would be expected from round window entry alone, undoubtedly contribute to the vestibulotoxic effects of the drug. Furthermore, calculations of gentamicin distribution following targeted applications to the RW or stapes are more consistent with cochleotoxicity depending on the gentamicin concentration in scala vestibuli rather than that in scala tympani.

  11. Combinatorial study of ceramic tape-casting slurries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhifu; Wang, Yiling; Li, Yongxiang

    2012-03-12

    Ceramic tape-casting slurries are complex systems composed of ceramic powder, solvent, and a number of organic components. Conventionally, the development of ceramic tape-casting slurries is time-consuming and of low efficiency. In this work, combinatorial approaches were applied to screen the ethanol and ethyl-acetate binary solvent based slurry for ceramic green tape-casting. The combinatorial libraries were designed considering the variation of the amount of PVB (Poly vinyl-butyral) binder, polyethylene-400, and butyl-benzyl-phthalate plasticizers, and glyceryl triacetate dispersant. A parallel magnetic stirring process was used to make the combinatorial slurry library. The properties mapping of the slurry library was obtained by investigating the sedimentation and rheological characteristics of the slurries. The slurry composition was refined by scaling up the experiments and comparing the microstructure, mechanical property, and sintering behavior of green tapes made from the selected slurries. Finally, a kind of ethanol-ethyl acetate binary solvent based slurry system suitable for making X7R dielectric ceramic green tapes was achieved.

  12. Cadmium availability and uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in soils applied with wheat straw or composted pig manure.

    PubMed

    Shan, Hong; Su, Shiming; Liu, Rongle; Li, Shutian

    2016-08-01

    Soil cadmium (Cd) availability and uptake by cherry-red radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in Cd-contaminated soils after addition with wheat straw or composted pig manure were studied. The results indicated that wheat straw application promoted radish growth until the second harvest, while pig manure application improved radish biomass in Acid Ferralsols regardless of harvesting seasons. Application with pig manure might be more effective in lowering the Cd uptake by radish than wheat straw. Especially when pig manure of 11.9 g TOC kg(-1) amended into Acid Ferralsols, Cd contents in leaves and roots of radish decreased by 89.2 and 95.7 % at the second harvest, respectively. The changes in Cd fractions distribution in soils after application were contributed to the decline of Cd availability. Furthermore, significantly negative linear correlation (P < 0.05) between the ratio of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) in soils and exchangeable Cd was also observed. However, the significantly negative relationship (P < 0.01) between soil pH and exchangeable Cd was merely found in pig manure-treated Acid Ferralsols. The increases in HA/FA ratio or pH values in soils after adding organic materials were also responsible for the decrease of Cd availability in soils and uptake by radish. Thus, it is recommended to stabilize soil Cd and reducing plant uptake by application with composted manure without or slightly contaminated with metals.

  13. Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rados, Novica

    Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids

  14. New slurry pumps in China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Wang, W.; Shi, Z.

    1998-07-01

    Wet parts of centrifugal slurry pumps are naturally subjected to wear, but local wear in pumps could be avoided, at least partly. Through studying the wear phenomenon of slurry pumps in industrial applications, a series of much more advanced slurry pumps was developed in China. Laboratory tests and industrial applications show that the new pumps are high in efficiency when transporting slurries, and uniform wear can be expected from them.

  15. New slurry pumps in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhengwang Li; Wenlie Wang; Zhongyin Shi

    1998-04-01

    Wet parts of centrifugal slurry pumps are naturally subjected to wear, but local wear in pumps could be avoided, at least partly. Through studying the wear phenomenon of slurry pumps in industrial applications, a series of much more advanced slurry pumps was developed in China. Laboratory tests and industrial applications show that the new pumps are high in efficiency when transporting slurries, and uniform wear can be expected from them.

  16. Method and apparatus for in-situ drying investigation and optimization of slurry drying methodology

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Howe, Jane Y.; Kiggans, Jr, James O.; Sabau, Adrian S.; Wood, III, David L.; Kalnaus, Sergiy

    2016-05-10

    A method of drying casted slurries that includes calculating drying conditions from an experimental model for a cast slurry and forming a cast film. An infrared heating probe is positioned on one side of the casted slurry and a thermal probe is positioned on an opposing side of the casted slurry. The infrared heating probe may control the temperature of the casted slurry during drying. The casted slurry may be observed with an optical microscope, while applying the drying conditions from the experimental model. Observing the casted slurry includes detecting the incidence of micro-structural changes in the casted slurry during drying to determine if the drying conditions from the experimental model are optimal.

  17. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  18. Ammonia volatilization from field-applied animal slurry—the ALFAM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Søgaard, H. T.; Sommer, S. G.; Hutchings, N. J.; Huijsmans, J. F. M.; Bussink, D. W.; Nicholson, F.

    A statistical analysis of European ammonia (NH 3) volatilization data (from Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and UK) collated in a database produced a model that is supported by theoretical considerations of the effect of explanatory variables (see www.alfam.dk). Volatilization could be described mathematically by a Michaelis-Menten-type equation, with the loss rates as the response variable ( R2=80%). Variables significantly affecting NH 3 volatilization throughout Europe are soil water content, air temperature, wind speed, slurry type, dry matter content of slurry, total ammoniacal nitrogen content of slurry (TAN=NH 3+NH 4+), application method and rate, slurry incorporation and measuring technique. The model was used to estimate the NH 3 volatilization from typical cattle and pig slurries applied in Italy, England, Norway and Denmark. Climate observations from the following three periods in year 2000 were used as input: (1) 1 week before the normal sowing time for spring crops, (2) mid-season, and (3) 1 week after harvesting. There was little difference in the total NH 3 volatilization from slurry applied in the three periods, principally due to interactions between soil water content and air temperature . The time from application to when 10% of the applied TAN was lost was similar for countries in the south and north of Europe, primarily due to the low wind speeds counteracting the effect of higher air temperatures at the southern location. To reduce NH 3 volatilization, the slurry should be incorporated faster in mid- and late-season than in the early spring, due to increasing air temperatures during the growing season.

  19. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurries.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Heidi H; Enemark, Heidi L; Olsen, Annette; Amin, M G Mostofa; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-09-01

    The potential for the transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a 4-week period, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method, although recovery rates were low (<1%). Soil columns with injected liquid slurry leached 73 and 90% more oocysts compared to columns with injected and surface-applied raw slurries, respectively. Among leachate samples containing oocysts, 44/72 samples yielded viable oocysts as determined by a dye permeability assay (DAPI [4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole]/propidium iodide) with the majority (41%) of viable oocysts found in leachate from soil columns with added liquid slurry. The number of viable oocysts was positively correlated (r = 0.63) with the total number of oocysts found. Destructively sampling of the soil columns showed that type of slurry and irrigation played a role in the vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespective of the irrigation status. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether the application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for groundwater contamination compared to application of raw slurry.

  20. Persistence and Leaching Potential of Microorganisms and Mineral N in Animal Manure Applied to Intact Soil Columns

    PubMed Central

    Forslund, Anita; Bui, Xuan Thanh; Juhler, René K.; Petersen, Søren O.; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the leaching potentials of a phage (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B) and two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, in a liquid fraction of raw pig slurry obtained by solid-liquid separation of this slurry and in this liquid fraction after ozonation, when applied to intact soil columns by subsurface injection. We also compared leaching potentials of surface-applied and subsurface-injected raw slurry. The columns were exposed to irrigation events (3.5-h period at 10 mm h−1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation with collection of leachate. By the end of incubation, the distribution and survival of microorganisms in the soil of each treatment and in nonirrigated columns with injected raw slurry or liquid fraction were determined. E. coli in the leachates was quantified by both plate counts and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid fraction than for raw slurry after the four leaching events. The liquid fraction also resulted in more leaching of all contaminants except Enterococcus species than did raw slurry. Ozonation reduced E. coli leaching only. Injection enhanced the leaching potential of the microorganisms investigated compared to surface application, probably because of a better survival with subsurface injection and a shorter leaching path. PMID:23124240

  1. System and method for slurry handling

    DOEpatents

    Steele, Raymond Douglas; Oppenheim, Judith Pauline

    2015-12-29

    A system includes a slurry depressurizing system that includes a liquid expansion system configured to continuously receive a slurry at a first pressure and continuously discharge the slurry at a second pressure. For example, the slurry depressurizing system may include an expansion turbine to expand the slurry from the first pressure to the second pressure.

  2. Rheological characterization of hydraulic fracturing slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, S.N. . Research and Engineering Dept.)

    1993-05-01

    Few studies have dealt with the flow behavior of concentrated suspensions or slurries prepared with non-Newtonian carrier fluids. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation is to present experimental results obtained by pumping various hydraulic fracturing slurries into a fracture model and gathering data on differential pressure vs. flow rate. Several concentrations of hydroxypropyl guard (HPG), a wide range of proppant concentrations, and three test temperatures were studies. The effects of such variables as polymer gelling-agent concentration, proppant concentration, test temperature, and fracture-flow shear rate on the rheological properties of slurries were investigated. The correlations for predicting the relative slurry viscosity for these HPG fluids are presented. Substantial increases in viscosity of fracturing gels were observed, and results are discussed in light of several affecting variables. Results also are compared with those available for Newtonian and non-Newtonian concentrated suspensions. Applications of these correlations to estimate the hindered particle-settling velocity in the fracture caused by the presence of surrounding particles also is discussed. The correlations presented can easily be included in any currently available 2D or 3D fracture-design simulators; thus, the information can be applied directly to predict fracture geometry and extension.

  3. INEZ, KENTUCKY COAL SLURRY SPILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    On October 11th, 2000, a breach of a coal slurry impoundment released approximately 210 million gallons of coal slurry ( a mixture of fine coal particles, silt, clay, sand and water) into the Big Andy Branch, Wolf Creek, and Coldwater Fork. Approximately 75 river miles were affec...

  4. Effects of dairy slurry on silage fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry to growing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Our objectives were to determine the effects of applying dairy slurry on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa balage. Dairy sl...

  5. Rheometry of natural sediment slurries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, Jon J.; ,

    1993-01-01

    Recent experimental analyses of natural sediment slurries yield diverse results yet exhibit broad commonality of rheological responses under a range of conditions and shear rates. Results show that the relation between shear stress and shear rate is primarily nonlinear, that the relation can display marked hysteresis, that minimum shear stress can occur following yield, that physical properties of slurries are extremely sensitive to sediment concentration, and the concept of slurry yield strength is still debated. New rheometric analyses have probed viscoelastic behavior of sediment slurries. Results show that slurries composed of particles ??? 125 ?? m exhibit viscoelastic responses, and that shear stresses are relaxed over a range of time scales rather than by a single response time.

  6. DEHYDRATION OF DEUTERIUM OXIDE SLURRIES

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, C.F.

    1959-03-10

    A method is presented for recovering heavy water from uranium oxide-- heavy water slurries. The method consists in saturating such slurries with a potassium nitrate-sodium nitrate salt mixture and then allowing the self-heat of the slurry to raise its temperature to a point slightly in excess of 100 deg C, thus effecting complete evaporation of the free heavy water from the slurry. The temperature of the slurry is then allowed to reach 300 to 900 deg C causing fusion of the salt mixture and expulsion of the water of hydration. The uranium may be recovered from the fused salt mixture by treatment with water to leach the soluble salts away from the uranium-containing residue.

  7. Characterization of odor released during handling of swine slurry: Part II. Effect of production type, storage and physicochemical characteristics of the slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanes-Vidal, V.; Hansen, M. N.; Adamsen, A. P. S.; Feilberg, A.; Petersen, S. O.; Jensen, B. B.

    The quality of rural life can be affected by offensive odors released from animal buildings and storage units. The objectives of this study were to compare the concentrations of odor and odorants above different types of stirred swine slurry to analyze the relationships between concentrations of odor (and odorants) and physicochemical characteristics of the slurry (i.e. pH, temperature, dry matter, volatile solids, and concentration of 22 chemical compounds); and to propose predictive models for the odor concentration (OC) based on these physicochemical characteristics (solely and in combination with concentrations of specific odorants in the air above the slurries). The study comprised data on concentrations of odor and odorants in the air above slurry samples (fresh and/or stored) collected from production units with farrowing sows, finishing swines, or weaning pigs at eight swine operations ( N = 48). OC measured in the air above stirred swine slurry samples were not significantly different among production types or storage times. The physicochemical characteristics of the slurries were not useful for predicting OC or concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (or organic sulfides) above the slurry, but were related to concentrations of other emitted gases such as phenols and indoles ( r2 = 0.65-0.79, p <0.05), ammonia ( r2 = 0.86, p < 0.05) and carboxylic acids ( r2 = 0.23-0.59, p <0.05). There was good precision of predictive models of OC based on selected slurry characteristics (i.e. pH, dry matter, nitrogen content, sulfur content or concentrations of individual aromatic compounds and carboxylic acids) together with concentrations of specific odorants in the air (e.g. hydrogen sulfide) ( r2 between 0.70 and 0.92). This study suggests that predictive models could be useful for evaluating odor nuisance potentials of swine slurry during handling.

  8. Antimicrobial reduction measures applied in Danish pig herds following the introduction of the "Yellow Card" antimicrobial scheme.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Nana; Diness, Line Hummelmose; Fertner, Mette; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne; Stege, Helle

    2017-03-01

    Following introduction of the antimicrobial restrictive "Yellow Card Scheme" in summer 2010, a rapid decrease in the Danish national pig antimicrobial consumption was observed. The aims of this study were to (i) investigate which measures had been implemented to reduce the antimicrobial consumption according to farmers and veterinarians and (ii) where possible, investigate if said measures were reflected in the herds' antimicrobial purchase data. Based on national register data from VetStat and the Central Husbandry Register, the study population was selected among Danish pig herds which had decreased their annual antimicrobial consumption with ≥10% following the introduction of the Yellow Card Scheme comparing June 1, 2009-May 31, 2010 to June 1, 2010-May 31, 2011. Subsequently, questionnaire surveys of both farmers and veterinarians were carried out, resulting in responses from 179 farmers accounting for 202 herds (response ratio: 83%) and 58 veterinarians accounting for 140 herds. Prior to the introduction of the Yellow Card Scheme, 24% of the participating herds had an antimicrobial consumption for one or more age groups which exceeded the Yellow Card Scheme threshold values on antimicrobial consumption, while 50% of the herds had an antimicrobial consumption below the national average. The measures most frequently stated as having contributed to the antimicrobial reduction were increased use of vaccines (52% of farmers; 35% of the veterinarians), less use of group medication (44% of the farmers; 58% of the veterinarians) and staff education (22% of the farmers; 26% of the veterinarians). Reduced usage of antimicrobials for oral use accounted for 89% of the total reduction in antimicrobial use. Among the farmers, 13% also stated that change in choice of product had contributed to reducing their antimicrobial consumption. However, when analyzing purchase data, no general trend was seen towards a larger purchase of products with a higher registered dosage per

  9. Coal slurry pipelining

    SciTech Connect

    Chassagne, P.J.

    1980-02-05

    A method is disclosed for preparing industrial ores, e.g., coal, for pipelining and pipelining the ores to a site for subsequent processing or use. Ore from a mine is screened into two fractions, one having a large size particle distribution and one having a small size particle distribution, each fraction retaining both the ore and the refuse. The large size particle fraction is cleaned of refuse and the clean ore therefrom crushed to a size distribution of the smaller size or small size ore fraction. The separated refuse from the large size particle fraction is ground to provide superfines to the extent required for the proper particle size distribution for pipelining. The ore and superfine refuse are combined in a water slurry for pipelining. After pipelining the ore, the ore is cleaned and dewatered conveniently as known in the art for fine ore. The resulting ore may then be stockpiled or directly used.

  10. Manifold Coal-Slurry Transport System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Estus, J. M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    Feeding several slurry pipes into main pipeline reduces congestion in coal mines. System based on manifold concept: feeder pipelines from each working entry joined to main pipeline that carries coal slurry out of panel and onto surface. Manifold concept makes coal-slurry haulage much simpler than existing slurry systems.

  11. NACA Research on Slurry Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, M L; Olson, W T; Barnett, H C; Breitwieser, R

    1958-01-01

    An extensive program was conducted to investigate the use of concentrated slurries of boron and magnesium in liquid hydrocarbon as fuels for afterburners and ramjet engines. Analytical calculations indicated that magnesium fuel would give greater thrust and that boron fuel would give greater range than are obtainable from jet hydrocarbon fuel alone. It was hoped that the use of these solid elements in slurry form would permit the improvement to be obtained without requiring unconventional fuel systems or combustors. Small ramjet vehicles fueled with magnesium slurry were flown successfully, but the test flights indicated that further improvement of combustors and fuel systems was needed.

  12. Tribological Properties Of Coal Slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Schrubens, Dale L.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes study of tribological properties of coal/methanol slurries with pin-on-disk tribometer. Coefficients of friction, rates of wear of steel pin, and morphological studies of worn surfaces conducted on pins and disks of AISI 440C HT stainless steel and M-50 tool steel, both used as bearing steels. Coal slurries considered as replacement fuels in terrestrial oil-burning facilities and possible fuels for future aircraft turbine engines. Rates of wear of metallic components through which slurries flow limit such practical applications.

  13. Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactor modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Harke, F.W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports experimental and theoretical results on hydrodynamic studies. The experiments were conducted in a hot-pressurized Slurry-Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). It includes experimental results of Drakeol-10 oil/nitrogen/glass beads hydrodynamic study and the development of an ultrasonic technique for measuring solids concentration. A model to describe the flow behavior in reactors was developed. The hydrodynamic properties in a 10.16 cm diameter bubble column with a perforated-plate gas distributor were studied at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.36 MPa, and at temperatures from 20 to 200{degrees}C, using a dual hot-wire probe with nitrogen, glass beads, and Drakeol-10 oil as the gas, solid, and liquid phase, respectively. It was found that the addition of 20 oil wt% glass beads in the system has a slight effect on the average gas holdup and bubble size. A well-posed three-dimensional model for bed dynamics was developed from an ill-posed model. The new model has computed solid holdup distributions consistent with experimental observations with no artificial {open_quotes}fountain{close_quotes} as predicted by the earlier model. The model can be applied to a variety of multiphase flows of practical interest. An ultrasonic technique is being developed to measure solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 180 {degrees}C and 0.1 MPa. The data show that both the sound speed and attenuation are well-defined functions of both the solid and gas concentrations in the slurries. The results suggest possibilities to directly measure solids concentration during the operation of an autoclave reactor containing molten wax.

  14. Technical Report on NETL's Non Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Workshop: A path forward to understanding non-Newtonian multiphase slurry flows

    SciTech Connect

    Edited by Guenther, Chris; Garg, Rahul

    2013-08-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.

  15. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOEpatents

    Platt, Robert J.; Shadbolt, Edward A.

    1983-01-01

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces.

  16. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOEpatents

    Platt, R.J.; Shadbolt, E.A.

    1983-11-08

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces. 5 figs.

  17. Medical ice slurry production device

    DOEpatents

    Kasza, Kenneth E.; Oras, John; Son, HyunJin

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  18. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.; Anderson, M.S.; Van Essen, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses.

  19. Narrow grass hedge effects on nutrient transport following swine slurry application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of a narrow grass hedge in reducing runoff nutrient loads following swine slurry application was examined in this study. Slurry was applied to 0.75-m wide by 4.0-m long plots established on an Aksarben silty clay loam soil located in southeast Nebraska. Manure treatments consisted ...

  20. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, Robert E.; Basic, Steven L.; Smith, Russel M.

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  1. Fate and transport of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in soil and runoff following land application of swine manure slurry.

    PubMed

    Joy, Stacey R; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Snow, Daniel D; Gilley, John E; Woodbury, Bryan L; Parker, David B; Marx, David B; Li, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Due to the use of antimicrobials in livestock production, residual antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) could enter the environment following the land application of animal wastes and could further contaminate surface and groundwater. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various manure land application methods on the fate and transport of antimicrobials and ARGs in soil and runoff following land application of swine manure slurry. Swine manure slurries were obtained from facilities housing pigs that were fed chlortetracyline, tylosin or bacitracin and were land applied via broadcast, incorporation, and injection methods. Three rainfall simulation tests were then performed on amended and control plots. Results show that land application methods had no statistically significant effect on the aqueous concentrations of antimicrobials in runoff. However, among the three application methods tested broadcast resulted in the highest total mass loading of antimicrobials in runoff from the three rainfall simulation tests. The aqueous concentrations of chlortetracyline and tylosin in runoff decreased in consecutive rainfall events, although the trend was only statistically significant for tylosin. For ARGs, broadcast resulted in significantly higher erm genes in runoff than did incorporation and injection methods. In soil, the effects of land application methods on the fate of antimicrobials in top soil were compound specific. No clear trend was observed in the ARG levels in soil, likely because different host cells may respond differently to the soil environments created by various land application methods.

  2. Development of biodiesel slurry fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Suppes, G.J.; Ng, C.; Srinivasan, B.

    1994-12-31

    As an alternative to diesel, the DOE has recently supported research which developed coal-water-slurries to the extent that they have demonstrated in low-, medium-, and high-speed diesel engines. Coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuels would be an American-made alternative to diesel distilled from imported crude oil. Such alternatives to imported oil are particularly desirable as 1994 crude oil imports will most likely exceed those disastrously high levels of the early 1980`s which led to a major recession. This paper is on the testing and development of biodiesel slurry fuels (e.g. corn flour and water) as an alternative to diesel for use in a modified diesel engine. While the economics for CWS`s are not favorable until bulk, tax-free diesel prices exceed $0.80 per gallon, a preliminary analysis of biodiesel slurries shows economic viability at today`s diesel prices. This paper presents advantages of biodiesel slurries over CWS`s due to different ash compositions and economics specific to applications on farm tractors. Engine modifications, fuel costs, fuel processing, fuel performance, and on-going research are discussed.

  3. Distribution of phosphorus in manure slurry and its infiltration after application to soils.

    PubMed

    Vadas, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    Computer models help identify agricultural areas where P transport potential is high, but commonly used models do not simulate surface application of manures and P transport from manures to runoff. As part of an effort to model such P transport, we conducted manure slurry separation and soil infiltration experiments to determine how much slurry P infiltrates into soil after application but before rain, thus becoming less available to runoff. We applied dairy and swine slurry to soil columns and after both 24 and 96 h analyzed solids remaining on the soil surface for dry matter, total phosphorus (TP), and water-extractable inorganic (WEIP) and organic (WEOP) phosphorus. We analyzed underlying soils for Mehlich-3 and water-extractable P. We also conducted slurry separation experiments by sieving, centrifuging, and suction-filtering to determine which method could easily estimate slurry P infiltration into soils. About 20% of slurry solids and 40 to 65% of slurry TP and WEIP infiltrated into soil after application, rendering this P less available to transport in runoff. Slurry separation by suction-filtering through a screen with 0.75-mm-diameter openings was the best method to estimate this slurry P infiltration. Measured quantities of manure WEOP changed too much during experiments to estimate WEOP infiltration into soil or what separation method can approximate infiltration. Applying slurries to soils always increased soil P in the top 0 to 1 cm of soil, frequently in the 1- to 2-cm depth of soil, but rarely below 2 cm. Future research should use soils with coarser texture or large macropores, and slurry with low dry matter content (1-2%).

  4. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOEpatents

    Tao, John C.

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  5. Adaption of the temporal correlation coefficient calculation for temporal networks (applied to a real-world pig trade network).

    PubMed

    Büttner, Kathrin; Salau, Jennifer; Krieter, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The average topological overlap of two graphs of two consecutive time steps measures the amount of changes in the edge configuration between the two snapshots. This value has to be zero if the edge configuration changes completely and one if the two consecutive graphs are identical. Current methods depend on the number of nodes in the network or on the maximal number of connected nodes in the consecutive time steps. In the first case, this methodology breaks down if there are nodes with no edges. In the second case, it fails if the maximal number of active nodes is larger than the maximal number of connected nodes. In the following, an adaption of the calculation of the temporal correlation coefficient and of the topological overlap of the graph between two consecutive time steps is presented, which shows the expected behaviour mentioned above. The newly proposed adaption uses the maximal number of active nodes, i.e. the number of nodes with at least one edge, for the calculation of the topological overlap. The three methods were compared with the help of vivid example networks to reveal the differences between the proposed notations. Furthermore, these three calculation methods were applied to a real-world network of animal movements in order to detect influences of the network structure on the outcome of the different methods.

  6. Microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liandong; Yan, Cheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-11-01

    Microalgal growth requires a substantial amount of chemical fertilizers. An alternative to the utilization of fertilizer is to apply biogas slurry produced through anaerobic digestion to cultivate microalgae for the production of biofuels. Plenty of studies have suggested that anaerobic digestate containing high nutrient contents is a potentially feasible nutrient source to culture microalgae. However, current literature indicates a lack of review available regarding microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for the production of biofuels. To help fill this gap, this review highlights the integration of digestate nutrient management with microalgal production. It first unveils the current status of microalgal production, providing basic background to the topic. Subsequently, microalgal cultivation technologies using biogas slurry are discussed in detail. A scale-up scheme for simultaneous biogas upgrade and digestate application through microalgal cultivation is then proposed. Afterwards, several uncertainties that might affect this practice are explored. Finally, concluding remarks are put forward.

  7. Foodborne zoonoses due to meat: a quantitative approach for a comparative risk assessment applied to pig slaughtering in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fosse, Julien; Seegers, Henri; Magras, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Foodborne zoonoses have a major health impact in industrialised countries. New European food safety regulations were issued to apply risk analysis to the food chain. The severity of foodborne zoonoses and the exposure of humans to biological hazards transmitted by food must be assessed. For meat, inspection at the slaughterhouse is historically the main means of control to protect consumers. However, the levels of detection of biological hazards during meat inspection have not been established in quantitative terms yet. Pork is the most frequently consumed meat in Europe. The aim of this study was to provide elements for quantifying levels of risk for pork consumers and lack of detection by meat inspection. Information concerning hazard identification and characterisation was obtained by the compilation and statistical analysis of data from 440 literature references. The incidence and severity of human cases due to pork consumption in Europe were assessed in order to calculate risk scores. A ratio of non-control was calculated for each biological hazard identified as currently established in Europe, i.e. the incidence of human cases divided by the prevalence of hazards on pork. Salmonella enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica and Campylobacter spp. were characterised by high incidence rates. Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum and Mycobacterium spp. showed the highest severity scores. The three main high risk hazards involved in foodborne infections, Y. enterocolitica, S. enterica and Campylobacter spp. are characterised by high non-control ratios and cannot be detected by macroscopic examination of carcasses. New means of hazard control are needed to complement the classical macroscopic examination.

  8. Characterization of Flow Behavior of Semi-Solid Slurries with Low Solid Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chucheep, Thiensak; Wannasin, Jessada; Canyook, Rungsinee; Rattanochaikul, Tanate; Janudom, Somjai; Wisutmethangoon, Sirikul; Flemings, Merton C.

    2013-10-01

    Semi-solid slurry casting is a metal-forming process that involves transforming liquid metal into slurry having a low solid fraction and then forming the slurry into solid parts. To successfully apply this slurry-forming process, it is necessary to fully understand the flow behavior of semi-solid slurries. This present work applied the rapid quenching method and the modified gravity fluidity casting to investigate the flow behavior, which involves characterizations of the initial solid fraction, fluidity, and microstructure of semi-solid slurries. Three commercial aluminum alloys were used in this study: 383 (Al-Si11Cu), 356 (Al-Si7MgFe), and 7075 (Al-Zn6MgCu) alloys. The results show that the initial solid fractions can be controlled by varying the rheocasting time. The rapid quenching mold can be used to determine the initial solid fractions. In this method, it is important to apply the correcting procedure to account for growth during quenching and to include all the solid phases. Results from the fluidity study of semi-solid slurries show that the fluidity decreases as the initial solid fraction increases. The decrease is relatively rapid near the low end of the initial solid fraction curves, but is quite slow near the high end of the curves. All the three alloys follow this trend. The results also demonstrate that the slurries that contain high solid fractions of up to 30 pct can still flow well. The microstructure characterization results show that the solid particles in the slurries flow uniformly in the channel. A uniform and fine microstructure with limited phase segregation is observed in the slurry cast samples.

  9. Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Balsavich, John

    1991-01-01

    A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

  10. Microparticulate ICE slurry for renal hypothermia: laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in a porcine model.

    SciTech Connect

    Shikanov, S; Wille, M; Large, M; Razmaria, A; Lifshitz, D; Chang, A; Wu, Y; Kasza, K; Shalhav, A

    2010-10-01

    Previously, we described the feasibility of renal hypothermia using microparticulate ice slurry during laparoscopy. In the present study, we compared surface cooling with the ice slurry versus near-frozen saline or warm ischemia (WI) during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in a porcine model. We used a single-kidney porcine model. Animals in 5 equal groups (n = 6 each) underwent right laparoscopic complete nephrectomy. In Phase I, left LPN was performed under 90 minutes of ischemia and 90-minute renal cooling with either slurry (Slurry group 1) or saline (Saline group 1). No cooling was applied in the WI group. In Phase II, to simulate more extreme condition, ischemia time was extended to 120 minutes and cooling shortened to 10 minutes (Slurry group 2 and Saline group 2). The study endpoints were renal and core temperature during the surgery and serum creatinine at baseline and days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after the procedure. The ice slurry was easily produced and delivered. Nadir renal temperature (mean {+-} SD) was 8 {+-} 4 C in Slurry group 1 vs. 22.5 {+-} 3 C in Saline group 1 (P < .0001). Renal rewarming to 30 C occurred after 61 {+-} 7 minutes in Slurry group 2 vs. 24 {+-} 6 minutes in Saline group 2 (P < .0001). Core temperature decreased on average to 35 C in the Saline groups compared with 37 C in the Slurry groups (P < .0001). Serum creatinine did not differ between the Saline and Slurry groups in Phases I and II at any time point. Ice slurry provides superior renal cooling compared with near-frozen saline during LPN without associated core hypothermia.

  11. Slurry pumping: Pump performance prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Taccani, R.; Pediroda, V.; Reini, M.; Giadrossi, A.

    2000-07-01

    Centrifugal pumps are being used increasingly for transportation of slurries through pipelines. To design a slurry handling system it is essential to have a knowledge of the effects of suspended solids on the pump performance. A new test loop has been realized in the laboratory of the Energetics Department of the University of Trieste which allows pump performance to be determined at various pump speeds, with many different mixture concentrations and rheologies. The pump test rig consists of 150 mm diameter pipe with facilities for measuring suction and discharge pressure, flowrate, pump input power and speed, slurry density and temperature. In particular flowrate is measured by diverting flow into a weighing tank and timing a specified volume of slurry. An automatic PC based data acquisition system has been implemented. Preliminary tests with clear water show that performance can be measured with good repeatability and accuracy. The new test rig is used to verify the range of validity of the correlations to predict pump performance, available in literature and of that proposed by authors. This correlation, based on a Neural Network and not on a predefined analytical expression, can be easily improved with new experimental data.

  12. Tribological properties of coal slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Schrubens, Dale L.

    1987-01-01

    A pin-on-disk tribometer was used to study the tribological properties of methyl alcohol-coal slurries. Friction coefficients, steel pin wear rates and wear surface morphological studies were conducted on AISI 440C HT and M-50 bearing steels which were slid dry and in solutions of methyl alcohol, methyl alcohol-fine coal particles, and methyl alcohol-fine coal particles-flocking additive. The latter was an oil derived from coal and originally intended to be added to the coal slurry to improve the sedimentation and rheology properties. The results of this study indicated that the addition of the flocking additive to the coal slurry markedly improved the tribological properties, especially wear. In addition, the type of steel was found to be very important in determining the type of wear that took place. Cracks and pits were found on the M-50 steel pin wear surfaces that slid in the coal slurries while 440C HT steel pins showed none.

  13. Odor characterization from barns and slurry treatment facilities at a commercial swine facility in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Lee, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Bo-Won; Cho, Sung-Back; Hwang, Ok-Hwa; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, emission characteristics of major odorants in pig confinement facilities were investigated through comparative analysis between odorant composition and odor intensity. Odorant samples in ambient air were collected from five different paired sampling sites: (1) in- and outside of windowless pig barn, (2) in- and outside of open pig barn, (3) before/after slurry treatment (via liquid fertilization), (4) before/after composting, and (5) two reference background sites on a pig confinement facility. A total of 47 compounds consisting of key offensive odorants (such as reduced sulfur and volatile organic compounds) were measured from each selected site. When the results are compared in terms of odor intensity, a list of odorants (sulfur compounds, volatile fatty acids, phenols, and indoles) were generally seen at enhanced levels on most sites. In two types of pig barn facilities (windowless ('W') and open ('O')), butyric and valeric acid were the predominant species. The removal efficiency of odorants was quite different between the two slurry treatment approaches of composting and liquid fertilization. Although the efficiencies of odor removal in the former were not sufficient, that of the latter was fairly significant in terms of odor intensity. However, some odorants like hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, p-cresol, and butyric acid were still retained above the odor threshold level. Accordingly, odorant emissions from animal housing facilities can be characterized most effectively by key odorants such as volatile fatty acids and reduced sulfur species.

  14. The effect of long or chopped straw on pig behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lahrmann, H P; Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H; Nielsen, M B F; D'Eath, R B

    2015-05-01

    In the EU, pigs must have permanent access to manipulable materials such as straw, rope, wood, etc. Long straw can fulfil this function, but can increase labour requirements for cleaning pens, and result in problems with blocked slatted floors and slurry systems. Chopped straw might be more practical, but what is the effect on pigs' behaviour of using chopped straw instead of long straw? Commercial pigs in 1/3 slatted, 2/3 solid pens of 15 pigs were provided with either 100 g/pig per day of long straw (20 pens) or of chopped straw (19 pens). Behavioural observations were made of three focal pigs per pen (one from each of small, medium and large weight tertiles) for one full day between 0600 and 2300 h at each of ~40 and ~80 kg. The time spent rooting/investigating overall (709 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 533 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), or directed to the straw/solid floor (497 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 343 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), was not affected by straw length but reduced with age. Time spent investigating other pigs (83 s/pig per hour at 40 kg), the slatted floor (57 s/pig per hour) or pen fixtures (21 s/pig per hour) was not affected by age or straw length. Aggressive behaviour was infrequent, but lasted about twice as long in pens with chopped straw (2.3 s/pig per hour at 40 kg) compared with pens with long straw (1.0 s/pig per hour at 40 kg, P=0.060). There were no significant effects of straw length on tail or ear lesions, but shoulders were significantly more likely to have minor scratches with chopped straw (P=0.031), which may reflect the higher levels of aggression. Smaller pigs showed more rooting/investigatory behaviour, and in particular directed towards the straw/solid floor and the slatted floor than their larger pen-mates. Females exhibited more straw and pen fixture-directed behaviour than males. There were no effects of pig size or sex on behaviour directed towards other pigs. In summary, pigs spent similar amounts of time interacting with straw

  15. Crop N and P utilization following application of slurry from swine fed traditional or low phytate corn diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field application of swine (Sus scrofa) slurry provides essential nutrients for crop production. The N:P ratio for slurry is lower than needed by most crops resulting in P accumulation when applied at N rates required for crop growth. Low phytate corn (Zea mays L.) (LPC) contains similar amounts of ...

  16. Gaseous emissions from the storage of untreated slurries and the fractions obtained after mechanical separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinuccio, E.; Berg, W.; Balsari, P.

    A laboratory-scale study was set up to investigate ammonia (NH 3), nitrous oxide (N 2O), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and methane (CH 4) emissions during storage of untreated pig and cattle slurry and the fractions (solid and liquid) obtained by mechanical separation. The solid and liquid fractions were obtained from the same untreated slurry by means of a lab-scale mechanical separator. The manures were stored for a period of 30 days in open vessels (1500 cm 3 capacity) in two temperature-controlled rooms, which were kept at 5±0.5 and 25±0.2 °C. Gaseous emissions were determined using a dynamic chamber method and infrared photoacoustic detection (IPD). Over the storage period, gaseous emissions from pig manures were significantly ( P<0.05) higher than those from cattle manures. N 2O fluxes of up to 232 mg m -2 h -1 were measured, but from pig solid fraction only. Between 40.8% (from pig liquid fraction stored at 25 °C) and 3.60% (from untreated cattle slurry stored at 25 °C) of the initial nitrogen content of the manures was lost as NH 3. Over the 30-day-storage period, the predominant emission of carbon was in the CO 2 form. Total C-CH 4 losses, expressed as a percent of the carbon initially present in the volatile solids (C-VS), ranged from 0.60% to 12.8% for pig manures and from 0.23% to 1.56% for cattle manures. The mechanical separation of cattle slurry increased by up to 30% the emissions of CO 2 equivalents to the atmosphere, during the storage of the separated fractions, when compared with the slurries. Results indicated that NH 3, N 2O, CO 2 and CH 4 emissions were affected by the interaction between a number of variables, including storage temperature, chemical characteristics and type of manure. Results also indicated that mechanical separation does not reduce emissions, but has the potential to increase the emissions of CO 2 equivalents to the atmosphere during the storage of the separated fractions.

  17. Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, G.F.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Wang, Chi-Sheng.

    1991-01-01

    An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the nonabrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

  18. High temperature well bore cement slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Nahm, J.J.W.; Vinegar, H.J.; Karanikas, J.M.; Wyant, R.E.

    1993-07-13

    A low density well bore cement slurry composition is described suitable for cementing well bores with high reservoir temperatures comprising: (a) a high alumina cement in an amount of about 40 pounds per barrel of slurry or greater: (b) graphite in an amount greater than about one quarter, by volume, of the solids in the cement slurry; and (c) and a carrier fluid comprising drilling mud.

  19. BOILING SLURRY REACTOR AND METHOD FO CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Petrick, M.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1963-05-01

    The control of a boiling slurry nuclear reactor is described. The reactor consists of a vertical tube having an enlarged portion, a steam drum at the top of the vertical tube, and at least one downcomer connecting the steam drum and the bottom of the vertical tube, the reactor being filled with a slurry of fissionabie material in water of such concentration that the enlarged portion of the vertical tube contains a critical mass. The slurry boils in the vertical tube and circulates upwardly therein and downwardly in the downcomer. To control the reactor by controlling the circulation of the slurry, a gas is introduced into the downcomer. (AEC)

  20. [Effects of combined application of biogas slurry and chemical fertilizer on winter wheat rhizosphere soil microorganisms and enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Guan, Tao; Wang, Xiao-yu; Zhu, Yun-ji; Guo, Tian-cai

    2011-04-01

    This paper studied the effects of combined application of biogas slurry and chemical fertilizer under same N application rate on the quantities of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi as well as the activities of urease, protease and catalase in winter wheat rhizosphere soil. With the growth of winter wheat, the quantities of test microorganisms and the activities of urease and catalase showed a trend of increasing after an initial decrease, while the protease activity showed an S-type change. Combined application of biogas slurry and chemical fertilizer increased the quantities of test microorganisms significantly, and improved the activities of soil urease and protease. Applying 50% biogas slurry N as basal plus 50% chemical N as topdressing and applying 25% biogas slurry N as basal plus 75% chemical N as topdressing had the best effect, while applying single conventional urea or biogas slurry had the worst effect. At all growth stages, the activity of soil catalase was the highest in treatments 25% biogas slurry N as basal plus 75% chemical N as topdressing and single biogas slurry, but had greater differences in other treatments among the growth stages. The results suggested that proper biogas slurry application combined with chemical fertilization could increase the microbial quantity and enzyme activities in winter wheat rhizosphere soil.

  1. RPP-WTP Slurry Wear Evaluation: Slurry Abrasivity

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.

    2002-06-03

    This report deals with the task of evaluating wear in the cross-flow ultrafiltration system and specifically the need to define a representative slurry in order to obtain prototypic wear rates. The filtration system will treat many different wastes, but it is not practical to run a test for each one. This is especially true when considering that the planned period for testing is 2000 hours long and procurement of appropriate simulants is costly. Considering time and cost, one waste stream needs to be chosen to perform the wear test.

  2. Emission of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from pig fattening farms to surrounding areas.

    PubMed

    von Salviati, Christina; Laube, Henriette; Guerra, Beatriz; Roesler, Uwe; Friese, Anika

    2015-01-30

    The presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in livestock such as pigs has been known for some time. However, to date there is little information about the transmission of these resistant bacteria between pig farms and their surroundings. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore this topic by investigating seven German pig fattening farms. Samples from outside (including ground surfaces, ambient air, slurry and digestate from biogas plants) and, in parallel, from inside the pig barns (including pig feces, dust, barn air, flies and mice feces) were examined for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli and selected isolates were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. 14/17 (82.4%) slurry samples and three of four samples of digestate from biogas plants tested positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. In the vicinity of the pig barns these resistant bacteria were detected in 14/87 (16.1%) boot swabs taken from various ground surfaces and in 2/36 (6%) ambient air samples. Inside the pig barns, 6/63 (9.5%) barn air samples and a small proportion of flies and mice feces samples were ESBL/AmpC-positive. PFGE analysis proved fecal emission as well as a possible spread via flies, as identical ESBL-E. coli isolates were detected in slurry and on fertilized fields, as well as in flies and pooled feces from inside the barn and slurry. Contaminated slurry presented the major emission source for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in the pig fattening farms, but a spread via the airborne route or via different vectors also seems possible.

  3. Slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: determination of trace metals in mineral coal.

    PubMed

    Silva, M M; Goreti, M; Vale, R; Caramão, E B

    1999-12-06

    A procedure for lead, cadmium and copper determination in coal samples based on slurry sampling using an atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with a transversely heated graphite tube atomizer is proposed. The slurries were prepared by weighing the samples directly into autosampler cups (5-30 mg) and adding a 1.5 ml aliquot of a diluent mixture of 5% v/v HNO(3), 0.05% Triton X-100 and 10% ethanol. The slurry was homogenized by manual stirring before measurement. Slurry homogenization using ultrasonic agitation was also investigated for comparison. The effect of particle size and the use of different diluent compositions on the slurry preparation were investigated. The temperature programmes were optimized on the basis of pyrolysis and atomization curves. Absorbance characteristics with and without the addition of a palladium-magnesium modifier were compared. The use of 0.05% m/v Pd and 0.03% m/v Mg was found satisfactory for stabilizing Cd and Pb. The calibration was performed with aqueous standards. In addition, a conventional acid digestion procedure was applied to verify the efficiency of the slurry sampling. Better recoveries of the analytes were obtained when the particle size was reduced to <37 mum. Several certified coal reference materials (BCR Nos. 40, 180, and 181) were analyzed, and good agreement was obtained between the results from the proposed slurry sampling method and the certificate values.

  4. Removal of Suspended Solids in Anaerobically Digested Slurries of Livestock and Poultry Manure by Coagulation Using Different Dosages of Polyaluminum Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P.; Zhang, C. J.; Zhao, T. K.; Zhong, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, anaerobically digested slurries of livestock and poultry manure were pretreated by coagulation-sedimentation using an inorganic polymer coagulant, polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The effect of different PAC dosages on suspended solids (SS) removal and pH in the biogas slurries was assessed to provide reference values for reducing the organic load of biogas slurry in the coagulation-sedimentation process and explore the feasibility of reducing the difficulty in subsequent utilization or processing of biogas slurry. The results showed that for the pig slurry containing approximately 5000 mg/L SS, the removal rate of SS reached up to 81.6% with the coagulant dosage of 0.28 g/L PAC. For the chicken slurry containing approximately 2600 mg/L SS, the removal rate of SS was 30.2% with the coagulant dosage of 0.33 g/L PAC. The removal rate of SS in both slurries of livestock and poultry manure exhibited a downward trend with high PAC dosage. Therefore, there is a need to control the PAC dosage in practical use. The pH changed little in the two types of biogas slurries after treatment with different PAC dosages and both were in line with the standard values specified in the “Standards for Irrigation Water Quality”.

  5. Effect of temperature and water on gaseous emissions from soils treated with animal slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Maag, M.; Vinther, F.P.

    1999-08-01

    Microbial respiration and denitrification are greatly affected by abiotic factors, but they are difficult to assess in natural environments. Under controlled conditions the interactions between temperature and soil water content on microbial respiration, N{sub 2}O production, and denitrification in soil amended with animal slurries were studied. The effects of the abiotic factors on the biological processes were monitored for 8 wk in repacked soil cores amended with pig or cattle slurry. The soil cores were incubated at 43, 57, and 72% water-filled pore space (WFPS) and at 10, 15, and 20 C with or without addition of 10% acetylene. The amount of N{sub 2}O lost at 72% WFPS corresponded to 8 to 22% of the slurry's NH{sub 4}{sup +} content, but for only 0.01 to 1.2% at 43 to 57% WFPS. The amount of available C accounted for by denitrification was 8 to 16% of total respiration at 72% WFPS, but only 0.03 to 0.4% at 43 to 57% WFPS. Both N{sub 2}O production and denitrification peaked earlier in the cattle-slurry treated soil than in the pig-slurry treated soil, whereas the total N loss was greatest from the latter. Neither amendments nor soil water contents seemed to affect the Q{sub 10}-values for the CO{sub 2} production, resulting in values between 1.6 and 2.6. At 72% WFPS, N{sub 2}O production and denitrification had Q{sub 10}-values ranging between 3.3 and 5.4. High temperatures enhanced both aerobic respiration and denitrification, and aerobic respiration further enhanced denitrification by consuming oxygen, resulting in strong sensitivity of denitrification to temperature.

  6. Sodium cromoglycate on plasma protein exudation to topically-applied substance P in the tracheal airways of rats or guinea-pigs in vivo.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, S R; Coulson, F R; Bigg, C S

    2000-01-01

    Sodium cromoglycate (SCG) was examined against substance P(SP)-induced plasma protein exudation in the trachea of anaesthetized rats and guinea-pigs in vivo to determine whether SCG is a tachykinin receptor antagonist in the airways. A segment of trachea was prepared in situ for continuous perfusion with normal saline. Plasma-derived protein in the perfusion fluid (airway lumen) was increased after topical application of SP (1 microM, 5 min contact). In rats, the SP response was not attenuated by iv SCG but was inhibited (29%) by topical SCG under certain experimental conditions and using a high concentration of SCG (500 microM, 5 min contact, 30 min before SP and with SP). The NK(1)receptor antagonist, RP 67 580 (67 microM) abolished the SP response in rats. Sodium cromoglycate did not inhibit the SP response in guinea-pigs (same protocol as in rats). Thus, SCG attenuates plasma protein exudation (and presumably microvascular leak) induced by SP in rat tracheal airways but, if SCG is a tachykinin receptor (NK(1)) antagonist, it not only lacks potency but is species-selective, i.e. more effective in rats than in guinea-pigs.

  7. Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.

    2005-09-01

    A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours

  8. Seasonal persistence of faecal indicator organisms in soil following dairy slurry application to land by surface broadcasting and shallow injection.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Christopher J; Oliver, David M; Fish, Robert D; Bulmer, Nicholas M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Winter, Michael; Chadwick, David R

    2016-12-01

    Dairy farming generates large volumes of liquid manure (slurry), which is ultimately recycled to agricultural land as a valuable source of plant nutrients. Different methods of slurry application to land exist; some spread the slurry to the sward surface whereas others deliver the slurry under the sward and into the soil, thus helping to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of two slurry application methods (surface broadcast versus shallow injection) on the survival of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) delivered via dairy slurry to replicated grassland plots across contrasting seasons. A significant increase in FIO persistence (measured by the half-life of E. coli and intestinal enterococci) was observed when slurry was applied to grassland via shallow injection, and FIO decay rates were significantly higher for FIOs applied to grassland in spring relative to summer and autumn. Significant differences in the behaviour of E. coli and intestinal enterococci over time were also observed, with E. coli half-lives influenced more strongly by season of application relative to the intestinal enterococci population. While shallow injection of slurry can reduce agricultural GHG emissions to air it can also prolong the persistence of FIOs in soil, potentially increasing the risk of their subsequent transfer to water. Awareness of (and evidence for) the potential for 'pollution-swapping' is critical in order to guard against unintended environmental impacts of agricultural management decisions.

  9. Optimizing slurry separation in coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Shved; V.H. Fritsler; V.V. Bukhtiyarov

    2009-05-15

    In processing slurry with cationic polyelectrolytes, the final concentration of the suspended particulates in the water beyond the slurry tank in the coal-preparation shop is no more than 10 mg/l. Consequently, this water may be reused in industrial systems.

  10. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, John W.; Bonin, John H.; Daniel, Arnold D.

    1984-03-27

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

  11. Coal slurry rheology and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, A.W.; Cook, D.W.

    1987-09-01

    Three well-characterized, generic surfactants (nonionic, anionic and cationic) were used to modify coal/water mixtures by changing the interaction between several coals of different rank and the slurry liquor. Each experiment involved one coal and one surfactant per experiment. The analytical and rheological results from these experiments have been previously reported. The thrust of the current program is to extend the work to shear rates expected during atomization. The program consists of the following elements: (1) design, fabricate and test a helical screw rheometer capable of developing shear rates to 10,000 sec/sup -1/; (2) establish a capability to atomize slurries and monitor the spray using high speed photography; and (3) initiate a collaborative program with the Combustion Research Facility at Sandia National Laboratories Livermore for the purpose of analyzing particulates in atomized and burned sprays. The helical screw rheometer was designed using technology developed for polymer processing. The rheometer acts as an extrusion pump when there is discharge of fluid, but when flow is interrupted a differential pressure develops across the length of the screw. Using the mathematical analysis developed for screw pumps, the rotation rate of the screw may be translated to shear rate and the differential pressure translated to shear stress. 9 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Slurry-pressing consolidation of silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, William A.; Kiser, James D.; Freedman, Marc R.

    1988-01-01

    A baseline slurry-pressing method for a silicon nitride material is developed. The Si3N4 composition contained 5.8 wt percent SiO2 and 6.4 wt percent Y2O3. Slurry-pressing variables included volume percent solids, application of ultrasonic energy, and pH. Twenty vol percent slurry-pressed material was approximately 11 percent stronger than both 30 vol percent slurry-pressed and dry-pressed materials. The Student's t-test showed the difference to be significant at the 99 percent confidence level. Twenty volume percent (300 h) slurry-pressed test bars exhibited strengths as high as 980 MPa. Large, columnar beta-Si3N4 grains caused failure in the highest strength specimens. The improved strength correlated with better structural uniformity as determined by radiography, optical microscopy, and image analysis.

  13. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Raymond B; Healy, Mark G; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application.

  14. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Raymond B.; Healy, Mark G.; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called ‘pollution swapping’ potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application. PMID:26053923

  15. Effect of the generation and physical-chemical characterization of swine and dairy cattle slurries on treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Villamar, Cristina-Alejandra; Rodríguez, Diana-Catalina; López, Daniela; Peñuela, Gustavo; Vidal, Gladys

    2013-08-01

    Differences in biodegradability can affect the treatment of slurry before its use in spraying. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the generation and physical-chemical characterization of swine and dairy cattle slurries on different biological treatment technologies. This research involved monthly sampling (number/composition) for 1 year of 24 swine farms (16%), cattle farms (38%), and mixed swine and cattle farms (46%). The results obtained showed differences in feeding (3 l water kg(-1) food for cattle and 5 l water kg(-1) food for swine) and assimilation (0.6 kg food kg (-1) milk produced and 3 kg kg(-1) weight gain), which may influence the generation of slurry (57 l animal(-1)d(-1) in cattle and 31 l animal(-1) d(-1) in swine) and its composition. In addition, the composition of swine slurry [23 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) l(-1), 3 g total nitrogen (TN) l(-1)] is significantly different (P < 0.01) to cattle slurry (4 g COD l(-1), 0.3 g TN l(-1)). Finally, the composition and the S index applied to swine slurry [COD N(-1) = 8, biological oxygen demand (BOD)5 COD(-1) = 0.3, S index > 0] and cattle slurry (COD N(-1) = 16, BOD5 COD(-1) = 0.6, S index < 0) show a difference on the biodegradability of both slurries. Suitability of anaerobic and aerobic treatment was assessed based on the findings.

  16. Acidification of animal slurry--a review.

    PubMed

    Fangueiro, David; Hjorth, Maibritt; Gioelli, Fabrizio

    2015-02-01

    Ammonia emissions are a major problem associated with animal slurry management, and solutions to overcome this problem are required worldwide by farmers and stakeholders. An obvious way to minimize ammonia emissions from slurry is to decrease slurry pH by addition of acids or other substances. This solution has been used commonly since 2010 in countries such as Denmark, and its efficiency with regard to the minimization of NH3 emissions has been documented in many studies. Nevertheless, the impact of such treatment on other gaseous emissions during storage is not clear, since the studies performed so far have provided different scenarios. Similarly, the impact of the soil application of acidified slurry on plant production and diffuse pollution has been considered in several studies. Also, the impact of acidification upon combination with other slurry treatment technologies (e.g. mechanical separation, anaerobic digestion …) is important to consider. Here, a compilation and critical review of all these studies has been performed in order to fully understand the global impact of slurry acidification and assess the applicability of this treatment for slurry management.

  17. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOEpatents

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  18. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOEpatents

    Braunlin, Walter A.; Gorski, Alan; Jaehnig, Leo J.; Moskal, Clifford J.; Naylor, Joseph D.; Parimi, Krishnia; Ward, John V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  19. Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Berry, G.F.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Chisheng Wang.

    1993-03-16

    An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

  20. Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Gregory F.; Lyczkowski, Robert W.; Wang, Chi-Sheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

  1. The effect of cattle slurry electroflotation products as fertilizers on gaseous emissions and grassland yield.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, S; Merino, P; Lekuona, A; Pinto, M; González-Murua, C; Estavillo, J M

    2008-01-01

    The climatic conditions of the Basque Country (northern Spain) provide the favorable conditions for the growth of grasslands and the development of livestock enterprises. The intensification of the farms is leading to serious environmental risks due to the great generation of manures and slurries and their subsequent inefficient management. Their application involves N losses that can be pollutant. The environmental company ADE BIOTEC S.L. is developing the process called "electroflotation" with the aim of reducing the volume of slurries from intensive livestock farms. The process consists basically of an electrolysis of the slurry catalyzed by iron which leads to the flocculation of the solid particles, giving as a final result a solid and a liquid fraction. The objective of this work was to assess the usefulness of these two fractions as fertilizers. With this aim, the environmental risk of their application was determined regarding gaseous emissions to the atmosphere (i.e., of NO, NH(3), N(2)O, and CO(2)) and their fertilizer capacity was investigated by determining their effects on grassland yield and N uptake in comparison to the untreated slurry. The untreated slurry and the solid and the liquid fractions were all applied at a rate of 70 kg NH(4)(+)-N ha(-1). The application of the products of electroflotation did not affect N(2)O and CO(2) losses, being of the same magnitude as those caused by the application of the original slurry. However, after their application, a reduction in NH(3) volatilization losses was induced in the short term and a reduction in NO losses was caused in the long term. The solid and liquid fractions both increased biomass yield with respect to the untreated slurry. The solid fraction even induced a higher N uptake than the liquid fraction and the untreated slurry.

  2. Surface Modification of Nickel Foams by a Slurry Aluminizing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Omar, H.; Papanastasiou, N.; Psyllaki, P.; Stergioudi, F.; Tsipas, D. N.; Tsipas, S. A.; Michailidis, N.

    2010-01-21

    A novel slurry-based process for aluminizing nickel foams while improving the mechanical properties and conserving the excellent ductility is reported. Cellular unalloyed nickel foams with 92% porosity and uniform pore size and distribution were used as a starting material. Several slurries of different compositions were examined to investigate the possibility of developing an aluminide-nickel intermetallic coating on a Ni foam without considerably degrading the original ductile properties of the foam. The process temperature was varying from 400 to 850 deg. C and the process holding time was ranging between 2h to 6h. Scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-Ray diffraction were applied to assess the effectiveness of the aluminizing process and determine both the optimum parameters of the procedure (slurry composition, holding temperature and time) and the concentration profiles across the coating cross-section. The mechanical behavior of the aluminized Ni-foams was evaluated by the conduction of micro-tension tests. The resulting Ni-foams after aluminization retain the pore structure of original Ni-foams and present a thick outer surface layer which consists of a range of aluminide phases. The mechanical properties of the Ni-foams aluminized in low process temperature were insignificantly affected.

  3. Pigs taking wing with transposons and recombinases

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Karl J; Carlson, Daniel F; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Swine production has been an important part of our lives since the late Mesolithic or early Neolithic periods, and ranks number one in world meat production. Pig production also contributes to high-value-added medical markets in the form of pharmaceuticals, heart valves, and surgical materials. Genetic engineering, including the addition of exogenous genetic material or manipulation of the endogenous genome, holds great promise for changing pig phenotypes for agricultural and medical applications. Although the first transgenic pigs were described in 1985, poor survival of manipulated embryos; inefficiencies in the integration, transmission, and expression of transgenes; and expensive husbandry costs have impeded the widespread application of pig genetic engineering. Sequencing of the pig genome and advances in reproductive technologies have rejuvenated efforts to apply transgenesis to swine. Pigs provide a compelling new resource for the directed production of pharmaceutical proteins and the provision of cells, vascular grafts, and organs for xenotransplantation. Additionally, given remarkable similarities in the physiology and size of people and pigs, swine will increasingly provide large animal models of human disease where rodent models are insufficient. We review the challenges facing pig transgenesis and discuss the utility of transposases and recombinases for enhancing the success and sophistication of pig genetic engineering. 'The paradise of my fancy is one where pigs have wings.' (GK Chesterton). PMID:18047690

  4. Fluidization mechanisms in slurry flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Charles S.

    1988-08-01

    A transducer is developed to measure particle pressures independently from fluid pressure. Initially it was thought that particle pressure was the only path by which the fluidization mechanism could be determined. The particle pressure transducer has been described in previous reports. A secondary project was developed to test these transducers and use them to measure the particle pressures generated against the side walls of gas-fluidized beds. This was a way to gain experience with the particle pressure transducer while awaiting the delivery of the pump and other components for the slurry pipe loop. Earlier this year, there was great difficulty in gaining repeatable results from the experiments. The culprit turned out to be static charge buildup in the granular mass. Hence, steam was injected into the air stream to help dissipate the charge buildup. This produced a further source of error that was eventually traced to the fiberoptic displacement transducer inside the probe. It developed that the transducer was sensitive to humidity. It has been suggested that this reaction might be a byproduct of the absorption of water onto the sensing surface changes its optical properties and hence its output signal.

  5. Determination of mercury in fish samples by slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Ming-Jyh; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Li, Yi-Ching

    1997-06-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) has been applied to the determination of mercury in several fish samples. The effects of instrument operating conditions and slurry preparation on the ion signals are reported. Palladium was used as modifier to delay the vaporization of mercury in this study. As the vaporization behavior of mercury in fish slurry and aqueous solution is quite different, the standard addition method was used for the determination of mercury in reference materials. The detection limit of mercury estimated from the standard addition curve was in the range 0.002-0.004 μg g -1 for different samples. This method has been applied to the determination of mercury in dogfish muscle reference material (DORM-1 and DORM-2) and dogfish liver reference material (DOLT-1). Accuracy was better than 4% and precision was better than 7% with the USS-ETV-ICP-MS method.

  6. Determination of lead in fish samples by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, S J; Jiang, S J

    2000-08-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (USS-ETAAS) was been applied to the determination of lead in several fish samples. The influences of instrument operating conditions and slurry preparation on the signal were examined. Palladium and ammonium nitrate were used as the modifier to improve the signal. Since the sensitivity to lead in various fish slurries and aqueous solutions was different, the standard additions method was used for the determination of lead in these fish samples. The method was applied to the determination of lead in dogfish muscle reference material (DORM-2) and a swordfish muscle sample purchased from the local market. The analysis results agreed with the reference value. The accuracy was better than 6%. The precision between sample replicates was better than 16% with the USS-ETAAS method. The detection limit of lead estimated from standard additions curve was about 0.053-0.058 microgram g-1 in different samples.

  7. Comparison of indigenous and exogenous microbial populations during slurry phase biodegradation of long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Adetutu, Eric M; Aleer, Sam; Weber, John; Patil, Sayali S; Sheppard, Petra J; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2012-11-01

    In this study, a number of slurry-phase strategies were trialled over a 42 day period in order to determine the efficacy of bioremediation for long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (145 g kg(-1) C(10)-C(40)). The addition of activated sludge and nutrients to slurries (bioaugmentation) resulted in enhanced hydrocarbon removal (51.6 ± 8.5 %) compared to treatments receiving only nutrients (enhanced natural attenuation [ENA]; 41.3 ± 6.4 %) or no amendments (natural attenuation; no significant hydrocarbon removal, P < 0.01). This data suggests that the microbial community in the activated sludge inoculum contributed to the enhanced removal of hydrocarbons in ENA slurries. Microbial diversity in slurries was monitored using DGGE with dominant bands excised and sequenced for identification. Applying the different bioremediation strategies resulted in the formation of four distinct community clusters associated with the activated sludge (inoculum), bioaugmentation strategy at day 0, bioaugmentation strategy at weeks 2-6 and slurries with autoclaved sludge and nutrient additions (bioaugmentation negative control). While hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria genera (e.g. Aquabacterium and Haliscomenobacter) were associated with the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, bioaugmentation of soil slurries with activated sludge resulted in the introduction of bacteria associated with hydrocarbon degradation (Burkholderiales order and Klebsiella genera) which presumably contributed to the enhanced efficacy for this slurry strategy.

  8. The rheology and stability of concentrated coal water slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Slaczka, A.; Piszczynski, Z.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental study was undertaken to investigate the rheological properties of coal-water slurries (CWS). Slurries were prepared from coal of different rank, different particle size distribution, additives and solid content. Viscosity at different shear rate were measured using a capillary viscometer specially constructed by the authors for this purpose. The stability of investigated CWS was performed too. The study has revealed a correlation between the rank of coal used for slurry preparation and its viscosity in all ranges of slurry concentration. The addition of some reagents causes a considerable decrease in the slurry viscosity. The stability of the slurry was improved too.

  9. The effect of slurry treatment including ozonation on odorant reduction measured by in-situ PTR-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dezhao; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders P. S.; Jonassen, Kristoffer E. N.

    2011-07-01

    The emission of odorous compounds from intensive pig production facilities is a nuisance for neighbors. Slurry ozonation for odor abatement has previously been demonstrated in laboratory scale. In this study, the effect of slurry ozonation (combined with solid-liquid pre-separation and acidification) on emissions of odorous compounds was tested in an experimental full-scale growing pig facility using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) for online analysis of odorants. The measurements were performed to gain a better understanding of the effects of ozone treatment on emissions odorous compounds and to identify potential options for optimization of ozone treatment. The compounds monitored included volatile sulfur compounds, amine, carboxylic acids, ketones, phenols and indoles. Measurements were performed during nearly a one-month period in summertime. The compounds with the highest concentrations observed in the ventilation exhaust duct were acetic acid, hydrogen sulfide, propanoic acid and butanoic acid. The compounds with the highest removal efficiencies were hydrogen sulfide, 3-methyl-indole, phenol and acetic acid. Based on odor threshold values, methanethiol, butanoic acid, 4-methylphenol, hydrogen sulfide and C 5 carboxylic acids are estimated to contribute significantly to the odor nuisance. Emissions of odorous compounds were observed to be strongly correlated with temperature with the exception of hydrogen sulfide. Emission peaks of sulfur compounds were seen during slurry handling activities. Discharging of the slurry pit led to reduced hydrogen sulfide emissions, but emissions of most other odorants were not affected. The results indicate that emissions of odorants other than hydrogen sulfide mainly originate from sources other than the treated slurry, which limits the potential for further optimization. The PTR-MS measurements are demonstrated to provide a quantitative, accurate and detailed evaluation of ozone treatment for emission

  10. Evaluating slurry broadcasting and injection to ley for phosphorus losses and fecal microorganisms in surface runoff.

    PubMed

    Uusi-Kämppä, Jaana; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2008-01-01

    The recent growth in the size of dairy cattle farms and the concentration of farms into smaller areas in Finland may increase local water pollution due to increased manure production and slurry application to grass. Therefore, a field study was conducted to monitor losses of total phosphorus (TP), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), and fecal microorganisms in surface runoff from a perennial ley. Cattle slurry was added once a year in June 1996-1997 (Study I) and biannually in June and October 1998-2000 (Study II). The slurry was surface broadcast or injected into the clay soil. The field had a slope of 0.9 to 1.7%. Mineral fertilizer was applied on control plots. Biannual slurry broadcasting increased DRP (p < 0.001) and TP losses (p < 0.001) and numbers of fecal microorganisms in surface runoff waters. The highest losses of TP (2.7 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) and DRP (2.2 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) and the highest numbers of fecal coliforms (880 colony-forming units [CFU] per 100 mL) and somatic coliphages (2700 plaque-forming units [PFU] per 100 mL) were measured after broadcasting slurry to wet soil followed by rainfall in fall 1998. Injection reduced the TP and DRP losses in surface runoff by 79 and 86%, respectively, compared with broadcasting (17 Oct. 1998-27 Oct. 1999). Corresponding numbers for fecal coliforms were 350 CFU (100 mL)(-1) and for somatic coliphages were 110 PFU (100 mL)(-1) in surface runoff after injection in October 1998. Slurry injection should be favored when spreading slurry amendments to grassland to avoid losses of P and fecal microorganisms in runoff to surface waters.

  11. Rheological properties of defense waste slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of this two-year project has been to obtain refined and reliable experimental data about the rheological properties of melter feeds. The research has involved both experimental studies and model development. Two experimental facilities have been set up to measure viscosity and pressure drop. Mathematical models have been developed as a result of experimental observation and fundamental rheological theory. The model has the capability to predict the viscosity of melter slurries in a range of experimental conditions. The final results of the investigation could be used to enhance the current design base for slurry transportation systems and improve the performance of the slurry mixing process. If successful, the cost of this waste treatment will be reduced, and disposal safety will be increased. The specific objectives for this project included: (1) the design, implementation, and validation of the experimental facility in both batch and continuous operating modes; (2) the identification and preparation of melter feed samples of both the SRS and Hanford waste slurries at multiple solids concentration levels; (3) the measurement and analysis of the melter feeds to determine the effects of the solids concentration, pH value, and other factors on the rheological properties of the slurries; (4) the correlation of the rheological properties as a function of the measured physical and chemical parameters; and (5) transmission of the experimental data and resulting correlation to the DOE site user to guide melter feed preparation and transport equipment design.

  12. The Impact of Using Alternative Forages on the Nutrient Value within Slurry and Its Implications for Forage Productivity in Agricultural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Crotty, Felicity V.; Fychan, Rhun; Theobald, Vince J.; Sanderson, Ruth; Chadwick, David R.; Marley, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative forages can be used to provide valuable home-grown feed for ruminant livestock. Utilising these different forages could affect the manure value and the implications of incorporating these forages into farming systems, needs to be better understood. An experiment tested the hypothesis that applying slurries from ruminants, fed ensiled red clover (Trifolium pratense), lucerne (Medicago sativa) or kale (Brassica oleracea) would improve the yield of hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridicum), compared with applying slurries from ruminants fed ensiled hybrid ryegrass, or applying inorganic N alone. Slurries from sheep offered one of four silages were applied to ryegrass plots (at 35 t ha−1) with 100 kg N ha−1 inorganic fertiliser; dry matter (DM) yield was compared to plots only receiving ammonium nitrate at rates of 0, 100 and 250 kg N ha−1 year−1. The DM yield of plots treated with 250 kg N, lucerne or red clover slurry was significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.001). The estimated relative fertiliser N equivalence (FNE) (fertiliser-N needed to produce same yield as slurry N), was greatest for lucerne (114 kg) >red clover (81 kg) >kale (44 kg) >ryegrass (26 kg ha−1 yr−1). These FNE values represent relative efficiencies of 22% (ryegrass), 52% (kale), 47% (red clover) and 60% for lucerne slurry, with the ryegrass slurry efficiency being lowest (P = 0.005). Soil magnesium levels in plots treated with legume slurry were higher than other treatments (P<0.001). Overall, slurries from ruminants fed alternative ensiled forages increased soil nutrient status, forage productivity and better N efficiency than slurries from ruminants fed ryegrass silage. The efficiency of fertiliser use is one of the major factors influencing the sustainability of farming systems, these findings highlight the cascade in benefits from feeding ruminants alternative forages, and the need to ensure their value is effectively captured to reduce environmental risks. PMID

  13. Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Slurry Rheology: Nuclear Waste Simulant Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Jaehun; Oh, Takkeun; Luna, Maria L.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2011-07-05

    Controlling the rheological properties of slurries has been of great interest in various industries such as cosmetics, ceramic processing, and nuclear waste treatment. Many physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, ionic strength, and mass/volume fraction of particles, can influence the rheological properties of slurry. Among such parameters, the particle size distribution of slurry would be especially important for nuclear waste treatment because most nuclear waste slurries show a broad particle size distribution. We studied the rheological properties of several different low activity waste nuclear simulant slurries having different particle size distributions under high salt and high pH conditions. Using rheological and particle size analysis, it was found that the percentage of colloid-sized particles in slurry appears to be a key factor for rheological characteristics and the efficiency of rheological modifiers. This behavior was shown to be coupled with an existing electrostatic interaction between particles under a low salt concentration. Our study suggests that one may need to implement the particle size distribution as a critical factor to understand and control rheological properties in nuclear waste treatment plants, such as the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford and Savannah River sites, because the particle size distributions significantly vary over different types of nuclear waste slurries.

  14. Lightweight Cement Slurries based on vermiculite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaev, K.; Gorbenko, V.; Ulyanova, O.

    2014-08-01

    The main purpose of the research is to study the lightweight cement slurry based on vermiculite and its parameters in accordance with GOST 1581-96 requirements as well as improvement of its formulation by polymer additives. Analysis of vermiculite-containing mixture providing the lowest density while maintaining other required parameters was conducted. As a cement base, cement PTscT-I-G-CC-1, cement PTscT - 100 and vermiculite M200 and M150 were used. Vermiculite content varied from 10 to 15 %; and water-to-cement-ratio ranged from 0.65 to 0.8. To sum up, despite the fact that lightweight cement slurry based on vermiculite satisfies GOST 1581-96 requirements under laboratory conditions, field studies are necessary in order to make a conclusion about applicability of this slurry for well cementing.

  15. Rocketdyne's advanced coal slurry pumping program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. E.; Wong, G. S.; Gilman, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation is conducting a program for the engineering, fabrication, and testing of an experimental/prototype high-capacity, high-pressure centrifugal slurry feed pump for coal liquefaction purposes. The abrasion problems in a centrifugal slurry pump are primarily due to the manner in which the hard, solid particles contained in the slurry are transported through the hydraulic flow passages within the pump. The abrasive particles can create scraping, grinding, cutting, and sandblasting effects on the various exposed parts of the pump. These critical areas involving abrasion and impact erosion wear problems in a centrifugal pump are being addressed by Rocketdyne. The mechanisms of abrasion and erosion are being studied through hydrodynamic analysis, materials evaluation, and advanced design concepts.

  16. Measuring fluid and slurry density and solids concentration non-invasively

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2004-04-01

    Staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a highly sensitive, non-invasive, self calibrating, on-line sensor to measure the density, speed of sound, and attenuation of ultrasound for a liquid or slurry flowing through a pipeline; the approach can also be applied for measurements made in vessels. The sensor transducers are mounted directly upon the stainless steel wall and the pipeline wall becomes part of the measurement system. Multiple reflections within the stainless steel wall are used to determine the acoustic impedance of the liquid, where the acoustic impedance is defined as the product of the density and the speed of sound. The probe becomes self-calibrating because variations in the pulser voltage do not affect the measurements. This feature leads to the stability of the measurements and the instrument requires much less time and effort to calibrate. Further, the calibration remains constant in time, because it does not depend upon the pulser voltage remaining at a given value. By basing the measurement upon multiple reflections, the sensitivity of the measurement is significantly increased. For slurries with wt% solids concentration of 1% or less, high sensitivity is gained by analyzing attenuation measurements obtained from multiple paths through the slurry. For slurries with higher concentrations of solids, sufficient sensitivity is obtained by analyzing data from a simple transmission. Data are presented that show probe performance for each of these cases: very dilute and highly concentrated kaolin clay slurries.

  17. Development of Dishing-less Slurry for Polysilicon Chemical-Mechanical Polishing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Naoto; Uekusa, Shin-ichiro; Kodera, Masako; Matsui, Yoshitaka; Katsumata, Hiroshi

    2003-09-01

    Dishing of polysilicon and thinning of the stopper silicon nitride films are crucial problems when the polysilicon embedded by low pressure chemical vapor deposition in the trench and the concavity with respective widths of 0.7 μm and 20-100 μm is simultaneously flattened by chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP). In order to suppress these two occurrences, a high polymer compound mixed slurry was developed and characterized. The pH value of the slurry measured on the polishing abrasive pad was decreased by dilution with de-ionized water, which resulted in cohesion and solidification of the slurry. By using this cohered and solidified slurry when the poly silicon surface is flattened by CMP, the dishing thickness of the polysilicon was suppressed to less than 100 nm at a concavity width of 100 μm. The CMP process using the developed slurry is useful for the advanced trench isolation process and is currently applied to NAND flash memory and high-speed bipolar LSI devices.

  18. Fifth international technical conference on slurry transportation. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Linderman, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    The fifth international technical conference on slurry transportation was held March 26-28, 1980, at the Sahara Tahoe, Lake Tahoe, Nevada. The papers deal with the transport of slurries (mostly coal and iron ores) in slurry pipelines. Planned slurry pipelines in the USA are described and the legal problems in getting rights-of-way and water rights. The economics of slurry pipelines and railways are considered in some detail. Finally, technical aspects of such pipelines are considered: design, engineering, pumps, maintenance, etc. Other topics discussed are: marine transport (moorings, terminal facilities and tanker ship design, other slurry media than water (fuel oils, methanol, CO/sub 2/), coarse slurry transport, slurry preparation, water removal and pumps (pulsations and dampering). Thirty-two papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; one had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  19. Results of sludge slurry pipeline pluggage tests. [Simulation of Radioactive Slurry Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Fazio, J.M.

    1987-02-06

    Test results of sludge slurry transport through the Interarea Transfer Line (IAL) Mock-up Facility showed little risk of plugging the interarea pipelines with sludge slurry. Plug-free operation of the pipeline was successfully demonstrated by worst case IAL operating scenarios. Pipeline pressure gradients were measured vs. flow rate for comparison with a computer model over a range of sludge slurry rheological properties. A mathematical computer model developed by L. M. Lee is included in this report which will predict pressure drop for Bingham plastic fluid flow in a pipeline. IAL pluggage situations and pumping requirements may be realized from this model. 4 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, Ramkrishna G.

    1986-01-01

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  1. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, R.G.

    1984-08-31

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  2. Prospects for coal slurry pipelines in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The coal slurry pipeline segment of the transport industry is emerging in the United States. If accepted it will play a vital role in meeting America's urgent energy requirements without public subsidy, tax relief, or federal grants. It is proven technology, ideally suited for transport of an abundant energy resource over thousands of miles to energy short industrial centers and at more than competitive costs. Briefly discussed are the following: (1) history of pipelines; (2) California market potential; (3) slurry technology; (4) environmental benefits; (5) market competition; and (6) a proposed pipeline.

  3. Study on the degradation of chitosan slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Benjamin; Dimida, Simona; De Benedetto, Egidio; Madaghiele, Marta; Demitri, Christian

    In the present work, we measured the degradation rate of different chitosan slurries. Several parameters were monitored such as temperature (25 °C, 37 °C, 50 °C); chitosan concentration (1% and 2% (w/V)); and polymer molecular weight. The samples were tested in dynamic sweep test mode. This test is able to provide a reliable estimation of viscosity variations of the slurries; in turn, these variations could be related to degradation rate of the system in the considered conditions. The resulting information is particularly important especially in applications in which there is a close relationship between physical properties and molecular structure.

  4. Determination of impurities in titanium nitride by slurry introduction axial viewed inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheng; Ni, Zheming; Qiu, Deren; Tao, Guangyi; Yang, Pengyuan

    2005-03-01

    A method of slurry nebulization for inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) applied to the analysis of titanium niride(TiN) was reported. The TiN slurry sample was prepared with adding dispersant polyacrylate amine or polyethylene imine for the stabilization and homogenization of suspension, and the amount of additives was optimized. A Babington type cross-flow nebulizer with V-groove was used for nebulization of the slurry for avoidance of blockage from the particles. The stability of slurry was characterized via zeta potential measurement, scanning electron microscope observation, particle size distrbution measurement and signal stability testing. For nm size TiN, calibration curves could be established by aqueous standards and the analytical results were in good accordance with the alkaline fusion method. For μm size TiN, a negative deviation was observed for most of elements and this deviation can be corrected by using Ti intrinsic internal standard method.

  5. Determination of chromium, manganese and vanadium in sediments and soils by modifier—free slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierzwa, J.; Sun, Yuh-Chang; Yang, Mo-Hsiung

    1998-01-01

    Slurried sediment and soil samples of the certified reference materials with a highly elevated level of the metals of interest (Mn, Cr and V) were analysed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) with Zeeman effect background correction. The method of slurry preparation and time-temperature programmes were optimized and, finally, the use of chemical modifiers was not necessary. The effect of alternate spectral lines and gas mini-flows on characteristic masses of analytes was studied. The homogeneity of samples and the influence of short sample grinding were also discussed. The simple, aqueous standard based calibration graphs (except Mn at the concentration > 1000 mg kg -1) were applied for the quantification of results. The results of determinations obtained by slurry sampling agreed well with the cetified values, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the over-all analytical procedure repeatability (at slurries concentration level about 2 mg/2 ml) were less than 9.5%, except manganese (10.4%).

  6. Runoff- and erosion-driven transport of cattle slurry: linking molecular tracers to hydrological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, C. E. M.; Michaelides, K.; Chadwick, D. R.; Dungait, J. A. J.; Evershed, R. P.

    2016-02-01

    The addition of cattle slurry to agricultural land is a widespread practise, but if not correctly managed it can pose a contamination risk to aquatic ecosystems. The transport of inorganic and organic components of cattle slurry to watercourses is a major concern, yet little is known about the physical transport mechanisms and associated fluxes and timings of contamination threats. Therefore, the aim of the study was to ascertain the importance of flow pathway partitioning in the transport (fluxes and timing) of dissolved and particulate slurry-derived compounds with implications for off-site contamination. A series of rainfall-runoff and erosion experiments were carried out using the TRACE (Test Rig for Advancing Connectivity Experiments) experimental hillslope facility. The experiments allowed the quantification of the impact of changing slope gradient and rainfall intensity on nutrient transport from cattle slurry applied to the hillslope, via surface, subsurface, and vertical percolated flow pathways, as well as particulate transport from erosion. The dissolved components were traced using a combination of ammonium (NH4+) and fluorescence analysis, while the particulate fraction was traced using organic biomarkers, 5β-stanols. Results showed that rainfall events which produced flashy hydrological responses, resulting in large quantities of surface runoff, were likely to move sediment and also flush dissolved components of slurry-derived material from the slope, increasing the contamination risk. Rainfall events which produced slower hydrological responses were dominated by vertical percolated flows removing less sediment-associated material, but produced leachate which could contaminate deeper soil layers, and potentially groundwater, over a more prolonged period. Overall, this research provides new insights into the partitioning of slurry-derived material when applied to an unvegetated slope and the transport mechanisms by which contamination risks are

  7. Runoff- and erosion-driven transport of cattle slurry: linking molecular tracers to hydrological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, C. E. M.; Michaelides, K.; Chadwick, D. R.; Dungait, J. A. J.; Evershed, R. P.

    2015-10-01

    The addition of cattle slurry to agricultural land is a widespread practise, but if not correctly managed it can pose a contamination risk to aquatic ecosystems. The transport of inorganic and organic components of cattle slurry to watercourses is a major concern, yet little is known about the physical transport mechanisms and associated fluxes and timings of contamination threats. Therefore, the aim of the study was to ascertain the importance of flow pathway partitioning in the transport (fluxes and timing) of dissolved and particulate slurry-derived compounds with implications for off-site contamination. A series of rainfall-runoff and erosion experiments were carried out using the TRACE (Test Rig for Advancing Connectivity Experiments) experimental hillslope facility. The experiments allowed the quantification of the impact of changing slope gradient and rainfall intensity on nutrient transport from cattle slurry applied to the hillslope, via surface, subsurface and vertical percolated flow pathways, as well as particulate transport from erosion. The dissolved components were traced using a combination of ammonium (NH4+) and fluorescence analysis, while the particulate fraction was traced using organic biomarkers, 5β-stanols. Results showed that rainfall events which produced flashy hydrological responses, resulting in large quantities of surface runoff, were likely to move sediment and also flush dissolved components of slurry-derived material from the slope, increasing the contamination risk. Rainfall events which produced slower hydrological responses were dominated by vertical percolated flows removing less sediment-associated material, but produced leachate which could contaminate deeper soil layers, and potentially groundwater, over a more prolonged period. Overall, this research provides new insights into the partitioning of slurry-derived material when applied to an unvegetated slope and the transport mechanisms by which contamination risks are created.

  8. Process for producing high-concentration slurry of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaoji, K.; Itoh, H.; Kamao, M.; Takao, Sh.; Tatsumi, Sh.

    1985-02-19

    High concentrated coal-water slurry is produced by coarsely crushing coal, thereafter pulverizing the coarsely crushed coal, together with water and a slurry dispersant, according to necessity, in a wet-type ball mill, and feeding back one portion of the finely pulverized coal slurry thus obtained into the inlet of the wet-type ball mill.

  9. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Dooher, J.P.

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  10. SEPARATING LIQUID MODERATOR FROM A SLURRY TYPE REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, H.C.

    1961-07-01

    A system for evaporating moderator such as D/sub 2/O from an irradiated slurry or sloution characterized by two successive evaproators is described. In the first of these the most troublesome radioactivity dissipates before the slurry becomes too thick to be pumped out; in the second the slurry, now easier to handle, can be safely reduced to a sludge.

  11. CATALYTIC RECOMBINATION OF RADIOLYTIC GASES IN THORIUM OXIDE SLURRIES

    DOEpatents

    Morse, L.E.

    1962-08-01

    A method for the coinbination of hydrogen and oxygen in aqueous thorium oxide-uranium oxide slurries is described. A small amount of molybdenum oxide catalyst is provided in the slurry. This catalyst is applicable to the recombination of hydrogen and/or deuterium and oxygen produced by irradiation of the slurries in nuclear reactors. (AEC)

  12. Escherichia coli contamination of lettuce grown in soils amended with animal slurry.

    PubMed

    Jensen, A N; Storm, C; Forslund, A; Baggesen, D L; Dalsgaard, A

    2013-07-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess the transfer of Escherichia coli from animal slurry fertilizer to lettuce, with E. coli serving as an indicator of fecal contamination and as an indicator for potential bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied as fertilizer to three Danish agricultural fields prior to the planting of lettuce seedlings. At harvest, leaves (25 g) of 10 lettuce heads were pooled into one sample unit (n = 147). Soil samples (100 g) were collected from one field before slurry application and four times during the growth period (n = 75). E. coli was enumerated in slurry, soil, and lettuce on 3M Petrifilm Select E. coli Count Plates containing 16 mg/liter streptomycin, 16 mg/liter ampicillin, or no antimicrobial agent. Selected E. coli isolates (n = 83) originating from the slurry, soil, and lettuce were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine the similarity of isolates. The slurry applied to the fields contained 3.0 to 4.5 log CFU/g E. coli. E. coli was found in 36 to 54% of the lettuce samples, streptomycin-resistant E. coli was found in 10.0 to 18.0% of the lettuce samples, and ampicillin-resistant E. coli in 0 to 2.0% of the lettuce samples (the detection limit was 1 log CFU/g). The concentration of E. coli exceeded 2 log CFU/g in 19.0% of the lettuce samples. No E. coli was detected in the soil before the slurry was applied, but after, E. coli was present until the last sampling day (harvest), when 10 of 15 soil samples contained E. coli. A relatively higher frequency of E. coli in lettuce compared with the soil samples at harvest suggests environmental sources of fecal contamination, e.g., wildlife. The higher frequency was supported by the finding of 21 different PFGE types among the E. coli isolates, with only a few common PFGE types between slurry, soil, and lettuce. The frequent finding of fecal-contaminated lettuce indicates that human pathogens such as Salmonella and Campylobacter can be present and

  13. Perception of the environmental impacts of current and alternative modes of pig production by stakeholder groups.

    PubMed

    Petit, Jean; van der Werf, Hayo M G

    2003-08-01

    The current industrial pig production model is in crisis, due to its association with environmental pollution, doubtful product quality and lack of animal well-being. In Bretagne (France), a region of intensive pig production, a survey of seven stakeholder groups concerned with pig production was conducted, as part of a research programme dedicated to the assessment of the environmental impact of different modes of pig production. A very large majority of pig producers (93%) and their suppliers (100%) considers pig farms as an asset for the region, whereas a majority of scientists (58%), activists (78%) and consumers (54%) sees it as a handicap. Differences among stakeholder groups are minor with respect to the perceived importance of environmental and social issues. Stakeholders agree on the relative level of responsibility of pig farms with respect to specific problems. For all groups unpleasant odours and water quality come first with respect to responsibility, for most groups soil quality comes second, followed by product safety and air quality. For a future improved mode of pig production, 76% of pig producers and their suppliers prefer to adapt the current model, for all other groups the majority prefers an alternative model. While pig producers and their suppliers prefer a slurry-based housing system, all other groups prefer a straw-based system. Pig producers see the slurry-based system as technically superior and associate the straw-based system with poor working conditions, whereas consumers associate the slurry-based system in the first place with poor water quality and associate the straw-based system with less pollution. These results will be of use in the research programme on the environmental impact of modes of pig production, as they indicate the environmental impacts to be considered and their relative importance. The results will also help in deciding which options should be assessed. It is concluded that the poor image of the current pig

  14. Freeforming objects with low-binder slurry

    DOEpatents

    Cesarano, III, Joseph; Calvert, Paul D.

    2000-01-01

    In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

  15. Dispersant for aqueous slurry of coal powder

    SciTech Connect

    Moriyama, N.; Watanabe, S.; Yamamura, M.

    1982-05-18

    A dispersant for forming an aqueous slurry of coal powder having a good flowability, which comprises as the active ingredient at least one member selected from sulfonation products of polycyclic aromatic compounds which may have a hydrocarbon group as a substituent, salts thereof and formaldehyde condensates thereof.

  16. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  17. Low Cost Dewatering of Waste Slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, J. B.; Sharma, S. K.; Church, R. H.; Scheiner, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a technique for dewatering mineral waste slurries which utilizes polymer and a static screen. A variety of waste slurries from placer gold mines and crushed stone operations have been successfully treated using the system. Depending on the waste, a number of polymers have been used successfully with polymer costs ranging from $0.05 to $0.15 per 1,000 gal treated. The dewatering is accomplished using screens made from either ordinary window screen or wedge wire. The screens used are 8 ft wide and 8 ft long. The capacity of the screens varies from 3 to 7 gpm/sq. ft. The water produced is acceptable for recycling to the plant or for discharge to the environment. For example, a fine grain dolomite waste slurry produced from a crushed stone operation was dewatered from a nominal 2.5 pct solids to greater than 50 pct solids using $0.10 to $0.15 worth of polymer per 1,000 gal of slurry. The resulting waste water had a turbidity of less than 50 NTU and could be discharged or recycled. The paper describes field tests conducted using the polymer-screen dewatering system.

  18. The coal slime slurry combustion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Xu, Z.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the coal slime slurry combustion technology in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The technique is that the slurry-based flow from the concentrator in the coal washery plant directly feeds into the fluidized bed by pump for combustion after a simple filtration and enrichment to an approximate concentration of 50% of coal. The coal slime slurry can burn in a CFB boiler alone or jointly with coal refuse. The technique has been used in a 35 t/h (6MWe) CFB for power generation. The result shows that the combustion efficiency is over 96% and boiler thermal efficiency is over 77%. As compared with burning coal refuse alone, the thermal efficiency was improved by 3--4 percent. This technology is simple, easy to operate and reliable. It is an effective way to utilize coal slime slurry. It has a practical significance for saving coal resources and reducing environmental pollution near coal mine areas. As a clean coal technology, it will result in great social, environmental and economic benefits.

  19. Method and centrifugal apparatus for slurry testing

    SciTech Connect

    Tuzson, J.J.

    1984-04-17

    In accordance with the centrifugal erosion testing method of the invention, a material specimen is rotated with a flat surface facing the direction of rotation and a narrow stream of an abrasive particle slurry is concurrently flowed at a preselected rate in a radial direction across the flat surface, the rotating step being at sufficiently high angular velocity to urge the abrasive particles by Coriolis acceleration into a compacted mass against the flat surface and erode material therefrom by scouring type action as the particles flow radially outward. The rotating and flowing steps are continued for a sufficient preselected duration to erode material to a measurable depth, and the depth to which the flat surface is worn by the abrasive particles is measured as an indication of the erosion resistance of the specimen material. The centrifugal slurry erosion testing apparatus includes a rotatable cylindrical vessel into the interior of which the abrasive slurry is fed and a specimen holder extending radially from the vessel having a cavity for receiving the specimen and a radial slurry flow passage communicating with the interior of the vessel. One of the radial passage longitudinal walls is defined by the flat surface of the specimen. Preferably the specimen holder comprises mating semicylindrical halves one of which has a specimen-receiving cavity in its abutting surface and the other has a narrow rectangular-in-cross section groove in its abutting surface which communicates with the interior of the vessel and together with the flat surface of the specimen defines the radial slurry flow passage. The mating semicylindrical halves are enclosed by a sleeve having an annular rim disposed interiorly of the vessel to prevent radially outward movement of the specimen holder.

  20. EOS for critical slurry and solution systems

    SciTech Connect

    DiPeso, G; Peterson, P

    1998-10-27

    In a fire involving fissile material, the mixture of the fissile material ash with fire fighting water may lead to a criticality excursion if there are nearby sumps that permit a critical geometry. The severity of the resulting energy release and pressure pulse is dependent on the rate at which the mixing occurs. To calculate these excursions, a non-equilibrium equation of state for the water ash mixture or slurry is needed that accounts for the thermal non-equilibrium that occurs due to finite heat transfer rates. We are developing the slurry EOS as well as a lumped neutronic and hydrodynamic model to serve as a testing ground for the non-equilibrium EOS before its incorporation into more sophisticated neutronic-hydrodynamics codes. Though the model lacks spatial dependence, it provides estimates of energy release and pressure pulses for various mixture assembly rates. We are also developing a non-equilibrium EOS for critical solution systems in which the fissile material is dissolved in water, which accounts for chemical non-equilibrium due to finite mass transfer rates. In contrast to previously published solution EOS, our solution EOS specifically accounts for mass diffusion of dissolved radiolytic gas to bubble nucleation sites. This EOS was developed to check our overall modeling against published solution excursion experiments and to compare solution excursions with slurry excursions initiated under the same conditions. Preliminary results indicate a good match between solution EOS calculations and experiments involving premixed 60-80 g U/l solutions for both low rate and high rate reactivity insertions. Comparison between slurry and solution calculations for the same composition show comparable energy release and pressure peaks for both low and high rate reactivity insertions with the slurry releasing less energy but generating more pressure than the solution for the amount of energy released. Calculations more appropriate to actual fire fighting scenarios

  1. Method for applying a high-temperature bond coat on a metal substrate, and related compositions and articles

    DOEpatents

    Hasz, Wayne Charles; Sangeeta, D

    2002-01-01

    A method for applying a bond coat on a metal-based substrate is described. A slurry which contains braze material and a volatile component is deposited on the substrate. The slurry can also include bond coat material. Alternatively, the bond coat material can be applied afterward, in solid form or in the form of a second slurry. The slurry and bond coat are then dried and fused to the substrate. A repair technique using this slurry is also described, along with related compositions and articles.

  2. Method for applying a high-temperature bond coat on a metal substrate, and related compositions and articles

    DOEpatents

    Hasz, Wayne Charles; Sangeeta, D

    2006-04-18

    A method for applying a bond coat on a metal-based substrate is described. A slurry which contains braze material and a volatile component is deposited on the substrate. The slurry can also include bond coat material. Alternatively, the bond coat material can be applied afterward, in solid form or in the form of a second slurry. The slurry and bond coat are then dried and fused to the substrate. A repair technique using this slurry is also described, along with related compositions and articles.

  3. Genetically modified pig models for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ida E; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has become one of the most challenging health issues in ageing humans. One approach to combat this is to generate genetically modified animal models of neurodegenerative disorders for studying pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Owing to the genetic, anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, and neurologic similarities between pigs and humans, genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders have been attractive large animal models to bridge the gap of preclinical investigations between rodents and humans. In this review, we provide a neuroanatomical overview in pigs and summarize and discuss the generation of genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and ataxia-telangiectasia. We also highlight how non-invasive bioimaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural testing have been applied to characterize neurodegenerative pig models. We further propose a multiplex genome editing and preterm recloning (MAP) approach by using the rapid growth of the ground-breaking precision genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With this approach, we hope to shorten the temporal requirement in generating multiple transgenic pigs, increase the survival rate of founder pigs, and generate genetically modified pigs that will more closely resemble the disease-causing mutations and recapitulate pathological features of human conditions.

  4. Evaluation of slurry characteristics for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Ki Yeon; Kwon, Young Il; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lithium-ion battery slurries are prepared for rechargeable batteries. • The dispersion state of slurry constituents is identified. • Thermal, morphological, rheological, and electrical properties of slurries are analyzed. - Abstract: A multi-component slurry for rechargeable batteries is prepared by dispersing LiCoO{sub 2}, conductive additives, and polymeric binders in a solvent. The physical properties, including rheological, morphological, electrical, and spectroscopic features of battery slurries are investigated. The relationship between the measured physical properties and the internal structure of the slurry is analyzed. It is found that the rheological behavior of the slurry is determined by the interaction of active materials and binding materials (e.g., network structure) and that the dispersion state of conductive additives (e.g., agglomeration) also depends on the binder–carbon interaction.

  5. Impact of test sensitivity and specificity on pig producer incentives to control Mycobacterium avium infections in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    van Wagenberg, Coen P A; Backus, Gé B C; Wisselink, Henk J; van der Vorst, Jack G A J; Urlings, Bert A P

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the impact of the sensitivity and specificity of a Mycobacterium avium (Ma) test on pig producer incentives to control Ma in finishing pigs. A possible Ma control system which includes a serodiagnostic test and a penalty on finishing pigs in herds detected with Ma infection was modelled. Using a dynamic optimization model and a grid search of deliveries of herds from pig producers to slaughterhouse, optimal control measures for pig producers and optimal penalty values for deliveries with increased Ma risk were identified for different sensitivity and specificity values. Results showed that higher sensitivity and lower specificity induced use of more intense control measures and resulted in higher pig producer costs and lower Ma seroprevalence. The minimal penalty value needed to comply with a threshold for Ma seroprevalence in finishing pigs at slaughter was lower at higher sensitivity and lower specificity. With imperfect specificity a larger sample size decreased pig producer incentives to control Ma seroprevalence, because the higher number of false positives resulted in an increased probability of rejecting a batch of finishing pigs irrespective of whether the pig producer applied control measures. We conclude that test sensitivity and specificity must be considered in incentive system design to induce pig producers to control Ma in finishing pigs with minimum negative effects.

  6. Ammonia volatilization following dairy slurry application to a permanent grassland on a volcanic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Lagos, J.; Salazar, F.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture is the largest source of ammonia (NH3) emission to the atmosphere. Within the agricultural sector, the application of slurry to grasslands as fertilizer is one of the main emission sources. This is a common practice in southern Chile, where most dairy production systems are grazing-based. In Chile, there are few published data of gaseous emissions following slurry application to grassland. The aim of this study was to evaluate NH3 volatilization following dairy slurry application to a permanent grassland on an Andosol soil. Ammonia volatilization was measured in four field experiments (winters of 2009 and 2011 and early and late springs of 2011) using a micrometeorological mass balance method with passive flux samplers following dairy slurry application at a target rate of 100 kg total N ha-1. The accumulated N loss was equivalent to 7, 8, 16 and 21% of the total N applied and 22, 34, 88 and 74% of total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) applied for winters 2009 and 2011, and early and late spring 2011, respectively. Ammonia emission rates were high immediately after application and declined rapidly with time, with more than 50% of the total emissions within the first 24 h. Losses were highly influenced by environmental conditions, increasing with temperature and lack of rainfall. Taking into consideration the low N losses via leaching and nitrous oxide emissions reported for the study area, results indicate that NH3 volatilization is the main pathway of N loss in fertilized grasslands of southern Chile. However, dairy slurry application could be an important source of nutrients, if applied at a suitable time, rate and using an appropriate technique, and if soil and climate conditions are taken into consideration. This could improve N use efficiency and reduce N losses to the wider environment.

  7. Effects of cattle-slurry treatment by acidification and separation on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential after surface application to an acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Fangueiro, David; Pereira, José; Bichana, André; Surgy, Sónia; Cabral, Fernanda; Coutinho, João

    2015-10-01

    Cattle-slurry (liquid manure) application to soil is a common practice to provide nutrients and organic matter for crop growth but it also strongly impacts the environment. The objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency of cattle-slurry treatment by solid-liquid separation and/or acidification on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential (GWP) following application to an acidic soil. An aerobic laboratory incubation was performed over 92 days with a Dystric Cambisol amended with raw cattle-slurry or separated liquid fraction (LF) treated or not by acidification to pH 5.5 by addition of sulphuric acid. Soil mineral N contents and NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured. Results obtained suggest that the acidification of raw cattle-slurry reduced significantly NH3 emissions (-88%) but also the GWP (-28%) while increased the N availability relative to raw cattle-slurry (15% of organic N applied mineralised against negative mineralisation in raw slurry). However, similar NH3 emissions and GWP were observed in acidified LF and non-acidified LF treatments. On the other hand, soil application of acidified cattle-slurry rather than non-acidified LF should be preferred attending the lower costs associated to acidification compared to solid-liquid separation. It can then be concluded that cattle-slurry acidification is a solution to minimise NH3 emissions from amended soil and an efficient strategy to decrease the GWP associated with slurry application to soil. Furthermore, the more intense N mineralisation observed with acidified slurry should lead to a higher amount of plant available N and consequently to higher crop yields.

  8. System for pressure letdown of abrasive slurries

    DOEpatents

    Kasper, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    A system and method for releasing erosive slurries from containment at high pressure without subjecting valves to highly erosive slurry flow. The system includes a pressure letdown tank disposed below the high-pressure tank, the two tanks being connected by a valved line communicating the gas phases and a line having a valve and choke for a transfer of liquid into the letdown tank. The letdown tank has a valved gas vent and a valved outlet line for release of liquid. In operation, the gas transfer line is opened to equalize pressure between tanks so that a low level of liquid flow occurs. The letdown tank is then vented, creating a high-pressure differential between the tanks. At this point, flow between tanks is controlled by the choke. High-velocity, erosive flow through a high-pressure outlet valve is prevented by equalizing the start up pressure and thereafter limiting flow with the choke.

  9. Stabilized water slurries of carbonaceous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Papalos, J.G.; Knitter, K.A.; Savoly, A.; Villa, J.L.

    1984-07-03

    Improved stabilized water slurries of carbonaceous materials are obtained by having present a condensation product or a salt thereof of a substituted phenol sulfonic acid which is an arylphenol sulfonic acid, an aralkylphenol sulfonic acid, an arylphenol sulfonic acid and arylsulfonic acid mixture, or an aralkylphenol sulfonic acid and arylsulfonic acid mixture, condensed with from about 0.5 to about 4.0 moles of formaldehyde per mole of sulfonic acid with the proviso that the weight ratio if substituted phenol sulfonic acid to arylsulfonic acid is from about 0.95:0.05 to about 0.05:0.95 in the mixtures, the condensation product being present in an amount sufficient to reduce viscosity of the water slurry of carbonaceous materials, to stabilize carbonaceous materials in the water network and to improve its pumpability. If desired, an acid form or a salt of the condensation product may be used.

  10. Carbon Slurry Fuels for Volume Limited Missiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    carbon slurry fuel combustion is to be understood. Major aspects of hydrocarbon combustion chemistry involve hydrocarbon pyroly - sis and partial oxidation...effective convcr•ei)n ’)i thiv pyroly - sis product to carbon particulate. 207 cyclo Hxmne 0 5.1 0.1.0 2.0 271 ’I 20 / i 0 6 10 15 20 Ŕ cyclo Hexene n" \\C

  11. Metal Slurry Droplet and Spray Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-15

    Thermophoresis on the Oxide Condensation 156 ii Appendix E Numerical Modeling of a Slurry Droplet Containing a Spherical Particle...Williams [110]. Thermophoresis can cause the condensed particles to move outwards, from the radius of condensation. However, convection would drive the...Here, the thermophoresis effect may drive the condensed particles outwards. However, since the bulk flow in the outer zone is negative (towards the

  12. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.

    1984-11-29

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  13. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.

    1985-01-01

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  14. CFD simulation and experimental analysis of erosion in a slurry tank test rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimian, Mehdi; Bart, Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Erosion occurring in equipment dealing with liquid-solid mixtures such as pipeline parts, slurry pumps, liquid-solid stirred reactors and slurry mixers in various industrial applications results in operational failure and economic costs. A slurry erosion tank test rig is designed and was built to investigate the erosion rates of materials and the influencing parameters such as flow velocity and turbulence, flow angle, solid particle concentration, particles size distribution, hardness and target material properties on the material loss and erosion profiles. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool is used to simulate the erosion rate of sample plates in the liquid-solid slurry mixture in a cylindrical tank. The predictions were made in a steady state and also transient manner, applying the flow at the room temperature and using water and sand as liquid and solid phases, respectively. The multiple reference frame method (MRF) is applied to simulate the flow behavior and liquid-solid interactions in the slurry tank test rig. The MRF method is used since it is less demanding than sliding mesh method (SM) and gives satisfactory results. The computational domain is divided into three regions: a rotational or MRF zone containing the mixer, a rotational zone (MRF) containing the erosion plates and a static zone (outer liquid zone). It is observed that changing the MRF zone diameter and height causes a very low impact on the results. The simulated results were obtained for two kinds of hard metals namely stainless steel and ST-50 under some various operating conditions and are found in good agreement with the experimental results.

  15. Modeling of dual emission laser induced fluorescence for slurry thickness measurements in chemical mechanical polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Caprice; Rogers, Chris B.; Manno, Vincent P.; White, Robert D.

    2011-07-01

    Dual emission laser induced fluorescence (DELIF) is a technique for measuring the instantaneous thin fluid film thickness in dynamic systems. Two fluorophores within the system produce laser induced emissions that are filtered and captured by two cameras. The ratio of the images from these cameras is used to cancel the effect of the laser beam profile on the image intensity. The resultant intensity ratio can be calibrated to a fluid film thickness. The utilization of a 2-dye system when applied to Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) is complicated by the fluorescence of the polymeric polishing pad and the light scattering particles in the polishing slurry. We have developed a model of DELIF for CMP with 1-dye employing the polishing pad as the second fluorophore. While scattering particles in the slurry decrease the overall intensity of the individual images, the contrast in the image ratio increases. Using the 1-dye DELIF system to measure thin slurry films, our model results indicate that a cubic calibration may be needed. However, experimental results suggest a linear calibration is achieved for slurry films between 0 and 133 μm thick with scattering coefficients as high as 8.66 mm-1 at a wavelength equal to 410 nm.

  16. Determination of nickel, chromium and cobalt in wheat flour using slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    González, M; Gallego, M; Valcárcel, M

    1999-05-01

    The slurry technique was applied to the determination of Ni, Cr and Co in wheat flour by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The influence of the graphite furnace temperature programme was optimized. Optimum sensitivity was obtained by using a mixture of 15% HNO(3)-10% H(2)O(2) as suspended medium for a 3% w/v slurry in the determination of Ni; lower concentrations of HNO(3) were necessary for the determination of Co and Cr (viz. 5 and 10%). The precision of direct analyses of the slurries was improved by using mechanical agitation between measurements; thus, the RSD of the measurements was ca. 5% for repeatability. The direct slurry sampling (SS) technique is suitable for the determination of Ni and Cr in wheat flour samples at levels of 150-450 and 30-72 ng g(-1), respectively, as it provides results similar to those obtained by ashing the sample. However, the typically low level of Co in these samples precluded its determination by the proposed method (the study was made in an SRM spiked wholemeal flour), at least in those samples that were contaminated with elevated concentrations of the metal (viz. more than 90 ng of Co per g of flour). The method provides a relative standard deviation of 6, 8, and 4% for Ni, Cr, and Co, respectively.

  17. Determination of bismuth in environmental samples by slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using combined chemical modifiers.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, Ryszard; Dobrzyńska, Joanna; Gawrońska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry technique was applied for the determination of Bi in environmental samples. The study focused on the effect of Zr, Ti, Nb and W carbides, as permanent modifiers, on the Bi signal. Because of its highest thermal and chemical stability and ability to substantially increase Bi signal, NbC was chosen as the most effective modifier. The temperature programme applied for Bi determination was optimized based on the pyrolysis and atomization curves obtained for slurries prepared from certified reference materials (CRMs) of the soil and sediments. To overcome interferences caused by sulfur compounds, Ba(NO₃)₂ was used as a chemical modifier. Calibration was performed using the aqueous standard solutions. The analysis of the CRMs confirmed the reliability of the proposed analytical method. The characteristic mass for Bi was determined to be 16 pg with the detection limit of 50 ng/g for the optimized procedure at the 5% (w/v) slurry concentration.

  18. Biodegradation of Pig Manure by the Housefly, Musca domestica: A Viable Ecological Strategy for Pig Manure Management

    PubMed Central

    Čičková, Helena; Pastor, Berta; Kozánek, Milan; Martínez-Sánchez, Anabel; Rojo, Santos; Takáč, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500–700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7±32.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4–1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178–444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust). Larval survival ranged from 46.9±2.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8±11.9% in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6–11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9–74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18–0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types. Recommendations for the operation of industrial-scale biodegradation facilities are presented and discussed. PMID:22431982

  19. Geotechnical properties of debris-flow sediments and slurries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Iverson, R.M.; McTigue, D.F.; Macias, S.; Fiedorowicz, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of geotechnical properties of various poorly sorted debris-flow sediments and slurries (??? 32 mm diameter) emphasize their granular nature, and reveal that properties of slurries can differ significantly from those of compacted sediments. Measurements show that: (1) cohesion probably offers little resistance to shear in most debris flows under low confining stresses normally found in nature; (2) intrinsic hydraulic permeabilities of compacted debris-flow sediments vary from about 10-14-10-9 m2; permeabilities of 'typical' debris-flow slurries fall toward the low end of the range; (3) debris-flow slurries are characterized by very large values of 'elastic' compressibility (C approx. 10-2 kPa-1); and (4) hydraulic diffusivities of quasistatically consolidating slurries are approx. 10-4-10-7 m2/s. Low hydraulic diffusivity of debris slurries permits excess fluid pressure and low effective strength to persist during sediment transport and deposition.

  20. Methods to enhance the characteristics of hydrothermally prepared slurry fuels

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Chris M.; Musich, Mark A.; Mann, Michael D.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Richter, John J.; Potas, Todd A.; Willson, Warrack G.

    2000-01-01

    Methods for enhancing the flow behavior and stability of hydrothermally treated slurry fuels. A mechanical high-shear dispersion and homogenization device is used to shear the slurry fuel. Other improvements include blending the carbonaceous material with a form of coal to reduce or eliminate the flocculation of the slurry, and maintaining the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment between approximately 300.degree. to 350.degree. C.

  1. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    SciTech Connect

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX MISCIBLE AND IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.

    2011-06-15

    Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). At present, Tank 50H contains two standard slurry pumps and two Quad Volute slurry pumps. Current requirements and mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste would like to move one or both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that are failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to blend miscible and immiscible liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Salt Disposition Integration Project (SDIP) and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters needed to blend the tank contents. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will be able to blend miscible liquids (i.e., salt solution) in Tank 50H within 4.4 hours. (2) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 3.1 hours. (3) Three rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 2.5 hours. (4) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets that are less than or equal to 15 micron in diameter. If the droplets are less than 15 micron, they will be dispersed within 4.4 hours. Isopar L{reg_sign} provides a lower bound on the maximum size of droplets that will be dispersed by the slurry pumps in Tank 50H. (5) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets less than 15 micron

  3. Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.; Hayashi, Kanetoshi

    1999-08-01

    A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

  4. Slurry Supplying Method for Large Quartz Glass Substrate Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajornrungruang, Panart; Kimura, Keiichi; Yui, Ryuji; Wada, Nagisa; Suzuki, Keisuke

    2011-05-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been used in polishing a photomask substrate in flat-panel display (FPD) manufacture. Moreover, the quadrilateral geometry of quartz glass used as the photomask substrate has been enlarged. However, the slurry cannot flow throughout the glass surface evenly owing to the enlarged substrate covering the center of the platen in the polishing process. In this work, we verified the beneficial of spreading slurry into a non-inflow region by the reinforced suction of the slurry supplied to the polishing pad through a hole at center of the platen. A fluorescent agent was used instead of the slurry for flow visualization.

  5. Oxidation of coal-water slurry feed to hydrogasifier

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Bernard S.

    1976-01-01

    An aqueous coal slurry is preheated, subjected to partial oxidation and vaporization by injection of high pressure oxygen and is introduced into a top section of a hydrogasifier in direct contact with hot methane-containing effluent gases where vaporization of the slurry is completed. The resulting solids are reacted in the hydrogasifier and the combined gases and vapors are withdrawn and subjected to purification and methanation to provide pipeline gas. The amount of oxygen injected into the slurry is controlled to provide the proper thermal balance whereby all of the water in the slurry can be evaporated in contact with the hot effluent gases from the hydrogasifier.

  6. Ice slurry cooling research: Microscale study of ice particles characteristics, role of freezing point depressant, and influence on slurry fluidity

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, K.; Kasza, K.

    2000-05-03

    The influences of freezing-point-depressants on ice slurry characteristics in the form of ice slurry fluidity and on the microscale ice particle features are studied. The results identify microscale features of ice particles such as surface roughness that greatly influence slurry fluidity that are altered favorably by the use of a freezing point depressant. The engineering of a workable and efficient ice slurry cooling system depends very strongly on the characteristics of the individual ice particles in the slurry and, in turn, on the method of ice production. Findings from this study provide guidance on the fluidity and handleability of slurry produced by several methods currently under development and already many achieved.

  7. Transgenesis for pig models

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Soo-Young; Yoon, Ki-Young; Lee, Choong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Animal models, particularly pigs, have come to play an important role in translational biomedical research. There have been many pig models with genetically modifications via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, because most transgenic pigs have been produced by random integration to date, the necessity for more exact gene-mutated models using recombinase based conditional gene expression like mice has been raised. Currently, advanced genome-editing technologies enable us to generate specific gene-deleted and -inserted pig models. In the future, the development of pig models with gene editing technologies could be a valuable resource for biomedical research. PMID:27030199

  8. Slurry Phase Iron Catalysts for Indirect Coal LIquefaction.

    SciTech Connect

    Datye, A.K.

    1997-08-08

    This report covers the fourth six month period of this three year grant under the University Coal Research program. During this period, we have begun the synthesis of precipitated catalysts using a bench-top spray dryer. The influence of binders on particle strength was also studied using the ultrasonic fragmentation approach to derive particle breaking stress. A similar approach was used to derive particle strength of catalysts obtained from Mr. Robert Gormley at FETC. Over the next six month period, this work will be continued while the catalysts prepared here will be examined by TPR to determine reducibility and the extent of adverse iron-silica interactions. A fundamental study of Fe/silica interactions has been performed using temperature programmed reaction and TEM to provide understanding of how the silica binders influence the activity of Fe catalysts. To understand differences in the reducibility of the iron phase caused by silica, we have set up a temperature programmed reduction facility. TPR in H, as well as in CO was performed of Fe/ SiO, catalysts prepared by impregnation as well as by precipitation. What is unique about these studies is that high resolution TEM was performed on samples removed from the reactor at various stages of reduction. This helps provide direct evidence for the phase changes that are detected by TPR. We have continued the analysis of catalysts received from slurry reactor runs at Texas A&M university (TAMU) and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) by x-ray diffraction. The purpose of the XRD analysis was to determine the phase composition of catalysts derived from a slurry reaction run using Fe Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. We had previously described how catalyst removed in the hot wax may oxidize to magnetite if the wax is air-exposed. We have now received catalysts from CAER that were removed under a protective inert blanket, and we are in the process of analyzing them, but preliminary work

  9. Mn2O3 Slurry Reuse by Circulation Achieving High Constant Removal Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishii, Sadahiro; Nakamura, Ko; Hanawa, Kenzo; Watanabe, Satoru; Arimoto, Yoshihiro; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Doi, Toshiro K.

    2012-04-01

    Fumed silica is widely used in SiO2 chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). In semiconductor processes, only fresh slurry is used, and used slurry is disposed. Sustainable development demands a reduction in waste. Since reuse of slurry is effective for reducing the amount of used slurry generated, we investigated the reuse of Mn2O3 slurry and conventional fumed silica slurry. In both cases, abrasive concentration decreases as reuse time increases. The removal rate for Mn2O3 slurry maintains a value 4 times that of the conventional fumed silica slurry during slurry reuse, because the removal rate for Mn2O3 slurry is almost constant for solid concentrations between 1.0 and 10 wt %. Pad conditioning was not performed for Mn2O3 slurry. The removal rate for conventional slurry decreases as the number of times of reuse increases, even when pad conditioning is appropriately performed.

  10. Elimination Of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In Defense Waste Processing Facility Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.

    2013-01-22

    Based on lab-scale simulations of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) slurry chemistry, the addition of sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide to waste slurries at concentrations sufficient to take the aqueous phase into the alkaline region (pH > 7) with approximately 500 mg nitrite ion/kg slurry (assuming <25 wt% total solids, or equivalently 2,000 mg nitrite/kg total solids) is sufficient to effectively deactivate the noble metal catalysts at temperatures between room temperature and boiling. This is a potential strategy for eliminating catalytic hydrogen generation from the list of concerns for sludge carried over into the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) or Recycle Collection Tank (RCT). These conclusions are drawn in large part from the various phases of the DWPF catalytic hydrogen generation program conducted between 2005 and 2009. The findings could apply to various situations, including a solids carry-over from either the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) or Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) into the SMECT with subsequent transfer to the RCT, as well as a spill of formic acid into the sump system and transfer into an RCT that already contains sludge solids. There are other potential mitigating factors for the SMECT and RCT, since these vessels are typically operated at temperatures close to the minimum temperatures that catalytic hydrogen has been observed to occur in either the SRAT or SME (pure slurry case), and these vessels are also likely to be considerably more dilute in both noble metals and formate ion (the two essential components to catalytic hydrogen generation) than the two primary process vessels. Rhodium certainly, and ruthenium likely, are present as metal-ligand complexes that are favored under certain concentrations of the surrounding species. Therefore, in the SMECT or RCT, where a small volume of SRAT or SME material would be significantly diluted, conditions would be less optimal for forming or sustaining the

  11. Practical field repair of fused slurry silicide coating for space shuttle t.p.s.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reznik, B. D.

    1971-01-01

    Study of short-time high-temperature diffusion treatments as part of a program of development of methods of reapplying fused slurry silicide coating in the field. The metallographic structure and oxidation behavior of R512E applied to Cb-752 coated under simulated field repair conditions was determined. Oxidation testing in reduced pressure environment has shown that performance equivalent to furnace-processed specimens can be obtained in a two-minute diffusion at 2700 F.

  12. High pressure slurry pump. Sand slurry test loop design and results. Wear parts lifetime analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fongaro, S.; Severini, P.; Vinciguerra, G.

    2000-07-01

    This paper shows the experimental phase, following previous work presented at the Sixth International Conference on ``Multiphase Flow in Industrial Plants'', Milan, September 98. A Sand Water Slurry Test Loop has been tested using different sand percentages for a total power of 680 HP with a flow-rate of 35,000 [gpm] and pressure of 2300 [psig]. Its design considered, carefully, the particles build-up effect respecting flow velocity and dead space along the loop and into the hydraulics. The test pump is a TRIPLEX SINGLE ACTING that is one third of the COAL SLURRY SEPTUPLEX PUMP designed for a CHINA PROJECT. Wear rate on the main parts of an high pressure slurry pump have been analyzed running at 145 rpm (piston mean speed of 3.3 [ft/s]) with a net flow of 33,290 [gpm] and pressures between 1216 and 1575 [psig]. Tests gave indications of a damaging process on valves, piston seals and the relative weight on the overall damages. Design changes of piston-seal and its material have been done, results being a longer parts lifetime. The authors compared the results with literature on coal slurry and other sand tests. The pump speed, i.e., valve cycle, isn't the main wear factor, while the fluid speed under the valve is. Their goals are to improve the wear parts lifetime and define functions to relate the wear to operating parameters, design choice, and materials used.

  13. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, E. W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO/sub 3/ solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO/sub 3/ solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s (5.6 to 2.45 ft/s).

  14. Coal-Water Slurry Fuels: An Overview,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-12

    coal gasification and liquefication processes, the capital investment required is modest. While those synthetic fuel processes cost in the order of $4 billion for a 50,000 barrel per day manufacturing facility, a coal-water plant of that size is estimated at abut $80 million (one fiftieth). While the cost of synthetic fuels has been projected at about double that of oil, the costs for coal-water are estimated at 30% to 40% less than oil. Put another way, assuming a 4% energy loss in the coal-water slurry, the resulting fuel cost of the CWM is approximately $3/million BTU.

  15. SIFCON (Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete) with Sand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Phtogrphsf tpe and Identifatio % flowt tests teyYiinders U& U6 10 LE~~ 150 1 3= O-4 slurries also contained microsilica . Three different fiber types...Ash Infiltration tests and selected mixes Water Facility 26025 tap water Kirtland A.F. Base well no. 2 All Microsilica EMS 960 (bagged) Elkem...the end instead of the two. When there are the three sets of numbers, the first set indicates the percent of microsilica with respect to the cement in

  16. Impact of slurry management strategies on potential leaching of nutrients and pathogens in a sandy soil amended with cattle slurry.

    PubMed

    Fangueiro, D; Surgy, S; Napier, V; Menaia, J; Vasconcelos, E; Coutinho, J

    2014-12-15

    For farmers, management of cattle slurry (CS) is now a priority, in order to improve the fertilizer value of the slurry and simultaneously minimize its environmental impact. Several slurry pre-treatments and soil application methods to minimize ammonia emissions are now available to farmers, but the impact of such management strategies on groundwater is still unclear. A laboratory experiment was performed over 24 days in controlled conditions, with undisturbed soil columns (sandy soil) in PVC pipes (30 cm high and 5.7 cm in diameter). The treatments considered (4 replicates) were: a control with no amendment (CTR), injection of whole CS (WSI), and surface application of: whole CS (WSS), acidified (pH 5.5) whole CS (AWSS), the liquid fraction obtained by centrifugation of CS (LFS), and acidified (pH 5.5) liquid fraction (ALFS). An amount of CS equivalent to 240 kg N ha(-1) was applied in all treatments. The first leaching event was performed 72 h after application of the treatments and then leaching events were performed weekly to give a total of four irrigation events (IEs). All the leachates obtained were analyzed for mineral and organic nitrogen, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total carbon, and phosphorus. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli were also quantified in the leachates obtained in the first IE. The results show that both acidification and separation had significant effects on the composition of the leachates: higher NO3(-) concentrations were observed for the LFS and ALFS relative to all the other treatments, throughout the experiment, and lower NO3(-) concentrations were observed for acidified relative to non-acidified treatments at IE2. Acidification of both the LF and WS led to higher NH4(+) concentrations as well as an increase of EC for treatment ALFS relative to the control, in the first IE, and lower pH values in the AWSS. Furthermore, the E. coli and total coliform concentrations in AWSS, LFS, and ALFS were significantly higher than in

  17. Behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs provided with straw in various amounts and frequencies.

    PubMed

    Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H V; Lahrmann, H P; Nielsen, M B F; Amdi, C; Hansen, C F

    2014-11-01

    Straw possesses many characteristics that make it attractive to pigs and can therefore be effective in preventing negative penmate-directed behaviours. However, straw is difficult to handle in current vacuum slurry systems under most commercial conditions and can therefore only be used in limited amounts. To occupy pigs effectively, straw must remain attractive to pigs throughout the whole day; hence, have a certain degree of novelty. We investigated the penmate-directed behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs in a production herd, assigned to five experimental treatments: 1×25, 1×50, 1×100, 2×50 and 4×25 g of chopped straw/pig per day, with 20 replicates of each treatment (pen was regarded as experimental unit). Behaviour was observed at two different growth stages; ~40 and 80 kg live weight of the pigs. Activity and exploratory behaviour directed at penmates, straw, pen components and the slatted floor were registered continuously for 15 min of each hour during day time (0600 to 2200 h) by use of video observation of three focal pigs per pen. The pigs were active for about one-third of the day corresponding to ~5 h/day. Of the active time, an average of 7% (35 min) was spent on penmate-directed behaviour. The pigs were more active and increased their straw-directed behaviour when provided with 100 g straw/pig per day compared with 25 and 50 g (P<0.001). However, penmate-directed behaviour was not reduced with an increased amount of straw (P>0.05), and there was no effect on pigs' behaviour when straw provision was increased per day (P>0.05). Pigs became less active and reduced their straw-directed activities when their weight increased from 40 to 80 kg live weight (P<0.001), but the amount of penmate-directed behaviour was similar (P>0.05). Further, the residual straw results indicated that perhaps a more frequent straw provision could help establish a more even level of fresh available straw during the day. However, the frequent straw provision did not occupy

  18. Multi-stage slurry system used for grinding and polishing materials

    DOEpatents

    Hed, P. Paul; Fuchs, Baruch A.

    2001-01-01

    A slurry system draws slurry from a slurry tank via one of several intake pipes, where each pipe has an intake opening at a different depth in the slurry. The slurry is returned to the slurry tank via a bypass pipe in order to continue the agitation of the slurry. The slurry is then diverted to a delivery pipe, which supplies slurry to a polisher. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is stopped in order for the slurry in the slurry tank to begin to settle. As the polishing continues, slurry is removed from shallower depths in order to pull finer grit from the slurry. When the polishing is complete, the flow in the delivery pipe is ceased. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is resumed to start agitating the slurry. In another embodiment, the multiple intake pipes are replaced by a single adjustable pipe. As the slurry is settling, the pipe is moved upward to remove the finer grit near the top of the slurry tank as the polishing process continues.

  19. Slurry sampling ETAAS determination of sodium impurities in optical crystals of potassium titanyl phosphate and potassium gadolinium tungstate.

    PubMed

    Detcheva, Albena; Gentscheva, Galia; Havezov, Ivan; Ivanova, Elisaveta

    2002-09-12

    Slurry sampling ETAAS was successfully applied to the determination of sodium impurities in single crystals of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) and potassium gadolinium tungstate (KGW). Platform atomizers coated with titanium carbide or tungsten carbide, respectively, were used in order to avoid sensitivity drift due to the changes in the composition and the structure of the platform surface. Calibration curves with aqueous standards could be used for the KGW slurry (no matrix effects); analysis of KTP slurry required the standard additions method. The precision of the proposed method was better than 3% R.S.D. The results obtained by the present method showed a good agreement with those obtained by an independent method-flame AAS after sample digestion, which is an evidence for the good accuracy of the proposed method.

  20. Method and apparatus for improved wire saw slurry

    DOEpatents

    Costantini, Michael A.; Talbott, Jonathan A.; Chandra, Mohan; Prasad, Vishwanath; Caster, Allison; Gupta, Kedar P.; Leyvraz, Philippe

    2000-09-05

    A slurry recycle process for use in free-abrasive machining operations such as for wire saws used in wafer slicing of ingots, where the used slurry is separated into kerf-rich and abrasive-rich components, and the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry. During the process, the average particle size of the makeup slurry is controlled by monitoring the condition of the kerf and abrasive components and making necessary adjustments to the separating force and dwell time of the separator apparatus. Related pre-separator and post separator treatments, and feedback of one or the other separator slurry output components for mixing with incoming used slurry and recirculation through the separator, provide further effectiveness and additional control points in the process. The kerf-rich component is eventually or continually removed; the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry with a controlled, average particle size such that the products of the free-abrasive machining method using the recycled slurry process of the invention are of consistent high quality with less TTV deviation from cycle to cycle for a prolonged period or series of machining operations.

  1. EVALUATION OF CARBON BLACK SLURRIES AS CLEAN BURNING FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to examine the pumpability, atomization and combustion characteristics of slurries made of mixtures of carbon black with No. 2 fuel oil and methanol. Carbon black-No. 2 fuel oil and carbon black-methanol slurries, with carbon black contents of up to 50 ...

  2. Lime slurry use at the Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, L.E.; Hughes, R.W.; Baggett, G.

    1996-04-01

    The use of lime slurry at the IWPF demonstrated many benefits. Hazardous chemical use was reduced, solids handling was improved, water quality was enhanced and there has been a cost savings. The lime slurry also enabled the plant to begin treating the soluble oil waste, which we were not able to do in the past.

  3. Self-Organization in Granular Slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottino, Julio M.; Jain, Nitin; Lueptow, Richard M.; Khakhar, Devang V.

    2000-11-01

    Mixtures of tumbled granular materials under flow exhibit various intriguing types of un-mixing or self-organization. Small differences in particles' density, size or shape may trigger the effect. Nearly all studies to date have addressed the case of dry granular media, where the interparticle fluid is typically air. Here we report the existence of self-organization in wet granular media or slurries, mixtures of particles of different sizes dispersed in a lower density liquid. Technological examples appear in cement, ceramics, fine chemicals, and in the food industry; examples in nature appear in evolution of landslides and transport in river sediments. In spite of significantly different physics at the particle level, both axial banding (alternating bands rich in small and large particles in a long rotating cylinder) and radial segregation (in quasi 2D containers) are observed in slurries. However, axial segregation is significantly faster and the spectrum of outcomes is richer. Moreover, experiments with suitable fluids, reveal, for the first time, the internal structure of axially segregated systems, something that up to now has been accessible only via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experimentation.

  4. Rheological Modifier Testing with DWPF Process Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL, STONE

    2004-02-01

    Rheological modification agents were tested on simulated SRAT and SME products to determine if a suitable agent could be found for the DWPF process slurries. The agents tested were dispersants that lower the rheological properties of slurries by preventing agglomerization. Dolapix CE64, an ethylene glycol, and Disperse-Ayd W28, a polyacrylate, were the most effective dispersants tested. Further evaluation and testing should be performed on Dolapix CE64 and Disperse-Ayd W28 to determine if implementation is possible in DWPF. The initial phase of future work will include optimization of the rheology modifier by the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and development of a maximum concentration limit for the rheology modifiers. IIT has been commissioned to evaluate the properties of these chemicals to determine if the chemical makeup can be optimized to enhance the properties of these modifiers. An initial concentration limit based upon the DWPF flammability limit and other constraints should be calculated to determine the potential downstream impacts.

  5. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  6. Effective Compressibility of a Bubbly Slurry.

    PubMed

    Kam, S. I.; Gauglitz, P. A.; Rossen, W. R.

    2001-09-01

    The goal of this study is to fit model parameters to changes in waste level in response to barometric pressure changes in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. This waste compressibility is a measure of the quantity of gas, typically hydrogen and other flammable gases, that can pose a safety hazard, retained in the waste. A one-dimensional biconical-pore-network model for compressibility of a bubbly slurry is presented in a companion paper. Fitting these results to actual waste level changes in the tanks implies that bubbles in the slurry layer are long and the ratio of pore-body radius to pore-throat radius is close to 1; unfortunately, compressibility can not be quantified unambiguously from the data without additional information on pore geometry. Therefore, determining the quantity of gas in the tanks requires more than just waste-level data. The non-uniqueness of the fit is also found with two other simple models: a capillary-tube model with contact angle hysteresis and a spherical-pore model. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  7. Numerical simulation of turbulent slurry flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghgoo, Mohammad Reza; Spiteri, Reymond J.; Bergstrom, Donlad J.

    2016-11-01

    Slurry flows, i.e., the flow of an agglomeration of liquid and particles, are widely employed in many industrial applications, such as hydro-transport systems, pharmaceutical batch crystallizers, and wastewater disposal. Although there are numerous studies available in the literature on turbulent gas-particle flows, the hydrodynamics of turbulent liquid-particle flows has received much less attention. In particular, the fluid-phase turbulence modulation due to the particle fluctuating motion is not yet well understood and remains challenging to model. This study reports the results of a numerical simulation of a vertically oriented slurry pipe flow using a two-fluid model based on the kinetic theory of granular flows. The particle stress model also includes the effects of frictional contact. Different turbulence modulation models are considered, and their capability to capture the characteristic features of the turbulent flow is assessed. The model predictions are validated against published experimental data and demonstrate the significant effect of the particles on the fluid-phase turbulence.

  8. Improving feed slurry rheology by colloidal techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, W.O.; Ternes, R.L.

    1984-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PSN) has investigated three colloidal techniques in the laboratory to improve the sedimentation and flowability of Hanford simulated (nonradioactive) current acid waste (CAW) melter feed slurry: polymer-induced bridging flocculation; manipulating glass former (raw SiO/sub 2/ or frit) particle size; and alteration of nitric acid content. All three methods proved successful in improving the rheology of the simulated CAW feed. This initially had exhibited nearly worst-case flow and clogging properties, but was transformed into a flowable, resuspendable (nonclogging) feed. While each has advantages and disadvantages, the following three specific alternatives proved successful: addition of a polyelectrolyte in 2000 ppM concentration to feed slurry; substitution of a 49 wt % SiO/sub 2/ colloidal suspension (approx. 10-micron particle size) for the -325 mesh (less than or equal to 44-micron particle size) raw-chemical SiO/sub 2/; and increase of nitric acid content from the reference 1.06 M to optimum 1.35 M. The first method, polymer-induced bridging flocculation, results in a high sediment volume, nonclogging CAW feed. The second method, involving the use of colloidal silica particles results in a nonsedimenting feed that when left unagitated forms a gel. The third method, increase in feed acidity, results in a highly resuspendable (nonclogging) melter feed. Further research is therefore required to determine which of the three alternatives is the preferred method of achieving rheological control of CAW melter feeds.

  9. Bubble column apparatus for separating wax from catalyst slurry

    DOEpatents

    Neathery, James K.; Davis, Burtron H.

    2004-07-13

    Novel methods and devices for production of liquid hydrocarbon products from gaseous reactants are disclosed. In one aspect, a method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon, typically a wax, from a catalyst containing slurry is provided, comprising passing the slurry through at least one downcomer extending from an overhead separation chamber and discharging into the bottom of a slurry bubble column reactor. The downcomer includes a cross-flow filtration element for separating a substantially particle-free liquid hydrocarbon for downstream processing. In another aspect, a method for promoting plug-flow movement in a recirculating slurry bubble column reactor is provided, comprising discharging the recirculating slurry into the reactor through at least one downcomer which terminates near the bottom of the reactor. Devices for accomplishing the above methods are also provided.

  10. Chemists report slurry breakthroughs for syngas-to-alcohol process

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1996-04-24

    Scientists at North Carolina State University (Raleigh) report that they have developed an alcohol synthesis process that uses a high-temperature slurry reactor with a conventional zinc chromite methanol catalyst. The scientists say it is the first time zinc-chromite catalysts have been used in slurry reactors at temperatures as high as 375 C. They add that it could lead to a synthesis gas (syngas)-based route to higher alcohols and to broader commercial applications for slurry reactors. Slurry reactors typically operate at less than 300 C, limiting applications for many high-volume industrial applications. By extending the temperature 100 C, says George Roberts, a chemist at North Carolina State, the work could {open_quotes}open up chemistry never run in slurry reactors before.{close_quotes} Roberts points to potential for use in partial oxidation reactions and synthesis routes involving formaldehyde.

  11. Phenanthrene removal from soil slurries with surfactant-treated oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.W.; Jaffe, P.R.

    1995-06-01

    A soil-slurry washing technique to decontaminate soils containing low-solubility nonionic organic pollutants was investigated, using phenanthrene as a model pollutant. The technique is based on first transferring the sorbed phenanthrene from the soil to anionic surfactant-coated oxide particles, and then separating these anionic surfactant-coated oxide particles with the sorbed phenanthrene from the soil slurry via a magnetic separation technique. The decontamination of two soils with different particle sizes and soil organic matter content was investigated. The proposed soil-slurry washing technique was effective in removing a strongly sorbing nonionic organic contaminant from soil slurries. Various operational scenarios of multistage soil-slurry reactors were evaluated with a mathematical model.

  12. Fuel injection of coal slurry using vortex nozzles and valves

    DOEpatents

    Holmes, Allen B.

    1989-01-01

    Injection of atomized coal slurry fuel into an engine combustion chamber is achieved at relatively low pressures by means of a vortex swirl nozzle. The outlet opening of the vortex nozzle is considerably larger than conventional nozzle outlets, thereby eliminating major sources of failure due to clogging by contaminants in the fuel. Control fluid, such as air, may be used to impart vorticity to the slurry and/or purge the nozzle of contaminants during the times between measured slurry charges. The measured slurry charges may be produced by a diaphragm pump or by vortex valves controlled by a separate control fluid. Fluidic circuitry, employing vortex valves to alternatively block and pass cool slurry fuel flow, is disclosed.

  13. Ammonia emission from a permanent grassland on volcanic soil after the treatment with dairy slurry and urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, F.; Martínez-Lagos, J.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

    2014-10-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is an air pollutant largely emitted from agricultural activities including the application of livestock manures and fertilizers to grassland. This gas has been linked with important negative impacts on natural ecosystems. In southern Chile, the use of inorganic and organic fertilizers (e.g. slurries) has increased in cattle production systems over recent years, heightening the risk of N losses to the wider environment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate on permanent grasslands on a volcanic ash soil in southern Chile: 1) the N loss due to NH3 volatilization following surface application of dairy slurry and urea fertilizer; and 2) the effect of a urease inhibitor on NH3 emissions from urea fertilizer application. Small plot field experiments were conducted over spring, fall, winter and summer seasons, using a system of wind tunnels to measure ammonia emissions. Ammonia losses ranged from 1.8 (winter) to 26.0% (fall) and 3.1 (winter) to 20.5% (summer) of total N applied for urea and slurry, respectively. Based on the readily available N applied (ammoniacal N for dairy slurry and urea N for urea fertilizer), losses from dairy slurry were much greater, at 16.1 and 82.0%, for winter and summer, respectively. The use of a urease inhibitor proved to be an effective option to minimize the N loss due NH3 volatilization from urea fertilizer, with an average reduction of 71% across all seasons. The results of this and other recent studies regarding N losses suggest that ammonia volatilization is the main pathway of N loss from grassland systems in southern Chile on volcanic ash soils when urea and slurry are used as an N source. The use of good management practices, such as the inclusion of a urease inhibitor with urea fertilizer could have a beneficial impact on reducing N losses due NH3 volatilization and the environmental and economic impact of these emissions.

  14. Heat transfer and bubble dynamics in slurry bubble columns for Fischer-Tropsch clean alternative energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chengtian

    With the increasing demand for alternative energy resources, the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process that converts synthesis gas into clean liquid fuels has attracted more interest from the industry. Slurry bubble columns are the most promising reactors for FT synthesis due to their advantages over other reactors. Successful operation, design, and scale-up of such reactors require detailed knowledge of hydrodynamics, bubble dynamics, and transport characteristics. However, most previous studies have been conducted at ambient pressure or covered only low superficial gas velocities. The objectives of this study were to experimentally investigate the heat transfer coefficient and bubble dynamics in slurry bubble columns at conditions that can mimic FT conditions. The air-C9C 11-FT catalysts/glass beads systems were selected to mimic the physical properties of the gas, liquid, and solid phases at commercial FT operating conditions. A heat transfer coefficient measurement technique was developed, and for the first time, this technique was applied in a pilot scale (6-inch diameter) high pressure slurry bubble column. The effects of superficial gas velocity, pressure, solids loading, and liquid properties on the heat transfer coefficients were investigated. Since the heat transfer coefficient can be affected by the bubble properties (Kumar et al., 1992), in this work bubble dynamics (local gas holdup, bubble chord length, apparent bubble frequency, specific interfacial area, and bubble velocity) were studied using the improved four-point optical probe technique (Xue et al., 2003; Xue, 2004). Because the four-point optical technique had only been successfully applied in a churn turbulent flow bubble column (Xue, 2004), this technique was first assessed in a small scale slurry bubble column in this study. Then the bubble dynamics were studied at the same conditions as the heat transfer coefficient investigation in the same pilot scale column. The results from four-point probe

  15. Slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry as screening method for chromium in compost.

    PubMed

    Laborda, F; Górriz, M P; Castillo, J R

    2004-10-20

    Ultrasonic slurry sample introduction was applied to the determination of total chromium in composted materials by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The effect of grinding on the heterogeneity of the test samples and on the attainable precision was studied. The repeatability was influenced by the heterogeneity of the test samples at the mug-level, the R.S.D. of the measurements being 15%. The reproducibility depended on the heterogeneity of the test sample at the mg level, and it could be improved from 11 to 7% by increasing the grinding time. The characteristic mass was 2.6pg and the detection limit for the optimised procedure at the 0.04% (w/v) slurry concentration, 370ngg(-1). Good agreement with a certified reference material and with the conventional microwave assisted digestion method was found by using external calibration with aqueous standards. The performance of the method for screening purposes was evaluated.

  16. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in pigs from different farming systems in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rutjes, S A; Bouwknegt, M; van der Giessen, J W; de Roda Husman, A M; Reusken, C B E M

    2014-04-01

    Sporadic nontravel-related hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been reported in industrialized countries. These infections are caused by zoonotic HEV genotypes 3 and 4 that circulate in swine, wild boar, and deer. In The Netherlands, HEV RNA has been detected in >50% of the pig farms, and HEV-specific antibodies were detected in ∼70% of the slaughter pigs. In the current study, HEV seroprevalences were investigated in pigs raised on conventional, free-range, and organic farms in The Netherlands. Differences in seroprevalence may indicate different exposure routes or transmission dynamics within pig herds for HEV. In 2004, serum samples of 846 fattening pigs were obtained from farms that applied conventional (265 pigs at 24 farms), organic (417 pigs at 42 farms), and free-range (164 pigs at 12 farms) farming. HEV-specific antibodies were detected in samples from all conventional and free-range pig farms and in 41 of 42 organic pig farms, indicating that the probability of introducing HEV on a farm appeared to be equal for the different farming types. The estimated average within-herd seroprevalence was significantly higher for pigs raised on organic farms (89%) than for pigs raised on conventional farms (72%, P = 0.04) and nearly significant for pigs raised on free-range farms (76%, P = 0.06). Six of ten organic farms were estimated to have a withinherd seroprevalence of >95%, compared with 1 of 10 and 4 of 10 of the free-range and conventional pig farms, respectively. This suggests a higher force of infection with HEV for pigs reared on organic farms compared with pigs reared on conventional or free-range farms. This may be due to repetitive exposure to HEV caused by farming system-specific housing conditions, such as a greater contact frequency between pigs and more exposure to pig manure, increasing the transmission rate.

  17. Improved Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-03-20

    The conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons or alcohols involves highly exothermic reactions. Temperature control is a critical issue in these reactors for a number of reasons. Runaway reactions can be a serious safety issue, even raising the possibility of an explosion. Catalyst deactivation rates tend to increase with temperature, particularly of there are hot spots in the reactor. For alcohol synthesis, temperature control is essential because it has a large effect on the selectivity of the catalysts toward desired products. For example, for molybdenum disulfide catalysts unwanted side products such as methane, ethane, and propane are produced in much greater quantities if the temperature increases outside an ideal range. Slurry reactors are widely regarded as an efficient design for these reactions. In a slurry reactor a solid catalyst is suspended in an inert hydrocarbon liquid, synthesis gas is sparged into the bottom of the reactor, un-reacted synthesis gas and light boiling range products are removed as a gas stream, and heavy boiling range products are removed as a liquid stream. This configuration has several positive effects for synthesis gas reactions including: essentially isothermal operation, small catalyst particles to reduce heat and mass transfer effects, capability to remove heat rapidly through liquid vaporization, and improved flexibility on catalyst design through physical mixtures in addition to use of compositions that cannot be pelletized. Disadvantages include additional mass transfer resistance, potential for significant back-mixing on both the liquid and gas phases, and bubble coalescence. In 2001 a multiyear project was proposed to develop improved FT slurry reactors. The planned focus of the work was to improve the reactors by improving mass transfer while considering heat transfer issues. During the first year of the project the work was started and several concepts were developed to prepare for bench-scale testing. Power

  18. Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

    1999-08-01

    Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

  19. Developing anthracite coal water slurry fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Simmon, F.J.; Keller, D.V.; Marino, J.; Keller, D.S.; Ask, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    Public law has directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to increase the use of coal, particularly anthracite, at steam generating facilities. This study evaluates the feasibility of producing slurry fuel from anthracite coal and examines the combustion characteristics of the anthracite/water fuel slurry. The T-Process, a proprietary process developed by Otisca Industries, Ltd., Syracuse, NY, was used to produce anthracite-based coal water slurries for testing and combustion. Although it is feasible to manufacture anthracite water fuel, the slurries used in this research would not burn well without substantial amounts of natural gas cofiring. Stable combustion with reduced support fuel can probably be achieved by chemically or physically modifying the factors that affect combustion. Additional research to determine the differences between anthracite and bituminous slurries, to increase the residence time for anthracite slurries, and to manufacture slurries with oil rather than water needs to be conducted to help the DOD meet anthracite purchase/consumption targets. Coal, Combustion, Coal water fuel, Anthracite coal.

  20. Desulfurization from Bauxite Water Slurry (BWS) Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Ge, Lan; Wang, Zhi; Zhuang, Siyuan; Wang, Yuhua; Ren, Lihui; Wang, Mingyong

    2016-02-01

    Feasibility of high-sulfur bauxite electrolysis desulfurization was examined using the electrochemical characterization, XRD, DTA, and FTIR. The cyclic voltammetry curves indicated that bauxite water slurry (BWS) electrolysis in NaOH system was controlled by diffusion. Additionally, the desulfurization effect of NaCl as the electrolyte was significantly better than that of NaOH as an electrolyte. As the stirring rate increased, the desulfurization ratio in NaCl system was not increased obviously, while the desulfurization ratio in NaOH system increased significantly, indicating further that electrolysis desulfurization in NaOH solution was controlled by diffusion. According to XRD, DTA, and FTIR analysis, the characteristic peaks of sulfur-containing phase in bauxite after electrolysis weakened or disappeared, indicating that the pyrite in bauxite was removed from electrolysis. Finally, the electrolytic desulfurization technology of bauxite was proposed based on the characteristics of BWS electrolysis.

  1. Secondary breakup of coal water slurry drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hai-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang; Li, Wei-Feng

    2011-11-01

    To investigate secondary atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), deformation and breakup of eight kinds of CWS drops are presented using high speed digital camera. Based on morphology, deformation and breakup regimes of CWS drops can be termed some different modes: deformation, multimode breakup (including two sub-modes: hole breakup and tensile breakup), and shear breakup. Correlations on the ranges of breakup modes are also obtained. The conventional Weber number and Ohnesorge number are found to be insufficient to classify all breakup modes of CWS drops, so two other non-dimensional numbers based on rheology of CWS are suggested to use in the deformation and breakup regime map. Finally, total breakup time is studied and correlated, which increases with Ohnesorge number.

  2. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Gidaspow, D.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  3. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E.; Hietala, J.; Wendland, R.D.; Collins, F.

    1992-07-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  4. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E. ); Hietala, J. ); Wendland, R.D. ); Collins, F. )

    1992-01-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  5. PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

    1993-11-29

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy`s, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period.

  6. Latex migration in battery slurries during drying.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sanghyuk; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Yamamura, Masato

    2013-07-02

    We used real-time fluorescence microscopy to investigate the migration of latex particles in drying battery slurries. The time evolution of the fluorescence signals revealed that the migration of the latex particles was suppressed above the entanglement concentration of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), while it was significantly enhanced when CMC fully covered the surfaces of the graphite particles. In particular, a two-step migration was observed when the graphite particles flocculated by depletion attraction at high CMC/graphite mass ratios. The transient states of the nonadsorbing CMC and graphite particles in a medium were discussed, and the uses of this novel measurement technique to monitor the complex drying processes of films were demonstrated.

  7. Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Moujaes, S.F.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

  8. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  9. The Correlation between Thermal and Noxious Gas Environments, Pig Productivity and Behavioral Responses of Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hong Lim; Han, Sang Hwa; Albright, Louis D.; Chang, Won Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Correlations between environmental parameters (thermal range and noxious gas levels) and the status (productivity, physiological, and behavioral) of growing pigs were examined for the benefit of pig welfare and precision farming. The livestock experiment was conducted at a Seoul National University station in South Korea. Many variations were applied and the physiological and behavioral responses of the growing pigs were closely observed. Thermal and gas environment parameters were different during the summer and winter seasons, and the environments in the treatments were controlled in different manners. In the end, this study finds that factors such as Average Daily Gain (ADG), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), stress, posture, and eating habits were all affected by the controlled environmental parameters and that appropriate control of the foregoing could contribute to the improvement of precision farming and pig welfare. PMID:22016700

  10. Pig in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all…

  11. Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, C.J.

    1998-01-08

    A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples.

  12. Preparing polymeric matrix composites using an aqueous slurry technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor); Towell, Timothy W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous process was developed to prepare a consolidated composite laminate from an aqueous slurry. An aqueous poly(amic acid) surfactant solution was prepared by dissolving a poly(amic acid) powder in an aqueous ammonia solution. A polymeric powder was added to this solution to form a slurry. The slurry was deposited on carbon fiber to form a prepreg which was dried and stacked to form a composite laminate. The composite laminate was consolidated using pressure and was heated to form the polymeric matrix. The resulting composite laminate exhibited high fracture toughness and excellent consolidation.

  13. The importance of the solids loading on confirming the dielectric nanosize dependence of BaTiO₃ powders by slurry method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Nie, Yi Mei; Li, Shu Jing; Liang, Hai Yan

    2013-01-01

    The dielectric nanosize dependence of BaTiO₃ powders was investigated by the slurry method, where two series of BaTiO₃ slurries with 10 vol% and 30 vol% solids loadings were prepared as model samples. Applying the Bruggeman-Hanai equation, the high-frequency limiting permittivity (ε(h)) of the slurries was extracted from the dielectric spectra. The ε(h) of the 10 vol% slurry showed abnormal size independence in the range from 100 nm to 700 nm, and the ε(h) of the 30 vol% slurry exhibited good agreement with the previous prediction. Through analysing quantitatively the response of ε(h) to the changing permittivity of the powders under different solids loading, it was found that the ε h of the slurry with lower solids loading is more inclined to be interfered by the systematic and random errors. Furthermore, a high permittivity value was found in the BaTiO₃ powders with 50 nm particle size.

  14. The annual ammonia budget of fertilised cut grassland - Part 1: Micrometeorological flux measurements and emissions after slurry application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, C.; Flechard, C. R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2010-02-01

    Two commercial ammonia (NH3) analysers were customised to allow continuous measurements of vertical concentration gradients. The gradients were used to derive ammonia exchange fluxes above a managed grassland site at Oensingen (Switzerland) by application of the aerodynamic gradient method. The measurements from July 2006 to October 2007 covered five complete growth-cut cycles and included six applications of liquid cattle slurry. The average accuracy of the flux measurements during unstable and near-neutral conditions was 20% and the detection limit was 10 ng NH3 m-2 s-1. Hence the flux measurements are considered sufficiently accurate for studying typical NH3 deposition rates over growing vegetation. Quantifying the overall emissions after slurry applications required the application of elaborate interpolations because of difficulties capturing the initial emissions during broadspreading of liquid manure. The emissions were also calculated with a mass balance method yielding similar fluxes. NH3 losses after slurry application expressed as percentage of emitted nitrogen versus applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) varied between 4 and 19%, which is roughly a factor of three lower than the values for broadspreading of liquid manure in emission inventories. The comparatively low emission factors appear to be a consequence of the low dry matter content of the applied slurry and soil properties favouring ammonium adsorption.

  15. The annual ammonia budget of fertilised cut grassland - Part 1: Micrometeorological flux measurements and emissions after slurry application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, C.; Flechard, C. R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2009-10-01

    Two commercial ammonia (NH3) analysers were customised to allow continuous measurements of vertical concentration gradients. The gradients were used to derive ammonia exchange fluxes above a managed grassland site at Oensingen (Switzerland) by application of the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM). The semi-continuous measurements during 1.5 years covered five complete growth-cut cycles and included six applications of liquid cattle slurry. The average accuracy of the flux measurements during conditions of well established turbulence was 20% and the detection limit 10 ng NH3 m-2 s-1, hence sufficient for studying the background exchange of NH3. Quantifying emissions after slurry applications required the application of elaborate interpolations because of difficulties capturing the initial emissions during manure spreading in some parts of the experiments. The emissions were also calculated with a mass balance method (MBM) yielding similar fluxes. NH3 losses after slurry application expressed as percentage of emitted nitrogen versus applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) varied between 4 and 19%, which is lower than typical values for broadspreading of liquid manure. The comparatively low emission factors appear to be a consequence of the rather thin slurry applied here and soil properties favouring ammonium adsorption.

  16. Cysticercosis in the pig.

    PubMed

    de Aluja, A S

    2008-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is still an important parasitosis in rural pigs in many developing countries, México among them. The main causes for the persistence of this condition are lack of hygiene in the rural communities, lack of education of the animal owners, lack of control in the trade of pigs and their meat and lack of conscientious meat inspection. The pig production systems in the marginated areas of Mexico are briefly mentioned and it is stressed that among the important reasons for the persistence of the reproductive cycle of Taenia solium is the fact that appropriate toilet facilities in village dwellings are not mandatory. The diagnostic methods of cysticercosis in the living pigs and in their meat are discussed and the degenerative stages of the larvae as well as methods to test their viability are explained. The treatment of infected pigs and their meat is discussed. Recommendations for control programmes are given.

  17. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  18. Watch out guinea pigs, here I come.

    PubMed

    Norton, T

    2001-04-01

    We live in an age of increasing emphasis of do-it-yourself, as a mere glance at the TV schedule will prove. Why not apply this same principle to your research? By becoming the guinea pig of your own experimentation you will be following a noble precedent--though maybe not a sane one!

  19. Struvite precipitation in raw and co-digested swine slurries for nutrients recovery in batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Taddeo, Raffaele; Lepistö, Raghida

    2015-01-01

    The release of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from agro-industrial sources is a major environmental concern. Furthermore, the scarcity of mineable P and the growing demand for food worldwide necessitate that we find an alternative P source. This study applied struvite precipitation for N-P recovery to slurries with high levels of organics and ammonia to achieve environmental protection from excessive nutrients diffusion and to generate a sustainable P source. Batch tests were carried out on raw and co-digested swine slurries to study the feasibility of struvite precipitation and the effect of several parameters, including pH, reaction time, competing ions (Ca²⁺, K⁺), total solids (TS), and alkalinity. The batch assays with raw swine slurries showed high N-P removals (up to 80%), while the anaerobic liquor returned lower recovery efficiency due to the high solids and alkali content. Struvite crystallization was detected at pH values as low as 6, and the characteristics of the recovered struvite matched those of the theoretical. Slight co-precipitation of calcium-phosphates occurred and was dependent on the Ca²⁺/Mg²⁺ ratio rather than on varying pH values. Struvite precipitation was shown to be feasible in complex matrices as agro-industrial effluents, characterized by high NH(4)(+), alkalinity, solids and organic content, and interfering ions such as Ca²⁺ and K⁺.

  20. Multiple model approach to evaluation of accelerated carbonation for steelmaking slag in a slurry reactor.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Hsing-Lu; Chang, E-E; Kim, Hyunook; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2016-07-01

    Basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) exhibits highly alkaline properties due to its high calcium content, which is beneficial to carbonation reaction. In this study, accelerated carbonation of BOFS was evaluated under different reaction times, temperatures, and liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios in a slurry reactor. CO2 mass balance within the slurry reactor was carried out to validate the technical feasibility of fixing gaseous CO2 into solid precipitates. After that, a multiple model approach, i.e., theoretical kinetics and empirical surface model, for carbonation reaction was presented to determine the maximal carbonation conversion of BOFS in a slurry reactor. On one hand, the reaction kinetics of BOFS carbonation was evaluated by the shrinking core model (SCM). Calcite (CaCO3) was identified as a reaction product through the scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses, which provided the rationale of applying the SCM in this study. The rate-limiting step of carbonation was found to be ash-diffusion controlled, and the effective diffusivity for carbonation of BOFS in a slurry reactor were determined accordingly. On the other hand, the carbonation conversion of BOFS was predicted by the response surface methodology (RSM) via a nonlinear mathematical programming. According to the experimental data, the highest carbonation conversion of BOFS achieved was 57% under an L/S ratio of 20 mL g(-1), a CO2 flow rate of 0.1 L min(-1), and a pressure of 101.3 kPa at 50 °C for 120 min. Furthermore, the applications and limitations of SCM and RSM were examined and exemplified by the carbonation of steelmaking slags.

  1. New-Generation Sealing Slurries For Borehole Injection Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryczek, Stanisław; Gonet, Andrzej; Wiśniowski, Rafał; Złotkowski, Albert

    2015-12-01

    The development of techniques and technologies thanks to which parameters of the ground medium can be modified makes specialists look for new recipes of geopolymers - binders for the reinforcing and sealing of unstable and permeable grounds. The sealing slurries are expected to meet a number of strict requirements, therefore it is important to find new admixtures and additives which could modify the fresh and hardened slurry. Special attention has been recently paid to the fluid ash - a by-product of the combustion of hard coals. However, the use of this additive is associated with the application of appropriate superplastifier. Laboratory analyses of rheological parameters of fresh sealing slurries and the ways of improving their liquidity by a properly selected third-generation superplastifier are presented in the paper. The slurries were based on Portland cement CEM I, milled granulated large-furnace slag and fly ash from fluidized-bed combustion of hard coal.

  2. Economics of a commercial slurry-phase biological treatment process

    SciTech Connect

    Jerger, D.E.; Woodhull, P.M.

    1995-12-31

    Slurry-phase bioremediation is an engineered process for treating contaminated soils or sludges in a slurry of water at 10 to 40% solids. Slurry-phase treatment relies on the mobilization of contaminants to the aqueous phase, where they are susceptible to microbial degradation. The mobilization or dissolution step can be the result of either microbial or physical/chemical action. Operating parameters are maintained to provide optimal conditions for biological treatment of the contaminants. OHM Remediation Services Corp. has completed the full-scale slurry-phase biological treatment of 10,500 yd{sup 3} of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-K001 wastes at the Southeastern Wood Preserving Superfund site in Canton, Mississippi. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the untreated material ranged from 8,000 mg/kg to 12,000 mg/kg dry-weight. A 95% reduction in total PAH concentration was achieved following treatment.

  3. Low phytate corn feed reduces swine slurry P content without affecting crop P availability in slurry applied soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional corn feed contains phosphorus (P) in a form that monogastric animals such as swine and poultry can not use efficiently. Poor use efficiency of feed P requires P supplements be added to the diet and results in manure having a high P content. Land application of this manure, at rates to me...

  4. Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    tetradec- ane-containing microcapsules with an average size of 4.4 μm. Yamagishi et al. (1999) obtained empirical data for microencapsulated octadecane ob...MPCM slurry (90 – 150 μm). It should be noted that the mass of an average microcapsule is equal to the mass of microencapsulated PCM and the mass...ER D C TR -0 8 -4 Basic Research/Military Construction Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry Jorge L

  5. Effective use of fly ash slurry as fill material.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, S; Kawaguchi, M; Yasuhara, K

    2000-09-15

    A lot of effort has been put into increasing coal ash utilization; however, 50% of total amount is disposed of on land and in the sea. Several attempts have been reported recently concerning slurried coal fly ash use for civil engineering materials, such as for structural fill and backfill. The authors have studied this issue for more than 15 years and reported its potential for (1) underwater fills, (2) light weight backfills, and (3) light weight structural fills, through both laboratory tests and construction works. This paper is an overview of the results obtained for slurry, focusing on the following. (1) Coal fly ash reclaimed by slurry placement shows lower compressibility, higher ground density, and higher strength than by the other methods. This higher strength increases stability against liquefaction during earthquake. (2) Higher stability of the fly ash ground formed by slurry placement is caused by higher density and its self-hardening property. (3) Stability of fly ash reclaimed ground can be increased by increasing density and also by strength enhancement by cement addition. (4) Technical data obtained through a man-made island construction project shows the advantages of fly ash slurry in terms of mechanical properties such as higher stability against sliding failure, sufficient ground strength, and also in terms of cost saving. (5) Concentration in leachates from the placed slurry is lower than the Japanese environmental law. (6) In order to enlarge the fly ash slurry application toward a lightweight fill, mixtures of air foam, cement and fly ash were examined. Test results shows sufficient durability of this material against creep failure. This material was then used as lightweight structural fill around a high-rise building, and showed sufficient quality. From the above data, it can be concluded that coal fly ash slurry can be effectively utilized in civil engineering projects.

  6. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOEpatents

    Nodd, Dennis G.; Walker, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing with an atomizing air flow and directed into the combustion chamber. The atomizer includes a swirler located immediately adjacent to where the fuel slurry is introduced into the combustion chamber and which has a single center channel through which the carbonaceous material-water slurry flows into a plurality of diverging channels continuous with the center channel from which the slurry exits the swirler immediately adjacent to an aperture in the combustion chamber. The swirler includes a plurality of slots around its periphery extending the length thereof through which the atomizing air flows and by means of which the atomizing air is deflected so as to exert a maximum shear force upon the carbonaceous material-water slurry as it exits the swirler and enters the combustion chamber. A circulating coolant system or boiler feed water is provided around the periphery of the burner along the length thereof to regulate burner operating temperature, eliminate atomizer plugging, and inhibit the generation of sparklers, thus increasing combustion efficiency. A secondary air source directs heated air into the combustion chamber to promote recirculation of the hot combustion gases within the combustion chamber.

  7. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYSTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

    2005-09-29

    This report covers the third year of this research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we utilized experimental data from the STSR, that were obtained during the first two years of the project, to perform vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations and estimate kinetic parameters. We used a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) with estimated values of binary interaction coefficients for the VLE calculations. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Occasional discrepancies (for some of the experimental data) between calculated and experimental values of the liquid phase composition were ascribed to experimental errors. The VLE calculations show that the vapor and the liquid are in thermodynamic equilibrium under reaction conditions. Also, we have successfully applied the Levenberg-Marquardt method (Marquardt, 1963) to estimate parameters of a kinetic model proposed earlier by Lox and Froment (1993b) for FTS on an iron catalyst. This kinetic model is well suited for initial studies where the main goal is to learn techniques for parameter estimation and statistical analysis of estimated values of model parameters. It predicts that the chain growth parameter ({alpha}) and olefin to paraffin ratio are independent of carbon number, whereas our experimental data show that they vary with the carbon number

  8. Synthetic maternal pheromone stimulates feeding behavior and weight gain in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    McGlone, J J; Anderson, D L

    2002-12-01

    One hundred and forty-four pigs were used to determine the effects of a putative synthetic maternal pheromone on behavior and performance of weanling pigs. Each pen of weaned pigs contained three pigs that were given free access to water and feed. Pigs were videotaped in time lapse for 48 h after weaning and weekly body weights and feed disappearances were recorded for 4 wk. Treatments included: a) control (vehicle applied), b) 30 mL of synthetic pheromone applied to the feeder, or c) 10 mL of synthetic pheromone applied to each of three pigs' snouts. Pigs exposed to the synthetic pheromone spent more (P < 0.05) time with their heads in the feeder and less (P < 0.05) time drinking, lying down, or engaged in agonistic behaviors than control pigs. Pigs exposed to the synthetic pheromone were more (P < 0.05) active during the 48-h period of video taping than control pigs. Pigs exposed to the synthetic pheromone (either on the feeder or their snout) had increased (P < 0.01) average daily gain (ADG) and better (P < 0.01) feed:gain ratio than control pigs over the 28-d postweaning period. In conclusion, the putative synthetic pheromone, applied once at weaning, stimulated apparent feeding behaviors, and reduced fighting and apparent drinking behaviors during the first 48 h after weaning. ADG and feed:gain ratio were improved by application of the putative synthetic pheromone either directly on the feeder or when painted on the pigs' snouts. Olfactory signals can modulate adaptation to the postweaning environment in ways that may improve pig performance and welfare.

  9. Development of slurry erosion resistant materials by laser-based direct metal deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarrapareddy, Eswar

    -shaped probe and a linear scale with a digital readout. The damaged surfaces are characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the possible application of a material failure model, called damage initiation and damage propagation, to the case of the impingement of a mixture of solid and liquid particles on the Ni-Tung FGMs, Ni-Tung 40, and 4140 steels. Potentiodynamic polarization curves are generated for the three tested materials to illustrate the susceptibility of the materials for an erosive environment. Further, a nano-based material system resistant to the impingement of solid and liquid particles on solid surfaces was developed by the LBDMD process. The nano-based materials system contains five percent tungsten carbide (WC) nano-particles that are agglomerated with nickel-tungsten carbide 60 (Ni-Tung 60) by a ball mill operation for slurry erosion resistance applications. Slurry erosion tests are performed on the LBDMD processed depositions with a ceramic proppant delivered at different impingement angles using an abrasive water jet machine. From these tests, the amount of material removed, depth of penetration, and profile of the formed crater are computed as a function of the abrasive water jet impingement angles. The nano-based materials system exhibited better performance for slurry erosion resistance than the monolithic Ni-Tung 60 depositions and 4140 steels. In order to understand the role of the WC-nano particles influence on slurry erosion resistance and to understand the characteristic features of erosion surfaces, subsurfaces, and the erosion mechanism, different advanced characterization tools are used. This nano-based materials system was applied for the restoration of damaged oil drilling crossover tools. A material failure model (MFM) called progressive damage initiation and propagation for the impingement of solid and liquid particles on the solid surfaces has been used to numerically simulate the slurry erosion process by using the

  10. Polishing slurry induced surface haze on phosphate laser glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E; Ehrmann, P R; Steele, R A

    2004-03-12

    The effects of residual polishing slurry on the surface topology of highly-polished, Nd-doped metaphosphate laser glasses are reported. Glass samples were pitched polished using cerium oxide or zirconium oxide slurry at different pHs and then washed by different methods that allowed varying amounts of residual slurry to ''dry'' on the surface. Upon re-washing with water, some of the samples showed surface haze (scatter), which scaled with the amount of residual slurry. Profilometry measurements showed that the haze is the result of shallow surface pits (100 nm - 20 {micro}m wide x {approx}15 nm deep). Chemical analyses of material removed during rewashing, confirmed the removal of glass components as well as the preferential removal of modifier ions (e.g. K{sup 1+} and Mg{sup 2+}). The surface pits appear to result from reaction of the glass with condensed liquid at the slurry particle-glass interface that produces water-soluble phosphate products that dissolves away with subsequent water contact. Aggressive washing, to remove residual slurry immediately following polishing, can minimize surface haze on phosphate glasses. It is desirable to eliminate haze from glass used in high-peak-power lasers, since it can cause scatter-induced optical modulation that can cause damage to downstream optics.

  11. Testing of high temperature coal slurry pump packings

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, B.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents the results of a test program of packing designs and materials for high temperature coal slurry plunger pump services. The work was conducted to support the investigations and development of reliable and cost-effective reciprocating coal slurry pumps for future coal liquefaction process application. The short-term objectives were to screen, test and evaluate the state-of-the-art, commercially available packing designs and materials for the coal slurry feed pumps at the coal liquefaction pilot plants. Four major tasks were completed: failure analysis of slurry feed pumps packing components; selection of commercial packing designs and materials for testing; laboratory testing of high temperature coal slurry pump packings; and field testing of selected coalslurry pump packings. The results are presented. The primary root causes of the packing failures experienced at the pilot plants were identified as: insufficient packing lubrication, ineffective plunger flushing, unstable plunger alignment conditions of the pump, packing material incompatible to slurry and solvent, and undesirable packing installation, start-up, standby, and maintenance.

  12. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This project studies the rheology and airblast atomization of micronized coal slurries. Its major objectives are (1) to promote further understanding of the mechanisms and the roles of additives in airblast atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), and (2) to investigate the impacts of coal particle surface properties and interparticle forces on CWS rheology. We have found that the flow behavior index (n) of a suspension (or slurry) is determined by the relative importance of the interparticle van der Waals attraction and the interparticle electrostatic repulsion. The interparticle attraction, measured by the Hamaker constant scaled to the thermal energy at 25[degrees]C (A/kT), causes particle aggregation, which breaks down at high shear rates, and thus leads to slurry pseudoplastic behavior (n< 1). At a constant particle volume fraction and surface charge density (qualitatively measured by the zeta potential in deionized water), n decreases linearly as A/kT increases. The relative viscosity of the pseudoplastic suspension with respect to that of the suspending liquid is found to be independent of particle density and correlate well with the particle Peclet number which equals the particle diffusional relaxation time multiplied by shear rate. Specifically, the relative viscosities of the pseudoplastic glycerol/water coal slurry and the ethylene glycol/glycerol sand slurry, at same volume fractions as well as similar particle size distributions and liquid viscosities, as functions of the particle Peclet number fall along the same line.

  13. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs.

    PubMed

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-Ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-09-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs.

  14. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs. PMID:27652340

  15. Liquefaction of Douglas Fir wood slurries: titration of acids and anions in aqueous product and feed slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.G.

    1981-03-01

    After hydrolytic pretreatment, wood slurries contain substantial amounts of organic acids. Additional acids are produced during the liquefaction step whether or not there is prehydrolysis. The acids have pH's in the range of about 3 to 5 and are easily titrated potentiometrically with sodium hydroxide. Anions present in neutralized slurry or in aqueous product can be titrated with hydrogen chloride solution with appropriate corrections for sulfate if present, and for excess titrant at the low pH of the endpoint.

  16. Slurry combustion. Volume 1, Text: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Essenhigh, R.

    1993-06-21

    The project described in this Report was to investigate the possibility of using sorbent added to coal-water fuel (CWF) mixtures as a means of reducing SOX emissions when burning Ohio coal. The results are significantly encouraging, with SOX concentrations reduced by amounts ranging from 25% to 65%, depending on the sorbent type and the firing conditions, where one major condition identified was the residence time in the flame gases. With the sorbent-loaded slurrys, the trend generally showed increasing SO{sub 2} capture with increasing sorbent loading. There were significant differences between the two different mixture formulations, however: The calcite/No. 8-seam mixture showed significantly higher SO{sub 2} capture at all times (ranging from 45% to 65%) than did the dolomite/No. 5 seam mixture (ranging from 25% to 45%). If the successes so far achieved are not to be wasted, advantage should be taken of these encouraging results by extending the work at both the present scale to determine the other unknown factors controlling sorption efficiency, and at larger scale to start implementation in commercial systems.

  17. New technology improves cement-slurry design

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A promising geothermal concession is located in a tea plantation on the island of Java. A drilling project was undertaken to evaluate and harness this resource for geothermal electricity generation. The program used two slimhole rigs to drill appraisal wells to establish the potential of the field. Geothermal wells present the most severe conditions to which cements are exposed. As a result, their performance requirements are among the most stringent. Geothermal cements are usually designed to provide at least 1,000 psi compressive strength and no more than 1.0-md water permeability. While casings with tight annular clearances require that good cementing practices be observed, they also create conditions that demand much greater care and control in slurry and procedure design than regular casing cementation. Free-water and thickening-time requirements are similar for geothermal and slimhole conditions, but the use of perlite and silica flour complicate the rheology required for geothermal wells. The paper describes liquid-cement premix, applications, laboratory testing, field pilot testing, and field operations.

  18. Reduction of Methane Emission during Slurry Storage by the Addition of Effective Microorganisms and Excessive Carbon Source from Brewing Sugar.

    PubMed

    Bastami, Mohd Saufi B; Jones, Davey L; Chadwick, David R

    2016-11-01

    Storing livestock manure is the primary stage of manure management where microbial processes and chemical reactions result in the release of methane (CH), nitrous oxide (NO), ammonia (NH), and carbon dioxide (CO). This study examined the reduction of CH emissions from slurry storage under two temperatures (cool [10°C] and warm [30°C]) when a glucose-rich substrate (brewing sugar) and activated effective microorganisms were applied at 10% (w/w) and 5% (v/w), respectively. Brewing sugar addition influenced microbial anaerobic respiration, resulting in a reduction of slurry pH to <5.0, through "self-acidification" caused by lactic acid production. Subsequently, CH emissions were significantly reduced by 87 and 99% in the cool and warm environments, respectively. The effective microorganism treatment did not change the chemical characteristics of the slurry but reduced CH emissions by 17 and 27% ( < 0.05) in the cool and warm environments, respectively. These results suggest that self-acidification after addition of a carbon source may be a promising alternative to slurry acidification using concentrated acids.

  19. Determination of lead and manganese in biological samples and sediment using slurry sampling and flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Daniel Rodrigues; Castro, Jacira Teixeira; Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    A procedure was developed for the determination of lead (Pb) and manganese (Mn) using slurry sampling. The two elements were detected using flame atomic absorption spectrometry with a slotted tube atom trap. Slurries were prepared by adding nitric acid solution (0.30%, w/v) to a powdered sample (0.10 g). After homogenization by ultrasonic bath for 15 min, the slurries were introduced directly into the detection equipment. Some conditions of the procedure were evaluated, such as acid concentration, presence of surfactants, and sonication time. Under optimized conditions, the LODs and LOQs achieved were 0.8 and 2.6 microg/g for Pb and 0.5 and 1.6 microg/g for Mn, respectively. The precision obtained varied between 3.1 and 5.8% (Mn), and 2.6 and 5.4% (Pb) for slurries of shrimp and sediment. The analytical curves were established using aqueous standards in nitric acid solutions. The accuracy of the method was assessed through the determination of Pb and Mn in the following certified reference materials: ERM-CE 278 (mussel tissue), CRM 397 (human hair), and SRM 1646a (estuarine sediment). The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of Pb and Mn in six samples of shrimp powder, seasoning, and river sediment. The levels of Mn detected varied from 2.2 to 71.3 microg/g; Pb was detected in only one sediment sample (4.3 microg/g).

  20. Pig production in the Solomon Islands. I. Village pig production.

    PubMed

    de Fredrick, D F

    1977-05-01

    In 181 villages in the Solomon Islands the pig: human ratio was 1:5-8 and the annual per capita pork consumption was 4-2 kg. Some communities did not keep pigs or eat pig meat. Sows weaned an average of 5-5 piglets per year and mean liveweight at 12 months of age was 28-4 kg. Most pigs were kept on the ground but some were housed in pens over the sea and very few lived in their owner's houses. Pigs were important in the social life of the people but proportionally fewer pigs were raised than in neighbouring Pacific countries.

  1. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan; Ngoc, Pham Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-02-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only reduced E. coli concentrations by 1 to 2 log units to 3.70 ± 0.84 Escherichia coli (log10) cfu/ml on average in effluent as compared with raw slurry. Biogas effluent was commonly used to fertilize vegetables or discharged directly into the garden or aquatic recipients. Reduced problems with bad smells and flies were reported as main reasons for establishing a biogas digester. Further studies are needed to assess human and animal health hazards associated with the discharge and use of biogas effluent from small-scale biogas systems.

  2. Prophylactic and metaphylactic antimicrobial use in Belgian fattening pig herds.

    PubMed

    Callens, Bénédicte; Persoons, Davy; Maes, Dominiek; Laanen, Maria; Postma, Merel; Boyen, Filip; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Butaye, Patrick; Catry, Boudewijn; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2012-09-01

    The monitoring of antimicrobial use is an essential step to control the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Between January and October 2010 data on prophylactic and metaphylactic antimicrobial use were collected retrospectively on 50 closed or semi-closed pig herds. Ninety-three percent of the group treatments were prophylactic whereas only 7% were methaphylactic. The most frequently used antimicrobials orally applied at group level were colistin (30.7%), amoxicillin (30.0%), trimethoprim-sulfonamides (13.1%), doxycycline (9.9%) and tylosin (8.1%). The most frequently applied injectable antimicrobials were tulathromycin (45.0%), long acting ceftiofur (40.1%) and long acting amoxicillin (8.4%). The treatment incidences (TI) based on the used daily dose pig (UDD(pig) or the actually administered dose per day per kg pig of a drug) for all oral and injectable antimicrobial drugs was on average 200.7 per 1000 pigs at risk per day (min=0, max=699.0), while the TI based on the animal daily dose pig (ADD(pig) or the national defined average maintenance dose per day per kg pig of a drug used for its main indication) was slightly higher (average=235.8, min=0, max=1322.1). This indicates that in reality fewer pigs were treated with the same amount of antimicrobials than theoretically possible. Injectable products were generally overdosed (79.5%), whereas oral treatments were often underdosed (47.3%). In conclusion, this study shows that prophylactic group treatment was applied in 98% of the visited herds and often includes the use of critically important and broad-spectrum antimicrobials. In Belgium, the guidelines for prudent use of antimicrobials are not yet implemented.

  3. Mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs*

    PubMed Central

    Elling, F.; Møller, T.

    1973-01-01

    In Denmark a nephropathy in pigs characterized by tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis has been identified frequently during the last 5 decades in the course of meat inspection in slaughterhouses. The disease was first described by Larsen, who recognized the connexion between feeding mouldy rye to pigs and the development of the nephropathy. In this study kidneys were examined from 19 pigs coming from a farm with an outbreak of nephropathy. The barley fed to the pigs was contaminated with the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Histological examination revealed different degrees of change ranging from slight regressive changes in the tubular epithelium and periglomerular and interstitial fibrosis to tubular atrophy, thickened basement membranes, glomerular sclerosis, and marked fibrosis. These differences were considered to be due to differences in the length of time of exposure to the mouldy barley and differences in the amount of mycotoxin consumed by the individual pig. However, it will be necessary to carry out experiments using crystalline ochratoxin A in order to prove such a relationship. Mycotoxins have also been suggested as etiological factors in Balkan nephropathy in man, which in the initial stages is characterized by tubular lesions similar to those seen in mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4546872

  4. Effect of Groove Pattern of Chemical Mechanical Polishing Pad on Slurry Flow Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Doi, Toshiro K.; Uneda, Michio; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Ohnishi, Osamu; Seshimo, Kiyoshi; Aida, Hideo

    2012-05-01

    In chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), the slurry flow behavior on the polishing pad is very important both for improving polishing effectiveness and for reducing the slurry consumption. In this study, we aim to evaluate two types of CMP pad that have unique special groove patterns, slurry outflow and inflow pads, for controlling the slurry flow behavior. We describe the effect of the groove patterns on the slurry flow behavior observed using images recorded using a high-speed digital camera. The results of the study indicate several advantages of the proposed pads over the conventional pads from the viewpoint of slurry flow behavior.

  5. Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dudukovic, M.P.

    1999-05-14

    The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research Engineering Company was to improve the knowledge base for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. During the first year (July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996) of this three year program novel experimental tools (computer aided radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), particle image velocimetry (PIV), heat probe, optical fiber probe and gamma ray tomography) were developed and tuned for measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field, holdup distribution, heat transfer and bubble size. The accomplishments were delineated in the First Technical Annual Report. The second year (July, 1996--June 30, 1997) was spent on further development and tuning of the novel experimental tools (e.g., development of Monte Carlo calibration for CARPT, optical probe development), building up the hydrodynamic data base using these tools and comparison of the two techniques (PIV and CARPT) for determination of liquid velocities. A phenomenological model for gas and liquid backmixing was also developed. All accomplishments were summarized in the Second Annual Technical Report. During the third and final year of the program (July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998) and during the nine months no cost extension, the high pressure facility was completed and a set of data was taken at high pressure conditions. Both PIV, CT and CARPT were used. More fundamental hydrodynamic modeling was also undertaken and model predictions were compared to data. The accomplishments for this period are summarized in this report.

  6. Preparation and combustion of high ash coal tailing slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ziping; Zhang Wenfu; Fu Xiaoheng; Wang Zuna; Li Hui

    1998-12-31

    Flotation tailings from a coal preparation plant are known for their high ash, low heating value, high moisture content even after thickening and filtration, and difficult handability. However, they can be easily converted into a slurry fuel for boilers. Two flotation tailings, containing ash of 31.89% and 41.87% respectively, have been converted into slurry fuel with the following properties: solid content being 70.4% and 74.4% respectively; low heating value, 13,694kj/kg and 10,970kj/kg; and viscosity, 379 mPa.s and 180 mPa.s at a shear rate of 100s{sup {minus}1}. An eccentric slant jet coal slurry burner was installed at the boiler. Slurry atomizing nozzle operated at low pressure. Both slurries gave stable combustion without supporting fuel under the condition of cool air supply. A new way of flotation tailing utilization was demonstrated. China has more than 200 coal preparation plants washing more than 300 million tons of coal annually. These preparation plants generate more than 10 million tons of tailing annually, most of which is not currently being used, causing great environmental pollution and waste management difficulties for the enterprises. Comprehensive utilization of coal washer tailings is one of the key issues of environmental protection and energy saving in China.

  7. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report focuses on the effects of interparticle forces on the rheology and airblast atomization of micronized coal water slurry (CWS). We found that the CWS flow behavior index is determined by the relative importance of the interparticle van der Waals attraction and the interparticle electrostatic repulsion. The former intensifies as the Hamaker constant increases and the interparticle distance reduces while the latter increases as the particle surface charge density increases. The interparticle attraction causes particle aggregation, which breaks down at high shear rates, and thus leads to slurry pseudoplastic behavior. In contrast, the interparticle repulsion prevents particle aggregation and thus leads to Newtonian behavior. Both atomized at low atomizing air pressures (less than 270 kPa) using twin-fluid jet atomizers of various distributor designs. We found that the atomized drop sizes of micronized coal water slurries substantially decrease as the atomizing air pressure exceeds a threshold value. The effects of coal volume fraction, coal particle surface charge, liquid composition and liquid viscosity on slurry atomization can be accounted for by their effects on slurry rheology. 26 refs.

  8. Redox Potential as a Means to Control the Treatment of Slurry to Lower H2S Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Hjorth, Maibritt; Pedersen, Christina Ø; Feilberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Slurry can be oxidized to eliminate undesirable emissions, including malodorous hydrogen sulfide (H2S). However, it is difficult to assess the optimal amount of oxidizing agent required. In this study, one cow and one pig manure, each in three particle size ranges were oxidized with 0–350 mg ozone/L manure. Redox and H2S concentration were measured continuously. During ozonation the manures gave equivalent redox potential curves. A relatively rapid rise in redox potential was observed within a range of −275 mV to −10 mV, with all manures changing as a minimum from −200 mV to −80 mV. The gaseous H2S emissions were decreased by 99.5% during the redox increase (−200 mV to −80 mV). This is attributed to H2S oxidation by ozone and oxygen, and is not due to H2S deprotonation or gas flushing. By identifying the initiation of the final redox level following the rise, the amount of ozone required to remove H2S from the manure samples was estimated to be in the range of 6–24 mg O3/L manure, depending on the type of manure. Hence, continuous monitoring of redox potential (termination of the redox rise) during the oxidation treatment is a simple method of achieving cost-effective minimization of H2S emissions from slurry. PMID:22778588

  9. Cholesterol-lowering potential in human subjects of fat from pigs fed rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Sandström, B; Bügel, S; Lauridsen, C; Nielsen, F; Jensen, C; Skibsted, L H

    2000-08-01

    The possibility of achieving blood-lipid-lowering characteristics of pig fat by increasing the content of unsaturated fat in pig feed was evaluated. Three pig feeding regimens were applied: basal feed (no added fat or vitamin E), basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg feed), and basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg) + vitamin E (200 mg/kg). Meat and meat products from the three pig groups were incorporated into diets providing 86 g pig fat/10 MJ. The diets were served to twelve healthy human male subjects for 3 weeks each in a randomised crossover design. The diets prepared from pigs fed rapeseed oil had a lower content of saturated fatty acids (approximately 9 v. 11% of energy) and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (approximately 6 v. 4% of energy) than the diet prepared from pigs fed the basal feed. Diets based on fat from pigs fed the rapeseed oil resulted in significantly lower (approximately 4%, P = 0.019) total serum cholesterol concentration compared with the diet from pigs fed the basal feed. No differences were observed in LDL-, HDL- or VLDL-cholesterol, or in triacylglycerol or VLDL-triacylglycerol concentrations. Addition of vitamin E to the pig feed resulted in only a minor increase in vitamin E content in the human subjects' diet and the vitamin E content was low in all three pig diets. Plasma vitamin E concentration in the human subjects at the end of the period with diets from pigs fed rapeseed oil without vitamin E was significantly lower (P = 0.04) than in the other two diet periods. In conclusion, an increased content of rapeseed oil in pig feed changes the fatty acid composition of the pig fat in a way that has a potential to reduce blood cholesterol concentrations in human subjects. However, intake of pig fat with a higher content of unsaturated fatty acids needs to be matched by a higher dietary intake of vitamin E.

  10. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  11. Functionalized bio-artifact fabricated via selective slurry extrusion. Part 1: Preparation of slurry containing tourmaline superfine powders.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongbin; Xu, Anping; Qu, Yunxia; Liu, Yushan

    2011-12-01

    The far infrared dental porcelain slurry for fabricating artificial tooth via selective slurry extrusion (SSE) of solid freeform fabrication (also known as rapid prototyping) techniques was prepared by using tourmaline as additive and employing ball-milling approach. After characterization by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, it was found that the far infrared emission properties of the dental porcelain were apparently improved in the ranges of 2000-1201 cm(-1) and 881-600 cm(-1). This is due to the increase of the number of infrared active bonds that are from the tourmaline superfine powders. Moreover, it was also found that the tourmaline superfine powders can improve the pseudo-plastic properties of dental porcelain slurries, which results from the increase of the absolute value of zeta potential of the suspensions. Slurries with pseudo-plastic behavior are highly desirable in controlling the shape of the extrudate during solid freeform fabrication. With the functionalized material, a variety of bio-artifacts beneficial to body health can be built by using selective slurry extrusion machine.

  12. Rheological behavior of molten Al-SiC slurries and comparison of their behavior with metallic slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidary, D. Sohrabi Baba; Akhlagh, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this study a new precise rotational viscometer was developed and used to measure the viscosity of molten A356 alloy containing 5, 15, and 25vol.% of 90-106 μm SiC particles at 650 and 690 °C. Three types of typical curves viscosity (η) versus volume fraction of SiC particles, shear time (t), and shear rate (γ) were derived advantage from the results of viscosity measurements. It would present the viscosity got lowered by decreasing particle volume fraction and by increasing the amounts of shear time and shear rate. In the next step, the influence of the number of aggregates on apparent viscosity was studied by the special tests, developed in this research. Also the formation of aggregates in Al-SiC composite slurries was explained and compared with metallic slurries. It concluded that the origin of aggregation in Al-SiC slurries was long range electrical forces while in metallic slurries it was micro welds between particles. it would show the rheological behavior of Al-SiC slurries could be justified according to the nature and the numbers of their aggregates. At the end, the implications of findings in order to predict the gradient of particles in functionally graded Al-SiC composites, produced by casting, were discussed.

  13. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOEpatents

    Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1985-11-05

    The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

  14. Mud management, special slurries improve deepwater cementing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, J.; Faul, R.

    1997-10-20

    Successful deepwater cementing requires improved mud-management techniques to reduce fluid loss, shorten slurry transition times, and make mud and cement slurry weights compatible with formation pore pressure and fracture gradients. If any one of these conditions is not met, the cementing job is less likely to be successful. Previous attempts to drill in deep water have had a low success rate, and failures have cost operators an average $2 million/well. By using new mud-management techniques and specially designed cement mixtures, operators in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are effectively setting conductor casing in deepwater conditions and are greatly improving the success rate in cementing deepwater wells. Recent case histories in the GOM describe these new techniques and the advantages of using a specially formulated, lightweight, foamed cement slurry to avoid cement-sheath damage caused by shallow-water flow.

  15. Tape casting of cobalt ferrite from nonaqueous slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Gang; Zhou, Dongxiang; Yang, Junyou; Fu, Qiuyun

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of CoFe2O4 thick films using the tape casting method from nonaqueous slurry. CoFe2O4 particles with average size of ˜800 nm were prepared by the solid-state reaction method. Sediment volumes and viscosity were tested to study the effects of dispersant in reducing aggregations in slurry. Slurry with 0.25 wt% dispersant amounts and 41.3 wt% solid content showed the optimal stability and rheological properties. A tape velocity of 8 cm/s was used in this study considering the non-Newtonian flow behavior at low shear rate. CoFe2O4 ceramic films sintered at 1150 °C for 2 h have dense structure (relative density of 94%) and exhibited ferromagnetic properties with in-plane saturation magnetization of ˜324 emu/cm3.

  16. Determination of selenium in marine biological tissues by transverse heated electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with longitudinal Zeeman background correction and automated ultrasonic slurry sampling.

    PubMed

    Méndez, H; Alava, F; Lavilla, I; Bendicho, C

    2001-01-01

    A fast, sensitive, and reliable method for determination of selenium in marine biological tissues by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with slurry sampling was developed. Slurries were prepared from fresh and frozen seafood samples that were previously homogenized, dried, and ground; particle sizes <100 microm were taken for analysis. A 3% (v/v) HNO3 solution containing 0.01% (v/v) Triton X-100 was used as slurry diluent. Slurries were mixed on an automated ultrasonic slurry sampler at 20% amplitude for 30 s just before an aliquot was injected into the furnace. The method was successfully validated against the following certified reference materials: NRCC CRM DORM-2 (Dogfish muscle); NRCC CRM TORT-2 (Lobster hepatopancreas); NRCC CRM DOLT-2 (Dogfish liver); and BCR CRM 278 (Mussel tissue), and was subsequently applied to determination of Se in 10 marine biological samples. The influences of the drying procedure (oven-, microwave-, and freeze-drying), matrix modifier amount, mass of solid material in cup, and pipetting sequence are discussed. The limit of determination of Se was 0.16 microg/g and the repeatability, estimated as between-batch precision, was in the range of 4-8%. Se contents in the samples ranged from 0.6 to 2.8 microg/g. The proposed method should be useful for fast assessment of the daily dietary intake of Se.

  17. Determination of selenium in biological samples by slurry sampling-electrothermal vaporization-in situ fusion-isotope dilution-microwave-induced nitrogen plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Takafumi; Nishide, Akifumi; Okutsu, Kentaro; Minami, Hirotsugu; Zhang, Qiangbin; Inoue, Sadanobu; Atsuya, Ikuo

    2005-03-01

    Determination of selenium in certified reference biological materials by slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization (ETV)-isotope dilution (ID)-microwave-induced nitrogen plasma mass spectrometry (MIP-MS) was performed. Several parameters such as the heating conditions were studied in order to obtain optimal conditions. A special heating stage called the in situ fusion stage was applied just before the pyrolysis stage in the electrothermal vaporization process in order to fuse the biological sample and to achieve selenium isotope-equilibration between selenium in the sample and the 78Se spike solution. The slurry sample containing an appropriate amount of biological sample, 78Se spike solution, and sodium hydroxide as an alkaline flux was injected into the electrothermal vaporization unit. The slurry sample was in situ fused, pyrolyzed, and then vaporized. The ion counts at m/ z=78 and 80, the spike and reference isotopes, respectively, could be measured accurately without interference caused by argon since nitrogen plasma was used. The analytical utility of the proposed slurry sampling-electrothermal vaporization-in situ fusion-microwave-induced nitrogen plasma mass spectrometry was evaluated by determining the selenium concentration in certified reference biological materials, and the analytical results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values. The limit of detection for selenium was 90 ng g -1. The relative standard deviation of the determination of selenium was 8-15% with a high sample throughput (less than 30 min per sample including a slurry preparation.)

  18. Rapid determination of zinc and iron in foods by flow-injection analysis with flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry and slurry nebulization.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, J C; Strong, F C; Martin, N J

    1990-07-01

    A rapid method of determining zinc and iron in food by flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with slurry nebulization into an air-acetylene flame has been developed. A V-groove, clog-free Babington-type nebulizer, coupled to a single-line flow-injection analysis (FIA) system, was employed to introduce the slurry into the spray chamber. Under the FIA conditions described, an injection frequency of 120/hr is possible, with negligible carry-over and memory effects. The calibration graphs were obtained by using various concentrations (up to 0.1 g/ml) of white bean homogenate as standards, rather than solutions. The method has been applied to various kinds of foods, including grains, vegetables, fruits and sausage. Homogenization of semi-prepared samples to form slurries took only 4 min. Relative deviations between results by the slurry and solution methods for both elements averaged 2-3%. Detection limits by the slurry method were 0.3 mug/ml Zn and 0.6 mug/ml Fe.

  19. Application of dairy slurry on alfalfa fields, and subsequent effects on nutritive value and silage fermentation characteristics of the harvested forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequently, dairy producers ask questions about the potential risks of applying dairy manure, usually in liquid or slurry form, to growing alfalfa. In many cases, this management option is considered when storage reservoirs are approaching capacity during summer months. One caution associated with t...

  20. Development of Alternative Rheological Measurements for DWPF Slurry Samples (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. c.

    2005-09-01

    Rheological measurements are used to evaluate the fluid dynamic behavior of Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, slurry samples. Measurements are currently made on non-radioactive simulant slurries using two state-of-the-art rheometers located at the Aiken County Technical Laboratory, ACTL. Measurements are made on plant samples using a rheometer in the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL, Shielded Cells facility. Low activity simulants or plant samples can be analyzed using a rheometer located in a radioactive hood in SRNL. Variations in the rheology of SB2 simulants impacted the interpretation of results obtained in a number of related studies. A separate rheological study was initiated with the following four goals: (1) Document the variations seen in the simulant slurries, both by a review of recent data, and by a search for similar samples for further study. (2) Attempt to explain the variations in rheological behavior, or, failing that, reduce the number of possible causes. In particular, to empirically check for rheometer-related variations. (3) Exploit the additional capabilities of the rheometers by developing new measurement methods to study the simulant rheological properties in new ways. (4) Formalize the rheological measurement process for DWPF-related samples into a series of protocols. This report focuses on the third and fourth goals. The emphasis of this report is on the development and formalization of rheological measurement methods used to characterize DWPF slurry samples. The organization is by rheological measurement method. Progress on the first two goals was documented in a concurrent technical report, Koopman (2005). That report focused on the types and possible causes of unusual rheological behavior in simulant slurry samples. It was organized by the sample being studied. The experimental portion of this study was performed in the period of March to April 2004. A general rheology protocol for routine DWPF slurry samples, Koopman

  1. Slurry Erosion Behavior of F6NM Stainless Steel and High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel-Sprayed WC-10Co-4Cr Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, S. Y.; Miao, Q.; Liang, W. P.; Huang, B. Z.; Ding, Z.; Chen, B. W.

    2016-12-01

    WC-10Co-4Cr coating was applied to the surface of F6NM stainless steel by high-velocity oxygen-fuel spraying. The slurry erosion behavior of the matrix and coating was examined at different rotational speeds using a self-made machine. This experiment effectively simulates real slurry erosion in an environment with high silt load. At low velocity (<6 m/s), the main failure mechanism was cavitation. Small bubbles acted as an air cushion, obstructing direct contact between sand and the matrix surface. However, at velocity above 9 m/s, abrasive wear was the dominant failure mechanism. The results indicate that WC-10Co-4Cr coating significantly improved the slurry resistance at higher velocity, because it created a thin and dense WC coating on the surface.

  2. Slurry Erosion Behavior of F6NM Stainless Steel and High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel-Sprayed WC-10Co-4Cr Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, S. Y.; Miao, Q.; Liang, W. P.; Huang, B. Z.; Ding, Z.; Chen, B. W.

    2017-02-01

    WC-10Co-4Cr coating was applied to the surface of F6NM stainless steel by high-velocity oxygen-fuel spraying. The slurry erosion behavior of the matrix and coating was examined at different rotational speeds using a self-made machine. This experiment effectively simulates real slurry erosion in an environment with high silt load. At low velocity (<6 m/s), the main failure mechanism was cavitation. Small bubbles acted as an air cushion, obstructing direct contact between sand and the matrix surface. However, at velocity above 9 m/s, abrasive wear was the dominant failure mechanism. The results indicate that WC-10Co-4Cr coating significantly improved the slurry resistance at higher velocity, because it created a thin and dense WC coating on the surface.

  3. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  4. Runoff nutrient transport as affected by land application method, swine growth stage, and runoff rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to measure the effects of slurry application method, swine growth stage, and flow rate on runoff nutrient transport. Swine slurry was obtained from production units containing grower pigs, finisher pigs, or sows and gilts. The swine slurry was applied using broadcast, disk, ...

  5. Urolithiasis in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maes, D G D; Vrielinck, J; Millet, S; Janssens, G P J; Deprez, P

    2004-11-01

    Urolithiasis in sows and neonatal pigs is well-known, but information on its occurrence and impact in finishing pigs is sparse. This study reports three outbreaks of urolithiasis in finishing pigs. In one herd, no symptoms were observed, whereas in the other herds the presence of calculi caused obstruction of the urinary tract resulting in death. Using infra-red spectroscopy, the predominant mineral-type found in the uroliths was calcium carbonate (calcite). Only small amounts of calcium oxalate (< 1%) could be detected. A high urinary pH, small abnormalities in the mineral composition of the feed and insufficient drinking water were the most important risk factors identified. To prevent urolithiasis, it is important to ensure adequate water intake, to provide a balanced mineral diet, and to avoid urinary tract infections.

  6. SYNTHESIS OF NON-RADIOACTIVE SLURRIES TO SIMULATE THE PROCESSING BEHAVIOR OF PARTICLES IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLURRIES 626-G

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Eibling, R.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-03

    Process development using non-radioactive analogs to high-level radioactive waste slurries is an established cost effective alternative to working with actual samples of the real waste. Current simulated waste slurries, however, do not capture all of the physical behavior of real waste. New methods of preparing simulants are under investigation along with mechanisms for altering certain properties of finished simulants. These methods have achieved several notable successes recently in the areas of rheology and foaminess. Particle size is also being manipulated more effectively than in the past, though not independently of the rheological properties. The interaction between rheology and foaminess has exhibited counter-intuitive behavior with more viscous slurries being less foamy even though drainage of liquid from the foam lamellae should be inhibited by higher viscosities.

  7. Slurry pumping techniques for feeding high-pressure coal gasification reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, W. G.; Tarman, P. B.

    1977-01-01

    Operating experience in pumping coal and coal char slurries at pressures up to 1500 psig is discussed. The design specifications for the mixing tanks, pumps, piping, and slurry heaters are given along with pressure drop and minimum flow velocity data on water-lignite slurries.

  8. 30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry... structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an existing or...

  9. 30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry... structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an existing or...

  10. 30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry... structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an existing or...

  11. 30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry... structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an existing or...

  12. 30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry... structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an existing or...

  13. DWPF DECON FRIT: SUMP AND SLURRY SOLIDS ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Peeler, D.; Click, D.

    2010-10-20

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to perform analyses on samples of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) decon frit slurry (i.e., supernate samples and sump solid samples). Four 1-L liquid slurry samples were provided to SRNL by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) from the 'front-end' decon activities. Additionally, two 1-L sump solids samples were provided to SRNL for compositional and physical analysis. In this report, the physical and chemical characterization results of the slurry solids and sump solids are reported. Crawford et al. (2010) provide the results of the supernate analysis. The results of the sump solids are reported on a mass basis given the samples were essentially dry upon receipt. The results of the slurry solids were converted to a volume basis given approximately 2.4 grams of slurry solids were obtained from the {approx}4 liters of liquid slurry sample. Although there were slight differences in the analytical results between the sump solids and slurry solids the following general summary statements can be made. Slight differences in the results are also captured for specific analysis. (1) Physical characterization - (a) SEM/EDS analysis suggested that the samples were enriched in Li and Si (B and Na not detectable using the current EDS system) which is consistent with two of the four principle oxides of Frit 418 (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O and SiO{sub 2}). (b) SEM/EDS analysis also identified impurities which were elementally consistent with stainless steel (i.e., Fe, Ni, Cr contamination). (c) XRD results indicated that the sump solids samples were amorphous which is consistent with XRD results expected for a Frit 418 based sample. (d) For the sump solids, SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the particle size of the sump solids were consistent with that of an as received Frit 418 sample from a current DWPF vendor. (e) For the slurry solids, SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the particle size range

  14. Analysis of flushing injection performance in a reciprocating plunger slurry pump

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    One of the major machinery problems encountered during operation of the Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant was the relatively short life of the packing in the coal slurry reciprocating plunger pump. The cause of the short packing life was wear created by coal particles. Flushing oil was injected in the throat bushing on a portion of the plunger stroke to limit coal intrusion. To understand the effect of flush oil injection and the effect of the various pump design parameters on the flushing system, a mathematical model was developed by which the fluid dynamics of the throat bushing/plunger annulus could be analyzed. The transient equations of motion were solved numerically to yield the fluid velocity profile and the path of a given coal particle. The pressure gradient was evaluated iteratively from the imposed net flow rate condition which accounted for the flushing and leakage flow rates. Utilizing the model, a comparison was made between suction synchronized flushing and discharge synchronized flushing for various assumed leakage rates. The analysis showed that suction synchronized flushing was superior to discharge synchronized flushing. When the model was applied to ECLP's slurry pumps, it was found that for the pump with a throat bushing clearance length of 2.5 inches, the solids would enter the packing for practically any leakage rate. This was in good agreement with ECLP field experience. For the pump with a throat bushing clearance length of eight inches, the analysis indicated that at leakage rates as high as five gallons per hour solids would still not have entered the packing area. This was also in good agreement with ECLP field experience. Thus, it seems that the analytical model can be used in evaluating various design parameters as well as serving as a design tool for full scale slurry pumps.

  15. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors. Seventh technical progress report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Gidaspow, D.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this investigation is to convert our ``learning gas solid-liquid`` fluidization model into a predictive design model. The IIT hydrodynamic model computes the phase velocities and the volume fractions of gas, liquid and particulate phase. Model verification involves a comparison of these computed velocities and volume fractions to experimental values. A hydrodynamic model for multiphase flows, based on the principles of mass, momentum and energy conservation for each phase, was developed and applied to model gas-liquid, gas-liquid-solid fluidization and gas-solid-solid separation. To simulate the industrial slurry bubble column reactors, a computer program based on the hydrodynamic model was written with modules for chemical reactions (e.g. the synthesis of methanol), phase changes and heat exchangers. In the simulations of gas-liquid two phases flow system, the gas hold-ups, computed with a variety of operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas and liquid velocities, agree well with the measurements obtained at Air Products` pilot plant. The hydrodynamic model has more flexible features than the previous empirical correlations in predicting the gas hold-up of gas-liquid two-phase flow systems. In the simulations of gas-liquid-solid bubble column reactors with and without slurry circulation, the code computes volume fractions, temperatures and velocity distributions for the gas, the liquid and the solid phases, as well as concentration distributions for the species (CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}0H, ... ), after startup from a certain initial state. A kinetic theory approach is used to compute a solid viscosity due to particle collisions. Solid motion and gas-liquid-solid mixing are observed on a color PCSHOW movie made from computed time series data. The steady state and time average catalyst concentration profiles, the slurry height and the rates of methanol production agree well with the measurements obtained at an Air Products` pilot plant.

  16. Slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of As and Se in soil and sludge.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yen-Jia; Liu, Chung-Chang; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen

    2007-04-11

    Slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization (ETV) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been applied to determine As and Se in soil and sludge samples. The influences of instrument operating conditions and slurry preparation on the ion signals were reported. Pd and ascorbic acid were used as mixed modifiers to enhance the ion signals. The effectiveness of ETV sample introduction technique for alleviating various spectral interferences in ICP-MS analysis has been demonstrated. This method has been applied to determine As and Se in NIST SRM 2709 San Joaquin soil reference material and NIST SRM 2781 domestic sludge reference material and a farmland soil sample collected locally. Since the sensitivities of As and Se in slurry solution and aqueous solution were different, analyte addition technique was used to determine As and Se in these samples. The As and Se analysis results of the reference materials agreed with the certified values. The precision between sample replicates was better than 5% for all determinations. The method detection limit estimated from analyte addition curves was about 0.03 and 0.02 microg g(-1) for As and Se, respectively, in original soil and sludge samples.

  17. A Collection Scheme for Tracing Information of Pig Safety Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingyao; Xiong, Benhai; Yang, Liang

    This study takes one main production pattern of smallhold pig farming in Tianjin as a study prototype, deeply analyzes characters of informations about tracing inputs including vaccines,feeds,veterinary drugs and supervision test in pig farming, proposesinputs metadata, criteria for integrating inputs event and interface norms for data transmision, developes and completes identification of 2D ear tags and traceability information collection system of pig safety production based on mobile PDA. The system has implemented functions including setting and invalidate of 2D ear tags, collection of tracing inputs and supervision in the mobile PDA and finally integration of tracing events (the epidemic event,feed event,drug event and supervision event) on the traceability data center (server). The PDA information collection system has been applied for demonstration in Tianjin, the collection is simple, convenient and feasible. It could meet with requirements of traceability information system of pig safety production

  18. Method for freeforming objects with low-binder slurry

    DOEpatents

    Cesarano, III, Joseph; Calvert, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

  19. Breakup of evaporating/burning slurry drops by additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, P. Roy; Gerstein, M.

    Single drops of silicon carbide-cumene slurry were suspended from a quartz fiber and ignited. An inert material such as silicon carbide was chosen so that the droplets can be burned until all the fuel is consumed and only the inert residue is left on the quartz fiber. Benzoyl peroxide was added to cumene and the time to disruption of the liquid drop was measured. In the case of benzoyl peroxide, the breaking up of the drop resulting from its thermal decomposition produced CO 2. Both the drop disruption time and the burning of the slurry to dryness were predicted theoretically. Radiation absorption was found to be an important factor in the case of the slurry. Benzoyl peroxide and carbamide peroxide were investigated as additives to a boron slurry to determine if effective drop break-up could be achieved. Both additives produced drop shattering. The carbamide peroxide was particularly effective due to the production of O 2. The green flame associated with boron burning was clearly evident.

  20. Apparatus for converting biomass to a pumpable slurry

    DOEpatents

    Ergun, Sabri; Schaleger, Larry L.; Wrathall, James A.; Yaghoubzadeh, Nasser

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus used in the pretreatment of wood chips in a process for converting biomass to a liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel. The apparatus functions to break down the wood chips to a size distribution that can be readily handled in a slurry form. Low maintenance operation is obtained by hydrolyzing the chips in a pressure vessel having no moving parts.

  1. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O'Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  2. METHOD OF MAKING UO$sub 2$-Bi SLURRIES

    DOEpatents

    Hahn, H.T.

    1960-05-24

    A process is given of preparing an easily dispersible slurry of uranium dioxide in bismuth. A mixture of bismuth oxide, uranium, and bismuth are heated in a capsule to a temperature over the melting point of bismuth oxide. The amount of bismuth oxide used is less than that stoichiometrically required because the oxygen in the capsule also enters into the reaction.

  3. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

  4. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

  5. Particle sedimentation monitoring in high-concentration slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Yoshihiro; Kato, Zenji; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the sedimentation states of particles in high-concentration slurries were elucidated by monitoring their internal states. We prepared transparent high-concentration silica slurries by adjusting the refractive index of the aqueous glycerol liquid in which the particles were dispersed to match that of the silica particles. In addition, a fluorescent dye was dissolved in the liquid. Then, we directly observed the individual and flocculated particles in the slurries during sedimentation by confocal laser scanning fluorescent microscopy. The particles were found to sediment very slowly while exhibiting fluctuating motion. The particle sedimentation rate in the high-concentration slurry with the aqueous glycerol solution (η =0.068 Pa. s ) and a particle volume fraction on the order of 0.3 was determined to be 1.58 ± 0.66 μ m. min-1 on the basis of the obtained image sequences for 24.9 h. In-situ observation provides a large amount of information about the sedimentation behavior of particles in condensed matter.

  6. St. Paul's Pig Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Penny Folley

    1982-01-01

    Describes a guinea pig (cavy) breeding and management program developed as part of an elementary school science curriculum. Includes comments on show competitions (sponsored by the American Rabbit Breeders Association) to measure the success of the breeding program and to enable children to experience the business world. (Author/JN)

  7. A Simple "Pig" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  8. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  9. Indian Creek-AML: Coal slurry reclamation (Kansas case history)

    SciTech Connect

    Witthar, S.R.

    1998-12-31

    Black and Veatch, assisted by Jack Nawrot, developed conceptual and final designs and provided construction assistance to create grasslands and wetlands in order to reclaim an abandoned coal mine for the state of Kansas. The mine included spoils, a coal refuse dump, and slurry pond in the Indian Creek drainage basin in east central Kansas. The Indian Creek flowed from an off-site abandoned mine and through the coal slurry pond where its waters became more polluted. The intent of the reclamation project was to improve water quality and create a wildlife refuge. The coal refuse was covered and seeded with a diversity of vegetation including several grasses and legume. The slurry pond was developed into a series of large wetland cells to improve water quality. Prior to reclamation, the water leaving the site had a typical pH of 3.3, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6, an iron content which typically over 22 mg/L and ranging over 100 mg/L, and contained large amounts of coal slurry. The acid sediment in the slurry killed fish and caused visible damage to a new large concrete box culvert several miles downstream of the site. Post-reclamation water quality leaving the Indian Creek site showed immediate improvement even before vegetation was reestablished. The existing wetland treatment systems have been successfully treating water for over seven years with the pH of the water leaving the wetlands above 7 and soluble iron content less than 1 mg/L. Fish in the constructed wetlands support waterfowl which now nest onsite.

  10. Evaluation of abiotic fate mechanisms in soil slurry bioreactor treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, J.A.; McCauley, P.T.; Dosani, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    Biological treatment of contaminated soil slurries may offer a viable technology for soil bioremediation. Slurry bioreactor treatment of soils, however, has not sufficiently progressed to be a durable, reliable, and cost-effective treatment option. Critical to the evaluation of slurry bioreactors is a better description of pollutant mass transfer during the treatment phase. Losses attributable to abiotic means are generally overlooked in field application of the technology. Discussions with EPA regional personnel and inspection of active soil slurry bioreactor operations have identified operational problems such as foaming which could result in possible abiotic loss. Field bioslurry operations have adopted various approaches to reduce foaming: (1) the addition of defoaming agents, (2) the reduction of rotational speed of the agitator, and (3) the reduction of gas flow through the bioreactor system. We have conducted two bench-scale slurry bioreactor treatability studies, at the U.S. EPA Testing & Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio, which were designed to investigate some of the operating factors leading to foam formation and identify the most advantageous means to deal with foaming. The initial study has been previously presented as a general treatability study for treatment of creosote contamination in a soil. During this study, foaming became a major problem for operation. The foaming conditions were mitigated by use of defoamer and, in the more extreme cases, through reduction of the mixer rotational speed and gas flow. A subsequent study which was devoted specifically to investigating the causes and conditions of foaming using a different batch of soil from the same site as the earlier study showed little foaming at the very beginning of the study.

  11. Abundance and distribution of feral pigs at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, 2010-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Leopold, Christina R.; Kendall, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Hakalau Forest Unit of the Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex has intensively managed feral pigs (Sus scrofa) and monitored feral pig presence with surveys of all managed areas since 1988. Results of all available data regarding pig management activities through 2004 were compiled and analyzed, but no further analyses had been conducted since then. The objective of this report was to analyze recent feral ungulate surveys at the Hakalau Forest Unit to determine current pig abundance and distribution. Activity indices for feral pigs, consisting of the presence of fresh or intermediate sign at 422 stations, each with approximately 20 sample plots, were compiled for years 2010–2013. A calibrated model based on the number of pigs removed from one management unit and concurrent activity surveys was applied to estimate pig abundance in other management units. Although point estimates appeared to decrease from 489.1 (±105.6) in 2010 to 407.6 (±88.0) in 2013, 95% confidence intervals overlapped, indicating no significant change in pig abundance within all management units. Nonetheless, there were significant declines in pig abundance over the four-year period within management units 1, 6, and 7. Areas where pig abundance remained high include the southern portion of Unit 2. Results of these surveys will be useful for directing management actions towards specific management units.

  12. [Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pig breeders and cattle breeders].

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E; Beaujean, D J M A

    2006-08-05

    It was recently observed that pig breeders in The Netherlands often carry methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA). These MRSA strains are related to MRSA strains found in pigs. A case-control study showed that not only pig breeders but also cattle breeders are at risk of carrying MRSA. It is advised to keep pig breeders, if they are admitted to a hospital, in isolation until surveillance cultures are proven negative. This also applies to veterinarians and slaughterhouse personnel. For cattle breeders screening without isolation on admission to a hospital is sufficient.

  13. Composition for a lightweight cement slurry for cementing oil and gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Parcevaux, P.; Sault, P.

    1988-01-26

    A homogeneous lightweight cement slurry for cementing the annulus of an oil or gas well is described comprising: cement, an extender in the form of solid particles, a styrenebutadiene latex, and water, having a specific gravity lying substantially in the range from 1.2 to 1.6 and having a volume ratio of the liquid phase of the slurry to the total volume of the slurry of less than about 70%. A method of cementing the annulus of a wellbore by pumping an aqueous cement slurry through the wellbore and into the annulus the aqueous cement slurry comprising is described comprising cement, an extender in the form of solid particles, a styrenebutadiene latex and water, having a specific gravity lying substantially in the range from 1.2 to 1.6 and having a volume ratio of the liquid phase of the slurry to the total volume of the slurry of less than about 70%.

  14. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    DOEpatents

    Loth, John L.; Smith, William C.; Friggens, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  15. Determination of lead in fine particulates by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, J C; Ho, K F; Lee, S C

    2001-01-02

    A simple method for determining lead in fine particulates (PM2.5) by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) has been developed. Particulates collected on Nuclepore filter by using a dichotomous sampler were suspended in diluted nitric acid after ultrasonic agitation. The dislodging efficiency is nearly 100% after agitation for 5 min. In order to study the suspension behavior of PM2.5 in solvents, a Brookhaven ZetaPlus Particle Size Analyzer was used to determine the particle size distribution and suspension behavior of air particulates in the solvent. The pre-digestion and modification effect of nitric acid would be discussed. Palladium was added as a chemical modifier and the temperature program of ETAAS was changed in order to improve the recovery. The slurry was introduced directly into a graphite tube for atomization. The metal content in the sample was determined by the standard addition method. In addition, a conventional acid digestion procedure was applied to verify the efficiency of the slurry sampling method. It offers a quick and efficient alternative method for heavy metal characterization in fine particulates.

  16. Bioremediation of diethylhexyl phthalate contaminated soil: a feasibility study in slurry- and solid-phase reactors.

    PubMed

    Di Gennaro, P; Collina, E; Franzetti, A; Lasagni, M; Luridiana, A; Pitea, D; Bestetti, G

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to verify the possibility of applying bioremediation as a treatment strategy on a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) manufacturing site in the north of Italy contaminated by diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) at a concentration of 5.51 mg/g of dry soil. Biodegradation kinetic experiments with DEHP contaminated soil samples were performed in both slurry- and solid-phase systems. The slurry-phase results showed that the cultural conditions, such as N and P concentrations and the addition of a selected DEHP degrading strain, increased the natural DEHP degradation rate. On the basis of these data, experiments to simulate bioventing on contaminated soil columns were performed. The DEHP concentration reached 0.63 mg/g of dry soil in 76 days (89% of degradation). A kinetic equation was developed to fit the experimental data and to predict the concentration of contaminant after treatment. The data obtained are encouraging for a future in situ application of the bioventing technology.

  17. Detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) through the different stages of pig manure composting plants

    PubMed Central

    García, M; Fernández-Barredo, S; Pérez-Gracia, M T

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an increasing cause of acute hepatitis in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of HEV in pig manure composting plants located in Spain. For this purpose, a total of 594 samples were taken in 54 sampling sessions from the different stages of composting treatment in these plants as follows: slurry reception ponds, anaerobic ponds, aerobic ponds, fermentation zone and composting final products. HEV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) in four (80%) of five plants studied, mainly in the first stages of the process. HEV was not detected in any final product (compost) sample, destined to be commercialized as a soil fertilizer, suggesting that composting is a suitable method to eliminate HEV and thus, to reduce the transmission of HEV from pigs to humans. PMID:24206540

  18. Coal slurry pump development. Final report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, G.S.; Aukerman, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A coal slurry pump development program for coal liquefaction was conducted by Rocketdyne Division, Rockwell International for the Department of Energy, Division of Fossil Fuel Processing. The program was initiated in October 1979 and consisted of fabrication and testing of a high-capacity, high-pressure, prototype, centrifugal slurry pump module that meets the following requiremennts for a coal/oil slurry with 50% concentration and 200 mesh coal: flowrate of 2500 gpm; operating pressure of 3000 psi; temperature of 550 F; pressure rise of 500 psi; a rotative speed of 3600 rpm; and a horsepower of 960. A two-stage, centrifugal slurry test pump was fabricated from steel castings and high wear-resistant materials for components exposed to slurry such as: cast white iron, titanium carbide, and tungsten carbide. A unique hydraulic design was utilized to reduce the severe wear on impeller and volute cutwater. The slurry pump incorporates a unique high-pressure, hydrostatic fluid seal capable of 3000 psi operating pressure. A slurry test facility for testing the centrifugal slurry pump was constructed at the Colorado School of Mines Research Institute (CSMRI), Golden, Colorado. The facility contains an 8-inch-diameter test loop, 1.7 million Btu/hr gas-fired oil heater, slurry head tank, boost pump, purge oil storage tank, high-pressure seal purge oil system, and a centrifuge/polishing filter system for recovering purge oil from the closed-loop coal slurry system. The prototype slurry pump successfully completed a three-phase hydraulic and wear test program in hot oil and hot coal/oil slurry, and achieved nearly continuous operation in slurry in excess of 242 hours with minimum wear. The feasibility of utilizing high-pressure centrifugal slurry pumps for coal liquefaction has been successfully demonstrated and further development is highly warranted. 73 figures, 19 tables.

  19. Absorption of the nerve agent VX (O-ethyl-S-[2(di-isopropylamino)ethyl] methyl phosphonothioate) through pig, human and guinea pig skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Christopher H; Hattersley, Ian J; Rutter, Stephen J; Chilcott, Robert P

    2006-12-01

    The physico-chemical properties of VX make the skin the most likely route of absorption into the human body. The development of effective medical countermeasures against such percutaneous threat agents relies on the use of appropriate animal models, as the inherent toxicity of nerve agents precludes the use of human volunteers. Previous studies have characterised the mechanism of nerve agent toxicity in rodent models, however, it is generally accepted that one of the most appropriate animal models for human skin absorption is the domestic pig. The purpose of the present study was to measure and compare the skin absorption kinetics of VX in vitro using pig, human and guinea pig skin to highlight any potential species differences in skin permeability. When undiluted VX was applied directly to the skin, the permeability of guinea pig skin was approximately 7-fold greater than human skin. There was no significant difference in the permeability of pig and human skin. When VX diluted with isopropyl alcohol was applied to the skin, the permeability of guinea pig skin was approximately 4-fold greater than human skin. There was no significant difference in the permeability of pig and human skin. From this data it may be inferred that dermatomed, abdominal pig skin is an appropriate model for the human skin absorption of VX.

  20. Fiber-related digestive processes in three different breeds of pigs.

    PubMed

    von Heimendahl, E; Breves, G; Abel, H J

    2010-03-01

    The hypothesis examined in this experiment was that, because of intensive selection for greater daily BW gains and efficient utilization of concentrated low-fiber diets, modern pig breeds differ from old local breeds in their physiological ability to respond to soluble dietary fiber. Thus, the old local breeds, Schwaebisch Haellisches Schwein (SH) and Bunte Bentheimer (BB), and a modern crossbred pig (CB) were used in metabolism trials to study fiber-related digestion, including microbial hindgut fermentation, by applying a colon simulation technique (Cositec) and measuring intestinal glucose transport in Ussing chambers. A basal diet or basal plus 20% dried sugar beet pulp (SBP) as a soluble fiber source was fed to 6 pigs/breed in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Four pigs of each breed per treatment were used for intestinal anatomical measurements at the end of the metabolism trials. The pigs had an initial average BW of 33.9 +/- 3.7 kg. The basal diet was formulated to meet 80% of energy and 100% of nutrient requirements for pigs with 700 g of ADG. Feeding the SBP diet reduced total intestinal tract, but it increased colon length, water-holding capacity of the digesta, and fecal bulk (P < 0.01). The digestibility of OM, CP, and ether extract decreased, whereas that of NDF and ADF increased, by SBP (P = 0.001). Pigs receiving SBP excreted less urinary N and retained more N (P = 0.001). The fecal proportions of undigested dietary and water soluble N increased and those of bacterial and endogenous debris N decreased (P < 0.05) in SBP-fed pigs. The SH pigs had lighter empty cecum weight, shorter colons, and less NDF digestibility than BB and CB pigs (P < 0.05). Fecal N excretion did not differ (P = 0.659) among breeds, but SH pigs excreted more urinary N (P = 0.001) than the other breeds. In Cositec, OM, NDF, and ADF disappearance rates from cecal chyme of SBP-fed pigs increased (P < 0.05) irrespective of pig breed. Cecal chyme of SBP-fed BB pigs

  1. The Development of Surface Profile Models in Abrasive Slurry Jet Micro-machining of Brittle and Ductile materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouraei, Hooman

    In low-pressure abrasive slurry jet micro-machining (ASJM), a slurry jet of fine abrasive particles is used to erode micro-sized features such as holes and channels in a variety of brittle and ductile materials with a high degree of accuracy and repeatability without the need for a patterned mask. ASJM causes no tool wear and thermal damage, applies small forces on the workpiece, allows multilevel etching on a single substrate and is relatively quick and inexpensive. In this study for the first time, the mechanics of micro-slurry jet erosion and its relation to the fluid flow of the impinging jet was investigated using a newly developed ASJM system. Existing surface evolution models, previously developed for abrasive air jet machining (AJM), were evaluated and modified through the use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models for profile modeling of micro-channels and micro-holes machined with ASJM in brittle materials. A novel numerical-empirical model was also developed in order to compensate for the shortcoming of existing surface evolution models and provide a higher degree of accuracy in predicting the profiles of features in ductile materials machined with ASJM. In addition, the effect of process parameters on the minimum feature size attainable with ASJM as a maskless process was also examined and it was shown that the size of machined features could be further reduced.

  2. Determination of aluminium and manganese in human scalp hair by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using slurry sampling.

    PubMed

    Bermejo-Barrera, P; Moreda-Piñeiro, A; Moreda-Piñeiro, J; Bermejo-Barrera, A

    1998-04-01

    Methods for the determination of aluminium and manganese in human scalp hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using the slurry sampling technique were developed. Palladium and magnesium nitrate were used as chemical modifiers. Hair samples were pulverized using a zirconia vibrational mill ball, and were prepared as aqueous slurries. Determinations can be performed in the linear ranges of 1.9-150 mug l(-1) Al(3+) and 0.03-10.0 mug l(-1) Mn(2+). Limits of detection of 0.9 mg kg(-1) and 27.6 mug kg(-1) were obtained for aluminium and manganese, respectively. The analytical recoveries were between 99.6 and 101.8% for aluminium and in the 98.3-101.3% range for manganese. The repeatability of the methods (n=11), slurry preparation procedure and ETAAS measurement, was 16.0 and 7.9% for aluminium and manganese, respectively. The methods were finally applied to the aluminium and manganese determination in 25 scalp hair samples from healthy adults. The levels for aluminium were between 8.21 and 74.08 mg kg(-1), while concentrations between 0.03 and 1.20 mg kg(-1) were found for manganese.

  3. Xenotransplantation and pig endogenous retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Magre, Saema; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Bartosch, Birke

    2003-01-01

    Xenotransplantation, in particular transplantation of pig cells, tissues and organs into human patients, may alleviate the current shortage of suitable allografts available for human transplantation. This overview addresses the physiological, immunological and virological factors considered with regard to xenotransplantation. Among the issues reviewed are the merits of using pigs as xenograft source species, the compatibility of pig and human organ physiology and the immunological hindrances with regard to the various types of rejection and attempts at abrogating rejection. Advances in the prevention of pig organ rejection by creating genetically modified pigs that are more suited to the human microenvironment are also discussed. Finally, with regard to virology, possible zoonotic infections emanating from pigs are reviewed, with special emphasis on the pig endogenous retrovirus (PERV). An in depth account of PERV studies, comprising their discovery as well as recent knowledge of the virus, is given. To date, all retrospective studies on patients with pig xenografts have shown no evidence of PERV transmission, however, many factors make us interpret these results with caution. Although the lack of PERV infection in xenograft recipients up to now is encouraging, more basic research and controlled animal studies that mimic the pig to human xenotransplantation setting more closely are required for safety assessment.

  4. RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-02-08

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg

  5. Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

    1980-03-31

    The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

  6. Corrosion inhibitors for water-base slurry in multiblade sawing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Odonnell, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a water-base slurry instead of the standard PC oil vehicle was proposed for multiblade sawing (MBS) silicon wafering technology. Potential cost savings were considerable; however, significant failures of high-carbon steel blades were observed in limited tests using a water-based slurry during silicon wafering. Failures were attributed to stress corrosion. A specially designed fatigue test of 1095 steel blades in distilled water with various corrosion inhibitor solutions was used to determine the feasibility of using corrosion inhibitors in water-base MBS wafering. Fatigue tests indicate that several corrosion inhibitors have significant potential for use in a water-base MBS operation. Blade samples tested in these specific corrosion-inhibitor solutions exhibited considerably greater lifetime than those blades tested in PC oil.

  7. Feasibility of amending slurry walls with zero-valent iron

    SciTech Connect

    Rabideau, A.J.; Shen, P.; Khandelwal, A.

    1999-04-01

    Rapid degradation of aqueous trichloroethylene (TCE) was observed in batch experiments conducted with soil/bentonite slurry wall materials amended with the addition of zero-valent iron. The first-order TCE decay constants for soil/bentonite/iron mixtures, when normalized to the available iron surface area, were approximately 1--2 orders of magnitude higher than observed in batch experiments with pure iron systems. Permeability tests indicated an increase in SB hydraulic conductivity roughly proportional to the amount of iron added. Based on the observed reaction rates and the assumption of sustained long-term performance, significantly less than one percent added iron would be required to reduce the diffusive flux of TCE across an installed slurry wall by over 10 orders of magnitude. However, the release of hydrogen gas was noted as a potential problem for low permeability systems containing zero-valent iron.

  8. Critical parameters for coarse coal underground slurry haulage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Factors are identified which must be considered in meeting the requirements of a transportation system for conveying, in a pipeline, the coal mined by a continuous mining machine to a storage location neat the mine entrance or to a coal preparation plant located near the surface. For successful operation, the slurry haulage the system should be designed to operated in the turbulent flow regime at a flow rate at least 30% greater than the deposition velocity (slurry flow rate at which the solid particles tend to settle in the pipe). The capacity of the haulage system should be compatible with the projected coal output. Partical size, solid concentration, density, and viscosity of the suspension are if importance as well as the selection of the pumps, pipes, and valves. The parameters with the greatest effect on system performance ar flow velocity, pressure coal particle size, and solids concentration.

  9. Planarization effect evaluation of acid and alkaline slurries in the copper interconnect process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hu; Yan, Li; Yuling, Liu; Yangang, He

    2015-03-01

    We observed and analyzed the acid and HEBUT alkaline of Cu chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) slurry to evaluate their effects. Material analysis has shown that the planarity surfaces and the removal rate of alkaline slurry are better than the acid slurry during metal CMP processes. The global surface roughness and the small-scale surface roughness by 10 × 10 μm2 of copper film polished by the SVTC slurry are 1.127 nm and 2.49 nm. However, it is found that the surface roughnesses of copper films polished by the HEBUT slurry are 0.728 nm and 0.215 nm. All other things being equal, the remaining step heights of copper films polished by the SVTC slurry and HEBUT slurry are respectively 150 nm and 50 nm. At the end of the polishing process, the dishing heights of the HEBUT slurry and the SVTC slurry are approximately both 30 nm, the erosion heights of the HEBUT slurry and the SVTC slurry are approximately both 20 nm. The surface states of the copper film after CMP are tested, and the AFM results of two samples are obviously seen. The surface polished by SVTC slurry shows many spikes. This indicates that the HEBUT alkaline slurry is promising for inter-level dielectric (ILD) applications in ultra large-scale integrated circuits (ULSI) technology. Project supported by the Special Project Items No. 2 in National Long-Term Technology Development Plan (No. 2009ZX02308), the Doctoral Program Foundation of Xinjiang Normal University Plan (No. XJNUBS1226), the Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification, Ministry of Education, and the Inorganic Chemistry Key Disciplines of Xinjiang Normal University.

  10. Evaluation of anthracite as a coal-water slurry fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    This study evaluated the use of anthracite as a coal-water slurry fuel. The study consisted of two major activities: (1) fundamental slurry formulation experiments leading to the production and combustion characteristics investigation of suitable, anthracite slurries, and (2) analytical evaluations of the potential of anthracite slurry as a boiler fuel for new industrial and utility boiler application and for retrofit application of an industrial oil-fired boiler. The study results have shown that anthracite can be readily processed into a coal-water slurry with coal loading 70 wt % coal and 30% water plus chemical additives. Slurry viscosity, handling, and storage characteristics are similar to the bituminous coal-water slurries that are under active commercial development. Commercial anthracite-water slurry processing cost is projected to be only slightly higher than for bituminous coal-water slurry. Combustion testing in a small, industrial, water-tube boiler has shown that stable combustion of anthracite-water slurry can be achieved with high carbon conversion. The results also indicate that oxygen enrichment and secondary fuel firing can compensate for the low volatile content of the anthracite to achieve good combustion. Under the conditions assumed, anthracite-water slurry was not an economical fuel retrofit option for an existing oil-fired, industrial boiler. Contributing significantly to the economic results were the requirement for secondary fuel and oxygen to achieve good anthracite slurry combustion in the oil-designed boiler. Minimizing or eliminating the secondary fuel and oxygen requirements through a continued burner/boiler development program or more radical boiler modification to fire low-volatile fuel would greatly improve conversion economics and likely make anthracite-water slurry a candidate for industrial boiler fuel retrofit. 10 refs., 22 figs., 38 tabs.

  11. [Control of enzootic Aujeszky's disease on pig farms].

    PubMed

    Motovski, A; Kurshelova, R; Milachkov, P; Georgiev, Kh

    1982-01-01

    Virologic and serologic investigations were carried out to demonstrate the persistence of the virulent virus of Aujeszky's disease. Threefold vaccinations were conducted with a live vaccine, embracing all animals on the farm and those that were born during the time when sanitation measures were applied. The first vaccination of the sucking pigs was performed with 10 doses of the vaccine in each case. During the time of applying sanation measures the farm was kept closed, the pigs after weaning being transferred to another farm. After sanitation was over some new virologic and serologic studies were carried out along with the serologic examination of nonimmune pigs that had stayed on the farm. These investigations did not prove the presence of a wild virus on the farm. It was found that the manifold vaccinations and use of higher amounts of the vaccine might well suit the base in working out sanitation programmes for farms infected with Aujeszky's disease.

  12. Design of agitation systems in Bingham slurries by pilot simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    A method was required to determine the optimum agitator speed needed to produce overall motion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) high-level waste slurries in remote process cell vessels. Project schedule and limited process space required an accurate determination of agitator horsepower and size without the benefit of full-scale testing. The small scale testing of unique clear rheologically similar fluid is described along with tests and scale-up procedures. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Ice slurry on outdoor running performance in heat.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Z W; Fan, P W P; Nio, A Q X; Byrne, C; Lee, J K W

    2012-11-01

    The efficacy of ingestion of ice slurry on actual outdoor endurance performance is unknown. This study aimed to investigate ice slurry ingestion as a cooling intervention before a 10 km outdoor running time-trial. Twelve participants ingested 8 g · kg (- 1) of either ice slurry ( - 1.4°C; ICE) or ambient temperature drink (30.9°C; CON) and performed a 15-min warm-up prior to a 10 km outdoor running time-trial (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature: 28.2 ± 0.8°C). Mean performance time was faster with ICE (2 715 ± 396 s) than CON (2 730 ± 385 s; P=0.023). Gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi) reduced by 0.5 ± 0.2°C after ICE ingestion compared with 0.1 ± 0.1°C (P<0.001) with CON. During the run, the rate of rise in Tgi was greater (P=0.01) with ICE than with CON for the first 15 min. At the end of time-trial, Tgi was higher with ICE (40.2 ± 0.6°C) than CON (39.8 ± 0.4°C, P=0.005). Ratings of thermal sensation were lower during the cooling phase and for the first kilometre of the run ( - 1.2 ± 0.8; P<0.001). Although ingestion of ice slurry resulted in a transient increase in heat strain following a warm up routine, it is a practical and effective pre-competition cooling manoeuvre to improve performance in warm and humid environments.

  14. Reductive dechlorination of chlorobenzenes in surfactant-amended sediment slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoof, P.L.; Jafvert, C.T.

    1996-11-01

    Microbial anaerobic dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was examined in sediment slurries amended with two classes of nonionic surfactant, polyoxyethylene (POE) sorbitan fatty acid esters (Tweens) and POE alcohols (Brijs). The rationale for surfactant addition was to increase the bioavailability of highly sorbed organic pollutants to degrading microorganisms by enhancing their solubility. The solubility of HCB was initially enhanced via micellar partitioning; however, primary degradation of most surfactants occurred within 10 d. Dechlorination activity was significantly reduced at POE alcohol concentrations above the critical micelle concentration (cmc), with or without the occurrence of surfactant degradation. Tween 80 decreased HCB dechlorination at concentrations significantly above the cmc. At concentrations closer to the cmc, Tween 80 increased dechlorination rate constants four- to fivefold in acclimated slurries. Additions of Tween 80 at or below the cmc stimulated dechlorination activity in unacclimated slurries that exhibited very little activity in unamended controls. An average of 89% of HCB was dechlorinated after 90 d, compared to 20% in unamended sediments. No effect was observed for POE alcohols at these sub-cmc levels. The lack of a stimulated response for the POE alcohols suggests that Tween 80 may not be acting simply as a source of carbon or energy.

  15. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Robben, Franklin A.

    1985-01-01

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  16. Process for gasifying carbonaceous material from a recycled condensate slurry

    DOEpatents

    Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.

    1981-01-01

    Coal or other carbonaceous material is gasified by reaction with steam and oxygen in a manner to minimize the problems of effluent water stream disposal. The condensate water from the product gas is recycled to slurry the coal feed and the amount of additional water or steam added for cooling or heating is minimized and preferably kept to a level of about that required to react with the carbonaceous material in the gasification reaction. The gasification is performed in a pressurized fluidized bed with the coal fed in a water slurry and preheated or vaporized by indirect heat exchange contact with product gas and recycled steam. The carbonaceous material is conveyed in a gas-solid mixture from bottom to top of the pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with the solids removed from the product gas and recycled steam in a supported moving bed filter of the resulting carbonaceous char. Steam is condensed from the product gas and the condensate recycled to form a slurry with the feed coal carbonaceous particles.

  17. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Yield Stress Reduction of DWPF Melter Feed Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.E.; Smith, M.E.

    2007-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides and soluble sodium salts. The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit. Beads were produced from the DWPF process frit by fire polishing. The frit was allowed to free fall through a flame

  19. Rheology of slurries and environmental impacts in the mining industry.

    PubMed

    Boger, David V

    2013-01-01

    The world's resource industries are the largest producers of waste. Much of this waste is produced as a fine particle slurry, which is pumped to a storage area, generally at a low concentration, where it behaves like a Newtonian fluid. Simply removing, reusing, and recycling water from the slurry represents a step toward a more sustainable practice in this industry. As the concentration of such a slurry is increased as a result of dewatering, the materials exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, which is characterized by shear thinning, a yield stress, and in some instances thixotropic behavior. Such high-concentration, nonideal (dirty) suspensions in the resource industries have meant that new rheological methods and techniques have been needed to measure and interpret the basic flow properties. Also, some older empirical techniques have needed to be modified and interpreted in a more fundamental way so that the results could be used in design. This article reviews these techniques and illustrates how the industry itself has motivated their development. Understanding and exploiting this rheology has resulted in dramatic improvement in the waste-disposal strategy for some industries, but many have failed to embrace the available technology. The reasons for this are discussed. The article concludes that a greater positive change in waste-management practice will occur in the future, motivated by several factors, including public perception, tighter regulation, and perhaps even commonsense life cycle accounting.

  20. Additive for coal water slurry made from weak slurryability coal

    SciTech Connect

    Zi-xiu Zang; Lin Zhang; Xino-an Fu; Long Jiang

    1993-12-31

    Surface treatment of weak slurryability coal and preparation of highly concentrated coal water slurry (CWS) have been investigated using wettability and rheology measurements. By adding 0.5{approximately}10 wt.% (based on coal) pitch during dry milling coal surface became more hydrophobic and the coal could be easily prepared for CWS which had much lower viscosity compared with CWS of the untreated coal. The reasons of this result is high degree of hydrophobic surface of coal particles made surfactant adsorption easier compared with high degree of hydrophilic surface of coal particles. Another important reason in hydrophobic surface impeded the penetration of water into the inner pores of coal particles which resulted in decreasing swelling ability of coal and enhancing the fluidity of CWS. Four different additives have been investigated including three nonionic ethoxylated surfactants and one mixture of anionic surfactants (sodium humate derivative and naphthalenesulfonic acid-HCHO condensate). Both rheological and thixotropic properties showed that nonionic surfactant G2 was the most efficient additive for preparation of highly concentrated CWS. The results of dynamic experiment illustrated that the slurry had good dynamic stability, in other words, the viscosity of the slurry decreased very slowly at constant stir. The pitch treated coal powders were beneficiated coal had much lower viscosity compared with CWS of the unbeneficiated coal.

  1. Effect of cattle slurry pre-treatment by separation and addition of nitrification inhibitors on gaseous emissions and N dynamics: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José; Fangueiro, David; Chadwick, David R; Misselbrook, Tom H; Coutinho, João; Trindade, Henrique

    2010-04-01

    The application of untreated or treated animal manure to soils can result in increased N and C gaseous emissions contributing to ecosystem change and global warming. In the present study, dairy cattle slurry (liquid manure) was subjected first to pre-treatment by separation using a screw press to obtain a liquid (LF) and a solid fraction (SF). Then, the different fractions and the whole slurry (WS) were combined with two nitrification inhibitors (NI), dicyandiamide (DCD) or 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP), were applied to soil to assess the effect of slurry treatment by separation and NI addition on soil N dynamics and CH4, CO2, NH3, NO and N2O emissions. The WS and the two slurry fractions, combined or not with DCD or DMPP, were applied to soil at an equivalent field dosage of 120 kg total N ha(-1). Controls including a soil only, soil-DCD and soil-DMPP treatments were also included. The mixtures were incubated for 93-d at 20 degrees C. Results obtained show that NI inhibited nitrification between 16 and 30-d in WS and LF, with DMPP having a longer effect over time compared to DCD. There was no significant effect of NI on nitrification for the SF treatment. Nitrification inhibitors did not significantly affect (P>0.05) the CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions, but significantly decreased (P<0.05) NO emissions. Furthermore, the two NIs had a similar effect on gaseous emissions. Throughout the entire experiment, the greatest amount of NO was released from the LF treatment (without NI), while the greatest amount of N2O was released from the SF treatment. Slurry separation had no impact on N emissions, while the combination of this process with one of the two NI led to a small reduction in total N emissions.

  2. Design and use of multiple blade slurry sawing in a production atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynah, F. P., Jr.; Ross, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    The technique and uses of the multiple blade slurry (MBS) saw are considered. Multiple bands of steel are arranged in a frame and the frame is reciprocated with the steel bands to a workpiece, while simultaneously applying abrasive at the point of contact. The blades wear slots in the workpiece and progress through the piece resulting in several parts of wafers. The transition to MBA from diamond slicing is justified by savings resulting from minimized kerf losses, minimized subsurface damage, and improved surface quality off the saw. This allows wafering much closer to finished thickness specifications. The current state of the art MBS technology must be significantly improved if the low cost solar array (LSA) goals are to be attained. It is concluded that although MBS will never be the answer to every wafering requirement, the economical production of wafers to LSA project specifications will be achieved.

  3. Effectiveness of high energy electron beam against spore forming bacteria and viruses in slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Olszewska, Halina; Wieczorek, Magdalena; Zimek, Zbigniew; Śrutek, Mścisław

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high energy electron beam effect against the most resistant indicators - spore forming bacteria (Clostridium sporogenes) and viruses (BPV) - which may occur in slurry. The applied doses of electron beam were 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 kGy. The theoretic inactivating dose of high energy electron beam for Clostridium sporogenes spores calculated based on the polynomial curve equation was 11.62 kGy, and determined on the basis of regression line equation for BPV virus was equal 23.49 kGy. The obtained results showed a quite good effectiveness of irradiation in bacterial spores inactivation, whereas relatively poor against viruses.

  4. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, June 1, 1995--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries that have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. This should be of major importance to the United States in its efforts to reduce dependence on imported oil and to rely more on its enormous low-cost coal resources. In accordance with this objective, in the first stage of this project, considerable work was conducted to standardize experimental procedures for sample preparation, coal grinding, and Theological measurements to assure reproducibility of the experimental results. Since a Haake RV-12 viscometer with an MV-DIN sensor system was found to give the most reproducible results for measurement of slurry viscosities, it has subsequently been used for all of our Theological measurements. Methods were developed for applying the acoustophoresis technique for studying the electrokinetic behavior of concentrated coal-water suspensions. These measurements were carried out using this technique to identify the potential of chemical additives for functioning as reagents for effective dispersion. Detailed investigations of the effect of solids content and chemical additives on the rheology of coal-water slurries, prepared with fines produced by the ball milling of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, were conducted during the first phase of our research program. These experiments were to provide a baseline against which the rheological behavior of slurries prepared with fines produced by high-pressure roll milling or hybrid high-pressure roll mill/ball mill grinding could be compared.

  5. Determination of trace rare earth elements in coal fly ash and atmospheric particulates by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with slurry sampling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuefei; Jiang, Zucheng; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2007-07-01

    A method of fluorination assisted electrothermal vaporization (FETV)-ICP-MS with polytetrafluoroethylene as fluorinating reagent was developed for the direct determination of trace rare earth elements (REEs) in coal fly ash and atmospheric particulates. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits for REEs were 0.1 pg m(-3)(Eu) to 6.7 pg m(-3)(Nd) with the precisions of 4.1%(Yb) to 10%(La) (c=1 microg L(-1), n=9). The proposed method was applied to determine trace REEs in coal fly ash, airborne particulates and NIES SRM No. 8 Vehicle Exhaust Particulates. It was found that the determined values for Y, La, Pr and Nd obtained by slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with external calibration coincided with that obtained by pneumatic nebulization (PN)-ICP-MS and slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with standard addition. However, the determined values for Ce and Sm obtained by slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with external calibration were lower than that obtained by PN-ICP-MS and slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with standard addition.

  6. Comparative determination of Ba, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in tea leaves by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption and liquid sampling inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mierzwa, J; Sun, Y C; Chung, Y T; Yang, M H

    1998-12-01

    The comparative determination of barium, copper, iron, lead and zinc in tea leaf samples by two atomic spectrometric techniques is reported. At first, slurry sampling electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was applied. The results of Ba and Pb determination were calculated using the method of standard additions, and results of Cu, Fe and Zn from the calibration graphs based on aqueous standards. These results were compared with the results obtained after microwave-assisted wet (nitric+hydrochloric+hydrofluoric acids) digestion in closed vessels followed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) determination with the calibration by means of aqueous standards. The exception was lead determined after a wet digestion procedure by ETAAS. The accuracy of the studied methods was checked by the use of the certified reference material Tea GBW-07605. The recoveries of the analytes varied in the range from 91 to 99% for slurry sampling ETAAS, and from 92.5 to 102% for liquid sampling ICP-AES. The advantages of slurry sampling ETAAS method are simplicity of sample preparation and very good sensitivity. Slurry sampling ETAAS method is relatively fast but if several elements must be determined in one sample, the time of the whole microwave-assisted digestion procedure and ICP-AES determination will be shorter. However, worse detection limits of ICP-AES must also be taken into the consideration in a case of some analytes.

  7. Bioremediation of solid TNT particles in a soil slurry reactor: Mass transfer considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Gilcrease, P.C.; Murphy, V.G.; Reardon, K.F.

    1996-12-31

    The bioreduction of solid TNT by a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain was investigated in a stirred tank reactor. Experiments in which TNT beads were the only solids present indicated that the biodegradation mechanism is dissolution followed by degradation in bulk solution. Dissolution may limit the overall rate, in which case degradation can be enhanced through increased agitation. Since soil slurries may contain high concentrations of solids other than TNT, Teflon chips were added to investigate two separate effects on TNT dissolution in slurries. First, Teflon solids increase the viscosity of the slurry, resulting in lower solid-liquid mass transfer coefficients. Second, the agitated Teflon slurry can grind or comminute TNT particles, creating additional surface area for mass transfer. Enhanced dissolution rates were observed for TNT beads in a Teflon slurry at higher agitator speeds. This suggests that the biodegradation of solid TNT nuggets in a soil slurry bioreactor may be enhanced under conditions that promote particle attrition.

  8. Analysis of the polishing slurry flow of chemical mechanical polishing by polishing pad with phyllotactic pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yushan; Zhang, Tian; Wang, Jun; Li, Nan; Duan, Min; Xing, Xue-Ling

    2010-12-01

    In order to make the polishing slurry distribution more uniform over the polishing region, a new kind of polishing pad, which has sunflower seed pattern, has been designed based on the phyllotaxis theory of biology, and the boundary conditions of polishing slurry flow have been established. By the help of computational fluid dynamics software (FLUENT), the flow state of the polishing slurry is simulated and the effects of the phyllotactic parameters of polishing pad on the flow field of polishing slurry are analyzed. The results show that when the polishing slurry is imported from the center of phyllotaxis polishing pad, the slurry flows along the counterclockwise and clockwise spiral grooves of phyllotatic pattern, which make fluid flow divergence around, and the flow field becomes more uniform.

  9. A low-cost solid-liquid separation process for enzymatically hydrolyzed corn stover slurries.

    PubMed

    Sievers, David A; Lischeske, James J; Biddy, Mary J; Stickel, Jonathan J

    2015-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of intermediate process slurries is required in some process configurations for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to transportation fuels. Thermochemically pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed corn stover slurries have proven difficult to filter due to formation of very low permeability cakes that are rich in lignin. Treatment of two different slurries with polyelectrolyte flocculant was demonstrated to increase mean particle size and filterability. Filtration flux was greatly improved, and thus scaled filter unit capacity was increased approximately 40-fold compared with unflocculated slurry. Although additional costs were accrued using polyelectrolyte, techno-economic analysis revealed that the increase in filter capacity significantly reduced overall production costs. Fuel production cost at 95% sugar recovery was reduced by $1.35 US per gallon gasoline equivalent for dilute-acid pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed slurries and $3.40 for slurries produced using an additional alkaline de-acetylation preprocessing step that is even more difficult to natively filter.

  10. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal coupled with carbohydrate production by five microalgae cultures cultivated in biogas slurry.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fen; Wang, Zhi; Zhouyang, Siyu; Li, Heng; Xie, Youping; Wang, Yuanpeng; Zheng, Yanmei; Li, Qingbiao

    2016-12-01

    In this study, five microalgae strains were cultured for their ability to survive in biogas slurry, remove nitrogen resources and accumulate carbohydrates. It was proved that five microalgae strains adapted in biogas slurry well without ammonia inhibition. Among them, Chlorella vulgaris ESP-6 showed the best performance on carbohydrate accumulation, giving the highest carbohydrate content of 61.5% in biogas slurry and the highest ammonia removal efficiency and rate of 96.3% and 91.7mg/L/d respectively in biogas slurry with phosphorus and magnesium added. Additionally, the absence of phosphorus and magnesium that can be adverse for biomass accumulation resulted in earlier timing of carbohydrate accumulation and magnesium was firstly recognized and proved as the influence factor for carbohydrate accumulation. Microalgae that cultured in biogas slurry accumulated more carbohydrate in cell, making biogas slurry more suitable medium for the improvement of carbohydrate content, thus can be regarded as a new strategy to accumulate carbohydrate.

  11. Analysis of high-level radioactive slurries as a method to reduce DWPF turnaround times

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, C.J.; Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Hay, M.S.

    1996-06-01

    Analysis of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) samples as slurries rather than as dried or vitrified samples is an effective way to reduce sample turnaround times. Slurries can be dissolved with a mixture of concentrated acids to yield solutions for elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Slurry analyses can be performed in eight hours, whereas analyses of vitrified samples require up to 40 hours to complete. Analyses of melter feed samples consisting of the DWPF borosilicate frit and either simulated or actual DWPF radioactive sludge were typically within a range of 3--5% of the predicted value based on the relative amounts of sludge and frit added to the slurry. The results indicate that the slurry analysis approach yields analytical accuracy and precision competitive with those obtained from analyses of vitrified samples. Slurry analyses offer a viable alternative to analyses of solid samples as a simple way to reduce analytical turnaround times.

  12. A low-cost solid–liquid separation process for enzymatically hydrolyzed corn stover slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, David A.; Lischeske, James J.; Biddy, Mary J.; Stickel, Jonathan J.

    2015-07-01

    Solid-liquid separation of intermediate process slurries is required in some process configurations for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to transportation fuels. Thermochemically pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed corn stover slurries have proven difficult to filter due to formation of very low permeability cakes that are rich in lignin. Treatment of two different slurries with polyelectrolyte flocculant was demonstrated to increase mean particle size and filterability. Filtration flux was greatly improved, and thus scaled filter unit capacity was increased approximately 40-fold compared with unflocculated slurry. Although additional costs were accrued using polyelectrolyte, techno-economic analysis revealed that the increase in filter capacity significantly reduced overall production costs. Fuel production cost at 95% sugar recovery was reduced by $1.35 US per gallon gasoline equivalent for dilute-acid pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed slurries and $3.40 for slurries produced using an additional alkaline de-acetylation preprocessing step that is even more difficult to natively filter.

  13. Experimental investigation of an applicator of liquid slurry, from biogas production, for crop production.

    PubMed

    Kurchania, A K; Panwar, N L

    2011-01-01

    A unit for the application of liquid digested slurry in the field was designed and developed. The developed slurry applicator had a capacity of 1500 L and was pulled by a 35 h.p. tractor. The liquid digested slurry of a biogas plant was pumped in to the tank with the help of a slurry pump. The necessary power transmission system, consisting of a pulley, power take off shaft (PTO) and cross joints, was provided to get power from the PTO of the tractor. In this paper an attempt has been made to evaluate the application of liquid slurry in the field in terms of plant growth parameters such as number of branches/plant, number of nodules/plant, plant height and yield attributes like pods/plant and grains/pod. The application of liquid slurry resulted in an increase in grain, straw and biological yields of 32%, 7% and 15%, respectively, compared with the application of farmyard manure.

  14. Effect of plastic viscosity and yield value on spray characteristics of magnesium-slurry fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prok, George M

    1957-01-01

    Magnesium slurries were sprayed onto a sheet of paper from an air-atomizing injector. Drop sizes and distributions were then determined from photomicrographs. Four different surface-active additives were used in preparing the slurries to give plastic viscosities between 0.22 and 0.51 poise and yield values between 150 and 810 dynes-cm(exp 2). It was found that there was no significant variation in the spray characteristics of these slurries when tested under the same conditions.

  15. Evaluation of Single Column Trapping/Separation and Chemiluminescence Detection for Measurement of Methanethiol and Dimethyl Sulfide from Pig Production

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Toda, Kei; Obata, Tomoaki; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Feilberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Reduced sulfur compounds are considered to be important odorants from pig production due to their low odor threshold values and low solubility in slurry. The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of a portable method with a single silica gel column for trapping/separation coupled with chemiluminescence detection (SCTS-CL) for measurement of methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in sample air from pig production. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to evaluate the trapping/separation. The silica gel column used for the SCTS-CL efficiently collected hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide. The measurement of methanethiol by SCTS-CL was clearly interfered by the high concentration of hydrogen sulfide found in pig production, and a removal of hydrogen sulfide was necessary to obtain reliable results. Air samples taken from a facility with growing-finishing pigs were analyzed by SCTS-CL, PTR-MS, and a gas chromatograph with sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GC-SCD) to evaluate the SCTS-CL. The difference between the concentrations of methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide measured with SCTS-CL, PTR-MS, and GC-SCD was below 10%. In conclusion, the SCTS-CL is a portable and low-cost alternative to the commercial methods that can be used to measure methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in sample air from pig production. PMID:22997603

  16. Evaluation of single column trapping/separation and chemiluminescence detection for measurement of methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide from pig production.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Toda, Kei; Obata, Tomoaki; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Feilberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Reduced sulfur compounds are considered to be important odorants from pig production due to their low odor threshold values and low solubility in slurry. The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of a portable method with a single silica gel column for trapping/separation coupled with chemiluminescence detection (SCTS-CL) for measurement of methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in sample air from pig production. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to evaluate the trapping/separation. The silica gel column used for the SCTS-CL efficiently collected hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide. The measurement of methanethiol by SCTS-CL was clearly interfered by the high concentration of hydrogen sulfide found in pig production, and a removal of hydrogen sulfide was necessary to obtain reliable results. Air samples taken from a facility with growing-finishing pigs were analyzed by SCTS-CL, PTR-MS, and a gas chromatograph with sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GC-SCD) to evaluate the SCTS-CL. The difference between the concentrations of methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide measured with SCTS-CL, PTR-MS, and GC-SCD was below 10%. In conclusion, the SCTS-CL is a portable and low-cost alternative to the commercial methods that can be used to measure methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in sample air from pig production.

  17. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX SOLIDS WITH LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.

    2011-11-11

    Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). In the summer of 2011, Tank 50H contained two standard slurry pumps and two quad volute slurry pumps. Current requirements for mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste moved both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that were failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to mix solids with liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange Process (SCIX), SRNL computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, Tank 50H operating experience, and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters of pumps needed to mix the solid particles with the liquid in Tank 50H. The analysis determined pump requirements to suspend the solids with no 'dead zones', but did not determine the pump requirements to produce a homogeneous suspension. In addition, the analysis determined the pump requirements to prevent the accumulation of a large amount of solid particles under the telescoping transfer pump. The conclusions from this analysis follow: (1) The analysis shows that three Quad Volute pumps should be able to suspend the solid particles expected ({approx}0.6 g/L insoluble solids, {approx}5 micron) in Tank 50H. (2) Three standard slurry pumps may not be able to suspend the solid particles in Tank 50H; (3) The ability of two Quad Volute pumps to fully suspend all of the solid particles in Tank 50H is marginal; and (4) One standard slurry pump should be able to achieve a

  19. Ethanol production from non-detoxified whole slurry of sulfite-pretreated empty fruit bunches at a low cellulase loading.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinlan; Leu, Shao-Yuan; Zhu, J Y; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2014-07-01

    Sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) was applied to an empty fruit bunches (EFB) for ethanol production. SPORL facilitated delignification through lignin sulfonation and dissolution of xylan to result in a highly digestible substrate. The pretreated whole slurry was enzymatically saccharified at a solids loading of 18% using a relatively low cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g glucan and simultaneously fermented without detoxification using Saccharomyces cerevisiae of YRH400. An ethanol yield of 217 L/tonne EFB was achieved at titer of 32 g/L. Compared with literature studies, SPORL produced high ethanol yield and titer with much lower cellulase loading without detoxification.

  20. Piston diaphragm pumps an economic and reliable tool for slurry pipeline transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Broek, B. van den

    1998-04-01

    Slurry transportation systems by means of pumps and pipelines has been in use now for over 100 years. Hydraulic transportation of slurries is defined as a two-phase transportation of a mixture of a fluid carrier and solids, mainly in enclosed pipelines. In the mid fifties, slurry transportation techniques became more sophisticated, resulting in the design and operation of long distance pipe-lines for raw materials, such as coal, copper concentrate, iron concentrate, kaolin and phosphate. Nowadays, slurry transportation through pipelines has become a generally accepted means of solids transportation.

  1. Experiments on densely-loaded non-Newtonian slurries in laminar and turbulent pipe flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannheimer, R. J.; Grimley, T. A.; Park, J. T.; Morrow, T. B.

    1987-04-01

    The structure of non-Newtonian slurries in laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow regimes in pipes is studied. Experiments are conducted in a large-scale pipe slurry flow facility with an inside pipe diameter of 51 mm. Flow measurements including turbulence quantities such as Reynolds stress are taken with a two-component laser-Doppler velocimeter in a transparent test section with a transparent model slurry. Two transparent model slurries have been developed with non-Newtonian rheological properties. Silica gel particles with diameters on the order of one micron are suspended in two different hydrocarbon liquid mixtures with viscosities of 1.19 and 6.39 cS. In rheological measurements with a concentric cylinder viscometer, slurries from both liquid mixtures exhibited slip. From a linear regression analysis with a power-law model, slurries with the higher viscosity fluid had yield values of 80 and 30 dyn/sq cm for silica gel concentrations of 5.6 and 4.0% by weight, respectively, and the exponents were 0.584 and 0.763. The measured refractive index for the transparent slurries is 1.454 where the difference in refractive index between the fluid and silica gel is estimated to be less than 0.001. Bench scale tests with large diameter silica gel particles on the order of 100 microns have produced slurries with excessive turbidity. A silica gel manufactured by a different process which may form a less turbid slurry is currently under investigation.

  2. Management of root-knot nematode in tomato Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill, with biogas slurry.

    PubMed

    Jothi, G; Pugalendhi, S; Poornima, K; Rajendran, G

    2003-09-01

    The effect of biogas slurry application on the severity of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, attack on tomato cv. Co-1, was tested in the green house with two levels of biogas slurry: 5% and 10% (w/w) added to soil. Both the number (3 fruits/plant) and fruit yield (35.2 g/plant) of tomato increased significantly with 10% (w/w) biogas slurry. The plants amended with biogas slurry put up more vegetative growth and tended to flower and fruit much earlier than did those of the control. The nematode population in the soil decreased thus decreasing the severity of nematode attack.

  3. Study On Numerical Simulation And Experiment Of Fabrication Magnesium Semisolid Slurry By Damper Cooling Tube Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shuisheng; Huang, Guojie; Zhang, Xiaoli; Yang, Haoqiang

    2007-05-01

    Damper Cooling Tube (DCT) Method to fabricate the semi-solid metal slurry has been studied in this paper. Firstly, numerical simulation is adopted to investigate the flow process in order to optimize the technical parameters. The temperature effects on the rheological properties of the slurries are also considered. The effects of technical parameters on the slurry properties are studied in detail. Then the experiment was carried out with AZ91 magnesium alloy in order to examine the numerical simulation results. The results of numerical simulation are consistent with the experimental results. According to the numerical and experiment results, the DCT device can fabricate fine semisolid slurry with primary globular phase.

  4. Effect of Surface-active Additives on Physical Properties of Slurries of Vapor-process Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, Murray L

    1955-01-01

    The presence of 3 to 5 percent surface-active additive gave the lowest Brookfield apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield value that were obtained for slurry fuels containing approximately 50 percent vapor-process magnesium in JP-1 fuel. The slurries settled little and were easily remixed. A polyoxyethylene dodecyl alcohol was the most effective of 13 additives tested in reducing the Brookfield apparent viscosity and the yield value of the slurry. The seven most effective additives all had a hydroxyl group plus an ester or polyoxethylene group in the molecule. The densities of some of the slurries were measured.

  5. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, Joseph P.; Marek, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper (II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the orginal organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge and transferred to a virtrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage.

  6. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carleson, T.E.; Drown, D.C.; Hart, R.E.; Peterson, M.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Distribution and leaching ability of some heavy metals in products of flotation processing of fine-grained coal slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Klika, Z.; Weiss, Z.; Lach, K.

    1994-12-31

    Coal from the Ostrava-Karvina mines is processed in 19 coal preparation plants, 6 of which are not equipped with flotation technology. Generally, all fine-grained coal is transported into sedimentary coal slurry ponds. Depending on processing technology, coal slurries contain from 5 to 95% coal matter. Sedimentary coal slurry ponds occupy large areas, deteriorate the landscape, and ar great sources of dust in a dry summer. Moreover, some components from coal slurries scan be leached and can penetrate into underground water. This research project sampled 13 coal slurry ponds to determine the composition of coal slurries, the distribution of some heavy metals in the flotation process, and leaching behavior.

  9. Foam pigs solve pipe cleaning problems offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, P.C.R.; Neto, S.J.A.

    1995-10-02

    Pipeline systems in which conventional pigs cannot be run are common in such complex offshore installations as are found in Brazil`s Campos basin. These systems may contain changing pipe diameters or wet christmas trees and manifolds. A new concept for using low cost, low-density foam pigs for both liquid removal in wet-gas pipelines and paraffin removal in oil and multiphase pipelines has been successfully tested offshore Brazil. Although the present discussion focuses on condensate and paraffin removal in pipelines, the principles can be applied to several kinds of operations including general pipeline cleaning, product removal or separation in pipeline, corrosion evaluation, and chemical product application.

  10. Seroprevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pig batches at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt

    2014-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. are one of the main causes of foodborne bacterial infections in Europe. Slaughter pigs are the main reservoir and carcasses are contaminated during a sub-optimal hygienically slaughtering-process. Serology is potentially an easy option to test for the Yersinia-status of the pig (batches) before slaughter. A study of the variation in activity values (OD%) of Yersinia spp. in pigs and pig batches when applying a serological test were therefore conducted. In this study, pieces of the diaphragm of 7047 pigs, originating from 100 farms, were collected and meat juice was gathered, where after an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Pigtype Yopscreen (Labor Diagnostik Leipzig, Qiagen, Leipzig, Germany) was performed. The results were defined positive if the activity values exceeded the proposed cut-off value of 30 OD%. Results at pig level displayed a bimodal-shaped distribution with modes at 0-10% (n=879) and 50-60% (n=667). The average OD% was 51% and 66% of the animals tested positive. The within-batch seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 100% and also showed a bimodal distribution with modes at 0% (n=7) and 85-90% (n=16). On 7 farms, no single seropositive animal was present and in 22 farms, the mean OD% was below 30%. Based on the results obtained at slaughter, 66% of the pigs had contact with enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. at farm level. The latter occurred in at least 93% of the farms indicating that most farms are harboring enteropathogenic Yersinia spp.

  11. Gaseous emissions during the fattening of pigs kept either on fully slatted floors or on straw flow.

    PubMed

    Philippe, F-X; Laitat, M; Canart, B; Vandenheede, M; Nicks, B

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the environmental impact of the straw-flow system for fattening pigs with the slatted-floor system by measuring pollutant gas emissions such as ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), manure nitrogen (N) content and emissions of water vapour (H2O). Three successive batches of 32 pigs were fattened. For each batch, pigs were allotted to two groups raised in separated rooms fitted either with a concrete totally slatted-floor system (0.75 m2 per pig) or with a straw-flow system (0.79 m2 per pig). With this last system, pigs were kept on a sloped floor, straw being provided daily at the top of the pen. Throughout the fattening period, about 34.4 kg of straw were supplied per pig. The straw, mixed with dung, travelled down the slope by pig motion and went out of the pen to a scraped passage. The solid fraction was scraped every day, stored in a heap in the room and removed every month, 1 week before each period of gaseous emission measurement. The liquid fraction was automatically pumped from the scraped passage into a hermetic tank, which was emptied at the end of each fattening period. Rooms were ventilated mechanically in order to maintain a constant ambient temperature. Once a month, the emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4, CO2 and H2O were measured hourly for 6 consecutive days via infrared photoacoustic detection. Mean daily emissions per pig fattened on the slatted floor or on the sloped floor were, respectively, 4.98 and 13.31 g NH3, 0.67 and 0.68 g N2O, 15.2 and 8.88 g CH4, 548 g and 406 g CO2 equivalents, 1.61 and 1.77 kg CO2 and 2.33 and 2.95 kg H2O. Except for N2O emissions, all the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001). From the slatted-floor system, the amount of slurry removed per fattening period was on average 256 kg per pig. From the straw-flow system, solid manure amounted on average to 209 kg per pig and liquid manure to 53 kg per pig. The total N-content of the manure

  12. The effect of slurry on skin permeability to methylene blue dye in dairy cows with and without a history of digital dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, M A; Donnelly, R F; Garland, M J; Majithiya, R; O'Connell, N E

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there was a difference in skin permeability to methylene blue dye or skin morphology between dairy cows that differed in their susceptibility to digital dermatitis (DD) and to assess the effect of contact with slurry on skin permeability. Twenty nine dairy cows were monitored for DD during the winter housing period and classed as DD+ (previous DD infection, n = 17), or DD- (no recorded infection, n = 12). The animals were culled and a skin sample was taken from above the heel of each hind foot and frozen. Samples were later defrosted and one sample from each cow was tested for permeability, whereas the other was treated with slurry for 24 h before permeability testing. To test permeability, methylene blue dye was applied to the skin surface in a Franz diffusion cell. After 48 h, the amount of dye that had passed through the skin was estimated. The stratum corneum thickness and the density of hair follicles were determined from additional heel skin samples. Skin permeability to methylene blue dye was significantly greater for samples that had been treated with slurry but did not differ between DD+ and DD- animals. No difference was found in the stratum corneum thickness or density of hair follicles between DD+ and DD- animals. These findings imply that individual differences in general skin permeability are not a major factor in determining DD susceptibility and suggest that contact with slurry could contribute to DD infection by increasing the permeability of the skin, which may facilitate pathogen entry. Further work is required to clarify the role played by slurry in the pathogenesis of DD.

  13. Application technique and slurry co-fermentation effects on ammonia, nitrous oxide, and methane emissions after spreading: II. Greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Wulf, S; Maeting, M; Clemens, J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different application techniques on greenhouse gas emission from co-fermented slurry. Ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) emissions were measured in two field experiments with four different application techniques on arable and grassland sites. To gather information about fermentation effects, unfermented slurry was also tested, but with trail hose application only. Co-fermented slurry was applied in April at a rate of 30 m3 ha(-1). Measurements were made every 4 h on the first day after application and were continued for 6 wk with gradually decreasing sampling frequency. Methane emissions were <150 g C ha(-1) from co-fermentation products and seemed to result from dissolved CH4. Only in the grassland experiment were emissions from unfermented slurry significantly higher, with wetter weather conditions probably promoting CH4 production. Nitrous oxide emission was significantly increased by injection on arable and grassland sites two- and threefold, respectively. Ammonia emissions were smallest after injection or trail shoe application and are discussed in the preceding paper. We evaluated the climatic relevance of the measured gas emissions from the different application techniques based on the comparison of CO2 equivalents. It was evident that NH3 emission reduction, which can be achieved by injection, is at least compensated by increased N2O emissions. Our results indicate that on arable land, trail hose application with immediate shallow incorporation, and on grassland, trail shoe application, bear the smallest risks of high greenhouse gas emissions when fertilizing with co-fermented slurry.

  14. Reducing Nitrogen loadings to estuaries in Denmark, 1990-2010. Results and costs of measures applied in catchments to 10 Danish estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windolf, J.; Blicher-Mathiesen, G.; Carstensen, N. J.; Kronvang, B.

    2012-04-01

    The Nitrogen loading to 10 Danish estuaries has since 1990 been reduced by on average 42%. Thirty percent of this reduction is due to a reduction in Nitrogen loss from diffuse sources. Nitrogen surplus and the change in this surplus is shown to be a strong overall indicator for the trends in Nitrogen loading to most estuaries. The Nitrogen surplus has been reduced due to general national regulations and mitigation measures applied leading to an increased efficiency of Nitrogen use in cattle slurry (30%) and in pig slurry (ca. 40%). These improvements are paralleled by a reduced application of commercial N-fertilizer. Mean flow-weighted total Nitrogen concentrations in inlet fresh waters to estuaries have been reduced by 18-56% resulting in reductions of total Nitrogen concentrations (24-62%) in the inner and middle parts of the estuaries. The large variations in total Nitrogen loadings and concentrations in estuaries are due to both attenuation and time delays of Nitrogen in groundwater aquifers depending on catchment soil type and geology. This also implies varying costs of reducing the Nitrogen loadings from agricultural land (24-94 Euro/kg N reduced). Knowledge of the outcome of responses in the form of national regulations of agricultural N management for the N cycling from field to estuaries is important for decision makers and catchment managers working with the implementation of EU Directives such as the Water Framework Directive. Based on our findings we suggest that further reductions of Nitrogen loadings from agricultural land should be based on targeted and catchment specific measures leading to the most cost efficient way to achieve good ecological quality in the individual estuaries.

  15. An investigation on the rheological behavior of metallic semi-solid slurries of Al-6.5 pct Si and semi-solid composite slurries of SiC particulates in an Al-6.5 pct Si alloy matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moon, H.-K.; Ito, Y.; Cornie, J. A.; Flemings, M. C.

    1993-01-01

    The rheology of SiC particulate/Al-6.5 pct Si composite slurries was explored. The rheological behavior of the composite slurries shows both thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviors. Isostructural experiments on the composite slurries revealed a Newtonian behavior beyond a high shear rate limit. The rheology of fully molten composite slurries over the low to high shear rate range indicates the existence of a low shear rate Newtonian region, an intermediate pseudoplastic region and a high shear rate Newtonian region. The isostructural studies indicate that the viscosity of a composite slurry depends upon the shearing history of a given volume of material. An unexpected shear thinning was noted for SiC particulate + alpha slurries as compared to semi-solid metallic slurries at the same fraction solid. The implications of these findings for the processing of slurries into cast components is discussed.

  16. YIELD STRESS REDUCTION OF DWPF MELTER FEED SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M; Michael02 Smith, M

    2006-12-28

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate). The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit

  17. Influence of soil structure on contaminant leaching from injected slurry.

    PubMed

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Pedersen, Christina Østerballe; Forslund, Anita; Veith, Tamie L; Laegdsmand, Mette

    2016-12-15

    Animal manure application to agricultural land provides beneficial organic matter and nutrients but can spread harmful contaminants to the environment. Contamination of fresh produce, surface water and shallow groundwater with the manure-borne pollutants can be a critical concern. Leaching and persistence of nitrogen, microorganisms (bacteriophage, E. coli, and Enterococcus) and a group of steroid hormone (estrogens) were investigated after injection of swine slurry into either intact (structured) or disturbed (homogeneous repacked) soil. The slurry was injected into hexaplicate soil columns at a rate of 50 t ha(-1) and followed with four irrigation events: 3.5-h period at 10 mm h(-1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The disturbed columns delayed the leaching of a conservative tracer and microorganisms in the first irrigation event compared to the intact columns due to the effect of disturbed macropore flow paths. The slurry constituents that ended up in or near the macropore flow paths of the intact soil were presumably washed out relatively quickly in the first event. For the last three events the intact soil leached fewer microorganisms than the disturbed soil due to the bypassing effect of water through the macropore flow path in the intact soil. Estrogen leached from the intact soil in the first event only, but for the disturbed soil it was detected in the leachates of last two events also. Leaching from the later events was attributed to higher colloid transport from the disturbed soils. In contrast, NO3-N leaching from the intact soil was higher for all events except the first event, probably due to a lower nitrification rate in the disturbed soil. A week after the last irrigation event, the redistribution of all slurry constituents except NO3-N in most of the sections of the soil column was higher for the disturbed soil. Total recovery of E. coli was significantly higher from the disturbed soil and total leaching of mineral nitrogen was significantly lower

  18. Magnetic sorbents added to soil slurries lower Cr aqueous concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravantinos, Konstantinos; Isari, Ekavi; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Werner, David

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) acts as a strong binding agent that lowers the pollutant concentration and, thus its toxicity. Another promising sorbent material in environmental applications is biochar (BC) which is obtained from the incomplete combustion of carbon-rich biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. Both of these materials could be used as soil or sediment amendments that would lower the toxicity in the aqueous phase. A draw back of this technique is that although the pollutant will remain non- bioavailable for many years being sorbed into these sorbents, it actually stays into the system. The objective of this study was (a) to synthesize a magnetic powdered activated carbon (AC/Fe) and magnetic powdered biochar (BC/Fe) produced from a commercial AC sample and BC, respectively and (b) to evaluate the potential use of AC/Fe and BC/Fe to lower Cr concentration that desorb from two soils in their soil slurries. The two soil samples originate from the vicinity of a local metal shop. The BC was produced from olive pomace. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of each sorbent were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles and the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Isotherms with 30 adsorption and 20 desorption points were conducted at liquid nitrogen temperature (77K). Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using t-plot method and Harkins & Jura equation. For both AC/Fe, surface area measurements resulted in 66% those of corresponding AC. For BC/Fe, the surface area was 82% that of BC. Our previous studies have shown that both AC/Fe and BC/Fe are effective sorbents for mercury in aqueous solutions but with lower sorption capacity compared to the initial materials (50-75% lower). Batch experiments with all sorbent samples and each soil were conducted at room temperature (25oC) in order to compare the sorption properties of the materials. The soil slurries demonstrated low Cr concentrations (10.9 and 14.6

  19. Slurry-based fabrication of chopped fiberglass composite preforms

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.A.; Johnson, R.W.; Landon, M.D.; Stoots, C.M.; Anderson, J.L.

    1995-12-01

    A water-based process for the fabrication of chopped fiberglass preforms is being developed in collaboration with the Automotive Composite Consortium (ACC) and The Budd Company. This slurry process uses hydraulic pressure to form highly compacted fiberglass preforms on contoured, perforated metal screens. The preforms will be used in the development of structural automotive composites. A key objective is to produce preforms having uniform areal density. Computational simulation of variable open area screens, and areal density mapping using a gamma densitometer are discussed.

  20. Pharmacologically Stimulated Pupil and Accommodative Changes in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ostrin, Lisa A.; Garcia, Mariana B.; Choh, Vivian; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The guinea pig is being used increasingly as a model of human myopia. As accommodation may influence the effects of manipulations used in experimental myopia models, understanding the accommodative ability of guinea pigs is important. Here, nonselective muscarinic agonists were used as pharmacological tools to study guinea pig accommodation. Methods. Measurements were made on 15 pigmented guinea pigs. For in vivo testing, animals were anesthetized and, following baseline measurements, 2% pilocarpine was applied topically. Measurements included A-scan ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, corneal topography, and refraction. In vitro lens scanning experiments were performed using anterior segment preparations, with measurements before and during exposure to carbachol. Anterior segment structures were examined histologically and immunohistochemistry was done to characterize the muscarinic receptor subtypes present. Results. In vivo, pilocarpine induced a myopic shift in refractive error coupled to a small, but consistent decrease in anterior chamber depth (ACD), a smaller and more variable increase in lens thickness, and a decrease in pupil size. Lens thickness increases were short-lived (10 minutes), while ACD and pupil size decreased over 20 minutes. Corneal curvature was not significantly affected. Carbachol tested on anterior segment preparations in vitro was without effect on lens back vertex distance, but did stimulate pupil constriction. Immunohistochemistry indicated the presence of muscarinic receptor subtypes 1 to 5 in the iris and ciliary body. Conclusions. The observed pilocarpine-induced changes in ACD, lens thickness, and refraction are consistent with active accommodation in the guinea pig, through cholinergic muscarinic stimulation. PMID:25097245

  1. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Birck, Malene M; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken M; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-10-11

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility.

  2. Field experiences with intelligent pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.N.; Duvivier, J.P.; Lefevre, D.E.; Robb, G.A.

    1996-08-01

    Oil and gas production operations use intelligent pigs for corrosion inspection of gathering systems and pipelines worldwide. The authors have been involved with intelligent pig inspections which have been conducted on over 155 different pipelines owned by one international corporation. A variety of intelligent pig vendors have been used with tools ranging from standard first generation magnetic flux leakage (MFL) to high-resolution MFL to standard and custom made ultrasonic (UT) tools. Experiences encountered during these inspections are discussed and resolutions to many of the problems are described.

  3. Investigation of the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers in mainland China by simulation experiment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linhai; Xu, Guoyan; Li, Qingguang; Hou, Bo; Hu, Wuyang; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Dead pigs are a major waste by-product of pig farming. Thus, safe disposal of dead pigs is important to the protection of consumer health and the ecological environment by preventing marketing of slaughtered and processed dead pigs and improper dumping of dead pigs. In this study, a probability model was constructed for the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers by selecting factors affecting disposal. To that end, we drew on the definition and meaning of behavior probability based on survey data collected from 654 pig farmers in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China. Moreover, the role of influencing factors in pig farmers' behavioral choices regarding the disposal of dead pigs was simulated by simulation experiment. The results indicated that years of farming had a positive impact on pig farmers' choice of negative disposal of dead pigs. Moreover, there was not a simple linear relationship between scale of farming and pig farmers' behavioral choices related to the disposal of dead pigs. The probability for farmers to choose the safe disposal of dead pigs increased with the improvement of their knowledge of government policies and relevant laws and regulations. Pig farmers' behavioral choice about the disposal of dead pigs was also affected by government subsidy policies, regulation, and punishment. Government regulation and punishment were more effective than subsidy. The findings of our simulation experiment provide important decision-making support for the governance in preventing the marketing of dead pigs at the source.

  4. Fused slurry silicide coatings for columbium alloy reentry heat shields. Volume 2: Experimental and coating process details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, B.

    1973-01-01

    The experimental and coating process details are presented. The process specifications which were developed for the formulation and application of the R-512E fused slurry silicide coating using either an acrylic or nitrocellulose base slurry system is also discussed.

  5. Scoring of Decomposition: A Proposed Amendment to the Method When Using a Pig Model for Human Studies.

    PubMed

    Keough, Natalie; Myburgh, Jolandie; Steyn, Maryna

    2016-12-29

    Decomposition studies often use pigs as proxies for human cadavers. However, differences in decomposition sequences/rates relative to humans have not been scientifically examined. Descriptions of five main decomposition stages (humans) were developed and refined by Galloway and later by Megyesi. However, whether these changes/processes are alike in pigs is unclear. Any differences can have significant effects when pig models are used for human PMI estimation. This study compared human decomposition models to the changes observed in pigs. Twenty pigs (50-90 kg) were decomposed over five months and decompositional features recorded. Total body scores (TBS) were calculated. Significant differences were observed during early decomposition between pigs and humans. An amended scoring system to be used in future studies was developed. Standards for PMI estimation derived from porcine models may not directly apply to humans and may need adjustment. Porcine models, however, remain valuable to study variables influencing decomposition.

  6. High density ash slurry pumping and disposal: An environmentally safe and economical alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Broek, B. van den

    1999-07-01

    The paper describes conventional ash disposal systems; high density slurry transportation and disposal systems, including the design, disposal site, technical features, sloped disposal site operating parameters, slurry quality and deposit management; typical operational questions; specific advantages of the proposed GEHO system; and GEHO piston diaphragm pumps.

  7. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-5 Water, sediment or..., sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of 30 CFR...

  8. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... of the initial plan approval, the person owning, operating, or controlling a water, sediment,...

  9. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment,...

  10. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment,...

  11. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-5 Water, sediment or..., sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of 30 CFR...

  12. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment,...

  13. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-5 Water, sediment or..., sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of 30 CFR...

  14. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... of the initial plan approval, the person owning, operating, or controlling a water, sediment,...

  15. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment,...

  16. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-5 Water, sediment or..., sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of 30 CFR...

  17. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment,...

  18. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-5 Water, sediment or..., sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of 30 CFR...

  19. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... of the initial plan approval, the person owning, operating, or controlling a water, sediment,...

  20. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... of the initial plan approval, the person owning, operating, or controlling a water, sediment,...

  1. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... of the initial plan approval, the person owning, operating, or controlling a water, sediment,...

  2. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Wittmer, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  3. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, T.N.; Wittmer, D.E.

    1995-10-10

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  4. Metals attenuation in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J.; Adams, T.L.

    1997-12-31

    In current practice, a soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall is a mixture of water, soil, and bentonite that is designed to serve as a passive barrier to ground water and contaminant transport. This study evaluated the transformation of a passive slurry trench cutoff wall barrier to an active barrier system. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers presently serve as passive barriers to contaminated ground water. An active barrier will not only fulfill the functions of the present passive barrier system, but also retard contaminant transport by adsorptive processes. Attapulgite, Na-chabazite, and Ca-chabazite were added to {open_quotes}activate{close_quotes} the conventional soil-bentonite backfill. Batch extraction tests were performed to determine the partitioning coefficients of cadmium and zinc between the liquid and solid phase when in contact with the backfill mixes. Batch extraction and mathematical modeling results demonstrate the ability of an active barrier to retard the transport of cadmium and zinc. The reactivity of the soil-bentonite vertical barrier depends heavily on the inorganic being adsorbed. The reactivity of the barrier also depends on the adsorptive capabilities of the clay minerals added to the conventional soil-bentonite vertical barrier. The results of laboratory studies suggest that passive barrier systems can be transformed to active systems. Further, the data suggests that although conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are presently designed as passive barriers, they already have adsorptive capacity associated with active barriers.

  5. A novel method of atomizing coal-water slurry fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sojka, P.E.; Lefebvre, A.H.

    1990-05-01

    Despite the body of work describing the performance of effervescent atomizers, its potential for use with coal water slurries (CWS) had not been evaluated prior to this study. This program was therefore undertaken: to demonstrate that effervescent atomization can produce CWS sprays with mean drop sizes below 50{mu}m; to determine a lower size limit for effervescent atomizer produced CWS sprays; to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the formation of effervescent atomizer produced sprays. An analysis of the effects of slurry rheological properties (as indicated by the consistency index and the flow behavior index) and formulation (in terms of loading and coal particle top size) on the spray formation process was performed. The experimental data reported were then analyzed to explain the physical processes responsible for spray formation. The analysis began by considering an energy balance across a control volume that extended from the nozzle exit plant to the line of spray measurement. The inlet conditions were calculated using two-phase flow techniques and the outlet conditions were calculated by using conservation of momentum and assuming that the final velocities of the air and liquid were equal. Entrainment was considered negligible and losses were accounted for by realizing that only a small fraction of the atomizing air participated in the spray formation process with the remainder passing through the control volume unperturbed. Results are discussed. 41 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. The granular mixing in a slurry rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, C. C.; Hsiau, S. S.

    2010-03-01

    The mixing dynamics of granular materials immersed in a liquid was experimentally studied in a quasi-2D rotating drum. A DV (SONY DCR-TRV900 NTSC) motion corder analyzer was used to record the motions of granular materials. The effects of interstitial fluid viscosity and filling degree on the mixing index, mixing rate constant, and dynamic repose angle in the rotating drum were investigated and discussed in this paper. The experimental results show that the interstitial fluid viscosity has almost not influence on the final stable mixing index but has significantly effects on the mixing rate constant and dynamic repose angle in slurry granular flows. The results show that the mixing rate and dynamic repose angle increase with increasing the interstitial fluid viscosity. The results also indicate that the filling degree plays an important role in mixing dynamics in slurry granular flows. The mixing rate constant is demonstrated to be decreased with increasing the filling degree. The dynamic repose angle is not altered by the filling degree. Finally, we find that the dynamic repose angle and the mixing rate constant increase slightly at high Stokes number and increase dramatically at low Stokes number with decreasing Stokes number.

  7. Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry

    DOEpatents

    White, Curt M.; Quiring, Michael S.; Jensen, Karen L.; Hickey, Richard F.; Gillham, Larry D.

    1998-10-27

    In a catalytic process for converting synthesis gas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons and oxygenates by a slurry Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the wax product along with dispersed catalyst is removed from the slurry and purified by removing substantially all of the catalyst prior to upgrading the wax and returning a portion to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Separation of the catalyst particles from the wax product is accomplished by dense gas and/or liquid extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic in nature. The purified catalyst free wax product can be subsequently upgraded by various methods such as hydrogenation, isomerization, hydrocracking, conversion to gasoline and other products over ZSM-5 aluminosilicate zeolite, etc. The catalyst particles are returned to the Fischer-Tropsch Reactor by slurring them with a wax fraction of appropriate molecular weight, boiling point and viscosity to avoid reactor gelation.

  8. Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry

    DOEpatents

    White, C.M.; Quiring, M.S.; Jensen, K.L.; Hickey, R.F.; Gillham, L.D.

    1998-10-27

    In a catalytic process for converting synthesis gas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons and oxygenates by a slurry Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the wax product along with dispersed catalyst is removed from the slurry and purified by removing substantially all of the catalyst prior to upgrading the wax and returning a portion to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Separation of the catalyst particles from the wax product is accomplished by dense gas and/or liquid extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic in nature. The purified catalyst-free wax product can be subsequently upgraded by various methods such as hydrogenation, isomerization, hydrocracking, conversion to gasoline and other products over ZSM-5 aluminosilicate zeolite, etc. The catalyst particles are returned to the Fischer-Tropsch Reactor by mixing them with a wax fraction of appropriate molecular weight, boiling point and viscosity to avoid reactor gelation. 2 figs.

  9. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-09-29

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sup 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions.

  10. Dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas in slurry phase

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Y.Z.; Fujimoto, K.; Shikata, T.

    1997-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME) is one of the important chemicals derived from synthesis gas. It can be widely used in syngas conversion, production of olefins, or MTG gasoline. Recently, is has been noticed as a substitute of LPG used as home fuel. In the present study, dimethyl ether was effectively synthesized from CO rich syngas (H{sub 2}/CO=1/1) over hybrid catalyst containing a Cu-Zn-Al(O) based methanol synthesis catalyst and {gamma}-alumina in an agitated slurry reactor under relatively mild reaction conditions: temperature 230--300 C, pressure 2.0--5.0 MPa, contact time 2.0--10 gram-cat.-h/mol. The catalysts used as the methanol active components were commercially available Cu-Zn-Al(O) based catalysts, BASF S385 and ICI 51-2. Two kinds of {gamma}-alumina ALO4 (standard catalyst of the Catalysis Society of Japan) and N612N (NIKKI Co., Japan) were used as the methanol dehydration components. The slurry was prepared by mixing the fine powder (<100 mesh) of catalyst components with purified n-hexadecane. The catalysts were reduced by a mixing gas containing 20% syngas and 80% nitrogen with a three-hour programmed temperature raising from room temperature to the final temperature. All products were analyzed by gas chromatographs. Results are given and discussed.

  11. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir B. Bukur

    2004-09-29

    This report covers the second year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the second year of the project we completed the STSR test SB-26203 (275-343 h on stream), which was initiated during the first year of the project, and another STSR test (SB-28603 lasting 341 h). Since the inception of the project we completed 3 STSR tests, and evaluated catalyst under 25 different sets of process conditions. A precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany) was used in all tests. This catalyst was used initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. Also, during the second year we performed a qualitative analysis of experimental data from all three STSR tests. Effects of process conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, feed composition and gas space velocity) on water-gas-shift (WGS) activity and hydrocarbon product distribution have been determined.

  12. PCR-DGGE analysis of the bacterial composition of a kaolin slurry showing altered rheology.

    PubMed

    Papp, Ildikó; Balázs, Margit; Tombácz, Etelka; Babcsán, Norbert; Kesserű, Péter; Kiss, István; Szvetnik, Attila

    2012-04-01

    Kaolin is an important industrial raw material and a basis of a range of different products. Microbial spoilage is a detrimental process observed especially in kaolin slurries, leading to low quality products and economic loss. Although the alteration of kaolin slurries in ceramic industry was observed, the process and the microbial background have not been analyzed in details. This study provides the first data using a cultivation independent molecular biological approach (PCR-DGGE) regarding the bacterial composition of an altered kaolin slurry. The results show that potential exopolymer (EPS) producer bacteria (e.g. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas) appear in the altered kaolin slurry, which may have an important role in the modification of kaolin slurries.

  13. Ultrasound stimulus effect on hydrogen bonding in networked alumina and polyacrylic acid slurry.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, Ngo Le; Takaomi, Kobayashi

    2010-01-01

    The influence of ultrasound (US) on the viscosity of aqueous slurry composing polyacrylic acid (PAA) and alumina was studied. For exposure to an aqueous slurry solution, US waves emitted at three different frequencies of 28, 45, and 100 kHz were used. Results show that the stimulus effect of US on viscosity change was a breakage of the hydrogen bonding networks of alumina and PAA in the slurry solution. That decrease in viscosity was enhanced strongly by US exposure as the output power was increased from 175 to 300 W. In addition, a lower US frequency was effective for slurry viscosity reduction. The reduced viscosity of the slurry also depended on the solution pH. After US was stopped, the viscosity increased gradually and recovered to its original value within about 15 min. The stimulus effect on the viscosity change was cycled by US.

  14. Study of the physical properties of petrolatum-stabilized magnesium-hydrocarbon slurry fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, Murray L; Goodman, Irving A

    1954-01-01

    Magnesium-hydrocarbon slurries containing a moderate proportion of petrolatum have physical properties such that they offer promise as experimental aircraft fuels. The settling of the magnesium is greatly retarded by the petrolatum, and the slurries can easily be remixed to their original condition after storage. Successive batches which have closely similar properties can be prepared readily. The apparent viscosity of these slurries increased rapidly with increasing magnesium concentration, with increasing petrolatum concentration, and with decreasing temperature. As the apparent viscosity increased, the extent of settling and the ease of remixing both decreased. Although no quantitative correlation was found between the properties of the slurry and those of the petrolatum, and no one petrolatum gave slurries which were best in all respects, one of the five petrolatum used was judged to be superior to the others.

  15. Design and Operation of Large Size Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Fired Slurry and Gangue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Zhang; Rushan, Bie; Fengjun, Wang

    The way which burns slurry and gangue to generate electricity and provide heat has been always desired. If mixture of slurry and gangue are burnt by conventional combustion technology, it is difficult to be satisfied., but for circulating fluidized bed(CFB) boiler, it is flexible for fuels and it is easy to desulfurize and DeNox in the furnace of the boiler. There are lots of advantages to burning the mixture of slurry and gangue in CFB boiler. This technology has been researched and practiced for many years, it is mature now and has been used widely, by now, 50MW, 135MW and 300MW CFB boiler which burn the mixture of slurry and gangue have already been operated in China. In the paper, slurry characteristic and conveying is described, the design and operation of boilers mentioned above will be also introduced in detail.

  16. Determination of cadmium, mercury and lead in coal fly ash by slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hsien-Chung; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen

    1999-08-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ID-ICP-MS) has been applied to the determination of Cd, Hg and Pb in coal fly ash samples. Thioacetamide (TAC) was used as the modifier. Since the sensitivities of the elements studied in coal fly ash slurry and aqueous solution were quite different, isotope dilution method was used for the determination of Cd, Hg and Pb in these coal fly ash samples. The isotope ratios of each element were calculated from the peak areas of each injection peak. This method has been applied to the determination of Cd, Hg and Pb in NIST SRM 1633a coal fly ash reference material and a coal fly ash sample collected from Kaohsiung area. Analysis results of reference sample NIST SRM 1633a coal fly ash agreed satisfactorily with the certified values. The other sample determined by isotope dilution and method of standard additions was agreed satisfactorily. Precision was better than 6% for most of the determinations and accuracy was better than 4% with the USS-ETV-ID-ICP-MS method. Detection limits estimated from standard addition curves were in the range of 24-58, 6-28 and 108-110 ng g-1 for Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively.

  17. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are an attractive donor cell type for production of cloned pigs as well as genetically modified cloned pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Li, Zicong; He, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liwen; Shi, Junsong; Zhou, Rong; Xu, Weihua; Liu, Dewu; Wu, Zhenfang

    2013-10-01

    The somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique has been widely applied to clone pigs or to produce genetically modified pigs. Currently, this technique relies mainly on using terminally differentiated fibroblasts as donor cells. To improve cloning efficiency, only partially differentiated multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), thought to be more easily reprogrammed to a pluripotent state, have been used as nuclear donors in pig SCNT. Although in vitro-cultured embryos cloned from porcine MSCs (MSCs-embryos) were shown to have higher preimplantation developmental ability than cloned embryos reconstructed from fibroblasts (Fs-embryos), the difference in in vivo full-term developmental rate between porcine MSCs-embryos and Fs-embryos has not been investigated so far. In this study, we demonstrated that blastocyst total cell number and full-term survival abilities of MSCs-embryos were significantly higher than those of Fs-embryos cloned from the same donor pig. The enhanced developmental potential of MSCs-embryos may be associated with their nuclear donors' DNA methylation profile, because we found that the methylation level of imprinting genes and repeat sequences differed between MSCs and fibroblasts. In addition, we showed that use of transgenic porcine MSCs generated from transgene plasmid transfection as donor cells for SCNT can produce live transgenic cloned pigs. These results strongly suggest that porcine bone marrow MSCs are a desirable donor cell type for production of cloned pigs and genetically modified cloned pigs via SCNT.

  18. Compound cycle turbofan engine (CCTE). Task IX. Carbon-slurry fuel combustion evaluation program. Final report June-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, T.W.; Mongia, H.

    1980-03-01

    The carbon-slurry fuel evaluation program demonstrated the feasibility of running a currently available carbon-slurry fuel in a combustion rig and a turbine engine. This program also established the preliminary design criteria for operating on carbon-slurry fuels. Subcontracts work was performed by Pennsylvania State for fuel droplet measurements and by Suntech, Inc. for fuel development and manufacture.

  19. 30 CFR 77.216-2 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; minimum plan requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-2 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding... under design storm conditions, sediment or slurry level, water level and other information pertinent...

  20. 30 CFR 77.216-2 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; minimum plan requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-2 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding... under design storm conditions, sediment or slurry level, water level and other information pertinent...

  1. 30 CFR 77.216-2 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; minimum plan requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-2 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding... under design storm conditions, sediment or slurry level, water level and other information pertinent...

  2. 30 CFR 77.216-2 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; minimum plan requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-2 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding... under design storm conditions, sediment or slurry level, water level and other information pertinent...

  3. 30 CFR 77.216-2 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; minimum plan requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-2 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding... under design storm conditions, sediment or slurry level, water level and other information pertinent...

  4. Measurement of the Critical Deposition Velocity in Slurry Transport through a Horizontal Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Erian, Fadel F.; Furfari, Daniel J.; Kellogg, Michael I.; Park, Walter R.

    2001-03-01

    Critical Deposition Velocity (CDV) is an important design and operational parameter in slurry transport. Almost all existing correlations that are used to predict this parameter have been obtained experimentally from slurry transport tests featuring single solid species in the slurry mixture. No correlations have been obtained to describe this parameter when the slurry mixture contains more than one solid species having a wide range of specific gravities, particle size distributions, and volume concentrations within the overall slurry mixture. There are no physical or empirical bases that can justify the extrapolation or modification of the existing single species correlations to include all these effects. New experiments must be carried out to obtain new correlations that would be suited for these types of slurries, and that would clarify the mechanics of solids deposition as a function of the properties of the various solid species. Our goal in this paper is to describe a robust experimental technique for the accurate determination of the critical deposition velocity associated with the transport of slurries in horizontal or slightly inclined pipes. Because of the relative difficulty encountered during the precise determination of this useful operational parameter, it has been the practice to connect it with some transitional behavior of more easily measurable flow parameters such as the pressure drop along the slurry pipeline. In doing so, the critical deposition velocity loses its unique and precise definition due to the multitude of factors that influence such transitional behaviors. Here, data has been obtained for single species slurries made up of washed garnet and water and flowing through a 1- inch clear pipe. The selected garnet had a narrow particle size distribution with a mean diameter of 100 mm, approximately. The critical deposition velocity was measured for garnet/water slurries of 10, 20, and 30 percent solids concentration by volume.

  5. Comparison analysis on the properties of the phosphor film according to the various composition ratio of phosphor slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Jeong Won; Heo, Young Moo; Won, Si Tae; Yoon, Gil Sang

    2016-03-01

    The conventional method of making a phosphor layer on the LED package by using a dispensing method is difficult to implement the specific color coordinate, color temperature and optical efficiency because the thickness of the phosphor layer is non-uniform due to precipitation of the phosphor. Besides, the dispensing method consume a large amount of phosphor and silicone to fill the LED package. Thus, studies that manufacture phosphor layer with a uniform thickness such as spray coating, screen printing, electrophoresis are active recently. The purpose of this study is to perform the basic research about the change of the characteristics of phosphor film that is molded with uniform thickness using the phosphor slurry according to various silicone resin and phosphor composition ratio. It is expected to be used as useful information for the fabricating properties when production environment of phosphor layer is changed dispensing method into phosphor film fabrication. In the experiment, it was selected three kinds of methyl-phenyl silicone based resin as the phosphor slurry constituents, and mixed with phosphor various amount of 20 ˜ 60wt% content per one silicone resin. Using this mixed phosphor slurry, it was molded the phosphor film with 300 μm thickness and analyzed the mechanical properties and optical properties of the phosphor film. Finally, the results of this study are presented below: (a) As the phenyl group content is increased, the total heat of reaction need to cure the silicone resin is decrease, and also lower the durometer hardness of the phosphor sheet. On the other hand, it was confirmed that there is no relationship between the phenyl group content in the phosphor film and optical characteristics of the phosphor film. (b) If the amount of the phosphor within the film are increased, then the values of shore hardness and CIE color coordinates are increased gradually but the value of CIE color temperature is decreased gradually in case of being

  6. Rheological Behavior Xanthan and SlurryPro Polymer Solutions Evaluated as Shear Thinning Delivery Fluids for Subsurface Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Oostrom, M.; Truex, M.; Vermeul, V.

    2011-12-01

    Shear thinning fluids can be applied as a delivery means to enhance the uniformity of remedial amendment distribution in heterogeneous aquifers, thereby to improve remediation performance. The rheological behavior of biopolymer xanthan gum and synthetic polymer SlurryPro were tested, and their influence on the amendment delivery performance was evaluated. The impact of polymer concentration, basic water chemistry, salinity (e.g., Br-, Na+, Ca2+ concentrations), remedial amendments (phosphate, sodium lactate, ethyl lactate, lactate oil, whey), sediments, and the mixing approach on the rheological properties of the polymer solutions was determined. The SlurryPro polymer lost shear-thinning properties even at relatively low solution ionic strength. However, the xanthan gum polymer maintained shear-thinning properties under most of the tested conditions, though with some loss in absolute viscosity with increasing ionic strength. Xanthan appeared to be the better candidate for enhanced amendment delivery. Increasing in xanthan concentration not only increased the solution viscosity, but also increased degree of shear thinning. Addition of salt decreased the solution viscosity and the degree of shear thinning, while the influence was diminished when the polymer concentration was higher. After reaching a critical xanthan concentration, addition of salt increased solution viscosity. The degradation of xanthan and SlurryPro in the presence of site aquifer materials and microbes was studied in batch tests in which the field sediment/water ratio was simulated. The viscosity of the polymer solutions dropped 85% or more in the first week, while the solution chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreasing occurred at a much slower rate.

  7. Development of an ultrasonic slurry sampling method for the determination of Cu and Mn in antibiotic tablets by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Carlos Eduardo R; Caldas, Luiz Fernando S; Brum, Daniel M; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2012-07-01

    A new method is described for simple, efficient and rapid determination of Cu and Mn in tablets of antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and cephalexin) by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) using slurry sampling. In order to optimize the procedure, several variables that could affect the performance of the method were investigated. In the best conditions, the tablets could be analyzed by introducing into the graphite tube 20 μl of a slurry prepared with approximately 90-100mg of the sample and 2 ml of a solution containing 5% m/v of Triton X-114 and 2.8 M of HNO(3). Before the introduction, the slurries were sonicated for 15 min at 40% of amplitude (130 W maximum power) with an ultrasonic probe. The developed method was applied in the determination of Cu and Mn in four samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by focused microwave acid digestion with aqua regia (1:3 mixture of HNO(3):HCl). There was no statistical difference between the obtained values at 95% confidence level when a paired Student t-test was applied.

  8. The rheology of cryovolcanic slurries: Motivation and phenomenology of methanol-water slurries with implications for Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Fang; Mitchell, Karl L.; Hays, Charles C.; Choukroun, Mathieu; Barmatz, Martin; Kargel, Jeffrey S.

    2009-08-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has revealed landforms on the surface of Titan suggested to be viscous cryovolcanic flows and possibly eruptive domes. In order to relate those surface features to the processes and chemistries that produced them, it is necessary to construct flow models, which rely on characterization of the rheological properties of the eruptants. This paper describes our initial exploratory attempts to understand the rheological characteristics of cryogenic slurries, using a 40% methanol-water mixture, as a precursor to more detailed experiments. We have devised a new automated cryogenic rotational viscometer system to more fully characterize cryovolcanic slurry rheologies. A series of measurements were performed, varying first temperature, and then strain rate, which revealed development of yield stress-like behaviors, shear-rate dependence, and thixotropic behavior, even at relatively low crystal fractions, not previously reported. At fixed shear rate our data are fit well by the Andrade equation, with the activation energy modified by a solid volume fraction. At fixed temperature, depending on shearing history, a Cross model could describe our data over a wide shear rate range. A Bingham plastic model appears to be a good constitutive model for the data measured at high shear rates when the shear was global. The yield stress like behavior implies that levee formation on cryolava flows is more likely than would be inferred from the previous studies, and may provide a partial explanation for features interpreted as steep-sided volcanic constructs on Titan.

  9. Improving profitability through slurry management: a look at the impact of slurry pH on various glass types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Abigail R.; Boffa, Christopher C.; Sarkas, Harry W.; Cureton, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    When building an optical system, optical fabricators and designers meticulously choose the glass types for their application knowing that each one will have different chemical, thermal and mechanical properties. As the requirements for new optical systems have grown more demanding, the range of available glass types has vastly expanded and the specifications on the produced products have grown tighter. In an attempt to simplify processes and streamline consumable purchases, optical polishing houses often rely on one polishing slurry to manage these vast array of glass types. An unforeseen consequence of these practices can be a reduction in productivity by reduced removal rate, poor yields and frequent rework all translating into higher costs and reduced profitability. In this paper, the authors will examine the impact slurry pH has on glass types of different compositions and chemical, thermal and mechanical properties when using a double-sided polishing process. Experiments will use material removal rate, surface quality, and surface figure to provide insight into improving process control for differing glass types. Further guidance will be provided on how simple on-site monitoring and adjustment can deliver improved profitability on challenging substrates.

  10. Effects of foliar application with compost tea and filtrate biogas slurry liquid on yield and fruit quality of washington navel orange (Citrus sinenesis Osbeck) trees.

    PubMed

    Omar, Alaa El-din K; Belal, Elsayed B; El-Abd, Abd El-Naiem A

    2012-07-01

    Sixteen-year-old navel orange trees at a private orchard located in Kafer El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, were used in this study. Compost tea (CT) and filtrate biogas slurry liquid (FLB) were applied at two different concentrations (50% and 100%); control trees were sprayed with water Trees treated with CT at 100% were the highest in yield, fruit weight, and vitamin C, whereas the highest percentage of fruit set, fruit number and soluble solid content (SSC), lowest fruit drop, and highest reducing and total sugars were in trees treated with 100% FLB. Concentrations at 50% for both foliar application (CT and FLB) improved yield and fruit characteristics than control treatment. Generally, using a foliar application of compost tea and filtrate biogas slurry liquid at (100%) treatments as food nutrients could be recommended to improve the yield and fruit quality of navel orange fruits under the current study conditions.

  11. Effects of foliar application with compost tea and filtrate biogas slurry liquid on yield and fruit quality of Washington navel orange (Citrus sinenesis Osbeck) trees.

    PubMed

    Omar, Alaa El-Din Kh; Belal, Elsayed B; El-Abd, Abd El-Naiem A

    2012-07-01

    Sixteen-year-old navel orange trees at a private orchard located in Kafer El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, were used in this study. Compost tea (CT) and filtrate biogas slurry liquid (FLB) were applied at two different concentrations (50% and 100%); control trees were sprayed with water. Trees treated with CT at 100% were the highest in yield, fruit weight, and vitamin C, whereas the highest percentage of fruit set, fruit number, and soluble solid content (SSC), lowest fruit drop, and highest reducing and total sugars were in trees treated with 100% FLB. Concentrations at 50% for both foliar application (CT and FLB) improved yield and fruit characteristics than control treatment. Generally, using a foliar application of compost tea and filtrate biogas slurry liquid at (100%) treatments as food nutrients could be recommended to improve the yield and fruit quality of navel orange fruits under the current study conditions. [Box: see text].

  12. Direct determination of Pb in raw milk by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) with electrothermal atomization sampling from slurries.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Tatiane Milão; Augusto Peres, Jayme; Lurdes Felsner, Maria; Cristiane Justi, Karin

    2017-08-15

    Milk is an important food in the human diet due to its physico-chemical composition; therefore, it is necessary to monitor contamination by toxic metals such as Pb. Milk sample slurries were prepared using Triton X-100 and nitric acid for direct analysis of Pb using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry - GF AAS. After dilution of the slurries, 10.00µl were directly introduced into the pyrolytic graphite tube without use of a chemical modifier, which acts as an advantage considering this type of matrix. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.64 and 2.14µgl(-1), respectively. The figures of merit studied showed that the proposed methodology without pretreatment of the raw milk sample and using external standard calibration is suitable. The methodology was applied in milk samples from the Guarapuava region, in Paraná State (Brazil) and Pb concentrations ranged from 2.12 to 37.36µgl(-1).

  13. A novel method for simultaneous determination of selected elements in dolomite and magnesia by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy with slurry sample introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bok-Badura, Joanna; Jakóbik-Kolon, Agata; Turek, Marian; Szczerba, Jacek; Lemanowicz, Marcin; Karoń, Krzysztof

    2015-11-01

    The slurry nebulization ICP-AES method for simultaneous determination of selected elements in dolomite and magnesia was proposed. Based on the investigation results the optimal conditions for this analysis were as follows: particle size < 40 μm, the nitric acid concentration 10%, the RF power 1.0 kW, aqueous solutions (no dispersing agents) and mixing on magnetic stirrer, during the sample introduction into plasma, as homogenization method. The certified reference materials Dolomite CRM 782-1 and High Purity Magnesia BCS-CRM 389/1 were analyzed. Student's t-test proved that there were no statistically significant differences between determined values and the certified ones. This proves that the slurry sample introduction into plasma in ICP-AES technique can be applied for simultaneous determination of elements in dolomite and magnesia.

  14. Insulinoma in 2 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes an insulinoma in 2 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Both guinea pigs presented with neurologic signs and low blood glucose readings. The neurologic signs resolved with dextrose administration. Insulinoma was confirmed on postmortem examination. PMID:15943120

  15. Protozoan predation in soil slurries compromises determination of contaminant mineralization potential.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R; Brandt, Kristian K; Sørensen, Jan; Aamand, Jens

    2012-11-01

    Soil suspensions (slurries) are commonly used to estimate the potential of soil microbial communities to mineralize organic contaminants. The preparation of soil slurries disrupts soil structure, however, potentially affecting both the bacterial populations and their protozoan predators. We studied the importance of this "slurry effect" on mineralization of the herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, (14)C-labelled), focussing on the effects of protozoan predation. Mineralization of MCPA was studied in "intact" soil and soil slurries differing in soil:water ratio, both in the presence and absence of the protozoan activity inhibitor cycloheximide. Protozoan predation inhibited mineralization in dense slurry of subsoil (soil:water ratio 1:3), but only in the most dilute slurry of topsoil (soil:water ratio 1:100). Our results demonstrate that protozoan predation in soil slurries may compromise quantification of contaminant mineralization potential, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low and their growth is controlled by predation during the incubation period.

  16. Experiments on densely-loaded non-Newtonian slurries in laminar and turbulent pipe flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. T.; Mannheimer, R. J.; Grimley, T. A.; Morrow, T. B.

    1988-02-01

    An experimental description of the flow structure of non-Newtonian slurries in the laminar, transitional, and full turbulent pipe flow regimes is the primary objective of this research. Measurements include rheological characterization of the fluid and local fluid velocity measurements with a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). Optical access to the flow is gained through a test section and model slurry which are both transparent. The model slurry is formulated from silica gel particles and hydrocarbon liquid mixture whose indices of refraction are matched so that light is not scattered from the particles. Experiments are being conducted in a large-scale pipe slurry flow facility with an inside pipe diameter of 51 mm (2 inches). Detailed flow measurements including turbulence quantities such as Reynolds stress were measured with a two-component two-color LDV. The present research indicates that non-Newtonian slurries are possible with concentrations of a few percent by weight of small particles whose sizes are one micron or less. A non-Newtonian slurry from small particles could maintain large particles (100 micron size) at high concentrations in suspension almost indefinitely. Such a slurry would prevent particle fallout and its associated problems. Velocity profiles were acquired by the LDV in the laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow regimes. The velocity profile for laminar flow was in agreement with theory. The range of the transition region was 21 percent of the transition velocity in comparison to 50 percent for a Newtonian fluid.

  17. Experiments on densely-loaded non-Newtonian slurries in laminar and turbulent pipe flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. T.; Mannheimer, R. J.; Grimley, T. A.; Morrow, T. B.

    1988-05-01

    An experimental description of the flow structure of non-Newtonian slurries in the laminar, transitional, and full turbulent pipe flow regimes is the primary objective of this research. Measurements include rheological characterization of the fluid and local fluid velocity measurements with a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV). Optical access to the flow is gained through a test section and model slurry which are both transparent. The model slurry is formulated from silica gel particles and hydrocarbon liquid mixture whose indices of refraction are matched so that light is not scattered from the particles. Experiments are being conducted in a large-scale pipe slurry. Flow measurements including turbulence quantities such as Reynolds stress were measured with a two-component two-color LDV. The present research indicates that non-Newtonian slurries are possible with concentrations of a few percent by weight of small particles whose sizes are two microns or less. A non-Newtonian slurry from small particles could maintain large particles (one millimeter size) at high concentrations in suspension almost indefinitely. Such a slurry would prevent particle fallout and its associated problems.

  18. Experiments on densely-loaded non-Newtonian slurries in laminar and turbulent pipe flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. T.; Mannheimer, R. J.; Grimley, T. A.; Morrow, T. B.

    1987-10-01

    An experimental description of the flow structure of non-Newtonian slurries in the laminar, transitional, and full turbulent pipe flow regimes is the primary objective of this research. Measurements include rheological characterization of the fluid and local fluid velocity measurements with a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). Optical access to the flow is gained through a test section and model slurry which are both transparent. The model slurry is formulated from silica gel particles and hydrocarbon liquid mixture whose indices of refraction are matched so that light is not scattered from the particles. Experiments are being conducted in a large-scale pipe slurry flow facility with an inside pipe diameter of 51 mm (2 inches). Detailed flow measurements including turbulence quantities such as Reynolds stress will be taken with a two-component two-color LDV. The present research indicates that non-Newtonian slurries are possible with concentrations of a few percent by weight of small particles whose sizes are one micron or less. A non-Newtonian slurry from small particles could maintain large particles (100 micron size) at high concentrations in suspension almost indefinitely. Such a slurry would prevent particle fallout and its associated problems.

  19. A Pipeline Transport Correlation for Slurries with Small but Dense Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Poloski, Adam P; Etchells, Arthur W; Chun, Jaehun; Adkins, Harold E; Casella, Andrew M; Minette, Michael J; Yokuda, Satoru T

    2010-04-01

    Most correlations/models for minimum transport or critical velocity of slurry were developed for slurries composed of particles greater than ~100-200 µm diameter with narrow particle-size distributions which is typical of the minerals industry. Many other process industries handle smaller particles. In particular waste slurries at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site have broad size distributions and significant fractions of smaller particles. Despite the size of these wastes, recent PNNL studies indicate that the small particles might be of sufficient density to pose a significant risk for pipeline deposition and plugging. To allow predictive assessment of deposition of fine dense particles for waste slurry transport at the U.S. DOE Hanford site, a pipeline-transport correlation for critical velocity was developed using a simple power-law between two dimensionless numbers important for slurry transport, the deposition Froude and Archimedes numbers. The correlation accords well with experimental data for slurries with Archimedes numbers <80 and is an adequate pipeline design guide for processing Hanford waste slurry.

  20. Fluid mechanics of slurry flow through the grinding media in ball mills

    SciTech Connect

    Songfack, P.K.; Rajamani, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    The slurry transport within the ball mill greatly influences the mill holdup, residence time, breakage rate, and hence the power draw and the particle size distribution of the mill product. However, residence-time distribution and holdup in industrial mills could not be predicted a priori. Indeed, it is impossible to determine the slurry loading in continuously operating mills by direct measurement, especially in industrial mills. In this paper, the slurry transport problem is solved using the principles of fluid mechanics. First, the motion of the ball charge and its expansion are predicted by a technique called discrete element method. Then the slurry flow through the porous ball charge is tackled with a fluid-flow technique called the marker and cell method. This may be the only numerical technique capable of tracking the slurry free surface as it fluctuates with the motion of the ball charge. The result is a prediction of the slurry profile in both the radial and axial directions. Hence, it leads to the detailed description of slurry mass and ball charge within the mill. The model predictions are verified with pilot-scale experimental work. This novel approach based on the physics of fluid flow is devoid of any empiricism. It is shown that the holdup of industrial mills at a given feed percent solids can be predicted successfully.

  1. Bio-polymer slurry trench method for installation of in-situ air sparging system

    SciTech Connect

    Linneman, D.M.

    1996-08-01

    An investigation was conducted at a site in Greenville Country, South Carolina which detected contaminants in the groundwater. It was then decided that remedial action was required. The contaminants and their location in the groundwater led to the selection of an in-situ air sparging system to be installed at approximately thirty-four feet deep. Due to design depth requirements and other site conditions, the bio-polymer slurry trench (B-P drain) Method was utilized in the air sparging system installation. The two trenches were installed using a biodegradable slurry in lieu of the bentonite slurry commonly utilized in the more traditional slurry trench technique. The slurry temporarily supported the trench walls while the air sparging components were submerged and set at the proper elevations Once backfilled with stone, the slurry in both trenches was broken by introducing a breaker solution which reduced the slurry to sugar water. The trenching, air sparging piping installation, and backfilling operations were completed in about six weeks.

  2. Impact of Rheological Modifiers on Various Slurries Supporting DOE Waste Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Jaehun; Bredt, Paul R.; Hansen, Erich; Bhosale, Prasad S.; Berg, John C.

    2010-03-11

    Controlling the stability and subsequent rheological properties of slurries has been an important but challenging issue in nuclear waste treatment, one that previous research has yet to sufficiently address. At the Hanford and Savannah River sites, operation of the waste treatment facilities at increased solids loading reduces the evaporative load on the melter systems and thereby increases waste processing rates. However, at these higher solids loadings, increased slurry rheology becomes a significant processing issue. The current study evaluates the use of several rheological modifiers to alleviate increased slurry rheology at high waste solids concentrations. Rheological modifiers change particle interactions in slurry. For colloidal slurries, modifiers mainly alter the electrostatic and steric interactions between particles, leading to a change in slurry rheology. Weak organic acid type rheological modifiers strengthen electrostatic repulsion whereas nonionic/polymer surfactant type rheological modifiers introduce a steric repulsion. We investigated various rheological modifiers using high level waste (HLW) nuclear waste simulants characterized typically by high ionic strength and a wide range of pH from 4 to 13. Using rheological analysis, it was found that citric acid and polyacrylic acid would be good rheological modifiers for the HLW simulants tested, effectively reducing slurry rheology by 40% or more. Physical insights into the mechanisms driving stabilization by these rheological modifiers will be discussed.

  3. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

  4. Well completion and stimulation: good slurry blending enhances frac

    SciTech Connect

    Arribau, J.O.; Dorn, R.J.; Deleon, C.

    1982-02-01

    Successful fracturing is dependent in large part upon surface equipment. One critical factor is effective blending of the fracturing slurry before it is pumped into the formation. In hydraulic fracturing, a blender draws water from storage tanks to mix with sand, polymers, or other chemical additives. Solids and liquids generally are mixed by a paddle in a large open tub monitored visually for mixture level. The mixture then advances through the impeller zone of the blender. Conventional blending apparatus often requires multistage blending to mix large quantities of liquid and solids or additives and to maintain them in suspension when pumped the extended distances required in fracturing. Geo Condor, Inc. has developed a closed blending system, which provides a single-stage blending apparatus which achieves intimate mixing of liquid-solid or liquid-liquid constituents without altering the course or direction of liquid flow in established high-capacity mixing. The advantages and disadvantages of this system are discussed.

  5. Engineering development of slurry bubble column recactor(SBCR) technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    1998-12-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  6. Thermodynamic assessment of microencapsulated sodium carbonate slurry for carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-encapsulated Carbon Sorbents (MECS) are a new class of carbon capture materials consisting of a CO₂- absorbing liquid solvent contained within solid, CO₂-permeable, polymer shells. MECS enhance the rate of CO₂ absorption for solvents with slow kinetics and prevent solid precipitates from scaling and fouling equipment, two factors that have previously limited the use of sodium carbonate solution for carbon capture. Here, we examine the thermodynamics of sodium carbonate slurries for carbon capture. We model the vapour-liquid-solid equilibria of sodium carbonate and find several features that can contribute to an energy-efficient capture process: very high CO₂ pressures in stripping conditions, relatively low water vapour pressures in stripping conditions, and good swing capacity. The potential energy savings compared with an MEA system are discussed.

  7. Enhanced photocatalysis in a pilot laminar falling film slurry reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Puma, G.L.; Yue, P.L.

    1999-09-01

    Laminar falling film slurry (LFFS) photocatalytic reactors are one of the most efficient reactor configurations for conducting heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions, particularly for wastewater treatment. This paper presents a study on the oxidation of an aqueous salicylic acid waste in a pilot continuous flow LFFS photocatalytic reactor which has an optimum design for light absorption. In conducting the oxidation reaction, heterogeneous photocatalysis was supplemented with other photon-assisted processes. The effect of light intensity, radiation wavelength, oxidizing-enhancing agents, substrate and photocatalyst concentration, and exposure time were studied. A comparison of six different photon-based processes showed that higher oxidation rates of salicylic acid were obtained when there was concomitant photocatalysis, photolysis, and UV peroxidation. The oxidation rates of salicylic acid with this combined process were at least 1 order of magnitude higher in comparison with those for UVA photocatalysis and 3-fold higher in comparison with homogeneous UVC photolysis/UVC peroxidation.

  8. Drying and cracking mechanisms in a starch slurry.

    PubMed

    Goehring, Lucas

    2009-09-01

    Starch-water slurries are commonly used to study fracture dynamics. Drying starch cakes benefit from being simple, economical, and reproducible systems, and have been used to model desiccation fracture in soils, thin-film fracture in paint, and columnar joints in lava. In this paper, the physical properties of starch-water mixtures are studied, and used to interpret and develop a multiphase transport model of drying. Starch cakes are observed to have a nonlinear elastic modulus, and a desiccation strain that is comparable to that generated by their maximum achievable capillary pressure. It is shown that a large material porosity is divided between pore spaces between starch grains, and pores within starch grains. This division of pore space leads to two distinct drying regimes, controlled by liquid and vapor transport of water, respectively. The relatively unique ability for drying starch to generate columnar fracture patterns is shown to be linked to the unusually strong separation of these two transport mechanisms.

  9. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    1999-03-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors. The past three months of research have been focused on two major areas of bubble column hydrodynamics: (1) pressure and temperature effects on gas holdup and (2) region transition using a sparger as a gas distributor.

  10. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  11. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland

    2000-06-30

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  12. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland

    2002-09-30

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  13. Ultrasonic Diffraction Grating Spectroscopy and Characterization of Fluids and Slurries.

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Brodsky, Anatol; Burgess, Lloyd; Bond, Leonard J.; Hamad, Mazen

    2004-04-01

    The ultrasonic diffraction grating is formed by machining triangular grooves, 300 microns apart, on a stainless steel surface. The grating surface is in contact with the liquid or slurry. The ultrasonic beam, traveling in the solid, strikes the back of the grating and produces a transmitted m = 1 beam in the liquid. The angle of this beam in the liquid increases with decreasing frequency and the critical frequency FCR occurs when the angle is 90{sup o}. At frequencies below FCR, this m = 1 wave does not exist and its energy is shared with other types of waves. The signal of the reflected m = 0 wave is observed and an increase is observed at FCR. This information yields the velocity of sound in the liquid and particle size.

  14. Thermodynamic assessment of microencapsulated sodium carbonate slurry for carbon capture

    DOE PAGES

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-encapsulated Carbon Sorbents (MECS) are a new class of carbon capture materials consisting of a CO₂- absorbing liquid solvent contained within solid, CO₂-permeable, polymer shells. MECS enhance the rate of CO₂ absorption for solvents with slow kinetics and prevent solid precipitates from scaling and fouling equipment, two factors that have previously limited the use of sodium carbonate solution for carbon capture. Here, we examine the thermodynamics of sodium carbonate slurries for carbon capture. We model the vapour-liquid-solid equilibria of sodium carbonate and find several features that can contribute to an energy-efficient capture process: very high CO₂ pressures in stripping conditions,more » relatively low water vapour pressures in stripping conditions, and good swing capacity. The potential energy savings compared with an MEA system are discussed.« less

  15. Oxidation resistant slurry coating for carbon-based materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Rybicki, G. C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An oxidation resistant coating is produced on carbon-base materials, and the same processing step effects an infiltration of the substrate with silicon containing material. The process comprises making a slurry of nickel and silicon powders in a nitrocellulose lacquer, spraying onto the graphite or carbon-carbon substrate, and sintering in vacuum to form a fused coating that wets and covers the surface as well as penetrates into the pores of the substrate. Optimum wetting and infiltration occurs in the range of Ni-60 w/o Si to Ni-90 w/o Si with deposited thicknesses of 25-100 mg/sq. cm. Sintering temperatures of about 1200 C to about 1400 C are used, depending on the melting point of the specific coating composition. The sintered coating results in Ni-Si intermetallic phases and SiC, both of which are highly oxidation resistant.

  16. Jet slurry erosion performance of composite clad and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B, Lohit R.; Horakeri, Gururaj S.; Bhovi, Prabakhar M.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, development of composite cladding consists of Cr23C6 (chromium carbide) as reinforcement particles 20 wt. % in Ni-based matrix 80 wt. % on austenitic stainless steel through exposure of microwave radiation has been carried out. The jet slurry erosion test was performed on microwave composite clad. The functional performance of composite clad has been evaluated for different parametric conditions like varying impingement velocity and impact angle. The increasing weight loss trend was observed with time for the first 30 min. after that the individual trend decreased; at high impingement velocity and maximum impact angle. SEM micrographs of eroded clad samples at various impact angle and impingement velocity were discussed. The maximum weight loss occurred at 90° angle and velocity of 60 m/s, and minimum at 30° angle and velocity of 20 m/s.

  17. Drying and cracking mechanisms in a starch slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, Lucas

    2009-09-01

    Starch-water slurries are commonly used to study fracture dynamics. Drying starch cakes benefit from being simple, economical, and reproducible systems, and have been used to model desiccation fracture in soils, thin-film fracture in paint, and columnar joints in lava. In this paper, the physical properties of starch-water mixtures are studied, and used to interpret and develop a multiphase transport model of drying. Starch cakes are observed to have a nonlinear elastic modulus, and a desiccation strain that is comparable to that generated by their maximum achievable capillary pressure. It is shown that a large material porosity is divided between pore spaces between starch grains, and pores within starch grains. This division of pore space leads to two distinct drying regimes, controlled by liquid and vapor transport of water, respectively. The relatively unique ability for drying starch to generate columnar fracture patterns is shown to be linked to the unusually strong separation of these two transport mechanisms.

  18. Biodegradation of PAH`s in sediment-slurry processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.B.; Beckles, D.; Chandra, S.

    1995-12-31

    The focus of this research was to examine biodegradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in lab scale slurry reactors. The studies summarized in this paper focused on the rate and extent of contaminant release from the sediments, oxygen demand of anaerobic sediments, and the rate and extent of PAH biodegradation achieved. Mass balances were used in all cases. The studies identified several factors which may influence the design or operation of bioreactors used for sediment remediation. Mixing had the greatest effect on the rate and extent of contaminant release; solids loading and aeration had little or no effect in mixed reactors. In unmixed reactors, aerated systems showed faster rates of contaminant release than unaerated systems, indicating that the aeration process itself provides some degree of mixing. The maximum extent of mineralization appeared to be reached within five days in mixed systems; significantly lower mineralization was seen in reactors with insufficient mixing.

  19. Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries

    DOEpatents

    Krishna, C.R.

    1984-07-27

    In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

  20. Ultrasonic wave propagation in concentrated slurries--the modelling problem.

    PubMed

    Challis, Richard E; Pinfield, Valerie J

    2014-09-01

    The suspended particle size distribution in slurries can, in principle, be estimated from measured ultrasonic wave attenuation across a frequency band in the 10s of MHz range. The procedure requires a computational model of wave propagation which incorporates scattering phenomena. These models fail at high particle concentrations due to hydrodynamic effects which they do not incorporate. This work seeks an effective viscosity and density for the medium surrounding the particles, which would enable the scattering model predictions to match experimental data for high solids loading. It is found that the required viscosity model has unphysical characteristics leading to the conclusion that a simple effective medium modification to the ECAH/LB is not possible. The paper confirms the successful results which can be obtained using core-shell scattering models, for smaller particles than had previously been studied, and outlines modifications to these which would permit rapid computation of sufficient stability to support fast particle sizing procedures.