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Sample records for pig slurry applied

  1. Nutrient Status and Contamination Risks from Digested Pig Slurry Applied on a Vegetable Crops Field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaohui; Hua, Yumei; Deng, Liangwei

    2016-04-01

    The effects of applied digested pig slurry on a vegetable crops field were studied. The study included a 3-year investigation on nutrient characteristics, heavy metals contamination and hygienic risks of a vegetable crops field in Wuhan, China. The results showed that, after anaerobic digestion, abundant N, P and K remained in the digested pig slurry while fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs and hookworm eggs were highly reduced. High Cr, Zn and Cu contents in the digested pig slurry were found in spring. Digested pig slurry application to the vegetable crops field led to improved soil fertility. Plant-available P in the fertilized soils increased due to considerable increase in total P content and decrease in low-availability P fraction. The As content in the fertilized soils increased slightly but significantly (p = 0.003) compared with control. The Hg, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Cu contents in the fertilized soils did not exceed the maximum permissible contents for vegetable crops soils in China. However, high Zn accumulation should be of concern due to repeated applications of digested pig slurry. No fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs or hookworm eggs were detected in the fertilized soils. PMID:27058548

  2. Nutrient Status and Contamination Risks from Digested Pig Slurry Applied on a Vegetable Crops Field

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaohui; Hua, Yumei; Deng, Liangwei

    2016-01-01

    The effects of applied digested pig slurry on a vegetable crops field were studied. The study included a 3-year investigation on nutrient characteristics, heavy metals contamination and hygienic risks of a vegetable crops field in Wuhan, China. The results showed that, after anaerobic digestion, abundant N, P and K remained in the digested pig slurry while fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs and hookworm eggs were highly reduced. High Cr, Zn and Cu contents in the digested pig slurry were found in spring. Digested pig slurry application to the vegetable crops field led to improved soil fertility. Plant-available P in the fertilized soils increased due to considerable increase in total P content and decrease in low-availability P fraction. The As content in the fertilized soils increased slightly but significantly (p = 0.003) compared with control. The Hg, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Cu contents in the fertilized soils did not exceed the maximum permissible contents for vegetable crops soils in China. However, high Zn accumulation should be of concern due to repeated applications of digested pig slurry. No fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs or hookworm eggs were detected in the fertilized soils. PMID:27058548

  3. Nutrient Status and Contamination Risks from Digested Pig Slurry Applied on a Vegetable Crops Field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaohui; Hua, Yumei; Deng, Liangwei

    2016-04-01

    The effects of applied digested pig slurry on a vegetable crops field were studied. The study included a 3-year investigation on nutrient characteristics, heavy metals contamination and hygienic risks of a vegetable crops field in Wuhan, China. The results showed that, after anaerobic digestion, abundant N, P and K remained in the digested pig slurry while fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs and hookworm eggs were highly reduced. High Cr, Zn and Cu contents in the digested pig slurry were found in spring. Digested pig slurry application to the vegetable crops field led to improved soil fertility. Plant-available P in the fertilized soils increased due to considerable increase in total P content and decrease in low-availability P fraction. The As content in the fertilized soils increased slightly but significantly (p = 0.003) compared with control. The Hg, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Cu contents in the fertilized soils did not exceed the maximum permissible contents for vegetable crops soils in China. However, high Zn accumulation should be of concern due to repeated applications of digested pig slurry. No fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs or hookworm eggs were detected in the fertilized soils.

  4. Environmental vulnerability and phosphorus fractions of areas with pig slurry applied to the soil.

    PubMed

    da Rosa Couto, Rafael; Santos, Matheus Dos; Comin, Jucinei José; Pittol Martini, Luíz Carlos; Gatiboni, Luciano Colpo; Martins, Sérgio Roberto; Filho, Paulo Belli; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The application of pig slurry as a fertilizer can cause soil and water contamination. Intrinsic characteristics of the environment may enhance this effect and influence the vulnerability of the agricultural system. The goal of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of soil P fractions in areas treated with pig slurry and in forest areas and to propose an evaluation of the areas' vulnerability to P contamination. Soil samples were collected from 10 areas with pig slurry applied to the soil and one in forest without a history of pig slurry application, all located in the Coruja and Bonito rivers microbasin at Braço do Norte, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Samples were prepared and subjected to P chemical fractionation. Two versions of the P index method, based on soil P forms or only on P extracted by Mehlich-1, were used to evaluate the environmental risk of the studied areas. Estimated soil losses were lower for the forest and natural pasture and highest in areas with black oat ( Schreb.)-corn ( L.) crop cultivation. Concentrations of P fractions, especially of organic and inorganic P extracted by 0.1 and 0.5 mol L NaOH and NaHCO and of inorganic P extracted by anion exchange resin and HCl, were higher in areas with a longer history and higher frequency of pig slurry applications. Vulnerability to P contamination was mainly influenced by soil P concentrations and soil losses in the studied areas. The P index based on Hedley's fractionation P forms resulted in a more accurate risk scoring of the studied areas than the P index based on the concentration of available P extracted by Mehlich-1. PMID:25602331

  5. Environmental vulnerability and phosphorus fractions of areas with pig slurry applied to the soil.

    PubMed

    da Rosa Couto, Rafael; Santos, Matheus Dos; Comin, Jucinei José; Pittol Martini, Luíz Carlos; Gatiboni, Luciano Colpo; Martins, Sérgio Roberto; Filho, Paulo Belli; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The application of pig slurry as a fertilizer can cause soil and water contamination. Intrinsic characteristics of the environment may enhance this effect and influence the vulnerability of the agricultural system. The goal of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of soil P fractions in areas treated with pig slurry and in forest areas and to propose an evaluation of the areas' vulnerability to P contamination. Soil samples were collected from 10 areas with pig slurry applied to the soil and one in forest without a history of pig slurry application, all located in the Coruja and Bonito rivers microbasin at Braço do Norte, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Samples were prepared and subjected to P chemical fractionation. Two versions of the P index method, based on soil P forms or only on P extracted by Mehlich-1, were used to evaluate the environmental risk of the studied areas. Estimated soil losses were lower for the forest and natural pasture and highest in areas with black oat ( Schreb.)-corn ( L.) crop cultivation. Concentrations of P fractions, especially of organic and inorganic P extracted by 0.1 and 0.5 mol L NaOH and NaHCO and of inorganic P extracted by anion exchange resin and HCl, were higher in areas with a longer history and higher frequency of pig slurry applications. Vulnerability to P contamination was mainly influenced by soil P concentrations and soil losses in the studied areas. The P index based on Hedley's fractionation P forms resulted in a more accurate risk scoring of the studied areas than the P index based on the concentration of available P extracted by Mehlich-1.

  6. Ammonia, methane, and nitrous oxide emission from pig slurry applied to a pasture in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Sherlock, Robert R; Sommer, Sven G; Khan, Rehmat Z; Wood, C Wesley; Guertal, Elizabeth A; Freney, John R; Dawson, Christopher O; Cameron, Keith C

    2002-01-01

    Much animal manure is being applied to small land areas close to animal confinements, resulting in environmental degradation. This paper reports a study on the emissions of ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from a pasture during a 90-d period after pig slurry application (60 m3 ha-1) to the soil surface. The pig slurry contained 6.1 kg total N m-3, 4.2 kg of total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN = NH3 + NH4) m-3, and 22.1 kg C m-3, and had a pH of 8.14. Ammonia was lost at a fast rate immediately after slurry application (4.7 kg N ha-1 h-1), when the pH and TAN concentration of the surface soil were high, but the loss rate declined quickly thereafter. Total NH3 losses from the treated pasture were 57 kg N ha-1 (22.5% of the TAN applied). Methane emission was highest (39.6 g C ha-1 h-1) immediately after application, as dissolved CH4 was released from the slurry. Emissions then continued at a low rate for approximately 7 d, presumably due to metabolism of volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic slurry-treated soil. The net CH4 emission was 1052 g C ha-1 (0.08% of the carbon applied). Nitrous oxide emission was low for the first 14 d after slurry application, then showed emission peaks of 7.5 g N ha-1 h-1 on Day 25 and 15.8 g N ha-1 h-1 on Day 67, and decline depending on rainfall and nitrate (NO3) concentrations. Emission finally reached background levels after approximately 90 d. Nitrous oxide emission was 7.6 kg N ha-1 (2.1% of the N applied). It is apparent that of the two major greenhouse gases measured in this study, N2O is by far the more important tropospheric pollutant.

  7. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

    2014-01-01

    Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent. PMID:24995598

  8. Investigation of copper speciation in pig slurry by a multitechnique approach.

    PubMed

    Legros, Samuel; Chaurand, Perrine; Rose, Jérôme; Masion, Armand; Briois, Valérie; Ferrasse, Jean-Henry; Macary, Hervé Saint; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2010-09-15

    It is now well-known that copper (Cu) can accumulate on the surface of soils upon which pig slurry has been applied. This is due to the high quantity of Cu in pig slurry resulting from its use as a growth promoter in animal feeds. The mobility and bioavailability of Cu from pig slurry spreading can be better predicted by determining the speciation of this element in addition to its total concentration. The aim of this study was to present a multitechnique approach to investigate Cu speciation in pig slurry. First, size fractionation and chemical characterization of each size fraction were performed to complement results obtained in raw samples. Micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μXRF) highlighted the colocalization of Cu and sulfur (S). Finally, X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) showed that Cu speciation in raw pig slurry and size fractions could be described by Cu(2)S and that its oxidation state is Cu(I). In addition, geochemical calculation demonstrated that chalcocite (Cu(2)S) was the major Cu species present under pig slurry lagoon physical-chemical conditions. This Cu speciation in pig slurry may be the main reason for the observed Cu accumulation at the soil surface. PMID:20735047

  9. Acidification of pig slurry before separation to improve slurry management on farms.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Iria; Coutinho, João; Balsari, Paolo; Popovic, Olga; Fangueiro, David

    2016-08-01

    Pig slurry, rich in plant nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), is generally applied to soil as organic fertilizer. However, costs related to slurry transport may limit its utilization to fields close to the farm, leading to significant N losses, namely ammonia (NH3) emissions. Slurry acidification, to minimize NH3 emissions, is a potential solution to this problem, while solid-liquid separation leads to a solid fraction (SF) - rich in organic matter (OM) and phosphorus - and a liquid fraction (LF) rich in soluble nutrients. We hypothesized that a combination of acidification and separation could affect the quality of the resulting fractions depending on the separation technique used. After acidification, the two most common techniques for separation, centrifugation (CF) and screw-press (SP), were applied. The main characteristics of the slurry fractions in terms of nutrient concentrations and speciation as well as the potential N mineralization (PNM) were analysed. Our results show SFs with improved properties, mostly N and PNM when acidification is performed before separation with both techniques. The PNM was significantly increased in LFs from both techniques after acidification. The [Formula: see text] concentration increased in LFs from SP with acidification; therefore, slurry acidification is recommended to avoid any N losses during the separation process with SP, while CF may not require such pretreatment. Acidification could allow the use of a cheaper technique such as SP relative to CF since it prevents NH3 emissions during the separation process and leads to more equilibrated fractions in terms of nutrient composition.

  10. Acidification of pig slurry before separation to improve slurry management on farms.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Iria; Coutinho, João; Balsari, Paolo; Popovic, Olga; Fangueiro, David

    2016-08-01

    Pig slurry, rich in plant nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), is generally applied to soil as organic fertilizer. However, costs related to slurry transport may limit its utilization to fields close to the farm, leading to significant N losses, namely ammonia (NH3) emissions. Slurry acidification, to minimize NH3 emissions, is a potential solution to this problem, while solid-liquid separation leads to a solid fraction (SF) - rich in organic matter (OM) and phosphorus - and a liquid fraction (LF) rich in soluble nutrients. We hypothesized that a combination of acidification and separation could affect the quality of the resulting fractions depending on the separation technique used. After acidification, the two most common techniques for separation, centrifugation (CF) and screw-press (SP), were applied. The main characteristics of the slurry fractions in terms of nutrient concentrations and speciation as well as the potential N mineralization (PNM) were analysed. Our results show SFs with improved properties, mostly N and PNM when acidification is performed before separation with both techniques. The PNM was significantly increased in LFs from both techniques after acidification. The [Formula: see text] concentration increased in LFs from SP with acidification; therefore, slurry acidification is recommended to avoid any N losses during the separation process with SP, while CF may not require such pretreatment. Acidification could allow the use of a cheaper technique such as SP relative to CF since it prevents NH3 emissions during the separation process and leads to more equilibrated fractions in terms of nutrient composition. PMID:26695081

  11. Sorption of 17β-estradiol to pig slurry separates and soil in the soil-slurry environment.

    PubMed

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of freshwater by estrogens from manure applied to agricultural land is of grave concern because of the potentially harmful effects on aquatic life and human health. Recent developments in liquid manure (slurry) management include partial removal of particulate slurry dry matter (PSDM) by separation technologies, which may also remove parts of the estrogens and enhance infiltration of the slurry on field application and hence the interaction between estrogens and the soil matrix. This study investigated how 17β-estradiol (E2), a natural estrogen commonly found in pig manure, sorbs to agricultural soils, to different size fractions of pig slurry separates, and to soils amended with each size fraction to simulate conditions in the soil-slurry environment. A crude fiber fraction (SS1) was prepared by sieving (<500 μm) the solids removed by an on-farm separation process. Three other size fractions (SS2 > SS3 > SS4) were prepared from the liquid fraction of the separated slurry by sedimentation and centrifugation. Sorption experiments were conducted in 0.01 mol L(-1) CaCl(2) and in natural pig urine matrix. Sorption in 0.01 mol L(-1) CaCl(2) was higher than that in pig urine for all solids used. Sorption of E2 to soil increased with its organic carbon content for both liquid phases. The solid-liquid partition coefficients of slurry separates were 10 to 30 times higher than those of soils, but the organoic carbon normalized partition coefficient values, reflecting sorption per unit organic carbon, were lower for slurry separates. Mixing slurry separates with soil increased the sorption of E2 to the solid phase significantly in the order: SS1 < SS3 < SS2 for both liquid phases. In contrast, SS4 reduced the sorption of E2 to the solid phase by increasing the sorption to suspended or dissolved organic matter. The study suggested that potentially 50 to 75% of E2 in slurry can be removed from the liquid fraction of slurry by physical separation.

  12. Application of pig slurry to soils. Effect of air stripping treatment on nitrogen and TOC leaching.

    PubMed

    Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; García-Sinovas, David; Alvarez-Benedí, Javier

    2010-12-01

    The effect of physical-chemical slurry treatment on the mobility and transformation of nitrogen and organic matter from pig slurry after soil application is evaluated. Two different pig slurries (one treated by stripping with air at pH=9 and another non-treated) were applied at the top of a soil column, containing approximately 100 kg of soil. Effluents were monitored measuring concentration values of ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and total organic carbon (TOC). The breakthrough curves were modelled using STANMOD and HYDRUS 1D codes. Low concentrations of ammonia were detected in the effluent recovered at the bottom of the soil profile for both types of slurry. Nitrate concentration in effluent was lower and more homogenous over time when applying stripping treated pig slurry. In N modelling, adsorption of ammonia by soil proved an important process, nitrite and nitrate adsorption being less significant, although not negligible. Transformation from ammonia to nitrite controls the kinetics of the nitrification process. Total organic carbon in the column effluent was higher in the experiment using treated pig slurry, which can be attributed to organic matter solubilisation in the stripping treatment process.

  13. Carbon dynamics in different soil types amended with pig slurry, pig manure and its biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanardag, Ibrahim H.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Büyükkiliç-Yanardaǧ, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet R.

    2014-05-01

    Determining the structure and components of soil and soil organic matter is very important in terms of sustainable agriculture and forestry and greenhouse gases emissions. Organic management can increase labile C and N in the short-term, and total soil C and N in the long-term, but less is known about how management practices may affect soil organic C (SOC)quality and stability. Methods to improve the management of livestock slurries to reduce the environmental impact and carbon losses are gaining importance. There is a need to find the best wastes treatment which enhances soil fertility but also carbon sequestration, to mitigate the effects of global warming. The objective of this study was to assess the short-term changes in SOC pools, using raw pig slurry, the solid phase of pig slurry, and its biochar as amendment in different soil types (Regosol, Luvisol and Kastanozem). The three different amendments were applied at 5 g C kg-1 soil. An unamended soil for each type was used as control. Soils were incubated in triplicate for 60 days at 25ºC and at 55% of their water holding capacity. Samples were sampled to monitor the evolution of soil organic and inorganic carbon, recalcitrant carbon, soluble carbon, carbon mineralization, SOC thermal distribution (thermogravimetric analysis - differential scanning calorimetry - quadrupole mass spectrometry), and characterization of functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)). Results showed that soils amended with raw pig slurry and the solid phase of the slurry showed higher values of soluble carbon, and higher carbon mineralization rates compared to biochar application, which showed values similar to controls. SOC increased at the end of incubation with biochar and the solid phase of the slurry applications in Kastanozem and Regosol. Thermogravimetric results showed an increased weight loss of the Regosol compared to Luvisol and Kastanozem, owing to the higher content of soil carbonates. Luvisol and

  14. Impact of chemically amended pig slurry on greenhouse gas emissions, soil properties and leachate.

    PubMed

    O' Flynn, Cornelius J; Healy, Mark G; Lanigan, Gary J; Troy, Shane M; Somers, Cathal; Fenton, Owen

    2013-10-15

    The effectiveness of chemical amendment of pig slurry to ameliorate phosphorus (P) losses in runoff is well studied, but research mainly has concentrated only on the runoff pathway. The aims of this study were to investigate changes to leachate nutrient losses, soil properties and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to the chemical amendment of pig slurry spread at 19 kg total phosphorus (TP), 90 kg total nitrogen (TN), and 180 kg total carbon (TC) ha(-1). The amendments examined were: (1) commercial grade liquid alum (8% Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al:TP], (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38% FeCl3) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe:TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) (10% Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al:TP]. Columns filled with sieved soil were incubated for 8 mo at 10 °C and were leached with 160 mL (19 mm) distilled water wk(-1). All amendments reduced the Morgan's phosphorus and water extractable P content of the soil to that of the soil-only treatment, indicating that they have the ability to reduce P loss in leachate following slurry application. There were no significant differences between treatments for nitrogen (N) or carbon (C) in leachate or soil, indicating no deleterious impact on reactive N emissions or soil C cycling. Chemical amendment posed no significant change to GHG emissions from pig slurry, and in the cases of alum and PAC, reduced cumulative N2O and CO2 losses. Chemical amendment of land applied pig slurry can reduce P in runoff without any negative impact on nutrient leaching and GHG emissions. Future work must be conducted to ascertain if more significant reductions in GHG emissions are possible with chemical amendments.

  15. [Survival of Aujeszky's disease virus in infected pig slurry].

    PubMed

    Smíd, B; Valícek, L; Rodák, L; Jurák, E; Herzig, I; Dvorácek, L

    1985-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that after experimental infection of pig slurry from the space under the slatted floor (infection dose of 10(6)PFU per ml), the Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) survived for 72 hours at the temperature of 15 degrees C and at pH 6.5, but was inactivated after 96 hours. When technologically treated pig slurry from the storage tanks was saturated with water and infected with ADV at the dose of 10(5)PFU per ml, the virus survived for 23 days when kept at 15 degrees C and 4 degrees C and at pH 6.8, but was inactivated under the same conditions after 30 days. When the infective ADV dose in the technologically treated pig slurry in the storage tanks was reduced to 10(4)PFU per ml, the virus survived 16 days at +4 degrees C and pH 7.0 and 8.0 but was inactivated within 23 days after infection.

  16. Benefits and limitations of pig slurry to reclaim bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, Jose A.; Kabas, Sebla; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of pig slurry application on reclamation of mine soils from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain) were investigated in a field experiment. Exchangeable metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, soluble carbon, microbial biomass and three enzyme activities were periodically monitored during 67 days. In addition, one year after the application of the pig slurry, soil and developed vegetation was sampled. Results showed that only exchangeable Cd and Zn significantly decreased in the amended plots, mainly for Cd, with decreases of 98%. The rest of metals and chemical properties did not change with time after application of amendments, showing values not significantly different than those present before pig slurry application. Soluble carbon, microbial biomass carbon and the enzyme activities increased after the application of pig slurry. However, after various days these parameters started a decreasing trend until reaching values similar to the control from approximately day 25. Thus, mainly precipitation as phosphate from the waste was very effective for Cd immobilization. No increments were observed in soil organic carbon because the organic carbon applied with the slurry was too low to be significantly detected. Nonetheless, pig slurry is a good fertilizer owing to the high quantity of nutrients provided, needed to promote the development of vegetation. One year after application, a native vegetation cover (25-30%) was reached by spontaneous colonization. Triggered plant growth by the effect of amendment improved soil conditions, particularly by the help of the medium created by their rhizosphere systems. Increments in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and decreases in the exchangeable metals fraction concentration were observed in rhizospheric soils when compared to the bare soils. This improvement in soil quality mediated by vegetation was more efficient than the direct effect of the amendment. In

  17. Environmental assessment of nutrient recycling from biological pig slurry treatment--impact of fertilizer substitution and field emissions.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Doris; Hanhoun, Mary; Négri, Ophélie; Hélias, Arnaud

    2014-07-01

    Pig slurry treatment is an important means in reducing nitrogen loads applied to farmland. Solid phase separation prior to biological treatment further allows for recovering phosphorus with the solid phase. The organic residues from the pig slurry treatment can be applied as organic fertilizers to farmland replacing mineral fertilizers. The environmental impacts of nutrient recycling from aerobic, biological pig slurry treatment were evaluated applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. LCA results revealed that direct field emissions from organic fertilizer application and the amount of avoided mineral fertilizers dominated the environmental impacts. A modified plant available nitrogen calculation (PAN) was introduced taking into account calculated nitrogen emissions from organic fertilizer application. Additionally, an equation for calculating the quantity of avoided mineral fertilizers based on the modified PAN calculation was proposed, which accounted for nitrogen emissions from mineral fertilizer application.

  18. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-09-01

    Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables and fish ponds. Slurry may contain a variety of zoonotic pathogens, e.g. Salmonella spp., which are able to cause disease in humans either through direct contact with slurry or by fecal contamination of water and foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella spp. and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms with and 6 farms without toilet connected) located in Hanam province, Vietnam. Sampling of pig slurry and biogas effluent was done during two seasons. Results showed that the concentration of enterococci, E. coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores was overall reduced by only 1-2 log10-units in the biogas digesters when comparing raw slurry and biogas effluent. Salmonella spp. was found in both raw slurry and biogas effluent. A total of 19 Salmonella serovars were identified, with the main serovars being Salmonella Typhimurium (55/138), Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (19/138), Salmonella Weltevreden (9/138) and Salmonella Rissen (9/138). The Salmonella serovars showed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns to those previously reported from Vietnam. When promoting biogas, farmers should be made aware that effluent should only be used as fertilizer for crops not consumed raw and that indiscriminate discharge of effluent are likely to contaminate water recipients, e.g. drinking water sources, with pathogens. Relevant authorities should promote safe animal manure management

  19. Life cycle assessment of pig slurry treatment technologies for nutrient redistribution in Denmark.

    PubMed

    ten Hoeve, Marieke; Hutchings, Nicholas J; Peters, Gregory M; Svanström, Magdalena; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Animal slurry management is associated with a range of impacts on fossil resource use and the environment. The impacts are greatest when large amounts of nutrient-rich slurry from livestock production cannot be adequately utilised on adjacent land. To facilitate nutrient redistribution, a range of different technologies are available. This study comprised a life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts from handling 1000 kg of pig slurry ex-animal. Application of untreated pig slurry onto adjacent land was compared with using four different treatment technologies to enable nutrient redistribution before land application: (a) separation by mechanical screw press, (b) screw press separation with composting of the solid fraction, (c) separation by decanter centrifuge, and (d) decanter centrifuge separation with ammonia stripping of the liquid fraction. Emissions were determined based on a combination of values derived from the literature and simulations with the Farm-N model for Danish agricultural and climatic conditions. The environmental impact categories assessed were climate change, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, natural resource use, and soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus storage. In all separation scenarios, the liquid fraction was applied to land on the pig-producing (donor) farm and the solid fraction transported to a recipient farm and utilised for crop production. Separation, especially by centrifuge, was found to result in a lower environmental impact potential than application of untreated slurry to adjacent land. Composting and ammonia stripping either slightly increased or slightly decreased the environmental impact potential, depending on the impact category considered. The relative ranking of scenarios did not change after a sensitivity analysis in which coefficients for field emissions of nitrous oxide, ammonia and phosphorus were varied within the range cited in the literature. Therefore, the best

  20. Life cycle assessment of pig slurry treatment technologies for nutrient redistribution in Denmark.

    PubMed

    ten Hoeve, Marieke; Hutchings, Nicholas J; Peters, Gregory M; Svanström, Magdalena; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Animal slurry management is associated with a range of impacts on fossil resource use and the environment. The impacts are greatest when large amounts of nutrient-rich slurry from livestock production cannot be adequately utilised on adjacent land. To facilitate nutrient redistribution, a range of different technologies are available. This study comprised a life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts from handling 1000 kg of pig slurry ex-animal. Application of untreated pig slurry onto adjacent land was compared with using four different treatment technologies to enable nutrient redistribution before land application: (a) separation by mechanical screw press, (b) screw press separation with composting of the solid fraction, (c) separation by decanter centrifuge, and (d) decanter centrifuge separation with ammonia stripping of the liquid fraction. Emissions were determined based on a combination of values derived from the literature and simulations with the Farm-N model for Danish agricultural and climatic conditions. The environmental impact categories assessed were climate change, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, natural resource use, and soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus storage. In all separation scenarios, the liquid fraction was applied to land on the pig-producing (donor) farm and the solid fraction transported to a recipient farm and utilised for crop production. Separation, especially by centrifuge, was found to result in a lower environmental impact potential than application of untreated slurry to adjacent land. Composting and ammonia stripping either slightly increased or slightly decreased the environmental impact potential, depending on the impact category considered. The relative ranking of scenarios did not change after a sensitivity analysis in which coefficients for field emissions of nitrous oxide, ammonia and phosphorus were varied within the range cited in the literature. Therefore, the best

  1. Phosphorus, copper and zinc in solid and liquid fractions from full-scale and laboratory-separated pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Olga; Hjorth, Maibritt; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2012-09-01

    Pig slurry separation is a slurry treatment technique that can reduce excess loads of P, Cu and Zn to the arable land. This study investigated the effects of different commercial and laboratory separation treatments for pig slurry on P, Cu and Zn distribution into solid and liquid fractions. Solid and liquid separation fractions were collected from two commercial separators installed on the farm. Five different separation treatments were performed (polymer flocculation and drainage; coagulation with iron sulphate addition and polymer flocculation and drainage; ozonation and centrifugation; centrifugation only; and natural sedimentation) on sow and suckling piglet raw slurry. Particle size fractionation was performed on raw slurry and all separation fractions by sequential wet sieving and P, Cu and Zn concentrations were then measured in the particle size classes. Dry matter and total P, Cu and Zn were separated with higher efficiency when chemical pretreatments with flocculants and coagulants were introduced before mechanical separation at both commercial and laboratory scale. When solid fractions are utilized as crop fertilizer (primarily as P fertilizer), the loads of Cu and Zn to the soils are not markedly different than the loads applied with raw slurry. When liquid fractions are used as crop fertilizer (primarily as N fertilizer), the loads of Cu and Zn are markedly lower than those supplied with raw slurry. The loads of Cu and Zn introduced to the soil were lowest on application of the liquid fraction produced by optimized separation treatments that included flocculation and coagulation. PMID:23240207

  2. Phosphorus, copper and zinc in solid and liquid fractions from full-scale and laboratory-separated pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Olga; Hjorth, Maibritt; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2012-09-01

    Pig slurry separation is a slurry treatment technique that can reduce excess loads of P, Cu and Zn to the arable land. This study investigated the effects of different commercial and laboratory separation treatments for pig slurry on P, Cu and Zn distribution into solid and liquid fractions. Solid and liquid separation fractions were collected from two commercial separators installed on the farm. Five different separation treatments were performed (polymer flocculation and drainage; coagulation with iron sulphate addition and polymer flocculation and drainage; ozonation and centrifugation; centrifugation only; and natural sedimentation) on sow and suckling piglet raw slurry. Particle size fractionation was performed on raw slurry and all separation fractions by sequential wet sieving and P, Cu and Zn concentrations were then measured in the particle size classes. Dry matter and total P, Cu and Zn were separated with higher efficiency when chemical pretreatments with flocculants and coagulants were introduced before mechanical separation at both commercial and laboratory scale. When solid fractions are utilized as crop fertilizer (primarily as P fertilizer), the loads of Cu and Zn to the soils are not markedly different than the loads applied with raw slurry. When liquid fractions are used as crop fertilizer (primarily as N fertilizer), the loads of Cu and Zn are markedly lower than those supplied with raw slurry. The loads of Cu and Zn introduced to the soil were lowest on application of the liquid fraction produced by optimized separation treatments that included flocculation and coagulation.

  3. Pig slurry and mineral fertilization strategies' effects on soil quality: macroaggregate stability and organic matter fractions.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, María R; Bosch-Serra, Àngela D; Antúnez, Montserrat; Boixadera, Jaume

    2012-11-01

    Applying pig slurry to the land as fertilizer at appropriate agronomic rates is important to close nutrient cycles and optimize the value of organic matter. However a long-term discussion has taken place about its effects on soil quality. In the north-east of Spain, eight fertilization strategies were evaluated on the soil quality parameters' aggregate stability, soil organic matter (SOM) physical fractions and soil microbial biomass (SMB). Six strategies used different pig slurries (PS) which provided organic matter from 1.7 to 2.6 t ha(-1)yr(-1), the rest (mineral N fertilization and a control) did not. Pig slurries were applied at sowing and/or at cereal tillering, as sidedressing. Field experiments were maintained for an 8-year period, in a silty loam soil devoted to a rainfed winter cereal. Soil samples were taken once, before the last sidedressing in 2011. Aggregate stability was quantified using the standard water-stable aggregate method but including a modification which meant that pre-wetting was avoided (WSA(MOD)). When using the WSA(MOD) method, we found a tendency for the percentage of water-stable aggregates to increase due to PS application (differences of up to 74% in the increment) and it was more marked the nearer they were measured to the application time (3 months vs. 12 months). The strategies which include PS show a positive effect on the SOM amount, mainly in the 0.05-0.2 mm light fraction, which increased by up to 34% with every 10 t ha(-1) organic C applied, and on SMB (up to 53% increment). There is a positive and significant linear relationship (p < 0.05, R(2) = 0.75) between the SOM light fraction (%) and the water-stable aggregates soil content (%, WSA(MOD)). Thus, the introduction of PS in fertilization strategies improves soil quality parameters. However, the soil quality benefits need to be balanced with any other potential environmental impact.

  4. Carbon dynamics in an almond orchard soil amended with raw and treated pig slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez, Sara G.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel

    2010-05-01

    In SE Spain, intensive farming is very common which supposes the generation of great amounts of pig slurries. These residues cause many storage problems due to their pollution capacity. A good management of them is necessary to avoid damages to the environment. The use of this effluent as fertilizer is a usual practice that in the correct dose is a good amend and important for sustainable development, but in excess can be a risk of polluting and damaging soil, water and crop conditions. Pig slurry is a source of many nutrients and specially rich in organic matter. The main objective of this study is to determine changes in soil organic carbon dynamics resulting from raw and treated slurry amendments applied in different doses. The experimental area is an almond orchard located in Cartagena (SE Spain). The climate of the area is semiarid Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 18°C and mean annual rainfall of 275 mm. A total of 10 plots (12 m x 30 m) were designed, one of them being the control without fertilizer. Surface soil samples (0-25 cm) were collected in September 2009. Three different treatments were applied, raw slurry, the effluent obtained after solid-liquid separation and solid manure, all of them in three doses being the first one of 170 kg N/ha, (maximum permitted in nitrates directive 91/676/CEE), and the others two and three times the first one. Soil biochemical parameters are rapid indicators of changes in soil quality. According to this, total organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soluble carbon, and β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and arylesterase activities were measured in order to assess some soil biochemical conditions and carbon dynamics in terms of the different treatments. As we expected, the use of these organic fertilizers rich in organic matter, had an effect on soil carbon and soil microbial activity resulting in an increase in most of the parameters; total organic carbon and β-galactosidase activity showed the

  5. Pig slurry application and irrigation effects on nitrate leaching in Mediterranean soil lysimeters.

    PubMed

    Daudén, A; Quílez, D; Vera, M V

    2004-01-01

    Land application of animal manures, such as pig slurry (PS), is a common practice in intensive-farming agriculture. However, this practice has a pitfall consisting of the loss of nutrients, in particular nitrate, toward water courses. The objective of this study was to evaluate nitrate leaching for three application rates of pig slurry (50, 100, and 200 Mg ha(-1)) and a control treatment of mineral fertilizer (275 kg N ha(-1)) applied to corn grown in 10 drainage lysimeters. The effects of two irrigation regimes (low vs. high irrigation efficiency) were also analyzed. In the first two irrigation events, drainage NO(3)-N concentrations as high as 145 and 69 mg L(-1) were measured in the high and moderate PS rate treatments, respectively, in the low irrigation efficiency treatments. This indicates the fast transformation of the PS ammonium into nitrate and the subsequent leaching of the transformed nitrate. Drainage NO(3)-N concentration and load increased linearly by 0.69 mg NO(3)-N L(-1) and 4.6 kg NO(3)-N ha(-1), respectively, for each 10 kg N ha(-1) applied over the minimum of 275 kg N ha(-1). An increase in irrigation efficiency did not induce a significant increase of leachate concentration and the amount of nitrate leached decreased about 65%. Application of low PS doses before sowing complemented with sidedressing N application and a good irrigation management are the key factors to reduce nitrate contamination of water courses.

  6. Pig slurry application and irrigation effects on nitrate leaching in Mediterranean soil lysimeters.

    PubMed

    Daudén, A; Quílez, D; Vera, M V

    2004-01-01

    Land application of animal manures, such as pig slurry (PS), is a common practice in intensive-farming agriculture. However, this practice has a pitfall consisting of the loss of nutrients, in particular nitrate, toward water courses. The objective of this study was to evaluate nitrate leaching for three application rates of pig slurry (50, 100, and 200 Mg ha(-1)) and a control treatment of mineral fertilizer (275 kg N ha(-1)) applied to corn grown in 10 drainage lysimeters. The effects of two irrigation regimes (low vs. high irrigation efficiency) were also analyzed. In the first two irrigation events, drainage NO(3)-N concentrations as high as 145 and 69 mg L(-1) were measured in the high and moderate PS rate treatments, respectively, in the low irrigation efficiency treatments. This indicates the fast transformation of the PS ammonium into nitrate and the subsequent leaching of the transformed nitrate. Drainage NO(3)-N concentration and load increased linearly by 0.69 mg NO(3)-N L(-1) and 4.6 kg NO(3)-N ha(-1), respectively, for each 10 kg N ha(-1) applied over the minimum of 275 kg N ha(-1). An increase in irrigation efficiency did not induce a significant increase of leachate concentration and the amount of nitrate leached decreased about 65%. Application of low PS doses before sowing complemented with sidedressing N application and a good irrigation management are the key factors to reduce nitrate contamination of water courses. PMID:15537952

  7. Process performance of anaerobic co-digestion of raw and acidified pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Moset, V; Cerisuelo, A; Sutaryo, S; Møller, H B

    2012-10-15

    The effect of incorporating different ratios of acidified pig slurry on methane yield was evaluated in two scales of anaerobic digesters: Thermophilic (50 °C) pilot scale digester (120 l), operating with an average hydraulic retention time of 20 days and thermophilic (52 °C) full-scale digesters (10 and 30 m(3)), operating with an average hydraulic retention time of 30 days. In the lab-scale digester, different inclusion levels of acidified slurry (0-60%) were tested each 15 days, to determine the maximum ratio of acidified to non-acidified slurry causing inhibition and to find process state indicators helping to prevent process failure. In the full-scale digesters, the level of inclusion of the acidified slurry was chosen from the ratio causing methane inhibition in the pilot scale experiment and was carried on in a long-term process of 100 days. The optimal inclusion level of acidified pig slurry in anaerobic co-digestion with conventional slurry was 10%, which promoted anaerobic methane yield by nearly 20%. Higher inclusion levels caused methane inhibition and volatile fatty acids accumulations in both experiments. In order to prevent process failure, the most important traits to monitor in the anaerobic digestion of acidified pig slurry were found to be: sulfate content of the slurry, alkalinity parameters (especially partial alkalinity and the ratio of alkalinity) and total volatile fatty acids (especially acetic and butyric acids).

  8. Concentration of pig slurry by evaporation: anaerobic digestion as the key process.

    PubMed

    Bonmatí, A; Campos, E; Flotats, X

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient redistribution between areas with a structural pig slurry surplus and those with a shortage, is limited by the high cost of transportation and spreading, due to the high water content in slurry (more than 90%) and its relative low nutrient concentration. Water can be removed from slurry by evaporation, through the application of waste heat from a power plant or from other processes. Apart from obtaining a concentrate with an obviously higher nutrient concentration than the original slurry, another objective is to obtain clean water as condensate. The objective of this work was to study the batch vacuum evaporation of pig slurry liquid fraction, to evaluate the economic feasibility and to evaluate condensate quality as a function of both pH (4, 5 and 6) and pig slurry type (fresh slurry and anaerobically digested slurry). Results showed that condensate characteristics (ammonia nitrogen, VFA, COD) were strongly dependent on these variables. Previous anaerobic digestion presented clear advantages: it provided a fraction of the required energy and it removed organic matter, preventing its volatilisation in the evaporation process and providing higher quality condensates. These advantages make the combined treatment strategy economically more feasible than the evaporation process alone.

  9. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anne B.; Elsgaard, Lars; Triolo, Jin Mi; Sommer, Sven G.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment technologies such as anaerobic digestion. In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source. Fractions of degradable volatile solids (VSd, kg kg-1 VS) were estimated using an aerobic biodegradability assay and total organic C analyses. The VSd in pig and cattle slurry averaged 0.51 and 0.33 kg kg-1 VS, and it was estimated that on average 43 and 28% of VSd in fresh excreta from pigs and cattle, respectively, had been lost at the time of sampling. An empirical model of CH4 emissions from slurry was reparameterised based on experimental results. A sensitivity analysis indicated that predicted CH4 emissions were highly sensitive to uncertainties in the value of lnA of the Arrhenius equation, but much less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential of treatments such as anaerobic digestion, are discussed. PMID:27529692

  10. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Søren O; Olsen, Anne B; Elsgaard, Lars; Triolo, Jin Mi; Sommer, Sven G

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment technologies such as anaerobic digestion. In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source. Fractions of degradable volatile solids (VSd, kg kg-1 VS) were estimated using an aerobic biodegradability assay and total organic C analyses. The VSd in pig and cattle slurry averaged 0.51 and 0.33 kg kg-1 VS, and it was estimated that on average 43 and 28% of VSd in fresh excreta from pigs and cattle, respectively, had been lost at the time of sampling. An empirical model of CH4 emissions from slurry was reparameterised based on experimental results. A sensitivity analysis indicated that predicted CH4 emissions were highly sensitive to uncertainties in the value of lnA of the Arrhenius equation, but much less sensitive to uncertainties in VSd or slurry temperature. A model application indicated that losses of carbon in VS as CO2 may be much greater than losses as CH4. Implications of these results for the correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management, and for the mitigation potential of treatments such as anaerobic digestion, are discussed. PMID:27529692

  11. Influence of Pig Slurry on Microbial and Biochemical Characteristics of Soil in Albacete Region, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halil Yanardaǧ, Ibrahim

    2013-04-01

    Soil quality is very important in terms of agricultural sustainability, ecosystem and terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In turn, soil microbial and biochemical characteristics are indicative of nutrient cycling and soil organic matter dynamics. We investigated the effects of the pig slurries (raw pig slurry (RPS) and treated pig slurry (TPS) from liquid and solid feeding diets) on microbial and biochemical characteristics of soil under barley cropping system. Application doses of slurries are identified with legal doses of Castilla La Mancha Region, which is 210 kg N ha-1 year-1. Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C and three soil enzymes (β-Glucosidase, β-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzymes) are studied to determine effect slurry on soil biochemical characteristics, which are very important in terms of C cycle in soil. Black carbon content and β-Glucosidase enzyme activities are increased with all pig slurry applications from liquid and traditional feeding diet, as well as microbial biomass and organic carbon content and β-galactosidase enzyme activities are increased with slurry from liquid feeding diet doses. However, pig slurry application from liquid feeding diet doses have increased yield, quality, length and total biomass content of barley. Bioavailable metal contents are increased with all slurry application and with using high doses of slurry can be caused soil pollution. Pig slurries from liquid feeding diet had positive impacts on microbial and biochemical characteristics in terms of soil quality in comparison to the different feeding diets. PS addition to soil had a very significant stimulating effect on the enzyme activities, microbial biomass, soluble and black C compared with different kind of PS and control plots on Mediterranean soil in barley monoculture. This effect may originate from the organic C, N, P and S compounds added with PS. The highest enzyme activity and microbial biomass were observed on the soil samples from the RPS treatment

  12. The fate of sulfate in acidified pig slurry during storage and following application to cropped soil.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Peter; Elsgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid is a recent agricultural practice that may serve a double purpose: reducing ammonia emission and ensuring crop sulfur sufficiency. We investigated S transformations in untreated and acidified pig slurry stored for up to 11 mo at 2, 10, or 20 degrees C. Furthermore, the fertilizer efficiency of sulfuric acid in acidified slurry was investigated in a pot experiment with spring barley. The sulfate content from acidification with sulfuric acid was relatively stable and even after 11 mo of storage the majority was in the plant-available sulfate form. Microbial sulfate reduction during storage of acidified pig slurry was limited, presumably due to initial pH effects and a limitation in the availability of easily degradable organic matter. Sulfide accumulation was observed during storage but the sulfide levels in acidified slurry did not exceed those of the untreated slurry for several months after addition. The S fertilizer value of the acidified slurry was considerable as a result of the stable sulfate pool during storage. The high content of inorganic S in the acidified slurry may potentially lead to development of odorous volatile sulfur-containing compounds and investigations are needed into the relationship between odor development and the C and S composition of the slurry. PMID:18178902

  13. Impact of pig slurry amendments on phosphorus, suspended sediment and metal losses in laboratory runoff boxes under simulated rainfall.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, C J; Fenton, O; Wilson, P; Healy, M G

    2012-12-30

    Losses of phosphorus (P) when pig slurry applications to land are followed by a rainfall event or losses from soils with high P contents can contribute to eutrophication of receiving waters. The addition of amendments to pig slurry spread on high P Index soils may reduce P and suspended sediment (SS) losses. This hypothesis was tested at laboratory-scale using runoff boxes under simulated rainfall conditions. Intact grassed soil samples, 100 cm-long, 22.5 cm-wide and 5 cm-deep, were placed in runoff boxes and pig slurry or amended pig slurry was applied to the soil surface. The amendments examined were: (1) commercial grade liquid alum (8% Al(2)O(3)) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al:total phosphorus (TP)] (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38% FeCl(3)) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe:TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) (10% Al(2)O(3)) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al:TP]. The grassed soil was then subjected to three rainfall events (10.3 ± 0.15 mm h(-1)) at time intervals of 48, 72, and 96 h following slurry application. Each sod received rainfall on 3 occasions. Results across three rainfall events showed that for the control treatment, the average flow weighted mean concentration (FWMC) of TP was 0.61 mg L(-1), of which 31% was particulate phosphorus (PP), and the average FWMC of SS was 38.1 mg L(-1). For the slurry treatment, there was an average FWMC of 2.2 mg TP L(-1), 47% of which was PP, and the average FWMC of SS was 71.5 mg L(-1). Ranked in order of effectiveness from best to worst, PAC reduced the average FWMC of TP to 0.64 mg L(-1) (42% PP), FeCl(3) reduced TP to 0.91 mg L(-1) (52% PP) and alum reduced TP to 1.08 mg L(-1) (56% PP). The amendments were in the same order when ranked for effectiveness at reducing SS: PAC (74%), FeCl(3) (66%) and alum (39%). Total phosphorus levels in runoff plots receiving amended slurry remained above those from soil only, indicating that, although incidental losses could be mitigated

  14. Pig slurry concentration by vacuum evaporation: influence of previous mesophilic anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Bonmatí, August; Flotats, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Water can be removed from pig slurry by evaporation, through the application of wasted heat from a power plant or from other processes. Apart from obtaining a concentrate with an obviously higher nutrient concentration than the original slurry, another objective of water removal is to obtain water as condensate, which could be reused. The objective of this work was to study the vacuum evaporation of pig slurry liquid fraction and to evaluate condensate composition as a function of both pH (4, 5, and 6) and pig slurry type (fresh slurry and anaerobically digested slurry). Batch experiments showed that condensate characteristics, total ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acids (VFA), and chemical oxygen demand were strongly dependent on initial slurry pH. In addition to producing part of the required thermal energy, previous anaerobic digestion presented several other clear advantages. The consumption of VFA and other volatile organic compounds during anaerobic digestion reduced the volatilization of organic matter in the evaporation treatment and, consequently, provided a higher quality condensate.

  15. Pig slurry and mineral fertilization strategies' effects on soil quality: macroaggregate stability and organic matter fractions.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, María R; Bosch-Serra, Àngela D; Antúnez, Montserrat; Boixadera, Jaume

    2012-11-01

    Applying pig slurry to the land as fertilizer at appropriate agronomic rates is important to close nutrient cycles and optimize the value of organic matter. However a long-term discussion has taken place about its effects on soil quality. In the north-east of Spain, eight fertilization strategies were evaluated on the soil quality parameters' aggregate stability, soil organic matter (SOM) physical fractions and soil microbial biomass (SMB). Six strategies used different pig slurries (PS) which provided organic matter from 1.7 to 2.6 t ha(-1)yr(-1), the rest (mineral N fertilization and a control) did not. Pig slurries were applied at sowing and/or at cereal tillering, as sidedressing. Field experiments were maintained for an 8-year period, in a silty loam soil devoted to a rainfed winter cereal. Soil samples were taken once, before the last sidedressing in 2011. Aggregate stability was quantified using the standard water-stable aggregate method but including a modification which meant that pre-wetting was avoided (WSA(MOD)). When using the WSA(MOD) method, we found a tendency for the percentage of water-stable aggregates to increase due to PS application (differences of up to 74% in the increment) and it was more marked the nearer they were measured to the application time (3 months vs. 12 months). The strategies which include PS show a positive effect on the SOM amount, mainly in the 0.05-0.2 mm light fraction, which increased by up to 34% with every 10 t ha(-1) organic C applied, and on SMB (up to 53% increment). There is a positive and significant linear relationship (p < 0.05, R(2) = 0.75) between the SOM light fraction (%) and the water-stable aggregates soil content (%, WSA(MOD)). Thus, the introduction of PS in fertilization strategies improves soil quality parameters. However, the soil quality benefits need to be balanced with any other potential environmental impact. PMID:23000547

  16. Salinity, organic content, micronutrients and heavy metals in pig slurries from South-eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Moral, R; Perez-Murcia, M D; Perez-Espinosa, A; Moreno-Caselles, J; Paredes, C; Rufete, B

    2008-01-01

    The increase in commercial pig production is an opportunity to reuse animal manures in arid and semiarid soils as a source of nutrients and organic matter. However, there are components in pig slurry that are potentially dangerous for the environment. In this study, pig slurries of 36 pig farms in South-eastern Spain were evaluated for salt content (electrical conductivity, chloride and sodium), organic load (BOD5 and COD), micronutrients (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn), and heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb). Except for electrical conductivity, Cu and Zn, components in pig slurries did not vary considerably between animal production stages, indicating similar management of diverse animal types. Assuming an application rate based on the maximum input of nitrogen from animal manure (210 kg total N/ha/yr), the estimates for soil annual load of Cl and Na, 415 kg/ha, could be a significant salinisation risk. Cu and Zn seemed to be the metals that could be accumulated most in soils where application of pig slurries is common (4 and 15 kg/ha/yr, respectively). The estimated heavy metal (Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb) input to soils would be 260 g/ha/yr, with a relative contribution of Cr>Ni>Pb>Co>Cd. PMID:17419044

  17. Chemical amendment of pig slurry: control of runoff related risks due to episodic rainfall events up to 48 h after application.

    PubMed

    O' Flynn, Cornelius J; Healy, Mark G; Wilson, Paul; Hoekstra, Nyncke J; Troy, Shane M; Fenton, Owen

    2013-09-01

    Losses of phosphorus (P) from soil and slurry during episodic rainfall events can contribute to eutrophication of surface water. However, chemical amendments have the potential to decrease P and suspended solids (SS) losses from land application of slurry. Current legislation attempts to avoid losses to a water body by prohibiting slurry spreading when heavy rainfall is forecast within 48 h. Therefore, in some climatic regions, slurry spreading opportunities may be limited. The current study examined the impact of three time intervals (TIs; 12, 24 and 48 h) between pig slurry application and simulated rainfall with an intensity of 11.0 ± 0.59 mm h(-1). Intact grassed soil samples, 1 m long, 0.225 m wide and 0.05 m deep, were placed in runoff boxes and pig slurry or amended pig slurry was applied to the soil surface. The amendments examined were: (1) commercial-grade liquid alum (8 % Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al/ total phosphorus (TP)], (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38 % FeCl3) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe/TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (10 % Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al/TP]. Results showed that an increased TI between slurry application and rainfall led to decreased P and SS losses in runoff, confirming that the prohibition of land-spreading slurry if heavy rain is forecast in the next 48 h is justified. Averaged over the three TIs, the addition of amendment reduced all types of P losses to concentrations significantly different (p < 0.05) to those from unamended slurry, with no significant difference between treatments. Losses from amended slurry with a TI of 12 h were less than from unamended slurry with a TI of 48 h, indicating that chemical amendment of slurry may be more effective at ameliorating P loss in runoff than current TI-based legislation. Due to the high cost of amendments, their incorporation into existing management practices can only be justified on a targeted

  18. Response of maize yield, nitrate leaching, and soil nitrogen to pig slurry combined with mineral nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, María R; Quílez, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    The application of pig (Sus scrofa) slurry (PS) is a common fertilization practice that may affect nitrate concentrations and loads in drainage and receiving water bodies. To protect water resources, many agricultural areas are being designated as vulnerable to nitrate contamination, and there is a need for scientific data aiming at reducing nitrate exports from these vulnerable zones by optimizing N fertilization strategies. The objective of this work, conducted in drainage lysimeters in a 4-yr monoculture maize (Zea mays L.) crop, is to assess the effects of four fertilization strategies combining PS (30, 60, 90, and 120 t ha(-1)) and mineral N on yield, changes in soil mineral N, and concentration and mass of nitrate in drainage waters. Grain yield was not affected by treatments in the four experimental years, nor was the soil mineral N at the end of the experiment. Effects of fertilization strategies on nitrate concentration and mass in drainage waters were detected only after 3 yr of repeated PS applications. The mass of nitrate leached over the 4 yr was positively related to the total amount of N applied, either organic or mineral. In year 2003, precipitation in spring reduced N availability for the crop in treatments with rates > or = 60 t PS ha(-1). The N-budget revealed that the transport pathways for 25% of N inputs to the system are unknown. The presowing application of pig slurry at 30 t ha(-1) complemented with mineral N at side-dressing, was the most efficient from an environmental standpoint (4-yr average of 145 kg grain yield kg(-1) N leached).

  19. Response of maize yield, nitrate leaching, and soil nitrogen to pig slurry combined with mineral nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, María R; Quílez, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    The application of pig (Sus scrofa) slurry (PS) is a common fertilization practice that may affect nitrate concentrations and loads in drainage and receiving water bodies. To protect water resources, many agricultural areas are being designated as vulnerable to nitrate contamination, and there is a need for scientific data aiming at reducing nitrate exports from these vulnerable zones by optimizing N fertilization strategies. The objective of this work, conducted in drainage lysimeters in a 4-yr monoculture maize (Zea mays L.) crop, is to assess the effects of four fertilization strategies combining PS (30, 60, 90, and 120 t ha(-1)) and mineral N on yield, changes in soil mineral N, and concentration and mass of nitrate in drainage waters. Grain yield was not affected by treatments in the four experimental years, nor was the soil mineral N at the end of the experiment. Effects of fertilization strategies on nitrate concentration and mass in drainage waters were detected only after 3 yr of repeated PS applications. The mass of nitrate leached over the 4 yr was positively related to the total amount of N applied, either organic or mineral. In year 2003, precipitation in spring reduced N availability for the crop in treatments with rates > or = 60 t PS ha(-1). The N-budget revealed that the transport pathways for 25% of N inputs to the system are unknown. The presowing application of pig slurry at 30 t ha(-1) complemented with mineral N at side-dressing, was the most efficient from an environmental standpoint (4-yr average of 145 kg grain yield kg(-1) N leached). PMID:20176841

  20. Assessment of Bacterial Community Assembly Patterns and Processes in Pig Manure Slurry

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Priyanka; Choi, Hong L.; Sudiarto, Sartika I. A.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community assembly patterns and processes are poorly understood in pig manure slurry. We collected pig manure slurry samples during the winter and summer seasons from eight commercial pig farms in South Korea. The V3 region of 16S rRNA genes was PCR amplified and sequenced using paired-end Illumina technology for in-depth characterization of bacterial community. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Tenericutes were the predominant bacterial phyla present in slurry samples. Bacterial taxonomic community composition was not influenced by the season; however, phylogenetic community composition was affected by seasonal variations. The community composition and diversity patterns were strongly influenced by pH. The bacterial diversity indices showed a unimodal relationship with pH. Phylogenetic signals were detected over only short phylogenetic distances, revealing that closely related bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) tend to co-occur in the same environment; hence, they are ecologically similar. Across all samples, a niche-based process, through strong environmental filtering imposed by pH, primarily governed bacterial community assembly; however, in samples close to the neutral pH range, the role of environmental filtering was decreased due to neutral community assembly. In summary, pH emerged as the major physico-chemical variable in pig manure slurry that regulates the relative importance of niche-based and neutral processes in shaping the community assembly of bacteria. PMID:26422375

  1. [Acute poisoning of pigs with hydrogen sulfide as a result of acidification of slurry on a pig farm].

    PubMed

    Borst, G H

    2001-02-15

    On a fattening pig farm all 582 animals died of peracute intoxication with hydrogen sulphide (H2S). The accident took place after 6000 litres of lactic acid (41.5 mass %) was dumped in the slurry pit. The volume of released gas was about 575 m3. This resulted in sudden spreading by high pressure of a lethal concentration of hydrogen sulphide to all compartments of the pig house. Analysis of the situation indicated that the level of hydrogen sulphide was 7870 ppm. PMID:11233504

  2. Environmental evaluation of transfer and treatment of excess pig slurry by life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Werf, Hayo van der; Paillat, Jean Marie; Le Bris, Bertrand

    2009-02-01

    Slurry management is a central topic in the agronomic and environmental analysis of intensive livestock production systems. The objective of this study is to compare the environmental performance of two scenarios of collective slurry management for the disposal of excess nitrogen from animal manure. The scenarios are the transfer of slurry and its injection to crop land, and the treatment of slurry in a collective biological treatment station. The study is based on a real case in the West of France, where a group of farmers is developing a collective plan for the disposal of almost 7000 m(3) of excess pig slurry. The evaluation is carried out by Life Cycle Assessment, where emissions and resource consumption are quantified and aggregated into four environmental impact categories: eutrophication, acidification, climate change, and non-renewable energy use. Ammonia emitted is the most important contributor to acidification and eutrophication, while methane contributes most to climate change. Both ammonia and methane are mostly emitted during the storage of slurry and, in the case of the treatment scenario, also during composting the solid fraction of the slurry. The two management strategies are similar with respect to climate change, whereas eutrophication and acidification are twice as large for treatment relative to transfer. Electricity needed for the treatment process is the main contributor to non-renewable energy use for the treatment scenario, while the transfer scenario represents a net energy saving, as energy saved by the reduction of mineral fertiliser use more than compensates for the energy needed for transport and injection of slurry. The overall environmental performance of transfer is better than that of treatment, as it involves less acidification, eutrophication and non-renewable energy use. The method employed and the results obtained in this study can provide elements for a transparent discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of contrasting

  3. Earthworm effects on gaseous emissions during vermifiltration of pig fresh slurry.

    PubMed

    Luth; Robin, Paul; Germain, Philippe; Lecomte, Marcel; Landrain, Brigitte; Li, Yinsheng; Cluzeau, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Treatment of liquid manure can result in the production of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane. Earthworms mix and transform nitrogen and carbon without consuming additional energy. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether earthworms modify the emissions of NH(3), N(2)O, CH(4) and CO(2) during vermifiltration of pig slurry. The experiment used mesocosms of around 50 L, made from a vermifilter treating the diluted manure of a swine house. Three levels of slurry were added to the mesocosms, with or without earthworms, during one month, in triplicate. Earthworm abundance and gas emissions were measured three and five times, respectively. There was a decrease in emissions of ammonia and nitrous oxide and a sink of methane in treatments with earthworms. We suggest that earthworm abundance can be used as a bioindicator of low energy input, and low greenhouse gas and ammonia output in systems using fresh slurry with water recycling.

  4. Earthworm effects on gaseous emissions during vermifiltration of pig fresh slurry.

    PubMed

    Luth; Robin, Paul; Germain, Philippe; Lecomte, Marcel; Landrain, Brigitte; Li, Yinsheng; Cluzeau, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Treatment of liquid manure can result in the production of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane. Earthworms mix and transform nitrogen and carbon without consuming additional energy. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether earthworms modify the emissions of NH(3), N(2)O, CH(4) and CO(2) during vermifiltration of pig slurry. The experiment used mesocosms of around 50 L, made from a vermifilter treating the diluted manure of a swine house. Three levels of slurry were added to the mesocosms, with or without earthworms, during one month, in triplicate. Earthworm abundance and gas emissions were measured three and five times, respectively. There was a decrease in emissions of ammonia and nitrous oxide and a sink of methane in treatments with earthworms. We suggest that earthworm abundance can be used as a bioindicator of low energy input, and low greenhouse gas and ammonia output in systems using fresh slurry with water recycling. PMID:21185175

  5. Microbial community dynamics in continuous microbial fuel cells fed with synthetic wastewater and pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Sotres, Ana; Tey, Laura; Bonmatí, August; Viñas, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Two-chambered microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operating with synthetic wastewater and pig slurry were assessed. Additionally, the use of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES-Inh) was studied. The synthetic wastewater-fed MFC (MFCSW) showed a maximum power density (PDmax) of 2138mWm(-3), and the addition of BES-Inh (10mM) did not show any improvement in its performance (PDmax=2078mWm(-3)). When pig slurry was used as feed (MFCPS), PDmax increased up to 5623mWm(-3). The microbial community composition was affected by the type of substrate used. While, Pseudomonadaceae and Clostridiaceae were the most representative families within the acetate-based medium, Flavobacteriaceae, Chitinophagaceae, Comamonadaceae and Nitrosomonadaceae were predominant when pig slurry was used as feed. Otherwise, only the Eubacterial microbial community composition was strongly modified when adding BES-Inh, thus leading to an enrichment of the Bacteroidetes phylum. Oppositely, the Archaeal community was less affected by the addition of BES-Inh, and Methanosarcina sp., arose as the predominant family in both situations. Despite all the differences in microbial communities, 6 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to Bacteroidetes (Porphyromonadaceae and Marinilabiaceae) and Firmicutes (Clostridiales) were found to be common to both MFCs, also for different contents of COD and N-NH4(+), and therefore could be considered as the bioanode core microbiome.

  6. Air stripping of ammonia from pig slurry: characterisation and feasibility as a pre- or post-treatment to mesophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Bonmatí, August; Flotats, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present paper has been to study the effect of pig slurry waste type, fresh or anaerobically digested, and the effect of initial pH on ammonia air stripping from pig slurry waste at high temperature (80 degrees C). Stripping process as pre- or post-treatment to anaerobic digestion has been also evaluated. Treatment performances differ according to pig slurry type. When fresh pig slurry is used, despite working at 80 degrees C, a high initial pH (11.5) is required for complete ammonia removal. On the other hand, for digested pig slurry, complete ammonia removal without pH modification is possible and organic matter significantly less contaminates recovered ammonia salt. Batch anaerobic tests showed that ammonia air stripping is not an advisable pre-treatment to pig slurry anaerobic digestion.

  7. Survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium in slurry applied to clay soil on a Danish swine farm.

    PubMed

    Boes, J; Alban, L; Bagger, J; Møgelmose, V; Baggesen, D L; Olsen, J E

    2005-07-12

    A pilot study was carried out on a Danish swine farm infected with multi-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (MRDT104). We aimed to (1) investigate to which degree the decline of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in swine slurry applied to farmland depended on the application method; (2) estimate the survival times of E. coli and Salmonella in the soil surface following deposition of naturally contaminated pig slurry; and (3) simulate survival of Salmonella in different infection levels using E. coli data as input estimates. Slurry was deposited by four different methods: (1) hose applicator on black soil followed by ploughing and harrowing; (2) hose applicator on black soil followed only by harrowing; (3) hose applicator on a field with winter-wheat seedlings without further soil treatment; (4) slurry injector on a field with winter-wheat seedlings without further soil treatment. E. coli and Salmonella could not be detected at all in soil following treatment 1. Following the other treatments, E. coli was not detected in soil samples after day 21 and Salmonella was no longer detected after day 7. Simulation results showed that clinical (4 log CFU g(-1)) and sub-clinical Salmonella levels (2500 CFU g(-1)) would fall below the detection limit within 10 or 5 days, respectively. Analysis of samples from 62 Danish MRDT104-infected swineherds showed that nearly 75% of these herds had low levels of MRDT104 (< 10 CFU g(-1)) in their slurry. Our results show that ploughing and harrowing of soil amended with contaminated pig slurry was an effective means to reduce environmental exposure to E. coli and Salmonella on this clay-soil farm. PMID:15907571

  8. On-farm measurement of electrical conductivity for the estimation of ammonium nitrogen concentration in pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, M R; Quílez, D

    2012-01-01

    Pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) slurry (PS) is commonly applied as fertilizer to agricultural fields. Knowledge of PS nitrogen content is essential for good management, but PS nitrogen content is highly variable, not only between farms but also within a farm. Laboratory analysis of animal slurries is often expensive and impractical for routine farmer use. Therefore, when slurry is spread on land, its fertilizer value is generally unknown, resulting in the risk of pollution. In this work, two rapid and suitable for field use methods for determining PS ammonium N (NH(4)+-N) concentration (Quantofix and conductimetry) are evaluated. The electrical conductivity of a dilution 1 PS:9 distilled water had better results than Quantofix, did not need reagents, and gave a direct value of NH(4)+-N concentrations (range, 1.0-7.6 kg NH(4)+-N m(-3)). The conductimetry method allows the use of alternative waters with EC <1.9 dS m(-1) for dilution. This method is being introduced to farmers in northeast Spain to improve PS management and has been well received due to its low cost and ease of use.

  9. On-farm measurement of electrical conductivity for the estimation of ammonium nitrogen concentration in pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, M R; Quílez, D

    2012-01-01

    Pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) slurry (PS) is commonly applied as fertilizer to agricultural fields. Knowledge of PS nitrogen content is essential for good management, but PS nitrogen content is highly variable, not only between farms but also within a farm. Laboratory analysis of animal slurries is often expensive and impractical for routine farmer use. Therefore, when slurry is spread on land, its fertilizer value is generally unknown, resulting in the risk of pollution. In this work, two rapid and suitable for field use methods for determining PS ammonium N (NH(4)+-N) concentration (Quantofix and conductimetry) are evaluated. The electrical conductivity of a dilution 1 PS:9 distilled water had better results than Quantofix, did not need reagents, and gave a direct value of NH(4)+-N concentrations (range, 1.0-7.6 kg NH(4)+-N m(-3)). The conductimetry method allows the use of alternative waters with EC <1.9 dS m(-1) for dilution. This method is being introduced to farmers in northeast Spain to improve PS management and has been well received due to its low cost and ease of use. PMID:22565270

  10. Slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ting; Lei, Hong

    2014-11-01

    With magnetic heads operating closer to hard disks, the hard disks must be ultra-smooth. The abrasive-free polishing (AFP) performance of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) as the initiator in H2O2-based slurry for hard disk substrate was investigated in our work, and the results showed that the slurry including CHP could improve the material removal rate (MRR) and also reduce surface roughness. Electron spin-resonance spectroscopy (EPR), electrochemical measurement and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were conducted to investigate the acting mechanism with CHP during the polishing process. Compared with the H2O2 slurry, the EPR analysis shows that the CHP-H2O2 slurry provides a higher concentration of the HOO free radical. In addition, the AES analysis shows the oxidization reaction occurs in the external layer of the substrate surface. Furthermore, electrochemical measurements reveal that CHP can promote the electrochemical effect in AFP and lead to the increase of MRR.

  11. Storage temperature affects distribution of carbon, VFA, ammonia, phosphorus, copper and zinc in raw pig slurry and its separated liquid fraction.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Olga; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2012-08-01

    Chemical-mechanical separation of pig slurry into a solid fraction rich in dry matter, P, Cu and Zn and a liquid fraction rich in inorganic N but poor in dry matter may allow farmers to manage surplus slurry by exporting the solid fraction to regions with no nutrient surplus. Pig slurry can be applied to arable land only in certain periods during the year, so it is commonly stored prior to field application. This study investigated the effect of storage duration and temperature on chemical characteristics and P, Cu and Zn distribution between particle size classes of raw slurry and its liquid separation fraction. Dry matter, VFA, total N and ammonium content of both slurry products decreased during storage and were affected by temperature, showing higher losses at higher storage temperatures. In both products, total P, Cu and Zn concentrations were not significantly affected by storage duration or temperature. Particle size distribution was affected by slurry separation, storage duration and temperature. In raw slurry, particles larger than 1 mm decreased, whereas particles 250 μm-1 mm increased. The liquid fraction produced was free of particles >500 μm, with the highest proportions of P, Cu and Zn in the smallest particle size class (<25 μm). The proportion of particles <25 μm increased when the liquid fraction was stored at 5 °C, but decreased at 25 °C. Regardless of temperature, distribution of P, Cu and Zn over particle size classes followed a similar pattern to dry matter.

  12. Effect of fertilising with pig slurry and chicken manure on GHG emissions from Mediterranean paddies.

    PubMed

    Maris, S C; Teira-Esmatges, M R; Bosch-Serra, A D; Moreno-García, B; Català, M M

    2016-11-01

    Soil fertilisation affects greenhouse gas emissions. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of different fertilisation strategies on N2O, CH4 emissions and on ecosystem respiration (CO2 emissions), during different periods of rice cultivation (rice crop, postharvest period, and seedling) under Mediterranean climate. Emissions were quantified weekly by the photoacoustic technique at two sites. At Site 1 (2011 and 2012), background treatments were 2 doses of chicken manure (CM): 90 and 170kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) (CM-90, CM-170), urea (U, 150kgNha(-1)) and no-N (control). Fifty kilogram N ha(-1) ammonium sulphate (AS) were topdress applied to all of them. At Site 2 (2012), background treatments were 2 doses of pig slurry (PS): 91 and 152kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) (PS-91, PS-152) and ammonium sulphate (AS) at 120kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) and no-N (control). Sixty kilogram NH4(+)-Nha(-1) as AS were topdress applied to AS and PS-91. During seedling, global warming potential (GWP) was ~3.5-17% of that of the whole rice crop for the CM treatments. The postharvest period was a net sink for CH4, and CO2 emissions only increased for the CM-170 treatment (up to 2MgCO2ha(-1)). The GWP of the entire rice crop reached 17Mg CO2-eqha(-1) for U, and was 14 for CM-170, and 37 for CM-90. The application of PS at agronomic doses (~170kgNha(-1)) allowed high yields (~7.4Mgha(-1)), the control of GWP (~6.5MgCO2-eqha(-1)), and a 13% reduction in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) to 0.89kgCO2-eqkg(-1) when compared to AS (1.02kgCO2-eqkg(-1)). PMID:27344120

  13. Effect of fertilising with pig slurry and chicken manure on GHG emissions from Mediterranean paddies.

    PubMed

    Maris, S C; Teira-Esmatges, M R; Bosch-Serra, A D; Moreno-García, B; Català, M M

    2016-11-01

    Soil fertilisation affects greenhouse gas emissions. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of different fertilisation strategies on N2O, CH4 emissions and on ecosystem respiration (CO2 emissions), during different periods of rice cultivation (rice crop, postharvest period, and seedling) under Mediterranean climate. Emissions were quantified weekly by the photoacoustic technique at two sites. At Site 1 (2011 and 2012), background treatments were 2 doses of chicken manure (CM): 90 and 170kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) (CM-90, CM-170), urea (U, 150kgNha(-1)) and no-N (control). Fifty kilogram N ha(-1) ammonium sulphate (AS) were topdress applied to all of them. At Site 2 (2012), background treatments were 2 doses of pig slurry (PS): 91 and 152kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) (PS-91, PS-152) and ammonium sulphate (AS) at 120kgNH4(+)-Nha(-1) and no-N (control). Sixty kilogram NH4(+)-Nha(-1) as AS were topdress applied to AS and PS-91. During seedling, global warming potential (GWP) was ~3.5-17% of that of the whole rice crop for the CM treatments. The postharvest period was a net sink for CH4, and CO2 emissions only increased for the CM-170 treatment (up to 2MgCO2ha(-1)). The GWP of the entire rice crop reached 17Mg CO2-eqha(-1) for U, and was 14 for CM-170, and 37 for CM-90. The application of PS at agronomic doses (~170kgNha(-1)) allowed high yields (~7.4Mgha(-1)), the control of GWP (~6.5MgCO2-eqha(-1)), and a 13% reduction in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) to 0.89kgCO2-eqkg(-1) when compared to AS (1.02kgCO2-eqkg(-1)).

  14. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of organic matter during the anaerobic digestion and successive composting of pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Provenzano, Maria Rosaria; Malerba, Anna D; Pezzolla, Daniela; Gigliotti, Giovanni

    2014-03-01

    In this work, anaerobic digestion of pig slurry and successive composting of the digestate after centrifugation were studied by means of chemical analysis, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy as excitation-emission matrix (EEM). Chemical analysis highlighted the organic matter transformation occurring during the processes. A decrease of volatile solids and total organic carbon were observed in the digestate with respect to the fresh pig slurry as a consequence of the consumption of sugars, proteins, amino acids and fatty acids used by microorganisms as a C source. Water Extractable Organic Matter (WEOM) was obtained for all samples and fractionated into a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic fraction. The highest WEOM value was found in the pig slurry indicating a high content of labile organic C. The digestate centrifuged and the digestate composted showed lower hydrophilic and higher hydrophobic contents because of the decrease of labile C. Total phenolic content was lower in the digestate with respect to fresh pig slurry sample (36.7%) as a consequence of phenolic compounds degradation. The strong decrease of total reducing sugars in the digestate (76.6%) as compared to pig slurry confirmed that anaerobic process proceed mainly through consumption of sugars which represent a readily available energy source for microbial activity. FTIR spectra of pig slurry showed bands indicative of proteins and carbohydrates. A drop of aliphatic structures and a decrease of polysaccharides was observed after the anaerobic process along with the increase of the peak in the aromatic region. The composted substrate showed an increase of aromatic and a relative decrease of polysaccharides. EEM spectra provided tryptophan:fulvic-like fluorescence ratios which increased from fresh substrate to digestate because of the OM decompostion. Composted substrate presented the lowest ratio due to the humification process. PMID:24411986

  15. Deodorization of pig slurry and characterization of bacterial diversity using 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ok-Hwa; Raveendar, Sebastian; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Ji-Hun; Choi, Jung-Woo; Kim, Tae-Hun; Choi, Dong-Yoon; Jeon, Che Ok; Cho, Sung-Back; Lee, Kyung-Tai

    2014-11-01

    The concentration of major odor-causing compounds including phenols, indoles, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) in response to the addition of powdered horse radish (PHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC) was compared with control non-treated slurry (CNS) samples. A total of 97,465 rDNAs sequence reads were generated from three different samples (CNS, n = 2; PHR, n = 3; SMC, n = 3) using bar-coded pyrosequencing. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was lower in the PHR slurry compared with the other samples. A total of 11 phyla were observed in the slurry samples, while the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the slurry microbiome predominantly comprised members of the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria phyla. The rarefaction analysis showed the bacterial species richness varied among the treated samples. Overall, at the OTU level, 2,558 individual genera were classified, 276 genera were found among the three samples, and 1,832 additional genera were identified in the individual samples. A principal component analysis revealed the differences in microbial communities among the CNS, PHR, and SMC pig slurries. Correlation of the bacterial community structure with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) predicted pathways showed that the treatments altered the metabolic capabilities of the slurry microbiota. Overall, these results demonstrated that the PHR and S MC treatments significantly reduced the malodor compounds in pig slurry (P < 0.05). PMID:25359269

  16. Deodorization of pig slurry and characterization of bacterial diversity using 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ok-Hwa; Raveendar, Sebastian; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Ji-Hun; Choi, Jung-Woo; Kim, Tae-Hun; Choi, Dong-Yoon; Jeon, Che Ok; Cho, Sung-Back; Lee, Kyung-Tai

    2014-11-01

    The concentration of major odor-causing compounds including phenols, indoles, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) in response to the addition of powdered horse radish (PHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC) was compared with control non-treated slurry (CNS) samples. A total of 97,465 rDNAs sequence reads were generated from three different samples (CNS, n = 2; PHR, n = 3; SMC, n = 3) using bar-coded pyrosequencing. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was lower in the PHR slurry compared with the other samples. A total of 11 phyla were observed in the slurry samples, while the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the slurry microbiome predominantly comprised members of the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria phyla. The rarefaction analysis showed the bacterial species richness varied among the treated samples. Overall, at the OTU level, 2,558 individual genera were classified, 276 genera were found among the three samples, and 1,832 additional genera were identified in the individual samples. A principal component analysis revealed the differences in microbial communities among the CNS, PHR, and SMC pig slurries. Correlation of the bacterial community structure with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) predicted pathways showed that the treatments altered the metabolic capabilities of the slurry microbiota. Overall, these results demonstrated that the PHR and S MC treatments significantly reduced the malodor compounds in pig slurry (P < 0.05).

  17. Comparative assessment of raw and digested pig slurry treatment in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, Míriam; Oliveras, Judit; Viñas, Marc; Bonmatí, August

    2016-08-01

    Both raw and anaerobically digested pig slurries were investigated in batch assays in two chambered bioelectrochemical systems (BES) run in Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) and Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC) mode. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal, nitrogen recovery, cation transport and anode microbial population evolutions were assessed. The Anaerobic Digestion-MEC (AD-MEC) integrated system achieved the highest COD removal (60% in 48h); while the maximum NH4(+) removal efficiency (40%, with an ammonia flux of 8.86g N-NH4(+) d(-1)m(-2)) was achieved in MFC mode fed with digested pig slurry in 24h. On the other hand, the high pH (12.1) achieved in MEC mode (NaCl solution as catholyte), could favour ammonium recovery in a subsequent stripping and absorption process. Ammonia was the main cation involved in maintaining the electroneutrality between both compartments. Regarding microbial population, Desulfuromonadaceae, a known family of exoelectrogenic bacteria, was enriched under MEC mode, whereas hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic methanogen phylotypes belonging to Thermoplasmatales were also favoured against acetotrophic Methanosaetaceae. From these results, the integration of anaerobic digestion in BES seems to be an interesting alternative for the treatment of complex substrates, since a polished effluent can be obtained and ammonium can be simultaneously recovered for further reuse as fertilizer. PMID:27093494

  18. Modelling the potential of slurry management technologies to reduce the constraints of environmental legislation on pig production.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Nicholas J; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Jensen, Rikke; Bruun, Sander; Søtoft, Lene F

    2013-11-30

    Limits on land applications of slurry nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are used to restrict losses of nutrients caused by livestock production. Here, we used a model to assess technologies that enable a more even geographic distribution of slurry nutrients to land. Technologies included were screw press slurry separation, with or without solid fraction composting, centrifuge separation with or without liquid fraction ammonia (NH3) stripping, and anaerobic digestion. Regulatory constraints were placed first on the application in slurry of N, then P, then N and P both on the producing (donor) and receiving (recipient) farms. Finally, a constraint preventing an increase in donor farm NH3 emissions was imposed. Separation had little effect on N losses per unit mass of slurry, but NH3 stripping led to a reduction. Centrifuge separation allowed a greater increase in pig production than a screw press, especially with P regulation. NH3 stripping was only advantageous with N regulation or when combined with NH3 scrubbing of pig housing ventilation air, when donor farm NH3 emissions were a constraint. There was a production penalty for using composting or anaerobic digestion. The choice of appropriate slurry management option therefore depends on the focus of the regulation. Nuanced and therefore complex regulations are necessary to take advantage of synergies and avoid cross-policy conflicts and incongruencies. PMID:24184986

  19. Modelling the potential of slurry management technologies to reduce the constraints of environmental legislation on pig production.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Nicholas J; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Jensen, Rikke; Bruun, Sander; Søtoft, Lene F

    2013-11-30

    Limits on land applications of slurry nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are used to restrict losses of nutrients caused by livestock production. Here, we used a model to assess technologies that enable a more even geographic distribution of slurry nutrients to land. Technologies included were screw press slurry separation, with or without solid fraction composting, centrifuge separation with or without liquid fraction ammonia (NH3) stripping, and anaerobic digestion. Regulatory constraints were placed first on the application in slurry of N, then P, then N and P both on the producing (donor) and receiving (recipient) farms. Finally, a constraint preventing an increase in donor farm NH3 emissions was imposed. Separation had little effect on N losses per unit mass of slurry, but NH3 stripping led to a reduction. Centrifuge separation allowed a greater increase in pig production than a screw press, especially with P regulation. NH3 stripping was only advantageous with N regulation or when combined with NH3 scrubbing of pig housing ventilation air, when donor farm NH3 emissions were a constraint. There was a production penalty for using composting or anaerobic digestion. The choice of appropriate slurry management option therefore depends on the focus of the regulation. Nuanced and therefore complex regulations are necessary to take advantage of synergies and avoid cross-policy conflicts and incongruencies.

  20. Survival of free-living Acholeplasma in aerated pig manure slurry revealed by 13C-labeled bacterial biomass probing

    PubMed Central

    Hanajima, Dai; Aoyagi, Tomo; Hori, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have been performed on microbial community succession and/or predominant taxa during the composting process; however, the ecophysiological roles of microorganisms are not well understood because microbial community structures are highly diverse and dynamic. Bacteria are the most important contributors to the organic-waste decomposition process, while decayed bacterial cells can serve as readily digested substrates for other microbial populations. In this study, we investigated the active bacterial species responsible for the assimilation of dead bacterial cells and their components in aerated pig manure slurry by using 13C-labeled bacterial biomass probing. After 3 days of forced aeration, 13C-labeled and unlabeled dead Escherichia coli cell suspensions were added to the slurry. The suspensions contained 13C-labeled and unlabeled bacterial cell components, possibly including the cell wall and membrane, as well as intracellular materials. RNA extracted from each slurry sample 2 h after addition of E. coli suspension was density-resolved by isopycnic centrifugation and analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, followed by cloning and sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. In the heavy isotopically labeled RNA fraction, the predominant 13C-assimilating population was identified as belonging to the genus Acholeplasma, which was not detected in control heavy RNA. Acholeplasma spp. have limited biosynthetic capabilities and possess a wide variety of transporters, resulting in their metabolic dependence on external carbon and energy sources. The prevalence of Acholeplasma spp. was further confirmed in aerated pig manure slurry from four different pig farms by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes; their relative abundance was ∼4.4%. Free-living Acholeplasma spp. had a competitive advantage for utilizing dead bacterial cells and their components more rapidly relative to other microbial populations, thus allowing the survival and prevalence

  1. Redistribution of slurry components as influenced by injection method, soil, and slurry properties.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Søren O; Nissen, Henrik H; Lund, Ivar; Ambus, Per

    2003-01-01

    The distribution of moisture, degradable C, and N after direct injection of slurry can affect the turnover and plant availability of slurry N. This study examined effects of injection method, soil conditions, and slurry properties on the infiltration of several slurry components under practical conditions. The water retention capacity of 22 pig and cattle slurries was quantified by dialysis at -0.016, -0.047, and -0.100 MPa. All slurries followed the relationship: relative water loss = 1/(1 + aVS[volatile solids]), indicating that retention of liquids in the slurry injection zone can be predicted from slurry VS and soil water potential. Two-disc injection and harrow tine injection were simulated (no slurry applied) in five trials. Two trials indicated that disc injection resulted in higher permeability compared with harrow tine injection. In a separate experiment, soil moisture and dissolved ions were monitored in and around injection slits amended with pig or cattle slurry. Moisture gradients, which were recorded with small printed-circuit-board (PCB) time-domain-reflectometry (TDR) probes, were temporally stable and reestablished following rainfall. Slit sections with pig and cattle slurry containing 13C-acetate and 15N-ammonium showed a shift in the 13C to 15N ratio of the injection zone within 24 h, which was explained by removal of dissolved C and/or retention of NH4+. Cattle slurry was more concentrated around the injection slit than pig slurry, and greater contact between slurry and soil was obtained with harrow tine injection. The heterogeneity of slurry C and N distribution after direct injection should be accounted for in models describing slurry N turnover.

  2. Triggered antioxidant defense mechanism in maize grown in soil with accumulation of Cu and Zn due to intensive application of pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Girotto, Eduardo; Ceretta, Carlos A; Rossato, Liana V; Farias, Julia G; Tiecher, Tadeu L; De Conti, Lessandro; Schmatz, Roberta; Brunetto, Gustavo; Schetinger, Maria R C; Nicoloso, Fernando T

    2013-07-01

    The present study investigated changes in both the growth parameters and the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of maize (Zea may L.) plants grown in Typic Hapludalf soil containing an accumulation of Cu and Zn. This accumulation developed because the soil received nineteen applications of pig slurry in no-tillage system over seven years. In this study, the maize plants were grown for fifteen and 25 days after emergence (DAE) in pots containing undisturbed and disturbed soil samples collected from a field experiment that received the rates 0, 20, 40 and 80m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry, which totalized the amount of 0, 380, 760 and 1520m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry in seven years, respectively, and phosphorus (P)+potassium (K) treatment (in disturbed soil samples). The maize plants grown in the undisturbed soil samples with an accumulation of Cu and Zn did not indicate an apparent decrease in growth. However, when compared to the treatment with PK fertilization, the maize plants grown in the disturbed soil with pig slurry treatments indicated higher lipid peroxidation and a number of senescent leaves, as well as a significant decrease in plant height. Additionally, when compared to the PK treatment, the leaf superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased and increased, respectively, with the addition of pig slurry treatments in the disturbed soil at 25 DAE. In general, when compared to the treatments with 20m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry and PK at fifteen and 25 DAE, the leaf ascorbic acid and non-protein thiol groups concentrations decreased with the addition of 40 and 80m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry. This result suggests that the excess of Cu and Zn in the pig slurry significantly changed the antioxidant system of the maize plants.

  3. Effects of long term raw pig slurry inputs on nutrient and metal contamination of tropical volcanogenic soils, Uvéa Island (South Pacific).

    PubMed

    Gunkel-Grillon, P; Roth, E; Laporte-Magoni, C; Le Mestre, M

    2015-11-15

    In small Polynesian islands, family pig breeding is usually conducted without recovery of pig slurry. Raw pig slurry is spread onto the soil without any treatment. So far, most of the studies were carried out in temperate climate and for industrial digested pig slurry applications on agricultural lands. In the present case study, conducted in Uvéa Island, the aim is to determine if long term application of raw pig slurry on tropical soils, naturally rich in heavy metals has a significant influence on elements concentrations and mobility. Two types of tropical soils and two pig breeding systems, pig enclosure on small concrete pens or pig enclosure in large land pens, were investigated. Here we demonstrate that raw pig slurry inputs on soils can lead to an increase of total nitrogen and phosphorus content with high Contamination Factors. The Pollution Load Index values (1.3; 5.3; 2.5; 2.3) were indicative of multi-heavy metals pollution (Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni) in mixed calcareous soils of the coastal area and they are exchangeable while they are immobilized or less mobile in inland pure ferralitic soils. For mixed calcareous soils of the coastal area, family pig breeding represents a drainage risk of soluble species (phosphorus, inorganic nitrogen, Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni). For inland ferralitic soils, family pig breeding is more compatible with a sustainable management of the environment in Uvéa Island and by extension in volcanic tropical islands with respect to the investigated chemical elements.

  4. Phosphorus availability from the solid fraction of pig slurry is altered by composting or thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Christel, Wibke; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-10-01

    The alteration of easily available phosphorus (P) from the separated solid fraction of pig slurry by composting and thermal processing (pyrolysis or combustion at 300-1000 °C) was investigated by water and acidic extractions and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Temporal changes in P availability were monitored by repeated DGT application in three amended temperate soils over 16 weeks. P availability was found to decrease in the order: drying>composting>pyrolysis>combustion with increasing degree of processing. Water extractions suggested that no P would be available after pyrolysis above 700 °C or combustion above 400 °C, respectively, but during soil incubation, even char and ash, processed at 800 °C, increased P availability. Low-temperature pyrolysis vs. combustion was found to favor P availability as did application to acidic vs. neutral soil. Composting and thermal treatment produced a slow-release P fertilizer, with P availability being governed by abiotic and biotic mechanisms.

  5. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.

    PubMed

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins).

  6. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tambone, Fulvia Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  7. Marble wastes and pig slurry improve the environmental and plant-relevant properties of mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Kabas, S; Faz, A; Acosta, J A; Arocena, J M; Zornoza, R; Martínez-Martínez, S; Carmona, D M

    2014-02-01

    Poor soil fertility is often the biggest challenge to the establishment of vegetation in mine wastes deposits. We conducted field trials in the El Gorguel and El Lirio sites in SE Spain, two representative tailing ponds of similar properties except for pH, to understand the environmental and plant-relevant benefits of marble waste (MW) and pig slurry (PS) applications to mine tailings. Low pH (5.4) tailings (El Lirio) exhibit reduction of up to fourfold in bio-availability of metals as shown by the DTPA-Zn, Pb, water-soluble Zn, Pb and up to 3× for water-soluble Cd. Tailings in El Gorguel have high pH (7.4) and did not exhibit significant trends in the reductions of water-extractable Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu. Improvements to the edaphic (plant-relevant) properties of tailings after the amendments are not as sensitive to pH compared to the environmental characteristics. The two sites had increases in aggregate stability, organic matter (total N and organic C) although total N is higher in the El Gorguel (up to 212 μg N kg(-1)) than the El Lirio (up to 26 μg N kg(-1)). However, cation exchange capacities are similar in both sites at 15.2 cmol(+) kg(-1). We conclude that the characteristics, especially pH, of tailing materials significantly influence the fate of metals but not improvements to plant-relevant properties such as cation exchange capacity and aggregate stability 1 year after the application of MW and PS amendments.

  8. Injection of Dicyandiamide-Treated Pig Slurry Reduced Ammonia Volatilization without Enhancing Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions from No-Till Corn in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aita, Celso; Gonzatto, Rogério; Miola, Ezequiel C C; B, Daniela; Santos, Dos; Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Chantigny, Martin H; Pujol, Stefen B; Giacomini, Diego A; Giacomini, Sandro J

    2014-05-01

    There is a lack of information on how placement in soil and nitrification inhibitors affects nitrous oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH) emissions from pig slurry (PS) applied under no-till (NT) conditions. Our objective was to determine the impact of injecting PS and treating it with the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on NH and NO emissions from soils under NT in subtropical southern Brazil. The emissions of these gases were compared for shallow (∼ 10 cm) injection and surface broadcasting of PS with and without DCD (8.1-10.0 kg ha; 6.5-8.4% of applied NH-N). Measurements were made at two sites during two summer growing seasons under NT corn crops. Injection reduced NH volatilization by 70% but increased NO emissions 2.4-fold (from 2628 to 6198 g NO N ha) compared with surface broadcast application. Adding DCD to PS inhibited nitrification and reduced NO emissions by an average of 28% (730 g NO-N ha) for surface broadcast and 66% (4105 g NO-N ha) for injection but did not increase NH volatilization. Consequently, NO emission factors were much higher for injection (3.6%) than for surface broadcast (1.3%) application and were reduced (0.9%) when DCD was added to injected PS. In conclusion, the injection of DCD-treated slurry is a recommendable practice for reducing NH and NO emissions when applying PS on NT corn in southern Brazil.

  9. Pig slurry acidification and separation techniques affect soil N and C turnover and N2O emissions from solid, liquid and biochar fractions.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Muñoz, B; Case, S D C; Jensen, L S

    2016-03-01

    The combined effects of pig slurry acidification, subsequent separation techniques and biochar production from the solid fraction on N mineralisation and N2O and CO2 emissions in soil were investigated in an incubation experiment. Acidification of pig slurry increased N availability from the separated solid fractions in soil, but did not affect N2O and CO2 emissions. However acidification reduced soil N and C turnover from the liquid fraction. The use of more advanced separation techniques (flocculation and drainage > decanting centrifuge > screw press) increased N mineralisation from acidified solid fractions, but also increased N2O and CO2 emissions in soil amended with the liquid fraction. Finally, the biochar production from the solid fraction of pig slurry resulted in a very recalcitrant material, which reduced N and C mineralisation in soil compared to the raw solid fractions. PMID:26716355

  10. Pig slurry acidification and separation techniques affect soil N and C turnover and N2O emissions from solid, liquid and biochar fractions.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Muñoz, B; Case, S D C; Jensen, L S

    2016-03-01

    The combined effects of pig slurry acidification, subsequent separation techniques and biochar production from the solid fraction on N mineralisation and N2O and CO2 emissions in soil were investigated in an incubation experiment. Acidification of pig slurry increased N availability from the separated solid fractions in soil, but did not affect N2O and CO2 emissions. However acidification reduced soil N and C turnover from the liquid fraction. The use of more advanced separation techniques (flocculation and drainage > decanting centrifuge > screw press) increased N mineralisation from acidified solid fractions, but also increased N2O and CO2 emissions in soil amended with the liquid fraction. Finally, the biochar production from the solid fraction of pig slurry resulted in a very recalcitrant material, which reduced N and C mineralisation in soil compared to the raw solid fractions.

  11. Copper and zinc accumulation and fractionation in a clayey Hapludox soil subject to long-term pig slurry application.

    PubMed

    Formentini, Thiago Augusto; Mallmann, Fábio Joel Kochem; Pinheiro, Adilson; Fernandes, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo; Bender, Marcos Antonio; da Veiga, Milton; dos Santos, Danilo Rheinheimer; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Pig slurry (PS) recycling as fertilizer is commonly practiced as an option for minimizing livestock waste. Successive PS applications on the soil can lead to crop toxicity and environmental risk. Despite extensive investigation of macronutrient behavior, the fate of trace metals remains uncertain and only a few long-term field studies have been reported to date. This study was designed to assess the impact of 11-year continuous PS spreading on Cu and Zn accumulation and fractionation in a Brazilian clayey Hapludox soil. Three different PS application rates--50, 100 and 200m3 ha(-1)year(-1)--were monitored at six soil depths in comparison to a non-amended control soil. The modified Geological Survey of Canada sequential extraction protocol was applied. A statistically significant increase in Cu and Zn total concentration (assessed by the sum of fractions) was noted only within the 0-5 cm soil layer for the 50 and 100 m3 ha(-1) year(-1) (PS50 and PS100) treatments, and up to 10-15 cm for the 200 m3 ha(-1)year(-1) (PS200) treatment. The mass balance, determined for the 22 PS amendments over the period, confirmed the overall exogenous Cu and Zn accumulation within the surface layers. More than 70% of the natural heavy metal content was originally in the residual fraction. However, this was the only fraction not influenced by the PS amendments. After PS input, the exogenous Cu was mainly detected in the fraction bound to organic matter (66.4%) within the PS200 0-5 cm soil layer. Exogenous Zn was mainly distributed between the adsorbed fraction (36.7%) and the organic matter fraction (32.0%) within the PS200 0-5 cm layer.

  12. Effect of Storage Period on the Changes of Odorous Compound Concentrations and Bacterial Ecology for Identifying the Cause of Odor Production from Pig Slurry

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ok Hwa; Cho, Sung Back; Han, Deug Woo; Lee, Sang Ryoung; Kwag, Jeong Hoon; Park, Sung Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Odor from buildings where pigs are housed is generated by anaerobic fermentation of undigested materials in pig slurry stored for several weeks in pit. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of storage period on the level of odorous compounds in pig slurry and on its bacterial community. A slurry sample (15 L) was taken from the pit of a finisher pig building and incubated in acryl chambers for six- weeks. Slurry for analysis was sampled every two-week. Levels of odorous compounds in the slurry sample were drastically changed after two weeks of storage period; levels of phenols and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were decreased (P<0.05), whereas indoles and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) were increased (P<0.05). Among dominant bacteria, Bacteroides and Porphyromonadacese_uc_g revealed a strong positive correlation with the levels of phenols and SCFAs. Populations of AC160630_g, Acholeplasmatales_uc_g, Mollicutes_uc_g and Cloacamonas_f_uc_g positively correlated with indole and BCFAs content. Taken together, levels of odorous compounds were increased after two weeks of storage, possibly because of changes in the predominant bacterial groups to those that use protein as a carbon source in the hypo-carbohydrate conditions. PMID:27642752

  13. Effect of Storage Period on the Changes of Odorous Compound Concentrations and Bacterial Ecology for Identifying the Cause of Odor Production from Pig Slurry.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ok Hwa; Cho, Sung Back; Han, Deug Woo; Lee, Sang Ryoung; Kwag, Jeong Hoon; Park, Sung Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Odor from buildings where pigs are housed is generated by anaerobic fermentation of undigested materials in pig slurry stored for several weeks in pit. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of storage period on the level of odorous compounds in pig slurry and on its bacterial community. A slurry sample (15 L) was taken from the pit of a finisher pig building and incubated in acryl chambers for six- weeks. Slurry for analysis was sampled every two-week. Levels of odorous compounds in the slurry sample were drastically changed after two weeks of storage period; levels of phenols and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were decreased (P<0.05), whereas indoles and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) were increased (P<0.05). Among dominant bacteria, Bacteroides and Porphyromonadacese_uc_g revealed a strong positive correlation with the levels of phenols and SCFAs. Populations of AC160630_g, Acholeplasmatales_uc_g, Mollicutes_uc_g and Cloacamonas_f_uc_g positively correlated with indole and BCFAs content. Taken together, levels of odorous compounds were increased after two weeks of storage, possibly because of changes in the predominant bacterial groups to those that use protein as a carbon source in the hypo-carbohydrate conditions. PMID:27642752

  14. Carbon mineralization, microbial activity and metal dynamics in tailing ponds amended with pig slurry and marble waste.

    PubMed

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Carmona, Dora M; Acosta, Jose A; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; de Vreng, Arno

    2013-03-01

    A field experiment was set up in Cartagena-La Unión Mining District, SE Spain, aimed at evaluating the short-term effects of pig slurry (PS) amendment alone and together with marble waste (MW) on organic matter mineralization, microbial activity and stabilization of heavy metals in two tailing ponds. These structures pose environmental risk owing to high metals contents, low organic matter and nutrients, and null vegetation. Carbon mineralization, exchangeable metals and microbiological properties were monitored during 67 d. The application of amendments led to a rapid decrease of exchangeable metals concentrations, except for Cu, with decreases up to 98%, 75% and 97% for Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively. The combined addition of MW+PS was the treatment with greater reduction in metals concentrations. The addition of PS caused a significant increase in respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots respiration was lower than in PS plots. The mineralized C from the pig slurry was low, approximately 25-30% and 4-12% for PS and MW+PS treatments, respectively. Soluble carbon (Csol), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities increased after the application of the organic amendment. However, after 3d these parameters started a decreasing trend reaching similar values than control from approximately day 25 for Csol and MBC. The PS treatment promoted highest values in enzyme activities, which remained high upon time. Arylesterase activity increased in the MW+PS treatment. Thus, the remediation techniques used improved soil microbiological status and reduced metal availability. The combined application of PS+MW reduced the degradability of the organic compounds.

  15. The impact of fouling on the process performance of the thermal treatment of pig slurry using tubular heat exchangers.

    PubMed

    Cunault, C; Burton, C H; Pourcher, A M

    2013-03-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the kinetics of fouling and their influence on the performance of a thermal treatment process used for sanitisation of pig slurry. Two temperatures (55 °C and 80 °C) were investigated. One trial was carried out at 55 °C and 80 °C in which the slurry was not re-circulated and one trial at 80 °C in which 100% or 50% of the slurry was re-circulated. Fouling of the heat exchangers was assessed by on-line monitoring of the drop in pressure, changes in treatment temperature, heat transfer coefficients, heat recycling rate, and energy consumption. Similar energy consumption of around 38 kWh m(-3) of effluent was observed at the two temperatures. The operating periods prior to excessive fouling or blockage were 18 days at 55 °C and four days at 80 °C. Recycling treated manure to obtain 50% dilution of the raw feed increased the viable operating period to 14 days at 80 °C but doubled energy consumption. At 55 °C, the significant drop in the target temperature (>7 °C) with fouling severely jeopardised the process. The nature of the decline in performance suggests that the main fouling mechanisms were bio-fouling at 55 °C and organic/mineral deposits at 80 °C. Recycling treated manure enabled the operating period to be extended but increased the total cost of heating. One hundred percent recycling showed that the fouling potential of the manure was largely eliminated after one thermal treatment, suggesting a pretreatment may be advantageous. PMID:23376308

  16. ISTA 14--impact of antibiotics from pig slurry on soil microbial communities, including the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Igel-Egalon, Angélique; Cheviron, Nathalie; Hedde, Mickael; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina; Mougin, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Livestock slurry containing antibiotics is a source of contamination of agricultural soils, with possible effects on soil function and micro-organisms. Extracellular oxido-reductases and hydrolases from the fungus T. versicolor and fungal growth were monitored in liquid cultures in the presence of tetracycline, lincomycine, sulfadiazine and ciprofloxacin for 10 days, in order to assess the suitability of these enzymes as biomarkers. Among the conditions of treatment, statistical analysis demonstrated an increase in manganese-dependent peroxidase after exposure to sulfadiazine at 1 mg/L when compared with the control. Acid phosphatase activity was decreased by lincomycine at 1 or 10 mg/L. Conversely, β-glucosidase activity increased in the presence of this antibiotic at 10 mg/L. In Terrestrial Model Ecosystems spiked with contaminated pig slurry, lincomycine at the concentration of 8 or 80 μg/kg dry soil, and ciprofloxacin at 250 ng/kg dry soil decreased the activity of soil dehydrogenase, when compared with a green slurry treatment, over 28-day incubations. Laccase activity was similarly decreased in the presence of the highest concentration of antibiotics. We determined bacterial and fungal biomasses using Q-PCR. Bacterial biomass was increased in the presence of lincomycine at 80 μg/kg whatever the time of exposure, and to a lesser extent in the presence of ciprofloxacin at 250 ng/kg, but only at day 28. In contrast, both antibiotics, whatever their concentrations, did not modify fungal biomass in soil. In conclusion, we were unable to demonstrate important effects of antibiotics at concentrations found in the agricultural environment.

  17. Management factors affecting ammonia volatilization from land-applied cattle slurry in the Mid-Atlantic USA.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R B; Meisinger, J J

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization commonly causes a substantial loss of crop-available N from surface-applied cattle slurry. Field studies were conducted with small wind tunnels to assess the effect of management factors on NH3 volatilization. Two studies compared NH3 volatilization from grass sward and bare soil. The average total NH3 loss was 1.5 times greater from slurry applied to grass sward. Two studies examined the effect of slurry dry matter (DM) content on NH3 loss under hot, summer conditions in Maryland, USA. Slurry DM contents were between 54 and 134 g kg(-1). Dry matter content did not affect total NH3 loss, but did influence the time course of NH3 loss. Higher DM content slurries had relatively higher rates of NH3 volatilization during the first 12 to 24 h, but lower rates thereafter. Under the hot conditions, the higher DM content slurries appeared to dry and crust more rapidly causing smaller rates of NH3 volatilization after 12 to 24 h, which offset the earlier positive effects of DM content on NH3 volatilization. Three studies compared immediate incorporation with different tillage implements. Total NH3 loss from unincorporated slurry was 45% of applied slurry NH4+-N, while losses following immediate incorporation with a moldboard plow, tandem-disk harrow, or chisel plow were, respectively, 0 to 3, 2 to 8, and 8 to 12%. These ground cover and DM content data can be used to improve predictions of NH3 loss under specific farming conditions. The immediate incorporation data demonstrate management practices that can reduce NH3 volatilization, which can improve slurry N utilization in crop-forage production.

  18. Sulphur fate and anaerobic biodegradation potential during co-digestion of seaweed biomass (Ulva sp.) with pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Peu, P; Sassi, J-F; Girault, R; Picard, S; Saint-Cast, Patricia; Béline, F; Dabert, P

    2011-12-01

    Seaweed (Ulva sp.) stranded on beaches were utilized as co-substrate for anaerobic digestion of pig slurry in three-month co-digestion tests in pilot scale anaerobic digesters in the laboratory. The methanogenic potential of Ulva sp. was low compared to that of other potential co-substrates available for use by farmers: 148 N m3CH4/t of volatile solids or 19 N m3CH4/t of crude product. When used as a co-substrate with pig manure (48%/52% w/w), Ulva sp. seaweed did not notably disrupt the process of digestion; however, after pilot stabilisation, biogas produced contained 3.5% H2S, making it unsuitable for energy recovery without treatment. Sequentially addition of the sulphate reduction inhibitor, potassium molybdate, to a final concentration of 3mM, temporarily reduced H2S emissions, but was unable to sustain this reduction over the three-month period. According to these pilot tests, the use of seaweed stranded on beaches as co-substrate in farm-based biogas plants shows some limitations. PMID:21982451

  19. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter degradation and humification during composting of pig slurry in different scenarios.

    PubMed

    Martín-Mata, J; Lahoz-Ramos, C; Bustamante, M A; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Moral, R; Santos, A; Sáez, J A; Bernal, M P

    2016-09-01

    In this work, different analytical techniques (thermal analysis, (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy) have been used to study the organic matter changes during the co-composting of pig slurry with cotton gin waste. To ensure the validity of the findings, the composting process was developed in different scenarios: under experimental pilot plant conditions, using the static pile system, and under real conditions on a pig farm, using the turning pile system. Also, the thermal stability index (R1) was determined before and after an extraction with water, to evaluate the effect of eliminating water-soluble inorganic salts on the thermal analysis. The results of the thermal methods showed the degradation of the most labile organic matter during composting; R1 increased during composting in all piles, without any influence of the presence of water-soluble inorganic ions in the sample. The NMR showed a decrease in the abundance of the carbohydrate molecules and an increase in the aliphatic materials during composting, due to a concentration effect. Also, FT-IR spectroscopy was a useful technique to study the trends of polysaccharides and nitrate, as indicators of organic matter transformations during composting. PMID:27230139

  20. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter degradation and humification during composting of pig slurry in different scenarios.

    PubMed

    Martín-Mata, J; Lahoz-Ramos, C; Bustamante, M A; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Moral, R; Santos, A; Sáez, J A; Bernal, M P

    2016-09-01

    In this work, different analytical techniques (thermal analysis, (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy) have been used to study the organic matter changes during the co-composting of pig slurry with cotton gin waste. To ensure the validity of the findings, the composting process was developed in different scenarios: under experimental pilot plant conditions, using the static pile system, and under real conditions on a pig farm, using the turning pile system. Also, the thermal stability index (R1) was determined before and after an extraction with water, to evaluate the effect of eliminating water-soluble inorganic salts on the thermal analysis. The results of the thermal methods showed the degradation of the most labile organic matter during composting; R1 increased during composting in all piles, without any influence of the presence of water-soluble inorganic ions in the sample. The NMR showed a decrease in the abundance of the carbohydrate molecules and an increase in the aliphatic materials during composting, due to a concentration effect. Also, FT-IR spectroscopy was a useful technique to study the trends of polysaccharides and nitrate, as indicators of organic matter transformations during composting.

  1. Degradation of Sulfadiazine by Microbacterium lacus Strain SDZm4, Isolated from Lysimeters Previously Manured with Slurry from Sulfadiazine-Medicated Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Michael; Hofmann, Diana; Koeppchen, Stephan; Kummer, Sirgit; Thiele, Björn; Groeneweg, Joost

    2013-01-01

    Sulfadiazine (SDZ)-degrading bacterial cultures were enriched from the topsoil layer of lysimeters that were formerly treated with manure from pigs medicated with 14C-labeled SDZ. The loss of about 35% of the applied radioactivity after an incubation period of 3 years was attributed to CO2 release due to mineralization processes in the lysimeters. Microcosm experiments with moist soil and soil slurries originating from these lysimeters confirmed the presumed mineralization potential, and an SDZ-degrading bacterium was isolated. It was identified as Microbacterium lacus, denoted strain SDZm4. During degradation studies with M. lacus strain SDZm4 using pyrimidine-ring labeled SDZ, SDZ disappeared completely but no 14CO2 was released during 10 days of incubation. The entire applied radioactivity (AR) remained in solution and could be assigned to 2-aminopyrimidine. In contrast, for parallel incubations but with phenyl ring-labeled SDZ, 56% of the AR was released as 14CO2, 16% was linked to biomass, and 21% remained as dissolved, not yet identified 14C. Thus, it was shown that M. lacus extensively mineralized and partly assimilated the phenyl moiety of the SDZ molecule while forming equimolar amounts of 2-aminopyrimidine. This partial degradation might be an important step in the complete mineralization of SDZ by soil microorganisms. PMID:23396336

  2. Environmental impacts of combining pig slurry acidification and separation under different regulatory regimes - A life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Ten Hoeve, Marieke; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

    2016-10-01

    Global livestock production is increasing rapidly, leading to larger amounts of manure and environmental impacts. Technologies that can be applied to treat manure in order to decrease certain environmental impacts include separation and acidification. In this study, a life cycle assessment was used to investigate the environmental effects of slurry acidification and separation, and whether there were synergetic environmental benefits to combining these technologies. Furthermore, an analysis was undertaken into the effect of implementing regulations restricting the P application rate to soils on the environmental impacts of the technologies. The impact categories analysed were climate change, terrestrial, marine and freshwater eutrophication, fossil resource depletion and toxicity potential. In-house slurry acidification appeared to be the most beneficial scenario under both N and P regulations. Slurry separation led to a lower freshwater eutrophication potential than the other scenarios in which N regulations alone were in force, while these environmental benefits disappeared after implementation of stricter P regulations. With N regulations alone, there was a synergetic positive effect of combining in-house acidification and separation on marine eutrophication potential compared to these technologies individually. The model was sensitive to the chosen ammonia emission coefficients and to the choice of inclusion of indirect nitrous oxide emissions, since scenarios changed ranking for certain impact categories. PMID:27566935

  3. Reduction of total coliform numbers during vermicomposting is caused by short-term direct effects of earthworms on microorganisms and depends on the dose of application of pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Fernando; Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

    2009-10-01

    During vermicomposting of organic waste, the interactions between epigeic earthworms and the detrital microbial community lead to decreases in the abundance of some potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Despite its importance, little is known about the mechanisms involved and the factors that affect the intensity of this effect. In the present study, we carried out three experiments to test the effect of the earthworm Eisenia fetida on total coliform numbers in pig slurry. We firstly applied low and high doses (1.5 and 3 kg, respectively) of pig slurry to small scale vermireactors with and without earthworms. We found that E. fetida significantly reduced total coliform numbers after 2 weeks, but only in the low dose vermireactors. In a subsequent feeding experiment in mesocosms, we observed that the coliform population was reduced by 98% after passage through the earthworms' guts, which suggests that digestive processes in the gut of E. fetida are the main factors involved in the decrease in total coliforms observed in the low dose vermireactors. Decreases in total coliform numbers were not related to decreases in bacterial biomass, which indicates a specific negative effect of earthworms on the coliforms. In the third experiment, we tested the indirect effect of earthworms on total coliforms by inoculating pig slurry with either 2 or 10% vermicompost. The addition of vermicompost did not affect the number of coliforms either after 15, 30 or 60 days, which supports the idea that this bacterial group is more affected by the passage through the gut of E. fetida than by interactions with the earthworm-shaped microbial community.

  4. National monitoring study in Denmark finds increased and critical levels of copper and zinc in arable soils fertilized with pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Jensen, John; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Bak, Jesper

    2016-07-01

    The increasing consumption of copper and zinc in modern farming is linked to their documented benefit as growth promoting agents and usefulness for controlling diarrhoea. Copper and zinc are inert and non-degradable in the slurry and the environment and thereby introducing new challenges and concern. Therefore, a follow-up to pervious national soil monitoring programs on heavy metals was initiated in 2014 with special focus on the historical trends in soil concentrations of copper and zinc in Danish arable soils. Hereby it is possible to analyse trends for a 28 year period. Data shows that: 1) Amendment of soils with pig slurry has led to a significant increase in soil concentrations of copper and zinc, especially in the latest monitoring period from 1998 to 2014; 2) Predicted no-effect concentrations for soil dwelling species published by the European Union is exceeded for zinc in 45% of all soil samples, with the highest proportion on sandy soils; 3) The current use of zinc and copper in pig production may lead to leaching of metals, especially zinc, from fields fertilized with pig slurry in concentrations that may pose a risk to aquatic species.

  5. Modeling field-scale vertical movement of zinc and copper in a pig slurry-amended soil in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mallmann, Fábio Joel Kochem; dos Santos, Danilo Rheinheimer; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Cella, Cesar; Simůnek, Jirka; van Oort, Folkert

    2012-12-01

    Organic amendments often represent a source of trace metals (TMs) in soils, which may partly leach into the groundwater. The objectives of this study were (1) to validate Hydrus-2D for modeling the transport of Zn and Cu in an Alfisol amended with pig slurry (PS) by comparing numerical simulations and experimental field data, and (2) to model the next 50 years of TM movements under scenarios of suspended or continued PS amendments. First, between 2000 and 2008, we collected detailed Zn and Cu data from a soil profile in Santa Maria, Brazil. Two hypotheses about Zn and Cu reactivity with the solid phase were tested, considering physical, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics of six soil layers. Using a two-site sorption model with a sorption kinetic rate adjusted based on laboratory EDTA extractions, Hydrus simulations of the vertical TM transport were found to satisfactorily describe the soil Zn and Cu concentration profiles. Second, the long-term fate of Zn and Cu in the soil was assessed using the validated parameterized model. Numerical simulations showed that Zn and Cu did not present risks for groundwater pollution. However, future Cu accumulation in the surface soil layer would exceed the Brazilian threshold for agricultural soils.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of a New Methanobacterium formicicum KOR-1 from an Anaerobic Digester Using Pig Slurry

    PubMed Central

    Battumur, Urantulkhuur; Yoon, Young-Man; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A new methanogen was isolated from an anaerobic digester using pig slurry in South Korea. Only one strain, designated KOR-1, was characterized in detail. Cells of KOR-1 were straight or crooked rods, non-motile, 5 to 15 μm long and 0.7 μm wide. They stained Gram-positive and produced methane from H2+CO2 and formate. Strain KOR-1 grew optimally at 38°C. The optimum pH for growth was 7.0. The strain grew at 0.5% to 3.0% NaCl, with optimum growth at 2.5% NaCl. The G+C content of genomic DNA of strain KOR-1 was 41 mol%. The strain tolerated ampicillin, penicillin G, kanamycin and streptomycin but tetracycline inhibited cell growth. A large fragment of the 16S rRNA gene (~1,350 bp) was obtained from the isolate and sequenced. Comparison of 16S rRNA genes revealed that strain KOR–1 is related to Methanobacterium formicicum (98%, sequence similarity), Methanobacterium bryantii (95%) and Methanobacterium ivanovii (93%). Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced mcrA gene sequences confirmed the closest relative as based on mcrA gene sequence analysis was Methanobacterium formicicum strain (97% nucleic acid sequence identity). On the basis of physiological and phylogenetic characteristics, strain KOR-1 is proposed as a new strain within the genus Methanobacterium, Methanobacterium formicicum KOR-1. PMID:26949961

  7. Strength properties of cement slurries with lightweights applied in oil and gas wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubnov, A. S.; Boyko, I. A.; Khorev, V. S.

    2015-02-01

    The article is focused on the cement stone strength properties resulted from lightweight cement slurries that meet GOST-1581-96 (state Standards) requirements. Exfoliated vermiculite, hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (HAMs), diatomite and perlite were used as lightweighting additives.

  8. Impact of raw pig slurry and pig farming practices on physicochemical parameters and on atmospheric N2O and CH 4 emissions of tropical soils, Uvéa Island (South Pacific).

    PubMed

    Roth, E; Gunkel-Grillon, P; Joly, L; Thomas, X; Decarpenterie, T; Mappe-Fogaing, I; Laporte-Magoni, C; Dumelié, N; Durry, G

    2014-09-01

    Emissions of CH4 and N2O related to private pig farming under a tropical climate in Uvéa Island were studied in this paper. Physicochemical soil parameters such as nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, Kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, pH and moisture were measured. Gaseous soil emissions as well as physicochemical parameters were compared in two private pig farming strategies encountered on this island on two different soils (calcareous and ferralitic) in order to determine the best pig farming management: in small concrete pens or in large land pens. Ammonium levels were higher in control areas while nitrate and nitrite levels were higher in soils with pig slurry inputs, indicating that nitrification was the predominant process related to N2O emissions. Nitrate contents in soils near concrete pens were important (≥ 55 μg N/g) and can thus be a threat for the groundwater. For both pig farming strategies, N2O and CH4 fluxes can reach high levels up to 1 mg N/m(2)/h and 1 mg C/m(2)/h, respectively. CH4 emissions near concrete pens were very high (≥ 10.4 mg C/m(2)/h). Former land pens converted into agricultural land recover low N2O emission rates (≤ 0.03 mg N/m(2)/h), and methane uptake dominates. N2O emissions were related to nitrate content whereas CH4 emissions were found to be moisture dependent. As a result relating to the physicochemical parameters as well as to the gaseous emissions, we demonstrate that pig farming in large land pens is the best strategy for sustainable family pig breeding in Uvéa Islands and therefore in similar small tropical islands.

  9. Pig feeding strategy coupled with effluent management - fresh or stored slurry, solid phase separation - on methane potential and methane conversion factors during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarret, Guillaume; Martinez, José; Dourmad, Jean-Yves

    2011-11-01

    In the guideline for the determination of methane (CH 4) emission from animal manure (IPCC) the amount of CH 4 emitted is generally calculated according to an equation combining the amount of organic matter (OM) or volatile solids excreted, the ultimate CH 4 potential ( B0) of excreta and a system-specific methane conversion factor (MCF, %) that reflects the portion of B0 that is really converted into CH 4. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the modification of dietary crude protein and fibre levels on B0 of pig slurry and on subsequent MCF according to different strategies of slurry management. Five experimental diets differing mainly in their crude protein and fibre content were compared. Two types of measurement of CH 4 emission were performed. The first was the measurement of B0 of slurry using biomethanogene potential (BMP) test. The second consisted in a storage simulation, which was performed on different kinds of effluents: fresh slurry (FSl), stored slurry (SSl), and faeces mixed with water (FaW). The type of diet and the type of effluent affected ( P < 0.001) CH 4 production after 30, 50 and 100 days. Moreover, the interaction between type of effluent and type of diet was significant for CH 4 emission and for MCF. CH 4 production was the highest for BMP, the average production of CH 4 during storage from FaW, FSl and SSl samples representing 77%, 58% and 64% of the B0 value. The dynamic of CH 4 production during BMP tests was rather similar for all dietary treatments whereas it differed for storage simulation studies with significant effects of dietary CP and fibre contents. The results from this study indicate that the type of diet has a significant but rather limited effect on B0 value of effluent. The effect of diet is much more marked on MCF, with lower values for high protein diets, and higher values for high fibre diets. MCF is also affected by manure management, the values measured on separated faeces from urine

  10. Effects of compost, pig slurry and lime on trace element solubility and toxicity in two soils differently affected by mining activities.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Tania; Clemente, Rafael; Bernal, M Pilar

    2011-07-01

    The use of organic wastes as amendments in heavy metal-polluted soils is an ecological integrated option for their recycling. The potential use of alperujo (solid olive-mill waste) compost and pig slurry in phytoremediation strategies has been studied, evaluating their short-term effects on soil health. An aerobic incubation experiment was carried out using an acid mine spoil based soil and a low OM soil from the mining area of La Unión (Murcia, Spain). Arsenic and heavy metal solubility in amended and non-amended soils, and microbial parameters were evaluated and related to a phytotoxicity test. The organic amendments provoked an enlargement of the microbial community (compost increased biomass-C from non detected values to 35 μg g(-1) in the mine spoil soil, and doubled control values in the low OM soil) and an intensification of its activity (including a twofold increase in nitrification), and significantly enhanced seed germination (increased cress germination by 25% in the mine spoil soil). Organic amendments increased Zn and Pb EDTA-extractable concentrations, and raised As solubility due to the influence of factors such as pH changes, phosphate concentration, and the nature of the organic matter of the amendments. Compost, thanks to the greater persistence of its organic matter in soil, could be recommended for its use in (phyto)stabilisation strategies. However, pig slurry boosted inorganic N content and did not significantly enhance As extractability in soil, so its use could be specifically recommended in As polluted soils. PMID:21492902

  11. Effects of compost, pig slurry and lime on trace element solubility and toxicity in two soils differently affected by mining activities.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Tania; Clemente, Rafael; Bernal, M Pilar

    2011-07-01

    The use of organic wastes as amendments in heavy metal-polluted soils is an ecological integrated option for their recycling. The potential use of alperujo (solid olive-mill waste) compost and pig slurry in phytoremediation strategies has been studied, evaluating their short-term effects on soil health. An aerobic incubation experiment was carried out using an acid mine spoil based soil and a low OM soil from the mining area of La Unión (Murcia, Spain). Arsenic and heavy metal solubility in amended and non-amended soils, and microbial parameters were evaluated and related to a phytotoxicity test. The organic amendments provoked an enlargement of the microbial community (compost increased biomass-C from non detected values to 35 μg g(-1) in the mine spoil soil, and doubled control values in the low OM soil) and an intensification of its activity (including a twofold increase in nitrification), and significantly enhanced seed germination (increased cress germination by 25% in the mine spoil soil). Organic amendments increased Zn and Pb EDTA-extractable concentrations, and raised As solubility due to the influence of factors such as pH changes, phosphate concentration, and the nature of the organic matter of the amendments. Compost, thanks to the greater persistence of its organic matter in soil, could be recommended for its use in (phyto)stabilisation strategies. However, pig slurry boosted inorganic N content and did not significantly enhance As extractability in soil, so its use could be specifically recommended in As polluted soils.

  12. Slurry Erosion and Corrosion Behavior of Some Engineering Polymers Applied by Low-Pressure Flame Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Carlos Roberto Camello; Mojena, Miguel Angel Reyes; Rovere, Carlos Alberto Della; de Souza, Natalia Ferraresso Cardoso; Fals, Hipolito Domingo Carvajal

    2016-09-01

    The erosive wear and corrosion resistance of three types of flame spray-deposited polymer coatings was analyzed. The erosive wear test was performed in slurry pot tester with rotational movement using distilled water and mix quartz particles (300 g/l). Two impact angles of the particles were used, reaching 4.15 m/s average impact velocity. Corrosion resistance of the polymer coatings and degradation behavior were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a solution of 0.5 M sodium chloride at room temperature for a total immersion time of 1 year. The interpretation of the results was made according to the Bode plot. It is proven a better slurry erosion wear performance for PEEK and PA12 coatings when the particles impact at 90° angle. For impact angle of 30°, there is no significant difference in the erosion performance of PEEK, PEI, and PA12 coatings. No major changes occurred in the impedance module for PA12 and PEEK samples, indicating that these coatings can protect the steel substrate for extended periods of time. The lower PEI performance is believed to be related to the improper choice of spraying parameters, as the spray conditions were kept constant for the three feedstock materials.

  13. Ultrasonic extraction of veterinary antibiotics from soils and pig slurry with SPE clean-up and LC-UV and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Paul A; Holten Lützhøft, Hans-Christian; Ma, Hai-Ping; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Boxall, Alistair B A; Kay, Paul

    2004-11-15

    A simple and rapid analytical method is presented in which the three veterinary antibiotics oxytetracycline (OTC), sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) and tylosin (TYL) are simultaneously extracted and determined in four different soils. Extractions were carried out by a combination of ultrasonic agitation and vortex mixing using a mixture of methanol, EDTA and McIlvaine buffer at pH 7 as the extractant solution. The extracts were then cleaned-up by a tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) method using an Isolute SAX anion exchange cartridge to remove natural organic matter and an Oasis HLB polymeric cartridge to retain the study compounds. Analysis was by HPLC-UV with additional fluorescence detection for SCP. Recoveries were in the range 68-85% for SCP in all soil types, 58-75% for OTC in sandy soils, 27-51% for OTC in clay containing soils, 74-105% for TYL and 47-61% in a clay soil. OTC and SCP were also extracted from liquid pig manure using a mixture of EDTA and McIlvaine buffer at pH 7 with ultrasonic agitation and vortex mixing with SPE clean-up and HPLC-UV analysis. Recoveries were greater than 77% and 58% for OTC and SCP, respectively. Limits of detection were 18mugkg(-1) for OTC and SCP and 40mugkg(-1) for TYL in soils and 70mugL(-1) for OTC and 140mugL(-1) for SCP in pig slurry. PMID:18969712

  14. Simulation with models of increasing complexity of CO2 emissions and nitrogen mineralisation, after soil application of labelled pig slurry and maize stalks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechini, Luca; Marino Gallina, Pietro; Geromel, Gabriele; Corti, Martina; Cavalli, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    High amounts of nitrogen are available per unit area in regions with intensive livestock operations. In swine farms, pig slurries are frequently incorporated in the soil together with maize stalks. Simulation models may help to understand nitrogen dynamics associated with animal manure and crop residue decomposition in the soil, and to support the definition of best management practices. The objective of this work was to test the ability of different models to simulate CO2 emissions and nitrogen mineralisation during a laboratory incubation (under optimal soil water content and constant temperature) of maize stalks (ST) and pig slurry (PS). A loam soil was amended with labelled (15N) or unlabelled maize stalks and pig slurries, in the presence of ammonium sulphate (AS). These treatments were established: unfertilised soil; ST15 + AS + PS; ST + AS15 + PS; and ST + AS + PS15. During 180 days, we measured CO2 emissions; microbial biomass C, N, and 15N; and soil mineral N (SMN and SM-15N). Three models of increasing complexity were calibrated using measured data. The models were two modifications of ICBM 2B/N (Kätterer and Andrén, 2001) and CN-SIM (Petersen et al., 2005). The three models simulated rather accurately the emissions of CO2 throughout the incubation period (Relative Root Mean Squared Error, RRMSE = 8-25). The simplest model (with one pool for ST and one for PS) strongly overestimated SMN immobilisation from day 3 to day 21, both in the treatments with AS15 and PS15 (RRMSE = 27-30%). The other two models represented rather well the dynamics of SMN in the soil (RRMSE = 21-25%), simulating a fast increase of nitrate concentration in the first days, and slower rates of nitrification thereafter. Worse performances were obtained with all models for the simulation of SM-15N in the treatment with ST15 (RRMSE = 64-104%): experimental data showed positive mineralization of stalk-derived N from the beginning of the incubation, while models strongly underestimated

  15. The ototoxic effect of boric acid solutions applied into the middle ear of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Oztürkcan, Sedat; Dündar, Riza; Katilmis, Hüseyin; Ilknur, Ali Ekber; Aktaş, Sinem; Haciömeroğlu, Senem

    2009-05-01

    This study analyzed the ototoxic effects of boric acid solutions. Boric acid solutions have been used as otologic preparations for many years. Boric acid is commonly found in solutions prepared with alcohol or distilled water but can also be found in a powder form. These preparations are used for both their antiseptic and acidic qualities in external and middle ear infections. We investigated the ototoxic effect of boric acid solutions on guinea pigs. We are unaware of any similar, previously published study of this subject in English. The study was conducted on 28 young albino guinea pigs. Prior to application of the boric acid solution under general anesthesia, an Auditory Brainstem Response (ABRs) test was applied to the right ear of the guinea pigs. Following the test, a perforation was created on the tympanic membrane of the right ear of each guinea pig and small gelfoam pieces were inserted into the perforated area. Test solutions were administered to the middle ear for 10 days by means of a transcanal route. Fifteen days after inserting the gelfoams in all of the guinea pigs, we anasthesized the guinea pigs and removed the gelfoams from the perforated region of the ear and then performed an ABRs on each guinea pig. The ABRs were within the normal range before the applications. After the application, no significant changes were detected in the ABRs thresholds in neither the saline group nor the group administered boric acid and distilled water solution; however, significant changes were detected in the ABRs thresholds of the Gentamicine and boric acid and alcohol solution groups. We believe that a 4% boric acid solution prepared with distilled water can be a more reliable preparation than a 4% boric acid solution prepared with alcohol.

  16. Behavioral recovery induced by applied electric fields after spinal cord hemisection in guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Borgens, R.B.; Blight, A.R.; McGinnis, M.E.

    1987-10-16

    Applied electric fields were used to promote axonal regeneration in spinal cords of adult guinea pigs. A propriospinal intersegmental reflex (the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex) was used to test lateral tract function after hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord. An electrical field (200 microvolts per millimeter, cathode rostral) applied across the lesion led to functional recovery of the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex in 25 percent of experimental animals, whereas the functional deficit remained in control animals, which were implanted with inactive stimulators.

  17. Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.

    PubMed

    Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens. PMID:16971105

  18. Ammonia emission after slurry application to grassland in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häni, Christoph; Sintermann, Jörg; Kupper, Thomas; Jocher, Markus; Neftel, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Loss of ammonia (NH3) after field application of livestock slurry contributes between 30% and 50% of agricultural NH3 emissions from European countries. The objectives of this study were to re-evaluate NH3 emissions following application of cattle and pig slurry to grassland in Switzerland and to investigate the effectiveness of abatement techniques. In 17 field experiments, NH3 emissions were determined with a micrometeorological approach, relating the emission to the measured concentration by means of atmospheric dispersion modelling. The cattle slurry applied exhibited an average dry matter content of 3.3% (range between 1.0% and 6.7% dry matter). The emission after application of cattle slurry spread with a splash plate (referred to as reference technique) ranged from 10% to 47% of applied Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (% of TAN) and averaged to 25% of TAN. This range of losses is lower by approx. a factor of two compared to measurements from earlier Swiss experiments. Applications with trailing hose and trailing shoe systems yielded an average reduction of 51% and 53%, respectively, relative to the reference technique. A regression analysis showed that the dry matter content of the slurry and the air temperature are important drivers for NH3 emission.

  19. Lapping slurry

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Upchurch, Victor S.; Leitten, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Improved lapping slurries provide for easier and more thorough cleaning of alumina workpieces, as well as inhibit corrosion of the lapping table and provide for easier cleaning of the lapping equipment. The unthickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, and triethanolamine. The thickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, triethanolamine, a water soluble silicate, and acid.

  20. Lapping slurry

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, R.F.; Upchurch, V.S.; Leitten, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    Improved lapping slurries provide for easier and more thorough cleaning of alumina work pieces, as well as inhibit corrosion of the lapping table and provide for easier cleaning of the lapping equipment. The unthickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, and triethanolamine. The thickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, triethanolamine, a water soluble silicate, and acid. 1 fig.

  1. Slurry pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Wasp, E.J.

    1983-11-01

    Slurry pipelines are now transporting metal ores and coal/water suspensions. Their greatest potential is for transporting coal from Western states to power stations in other parts of the country. The physics of slurry transport encompases the principles of fluid dynamics and hydrostatics that were studied by Archimedes, but commercial slurry systems date only since World War II. An overview of their development covers policy debates and technological problems associated with existing and proposed pipeline projects. The author examines the tradeoffs of low sulfur content versus longer distances for transport, and describes the process of preparing coal slurries. 7 figures.

  2. Rotary cup slurry atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, H. T.; Marnicio, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The theory of a two-phase flow in a rotating cup atomizer is described. The analysis considers the separation of the solid and liquid media thus realistically modeling the flow of two layers along the inner cup wall: a slurry of increasing solids concentration and a supernatent liquid layer. The analysis is based on the earlier work of Hinze and Milborn (1950) which addressed the flow within a rotary cup for a homogeneous liquid. The superimposition of a settling velocity under conditions of high centrifugal acceleration permits the extended analysis of the separation of the two phases. Appropriate boundary conditions have been applied to the film's free surface and the cup wall and to match the flow characteristics at the liquid-slurry interface. The changing slurry viscosity, increasing nonlinearly with growing solid loading, was also considered. A parameter study illustrates the potential for a cup design to provide optimal slurry and liquid film thicknesses for effective atomization.

  3. A new kind of chelating agent with low pH value applied in the TSV CMP slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Hong; Yuling, Liu; Baoguo, Zhang; Xinhuan, Niu; Liying, Han

    2015-12-01

    TSV (through silicon via) is an emerging technology, which can realize micromation compared with the conventional packaging and extend Moore's law. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is one of the most important steps in the process of TSV manufacture, and it is an enabling technology to extend Moore's law in the past two decades. Low pressure, low abrasive and low pH value are the main requirements for copper interconnection. In this paper, the effect of different kinds of TSV slurry with FA/O II or FA/O IV type chelating agent on CMP are studied. All kinds of slurry used in this study are alkaline with no added inhibitors. From the experiment results, it can be seen that the copper removal rate and surface roughness achieved by using the FA/O IV type chelating agent with a low pH value is superior to using the FA/O II type chelating agent. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308), the Fund Project of Hebei Provincial Department of Education, China (No. QN2014208), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. E2013202247), and the Colleges and Universities Scientific Research Project of Hebei Province, China (No. Z2014088).

  4. Effect of slurry mineralogy on slurry ICP-AES.

    PubMed

    Walker, C J; Davey, D E; Turner, K E; Hamilton, I C

    1996-07-01

    Direct slurry analysis by FI ICP-AES has been tested on seven iron-containing and five zinc-containing minerals. Results indicate that the method can be applied for traces and majors in a range of different materials.

  5. Application of PTR-MS for Measuring Odorant Emissions from Soil Application of Manure Slurry

    PubMed Central

    Feilberg, Anders; Bildsoe, Pernille; Nyord, Tavs

    2015-01-01

    Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are emitted together with ammonia (NH3) from manure slurry applied as a fertilizer, but little is known about the composition and temporal variation of the emissions. In this work, a laboratory method based on dynamic flux chambers packed with soil has been used to measure emissions from untreated pig slurry and slurry treated by solid-liquid separation and ozonation. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to provide time resolved data for a range of VOC, NH3 and H2S. VOC included organic sulfur compounds, carboxylic acids, phenols, indoles, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. H2S emission was remarkably observed to take place only in the initial minutes after slurry application, which is explained by its high partitioning into the air phase. Long-term odor effects are therefore assessed to be mainly due to other volatile compounds with low odor threshold values, such as 4-methylphenol. PTR-MS signal assignment was verified by comparison to a photo-acoustic analyzer (NH3) and to thermal desorption GC/MS (VOC). Due to initial rapid changes in odorant emissions and low concentrations of odorants, PTR-MS is assessed to be a very useful method for assessing odor following field application of slurry. The effects of treatments on odorant emissions are discussed. PMID:25585103

  6. Application of PTR-MS for measuring odorant emissions from soil application of manure slurry.

    PubMed

    Feilberg, Anders; Bildsoe, Pernille; Nyord, Tavs

    2015-01-01

    Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are emitted together with ammonia (NH3) from manure slurry applied as a fertilizer, but little is known about the composition and temporal variation of the emissions. In this work, a laboratory method based on dynamic flux chambers packed with soil has been used to measure emissions from untreated pig slurry and slurry treated by solid-liquid separation and ozonation. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to provide time resolved data for a range of VOC, NH3 and H2S. VOC included organic sulfur compounds, carboxylic acids, phenols, indoles, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. H2S emission was remarkably observed to take place only in the initial minutes after slurry application, which is explained by its high partitioning into the air phase. Long-term odor effects are therefore assessed to be mainly due to other volatile compounds with low odor threshold values, such as 4-methylphenol. PTR-MS signal assignment was verified by comparison to a photo-acoustic analyzer (NH3) and to thermal desorption GC/MS (VOC). Due to initial rapid changes in odorant emissions and low concentrations of odorants, PTR-MS is assessed to be a very useful method for assessing odor following field application of slurry. The effects of treatments on odorant emissions are discussed.

  7. Column studies to investigate the fate of veterinary antibiotics in clay soils following slurry application to agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Kay, Paul; Blackwell, Paul A; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2005-07-01

    The environment may be exposed to veterinary medicines administered to livestock due to the application of organic fertilisers to land. For other groups of substances that are applied to agricultural land (e.g. pesticides), preferential flow in underdrained clay soils has been identified as an extremely important pathway by which pollution of surface waters can occur. Three soil column leaching experiments have therefore been carried out using a clay soil to investigate the fate of a range of antibiotics from the sulphonamide, tetracycline and macrolide groups. These column studies complemented a range of other experiments at the field and semi-field scales, as well as modelling studies which are being reported in separate papers. Each column study had a different objective. The first examined the effect of pig slurry on the mobility of antibiotics in clay loam soil. The second experiment investigated changes in soil water pH due to the application of slurry. The final experiment quantified the extent to which soil tillage prior to slurry application can reduce the leaching of antibiotic residues found in slurry. It was found that slurry had no impact on the leaching of oxytetracycline although soil water pH was affected significantly by slurry application. It was also shown that pre-tillage can substantially reduce the leaching of antibiotic residues through macroporous clay soils. PMID:15950042

  8. Factor analysis applied to genome prediction for high-dimensional phenotypes in pigs.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, F R F; Nascimento, M; Nascimento, A C C; E Silva, F F; Cruz, C D; Azevedo, C F; Paixão, D M; Barroso, L M A; Verardo, L L; de Resende, M D V; Guimarães, S E F; Lopes, P S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to propose and evaluate the use of factor analysis (FA) in obtaining latent variables (factors) that represent a set of pig traits simultaneously, for use in genome-wide selection (GWS) studies. We used crosses between outbred F2 populations of Brazilian Piau X commercial pigs. Data were obtained on 345 F2 pigs, genotyped for 237 SNPs, with 41 traits. FA allowed us to obtain four biologically interpretable factors: "weight", "fat", "loin", and "performance". These factors were used as dependent variables in multiple regression models of genomic selection (Bayes A, Bayes B, RR-BLUP, and Bayesian LASSO). The use of FA is presented as an interesting alternative to select individuals for multiple variables simultaneously in GWS studies; accuracy measurements of the factors were similar to those obtained when the original traits were considered individually. The similarities between the top 10% of individuals selected by the factor, and those selected by the individual traits, were also satisfactory. Moreover, the estimated markers effects for the traits were similar to those found for the relevant factor. PMID:27323029

  9. Filtering reprecipitated slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher permeate fluxes than non reprecipitated slurry. Washing reprecipitated slurry may require a defoamer because reprecipitation encourages foaming.

  10. Filtering reprecipitated slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-12-31

    As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher permeate fluxes than non reprecipitated slurry. Washing reprecipitated slurry may require a defoamer because reprecipitation encourages foaming.

  11. Comparison of raw dairy manure slurry and anaerobically digested slurry as N sources for grass forage production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study was conducted to determine how raw dairy slurry and anaerobically digested slurry (dairy slurry and food waste) applied via broadcast and subsurface deposition to reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) affected forage biomass, N uptake, apparent nitrogen recovery (ANR), and soil nitrate...

  12. Multivariate regression analysis applied to the calibration of equipment used in pig meat classification in Romania.

    PubMed

    Savescu, Roxana Florenta; Laba, Marian

    2016-06-01

    This paper highlights the statistical methodology used in a dissection experiment carried out in Romania to calibrate and standardize two classification devices, OptiGrade PRO (OGP) and Fat-o-Meat'er (FOM). One hundred forty-five carcasses were measured using the two probes and dissected according to the European reference method. To derive prediction formulas for each device, multiple linear regression analysis was performed on the relationship between the reference lean meat percentage and the back fat and muscle thicknesses, using the ordinary least squares technique. The root mean squared error of prediction calculated using the leave-one-out cross validation met European Commission (EC) requirements. The application of the new prediction equations reduced the gap between the lean meat percentage measured with the OGP and FOM from 2.43% (average for the period Q3/2006-Q2/2008) to 0.10% (average for the period Q3/2008-Q4/2014), providing the basis for a fair payment system for the pig producers. PMID:26835835

  13. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry.

    PubMed

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan; Popovic, Olga; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-03-01

    Separation of pig slurry into solid and liquid fractions is gaining importance as a way to manage increasing volumes of slurry. In contrast to solid manure and slurry, little is known about pathogen survival in separated liquid slurry. The viability of Ascaris suum eggs, a conservative indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis of helminth eggs in the separated liquid slurry revealed 47 Ascaris eggs per gramme. At 25 °C, egg viability declined to zero with a similar trend in both raw slurry and the separated liquid slurry by day 308, a time when at 5 °C 88% and 42% of the eggs were still viable in separated liquid slurry and raw slurry, respectively. The poorer survival at 25 °C was correlated with high ammonia contents in the range of 7.9-22.4 mM in raw slurry and 7.3-23.2 mM in liquid slurry compared to 3.2-9.5 mM in raw slurry and 2.6-9.5 mM in liquid slurry stored at 5 °C. The study demonstrates that at 5 °C, A. suum eggs have a higher viability in separated liquid slurry as compared to raw slurry. The hygiene aspect of this needs to be further investigated when separated liquid slurry is used to fertilize pastures or crops.

  14. Agronomic measures of P, Q/I parameters and lysimeter-collectable P in subsurface soil horizons of a long-term slurry experiment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R; Xia, L

    2001-01-01

    Soils from a long-term slurry experiment established in 1970 at Hillsborough, Northern Ireland, were used in the experiment. The site has a clay loam soil overlying Silurian shale. Seven treatments were used with three replicate plots per treatment under the following manurial regimes: (1) mineral fertiliser supplying 200 kg N, 32 kg P and 160 kg K ha(-1) yr(-1); (2)-(4) pig slurry applied at 50, 100 or 200 m3 ha(-1) yr(-1); (5)-(7) cow slurry applied at 50, 100 or 200 m3 ha(-1) yr(-1). Agronomic measures of P determined on subsurface layers down to 90 cm were compared with sorption isotherm data and rates of desorption. Adsorption isotherms were fitted using a standard Langmuir model. Data were compared with soluble (molybdate-reactive) P levels in soil water collected at 35 and 90 cm using PTFE suction cup lysimeters. Agronomically available P was concentrated in the top 30 cm of soil in all treatments. The accumulation of P in surface layers of the plots was significantly greater in the pig slurry treatments compared to the cow slurry, reflecting the history of P amendments. Nevertheless, over a period of a year, molybdate-reactive phosphorus (MRP) concentrations in lysimeter collections was consistently higher at 35 cm depth in the highest cow slurry treatment (7) compared to the equivalent pig slurry treatment (4). Either the movement of soluble P down the profile is facilitated by the higher organic content of cow slurry or P movement is not directly related to P accumulation in the soils. In addition, it is hypothesised that P movement down the soil profile depends upon two separate mechanisms. First, a 'break' point above which the accumulated P in the surface horizons is less strongly held and therefore amenable to dissolution and movement down the profile. Second, a mechanism by which some solute P from the surface horizons can travel rapidly through horizons of low P status to greater depth in the soil, i.e., by preferential flow. PMID:11237295

  15. Agronomic measures of P, Q/I parameters and lysimeter-collectable P in subsurface soil horizons of a long-term slurry experiment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R; Xia, L

    2001-01-01

    Soils from a long-term slurry experiment established in 1970 at Hillsborough, Northern Ireland, were used in the experiment. The site has a clay loam soil overlying Silurian shale. Seven treatments were used with three replicate plots per treatment under the following manurial regimes: (1) mineral fertiliser supplying 200 kg N, 32 kg P and 160 kg K ha(-1) yr(-1); (2)-(4) pig slurry applied at 50, 100 or 200 m3 ha(-1) yr(-1); (5)-(7) cow slurry applied at 50, 100 or 200 m3 ha(-1) yr(-1). Agronomic measures of P determined on subsurface layers down to 90 cm were compared with sorption isotherm data and rates of desorption. Adsorption isotherms were fitted using a standard Langmuir model. Data were compared with soluble (molybdate-reactive) P levels in soil water collected at 35 and 90 cm using PTFE suction cup lysimeters. Agronomically available P was concentrated in the top 30 cm of soil in all treatments. The accumulation of P in surface layers of the plots was significantly greater in the pig slurry treatments compared to the cow slurry, reflecting the history of P amendments. Nevertheless, over a period of a year, molybdate-reactive phosphorus (MRP) concentrations in lysimeter collections was consistently higher at 35 cm depth in the highest cow slurry treatment (7) compared to the equivalent pig slurry treatment (4). Either the movement of soluble P down the profile is facilitated by the higher organic content of cow slurry or P movement is not directly related to P accumulation in the soils. In addition, it is hypothesised that P movement down the soil profile depends upon two separate mechanisms. First, a 'break' point above which the accumulated P in the surface horizons is less strongly held and therefore amenable to dissolution and movement down the profile. Second, a mechanism by which some solute P from the surface horizons can travel rapidly through horizons of low P status to greater depth in the soil, i.e., by preferential flow.

  16. Ultrasound Analysis of Slurries

    DOEpatents

    Soong, Yee and Blackwell, Arthur G.

    2005-11-01

    An autoclave reactor allows for the ultrasonic analysis of slurry concentration and particle size distribution at elevated temperatures and pressures while maintaining the temperature- and pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transducers under ambient conditions. The reactor vessel is a hollow stainless steel cylinder containing the slurry which includes a stirrer and a N, gas source for directing gas bubbles through the slurry. Input and output transducers are connected to opposed lateral portions of the hollow cylinder for respectively directing sound waves through the slurry and receiving these sound waves after transmission through the slurry, where changes in sound wave velocity and amplitude can be used to measure slurry parameters. Ultrasonic adapters connect the transducers to the reactor vessel in a sealed manner and isolate the transducers from the hostile conditions within the vessel without ultrasonic signal distortion or losses.

  17. Ultrasound Analysis Of Slurries

    DOEpatents

    Soong, Yee; Blackwell, Arthur G.

    2005-11-01

    An autoclave reactor allows for the ultrasonic analysis of slurry concentration and particle size distribution at elevated temperatures and pressures while maintaining the temperature- and pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transducers under ambient conditions. The reactor vessel is a hollow stainless steel cylinder containing the slurry which includes a stirrer and a N.sub.2 gas source for directing gas bubbles through the slurry. Input and output transducers are connected to opposed lateral portions of the hollow cylinder for respectively directing sound waves through the slurry and receiving these sound waves after transmission through the slurry, where changes in sound wave velocity and amplitude can be used to measure slurry parameters. Ultrasonic adapters connect the transducers to the reactor vessel in a sealed manner and isolate the transducers from the hostile conditions within the vessel without ultrasonic signal distortion or losses.

  18. Animal Slurry Acidification Affects Particle Size Distribution and Improves Separation Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, I; Pociask, M; Coutinho, J; Fangueiro, D

    2016-05-01

    Solid-liquid separation is performed to improve slurry management, and acidification of the slurry is used to reduce ammonia emissions. Acidification is known to affect slurry characteristics, and we hypothesized that it may affect mechanical separation. Our objective in this study was to assess the effects of slurry acidification on particle size distribution and separation efficiency. Two types of slurry, aged pig and fresh dairy, and two different acidification additives, sulfuric acid and aluminum sulfate (alum), were studied. We found that acidification with sulfuric acid promoted phosphorus (P) solubilization for both slurries, but no change was observed with alum. More ammonium was found in the acidified dairy slurry compared with raw dairy slurry, but no difference was found in aged pig slurry. Acidification before separation increased the proportion of the solid fraction in the slurries, and the effect was significantly higher with alum. When alum was used to acidify the slurries, the proportion of particles larger than 100 μm increased significantly, as did the P concentration in this particle size range. The efficiency of P separation increased markedly in both slurries when alum was used, with the removal to the solid fraction of the dairy slurry being almost complete (90%). Because the priority in mechanical separation is to increase the P content in the solid fraction, the use of alum before centrifugation may be the most suitable option for enhancing its nutrient content. We conclude that separation efficiency and particle size distribution are significantly affected by acidification, but the extent of the effects depends on slurry type and on the type of additive used for acidification. PMID:27136179

  19. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS.

    PubMed

    Kauffeld, M; Wang, M J; Goldstein, V; Kasza, K E

    2010-12-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. PMID:21528014

  20. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kauffeld, M.; WANG, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.

    2011-01-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. PMID:21528014

  1. CHARACTERIZING PULSATING MIXING OF SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes the physical properties for defining the operation of a pulse jet mixing system. Pulse jet mixing operates with no moving parts located in the vessel to be mixed. Pulse tubes submerged in the vessel provide a pulsating flow due to a controlled combination of applied pressure to expel the fluid from the pulse tube nozzle followed by suction to refill the pulse tube through the same nozzle. For mixing slurries nondimensional parameters to define mixing operation include slurry properties, geometric properties and operational parameters. Primary parameters include jet Reynolds number and Froude number; alternate parameters may include particle Galileo number, particle Reynolds number, settling velocity ratio, and hindered settling velocity ratio. Rating metrics for system performance include just suspended velocity, concentration distribution as a function of elevation, and blend time.

  2. Cadmium availability and uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in soils applied with wheat straw or composted pig manure.

    PubMed

    Shan, Hong; Su, Shiming; Liu, Rongle; Li, Shutian

    2016-08-01

    Soil cadmium (Cd) availability and uptake by cherry-red radish (Raphanus sativus) grown in Cd-contaminated soils after addition with wheat straw or composted pig manure were studied. The results indicated that wheat straw application promoted radish growth until the second harvest, while pig manure application improved radish biomass in Acid Ferralsols regardless of harvesting seasons. Application with pig manure might be more effective in lowering the Cd uptake by radish than wheat straw. Especially when pig manure of 11.9 g TOC kg(-1) amended into Acid Ferralsols, Cd contents in leaves and roots of radish decreased by 89.2 and 95.7 % at the second harvest, respectively. The changes in Cd fractions distribution in soils after application were contributed to the decline of Cd availability. Furthermore, significantly negative linear correlation (P < 0.05) between the ratio of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) in soils and exchangeable Cd was also observed. However, the significantly negative relationship (P < 0.01) between soil pH and exchangeable Cd was merely found in pig manure-treated Acid Ferralsols. The increases in HA/FA ratio or pH values in soils after adding organic materials were also responsible for the decrease of Cd availability in soils and uptake by radish. Thus, it is recommended to stabilize soil Cd and reducing plant uptake by application with composted manure without or slightly contaminated with metals.

  3. Effects of dairy slurry on the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry onto growing alfalfa. Our objectives were to determine the effects of dairy-slurry application on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages. Dairy slurry was applie...

  4. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  5. The influence of additives on rheological properties of limestone slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, B.; Bartosik, A.

    2014-08-01

    Limestone slurry appears in the lime production process as the result of rinsing the processed material. It consists of particles with diameter smaller than 2 mm and the water that is a carrier of solid fraction. Slurry is directed to the settling tank, where the solid phase sediments and the excess water through the transfer system is recovered for re-circulation. Collected at the bottom of the tank sludge is deposited in a landfill located on the premises. Rheological properties of limestone slurry hinder its further free transport in the pipeline due to generated flow resistance. To improve this state of affairs, chemical treatment of drilling fluid, could be applied, of which the main task is to give the slurry properties suitable for the conditions encountered in hydrotransport. This treatment consists of applying chemical additives to slurry in sufficient quantity. Such additives are called as deflocculants or thinners or dispersants, and are chemical compounds which added to aqueous solution are intended to push away suspended particles from each other. The paper presents the results of research allowing reduction of shear stress in limestone slurry. Results demonstrate rheological properties of limestone slurry with and without the addition of modified substances which causes decrease of slurry viscosity, and as a consequence slurry shear stress for adopted shear rate. Achieving the desired effects increases the degree of dispersion of the solid phase suspended in the carrier liquid and improving its ability to smooth flow with decreased friction.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of acidified slurry fractions derived from different solid-liquid separation methods.

    PubMed

    Sutaryo, Sutaryo; Ward, Alastair James; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2013-02-01

    Batch assays investigating the ultimate methane yields (B(0)) of acidified slurry fractions produced with different solid-liquid slurry separation techniques were done. The result showed that the anaerobic digestion (AD) process was inhibited when raw and liquid fractions of sow, pig and dairy cow acidified slurry are digested, but AD treating solid fractions (SF) acidified slurry showed no sulphide inhibition. The B(0) of SF acidified sow slurry increased significantly with increasing screen size in the screw press. No significant effect of acidification processes on B(0) of SF dairy cow slurry (DCS) was observed. The ultimate methane yields of SF acidified DCS and SF non acidified DCS were 278±13 and 289±1LkgVS(-1), while in term of fresh weigh substrate were 59±2.8 and 59±0.3Lkgsubstrate(-1), respectively. PMID:23313767

  7. Environmental consequences of future biogas technologies based on separated slurry.

    PubMed

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn M

    2011-07-01

    This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involving different slurry separation technologies have been assessed and compared to a business-as-usual reference slurry management scenario. The results show that the environmental benefits of such biogas production are highly dependent upon the efficiency of the separation technology used to concentrate the volatile solids in the solid fraction. The biogas scenario involving the most efficient separation technology resulted in a dry matter separation efficiency of 87% and allowed a net reduction of the global warming potential of 40%, compared to the reference slurry management. This figure comprises the whole slurry life cycle, including the flows bypassing the biogas plant. This study includes soil carbon balances and a method for quantifying the changes in yield resulting from increased nitrogen availability as well as for quantifying mineral fertilizers displacement. Soil carbon balances showed that between 13 and 50% less carbon ends up in the soil pool with the different biogas alternatives, as opposed to the reference slurry management.

  8. Flashing Slurry Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, Bruce E.; Young, Jonathan

    2007-03-14

    The Hanford K Basin Closure Project involves the retrieval, transfer and processing of radioactive contaminated slurries containing partially corroded spent nuclear fuel from the K Basin spent fuel pools. The spent fuel is primarily metallic fuel from the operation of the Hanford reactors. The Sludge Treatment Project is being designed to treat and package this material in preparation for ultimate disposal. The processing of the contaminated slurries includes further corrosion of the remaining uncorroded uranium metal in a large heated vessel to form a more stable metal oxide for packaging and storage.

  9. Method and apparatus for in-situ drying investigation and optimization of slurry drying methodology

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Howe, Jane Y.; Kiggans, Jr, James O.; Sabau, Adrian S.; Wood, III, David L.; Kalnaus, Sergiy

    2016-05-10

    A method of drying casted slurries that includes calculating drying conditions from an experimental model for a cast slurry and forming a cast film. An infrared heating probe is positioned on one side of the casted slurry and a thermal probe is positioned on an opposing side of the casted slurry. The infrared heating probe may control the temperature of the casted slurry during drying. The casted slurry may be observed with an optical microscope, while applying the drying conditions from the experimental model. Observing the casted slurry includes detecting the incidence of micro-structural changes in the casted slurry during drying to determine if the drying conditions from the experimental model are optimal.

  10. Protective effect of topically applied polypeptide from Chlamys farreri against ultraviolet radiation-induced chronic skin damage in guinea pig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Mingliang; Cao, Pengli; Yu, Guoying; Zhu, Li; Wang, Yuejun; Wang, Chunbo

    2003-12-01

    Polypeptide from Chlamys farreri (PCF), a topical polypeptide isolated from Chlamys farreri, was used in this experiment aimed to investigate the photoprotective effect of PCF against chronic skin damage induced by ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. The chronic ultraviolet-irradiated guinea pig model was established, and visible changes in the skin including wrinkling, sagging and erythema were observed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) in the dorsal skin were determined using biochemical methods. The results showed: (1) PCF (5 % and 20%) could greatly protect the dorsal skin of guinea pig against wrinkling, sagging and erythema induced by UV radiation in a concentration-dependent manner. (2) PCF could reduce MDA formation in the dorsal skin caused by UV irradiation, while increasing the activities of SOD and GSH-px. (3) The differences among the PCF groups and UV model group were significant ( P<0.05, P<0.01). These results indicated that topical application, of PCF provided broad solar UV spectrum photoprotection; and that the antioxidant property of PCF might play a role in photoprotection.

  11. Slurry transport medium

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, W.; Schiffman, L.

    1980-06-03

    This invention provides for an improvement in slurry transport systems, especially coal slurry lines. Instead of the usual use of fresh water resources which, in some geographic areas, are scarce for slurry transport, concentrated brine is used which is prepared from abundant salt water resources. Because of the higher density of this concentrated brine, it is a superior carrier of pulverized material. It diminishes the separation and settling tendency of slurry components during transport and particularly during shutdown. Other advantages in the use of concentrated brine include: freezing point depression which permits ease of transport during winter and at lower temperatures; dust suppression of stored coal; avoidance of spontaneous combustion of stored coal; inhibit freeze packing of dewatered pipeline coal; and diminished extent of corrosion in ferrous metal pipelines as compared to that which might occur with lower concentration brines. Important in the economy of the process is that the concentrated brine can be recycled. An inexpensive method for producing the concentrated brine is given.

  12. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  13. Cloning. Pigs is pigs.

    PubMed

    Prather, R S

    2000-09-15

    Since the first report of a cloned animal (Dolly the sheep) 3 years ago, cloning mammals has become something of a cottage industry. As Prather discusses in his Perspective, pigs can now be added to the august list of cloned animals, which includes cows, goats, and mice. This is a particularly spectacular achievement because pig cloning has turned out to be notoriously difficult. The pig is also a valuable domestic animal to have cloned because, being physiologically close to humans, its organs can be used in xenotransplantation.

  14. Cloning. Pigs is pigs.

    PubMed

    Prather, R S

    2000-09-15

    Since the first report of a cloned animal (Dolly the sheep) 3 years ago, cloning mammals has become something of a cottage industry. As Prather discusses in his Perspective, pigs can now be added to the august list of cloned animals, which includes cows, goats, and mice. This is a particularly spectacular achievement because pig cloning has turned out to be notoriously difficult. The pig is also a valuable domestic animal to have cloned because, being physiologically close to humans, its organs can be used in xenotransplantation. PMID:11012362

  15. Persistence and Leaching Potential of Microorganisms and Mineral N in Animal Manure Applied to Intact Soil Columns

    PubMed Central

    Forslund, Anita; Bui, Xuan Thanh; Juhler, René K.; Petersen, Søren O.; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the leaching potentials of a phage (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B) and two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, in a liquid fraction of raw pig slurry obtained by solid-liquid separation of this slurry and in this liquid fraction after ozonation, when applied to intact soil columns by subsurface injection. We also compared leaching potentials of surface-applied and subsurface-injected raw slurry. The columns were exposed to irrigation events (3.5-h period at 10 mm h−1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation with collection of leachate. By the end of incubation, the distribution and survival of microorganisms in the soil of each treatment and in nonirrigated columns with injected raw slurry or liquid fraction were determined. E. coli in the leachates was quantified by both plate counts and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid fraction than for raw slurry after the four leaching events. The liquid fraction also resulted in more leaching of all contaminants except Enterococcus species than did raw slurry. Ozonation reduced E. coli leaching only. Injection enhanced the leaching potential of the microorganisms investigated compared to surface application, probably because of a better survival with subsurface injection and a shorter leaching path. PMID:23124240

  16. Persistence and leaching potential of microorganisms and mineral N in animal manure applied to intact soil columns.

    PubMed

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Forslund, Anita; Bui, Xuan Thanh; Juhler, René K; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the leaching potentials of a phage (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B) and two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, in a liquid fraction of raw pig slurry obtained by solid-liquid separation of this slurry and in this liquid fraction after ozonation, when applied to intact soil columns by subsurface injection. We also compared leaching potentials of surface-applied and subsurface-injected raw slurry. The columns were exposed to irrigation events (3.5-h period at 10 mm h(-1)) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation with collection of leachate. By the end of incubation, the distribution and survival of microorganisms in the soil of each treatment and in nonirrigated columns with injected raw slurry or liquid fraction were determined. E. coli in the leachates was quantified by both plate counts and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid fraction than for raw slurry after the four leaching events. The liquid fraction also resulted in more leaching of all contaminants except Enterococcus species than did raw slurry. Ozonation reduced E. coli leaching only. Injection enhanced the leaching potential of the microorganisms investigated compared to surface application, probably because of a better survival with subsurface injection and a shorter leaching path.

  17. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in Soil Columns following Applications of Raw and Separated Liquid Slurries

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, Annette; Amin, M. G. Mostofa

    2012-01-01

    The potential for the transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a 4-week period, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method, although recovery rates were low (<1%). Soil columns with injected liquid slurry leached 73 and 90% more oocysts compared to columns with injected and surface-applied raw slurries, respectively. Among leachate samples containing oocysts, 44/72 samples yielded viable oocysts as determined by a dye permeability assay (DAPI [4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole]/propidium iodide) with the majority (41%) of viable oocysts found in leachate from soil columns with added liquid slurry. The number of viable oocysts was positively correlated (r = 0.63) with the total number of oocysts found. Destructively sampling of the soil columns showed that type of slurry and irrigation played a role in the vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespective of the irrigation status. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether the application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for groundwater contamination compared to application of raw slurry. PMID:22706058

  18. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurries.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Heidi H; Enemark, Heidi L; Olsen, Annette; Amin, M G Mostofa; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-09-01

    The potential for the transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a 4-week period, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method, although recovery rates were low (<1%). Soil columns with injected liquid slurry leached 73 and 90% more oocysts compared to columns with injected and surface-applied raw slurries, respectively. Among leachate samples containing oocysts, 44/72 samples yielded viable oocysts as determined by a dye permeability assay (DAPI [4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole]/propidium iodide) with the majority (41%) of viable oocysts found in leachate from soil columns with added liquid slurry. The number of viable oocysts was positively correlated (r = 0.63) with the total number of oocysts found. Destructively sampling of the soil columns showed that type of slurry and irrigation played a role in the vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespective of the irrigation status. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether the application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for groundwater contamination compared to application of raw slurry.

  19. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurries.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Heidi H; Enemark, Heidi L; Olsen, Annette; Amin, M G Mostofa; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-09-01

    The potential for the transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a 4-week period, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method, although recovery rates were low (<1%). Soil columns with injected liquid slurry leached 73 and 90% more oocysts compared to columns with injected and surface-applied raw slurries, respectively. Among leachate samples containing oocysts, 44/72 samples yielded viable oocysts as determined by a dye permeability assay (DAPI [4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole]/propidium iodide) with the majority (41%) of viable oocysts found in leachate from soil columns with added liquid slurry. The number of viable oocysts was positively correlated (r = 0.63) with the total number of oocysts found. Destructively sampling of the soil columns showed that type of slurry and irrigation played a role in the vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespective of the irrigation status. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether the application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for groundwater contamination compared to application of raw slurry. PMID:22706058

  20. System and method for slurry handling

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Raymond Douglas; Oppenheim, Judith Pauline

    2015-12-29

    A system includes a slurry depressurizing system that includes a liquid expansion system configured to continuously receive a slurry at a first pressure and continuously discharge the slurry at a second pressure. For example, the slurry depressurizing system may include an expansion turbine to expand the slurry from the first pressure to the second pressure.

  1. A single topical dose of erythropoietin applied on a collagen carrier enhances calvarial bone healing in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose The osteogenic potency of erythropoietin (EPO) has been documented. However, its efficacy in a large-animal model has not yet been investigated; nor has a clinically safe dosage. The purpose of this study was to overcome such limitations of previous studies and thereby pave the way for possible clinical application. Our hypothesis was that EPO increases calvarial bone healing compared to a saline control in the same subject. Methods We used a porcine calvarial defect model. In each of 18 pigs, 6 cylindrical defects (diameter: 1 cm; height: 1 cm) were drilled, allowing 3 pairwise comparisons. Treatment consisted of either 900 IU/mL EPO or an equal volume of saline in combination with either autograft, a collagen carrier, or a polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold. After an observation time of 5 weeks, the primary outcome (bone volume fraction (BV/TV)) was assessed with high-resolution quantitative computed tomography. Secondary outcome measures were histomorphometry and blood samples. Results The median BV/TV ratio of the EPO-treated collagen group was 1.06 (CI: 1.02–1.11) relative to the saline-treated collagen group. Histomorphometry showed a similar median effect size, but it did not reach statistical significance. Autograft treatment had excellent healing potential and was able to completely regenerate the bone defect independently of EPO treatment. Bony ingrowth into the PCL scaffold was sparse, both with and without EPO. Neither a substantial systemic effect nor adverse events were observed. The number of blood vessels was similar in EPO-treated defects and saline-treated defects. Interpretation Topical administration of EPO on a collagen carrier moderately increased bone healing. The dosing regime was safe, and could have possible application in the clinical setting. However, in order to increase the clinical relevance, a more potent but still clinically safe dose should be investigated. PMID:24564750

  2. DWPF Frit Slurry Mixing Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.E.

    2001-10-02

    The potential for gel formation in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) frit slurries was studied to determine the impact of a switch to Frit 320 from Frit 200 and the impact of removal of formic acid from the slurry. Frit 131 was also studied for comparison purposes. Switching to Frit 320 and removal of formic acid from the frit slurry did not result in gelling during these tests. However, the leach rate of Frit 320 was similar to Frit 131 and the possibility that gelling could occur with this frit in frit slurries without formic acid cannot be ruled out.

  3. Phosphorus quantity-intensity relationships and agronomic measures of P in surface layers of soil from a long-term slurry experiment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R; Wu, Y

    2001-01-01

    Soils from a long-term slurry experiment established in 1970 at Hillsborough, Northern Ireland, were used in the experiment. The site has a clay loam soil overlying Silurian shale. Seven treatments were used with three replicate plots per treatment. Control plots were treated with mineral fertiliser supplying 200 kg N, 32 kg P and 160 kg K ha(-1) yr(-1). Slurry treatment plots were in two blocks and treated with either pig or cow slurry supplied at 50, 100 or 200 m3 ha(-1) yr(-1). Agronomic measures of P determined on 10-cm soil cores were compared with measured P quantity/intensity (Q/I) parameters from fitted sorption and desorption isotherms. Phosphorus affinity constant was found to be significantly and negatively correlated with P loading of soils. Desorption rate coefficient also increased significantly with increase in P loading from slurry, although there was no significant difference between slurry types (cow vs. pig). In contrast, while agronomic measures of P (water-soluble P, Olsen P, calcium chloride-extractable P, degree of P saturation (DPS)) also correlated significantly with P loading and total P (TP) in the soils, there was a separation and significant differences between the cow and pig slurry treatment blocks, with the former being much lower. Phosphorus inputs to pig slurry treated plots were much higher than to equivalent cow slurry plots over the first 15 years of the study but declined sharply over the most recent 10 years to more or less par. Conventional measures of agronomic P such as Olsen P and DPS, measure only P accumulation over the longer term and indicated only the higher content of P accumulating in soil of pig slurry treatments. Risk of P loss estimated by Q/I parameters appeared to show very similar behaviour between the two slurry types in line with more recent manurial additions but in contradiction of P accumulation statistics.

  4. INEZ, KENTUCKY COAL SLURRY SPILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    On October 11th, 2000, a breach of a coal slurry impoundment released approximately 210 million gallons of coal slurry ( a mixture of fine coal particles, silt, clay, sand and water) into the Big Andy Branch, Wolf Creek, and Coldwater Fork. Approximately 75 river miles were affec...

  5. Effects of dairy slurry on silage fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry to growing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Our objectives were to determine the effects of applying dairy slurry on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa balage. Dairy sl...

  6. Rheometry of natural sediment slurries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, Jon J.; ,

    1993-01-01

    Recent experimental analyses of natural sediment slurries yield diverse results yet exhibit broad commonality of rheological responses under a range of conditions and shear rates. Results show that the relation between shear stress and shear rate is primarily nonlinear, that the relation can display marked hysteresis, that minimum shear stress can occur following yield, that physical properties of slurries are extremely sensitive to sediment concentration, and the concept of slurry yield strength is still debated. New rheometric analyses have probed viscoelastic behavior of sediment slurries. Results show that slurries composed of particles ??? 125 ?? m exhibit viscoelastic responses, and that shear stresses are relaxed over a range of time scales rather than by a single response time.

  7. DEHYDRATION OF DEUTERIUM OXIDE SLURRIES

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, C.F.

    1959-03-10

    A method is presented for recovering heavy water from uranium oxide-- heavy water slurries. The method consists in saturating such slurries with a potassium nitrate-sodium nitrate salt mixture and then allowing the self-heat of the slurry to raise its temperature to a point slightly in excess of 100 deg C, thus effecting complete evaporation of the free heavy water from the slurry. The temperature of the slurry is then allowed to reach 300 to 900 deg C causing fusion of the salt mixture and expulsion of the water of hydration. The uranium may be recovered from the fused salt mixture by treatment with water to leach the soluble salts away from the uranium-containing residue.

  8. Manifold Coal-Slurry Transport System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Estus, J. M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    Feeding several slurry pipes into main pipeline reduces congestion in coal mines. System based on manifold concept: feeder pipelines from each working entry joined to main pipeline that carries coal slurry out of panel and onto surface. Manifold concept makes coal-slurry haulage much simpler than existing slurry systems.

  9. NACA Research on Slurry Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, M L; Olson, W T; Barnett, H C; Breitwieser, R

    1958-01-01

    An extensive program was conducted to investigate the use of concentrated slurries of boron and magnesium in liquid hydrocarbon as fuels for afterburners and ramjet engines. Analytical calculations indicated that magnesium fuel would give greater thrust and that boron fuel would give greater range than are obtainable from jet hydrocarbon fuel alone. It was hoped that the use of these solid elements in slurry form would permit the improvement to be obtained without requiring unconventional fuel systems or combustors. Small ramjet vehicles fueled with magnesium slurry were flown successfully, but the test flights indicated that further improvement of combustors and fuel systems was needed.

  10. Tribological Properties Of Coal Slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Schrubens, Dale L.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes study of tribological properties of coal/methanol slurries with pin-on-disk tribometer. Coefficients of friction, rates of wear of steel pin, and morphological studies of worn surfaces conducted on pins and disks of AISI 440C HT stainless steel and M-50 tool steel, both used as bearing steels. Coal slurries considered as replacement fuels in terrestrial oil-burning facilities and possible fuels for future aircraft turbine engines. Rates of wear of metallic components through which slurries flow limit such practical applications.

  11. A Novel Type of Environmentally Friendly Slurry Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, Xabier; Galetz, Mathias C.; Schütze, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A variety of commercial slurries are available to aluminize the surfaces of nickel-based superalloys; however, they have three main disadvantages. First, the phosphates and chromates or halides used as binders or to activate the diffusion species are environmentally harmful and toxic; second, the slurry coatings can only produce high-aluminum-activity coatings which form precipitate-rich coatings that are detrimental to adherence. Finally, these coatings are limited to the incorporation of aluminum and silicon, whereas the co-deposition of other elements such as chromium or cobalt has not been achieved so far. In this work, the limitations of slurry coatings have been overcome by carefully designing the powder composition and controlling the process to produce co-deposition coatings with chromium, cobalt, or nickel by using nontoxic water-based slurries. This also opens an effective way to control Al activity and to produce low-activity aluminized coatings for the first time when using the slurry technique. These results expand the application range of slurry coatings so they can also be applied under ambient atmosphere, making it possible to fully coat aero engine pieces or large-scale industrial components, providing all properties that are usually only achieved by using more complex and expensive methods such as chemical vapor deposition. Furthermore, these new coatings offer unique advantages that can be very favorable especially as a repairing technique.

  12. Development of ice slurry for cold storage of foods in wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Kaneko, Atsushi; Teraoka, Yoshikazu; Igarashi, Yoshito

    In order to popularize use of ice slurry, authors have been proposed application of ice slurry to cold storage of foods in place of an air conditioning. For use of the ice slurry in the wide temperature range a new harmless ice slurry to human being was developed by cooling a W/O emulsion made from tap water-edible oil mixture with small amounts of edible emulsifier and food additive. The edible emulsifier is essential to form W/O emulsion, and the food additive is used to dissolve in tap water. In this paper the optimal concentrations of emulsifiers were determined, and the fundamental characteristics such as viscosity, effective latent heat of fusion and usable temperature of ice slurry were clarified. Finally, it was concluded that new ice slurry could be fully applied to cold storage of foods in the wide temperature range because its lower limit usable temperature was about -18°C.

  13. Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactor modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Soong, Y.; Gamwo, I.K.; Harke, F.W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports experimental and theoretical results on hydrodynamic studies. The experiments were conducted in a hot-pressurized Slurry-Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). It includes experimental results of Drakeol-10 oil/nitrogen/glass beads hydrodynamic study and the development of an ultrasonic technique for measuring solids concentration. A model to describe the flow behavior in reactors was developed. The hydrodynamic properties in a 10.16 cm diameter bubble column with a perforated-plate gas distributor were studied at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.36 MPa, and at temperatures from 20 to 200{degrees}C, using a dual hot-wire probe with nitrogen, glass beads, and Drakeol-10 oil as the gas, solid, and liquid phase, respectively. It was found that the addition of 20 oil wt% glass beads in the system has a slight effect on the average gas holdup and bubble size. A well-posed three-dimensional model for bed dynamics was developed from an ill-posed model. The new model has computed solid holdup distributions consistent with experimental observations with no artificial {open_quotes}fountain{close_quotes} as predicted by the earlier model. The model can be applied to a variety of multiphase flows of practical interest. An ultrasonic technique is being developed to measure solids concentration in a three-phase slurry reactor. Preliminary measurements have been made on slurries consisting of molten paraffin wax, glass beads, and nitrogen bubbles at 180 {degrees}C and 0.1 MPa. The data show that both the sound speed and attenuation are well-defined functions of both the solid and gas concentrations in the slurries. The results suggest possibilities to directly measure solids concentration during the operation of an autoclave reactor containing molten wax.

  14. Technical Report on NETL's Non Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Workshop: A path forward to understanding non-Newtonian multiphase slurry flows

    SciTech Connect

    Edited by Guenther, Chris; Garg, Rahul

    2013-08-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.

  15. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOEpatents

    Platt, R.J.; Shadbolt, E.A.

    1983-11-08

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces. 5 figs.

  16. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOEpatents

    Platt, Robert J.; Shadbolt, Edward A.

    1983-01-01

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces.

  17. Medical ice slurry production device

    DOEpatents

    Kasza, Kenneth E.; Oras, John; Son, HyunJin

    2008-06-24

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

  18. Comparative testing of slurry monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.; Anderson, M.S.; Van Essen, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses.

  19. Fate and transport of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in soil and runoff following land application of swine manure slurry.

    PubMed

    Joy, Stacey R; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Snow, Daniel D; Gilley, John E; Woodbury, Bryan L; Parker, David B; Marx, David B; Li, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Due to the use of antimicrobials in livestock production, residual antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) could enter the environment following the land application of animal wastes and could further contaminate surface and groundwater. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various manure land application methods on the fate and transport of antimicrobials and ARGs in soil and runoff following land application of swine manure slurry. Swine manure slurries were obtained from facilities housing pigs that were fed chlortetracyline, tylosin or bacitracin and were land applied via broadcast, incorporation, and injection methods. Three rainfall simulation tests were then performed on amended and control plots. Results show that land application methods had no statistically significant effect on the aqueous concentrations of antimicrobials in runoff. However, among the three application methods tested broadcast resulted in the highest total mass loading of antimicrobials in runoff from the three rainfall simulation tests. The aqueous concentrations of chlortetracyline and tylosin in runoff decreased in consecutive rainfall events, although the trend was only statistically significant for tylosin. For ARGs, broadcast resulted in significantly higher erm genes in runoff than did incorporation and injection methods. In soil, the effects of land application methods on the fate of antimicrobials in top soil were compound specific. No clear trend was observed in the ARG levels in soil, likely because different host cells may respond differently to the soil environments created by various land application methods.

  20. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, Robert E.; Basic, Steven L.; Smith, Russel M.

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  1. Effects of dairy slurry on silage fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Muck, R E; Borchardt, M A; Spencer, S K; Jokela, W E; Bertram, M G; Coffey, K P

    2014-11-01

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry to growing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Our objectives were to determine the effects of applying dairy slurry on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa balage. Dairy slurry was applied to 0.17-ha plots of alfalfa; applications were made to the second (HARV1) and third (HARV2) cuttings during June and July of 2012, respectively, at mean rates of 42,400 ± 5271 and 41,700 ± 2397 L/ha, respectively. Application strategies included (1) no slurry, (2) slurry applied directly to stubble immediately after the preceding harvest, (3) slurry applied after 1 wk of post-ensiled regrowth, or (4) slurry applied after 2 wk of regrowth. All harvested forage was packaged in large, rectangular bales that were ensiled as wrapped balage. Yields of DM harvested from HARV1 (2,477 kg/ha) and HARV2 (781 kg/ha) were not affected by slurry application treatment. By May 2013, all silages appeared to be well preserved, with no indication of undesirable odors characteristic of clostridial fermentations. Clostridium tyrobutyricum, which is known to negatively affect cheese production, was not detected in any forage on either a pre- or post-ensiled basis. On a pre-ensiled basis, counts for Clostridium cluster 1 were greater for slurry-applied plots than for those receiving no slurry, and this response was consistent for HARV1 (4.44 vs. 3.29 log10 genomic copies/g) and HARV2 (4.99 vs. 3.88 log10 genomic copies/g). Similar responses were observed on a post-ensiled basis; however, post-ensiled counts also were greater for HARV1 (5.51 vs. 5.17 log10 genomic copies/g) and HARV2 (5.84 vs. 5.28 log10 genomic copies/g) when slurry was applied to regrowth compared with stubble. For HARV2, counts also were greater following a 2-wk application delay compared with a 1-wk delay (6.23 vs. 5.45 log10 genomic copies/g). These results suggest that the risk of clostridial

  2. The effect of long or chopped straw on pig behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lahrmann, H P; Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H; Nielsen, M B F; D'Eath, R B

    2015-05-01

    In the EU, pigs must have permanent access to manipulable materials such as straw, rope, wood, etc. Long straw can fulfil this function, but can increase labour requirements for cleaning pens, and result in problems with blocked slatted floors and slurry systems. Chopped straw might be more practical, but what is the effect on pigs' behaviour of using chopped straw instead of long straw? Commercial pigs in 1/3 slatted, 2/3 solid pens of 15 pigs were provided with either 100 g/pig per day of long straw (20 pens) or of chopped straw (19 pens). Behavioural observations were made of three focal pigs per pen (one from each of small, medium and large weight tertiles) for one full day between 0600 and 2300 h at each of ~40 and ~80 kg. The time spent rooting/investigating overall (709 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 533 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), or directed to the straw/solid floor (497 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 343 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), was not affected by straw length but reduced with age. Time spent investigating other pigs (83 s/pig per hour at 40 kg), the slatted floor (57 s/pig per hour) or pen fixtures (21 s/pig per hour) was not affected by age or straw length. Aggressive behaviour was infrequent, but lasted about twice as long in pens with chopped straw (2.3 s/pig per hour at 40 kg) compared with pens with long straw (1.0 s/pig per hour at 40 kg, P=0.060). There were no significant effects of straw length on tail or ear lesions, but shoulders were significantly more likely to have minor scratches with chopped straw (P=0.031), which may reflect the higher levels of aggression. Smaller pigs showed more rooting/investigatory behaviour, and in particular directed towards the straw/solid floor and the slatted floor than their larger pen-mates. Females exhibited more straw and pen fixture-directed behaviour than males. There were no effects of pig size or sex on behaviour directed towards other pigs. In summary, pigs spent similar amounts of time interacting with straw

  3. Distribution of phosphorus in manure slurry and its infiltration after application to soils.

    PubMed

    Vadas, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    Computer models help identify agricultural areas where P transport potential is high, but commonly used models do not simulate surface application of manures and P transport from manures to runoff. As part of an effort to model such P transport, we conducted manure slurry separation and soil infiltration experiments to determine how much slurry P infiltrates into soil after application but before rain, thus becoming less available to runoff. We applied dairy and swine slurry to soil columns and after both 24 and 96 h analyzed solids remaining on the soil surface for dry matter, total phosphorus (TP), and water-extractable inorganic (WEIP) and organic (WEOP) phosphorus. We analyzed underlying soils for Mehlich-3 and water-extractable P. We also conducted slurry separation experiments by sieving, centrifuging, and suction-filtering to determine which method could easily estimate slurry P infiltration into soils. About 20% of slurry solids and 40 to 65% of slurry TP and WEIP infiltrated into soil after application, rendering this P less available to transport in runoff. Slurry separation by suction-filtering through a screen with 0.75-mm-diameter openings was the best method to estimate this slurry P infiltration. Measured quantities of manure WEOP changed too much during experiments to estimate WEOP infiltration into soil or what separation method can approximate infiltration. Applying slurries to soils always increased soil P in the top 0 to 1 cm of soil, frequently in the 1- to 2-cm depth of soil, but rarely below 2 cm. Future research should use soils with coarser texture or large macropores, and slurry with low dry matter content (1-2%).

  4. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOEpatents

    Tao, John C.

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  5. Reduction of ammonia emission by shallow slurry injection: injection efficiency and additional energy demand.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Martin N; Sommer, Sven G; Madsen, Niels P

    2003-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from livestock production causes undesirable environmental effects and a loss of plant-available nitrogen. Much atmospheric NH3 is lost from livestock manure applied in the field. The NH3 emission may be reduced by slurry injection, but slurry injection in general, and especially on grassland, increases the energy demand and places heavy demands on the slurry injection techniques used. The reduction in NH3 emission, injection efficiency, and energy demand of six different shallow slurry-injection techniques was examined. The NH3 emission from cattle slurry applied to grassland was reduced by all the injectors tested in the study, but there were major differences in the NH3 reduction potential of the different types of injectors. Compared with the trailing hose spreading technique, the NH3 loss was reduced by 75% when cattle slurry was injected using the most efficient slurry injection technique, and by 20% when incorporated by the least efficient injection technique. The reduction in NH3 emission was correlated with injection depth and the volume of the slot created. The additional energy demand for reducing ammonia emissions by slurry injection was approximately 13 000 kJ ha(-1) for a 20% reduction and 34 000 kJ ha(-1) for a 75% reduction. The additional energy demand corresponds to additional emissions of, respectively, 5.6 and 14.5 kg CO2 per ha injected.

  6. Microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liandong; Yan, Cheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-11-01

    Microalgal growth requires a substantial amount of chemical fertilizers. An alternative to the utilization of fertilizer is to apply biogas slurry produced through anaerobic digestion to cultivate microalgae for the production of biofuels. Plenty of studies have suggested that anaerobic digestate containing high nutrient contents is a potentially feasible nutrient source to culture microalgae. However, current literature indicates a lack of review available regarding microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for the production of biofuels. To help fill this gap, this review highlights the integration of digestate nutrient management with microalgal production. It first unveils the current status of microalgal production, providing basic background to the topic. Subsequently, microalgal cultivation technologies using biogas slurry are discussed in detail. A scale-up scheme for simultaneous biogas upgrade and digestate application through microalgal cultivation is then proposed. Afterwards, several uncertainties that might affect this practice are explored. Finally, concluding remarks are put forward. PMID:27599623

  7. Microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liandong; Yan, Cheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-11-01

    Microalgal growth requires a substantial amount of chemical fertilizers. An alternative to the utilization of fertilizer is to apply biogas slurry produced through anaerobic digestion to cultivate microalgae for the production of biofuels. Plenty of studies have suggested that anaerobic digestate containing high nutrient contents is a potentially feasible nutrient source to culture microalgae. However, current literature indicates a lack of review available regarding microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for the production of biofuels. To help fill this gap, this review highlights the integration of digestate nutrient management with microalgal production. It first unveils the current status of microalgal production, providing basic background to the topic. Subsequently, microalgal cultivation technologies using biogas slurry are discussed in detail. A scale-up scheme for simultaneous biogas upgrade and digestate application through microalgal cultivation is then proposed. Afterwards, several uncertainties that might affect this practice are explored. Finally, concluding remarks are put forward.

  8. Redistribution and persistence of microorganisms and steroid hormones after soil-injection of swine slurry.

    PubMed

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Bech, Tina B; Forslund, Anita; Hansen, Martin; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The redistribution and fate of contaminants in pig slurry after direct injection were investigated at two field sites, Silstrup (sandy clay loam) and Estrup (sandy loam), in Denmark. Intact soil samples were collected for up to seven weeks after slurry injection and concentrations of Salmonella Typhimurium Bacteriophage 28B (phage 28B), Escherichia coli, steroid hormones and other slurry components (water, volatile solids, chloride and mineral N) determined in and around the injection slit. The two experiments at Silstrup and Estrup differed with respect to slurry solid content (6.3 vs. 0.8%), as well as soil clay content (27 vs. 15%) and differed considerably with respect to the initial redistribution of slurry-borne contaminants in soil. The transport of microorganisms from the slurry injection slit to the surrounding soil was much lower than that of mineral N and chloride due to attachment and entrapment. The redistribution of E. coli was more affected by site-specific conditions compared to phage 28B, possibly due to the larger cell size of E. coli. The overall recovery of phage 28B was 0.8-4%, and of E. coli 0.0-1.3% in different samples, by the end of the study. Nine different steroid hormones were detected in the slurry slit, and a slow redistribution to the surrounding soil was observed. Overall recovery of estrogens was 0.0 to 6.6% in different samples. The study showed that the combination of soil and slurry properties determined the initial spreading of contaminants, and hence the potential for subsequent leaching.

  9. Odor characterization from barns and slurry treatment facilities at a commercial swine facility in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Lee, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Bo-Won; Cho, Sung-Back; Hwang, Ok-Hwa; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, emission characteristics of major odorants in pig confinement facilities were investigated through comparative analysis between odorant composition and odor intensity. Odorant samples in ambient air were collected from five different paired sampling sites: (1) in- and outside of windowless pig barn, (2) in- and outside of open pig barn, (3) before/after slurry treatment (via liquid fertilization), (4) before/after composting, and (5) two reference background sites on a pig confinement facility. A total of 47 compounds consisting of key offensive odorants (such as reduced sulfur and volatile organic compounds) were measured from each selected site. When the results are compared in terms of odor intensity, a list of odorants (sulfur compounds, volatile fatty acids, phenols, and indoles) were generally seen at enhanced levels on most sites. In two types of pig barn facilities (windowless ('W') and open ('O')), butyric and valeric acid were the predominant species. The removal efficiency of odorants was quite different between the two slurry treatment approaches of composting and liquid fertilization. Although the efficiencies of odor removal in the former were not sufficient, that of the latter was fairly significant in terms of odor intensity. However, some odorants like hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, p-cresol, and butyric acid were still retained above the odor threshold level. Accordingly, odorant emissions from animal housing facilities can be characterized most effectively by key odorants such as volatile fatty acids and reduced sulfur species.

  10. Loose abrasive slurries for optical glass lapping

    SciTech Connect

    Neauport, Jerome; Destribats, Julie; Maunier, Cedric; Ambard, Chrystel; Cormont, Philippe; Pintault, B.; Rondeau, Olivier

    2010-10-20

    Loose abrasive lapping is widely used to prepare optical glass before its final polishing. We carried out a comparison of 20 different slurries from four different vendors. Slurry particle sizes and morphologies were measured. Fused silica samples were lapped with these different slurries on a single side polishing machine and characterized in terms of surface roughness and depth of subsurface damage (SSD). Effects of load, rotation speed, and slurry concentration during lapping on roughness, material removal rate, and SSD were investigated.

  11. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SLURRY BIODEGRADATION, International Technology Corporation

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technology uses a slurry-phase bioreactor in which the soil is mixed with water to form a slurry. Microorganisms and nutrients are added to the slurry to enhance the biodegradation process, which converts organic wastes into relatively harmless byproducts of microbial metabo...

  12. Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Balsavich, John

    1991-01-01

    A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

  13. Microparticulate ICE slurry for renal hypothermia: laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in a porcine model.

    SciTech Connect

    Shikanov, S; Wille, M; Large, M; Razmaria, A; Lifshitz, D; Chang, A; Wu, Y; Kasza, K; Shalhav, A

    2010-10-01

    Previously, we described the feasibility of renal hypothermia using microparticulate ice slurry during laparoscopy. In the present study, we compared surface cooling with the ice slurry versus near-frozen saline or warm ischemia (WI) during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in a porcine model. We used a single-kidney porcine model. Animals in 5 equal groups (n = 6 each) underwent right laparoscopic complete nephrectomy. In Phase I, left LPN was performed under 90 minutes of ischemia and 90-minute renal cooling with either slurry (Slurry group 1) or saline (Saline group 1). No cooling was applied in the WI group. In Phase II, to simulate more extreme condition, ischemia time was extended to 120 minutes and cooling shortened to 10 minutes (Slurry group 2 and Saline group 2). The study endpoints were renal and core temperature during the surgery and serum creatinine at baseline and days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after the procedure. The ice slurry was easily produced and delivered. Nadir renal temperature (mean {+-} SD) was 8 {+-} 4 C in Slurry group 1 vs. 22.5 {+-} 3 C in Saline group 1 (P < .0001). Renal rewarming to 30 C occurred after 61 {+-} 7 minutes in Slurry group 2 vs. 24 {+-} 6 minutes in Saline group 2 (P < .0001). Core temperature decreased on average to 35 C in the Saline groups compared with 37 C in the Slurry groups (P < .0001). Serum creatinine did not differ between the Saline and Slurry groups in Phases I and II at any time point. Ice slurry provides superior renal cooling compared with near-frozen saline during LPN without associated core hypothermia.

  14. Tribological properties of coal slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.; Schrubens, Dale L.

    1987-01-01

    A pin-on-disk tribometer was used to study the tribological properties of methyl alcohol-coal slurries. Friction coefficients, steel pin wear rates and wear surface morphological studies were conducted on AISI 440C HT and M-50 bearing steels which were slid dry and in solutions of methyl alcohol, methyl alcohol-fine coal particles, and methyl alcohol-fine coal particles-flocking additive. The latter was an oil derived from coal and originally intended to be added to the coal slurry to improve the sedimentation and rheology properties. The results of this study indicated that the addition of the flocking additive to the coal slurry markedly improved the tribological properties, especially wear. In addition, the type of steel was found to be very important in determining the type of wear that took place. Cracks and pits were found on the M-50 steel pin wear surfaces that slid in the coal slurries while 440C HT steel pins showed none.

  15. [Effects of SL-1010 (sodium hyaluronate with high molecular weight) on experimental osteoarthritis induced by intra-articularly applied papain in guinea pigs].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Kitoh, Y; Katsuramaki, T; Tanaka, M; Kitabayashi, N; Fujimori, S; Umemoto, J; Namba, K

    1992-07-01

    Effects of SL-1010 on the experimental osteoarthritis (OA) produced by intra-articular injection of papain, proteolytic enzyme, in the knee joint of the guinea pigs were histologically and biochemically investigated. In addition, experimental conditions to produce OA in guinea pig knee joint were also examined, since papain-induced OA has been mainly studied in rabbits. Six weeks after intra-articular injection of papain (1%, 0.1 ml), there were inflammatory reactions of the synovial membrane, degenerative changes in chondrocytes and the matrix of the articular cartilage, a decrease in the Safranin-O staining intensity and lowering of sulfated glycosaminoglycan. Electronmicroscopic observations revealed that the amorphous layer had disappeared and large bundles of unit collagen fibers and larger collagen fibers had appeared in the cartilage matrix. In the OA model, SL-1010 reduced the inflammatory reactions of the synovial membrane, inhibited development of degenerative changes in chondrocytes and the matrix of the articular cartilage and recovered the Safranin-O staining intensity. The sulfated glycosaminoglycan contents in the cartilage was significantly increased in the SL-1010-treated group, compared with the control group. The electromicroscopically observed charges in the papain-injected knee joint of the control group were rarely detected in the SL-1010-treated group. These results suggest that SL-1010 inhibits degenerative changes in the chondrocytes and the matrix probably by reducing synovial inflammation and protection of the cartilage in the OA model of guinea pigs.

  16. The secondary slurry-zinc/air battery

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra Alcazar, H.B.; Nguyen, P.D.; Mason, G.E.; Pinoli, A.A. )

    1989-07-01

    The rechargeability of the slurry-Zn/air battery was demonstrated with a practical recharge cell that requires minimal hydraulic and mechanical energy for operation. A dendritic Zn was deposited on a Mg plate substrate from which it was easily, periodically and automatically scraped to regenerate dendritic Zn slurries. Excellent discharge results were obtained with the regenerated dendritic Zn slurry, comparable to those obtained with slurries made with mixtures of Zn powder. The dendritic Zn slurry allowed, however, twice the utilization of Zn. 13 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Reduced ammonia emissions from slurry after self-acidification with organic supplements.

    PubMed

    Clemens, J; Bergmann, S; Vandré, R

    2002-04-01

    Ammonia volatilisation from field applied slurries causes environmental hazards and loss of fertilizer value. Acidification of slurry, usually with inorganic or organic acids has previously been used to reduce NH3 emissions. In this study, we present an alternative technique for the acidification of slurry, namely the use of fermentation by endogenous microbes to form organic acids from readily degradable organic compounds. In laboratory experiments, the addition of different sugars (sucrose in dosages of 0.003, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 mol l(-1), glucose in dosages of 0.05 and 0.1 mol l(-1)) and organic residues (sugar beet residues in dosages of 33 and 330 g fresh weight l(-1), biowaste at 50 g fresh weight l(-1)) to cattle slurry resulted in a considerable decrease in pH, with a minimum pH of 4.7. A subsequent pH increase indicated that the organic acids were probably further degraded with a resultant loss of acidity in the slurry. In a field study, the NH3 emissions from untreated and acidified (pH = 6) slurries were compared after field application (20 m3 ha(-1)). During the first 20 hours, the acidified slurry showed NH3 emissions of less than 5% of the applied ammonia compared to a 26% loss from the untreated slurry. The total emissions of NH4+-N were 32% for acidified and 54% for untreated slurry. Easily degradable organic amendments therefore have the potential to effectively reduce NH3 emissions from slurries and may be an alternative for the use of acids. PMID:12088370

  18. Coal slurries: An environmental bonus

    SciTech Connect

    Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

    1994-05-01

    Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference.

  19. Effects of intraoperatively applied glucocorticoid-hydrogels on residual hearing and foreign-body reaction in a guinea pig model of cochlear implantation

    PubMed Central

    Honeder, Clemens; Landegger, Lukas David; Engleder, Elisabeth; Gabor, Franz; Plasenzotti, Roberto; Plenk, Hanns; Kaider, Alexandra; Hirtler, Lena; Gstoettner, Wolfgang; Arnoldner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion The intraoperative application of glucocorticoid-loaded hydrogels seems to cause a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. No beneficial effect on hearing thresholds was detected. Objectives To evaluate the application of dexamethasone- and triamcinolone-acetonide- loaded hydrogels for effects on hearing-preservation and foreign-body reaction in a guinea pig model for cochlear implantation. Methods 48 guinea pigs (n= 12/group) were implanted with a single channel electrode and intraoperatively treated with 50 µl of a 20% w/v poloxamer 407 hydrogel loaded with 6% dexamethasone or 30% triamcinolone-acetonide, a control hydrogel, or physiological saline. Click- and tone burst-evoked compound action potential thresholds were determined pre- and directly postoperatively as well as on days 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. At the end of the experiment, temporal bones prepared for histological evaluation by a grinding/polishing technique with the electrode in situ. Three ears per treatment group were serially sectioned and evaluated for histological alterations. Results The intratympanic application of glucocorticoid-loaded hydrogels did not improve the preservation of residual hearing in this cochlear implant model. The foreign body reaction to the electrode appeared reduced in the glucocorticoid treated animals. No correlation was found between the histologically described trauma to the inner ear and the resulting hearing threshold-shifts. PMID:25720453

  20. [Wastewater pollution characteristics from typical intensive pig farms in the Pearl River Delta and its ecological risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Ying; Peng, Zhi-Ping; Yu, Jun-Hong; Huang, Ji-Chuan; Xu, Pei-Zhi; Yang, Shao-Hai

    2013-10-01

    Based on the wastewater quality investigation data from March 2009 to November 2011, wastewater qualities from typical intensive pig farms were assessed in the Pearl River Delta by single and comprehensive pollution index model. The results showed that key pollutants of piggery wastewater were fecal coliform (FC), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), with their average mass concentrations of 1.98 x 10(9) CFU.L-1, 158.61 mg.L-1, 5 608.68 mg.L-1 and 1984.34 mg.L-1, respectively; key pollutants of biogas slurry were FC, TP, ammonia nitrogen (NH+4 -N) and suspended substance (SS), with their average mass concentrations of 8. 10 x 10(6) CFU.L-1, 81.76 mg.L-1, 476.24 mg.L-1 and 464.58 mg.L-1, respectively. Under the effect of wastewater pollutants, environment surrounding of typical intensive pig farms was seriously polluted, which decreased gradually from piggery wastewater to biogas slurry, and comprehensive pollution indices were 11.41, 6.91, 5.27, respectively. The risk analysis showed that the high-risk wastewater could never be discharged directly and irrigated crops. After the anaerobic treatment, FC, TP, NH+4 -N and SS were still strong factors with the potential ecological risk in the biogas slurry. In the long run, the ecological risk still exists for direct discharge or irrigation of them, and it is necessary to apply further treatment.

  1. [Wastewater pollution characteristics from typical intensive pig farms in the Pearl River Delta and its ecological risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Ying; Peng, Zhi-Ping; Yu, Jun-Hong; Huang, Ji-Chuan; Xu, Pei-Zhi; Yang, Shao-Hai

    2013-10-01

    Based on the wastewater quality investigation data from March 2009 to November 2011, wastewater qualities from typical intensive pig farms were assessed in the Pearl River Delta by single and comprehensive pollution index model. The results showed that key pollutants of piggery wastewater were fecal coliform (FC), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), with their average mass concentrations of 1.98 x 10(9) CFU.L-1, 158.61 mg.L-1, 5 608.68 mg.L-1 and 1984.34 mg.L-1, respectively; key pollutants of biogas slurry were FC, TP, ammonia nitrogen (NH+4 -N) and suspended substance (SS), with their average mass concentrations of 8. 10 x 10(6) CFU.L-1, 81.76 mg.L-1, 476.24 mg.L-1 and 464.58 mg.L-1, respectively. Under the effect of wastewater pollutants, environment surrounding of typical intensive pig farms was seriously polluted, which decreased gradually from piggery wastewater to biogas slurry, and comprehensive pollution indices were 11.41, 6.91, 5.27, respectively. The risk analysis showed that the high-risk wastewater could never be discharged directly and irrigated crops. After the anaerobic treatment, FC, TP, NH+4 -N and SS were still strong factors with the potential ecological risk in the biogas slurry. In the long run, the ecological risk still exists for direct discharge or irrigation of them, and it is necessary to apply further treatment. PMID:24364317

  2. Leaching of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Escherichia coli, and a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage through intact soil cores following surface application and injection of slurry.

    PubMed

    Forslund, Anita; Markussen, Bo; Toenner-Klank, Lise; Bech, Tina B; Jacobsen, Ole Stig; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2011-11-01

    Increasing amounts of livestock manure are being applied to agricultural soil, but it is unknown to what extent this may be associated with contamination of aquatic recipients and groundwater if microorganisms are transported through the soil under natural weather conditions. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate how injection and surface application of pig slurry on intact sandy clay loam soil cores influenced the leaching of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. All three microbial tracers were detected in the leachate on day 1, and the highest relative concentration was detected on the fourth day (0.1 pore volume). Although the concentration of the phage 28B declined over time, the phage was still found in leachate at day 148. C. parvum oocysts and chloride had an additional rise in the relative concentration at a 0.5 pore volume, corresponding to the exchange of the total pore volume. The leaching of E. coli was delayed compared with that of the added microbial tracers, indicating a stronger attachment to slurry particles, but E. coli could be detected up to 3 months. Significantly enhanced leaching of phage 28B and oocysts by the injection method was seen, whereas leaching of the indigenous E. coli was not affected by the application method. Preferential flow was the primary transport vehicle, and the diameter of the fractures in the intact soil cores facilitated transport of all sizes of microbial tracers under natural weather conditions. PMID:21948848

  3. Leaching of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Escherichia coli, and a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage through intact soil cores following surface application and injection of slurry.

    PubMed

    Forslund, Anita; Markussen, Bo; Toenner-Klank, Lise; Bech, Tina B; Jacobsen, Ole Stig; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2011-11-01

    Increasing amounts of livestock manure are being applied to agricultural soil, but it is unknown to what extent this may be associated with contamination of aquatic recipients and groundwater if microorganisms are transported through the soil under natural weather conditions. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate how injection and surface application of pig slurry on intact sandy clay loam soil cores influenced the leaching of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. All three microbial tracers were detected in the leachate on day 1, and the highest relative concentration was detected on the fourth day (0.1 pore volume). Although the concentration of the phage 28B declined over time, the phage was still found in leachate at day 148. C. parvum oocysts and chloride had an additional rise in the relative concentration at a 0.5 pore volume, corresponding to the exchange of the total pore volume. The leaching of E. coli was delayed compared with that of the added microbial tracers, indicating a stronger attachment to slurry particles, but E. coli could be detected up to 3 months. Significantly enhanced leaching of phage 28B and oocysts by the injection method was seen, whereas leaching of the indigenous E. coli was not affected by the application method. Preferential flow was the primary transport vehicle, and the diameter of the fractures in the intact soil cores facilitated transport of all sizes of microbial tracers under natural weather conditions.

  4. Using Ultrasound to Characterize Pulp Slurries with Entrained Air

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.

    2006-08-06

    The development of fast and practical methods for inspecting fiber suspensions is of great interest in the paper making industry. For process control and paper quality prediction, several elements of the refining process during paper making must be accurately monitored, including specific fiber properties, weight percent fiber (composition), degree of refining, amount of solids, and entrained air content. The results of previous ultrasonic studies applied to wood pulp provide guidance that ultrasound attenuation is information rich, and it does potentially provide a tool for consistency measurement. Ultrasound has the ability to penetrate dense suspensions such as wood pulp slurries. It is has been shown, in some studies, that ultrasound is sensitive to degree of refining. The effects of entrained air, additives, the origin and treatment of the fibers do however all influence the measured data. A series of measurements were made with hardwood and softwood slurries to evaluate the ability of measuring pulp consistency, solids, and entrained air. The attenuation through the slurry was measured as the ultrasound travels from one transducer through the slurry to the other. The measurements identified the presence of entrained air in the pulp samples. To better understand the effects of air, measurements were made at increasing pressures to show how increased pressure reduced the amount of air observed in the spectrum.

  5. GPR measurements for the distribution of thixotropic slurry behind segments in large diameter and long distance pipe-jacking construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yonghui; Wu, Jiansheng; Xie, Xiongyao; Zeng, Chenchao

    2013-04-01

    domain reflectometer (TDR). The velocity of propagation in slurry is calculated by dielectric characteristics, which extremely improves the resolution of time-depth conversion. Some process methods, including moving average, AGC and migration, have been applied to improve the quality of each GPR images. It's possible to recognize the reflection wave from the slurry-soil interface from the processed images. Combined the exact velocity estimation, the two-way travel time between pipe-slurry and slurry-soil interfaces can be converted to the thickness of the slurry ring. The experiment results show that GPR is able to evaluate the distribution of the liquid thixotropic slurry behind pipe segments in large diameter and long distance jacking. The velocity measured by TDR can significantly reduce the error caused by the time-depth conversion.

  6. Effect of temperature and water on gaseous emissions from soils treated with animal slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Maag, M.; Vinther, F.P.

    1999-08-01

    Microbial respiration and denitrification are greatly affected by abiotic factors, but they are difficult to assess in natural environments. Under controlled conditions the interactions between temperature and soil water content on microbial respiration, N{sub 2}O production, and denitrification in soil amended with animal slurries were studied. The effects of the abiotic factors on the biological processes were monitored for 8 wk in repacked soil cores amended with pig or cattle slurry. The soil cores were incubated at 43, 57, and 72% water-filled pore space (WFPS) and at 10, 15, and 20 C with or without addition of 10% acetylene. The amount of N{sub 2}O lost at 72% WFPS corresponded to 8 to 22% of the slurry's NH{sub 4}{sup +} content, but for only 0.01 to 1.2% at 43 to 57% WFPS. The amount of available C accounted for by denitrification was 8 to 16% of total respiration at 72% WFPS, but only 0.03 to 0.4% at 43 to 57% WFPS. Both N{sub 2}O production and denitrification peaked earlier in the cattle-slurry treated soil than in the pig-slurry treated soil, whereas the total N loss was greatest from the latter. Neither amendments nor soil water contents seemed to affect the Q{sub 10}-values for the CO{sub 2} production, resulting in values between 1.6 and 2.6. At 72% WFPS, N{sub 2}O production and denitrification had Q{sub 10}-values ranging between 3.3 and 5.4. High temperatures enhanced both aerobic respiration and denitrification, and aerobic respiration further enhanced denitrification by consuming oxygen, resulting in strong sensitivity of denitrification to temperature.

  7. High temperature well bore cement slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Nahm, J.J.W.; Vinegar, H.J.; Karanikas, J.M.; Wyant, R.E.

    1993-07-13

    A low density well bore cement slurry composition is described suitable for cementing well bores with high reservoir temperatures comprising: (a) a high alumina cement in an amount of about 40 pounds per barrel of slurry or greater: (b) graphite in an amount greater than about one quarter, by volume, of the solids in the cement slurry; and (c) and a carrier fluid comprising drilling mud.

  8. BOILING SLURRY REACTOR AND METHOD FO CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Petrick, M.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1963-05-01

    The control of a boiling slurry nuclear reactor is described. The reactor consists of a vertical tube having an enlarged portion, a steam drum at the top of the vertical tube, and at least one downcomer connecting the steam drum and the bottom of the vertical tube, the reactor being filled with a slurry of fissionabie material in water of such concentration that the enlarged portion of the vertical tube contains a critical mass. The slurry boils in the vertical tube and circulates upwardly therein and downwardly in the downcomer. To control the reactor by controlling the circulation of the slurry, a gas is introduced into the downcomer. (AEC)

  9. [Effects of combined application of biogas slurry and chemical fertilizer on winter wheat rhizosphere soil microorganisms and enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Guan, Tao; Wang, Xiao-yu; Zhu, Yun-ji; Guo, Tian-cai

    2011-04-01

    This paper studied the effects of combined application of biogas slurry and chemical fertilizer under same N application rate on the quantities of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi as well as the activities of urease, protease and catalase in winter wheat rhizosphere soil. With the growth of winter wheat, the quantities of test microorganisms and the activities of urease and catalase showed a trend of increasing after an initial decrease, while the protease activity showed an S-type change. Combined application of biogas slurry and chemical fertilizer increased the quantities of test microorganisms significantly, and improved the activities of soil urease and protease. Applying 50% biogas slurry N as basal plus 50% chemical N as topdressing and applying 25% biogas slurry N as basal plus 75% chemical N as topdressing had the best effect, while applying single conventional urea or biogas slurry had the worst effect. At all growth stages, the activity of soil catalase was the highest in treatments 25% biogas slurry N as basal plus 75% chemical N as topdressing and single biogas slurry, but had greater differences in other treatments among the growth stages. The results suggested that proper biogas slurry application combined with chemical fertilization could increase the microbial quantity and enzyme activities in winter wheat rhizosphere soil.

  10. Pigs taking wing with transposons and recombinases

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Karl J; Carlson, Daniel F; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Swine production has been an important part of our lives since the late Mesolithic or early Neolithic periods, and ranks number one in world meat production. Pig production also contributes to high-value-added medical markets in the form of pharmaceuticals, heart valves, and surgical materials. Genetic engineering, including the addition of exogenous genetic material or manipulation of the endogenous genome, holds great promise for changing pig phenotypes for agricultural and medical applications. Although the first transgenic pigs were described in 1985, poor survival of manipulated embryos; inefficiencies in the integration, transmission, and expression of transgenes; and expensive husbandry costs have impeded the widespread application of pig genetic engineering. Sequencing of the pig genome and advances in reproductive technologies have rejuvenated efforts to apply transgenesis to swine. Pigs provide a compelling new resource for the directed production of pharmaceutical proteins and the provision of cells, vascular grafts, and organs for xenotransplantation. Additionally, given remarkable similarities in the physiology and size of people and pigs, swine will increasingly provide large animal models of human disease where rodent models are insufficient. We review the challenges facing pig transgenesis and discuss the utility of transposases and recombinases for enhancing the success and sophistication of pig genetic engineering. 'The paradise of my fancy is one where pigs have wings.' (GK Chesterton). PMID:18047690

  11. Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.

    2005-09-01

    A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours

  12. Optimizing slurry separation in coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Shved; V.H. Fritsler; V.V. Bukhtiyarov

    2009-05-15

    In processing slurry with cationic polyelectrolytes, the final concentration of the suspended particulates in the water beyond the slurry tank in the coal-preparation shop is no more than 10 mg/l. Consequently, this water may be reused in industrial systems.

  13. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, John W.; Bonin, John H.; Daniel, Arnold D.

    1984-03-27

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

  14. Interactions between soil texture and placement of dairy slurry application: I. Flow characteristics and leaching of nonreactive components.

    PubMed

    Glaesner, Nadia; Kjaergaard, Charlotte; Rubaek, Gitte H; Magid, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Land application of manure can exacerbate nutrient and contaminant transfers to the aquatic environment. This study examined the effect of injecting a dairy cattle (Bostaurus L.) manure slurry on mobilization and leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components across a range of agricultural soils. We compared leaching of slurry-applied bromide through intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) of differing textures following surface application or injection of slurry. The volumetric fraction of soil pores >30 microm ranged from 43% in a loamy sand to 28% in a sandy loam and 15% in a loam-textured soil. Smaller active flow volumes and higher proportions of preferential flow were observed with increasing soil clay content. Injection of slurry in the loam soil significantly enhanced diffusion of applied bromide into the large fraction of small pores compared with surface application. The resulting physical protection against leaching of bromide was reflected by 60.2% of the bromide tracer was recovered in the effluent after injection, compared with 80.6% recovery after surface application. No effect of slurry injection was observed in the loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Our findings point to soil texture as an important factor influencing leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components in soils amended with manure slurry. PMID:21520740

  15. Seasonal persistence of faecal indicator organisms in soil following dairy slurry application to land by surface broadcasting and shallow injection.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Christopher J; Oliver, David M; Fish, Robert D; Bulmer, Nicholas M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Winter, Michael; Chadwick, David R

    2016-12-01

    Dairy farming generates large volumes of liquid manure (slurry), which is ultimately recycled to agricultural land as a valuable source of plant nutrients. Different methods of slurry application to land exist; some spread the slurry to the sward surface whereas others deliver the slurry under the sward and into the soil, thus helping to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of two slurry application methods (surface broadcast versus shallow injection) on the survival of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) delivered via dairy slurry to replicated grassland plots across contrasting seasons. A significant increase in FIO persistence (measured by the half-life of E. coli and intestinal enterococci) was observed when slurry was applied to grassland via shallow injection, and FIO decay rates were significantly higher for FIOs applied to grassland in spring relative to summer and autumn. Significant differences in the behaviour of E. coli and intestinal enterococci over time were also observed, with E. coli half-lives influenced more strongly by season of application relative to the intestinal enterococci population. While shallow injection of slurry can reduce agricultural GHG emissions to air it can also prolong the persistence of FIOs in soil, potentially increasing the risk of their subsequent transfer to water. Awareness of (and evidence for) the potential for 'pollution-swapping' is critical in order to guard against unintended environmental impacts of agricultural management decisions.

  16. Seasonal persistence of faecal indicator organisms in soil following dairy slurry application to land by surface broadcasting and shallow injection.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Christopher J; Oliver, David M; Fish, Robert D; Bulmer, Nicholas M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Winter, Michael; Chadwick, David R

    2016-12-01

    Dairy farming generates large volumes of liquid manure (slurry), which is ultimately recycled to agricultural land as a valuable source of plant nutrients. Different methods of slurry application to land exist; some spread the slurry to the sward surface whereas others deliver the slurry under the sward and into the soil, thus helping to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of two slurry application methods (surface broadcast versus shallow injection) on the survival of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) delivered via dairy slurry to replicated grassland plots across contrasting seasons. A significant increase in FIO persistence (measured by the half-life of E. coli and intestinal enterococci) was observed when slurry was applied to grassland via shallow injection, and FIO decay rates were significantly higher for FIOs applied to grassland in spring relative to summer and autumn. Significant differences in the behaviour of E. coli and intestinal enterococci over time were also observed, with E. coli half-lives influenced more strongly by season of application relative to the intestinal enterococci population. While shallow injection of slurry can reduce agricultural GHG emissions to air it can also prolong the persistence of FIOs in soil, potentially increasing the risk of their subsequent transfer to water. Awareness of (and evidence for) the potential for 'pollution-swapping' is critical in order to guard against unintended environmental impacts of agricultural management decisions. PMID:27604756

  17. Interactions between soil texture and placement of dairy slurry application: I. Flow characteristics and leaching of nonreactive components.

    PubMed

    Glaesner, Nadia; Kjaergaard, Charlotte; Rubaek, Gitte H; Magid, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Land application of manure can exacerbate nutrient and contaminant transfers to the aquatic environment. This study examined the effect of injecting a dairy cattle (Bostaurus L.) manure slurry on mobilization and leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components across a range of agricultural soils. We compared leaching of slurry-applied bromide through intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) of differing textures following surface application or injection of slurry. The volumetric fraction of soil pores >30 microm ranged from 43% in a loamy sand to 28% in a sandy loam and 15% in a loam-textured soil. Smaller active flow volumes and higher proportions of preferential flow were observed with increasing soil clay content. Injection of slurry in the loam soil significantly enhanced diffusion of applied bromide into the large fraction of small pores compared with surface application. The resulting physical protection against leaching of bromide was reflected by 60.2% of the bromide tracer was recovered in the effluent after injection, compared with 80.6% recovery after surface application. No effect of slurry injection was observed in the loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Our findings point to soil texture as an important factor influencing leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components in soils amended with manure slurry.

  18. Nitric oxide and greenhouse gases emissions following the application of different cattle slurry particle size fractions to soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fangueiro, David; Coutinho, João; Cabral, Fernanda; Fidalgo, Paula; Bol, Roland; Trindade, Henrique

    2012-02-01

    The application to soil of different slurry particle size fractions may lead to variable gaseous soil emissions and associated differential environmental impacts. An incubation experiment was carried out during 70 d to assess the influence on nitric oxide (NO) and greenhouse gas (GHG; i.e. nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane) emissions following incorporation of 4 particle size fractions, obtained through laboratorial separation from cattle slurry, to agricultural sandy loam soil (Dystric Cambisol). The response to these applied slurry fractions (>2000 μm, 2000-500 μm, 500-100 μm, <100 μm) was compared to other experimental treatments, including whole slurry (WS), ammonium sulphate (AS) and an unamended control (CON). The highest value of cumulated NO emissions (6.3 mg NO-N kg -1 dry soil) were observed from the AS treatment. The cumulated amount of NO emitted (˜1 mg NO-N kg -1 dry soil) was not significantly different between slurry fractions, thereby indicating that slurry particle size had no effect on NO emissions. The largest slurry fraction (>2000 μm) induced significantly higher N 2O emissions (1.8 mg N 2O-N kg -1 dry soil) compared to the other smaller sized fractions (1.0 mg N 2O-N kg -1 dry soil). The >2000 μm, fraction, being more than 55% of the slurry by weight, was the major contributor to daily and cumulative N 2O emissions. Hence, for N 2O, the application of WS to agricultural soil is a better option that amendment with the >2000 μm, fraction. Low CH 4 emissions (<200 μg CH 4-C kg -1 dry soil d -1) were observed, but only in treatments amended with slurry or its fractions. The CH 4 emissions were short-lived and rates returned to control levels within 3 d after the slurry application. Higher CO 2 emissions were observed in soils amended with slurry fractions when compared to application with whole slurry. Clearly, slurry separation can increase soil CO 2 emissions relative to whole slurry application. Overall, N 2O contributed 10

  19. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Raymond B.; Healy, Mark G.; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called ‘pollution swapping’ potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application. PMID:26053923

  20. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Raymond B; Healy, Mark G; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application.

  1. Effect of cow slurry amendment on atrazine dissipation and bacterial community structure in an agricultural Andisol.

    PubMed

    Briceño, G; Jorquera, M A; Demanet, R; Mora, M L; Durán, N; Palma, G

    2010-06-15

    Atrazine is a commonly used herbicide for maize production in Chile, but it has recently been shown to be ineffective in soils that receive applications of cow slurries generated from the dairy industry. This effect may be caused either by the sorption of the pesticide to organic matter or more rapid degradation in slurry-amended soils. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of cow slurry on atrazine dissipation, the formation of atrazine metabolites and the modification of bacterial community in Andisol. The cow slurry was applied at doses of 100,000-300,000 Lha(-1). After 4 weeks, atrazine was applied to the slurry-amended soils at concentrations of 1-3 mg kg(-1). The amounts of atrazine and its metabolites were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The soil microbial community was monitored by measurement of CO(2) evolution and changes in bacterial community using PCR-DGGE of 16S rRNA genes. The results show that cow slurry applications had no effect on atrazine dissipation, which had a half-life of 15-19 days. The atrazine metabolites were detected after 20 days and were significantly higher in soils amended with the slurry at both 20 and 40 days after application of the herbicide. Respiration rates were elevated after 10 days in all soils with atrazine addition. Both the atrazine and slurry amendments altered the bacterial community structures, indicated by the appearance of specific bands in the DGGE gels after 10 days. Cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes from the DGGE gels showed that the bands represented various genera of beta-proteobacteria that appeared in response to atrazine. According to our results, further field studies are required to explain the lower effectiveness of atrazine in weed control. These studies may include the effect of dissolved organic carbon on the atrazine mobility.

  2. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, K.D.; Hart, R.P.; Schumacher, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The removal of CO/sub 2/ from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)/sub 2/) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)/sub 2/). Such a process would be applied to scrub /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH)/sub 2/ slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH)/sub 2/. Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated.

  3. Design considerations for slurry bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Zappi, M.E.; Banerji, S.K.; Bajpai, R.K.

    1994-12-31

    Slurry treatment is an innovative approach for bioremediation of contaminated soils under controlled conditions of pH, temperature, and nutrients. This treatment of excavated soils permits better control of environmental conditions than in landfarming, composting, and biocell units, and therefore may achieve accelerated rates of decontamination. Bioslurry reactors have been used to remediate a variety of contaminants, such as soils and sludges from refinery wastes, wood-preserving wastes, wastes containing polychlorinated biphenyls and halogenated solvents. Key considerations in design of such reactors involve meeting the oxygen requirements for biodegradation, preventing the settling of soil particles, efficient mixing of additives, and control of foaming. The aspects of reactor design, specifically agitation system have been discussed in this paper.

  4. Acidification of animal slurry--a review.

    PubMed

    Fangueiro, David; Hjorth, Maibritt; Gioelli, Fabrizio

    2015-02-01

    Ammonia emissions are a major problem associated with animal slurry management, and solutions to overcome this problem are required worldwide by farmers and stakeholders. An obvious way to minimize ammonia emissions from slurry is to decrease slurry pH by addition of acids or other substances. This solution has been used commonly since 2010 in countries such as Denmark, and its efficiency with regard to the minimization of NH3 emissions has been documented in many studies. Nevertheless, the impact of such treatment on other gaseous emissions during storage is not clear, since the studies performed so far have provided different scenarios. Similarly, the impact of the soil application of acidified slurry on plant production and diffuse pollution has been considered in several studies. Also, the impact of acidification upon combination with other slurry treatment technologies (e.g. mechanical separation, anaerobic digestion …) is important to consider. Here, a compilation and critical review of all these studies has been performed in order to fully understand the global impact of slurry acidification and assess the applicability of this treatment for slurry management. PMID:25463570

  5. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOEpatents

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  6. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOEpatents

    Braunlin, Walter A.; Gorski, Alan; Jaehnig, Leo J.; Moskal, Clifford J.; Naylor, Joseph D.; Parimi, Krishnia; Ward, John V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  7. Acidification of animal slurry--a review.

    PubMed

    Fangueiro, David; Hjorth, Maibritt; Gioelli, Fabrizio

    2015-02-01

    Ammonia emissions are a major problem associated with animal slurry management, and solutions to overcome this problem are required worldwide by farmers and stakeholders. An obvious way to minimize ammonia emissions from slurry is to decrease slurry pH by addition of acids or other substances. This solution has been used commonly since 2010 in countries such as Denmark, and its efficiency with regard to the minimization of NH3 emissions has been documented in many studies. Nevertheless, the impact of such treatment on other gaseous emissions during storage is not clear, since the studies performed so far have provided different scenarios. Similarly, the impact of the soil application of acidified slurry on plant production and diffuse pollution has been considered in several studies. Also, the impact of acidification upon combination with other slurry treatment technologies (e.g. mechanical separation, anaerobic digestion …) is important to consider. Here, a compilation and critical review of all these studies has been performed in order to fully understand the global impact of slurry acidification and assess the applicability of this treatment for slurry management.

  8. Pilot scale facility to determine gaseous emissions from livestock slurry during storage.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Søren O; Skov, Morten; Drøscher, Per; Adamsen, Anders P S

    2009-01-01

    Livestock production is a growing source of air pollution, locally and to the wider environment. Improved livestock manure management has the potential to reduce environmental impacts, but there is a need for methodologies to precisely quantify emissions. This paper describes and evaluates a novel storage facility for livestock slurry consisting of eight 6.5-m(3) cylindrical units. The stores may be equipped with airtight covers and ventilated during storage or during measurement only. Each store has eight air inlets (160 mm diameter) and a single outlet in the cover connected to a main ventilation duct. The stores can also be used as static enclosures. Ventilation can be regulated within the range of 50 to 250 m(3) h(-1). A gas sampling line enables sampling of odorants using automatic thermal desorption tubes, ammonia using acid traps, and greenhouse gases using gas sampling bags (pooled samples) or a syringe (time point samples). Complete recovery of CH(4) independent of ventilation rate was demonstrated. Vertical profiles of CO(2) and CH(4) above the slurry surface with and without ventilation and mixing of the headspace indicated methane oxidation activity in the surface crust. p-Cresol and 4-ethyl phenol emission from pig slurry was identified by GC-MS analysis of odor collected on adsorption tubes. Ammonia emissions between 0 and 166 mg N m(-2) h(-1) were observed during storage of pig slurry with and without surface crust and cover. A comparison of pooled and averaged time point measurements of CO(2), CH(4), and N(2)O indicated that pooled samples account for the diurnal variations under realistic storage conditions.

  9. Assessing learning and memory in pigs.

    PubMed

    Gieling, Elise Titia; Nordquist, Rebecca Elizabeth; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in (mini) pigs (Sus scrofa) as species for cognitive research. A major reason for this is their physiological and anatomical similarity with humans. For example, pigs possess a well-developed, large brain. Assessment of the learning and memory functions of pigs is not only relevant to human research but also to animal welfare, given the nature of current farming practices and the demands they make on animal health and behavior. In this article, we review studies of pig cognition, focusing on the underlying processes and mechanisms, with a view to identifying. Our goal is to aid the selection of appropriate cognitive tasks for research into pig cognition. To this end, we formulated several basic criteria for pig cognition tests and then applied these criteria and knowledge about pig-specific sensorimotor abilities and behavior to evaluate the merits, drawbacks, and limitations of the different types of tests used to date. While behavioral studies using (mini) pigs have shown that this species can perform learning and memory tasks, and much has been learned about pig cognition, results have not been replicated or proven replicable because of the lack of validated, translational behavioral paradigms that are specially suited to tap specific aspects of pig cognition. We identified several promising types of tasks for use in studies of pig cognition, such as versatile spatial free-choice type tasks that allow the simultaneous measurement of several behavioral domains. The use of appropriate tasks will facilitate the collection of reliable and valid data on pig cognition.

  10. Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Berry, G.F.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Chisheng Wang.

    1993-03-16

    An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

  11. Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Berry, Gregory F.; Lyczkowski, Robert W.; Wang, Chi-Sheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

  12. Measurement of the residual contamination of post-weaning facilities for pigs and related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Madec, F; Humbert, F; Salvat, G; Maris, P

    1999-02-01

    A survey was designed in France to assess residual contamination in post-weaning rooms within the 2 h prior to restocking when all the pigs of the previous batch had been removed (all in-all out) and after application of the 'in use' cleaning procedures. The protocol was based on the results of a pilot study and was considered 'a good compromise'. Special agar plates (Rodac plates) with a prominent agar medium surface were prepared and used to collect the bacteria. They were applied by impression onto the floors and the partitions between the pens. In all, 24 plates were applied per room. The culture medium was VRBG which mainly permits the growth of enterobacteria. The plates were incubated for 24 h (37 degrees C) and the Colony-Forming Units (CFU) counted. After sampling, measurements were made and information collected from the farmer to obtain potential explanations for the resulting microbiological data. The same scientist sampled 129 post-weaning rooms with slatted floors. Of the 3045 plates, 18.4% were negative and 12.8% were heavily colonized (> 300 CFU). A score combining six criteria based on the counts was produced, and indicated a wide spread of the rooms. The profile of circumstances associated with the different levels of the score was extracted. The following points should be respected to achieve low residual contamination: removal of the slurry from the pit below the slatted floor; damping to be started soon after pig removal; prolonged damping; thorough washing; disinfecting soon after washing; and attention to the recommended dosage of disinfectant. Smooth surfaces were found to be less contaminated than rough ones. It is concluded that cleaning and disinfecting operations must not be considered as minor tasks and should clearly be integrated into the process of pig production. PMID:10085772

  13. Measurement of the residual contamination of post-weaning facilities for pigs and related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Madec, F; Humbert, F; Salvat, G; Maris, P

    1999-02-01

    A survey was designed in France to assess residual contamination in post-weaning rooms within the 2 h prior to restocking when all the pigs of the previous batch had been removed (all in-all out) and after application of the 'in use' cleaning procedures. The protocol was based on the results of a pilot study and was considered 'a good compromise'. Special agar plates (Rodac plates) with a prominent agar medium surface were prepared and used to collect the bacteria. They were applied by impression onto the floors and the partitions between the pens. In all, 24 plates were applied per room. The culture medium was VRBG which mainly permits the growth of enterobacteria. The plates were incubated for 24 h (37 degrees C) and the Colony-Forming Units (CFU) counted. After sampling, measurements were made and information collected from the farmer to obtain potential explanations for the resulting microbiological data. The same scientist sampled 129 post-weaning rooms with slatted floors. Of the 3045 plates, 18.4% were negative and 12.8% were heavily colonized (> 300 CFU). A score combining six criteria based on the counts was produced, and indicated a wide spread of the rooms. The profile of circumstances associated with the different levels of the score was extracted. The following points should be respected to achieve low residual contamination: removal of the slurry from the pit below the slatted floor; damping to be started soon after pig removal; prolonged damping; thorough washing; disinfecting soon after washing; and attention to the recommended dosage of disinfectant. Smooth surfaces were found to be less contaminated than rough ones. It is concluded that cleaning and disinfecting operations must not be considered as minor tasks and should clearly be integrated into the process of pig production.

  14. Effects of Application of Dairy Slurry on Voluntary Intake of Orchardgrass Hays by Growing Dairy Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many dairy production systems have a critical need for available sites to land apply dairy slurry after spring planting and during the summer months. One potential option is to apply these nutrients on perennial grass sods; however, this approach is viable only if voluntary intake by livestock is no...

  15. Surface Modification of Nickel Foams by a Slurry Aluminizing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, H.; Papanastasiou, N.; Psyllaki, P.; Tsipas, S. A.; Stergioudi, F.; Michailidis, N.; Tsipas, D. N.

    2010-01-01

    A novel slurry-based process for aluminizing nickel foams while improving the mechanical properties and conserving the excellent ductility is reported. Cellular unalloyed nickel foams with 92% porosity and uniform pore size and distribution were used as a starting material. Several slurries of different compositions were examined to investigate the possibility of developing an aluminide-nickel intermetallic coating on a Ni foam without considerably degrading the original ductile properties of the foam. The process temperature was varying from 400 to 850° C and the process holding time was ranging between 2h to 6h. Scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-Ray diffraction were applied to assess the effectiveness of the aluminizing process and determine both the optimum parameters of the procedure (slurry composition, holding temperature and time) and the concentration profiles across the coating cross-section. The mechanical behavior of the aluminized Ni-foams was evaluated by the conduction of micro-tension tests. The resulting Ni-foams after aluminization retain the pore structure of original Ni-foams and present a thick outer surface layer which consists of a range of aluminide phases. The mechanical properties of the Ni-foams aluminized in low process temperature were insignificantly affected.

  16. Microbial degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE) in soil slurry microcosms.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsi-Ling; Hwa, Mei-Yin; Lee, Yao-Chuan; Chang, Yu-Jie; Chang, Yi-Tang

    2016-03-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE), which has been identified as an endocrine disrupting compound, is used as brominated flame retardant, and this can result in serious bioaccumulation within ecological systems. The objective of this study was to explore DBDE bioremediation (25 mg/kg) using laboratory scale soil slurry microcosms. It was found that effective biodegradation of DBDE occurred in all microcosms. Various biometabolites were identified, namely polybrominated diphenyl ethers congeners and hydroxylated brominated diphenyl ether. Reductive debrominated products such as tri-BDE to hepta-BDE congeners were also detected, and their total concentrations ranged from 77.83 to 91.07 ng/g. The mechanism of DBDE biodegradation in soil slurry microcosms is proposed to consist of a series of biological reactions involving hydroxylation and debromination. Catechol 2,3-oxygenase genes, which are able to bring about meta-cleavage at specific unbrominated locations in carbon backbones, were identified as present during the DBDE biodegradation. No obvious effect on the ecological functional potential based on community-level physiological profiling was observed during DBDE biodegradation, and one major facultative Pseudomonas sp. (99 % similarity) was identified in the various soil slurry microcosms. These findings provide an important basis that should help environmental engineers to design future DBDE bioremediation systems that use a practical microcosm system. A bacterial-mixed culture can be selected as part of the bioaugmentation process for in situ DBDE bioremediation. A soil/water microcosm system can be successfully applied to carry out ex situ DBDE bioremediation. PMID:26561328

  17. Microbial degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE) in soil slurry microcosms.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsi-Ling; Hwa, Mei-Yin; Lee, Yao-Chuan; Chang, Yu-Jie; Chang, Yi-Tang

    2016-03-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE), which has been identified as an endocrine disrupting compound, is used as brominated flame retardant, and this can result in serious bioaccumulation within ecological systems. The objective of this study was to explore DBDE bioremediation (25 mg/kg) using laboratory scale soil slurry microcosms. It was found that effective biodegradation of DBDE occurred in all microcosms. Various biometabolites were identified, namely polybrominated diphenyl ethers congeners and hydroxylated brominated diphenyl ether. Reductive debrominated products such as tri-BDE to hepta-BDE congeners were also detected, and their total concentrations ranged from 77.83 to 91.07 ng/g. The mechanism of DBDE biodegradation in soil slurry microcosms is proposed to consist of a series of biological reactions involving hydroxylation and debromination. Catechol 2,3-oxygenase genes, which are able to bring about meta-cleavage at specific unbrominated locations in carbon backbones, were identified as present during the DBDE biodegradation. No obvious effect on the ecological functional potential based on community-level physiological profiling was observed during DBDE biodegradation, and one major facultative Pseudomonas sp. (99 % similarity) was identified in the various soil slurry microcosms. These findings provide an important basis that should help environmental engineers to design future DBDE bioremediation systems that use a practical microcosm system. A bacterial-mixed culture can be selected as part of the bioaugmentation process for in situ DBDE bioremediation. A soil/water microcosm system can be successfully applied to carry out ex situ DBDE bioremediation.

  18. Surface Modification of Nickel Foams by a Slurry Aluminizing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Omar, H.; Papanastasiou, N.; Psyllaki, P.; Stergioudi, F.; Tsipas, D. N.; Tsipas, S. A.; Michailidis, N.

    2010-01-21

    A novel slurry-based process for aluminizing nickel foams while improving the mechanical properties and conserving the excellent ductility is reported. Cellular unalloyed nickel foams with 92% porosity and uniform pore size and distribution were used as a starting material. Several slurries of different compositions were examined to investigate the possibility of developing an aluminide-nickel intermetallic coating on a Ni foam without considerably degrading the original ductile properties of the foam. The process temperature was varying from 400 to 850 deg. C and the process holding time was ranging between 2h to 6h. Scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-Ray diffraction were applied to assess the effectiveness of the aluminizing process and determine both the optimum parameters of the procedure (slurry composition, holding temperature and time) and the concentration profiles across the coating cross-section. The mechanical behavior of the aluminized Ni-foams was evaluated by the conduction of micro-tension tests. The resulting Ni-foams after aluminization retain the pore structure of original Ni-foams and present a thick outer surface layer which consists of a range of aluminide phases. The mechanical properties of the Ni-foams aluminized in low process temperature were insignificantly affected.

  19. Rheological analysis of a flyash slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    The report covers work carried out on behalf of the National Coal Board. Rotational viscometry tests were undertaken to ascertain the characteristics of a flyash slurry and predict full-scale pipeline losses.

  20. Pollution attenuation by soils receiving cattle slurry after passage of a slurry-like feed solution. Column experiments.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; López-Períago, Eugenio; Diaz-Fierros-Viqueira, Francisco

    2002-09-01

    Designing soil filtration systems or vegetated filter strips as a means of attenuating water pollution should take into account soil purging capacity. Here we report data on laboratory column trials used to investigate the capacity of a Hortic Anthrosol to attenuate contamination due to downward leaching from cattle slurry applied at the surface. The columns comprised 900 g of soil to a depth of about 20-25 cm, and had been used previously in an experiment involving passage of at least 5 pore volumes of an ion-containing cattle slurry-like feed solution. For the present experiments, the columns were first washed through with distilled water (simulating resting and rain falling after passage of the feed solution), and then received a single slurry dose equivalent to about 300 m3 ha(-1). The columns were then leached with distilled water, with monitoring of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ion contents in outflow. The results indicated that the pollution-neutralising capacity of the soil was still high but clearly lower than in the earlier experiments with the feed solution. Furthermore, the time-course of COD showed that organic acids were leached through the column even more rapidly than chloride (often viewed as an inert tracer) enhancing the risk of heavy metals leaching and subsequent water pollution. Resting and alternate use of different soil-plant buffer zones would increase the lifespan of purging systems that use soil like the here studied one.

  1. Dairy slurry application method impacts ammonia emission and nitrate in no-till corn silage.

    PubMed

    Powell, J M; Jokela, W E; Misselbrook, T H

    2011-01-01

    Reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions through slurry incorporation or other soil management techniques may increase nitrate (NO3) leaching, so quantifying potential losses from these alternative pathways is essential to improving slurry N management. Slurry N losses, as NH3 or NO3 were evaluated over 4 yr in south-central Wisconsin. Slurry (i.e., dairy cow [Bos taurus] manure from a storage pit) was applied each spring at a single rate (-75 m3 ha(-1)) in one of three ways: surface broadcast (SURF), surface broadcast followed by partial incorporation using an aerator implement (AER-INC), and injection (INJ). Ammonia emissions were measured during the 120 h following slurry application using chambers, and NO3 leaching was monitored in drainage lysimeters. Yield and N3 uptake of oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and winter rye (Secale cereale L.) were measured each year, and at trial's end soils were sampled in 15- to 30-cm increments to 90-cm depth. There were significant tradeoffs in slurry N loss among pathways: annual mean NH3-N emission across all treatments was 5.3, 38.3, 12.4, and 21.8 kg ha(-1) and annual mean NO3-N leaching across all treatments was 24.1, 0.9, 16.9, and 7.3 kg ha' during Years 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Slurry N loss amounted to 27.1% of applied N from the SURF treatment (20.5% as NH3-N and 6.6% as NO,-N), 23.3% from AER-INC (12.0% as NH3-N and 11.3% as NO3-N), and 9.19% from INJ (4.4% as NH3-N and 4.7% as NO3-N). Although slurry incorporation decreased slurry N loss, the conserved slurry N did not significantly impact crop yield, crop N uptake or soil properties at trial's end.

  2. Direct determination of particulate elements in edible oils and fats using an ultrasonic slurry sampler with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dalen, Gerard; de Galan, Leo

    1994-12-01

    Through the use of an ultrasonic slurry mixer, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) can be applied for the fully automated determination of particulate iron and nickel in edible oils and fats. The unsupervised ultrasonic slurry autosampler yields the same accuracy and somewhat better precision than the much more laborious manual GFAAS method.

  3. Genetically modified pig models for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ida E; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has become one of the most challenging health issues in ageing humans. One approach to combat this is to generate genetically modified animal models of neurodegenerative disorders for studying pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Owing to the genetic, anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, and neurologic similarities between pigs and humans, genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders have been attractive large animal models to bridge the gap of preclinical investigations between rodents and humans. In this review, we provide a neuroanatomical overview in pigs and summarize and discuss the generation of genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and ataxia-telangiectasia. We also highlight how non-invasive bioimaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural testing have been applied to characterize neurodegenerative pig models. We further propose a multiplex genome editing and preterm recloning (MAP) approach by using the rapid growth of the ground-breaking precision genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With this approach, we hope to shorten the temporal requirement in generating multiple transgenic pigs, increase the survival rate of founder pigs, and generate genetically modified pigs that will more closely resemble the disease-causing mutations and recapitulate pathological features of human conditions. PMID:26446984

  4. The effect of slurry treatment including ozonation on odorant reduction measured by in-situ PTR-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dezhao; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders P. S.; Jonassen, Kristoffer E. N.

    2011-07-01

    The emission of odorous compounds from intensive pig production facilities is a nuisance for neighbors. Slurry ozonation for odor abatement has previously been demonstrated in laboratory scale. In this study, the effect of slurry ozonation (combined with solid-liquid pre-separation and acidification) on emissions of odorous compounds was tested in an experimental full-scale growing pig facility using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) for online analysis of odorants. The measurements were performed to gain a better understanding of the effects of ozone treatment on emissions odorous compounds and to identify potential options for optimization of ozone treatment. The compounds monitored included volatile sulfur compounds, amine, carboxylic acids, ketones, phenols and indoles. Measurements were performed during nearly a one-month period in summertime. The compounds with the highest concentrations observed in the ventilation exhaust duct were acetic acid, hydrogen sulfide, propanoic acid and butanoic acid. The compounds with the highest removal efficiencies were hydrogen sulfide, 3-methyl-indole, phenol and acetic acid. Based on odor threshold values, methanethiol, butanoic acid, 4-methylphenol, hydrogen sulfide and C 5 carboxylic acids are estimated to contribute significantly to the odor nuisance. Emissions of odorous compounds were observed to be strongly correlated with temperature with the exception of hydrogen sulfide. Emission peaks of sulfur compounds were seen during slurry handling activities. Discharging of the slurry pit led to reduced hydrogen sulfide emissions, but emissions of most other odorants were not affected. The results indicate that emissions of odorants other than hydrogen sulfide mainly originate from sources other than the treated slurry, which limits the potential for further optimization. The PTR-MS measurements are demonstrated to provide a quantitative, accurate and detailed evaluation of ozone treatment for emission

  5. Impact of test sensitivity and specificity on pig producer incentives to control Mycobacterium avium infections in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    van Wagenberg, Coen P A; Backus, Gé B C; Wisselink, Henk J; van der Vorst, Jack G A J; Urlings, Bert A P

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the impact of the sensitivity and specificity of a Mycobacterium avium (Ma) test on pig producer incentives to control Ma in finishing pigs. A possible Ma control system which includes a serodiagnostic test and a penalty on finishing pigs in herds detected with Ma infection was modelled. Using a dynamic optimization model and a grid search of deliveries of herds from pig producers to slaughterhouse, optimal control measures for pig producers and optimal penalty values for deliveries with increased Ma risk were identified for different sensitivity and specificity values. Results showed that higher sensitivity and lower specificity induced use of more intense control measures and resulted in higher pig producer costs and lower Ma seroprevalence. The minimal penalty value needed to comply with a threshold for Ma seroprevalence in finishing pigs at slaughter was lower at higher sensitivity and lower specificity. With imperfect specificity a larger sample size decreased pig producer incentives to control Ma seroprevalence, because the higher number of false positives resulted in an increased probability of rejecting a batch of finishing pigs irrespective of whether the pig producer applied control measures. We conclude that test sensitivity and specificity must be considered in incentive system design to induce pig producers to control Ma in finishing pigs with minimum negative effects.

  6. Comparison of indigenous and exogenous microbial populations during slurry phase biodegradation of long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Adetutu, Eric M; Aleer, Sam; Weber, John; Patil, Sayali S; Sheppard, Petra J; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2012-11-01

    In this study, a number of slurry-phase strategies were trialled over a 42 day period in order to determine the efficacy of bioremediation for long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (145 g kg(-1) C(10)-C(40)). The addition of activated sludge and nutrients to slurries (bioaugmentation) resulted in enhanced hydrocarbon removal (51.6 ± 8.5 %) compared to treatments receiving only nutrients (enhanced natural attenuation [ENA]; 41.3 ± 6.4 %) or no amendments (natural attenuation; no significant hydrocarbon removal, P < 0.01). This data suggests that the microbial community in the activated sludge inoculum contributed to the enhanced removal of hydrocarbons in ENA slurries. Microbial diversity in slurries was monitored using DGGE with dominant bands excised and sequenced for identification. Applying the different bioremediation strategies resulted in the formation of four distinct community clusters associated with the activated sludge (inoculum), bioaugmentation strategy at day 0, bioaugmentation strategy at weeks 2-6 and slurries with autoclaved sludge and nutrient additions (bioaugmentation negative control). While hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria genera (e.g. Aquabacterium and Haliscomenobacter) were associated with the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, bioaugmentation of soil slurries with activated sludge resulted in the introduction of bacteria associated with hydrocarbon degradation (Burkholderiales order and Klebsiella genera) which presumably contributed to the enhanced efficacy for this slurry strategy.

  7. Evaluating slurry broadcasting and injection to ley for phosphorus losses and fecal microorganisms in surface runoff.

    PubMed

    Uusi-Kämppä, Jaana; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2008-01-01

    The recent growth in the size of dairy cattle farms and the concentration of farms into smaller areas in Finland may increase local water pollution due to increased manure production and slurry application to grass. Therefore, a field study was conducted to monitor losses of total phosphorus (TP), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), and fecal microorganisms in surface runoff from a perennial ley. Cattle slurry was added once a year in June 1996-1997 (Study I) and biannually in June and October 1998-2000 (Study II). The slurry was surface broadcast or injected into the clay soil. The field had a slope of 0.9 to 1.7%. Mineral fertilizer was applied on control plots. Biannual slurry broadcasting increased DRP (p < 0.001) and TP losses (p < 0.001) and numbers of fecal microorganisms in surface runoff waters. The highest losses of TP (2.7 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) and DRP (2.2 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) and the highest numbers of fecal coliforms (880 colony-forming units [CFU] per 100 mL) and somatic coliphages (2700 plaque-forming units [PFU] per 100 mL) were measured after broadcasting slurry to wet soil followed by rainfall in fall 1998. Injection reduced the TP and DRP losses in surface runoff by 79 and 86%, respectively, compared with broadcasting (17 Oct. 1998-27 Oct. 1999). Corresponding numbers for fecal coliforms were 350 CFU (100 mL)(-1) and for somatic coliphages were 110 PFU (100 mL)(-1) in surface runoff after injection in October 1998. Slurry injection should be favored when spreading slurry amendments to grassland to avoid losses of P and fecal microorganisms in runoff to surface waters.

  8. Rheological properties of defense waste slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of this two-year project has been to obtain refined and reliable experimental data about the rheological properties of melter feeds. The research has involved both experimental studies and model development. Two experimental facilities have been set up to measure viscosity and pressure drop. Mathematical models have been developed as a result of experimental observation and fundamental rheological theory. The model has the capability to predict the viscosity of melter slurries in a range of experimental conditions. The final results of the investigation could be used to enhance the current design base for slurry transportation systems and improve the performance of the slurry mixing process. If successful, the cost of this waste treatment will be reduced, and disposal safety will be increased. The specific objectives for this project included: (1) the design, implementation, and validation of the experimental facility in both batch and continuous operating modes; (2) the identification and preparation of melter feed samples of both the SRS and Hanford waste slurries at multiple solids concentration levels; (3) the measurement and analysis of the melter feeds to determine the effects of the solids concentration, pH value, and other factors on the rheological properties of the slurries; (4) the correlation of the rheological properties as a function of the measured physical and chemical parameters; and (5) transmission of the experimental data and resulting correlation to the DOE site user to guide melter feed preparation and transport equipment design.

  9. Input and leaching potential of copper, zinc, and selenium in agricultural soil from swine slurry.

    PubMed

    Comas, Jordi; Domínguez, Carmen; Salas-Vázquez, Dora I; Parera, Juan; Díez, Sergi; Bayona, Josep M

    2014-02-01

    Trace elements, such as copper, zinc, and selenium, used as feed additives were determined in samples of both fresh (N = 14) and anaerobically digested (N = 6) swine slurry collected on medium- to large-size farms in northeast Spain. Considering both fresh and anaerobically digested samples, mean concentrations of zinc (1,500 mg kg(-1) dry mass [dm]) were greater than those of copper (mean 239 mg kg(-1 )dm), and the selenium concentrations detected were even lower (mean 139 μg kg(-1) dm). Zinc concentrations were significantly greater in anaerobically digested samples, whereas no significant differences were found for copper or selenium. In addition, the leaching potential of zinc, copper, and selenium in cropped (lettuce heart) and uncropped experimental units subject to drip irrigation was assessed in a greenhouse experiment. Generally, the addition of swine slurry to soil (1.7 g kg(-1) dm) significantly increased zinc, copper, and selenium concentrations in leachates, which decreased in accordance with the volume of leachate eluted. Under the experimental conditions, the leaching potential of zinc and selenium was more strongly correlated with bulk parameters directly associated with the composition of the pig slurry (dissolved organic carbon, electrical conductivity, and ammonium), whereas copper mobility was more strongly associated with the crop root exudates. Although selenium has been shown to be mobile in soil, the selenium content found in the leachates did not pose any appreciable risk according to current drinking water standards.

  10. Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Slurry Rheology: Nuclear Waste Simulant Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Jaehun; Oh, Takkeun; Luna, Maria L.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2011-07-05

    Controlling the rheological properties of slurries has been of great interest in various industries such as cosmetics, ceramic processing, and nuclear waste treatment. Many physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, ionic strength, and mass/volume fraction of particles, can influence the rheological properties of slurry. Among such parameters, the particle size distribution of slurry would be especially important for nuclear waste treatment because most nuclear waste slurries show a broad particle size distribution. We studied the rheological properties of several different low activity waste nuclear simulant slurries having different particle size distributions under high salt and high pH conditions. Using rheological and particle size analysis, it was found that the percentage of colloid-sized particles in slurry appears to be a key factor for rheological characteristics and the efficiency of rheological modifiers. This behavior was shown to be coupled with an existing electrostatic interaction between particles under a low salt concentration. Our study suggests that one may need to implement the particle size distribution as a critical factor to understand and control rheological properties in nuclear waste treatment plants, such as the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford and Savannah River sites, because the particle size distributions significantly vary over different types of nuclear waste slurries.

  11. Lightweight Cement Slurries based on vermiculite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaev, K.; Gorbenko, V.; Ulyanova, O.

    2014-08-01

    The main purpose of the research is to study the lightweight cement slurry based on vermiculite and its parameters in accordance with GOST 1581-96 requirements as well as improvement of its formulation by polymer additives. Analysis of vermiculite-containing mixture providing the lowest density while maintaining other required parameters was conducted. As a cement base, cement PTscT-I-G-CC-1, cement PTscT - 100 and vermiculite M200 and M150 were used. Vermiculite content varied from 10 to 15 %; and water-to-cement-ratio ranged from 0.65 to 0.8. To sum up, despite the fact that lightweight cement slurry based on vermiculite satisfies GOST 1581-96 requirements under laboratory conditions, field studies are necessary in order to make a conclusion about applicability of this slurry for well cementing.

  12. The Impact of Using Alternative Forages on the Nutrient Value within Slurry and Its Implications for Forage Productivity in Agricultural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Crotty, Felicity V.; Fychan, Rhun; Theobald, Vince J.; Sanderson, Ruth; Chadwick, David R.; Marley, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative forages can be used to provide valuable home-grown feed for ruminant livestock. Utilising these different forages could affect the manure value and the implications of incorporating these forages into farming systems, needs to be better understood. An experiment tested the hypothesis that applying slurries from ruminants, fed ensiled red clover (Trifolium pratense), lucerne (Medicago sativa) or kale (Brassica oleracea) would improve the yield of hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridicum), compared with applying slurries from ruminants fed ensiled hybrid ryegrass, or applying inorganic N alone. Slurries from sheep offered one of four silages were applied to ryegrass plots (at 35 t ha−1) with 100 kg N ha−1 inorganic fertiliser; dry matter (DM) yield was compared to plots only receiving ammonium nitrate at rates of 0, 100 and 250 kg N ha−1 year−1. The DM yield of plots treated with 250 kg N, lucerne or red clover slurry was significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.001). The estimated relative fertiliser N equivalence (FNE) (fertiliser-N needed to produce same yield as slurry N), was greatest for lucerne (114 kg) >red clover (81 kg) >kale (44 kg) >ryegrass (26 kg ha−1 yr−1). These FNE values represent relative efficiencies of 22% (ryegrass), 52% (kale), 47% (red clover) and 60% for lucerne slurry, with the ryegrass slurry efficiency being lowest (P = 0.005). Soil magnesium levels in plots treated with legume slurry were higher than other treatments (P<0.001). Overall, slurries from ruminants fed alternative ensiled forages increased soil nutrient status, forage productivity and better N efficiency than slurries from ruminants fed ryegrass silage. The efficiency of fertiliser use is one of the major factors influencing the sustainability of farming systems, these findings highlight the cascade in benefits from feeding ruminants alternative forages, and the need to ensure their value is effectively captured to reduce environmental risks. PMID

  13. The impact of using alternative forages on the nutrient value within slurry and its implications for forage productivity in agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Crotty, Felicity V; Fychan, Rhun; Theobald, Vince J; Sanderson, Ruth; Chadwick, David R; Marley, Christina L

    2014-01-01

    Alternative forages can be used to provide valuable home-grown feed for ruminant livestock. Utilising these different forages could affect the manure value and the implications of incorporating these forages into farming systems, needs to be better understood. An experiment tested the hypothesis that applying slurries from ruminants, fed ensiled red clover (Trifolium pratense), lucerne (Medicago sativa) or kale (Brassica oleracea) would improve the yield of hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridicum), compared with applying slurries from ruminants fed ensiled hybrid ryegrass, or applying inorganic N alone. Slurries from sheep offered one of four silages were applied to ryegrass plots (at 35 t ha⁻¹) with 100 kg N ha⁻¹ inorganic fertiliser; dry matter (DM) yield was compared to plots only receiving ammonium nitrate at rates of 0, 100 and 250 kg N ha⁻¹ year-1. The DM yield of plots treated with 250 kg N, lucerne or red clover slurry was significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.001). The estimated relative fertiliser N equivalence (FNE) (fertiliser-N needed to produce same yield as slurry N), was greatest for lucerne (114 kg) >red clover (81 kg) >kale (44 kg) >ryegrass (26 kg ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹). These FNE values represent relative efficiencies of 22% (ryegrass), 52% (kale), 47% (red clover) and 60% for lucerne slurry, with the ryegrass slurry efficiency being lowest (P = 0.005). Soil magnesium levels in plots treated with legume slurry were higher than other treatments (P<0.001). Overall, slurries from ruminants fed alternative ensiled forages increased soil nutrient status, forage productivity and better N efficiency than slurries from ruminants fed ryegrass silage. The efficiency of fertiliser use is one of the major factors influencing the sustainability of farming systems, these findings highlight the cascade in benefits from feeding ruminants alternative forages, and the need to ensure their value is effectively captured to reduce environmental risks.

  14. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, R.G.

    1984-08-31

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  15. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, Ramkrishna G.

    1986-01-01

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  16. Prospects for coal slurry pipelines in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The coal slurry pipeline segment of the transport industry is emerging in the United States. If accepted it will play a vital role in meeting America's urgent energy requirements without public subsidy, tax relief, or federal grants. It is proven technology, ideally suited for transport of an abundant energy resource over thousands of miles to energy short industrial centers and at more than competitive costs. Briefly discussed are the following: (1) history of pipelines; (2) California market potential; (3) slurry technology; (4) environmental benefits; (5) market competition; and (6) a proposed pipeline.

  17. Laboratory studies on the rheology of cryogenic slurries with implications for icy satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Elizabeth; Mitchell, Karl; Choukroun, Mathieu; Zhong, Fang

    2015-04-01

    Interpretation of Cassini RADAR and VIMS data has suggested some landforms on Titan may be due to effusive cryovolcanic processes that created cones, craters and flows. High-resolution Voyager 2 images of Triton also show strong evidence of cryovolcanic features. Fundamental to modeling of cryovolcanic features is the understanding of the rheological properties of cryogenic icy slurries in a thermodynamic and fluid mechanical context, i.e., how they deform and flow or stall under an applied stress. A series of measurements were performed on methanol-water mixtures and ammonia-water mixtures. We measured the rheology of the slurries as a function of temperature and strain rate, which revealed development of yield stress-like behaviors, shear-rate dependence, and thixotropic behavior, even at relatively low crystal fractions. Visualization of icy slurries supports the current hypothesis that crystallization dominates rheological properties. We shall discuss these findings and their implications for cryovolcanism on icy satellites.

  18. Removal of endosulfan and methoxychlor from water on carbon slurry.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod K; Ali, Imran

    2008-02-01

    A carbon slurry, produced in generators of fuel-oil-based industrial generators was converted into an effective and efficient adsorbent for the removal of endosulfan and methoxychlor from aqueous solution. The adsorbent was chemically treated, activated, characterized, and used for the adsorption of endosulfan and methoxychlor pesticides. The maximum adsorption was found at 90 min, 6.5 pH, 0.025 g/L dose, and 25 degrees C temperature. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to analyze adsorption data, and the former was found applicable to this adsorption system in terms of relatively high regression values. The thermodynamic aspect of the process was also investigated by evaluating certain important parameters (enthalpy, free energy, and entropy of system). Kinetics of adsorption was found to follow the pseudo second order rate equation. The diffusion of pesticides into carbon slurry pores was suggested to be the rate controlling step by applying Bangham's equation. Adsorption on a column was also investigated in a continuous flow system. Adsorption efficiencies of endosulfan and methoxychlor were 34.11 and 36.06 mg/g in batch processes and 32.62 and 33.52 mg/g in column operations, respectively.

  19. Runoff- and erosion-driven transport of cattle slurry: linking molecular tracers to hydrological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, C. E. M.; Michaelides, K.; Chadwick, D. R.; Dungait, J. A. J.; Evershed, R. P.

    2015-10-01

    The addition of cattle slurry to agricultural land is a widespread practise, but if not correctly managed it can pose a contamination risk to aquatic ecosystems. The transport of inorganic and organic components of cattle slurry to watercourses is a major concern, yet little is known about the physical transport mechanisms and associated fluxes and timings of contamination threats. Therefore, the aim of the study was to ascertain the importance of flow pathway partitioning in the transport (fluxes and timing) of dissolved and particulate slurry-derived compounds with implications for off-site contamination. A series of rainfall-runoff and erosion experiments were carried out using the TRACE (Test Rig for Advancing Connectivity Experiments) experimental hillslope facility. The experiments allowed the quantification of the impact of changing slope gradient and rainfall intensity on nutrient transport from cattle slurry applied to the hillslope, via surface, subsurface and vertical percolated flow pathways, as well as particulate transport from erosion. The dissolved components were traced using a combination of ammonium (NH4+) and fluorescence analysis, while the particulate fraction was traced using organic biomarkers, 5β-stanols. Results showed that rainfall events which produced flashy hydrological responses, resulting in large quantities of surface runoff, were likely to move sediment and also flush dissolved components of slurry-derived material from the slope, increasing the contamination risk. Rainfall events which produced slower hydrological responses were dominated by vertical percolated flows removing less sediment-associated material, but produced leachate which could contaminate deeper soil layers, and potentially groundwater, over a more prolonged period. Overall, this research provides new insights into the partitioning of slurry-derived material when applied to an unvegetated slope and the transport mechanisms by which contamination risks are created.

  20. Runoff- and erosion-driven transport of cattle slurry: linking molecular tracers to hydrological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, C. E. M.; Michaelides, K.; Chadwick, D. R.; Dungait, J. A. J.; Evershed, R. P.

    2016-02-01

    The addition of cattle slurry to agricultural land is a widespread practise, but if not correctly managed it can pose a contamination risk to aquatic ecosystems. The transport of inorganic and organic components of cattle slurry to watercourses is a major concern, yet little is known about the physical transport mechanisms and associated fluxes and timings of contamination threats. Therefore, the aim of the study was to ascertain the importance of flow pathway partitioning in the transport (fluxes and timing) of dissolved and particulate slurry-derived compounds with implications for off-site contamination. A series of rainfall-runoff and erosion experiments were carried out using the TRACE (Test Rig for Advancing Connectivity Experiments) experimental hillslope facility. The experiments allowed the quantification of the impact of changing slope gradient and rainfall intensity on nutrient transport from cattle slurry applied to the hillslope, via surface, subsurface, and vertical percolated flow pathways, as well as particulate transport from erosion. The dissolved components were traced using a combination of ammonium (NH4+) and fluorescence analysis, while the particulate fraction was traced using organic biomarkers, 5β-stanols. Results showed that rainfall events which produced flashy hydrological responses, resulting in large quantities of surface runoff, were likely to move sediment and also flush dissolved components of slurry-derived material from the slope, increasing the contamination risk. Rainfall events which produced slower hydrological responses were dominated by vertical percolated flows removing less sediment-associated material, but produced leachate which could contaminate deeper soil layers, and potentially groundwater, over a more prolonged period. Overall, this research provides new insights into the partitioning of slurry-derived material when applied to an unvegetated slope and the transport mechanisms by which contamination risks are

  1. Persistence of a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT12 Clone in a Piggery and in Agricultural Soil Amended with Salmonella-Contaminated Slurry

    PubMed Central

    Baloda, Suraj B.; Christensen, Lise; Trajcevska, Silvija

    2001-01-01

    Prevalence of Salmonella enterica on a Danish pig farm presenting recurrent infections was investigated. A comparison of the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of fecal isolates from piggeries, waste slurry, and agricultural soil amended with Salmonella-contaminated animal waste (slurry) and subclinical isolates from the same farm (collected in 1996 and later) showed identical patterns, indicating long-term persistence of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT12 clone in the herd environment. Furthermore, when Salmonella-contaminated slurry was disposed of on the agricultural soil (a common waste disposal practice), the pathogen was isolated up to 14 days after the spread, indicating potentially high risks of transmission of the pathogen in the environment, animals, and humans. PMID:11375208

  2. Transgenesis for pig models

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Soo-Young; Yoon, Ki-Young; Lee, Choong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Animal models, particularly pigs, have come to play an important role in translational biomedical research. There have been many pig models with genetically modifications via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, because most transgenic pigs have been produced by random integration to date, the necessity for more exact gene-mutated models using recombinase based conditional gene expression like mice has been raised. Currently, advanced genome-editing technologies enable us to generate specific gene-deleted and -inserted pig models. In the future, the development of pig models with gene editing technologies could be a valuable resource for biomedical research. PMID:27030199

  3. Process for producing high-concentration slurry of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaoji, K.; Itoh, H.; Kamao, M.; Takao, Sh.; Tatsumi, Sh.

    1985-02-19

    High concentrated coal-water slurry is produced by coarsely crushing coal, thereafter pulverizing the coarsely crushed coal, together with water and a slurry dispersant, according to necessity, in a wet-type ball mill, and feeding back one portion of the finely pulverized coal slurry thus obtained into the inlet of the wet-type ball mill.

  4. SEPARATING LIQUID MODERATOR FROM A SLURRY TYPE REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, H.C.

    1961-07-01

    A system for evaporating moderator such as D/sub 2/O from an irradiated slurry or sloution characterized by two successive evaproators is described. In the first of these the most troublesome radioactivity dissipates before the slurry becomes too thick to be pumped out; in the second the slurry, now easier to handle, can be safely reduced to a sludge.

  5. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Dooher, J.P.

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  6. CATALYTIC RECOMBINATION OF RADIOLYTIC GASES IN THORIUM OXIDE SLURRIES

    DOEpatents

    Morse, L.E.

    1962-08-01

    A method for the coinbination of hydrogen and oxygen in aqueous thorium oxide-uranium oxide slurries is described. A small amount of molybdenum oxide catalyst is provided in the slurry. This catalyst is applicable to the recombination of hydrogen and/or deuterium and oxygen produced by irradiation of the slurries in nuclear reactors. (AEC)

  7. Escherichia coli contamination of lettuce grown in soils amended with animal slurry.

    PubMed

    Jensen, A N; Storm, C; Forslund, A; Baggesen, D L; Dalsgaard, A

    2013-07-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess the transfer of Escherichia coli from animal slurry fertilizer to lettuce, with E. coli serving as an indicator of fecal contamination and as an indicator for potential bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied as fertilizer to three Danish agricultural fields prior to the planting of lettuce seedlings. At harvest, leaves (25 g) of 10 lettuce heads were pooled into one sample unit (n = 147). Soil samples (100 g) were collected from one field before slurry application and four times during the growth period (n = 75). E. coli was enumerated in slurry, soil, and lettuce on 3M Petrifilm Select E. coli Count Plates containing 16 mg/liter streptomycin, 16 mg/liter ampicillin, or no antimicrobial agent. Selected E. coli isolates (n = 83) originating from the slurry, soil, and lettuce were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine the similarity of isolates. The slurry applied to the fields contained 3.0 to 4.5 log CFU/g E. coli. E. coli was found in 36 to 54% of the lettuce samples, streptomycin-resistant E. coli was found in 10.0 to 18.0% of the lettuce samples, and ampicillin-resistant E. coli in 0 to 2.0% of the lettuce samples (the detection limit was 1 log CFU/g). The concentration of E. coli exceeded 2 log CFU/g in 19.0% of the lettuce samples. No E. coli was detected in the soil before the slurry was applied, but after, E. coli was present until the last sampling day (harvest), when 10 of 15 soil samples contained E. coli. A relatively higher frequency of E. coli in lettuce compared with the soil samples at harvest suggests environmental sources of fecal contamination, e.g., wildlife. The higher frequency was supported by the finding of 21 different PFGE types among the E. coli isolates, with only a few common PFGE types between slurry, soil, and lettuce. The frequent finding of fecal-contaminated lettuce indicates that human pathogens such as Salmonella and Campylobacter can be present and

  8. Effect of biofuel co-products in pig diets on the excretory patterns of N and C and on the subsequent ammonia and methane emissions from pig effluent.

    PubMed

    Jarret, G; Martinez, J; Dourmad, J-Y

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of incorporation into pig diets of 20% of different co-products from the biofuel industries, which are rich in fibre, on animal growth performance, on nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) excretions, and on the subsequent ammonia volatilisation and methane production during the storage of slurry. Five experimental diets mainly based on wheat and soyabean meal were formulated: two control diets, a control high-protein (CHP) diet with 17.5% of crude protein (CP) and a control low-protein (CLP) diet with 14.0% of CP and three experimental diets with 20% of (i) dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS), (ii) sugar beet pulp (SBP) or (iii) fatty rapeseed meal (FRM). The animals used (20 castrated males) were housed individually in metabolism cages and fed one of the five diets (i.e. four pigs per diet). Urine and faeces were collected separately from each pig in order to measure nutrient digestibility and the excretory patterns of N and C. For each diet, ammonia volatilisation was measured from samples of slurry subsequently produced, over a 16-day storage period in a laboratory pilot scale system. The ultimate methane potential (B0, expressed in litres CH4/kg organic matter (OM)) was measured from the same slurry, for each diet, in anaerobic storage conditions over 100 days. The addition of sources of fibres to the diet decreased (P < 0.05) the animal growth performance by 13% and increased (P < 0.05) the amount of faeces excreted by 100%, whereas the amount of urine was not affected. For the high-fibre diets, there was a shift of N partitioning from urine to faeces, resulting in a much higher faecal N excretion (10 v. 5 g N/pig per day). Concurrently, the fibre enrichment in diets significantly increased (P < 0.05) the C content of the faeces by 68%. Ammonia emission from slurry was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 19% to 33% for the high-fibre diets, compared to the CHP diet. Ammonia emission was also reduced (P < 0

  9. Freeforming objects with low-binder slurry

    DOEpatents

    Cesarano, III, Joseph; Calvert, Paul D.

    2000-01-01

    In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

  10. Low Cost Dewatering of Waste Slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, J. B.; Sharma, S. K.; Church, R. H.; Scheiner, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a technique for dewatering mineral waste slurries which utilizes polymer and a static screen. A variety of waste slurries from placer gold mines and crushed stone operations have been successfully treated using the system. Depending on the waste, a number of polymers have been used successfully with polymer costs ranging from $0.05 to $0.15 per 1,000 gal treated. The dewatering is accomplished using screens made from either ordinary window screen or wedge wire. The screens used are 8 ft wide and 8 ft long. The capacity of the screens varies from 3 to 7 gpm/sq. ft. The water produced is acceptable for recycling to the plant or for discharge to the environment. For example, a fine grain dolomite waste slurry produced from a crushed stone operation was dewatered from a nominal 2.5 pct solids to greater than 50 pct solids using $0.10 to $0.15 worth of polymer per 1,000 gal of slurry. The resulting waste water had a turbidity of less than 50 NTU and could be discharged or recycled. The paper describes field tests conducted using the polymer-screen dewatering system.

  11. The coal slime slurry combustion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Xu, Z.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the coal slime slurry combustion technology in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The technique is that the slurry-based flow from the concentrator in the coal washery plant directly feeds into the fluidized bed by pump for combustion after a simple filtration and enrichment to an approximate concentration of 50% of coal. The coal slime slurry can burn in a CFB boiler alone or jointly with coal refuse. The technique has been used in a 35 t/h (6MWe) CFB for power generation. The result shows that the combustion efficiency is over 96% and boiler thermal efficiency is over 77%. As compared with burning coal refuse alone, the thermal efficiency was improved by 3--4 percent. This technology is simple, easy to operate and reliable. It is an effective way to utilize coal slime slurry. It has a practical significance for saving coal resources and reducing environmental pollution near coal mine areas. As a clean coal technology, it will result in great social, environmental and economic benefits.

  12. Dispersant for aqueous slurry of coal powder

    SciTech Connect

    Moriyama, N.; Watanabe, S.; Yamamura, M.

    1982-05-18

    A dispersant for forming an aqueous slurry of coal powder having a good flowability, which comprises as the active ingredient at least one member selected from sulfonation products of polycyclic aromatic compounds which may have a hydrocarbon group as a substituent, salts thereof and formaldehyde condensates thereof.

  13. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  14. Biodegradation of Pig Manure by the Housefly, Musca domestica: A Viable Ecological Strategy for Pig Manure Management

    PubMed Central

    Čičková, Helena; Pastor, Berta; Kozánek, Milan; Martínez-Sánchez, Anabel; Rojo, Santos; Takáč, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500–700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7±32.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4–1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178–444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust). Larval survival ranged from 46.9±2.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8±11.9% in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6–11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9–74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18–0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types. Recommendations for the operation of industrial-scale biodegradation facilities are presented and discussed. PMID:22431982

  15. Slurry sampling techniques for the determination of lead in Bangladeshi fish samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with a metal tube atomizer.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Arifur; Kaneco, Satoshi; Suzuki, Tohru; Katsumata, Hideyuki; Ohta, Kiyohisa

    2005-05-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with a metal tube atomizer has been applied to the determination of lead in Bangladeshi fish samples. The slurry sampling conditions, such as slurry stabilizing agent, slurry concentration, pyrolysis temperature for the slurried fish samples, particle size and ultrasonic agitation time, were optimized for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with the Mo tube atomizer. Thiourea was used as the chemical modifier for the interference of matrix elements. The detection limit was 53 fg (3S/N). The determined amount of lead in Bangladeshi fish samples was consistent with those measured in the dissolved acid-digested samples. The advantages of the proposed methods are easy calibration, simplicity, low cost and rapid analysis.

  16. Method for applying a high-temperature bond coat on a metal substrate, and related compositions and articles

    DOEpatents

    Hasz, Wayne Charles; Sangeeta, D

    2006-04-18

    A method for applying a bond coat on a metal-based substrate is described. A slurry which contains braze material and a volatile component is deposited on the substrate. The slurry can also include bond coat material. Alternatively, the bond coat material can be applied afterward, in solid form or in the form of a second slurry. The slurry and bond coat are then dried and fused to the substrate. A repair technique using this slurry is also described, along with related compositions and articles.

  17. Method for applying a high-temperature bond coat on a metal substrate, and related compositions and articles

    DOEpatents

    Hasz, Wayne Charles; Sangeeta, D

    2002-01-01

    A method for applying a bond coat on a metal-based substrate is described. A slurry which contains braze material and a volatile component is deposited on the substrate. The slurry can also include bond coat material. Alternatively, the bond coat material can be applied afterward, in solid form or in the form of a second slurry. The slurry and bond coat are then dried and fused to the substrate. A repair technique using this slurry is also described, along with related compositions and articles.

  18. Evaluation of slurry characteristics for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Ki Yeon; Kwon, Young Il; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lithium-ion battery slurries are prepared for rechargeable batteries. • The dispersion state of slurry constituents is identified. • Thermal, morphological, rheological, and electrical properties of slurries are analyzed. - Abstract: A multi-component slurry for rechargeable batteries is prepared by dispersing LiCoO{sub 2}, conductive additives, and polymeric binders in a solvent. The physical properties, including rheological, morphological, electrical, and spectroscopic features of battery slurries are investigated. The relationship between the measured physical properties and the internal structure of the slurry is analyzed. It is found that the rheological behavior of the slurry is determined by the interaction of active materials and binding materials (e.g., network structure) and that the dispersion state of conductive additives (e.g., agglomeration) also depends on the binder–carbon interaction.

  19. Slurry ice thermal energy storage for cheese process cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gladis, S.P.

    1997-12-31

    Many industrial processes require a large load to be cooled in a relatively short period. These loads often utilize supply chilled-water temperatures in the range of 34 F (1.1 C) to 36 F (2.2 C). The low water temperatures can be supplied from conventional on-demand chillers, such as falling film water chillers or shell-and-tube chillers using a brine solution. The low water temperatures can also be supplied from thermal energy storage (TES) systems, such as static ice builders, or dynamic ice systems, such as an ice harvester or slurry ice maker. The benefits of using a TES system in industrial processes, versus an on-demand chiller, include smaller refrigeration equipment, reserve cooling capacity, lower electrical capacity requirements, and lower energy costs. This paper outlines a unique type of dynamic slurry ice system applied to a cheese processing plant. Dynamic ice systems separate the manufacture of ice from the storage of ice. These systems are capable of satisfying very large loads of short duration by rapidly melting stored ice. Rapid melting of ice is achievable with dynamic ice-type TES systems because the warm water returning from the load comes in direct contact with the ice in storage.

  20. Behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs provided with straw in various amounts and frequencies.

    PubMed

    Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H V; Lahrmann, H P; Nielsen, M B F; Amdi, C; Hansen, C F

    2014-11-01

    Straw possesses many characteristics that make it attractive to pigs and can therefore be effective in preventing negative penmate-directed behaviours. However, straw is difficult to handle in current vacuum slurry systems under most commercial conditions and can therefore only be used in limited amounts. To occupy pigs effectively, straw must remain attractive to pigs throughout the whole day; hence, have a certain degree of novelty. We investigated the penmate-directed behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs in a production herd, assigned to five experimental treatments: 1×25, 1×50, 1×100, 2×50 and 4×25 g of chopped straw/pig per day, with 20 replicates of each treatment (pen was regarded as experimental unit). Behaviour was observed at two different growth stages; ~40 and 80 kg live weight of the pigs. Activity and exploratory behaviour directed at penmates, straw, pen components and the slatted floor were registered continuously for 15 min of each hour during day time (0600 to 2200 h) by use of video observation of three focal pigs per pen. The pigs were active for about one-third of the day corresponding to ~5 h/day. Of the active time, an average of 7% (35 min) was spent on penmate-directed behaviour. The pigs were more active and increased their straw-directed behaviour when provided with 100 g straw/pig per day compared with 25 and 50 g (P<0.001). However, penmate-directed behaviour was not reduced with an increased amount of straw (P>0.05), and there was no effect on pigs' behaviour when straw provision was increased per day (P>0.05). Pigs became less active and reduced their straw-directed activities when their weight increased from 40 to 80 kg live weight (P<0.001), but the amount of penmate-directed behaviour was similar (P>0.05). Further, the residual straw results indicated that perhaps a more frequent straw provision could help establish a more even level of fresh available straw during the day. However, the frequent straw provision did not occupy

  1. Ammonia volatilization following dairy slurry application to a permanent grassland on a volcanic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Lagos, J.; Salazar, F.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture is the largest source of ammonia (NH3) emission to the atmosphere. Within the agricultural sector, the application of slurry to grasslands as fertilizer is one of the main emission sources. This is a common practice in southern Chile, where most dairy production systems are grazing-based. In Chile, there are few published data of gaseous emissions following slurry application to grassland. The aim of this study was to evaluate NH3 volatilization following dairy slurry application to a permanent grassland on an Andosol soil. Ammonia volatilization was measured in four field experiments (winters of 2009 and 2011 and early and late springs of 2011) using a micrometeorological mass balance method with passive flux samplers following dairy slurry application at a target rate of 100 kg total N ha-1. The accumulated N loss was equivalent to 7, 8, 16 and 21% of the total N applied and 22, 34, 88 and 74% of total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) applied for winters 2009 and 2011, and early and late spring 2011, respectively. Ammonia emission rates were high immediately after application and declined rapidly with time, with more than 50% of the total emissions within the first 24 h. Losses were highly influenced by environmental conditions, increasing with temperature and lack of rainfall. Taking into consideration the low N losses via leaching and nitrous oxide emissions reported for the study area, results indicate that NH3 volatilization is the main pathway of N loss in fertilized grasslands of southern Chile. However, dairy slurry application could be an important source of nutrients, if applied at a suitable time, rate and using an appropriate technique, and if soil and climate conditions are taken into consideration. This could improve N use efficiency and reduce N losses to the wider environment.

  2. Cleaning pipelines: a pigging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Kipin, P.

    1985-02-04

    The ''pig'', a cleaning device currently used to clear out pipes, is discussed here. Types of pigs are described and include styrofoam, rubber, and soft foam. The limitations to the use of pigs are discussed. Unless all valves are fully open, a pig can get stuck. Ball-type tees may cause a short pig to drop and bypass. Generally, no pig is able to traverse a one-cut miter.

  3. System for pressure letdown of abrasive slurries

    DOEpatents

    Kasper, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    A system and method for releasing erosive slurries from containment at high pressure without subjecting valves to highly erosive slurry flow. The system includes a pressure letdown tank disposed below the high-pressure tank, the two tanks being connected by a valved line communicating the gas phases and a line having a valve and choke for a transfer of liquid into the letdown tank. The letdown tank has a valved gas vent and a valved outlet line for release of liquid. In operation, the gas transfer line is opened to equalize pressure between tanks so that a low level of liquid flow occurs. The letdown tank is then vented, creating a high-pressure differential between the tanks. At this point, flow between tanks is controlled by the choke. High-velocity, erosive flow through a high-pressure outlet valve is prevented by equalizing the start up pressure and thereafter limiting flow with the choke.

  4. Rheology of coal slurries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ulbrecht, J.J.; Ryan, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental investigations of suspensions of three size distributions of glass spheres in a solution of tetralin and tetrabromoethane were made using a Haake viscometer. The values of viscosity were determined over a range of shear rates from 1 to 1000 sec/sup -1/. The suspending medium is Newtonian with a viscosity of about 9.66 centipoise at 25 +- 1/sup 0/C. At phi less than or equal to 20%, the suspension exhibited Newtonian behavior but at phi greater than or equal to 30%, the suspension exhibited pronounced non-Newtonian behavior. Experimental studies of these three size distributions were also conducted in aqueous solutions of polyvinylpyrrolidone using a pipe loop apparatus. Viscosity was measured over the shear rate range from 600 to 6000 sec./sup -1/. These suspensions having non-Newtonian suspending media, exhibit non-Newtonian behavior at all concentration levels of the solid particles. In the limit of very high shear rates, the suspension viscosity was found to be independent of tube diameter over the range of shear rates and concentrations studied. The rheological behavior of slurries of irregularly-shaped anthracite coal particles was also systematically investigated. The suspending medium consisted of a mixture of anthracene oil and tetrabromoethane. The shear rate was varied from 0.01 to 1000 sec./sup -1/. Volume concentrations range from 0 to 34%. At volume concentrations greater than 29% the slurries exhibited a yield stress and pronounced thixotropic behavior. The relative viscosities of both the model and the coal slurries were found to be dependent on both the shear rate and the particle size. In the case of the coal slurries caution must be exercised with regard to the proper interpretation of the rheological data due to the influences of the measured apparent density of the coal particles, viscometric flow geometry, and time dependent effects.

  5. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.

    1984-11-29

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  6. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.

    1985-01-01

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  7. Effects of cattle-slurry treatment by acidification and separation on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential after surface application to an acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Fangueiro, David; Pereira, José; Bichana, André; Surgy, Sónia; Cabral, Fernanda; Coutinho, João

    2015-10-01

    Cattle-slurry (liquid manure) application to soil is a common practice to provide nutrients and organic matter for crop growth but it also strongly impacts the environment. The objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency of cattle-slurry treatment by solid-liquid separation and/or acidification on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential (GWP) following application to an acidic soil. An aerobic laboratory incubation was performed over 92 days with a Dystric Cambisol amended with raw cattle-slurry or separated liquid fraction (LF) treated or not by acidification to pH 5.5 by addition of sulphuric acid. Soil mineral N contents and NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured. Results obtained suggest that the acidification of raw cattle-slurry reduced significantly NH3 emissions (-88%) but also the GWP (-28%) while increased the N availability relative to raw cattle-slurry (15% of organic N applied mineralised against negative mineralisation in raw slurry). However, similar NH3 emissions and GWP were observed in acidified LF and non-acidified LF treatments. On the other hand, soil application of acidified cattle-slurry rather than non-acidified LF should be preferred attending the lower costs associated to acidification compared to solid-liquid separation. It can then be concluded that cattle-slurry acidification is a solution to minimise NH3 emissions from amended soil and an efficient strategy to decrease the GWP associated with slurry application to soil. Furthermore, the more intense N mineralisation observed with acidified slurry should lead to a higher amount of plant available N and consequently to higher crop yields.

  8. Effects of cattle-slurry treatment by acidification and separation on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential after surface application to an acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Fangueiro, David; Pereira, José; Bichana, André; Surgy, Sónia; Cabral, Fernanda; Coutinho, João

    2015-10-01

    Cattle-slurry (liquid manure) application to soil is a common practice to provide nutrients and organic matter for crop growth but it also strongly impacts the environment. The objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency of cattle-slurry treatment by solid-liquid separation and/or acidification on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential (GWP) following application to an acidic soil. An aerobic laboratory incubation was performed over 92 days with a Dystric Cambisol amended with raw cattle-slurry or separated liquid fraction (LF) treated or not by acidification to pH 5.5 by addition of sulphuric acid. Soil mineral N contents and NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured. Results obtained suggest that the acidification of raw cattle-slurry reduced significantly NH3 emissions (-88%) but also the GWP (-28%) while increased the N availability relative to raw cattle-slurry (15% of organic N applied mineralised against negative mineralisation in raw slurry). However, similar NH3 emissions and GWP were observed in acidified LF and non-acidified LF treatments. On the other hand, soil application of acidified cattle-slurry rather than non-acidified LF should be preferred attending the lower costs associated to acidification compared to solid-liquid separation. It can then be concluded that cattle-slurry acidification is a solution to minimise NH3 emissions from amended soil and an efficient strategy to decrease the GWP associated with slurry application to soil. Furthermore, the more intense N mineralisation observed with acidified slurry should lead to a higher amount of plant available N and consequently to higher crop yields. PMID:26217884

  9. CFD simulation and experimental analysis of erosion in a slurry tank test rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimian, Mehdi; Bart, Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Erosion occurring in equipment dealing with liquid-solid mixtures such as pipeline parts, slurry pumps, liquid-solid stirred reactors and slurry mixers in various industrial applications results in operational failure and economic costs. A slurry erosion tank test rig is designed and was built to investigate the erosion rates of materials and the influencing parameters such as flow velocity and turbulence, flow angle, solid particle concentration, particles size distribution, hardness and target material properties on the material loss and erosion profiles. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool is used to simulate the erosion rate of sample plates in the liquid-solid slurry mixture in a cylindrical tank. The predictions were made in a steady state and also transient manner, applying the flow at the room temperature and using water and sand as liquid and solid phases, respectively. The multiple reference frame method (MRF) is applied to simulate the flow behavior and liquid-solid interactions in the slurry tank test rig. The MRF method is used since it is less demanding than sliding mesh method (SM) and gives satisfactory results. The computational domain is divided into three regions: a rotational or MRF zone containing the mixer, a rotational zone (MRF) containing the erosion plates and a static zone (outer liquid zone). It is observed that changing the MRF zone diameter and height causes a very low impact on the results. The simulated results were obtained for two kinds of hard metals namely stainless steel and ST-50 under some various operating conditions and are found in good agreement with the experimental results.

  10. The effect of pig farming on copper and zinc accumulation in cattle in Galicia (north-western Spain).

    PubMed

    López Alonso, M; Benedito, J L; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Shore, R F

    2000-11-01

    Copper and zinc are frequently added at high concentrations to pig diets as growth promoters. Livestock grazing pasture contaminated with pig slurry may, therefore, be at risk from excessive intake of these elements. High liver copper concentrations have been detected in cattle from the agricultural region of Galicia (NW Spain), especially where there is intensive pig farming. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pig farming does affect accumulation of copper and zinc in cattle in Galicia. Hepatic copper and zinc concentrations in calves were elevated in areas with naturally high levels of these elements in the soil. The densities of young pigs (piglets and growing-finishing pigs), but not reproductive sows, also influenced copper accumulation in calves. Liver copper levels in calves were significantly and positively related to the density of young pigs in the region. In areas with the highest pig densities, more than 20% of the cattle analysed had hepatic copper concentrations that exceeded the potentially toxic concentration of 150 mg/kg fresh weight. There was no evidence that zinc accumulation in calves was affected by pig density.

  11. Links among nitrification, nitrifier communities, and edaphic properties in contrasting soils receiving dairy slurry.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Ann-Marie; Honeycutt, C Wayne; Vandemark, George; Griffin, Timothy S; Larkin, Robert P; He, Zhongqi; Wienhold, Brian J; Sistani, Karamat R; Albrecht, Stephan L; Woodbury, Bryan L; Torbert, Henry A; Powell, J Mark; Hubbard, Robert K; Eigenberg, Roger A; Wright, Robert J; Alldredge, J Richard; Harsh, James B

    2012-01-01

    Soil biotic and abiotic factors strongly influence nitrogen (N) availability and increases in nitrification rates associated with the application of manure. In this study, we examine the effects of edaphic properties and a dairy (Bos taurus) slurry amendment on N availability, nitrification rates and nitrifier communities. Soils of variable texture and clay mineralogy were collected from six USDA-ARS research sites and incubated for 28 d with and without dairy slurry applied at a rate of ~300 kg N ha(-1). Periodically, subsamples were removed for analyses of 2 M KCl extractable N and nitrification potential, as well as gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). Spearman coefficients for nitrification potentials and AOB copy number were positively correlated with total soil C, total soil N, cation exchange capacity, and clay mineralogy in treatments with and without slurry application. Our data show that the quantity and type of clay minerals present in a soil affect nitrifier populations, nitrification rates, and the release of inorganic N. Nitrogen mineralization, nitrification potentials, and edaphic properties were positively correlated with AOB gene copy numbers. On average, AOA gene copy numbers were an order of magnitude lower than those of AOB across the six soils and did not increase with slurry application. Our research suggests that the two nitrifier communities overlap but have different optimum environmental conditions for growth and activity that are partly determined by the interaction of manure-derived ammonium with soil properties. PMID:22218194

  12. Links among nitrification, nitrifier communities, and edaphic properties in contrasting soils receiving dairy slurry.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Ann-Marie; Honeycutt, C Wayne; Vandemark, George; Griffin, Timothy S; Larkin, Robert P; He, Zhongqi; Wienhold, Brian J; Sistani, Karamat R; Albrecht, Stephan L; Woodbury, Bryan L; Torbert, Henry A; Powell, J Mark; Hubbard, Robert K; Eigenberg, Roger A; Wright, Robert J; Alldredge, J Richard; Harsh, James B

    2012-01-01

    Soil biotic and abiotic factors strongly influence nitrogen (N) availability and increases in nitrification rates associated with the application of manure. In this study, we examine the effects of edaphic properties and a dairy (Bos taurus) slurry amendment on N availability, nitrification rates and nitrifier communities. Soils of variable texture and clay mineralogy were collected from six USDA-ARS research sites and incubated for 28 d with and without dairy slurry applied at a rate of ~300 kg N ha(-1). Periodically, subsamples were removed for analyses of 2 M KCl extractable N and nitrification potential, as well as gene copy numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). Spearman coefficients for nitrification potentials and AOB copy number were positively correlated with total soil C, total soil N, cation exchange capacity, and clay mineralogy in treatments with and without slurry application. Our data show that the quantity and type of clay minerals present in a soil affect nitrifier populations, nitrification rates, and the release of inorganic N. Nitrogen mineralization, nitrification potentials, and edaphic properties were positively correlated with AOB gene copy numbers. On average, AOA gene copy numbers were an order of magnitude lower than those of AOB across the six soils and did not increase with slurry application. Our research suggests that the two nitrifier communities overlap but have different optimum environmental conditions for growth and activity that are partly determined by the interaction of manure-derived ammonium with soil properties.

  13. Determination of bismuth in environmental samples by slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using combined chemical modifiers.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, Ryszard; Dobrzyńska, Joanna; Gawrońska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry technique was applied for the determination of Bi in environmental samples. The study focused on the effect of Zr, Ti, Nb and W carbides, as permanent modifiers, on the Bi signal. Because of its highest thermal and chemical stability and ability to substantially increase Bi signal, NbC was chosen as the most effective modifier. The temperature programme applied for Bi determination was optimized based on the pyrolysis and atomization curves obtained for slurries prepared from certified reference materials (CRMs) of the soil and sediments. To overcome interferences caused by sulfur compounds, Ba(NO₃)₂ was used as a chemical modifier. Calibration was performed using the aqueous standard solutions. The analysis of the CRMs confirmed the reliability of the proposed analytical method. The characteristic mass for Bi was determined to be 16 pg with the detection limit of 50 ng/g for the optimized procedure at the 5% (w/v) slurry concentration.

  14. Water-quality characterization of an eastern coal slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, C.D.; Dietz, J.D.; Flint, M.J.; Todd, M.R.

    1987-03-01

    Current and projected used of coal have resulted in several proposals for coal-slurry pipelines in the United States. A typical eastern coal has a greater sulfur content and a smaller percentage of alkaline minerals in the ash than a typical western coal. Thus, eastern coal slurries likely will yield different quality wastewaters from western coal slurries. An experimental program was conducted to characterize the wastewater resulting from a 50% eastern Kentucky coal slurry. Twenty-nine water-quality parameters were measured as a function of pumping time in the pilot-scale pipeline. Tests were conducted with and without a nitrite-based corrosion inhibitor added directly to the slurry. The treatability of the 10-day slurry wastewater was assessed using both lime and alum addition.

  15. Pig in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all make. (NH)

  16. The correlation between thermal and noxious gas environments, pig productivity and behavioral responses of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong Lim; Han, Sang Hwa; Albright, Louis D; Chang, Won Kyung

    2011-09-01

    Correlations between environmental parameters (thermal range and noxious gas levels) and the status (productivity, physiological, and behavioral) of growing pigs were examined for the benefit of pig welfare and precision farming. The livestock experiment was conducted at a Seoul National University station in South Korea. Many variations were applied and the physiological and behavioral responses of the growing pigs were closely observed. Thermal and gas environment parameters were different during the summer and winter seasons, and the environments in the treatments were controlled in different manners. In the end, this study finds that factors such as Average Daily Gain (ADG), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), stress, posture, and eating habits were all affected by the controlled environmental parameters and that appropriate control of the foregoing could contribute to the improvement of precision farming and pig welfare.

  17. Tail biting in pigs.

    PubMed

    Schrøder-Petersen, D L; Simonsen, H B

    2001-11-01

    One of the costly and welfare-reducing problems in modern pig production is tail biting. Tail biting is an abnormal behaviour, characterized by one pig's dental manipulation of another pig's tail. Tail biting can be classified into two groups: the pre-injury stage, before any wound on the tail is present, and the injury stage, where the tail is wounded and bleeding. Tail biting in the injury stage will reduce welfare of the bitten pig and the possible spread of infection is a health as well as welfare problem. The pigs that become tail biters may also suffer, because they are frustrated due to living in a stressful environment. This frustration may result in an excessive motivation for biting the tails of pen mates. This review aims to summarize recent research and theories in relation to tail biting. PMID:11681870

  18. Methods to enhance the characteristics of hydrothermally prepared slurry fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Chris M.; Musich, Mark A.; Mann, Michael D.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Richter, John J.; Potas, Todd A.; Willson, Warrack G.

    2000-01-01

    Methods for enhancing the flow behavior and stability of hydrothermally treated slurry fuels. A mechanical high-shear dispersion and homogenization device is used to shear the slurry fuel. Other improvements include blending the carbonaceous material with a form of coal to reduce or eliminate the flocculation of the slurry, and maintaining the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment between approximately 300.degree. to 350.degree. C.

  19. Continuous concentration and constant volume washing of tetraphenylborate slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, J.L.

    1999-12-08

    SRTC has completed filtration testing of tetraphenylborate (TPB) slurries with and without sludge. These tests were slightly different from previous SRS tests in that they used continuous mode concentration and constant volume washing evolutions. The extent of TPB recovery during washing was measured. The resulting washed precipitate slurry, with sludge, was stored at ambient temperature and under a nitrogen-inerted atmosphere to study TPB stability. Samples of both unwashed and washed slurries were submitted for rheology measurements.

  20. Short-term sequestration of slurry-derived carbon into particle size fractions of a temperate grassland soil.

    PubMed

    Bol, Roland; Moering, Judith; Preedy, Neil; Glaser, Bruno

    2004-03-01

    Surface application of animal wastes in intensive grassland systems has caused growing environmental problems during the last decade and, therefore, increasing public and scientific concern. In the present study we examined if the natural abundance 13C stable isotope tracer techniques could be used to investigate a poorly defined aspect of waste application, i.e. incorporation of slurry-derived C and its distribution in soil organic matter (SOM) fractions with different turnover times of a pasture soil. C3 and C4 slurries (delta13C(V-PDB) = -30.7/1000 and -21.3/1000, respectively) from cows fed either on a maize (C4) or perennial ryegrass (C3) diet were applied to a C3 soil with a delta13C value of (-30.0+/-0.2)/1000. The cattle slurry was applied at 50 m3 ha(-1). Coarse sand, fine sand, silt, clay and fine clay were isolated from bulk soil samples (0-2 cm depth), freeze-dried and ground prior to total organic C (TOC) using elemental analysis and 13C natural abundance analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. The stable isotope tracer technique did allow to quantify the short-term sequestration of slurry-derived C in particle-size fractions of the grassland soil. Slurry-derived carbon was sequestered in various amounts in the five particle-size fractions, but most of it was sequestered in the coarse sand fraction during the two week experiment. The preferential input into the coarse sand fraction suggests that only the larger particulate slurry-derived materials were trapped into the soil during the experimental period. Less than 40% of the applied slurry-derived C was sequestered into the soil, suggesting a potential for large losses into the wider environment. The practice of surface spreading of slurry to temperate grassland soils is clearly not efficient, and improvements in slurry application methods, such as incorporation directly into the soil, should therefore be encouraged.

  1. Oxidation of coal-water slurry feed to hydrogasifier

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Bernard S.

    1976-01-01

    An aqueous coal slurry is preheated, subjected to partial oxidation and vaporization by injection of high pressure oxygen and is introduced into a top section of a hydrogasifier in direct contact with hot methane-containing effluent gases where vaporization of the slurry is completed. The resulting solids are reacted in the hydrogasifier and the combined gases and vapors are withdrawn and subjected to purification and methanation to provide pipeline gas. The amount of oxygen injected into the slurry is controlled to provide the proper thermal balance whereby all of the water in the slurry can be evaporated in contact with the hot effluent gases from the hydrogasifier.

  2. Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.; Hayashi, Kanetoshi

    1999-08-01

    A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX MISCIBLE AND IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.

    2011-06-15

    Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). At present, Tank 50H contains two standard slurry pumps and two Quad Volute slurry pumps. Current requirements and mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste would like to move one or both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that are failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to blend miscible and immiscible liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Salt Disposition Integration Project (SDIP) and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters needed to blend the tank contents. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will be able to blend miscible liquids (i.e., salt solution) in Tank 50H within 4.4 hours. (2) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 3.1 hours. (3) Three rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 2.5 hours. (4) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets that are less than or equal to 15 micron in diameter. If the droplets are less than 15 micron, they will be dispersed within 4.4 hours. Isopar L{reg_sign} provides a lower bound on the maximum size of droplets that will be dispersed by the slurry pumps in Tank 50H. (5) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets less than 15 micron

  4. Ice slurry cooling research: Microscale study of ice particles characteristics, role of freezing point depressant, and influence on slurry fluidity

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, K.; Kasza, K.

    2000-05-03

    The influences of freezing-point-depressants on ice slurry characteristics in the form of ice slurry fluidity and on the microscale ice particle features are studied. The results identify microscale features of ice particles such as surface roughness that greatly influence slurry fluidity that are altered favorably by the use of a freezing point depressant. The engineering of a workable and efficient ice slurry cooling system depends very strongly on the characteristics of the individual ice particles in the slurry and, in turn, on the method of ice production. Findings from this study provide guidance on the fluidity and handleability of slurry produced by several methods currently under development and already many achieved.

  5. Is digestate safe? A study on its ecotoxicity and environmental risk on a pig manure.

    PubMed

    Tigini, Valeria; Franchino, Marta; Bona, Francesca; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Digestate represents a precious by-product in particular in agriculture, however its impact on the environment and human health is still unexplored. In this work, the toxicity of a pig slurry digestate was assessed through 7 ecotoxicity tests and considering 10 different endpoints. Besides, a synthetic index was applied to the outputs of the battery of tests for the environmental risk assessment, in order to evaluate the opportunity to use directly this kind of digestate in agriculture or to introduce an additional treatment. All the organisms were sensitive to digestate toxicity (EC50 ranged from 14.22% for Cucumissativus to 0.77% for Raphidocelis subcapitata). The physical-chemical features at the base of this toxicity seem to be the high content of ammonium, salinity, COD, phosphate and colour. The synthetic index showed that the digestate was very toxic and associated to an extremely high environmental risk. Thus, a pre-treatment is needed to reduce its toxicity and environmental impact, whatever could be its exploitation. PMID:26874769

  6. Slurry Phase Iron Catalysts for Indirect Coal LIquefaction.

    SciTech Connect

    Datye, A.K.

    1997-08-08

    This report covers the fourth six month period of this three year grant under the University Coal Research program. During this period, we have begun the synthesis of precipitated catalysts using a bench-top spray dryer. The influence of binders on particle strength was also studied using the ultrasonic fragmentation approach to derive particle breaking stress. A similar approach was used to derive particle strength of catalysts obtained from Mr. Robert Gormley at FETC. Over the next six month period, this work will be continued while the catalysts prepared here will be examined by TPR to determine reducibility and the extent of adverse iron-silica interactions. A fundamental study of Fe/silica interactions has been performed using temperature programmed reaction and TEM to provide understanding of how the silica binders influence the activity of Fe catalysts. To understand differences in the reducibility of the iron phase caused by silica, we have set up a temperature programmed reduction facility. TPR in H, as well as in CO was performed of Fe/ SiO, catalysts prepared by impregnation as well as by precipitation. What is unique about these studies is that high resolution TEM was performed on samples removed from the reactor at various stages of reduction. This helps provide direct evidence for the phase changes that are detected by TPR. We have continued the analysis of catalysts received from slurry reactor runs at Texas A&M university (TAMU) and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) by x-ray diffraction. The purpose of the XRD analysis was to determine the phase composition of catalysts derived from a slurry reaction run using Fe Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. We had previously described how catalyst removed in the hot wax may oxidize to magnetite if the wax is air-exposed. We have now received catalysts from CAER that were removed under a protective inert blanket, and we are in the process of analyzing them, but preliminary work

  7. Slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for steelmaking flue dust analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coedo, A. G.; Dorado, T.; Padilla, I.; Maibusch, R.; Kuss, H.-M.

    2000-02-01

    A commercial atomic absorption graphite furnace (AAGF), with a self-made adapter and valve system, was used as a slurry sampling cell for electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS). The system was applied to the determination of As, Sn, Sb, Se, Te, Bi, Cd, V, Ti and Mo in steelmaking flue dusts. Experimental conditions with respect to ETV and ICP-MS operating parameters were optimized. Compared to aqueous solutions, slurry samples were found to present better analyte transport. Microgram amounts of Rh were used to reduce the difference in analyte response in sensitivity for aqueous solutions of the tested analytes. No such increasing effect was observed for slurry samples and aqueous standards. An added quantity of Rh acting as modifier/carrier resulted in an increase for the same analytes in matrix-slurry solutions, even the addition of an extra Rh quantity has resulted in a decrease in the signals. The effect of Triton X-100 (used as a dispersant agent) on analyte intensity and precision was also studied. External calibration from aqueous standards spiked with 100 μg ml -1 Rh was performed to quantified 0.010 g/100 ml slurry samples. Results are presented for a certified reference electrical arc furnace flue dust (EAF): CRM-876-1 (Bureau of Analysis Samples Ltd., Cleveland, UK), a reference sample of coke ashes X-3705 (from AG der Dillinger Hüttenwerke, Germany), and a representative sample of EAF flue dust from a Spanish steelmaking company (CENIM-1). For the two reference materials an acceptable agreement with certificate values was achieved, and the results for the CENIM sample matched with those obtained from conventional nebulization solution.

  8. Elimination Of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In Defense Waste Processing Facility Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.

    2013-01-22

    Based on lab-scale simulations of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) slurry chemistry, the addition of sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide to waste slurries at concentrations sufficient to take the aqueous phase into the alkaline region (pH > 7) with approximately 500 mg nitrite ion/kg slurry (assuming <25 wt% total solids, or equivalently 2,000 mg nitrite/kg total solids) is sufficient to effectively deactivate the noble metal catalysts at temperatures between room temperature and boiling. This is a potential strategy for eliminating catalytic hydrogen generation from the list of concerns for sludge carried over into the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) or Recycle Collection Tank (RCT). These conclusions are drawn in large part from the various phases of the DWPF catalytic hydrogen generation program conducted between 2005 and 2009. The findings could apply to various situations, including a solids carry-over from either the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) or Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) into the SMECT with subsequent transfer to the RCT, as well as a spill of formic acid into the sump system and transfer into an RCT that already contains sludge solids. There are other potential mitigating factors for the SMECT and RCT, since these vessels are typically operated at temperatures close to the minimum temperatures that catalytic hydrogen has been observed to occur in either the SRAT or SME (pure slurry case), and these vessels are also likely to be considerably more dilute in both noble metals and formate ion (the two essential components to catalytic hydrogen generation) than the two primary process vessels. Rhodium certainly, and ruthenium likely, are present as metal-ligand complexes that are favored under certain concentrations of the surrounding species. Therefore, in the SMECT or RCT, where a small volume of SRAT or SME material would be significantly diluted, conditions would be less optimal for forming or sustaining the

  9. High pressure slurry pump. Sand slurry test loop design and results. Wear parts lifetime analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fongaro, S.; Severini, P.; Vinciguerra, G.

    2000-07-01

    This paper shows the experimental phase, following previous work presented at the Sixth International Conference on ``Multiphase Flow in Industrial Plants'', Milan, September 98. A Sand Water Slurry Test Loop has been tested using different sand percentages for a total power of 680 HP with a flow-rate of 35,000 [gpm] and pressure of 2300 [psig]. Its design considered, carefully, the particles build-up effect respecting flow velocity and dead space along the loop and into the hydraulics. The test pump is a TRIPLEX SINGLE ACTING that is one third of the COAL SLURRY SEPTUPLEX PUMP designed for a CHINA PROJECT. Wear rate on the main parts of an high pressure slurry pump have been analyzed running at 145 rpm (piston mean speed of 3.3 [ft/s]) with a net flow of 33,290 [gpm] and pressures between 1216 and 1575 [psig]. Tests gave indications of a damaging process on valves, piston seals and the relative weight on the overall damages. Design changes of piston-seal and its material have been done, results being a longer parts lifetime. The authors compared the results with literature on coal slurry and other sand tests. The pump speed, i.e., valve cycle, isn't the main wear factor, while the fluid speed under the valve is. Their goals are to improve the wear parts lifetime and define functions to relate the wear to operating parameters, design choice, and materials used.

  10. Fundamental considerations for coal slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Dooher, J.P.

    2005-10-01

    Presented herein are the results of an investigation of theoretical models of atomization, which can be used for a phenomenological theory for coal slurry atomization. This investigation was conducted in several phases. The primary phase involved an intensive analysis of the rheological properties of coal slurry fuels. Analysis was performed including viscosity as a function of shear rate, the extensional viscosity, and the viscoelastic properties. During the second phase, atomization was studied over a sufficiently wide range of rheological properties. During this phase, simulated fluids as well as coal slurries were studied. Three basic theoretical models were analyzed to determine the best approach to characterizing these complex fluids. The first model was a linearized Navier-Stokes equation for a cylindrical fluid stream breaking up into drops under the impact of a high-velocity air stream. The second model was a collisional model, by which the collision of the airstream and the fluid stream produced droplets. Energy and momentum conservation were used to derive relationships between the drop size and the relevant physical parameters. A third model studied was a statistical model using a Boltzmann-type transport equation for the propagation of drops under the interactions of a high-velocity airstream. The effects of drop coalescence and breakup are incorporated into this model. By comparing the various theoretical models with the atomization data and the rheological data, a phenomenological model was constructed that correctly predicted the trends of the Sauter mean diameter as a function of air/fuel ratio, rheological properties, and spray angle. An elective viscosity was defined that included the effects of viscous losses, extensional properties, and viscoelastic properties. In addition, the effects of yield point were incorporated and shown to be important in predicting atomization properties.

  11. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, E. W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO/sub 3/ solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO/sub 3/ solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s (5.6 to 2.45 ft/s).

  12. CST/Water Slurry Mixing and Resuspension

    SciTech Connect

    Baich, M.A.

    2001-02-13

    Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) was selected as one of the alternatives to the In-Tank Precipitation Process (ITP) for removal of cesium from the salt waste at Savannah River Site. The proposed salt waste treatment process using CST would involve passing a filtered salt waste through a fixed bed of CST. The CST would remove the cesium from the salt waste by ion exchange and the decontaminated salt would be incorporated into the Saltstone Process. This report documents the results of investigations into the mixing and re-suspension characteristics of two 10 wt percent CST slurries.

  13. Strontium leachability of hydrofracture grouts for sludge-slurries

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, E.W.; Morgan, M.T.; Moore, J.G.; Devaney, H.E.; Dole, L.R.

    1982-03-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a series of experiments performed to determine the strontium leachability of cement-based sludge-slurry hydrofracture grouts. These grouts simulate those that will be used to dispose of the radioactive sludges now stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The hydrofracture process has been used at ORNL since 1966 for the routine disposal of intermediate-level waste solutions. In this process, cement and other additives are mixed with a waste stream to form a grout, which is then injected into a shale bed at a pressure sufficient to cause fracture along the horizontal bedding planes. The injected grout soon hardens, fixing the radionuclides between the layers of the massive Conasauga shale formation. A new hydrofracture facility has been constructed to dispose of residual sludges that have accumulated at ORNL from the NaOH neutralization of acid waste solutions. These sludges will be slurried with bentonite and pumped from the 37-year-old Gunite storage tanks to the holding tanks at the new hydrofracture facility. Pumpable grouts will be prepared by mixing the sludges with cement and other additives prior to injection in the shale bed. The specimens used in the tests reported here were prepared within the working boundary conditions of the rheogram for pumpable hydrofracture grouts. The results of applying the modified IAEA dynamic leach tests to hydrofracture grout specimens showed improved leach resistance (by a factor of 3 to 5 ) as the curing time was increased from 28 to 91 d and a weak trend toward lower leachability as increased amounts of dry solids were added. The Joy-Godbee leach model fit the dynamic leach data successfully in most cases. An apparent diffusion coefficient of 5 x 10/sup -12/ cm/sup 2//s and a moving boundary coefficient of 1 x 0/sup -7/ s/sup -1/ were obtained for one of the best grout compositions when leached in distilled water.

  14. Agronomic effects of multi-year surface-banding of dairy slurry on grass.

    PubMed

    Bittman, S; Kowalenko, C G; Forge, T; Hunt, D E; Bounaix, F; Patni, N

    2007-12-01

    Sleigh-foot application of slurry manure is the best method for applying slurry manure on many forage fields. This study was designed to assess agronomic effectiveness of multi-year surface banding of dairy slurry on a sward of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Our study showed that with this application technology, crop recovery of total-N from applied manure in the long-term is only about 77% that of mineral fertilizer. Despite relative inefficiency of N uptake from manure, yield response to manure equaled that to fertilizer at equivalent total-N rates although N-recovery was significantly lower. About 26-32% of applied manure-N was stored in soil organic matter and the buildup of soil-N was related to application rate of organic N. At moderate applications rates (approx. 400 kg Nha(-1)a(-1)), soil N accumulated at about 120 kg ha(-1) annually compared to 98 kg ha(-1)a(-1) of unaccounted N, much of that probably volatilized and denitrified. Alternating between manure and fertilizer improved productivity per unit land area without increasing the rate of N non-recovery per unit of feed produced.

  15. Impact of slurry management strategies on potential leaching of nutrients and pathogens in a sandy soil amended with cattle slurry.

    PubMed

    Fangueiro, D; Surgy, S; Napier, V; Menaia, J; Vasconcelos, E; Coutinho, J

    2014-12-15

    For farmers, management of cattle slurry (CS) is now a priority, in order to improve the fertilizer value of the slurry and simultaneously minimize its environmental impact. Several slurry pre-treatments and soil application methods to minimize ammonia emissions are now available to farmers, but the impact of such management strategies on groundwater is still unclear. A laboratory experiment was performed over 24 days in controlled conditions, with undisturbed soil columns (sandy soil) in PVC pipes (30 cm high and 5.7 cm in diameter). The treatments considered (4 replicates) were: a control with no amendment (CTR), injection of whole CS (WSI), and surface application of: whole CS (WSS), acidified (pH 5.5) whole CS (AWSS), the liquid fraction obtained by centrifugation of CS (LFS), and acidified (pH 5.5) liquid fraction (ALFS). An amount of CS equivalent to 240 kg N ha(-1) was applied in all treatments. The first leaching event was performed 72 h after application of the treatments and then leaching events were performed weekly to give a total of four irrigation events (IEs). All the leachates obtained were analyzed for mineral and organic nitrogen, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total carbon, and phosphorus. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli were also quantified in the leachates obtained in the first IE. The results show that both acidification and separation had significant effects on the composition of the leachates: higher NO3(-) concentrations were observed for the LFS and ALFS relative to all the other treatments, throughout the experiment, and lower NO3(-) concentrations were observed for acidified relative to non-acidified treatments at IE2. Acidification of both the LF and WS led to higher NH4(+) concentrations as well as an increase of EC for treatment ALFS relative to the control, in the first IE, and lower pH values in the AWSS. Furthermore, the E. coli and total coliform concentrations in AWSS, LFS, and ALFS were significantly higher than in

  16. Impact of slurry management strategies on potential leaching of nutrients and pathogens in a sandy soil amended with cattle slurry.

    PubMed

    Fangueiro, D; Surgy, S; Napier, V; Menaia, J; Vasconcelos, E; Coutinho, J

    2014-12-15

    For farmers, management of cattle slurry (CS) is now a priority, in order to improve the fertilizer value of the slurry and simultaneously minimize its environmental impact. Several slurry pre-treatments and soil application methods to minimize ammonia emissions are now available to farmers, but the impact of such management strategies on groundwater is still unclear. A laboratory experiment was performed over 24 days in controlled conditions, with undisturbed soil columns (sandy soil) in PVC pipes (30 cm high and 5.7 cm in diameter). The treatments considered (4 replicates) were: a control with no amendment (CTR), injection of whole CS (WSI), and surface application of: whole CS (WSS), acidified (pH 5.5) whole CS (AWSS), the liquid fraction obtained by centrifugation of CS (LFS), and acidified (pH 5.5) liquid fraction (ALFS). An amount of CS equivalent to 240 kg N ha(-1) was applied in all treatments. The first leaching event was performed 72 h after application of the treatments and then leaching events were performed weekly to give a total of four irrigation events (IEs). All the leachates obtained were analyzed for mineral and organic nitrogen, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total carbon, and phosphorus. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli were also quantified in the leachates obtained in the first IE. The results show that both acidification and separation had significant effects on the composition of the leachates: higher NO3(-) concentrations were observed for the LFS and ALFS relative to all the other treatments, throughout the experiment, and lower NO3(-) concentrations were observed for acidified relative to non-acidified treatments at IE2. Acidification of both the LF and WS led to higher NH4(+) concentrations as well as an increase of EC for treatment ALFS relative to the control, in the first IE, and lower pH values in the AWSS. Furthermore, the E. coli and total coliform concentrations in AWSS, LFS, and ALFS were significantly higher than in

  17. Percolation and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in soil amended with contaminated dairy manure or slurry.

    PubMed

    Semenov, Alexander V; van Overbeek, Leo; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2009-05-01

    The effect of cattle manure and slurry application on percolation and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was investigated for different soil depths after the addition of water. Four treatments were chosen for the first set of experiments: (i) addition of inoculated farmyard manure on the soil surface, (ii) mixing of inoculated farmyard manure with the top 10 cm of soil, (iii) addition of inoculated slurry on the soil surface, and (iv) injection of inoculated slurry into the top 10 cm of the soil. Homogeneity of water distribution in the soil profile was confirmed by a nondestructive nuclear magnetic resonance method. Survival data were fitted to a modified logistic model, and estimated survival times were compared. In the second set of experiments, pathogen-inoculated farmyard manure or slurry was applied to soil columns with 1-month-old lettuce plants. More pathogen cells percolated to greater depths after slurry than after manure application. Survival of E. coli O157:H7 was significantly longer in soil with slurry than in that with manure, while survival of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was equally high with manure and slurry. The densities of the pathogens were not different in the rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil with manure, while the densities were higher by 0.88 +/- 0.11 and 0.71 +/- 0.23 log CFU per g (dry weight), respectively, in the rhizosphere than in bulk soil after slurry application. Our results suggest that surface application of manure may decrease the risk of contamination of groundwater and lettuce roots compared to injection of slurry.

  18. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs.

    PubMed

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-Ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-09-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs.

  19. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs.

    PubMed

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-Ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-09-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs. PMID:27652340

  20. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs.

  1. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs. PMID:27652340

  2. Multi-stage slurry system used for grinding and polishing materials

    DOEpatents

    Hed, P. Paul; Fuchs, Baruch A.

    2001-01-01

    A slurry system draws slurry from a slurry tank via one of several intake pipes, where each pipe has an intake opening at a different depth in the slurry. The slurry is returned to the slurry tank via a bypass pipe in order to continue the agitation of the slurry. The slurry is then diverted to a delivery pipe, which supplies slurry to a polisher. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is stopped in order for the slurry in the slurry tank to begin to settle. As the polishing continues, slurry is removed from shallower depths in order to pull finer grit from the slurry. When the polishing is complete, the flow in the delivery pipe is ceased. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is resumed to start agitating the slurry. In another embodiment, the multiple intake pipes are replaced by a single adjustable pipe. As the slurry is settling, the pipe is moved upward to remove the finer grit near the top of the slurry tank as the polishing process continues.

  3. Method and apparatus for improved wire saw slurry

    DOEpatents

    Costantini, Michael A.; Talbott, Jonathan A.; Chandra, Mohan; Prasad, Vishwanath; Caster, Allison; Gupta, Kedar P.; Leyvraz, Philippe

    2000-09-05

    A slurry recycle process for use in free-abrasive machining operations such as for wire saws used in wafer slicing of ingots, where the used slurry is separated into kerf-rich and abrasive-rich components, and the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry. During the process, the average particle size of the makeup slurry is controlled by monitoring the condition of the kerf and abrasive components and making necessary adjustments to the separating force and dwell time of the separator apparatus. Related pre-separator and post separator treatments, and feedback of one or the other separator slurry output components for mixing with incoming used slurry and recirculation through the separator, provide further effectiveness and additional control points in the process. The kerf-rich component is eventually or continually removed; the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry with a controlled, average particle size such that the products of the free-abrasive machining method using the recycled slurry process of the invention are of consistent high quality with less TTV deviation from cycle to cycle for a prolonged period or series of machining operations.

  4. EVALUATION OF CARBON BLACK SLURRIES AS CLEAN BURNING FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to examine the pumpability, atomization and combustion characteristics of slurries made of mixtures of carbon black with No. 2 fuel oil and methanol. Carbon black-No. 2 fuel oil and carbon black-methanol slurries, with carbon black contents of up to 50 ...

  5. The Settling and Compaction of Nuclear Waste Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    MACLEAN, G.T.

    1999-11-15

    The settling and compaction of simulated and real nuclear waste slurries were extensively studied. Experiments were carried out with simulated wastes at laboratory and large-scale sizes, and the results compared. A model of settling was derived and a method developed to correlate and scale-up settling data for different slurries and vessel sizes.

  6. Lime slurry use at the Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, L.E.; Hughes, R.W.; Baggett, G.

    1996-04-01

    The use of lime slurry at the IWPF demonstrated many benefits. Hazardous chemical use was reduced, solids handling was improved, water quality was enhanced and there has been a cost savings. The lime slurry also enabled the plant to begin treating the soluble oil waste, which we were not able to do in the past.

  7. Rheological Modifier Testing with DWPF Process Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL, STONE

    2004-02-01

    Rheological modification agents were tested on simulated SRAT and SME products to determine if a suitable agent could be found for the DWPF process slurries. The agents tested were dispersants that lower the rheological properties of slurries by preventing agglomerization. Dolapix CE64, an ethylene glycol, and Disperse-Ayd W28, a polyacrylate, were the most effective dispersants tested. Further evaluation and testing should be performed on Dolapix CE64 and Disperse-Ayd W28 to determine if implementation is possible in DWPF. The initial phase of future work will include optimization of the rheology modifier by the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and development of a maximum concentration limit for the rheology modifiers. IIT has been commissioned to evaluate the properties of these chemicals to determine if the chemical makeup can be optimized to enhance the properties of these modifiers. An initial concentration limit based upon the DWPF flammability limit and other constraints should be calculated to determine the potential downstream impacts.

  8. Self-Organization in Granular Slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottino, Julio M.; Jain, Nitin; Lueptow, Richard M.; Khakhar, Devang V.

    2000-11-01

    Mixtures of tumbled granular materials under flow exhibit various intriguing types of un-mixing or self-organization. Small differences in particles' density, size or shape may trigger the effect. Nearly all studies to date have addressed the case of dry granular media, where the interparticle fluid is typically air. Here we report the existence of self-organization in wet granular media or slurries, mixtures of particles of different sizes dispersed in a lower density liquid. Technological examples appear in cement, ceramics, fine chemicals, and in the food industry; examples in nature appear in evolution of landslides and transport in river sediments. In spite of significantly different physics at the particle level, both axial banding (alternating bands rich in small and large particles in a long rotating cylinder) and radial segregation (in quasi 2D containers) are observed in slurries. However, axial segregation is significantly faster and the spectrum of outcomes is richer. Moreover, experiments with suitable fluids, reveal, for the first time, the internal structure of axially segregated systems, something that up to now has been accessible only via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experimentation.

  9. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  10. Filtration behavior of slurries with varying compressibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Massuda, M.; Bridger, K.; Harvey, M.; Tiller, F.M.

    1988-10-01

    A novel filtration apparatus allows simultaneous measurements of filtrate volume, hydraulic pressure and cake thickness using slurry volumes on the order of 100 cm/sup 3/. Differences in interparticle interactions were studied by varying the barium chloride concentration of 0.38-..mu..m polystyrene latex and filtering at pressures between 2 and 100 psi. Cakes formed from these slurries are highly compressible for concentrations between 0.01M and 0.10M, moderately compressible for the 0.005M concentration, and incompressible for the 0.001M concentration. Plots of filtrate volume versus cake thickness were linear for the incompressible cakes, whereas the compressible cakes showed significant deviations, which were pressure dependent. The pressure distribution for the incompressible cake was found to be essentially linear as predicted from the resistance plots assuming constant ..cap alpha.. and epsilon. For the highly compressible cakes, most of the pressure drop appears to occur near the cake/medium interface with only small changes occurring at the top of the cake.

  11. Improving feed slurry rheology by colloidal techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, W.O.; Ternes, R.L.

    1984-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PSN) has investigated three colloidal techniques in the laboratory to improve the sedimentation and flowability of Hanford simulated (nonradioactive) current acid waste (CAW) melter feed slurry: polymer-induced bridging flocculation; manipulating glass former (raw SiO/sub 2/ or frit) particle size; and alteration of nitric acid content. All three methods proved successful in improving the rheology of the simulated CAW feed. This initially had exhibited nearly worst-case flow and clogging properties, but was transformed into a flowable, resuspendable (nonclogging) feed. While each has advantages and disadvantages, the following three specific alternatives proved successful: addition of a polyelectrolyte in 2000 ppM concentration to feed slurry; substitution of a 49 wt % SiO/sub 2/ colloidal suspension (approx. 10-micron particle size) for the -325 mesh (less than or equal to 44-micron particle size) raw-chemical SiO/sub 2/; and increase of nitric acid content from the reference 1.06 M to optimum 1.35 M. The first method, polymer-induced bridging flocculation, results in a high sediment volume, nonclogging CAW feed. The second method, involving the use of colloidal silica particles results in a nonsedimenting feed that when left unagitated forms a gel. The third method, increase in feed acidity, results in a highly resuspendable (nonclogging) melter feed. Further research is therefore required to determine which of the three alternatives is the preferred method of achieving rheological control of CAW melter feeds.

  12. SRC-water slurry rheology. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-02-01

    SRC-water slurries exhibit properties that qualify them for use as fuel in conventional oil-fired combustion facilities. However, to date, the slurries tested have shown storage instability, which requires constant agitation and recirculation to avoid sedimentation in the storage tanks. High viscosities of the material being evaluated hampered the test performance. A program was instituted to better understand the variables responsible for viscosity and static stability of these slurries. Effective additives and concentrations were determined. This report presents laboratory data demonstrating that solid concentration, particle size distribution, additive concentration, and slurry preparation technique influence the viscosity and stability characteristics of an SRC-water slurry. 7 references, 12 figures, 11 tables.

  13. Fuel injection of coal slurry using vortex nozzles and valves

    DOEpatents

    Holmes, Allen B.

    1989-01-01

    Injection of atomized coal slurry fuel into an engine combustion chamber is achieved at relatively low pressures by means of a vortex swirl nozzle. The outlet opening of the vortex nozzle is considerably larger than conventional nozzle outlets, thereby eliminating major sources of failure due to clogging by contaminants in the fuel. Control fluid, such as air, may be used to impart vorticity to the slurry and/or purge the nozzle of contaminants during the times between measured slurry charges. The measured slurry charges may be produced by a diaphragm pump or by vortex valves controlled by a separate control fluid. Fluidic circuitry, employing vortex valves to alternatively block and pass cool slurry fuel flow, is disclosed.

  14. Pipelining particulate solid material as stable foam slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, J.L.

    1980-04-29

    A method of transporting particulate solid material through a pipeline in the form of a stable foam slurry is described. A pumpable slurry is formed of the particulate solid material in a stable foam carrier medium and the slurry is flowed through the pipeline to a receiving point. A method of transporting particulate solid materials through a pipeline is described wherein a pumpable slurry is formed of the particulate solid material. The particulate material is present in the stable foam in an amount of at least 20% by volume based on the total volume of the stable foam slurry. The particulate solid material may be coal particles, other forms of particulate carbonaceous material, such as coke, lignite and pitch, ores, and still other particulate material which is insoluble in the stable foam. The foam may be formed from a liquid, usually water, gas, and a foam stabilizing agent, such as a soap or a surfactant. 4 claims.

  15. Bubble column apparatus for separating wax from catalyst slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Neathery, James K.; Davis, Burtron H.

    2004-07-13

    Novel methods and devices for production of liquid hydrocarbon products from gaseous reactants are disclosed. In one aspect, a method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon, typically a wax, from a catalyst containing slurry is provided, comprising passing the slurry through at least one downcomer extending from an overhead separation chamber and discharging into the bottom of a slurry bubble column reactor. The downcomer includes a cross-flow filtration element for separating a substantially particle-free liquid hydrocarbon for downstream processing. In another aspect, a method for promoting plug-flow movement in a recirculating slurry bubble column reactor is provided, comprising discharging the recirculating slurry into the reactor through at least one downcomer which terminates near the bottom of the reactor. Devices for accomplishing the above methods are also provided.

  16. Heat transfer and bubble dynamics in slurry bubble columns for Fischer-Tropsch clean alternative energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chengtian

    With the increasing demand for alternative energy resources, the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process that converts synthesis gas into clean liquid fuels has attracted more interest from the industry. Slurry bubble columns are the most promising reactors for FT synthesis due to their advantages over other reactors. Successful operation, design, and scale-up of such reactors require detailed knowledge of hydrodynamics, bubble dynamics, and transport characteristics. However, most previous studies have been conducted at ambient pressure or covered only low superficial gas velocities. The objectives of this study were to experimentally investigate the heat transfer coefficient and bubble dynamics in slurry bubble columns at conditions that can mimic FT conditions. The air-C9C 11-FT catalysts/glass beads systems were selected to mimic the physical properties of the gas, liquid, and solid phases at commercial FT operating conditions. A heat transfer coefficient measurement technique was developed, and for the first time, this technique was applied in a pilot scale (6-inch diameter) high pressure slurry bubble column. The effects of superficial gas velocity, pressure, solids loading, and liquid properties on the heat transfer coefficients were investigated. Since the heat transfer coefficient can be affected by the bubble properties (Kumar et al., 1992), in this work bubble dynamics (local gas holdup, bubble chord length, apparent bubble frequency, specific interfacial area, and bubble velocity) were studied using the improved four-point optical probe technique (Xue et al., 2003; Xue, 2004). Because the four-point optical technique had only been successfully applied in a churn turbulent flow bubble column (Xue, 2004), this technique was first assessed in a small scale slurry bubble column in this study. Then the bubble dynamics were studied at the same conditions as the heat transfer coefficient investigation in the same pilot scale column. The results from four-point probe

  17. Ammonia emission from a permanent grassland on volcanic soil after the treatment with dairy slurry and urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, F.; Martínez-Lagos, J.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

    2014-10-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is an air pollutant largely emitted from agricultural activities including the application of livestock manures and fertilizers to grassland. This gas has been linked with important negative impacts on natural ecosystems. In southern Chile, the use of inorganic and organic fertilizers (e.g. slurries) has increased in cattle production systems over recent years, heightening the risk of N losses to the wider environment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate on permanent grasslands on a volcanic ash soil in southern Chile: 1) the N loss due to NH3 volatilization following surface application of dairy slurry and urea fertilizer; and 2) the effect of a urease inhibitor on NH3 emissions from urea fertilizer application. Small plot field experiments were conducted over spring, fall, winter and summer seasons, using a system of wind tunnels to measure ammonia emissions. Ammonia losses ranged from 1.8 (winter) to 26.0% (fall) and 3.1 (winter) to 20.5% (summer) of total N applied for urea and slurry, respectively. Based on the readily available N applied (ammoniacal N for dairy slurry and urea N for urea fertilizer), losses from dairy slurry were much greater, at 16.1 and 82.0%, for winter and summer, respectively. The use of a urease inhibitor proved to be an effective option to minimize the N loss due NH3 volatilization from urea fertilizer, with an average reduction of 71% across all seasons. The results of this and other recent studies regarding N losses suggest that ammonia volatilization is the main pathway of N loss from grassland systems in southern Chile on volcanic ash soils when urea and slurry are used as an N source. The use of good management practices, such as the inclusion of a urease inhibitor with urea fertilizer could have a beneficial impact on reducing N losses due NH3 volatilization and the environmental and economic impact of these emissions.

  18. Effect of fermentation temperature on hydrogen production from cow waste slurry by using anaerobic microflora within the slurry.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Waki, Miyoko; Moriya, Naoko; Yasuda, Tomoko; Tanaka, Yasuo; Haga, Kiyonori

    2007-02-01

    We examined hydrogen production from a dairy cow waste slurry (13.4 g of volatile solids per liter) by batch cultures in a temperature range from 37 to 85 degrees C, using microflora naturally present within the slurry. Without the addition of seed bacteria, hydrogen was produced by simply incubating the slurry, using the microflora within the slurry. Interestingly, two peaks of fermentation temperatures for hydrogen production from the slurry were observed at 60 and 75 degrees C (392 and 248 ml H2 per liter of slurry, respectively). After the termination of the hydrogen evolution, the microflora cultured at 60 degrees C displayed hydrogen-consuming activity, but hydrogen-consuming activity of the microflora cultured at 75 degrees C was not detected, at least for 24 days. At both 60 and 75 degrees C, the main by-product was acetate, and the optimum pH of the slurry for hydrogen production was around neutral. Bacteria related to hydrogen-producing moderate and extreme thermophiles, Clostridium thermocellum and Caldanaerobacter subterraneus, were detected in the slurries cultured at 60 and 75 degrees C, respectively, by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses, using the V3 region of 16S rDNA.

  19. Instrumentation to Monitor Transient Periodic Developing Flow in Non-Newtonian Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.

    2013-11-15

    Staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have conducted mixing and mobilization experiments with non-Newtonian slurries that exhibit Bingham plastic and shear thinning behavior and shear strength. This paper describes measurement techniques applied to identify the interface between flowing and stationary regions of non-Newtonian slurries that are subjected to transient, periodic, developing flows. Techniques were developed to identify the boundary between the flowing and stationary regions, time to mix, characteristic velocities of the flow field produced by the symmetrically spaced nozzles, and the velocity of the upwell formed in the center of the tank by the intersection of flow from four symmetrically spaced nozzles that impinge upon the tank floor. Descriptions of the instruments and instrument performance are presented. These techniques were an effective approach to characterize mixing phenomena, determine mixing energy required to fully mobilize vessel contents and to determine mixing times for process evaluation.

  20. Multi-stage slurry system used for grinding and polishing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hed, P. Paul; Fuchs, Baruch A.

    2000-03-01

    A slurry system draws slurry from a slurry tank via one of several intake pipes, where each pipe has an intake opening at a different depth in the slurry. The slurry is returned to the slurry tank via a bypass pipe in order to continue the agitation of the slurry. The slurry is then diverted to a delivery pipe, which supplies slurry to a polisher. The flow of shiny in the bypass pipe is stopped in order for the slurry in the slurry tank to begin to settle. As the polishing continues, slurry is removed from shallower depths in order to pull finer grit from the slurry. When the polishing is complete, the flow in the delivery pipe is ceased. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is resumed to start agitating the slurry. In another embodiment, the multiple intake pipes are replaced by a single adjustable pipe. As the slurry is settling, the pipe is moved upward to remove the finer grit near the top of the slurry tank as the polishing process continues.

  1. Prophylactic and metaphylactic antimicrobial use in Belgian fattening pig herds.

    PubMed

    Callens, Bénédicte; Persoons, Davy; Maes, Dominiek; Laanen, Maria; Postma, Merel; Boyen, Filip; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Butaye, Patrick; Catry, Boudewijn; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2012-09-01

    The monitoring of antimicrobial use is an essential step to control the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Between January and October 2010 data on prophylactic and metaphylactic antimicrobial use were collected retrospectively on 50 closed or semi-closed pig herds. Ninety-three percent of the group treatments were prophylactic whereas only 7% were methaphylactic. The most frequently used antimicrobials orally applied at group level were colistin (30.7%), amoxicillin (30.0%), trimethoprim-sulfonamides (13.1%), doxycycline (9.9%) and tylosin (8.1%). The most frequently applied injectable antimicrobials were tulathromycin (45.0%), long acting ceftiofur (40.1%) and long acting amoxicillin (8.4%). The treatment incidences (TI) based on the used daily dose pig (UDD(pig) or the actually administered dose per day per kg pig of a drug) for all oral and injectable antimicrobial drugs was on average 200.7 per 1000 pigs at risk per day (min=0, max=699.0), while the TI based on the animal daily dose pig (ADD(pig) or the national defined average maintenance dose per day per kg pig of a drug used for its main indication) was slightly higher (average=235.8, min=0, max=1322.1). This indicates that in reality fewer pigs were treated with the same amount of antimicrobials than theoretically possible. Injectable products were generally overdosed (79.5%), whereas oral treatments were often underdosed (47.3%). In conclusion, this study shows that prophylactic group treatment was applied in 98% of the visited herds and often includes the use of critically important and broad-spectrum antimicrobials. In Belgium, the guidelines for prudent use of antimicrobials are not yet implemented. PMID:22494905

  2. Improved Fischer-Tropsch Slurry Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-03-20

    The conversion of synthesis gas to hydrocarbons or alcohols involves highly exothermic reactions. Temperature control is a critical issue in these reactors for a number of reasons. Runaway reactions can be a serious safety issue, even raising the possibility of an explosion. Catalyst deactivation rates tend to increase with temperature, particularly of there are hot spots in the reactor. For alcohol synthesis, temperature control is essential because it has a large effect on the selectivity of the catalysts toward desired products. For example, for molybdenum disulfide catalysts unwanted side products such as methane, ethane, and propane are produced in much greater quantities if the temperature increases outside an ideal range. Slurry reactors are widely regarded as an efficient design for these reactions. In a slurry reactor a solid catalyst is suspended in an inert hydrocarbon liquid, synthesis gas is sparged into the bottom of the reactor, un-reacted synthesis gas and light boiling range products are removed as a gas stream, and heavy boiling range products are removed as a liquid stream. This configuration has several positive effects for synthesis gas reactions including: essentially isothermal operation, small catalyst particles to reduce heat and mass transfer effects, capability to remove heat rapidly through liquid vaporization, and improved flexibility on catalyst design through physical mixtures in addition to use of compositions that cannot be pelletized. Disadvantages include additional mass transfer resistance, potential for significant back-mixing on both the liquid and gas phases, and bubble coalescence. In 2001 a multiyear project was proposed to develop improved FT slurry reactors. The planned focus of the work was to improve the reactors by improving mass transfer while considering heat transfer issues. During the first year of the project the work was started and several concepts were developed to prepare for bench-scale testing. Power

  3. Removing solids improves response of grass to surface-banded dairy manure slurry: a multiyear study.

    PubMed

    Bittman, S; Hunt, D E; Kowalenko, C G; Chantigny, M; Buckley, K; Bounaix, F

    2011-01-01

    Removing solids from slurry manure helps balance nutrients to plant needs and may increase soil infiltration rate toreduce loss of ammonia. The long-term effects of applying the separated liquid fraction (SLF) of dairy slurry with surface banding applicators are not well known. This 6-yr study compared the yield, N recovery, and stand persistence of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) receiving SLF at 300 (SLF300) and 400 (SLF400) kg ha(-1) yr(-1) of total ammoniacal N (TAN); whole dairy slurry (WS) at 200 (WS200), 300 (WS300), and 400 (WS400) kg TAN ha(-1) yr(-1); and mineral fertilizerat 300 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). The slurries were applied four times per year by surface banding, a technique that reduces ammonia emission and canopy contamination. Grass yield and N uptake were significantly higher for SLF300 than WS300 atequivalent rates of TAN. At similar total N, yield and N uptake were much greater for SLF than WS (2 Mg DM ha(-1) and 75 kg N ha(-1), respectively). Apparent total N recoverywas 63% greater for SLF300 than WS300 due to less ammonia loss and less immobile N. The apparent recovery of total N was 31% higher for Fert300 than for SLF300. Yield and N uptake for SLF300 and WS300 were similar in Harvests 1 and4, but SLF had higher values under hot and dry conditions in Harvests 2 and 3. Using SLF rather than WS will increase crop yield and allow higher application volumes near barns, whichwill reduce hauling costs.

  4. Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

    1999-08-01

    Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

  5. Mechanics of Bubbles in Sludges and Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A; Terrones, Guillermo; Rossen, William R

    2001-12-31

    The Hanford Site has 177 underground waste storage tanks that are known to retain and release bubbles composed of flammable gases. Characterizing and understanding the behavior of these bubbles is important for the safety issues associated with the flammable gases for both ongoing waste storage and future waste-retrieval operations. The retained bubbles are known to respond to small barometric pressure changes, though in a complex manner with unusual hysteresis occurring in some tanks in the relationship between bubble volume and pressure, or V-P hysteresis. With careful analysis, information on the volume of retained gas and the interactions of the waste and the bubbles can be determined. The overall objective of this study is to create a better understanding of the mechanics of bubbles retained in high-level waste sludges and slurries. Significant advancements have been made in all the major areas of basic theoretical and experimental method development.

  6. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Gidaspow, D.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  7. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E.; Hietala, J.; Wendland, R.D.; Collins, F.

    1992-07-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  8. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E. ); Hietala, J. ); Wendland, R.D. ); Collins, F. )

    1992-01-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  9. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  10. Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Moujaes, S.F.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

  11. Critical parameters for coarse coal underground slurry haulage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, D.P.

    1981-02-15

    This report describes the basic parameters which directly influence the behavior of a coal slurry pipeline transportation system and determine the limitations of the system performance. The purpose of this technology assessment is to provide an identification and understanding of the critical factors which must be given consideration in the design and evaluation of such a slurry haulage system intended for use in an underground coal mine. The slurry haulage system will be utilized to satisfy the transportation requirements of conveying, in a pipeline, the coal mined by a continuous mining machine to a storage location near the mine entrance or to a coal preparation plant located on the surface. Coal-water slurries, particularly those consisting of homogeneous suspensions of small particles, frequently behave as non-Newtonian, Bingham-plastic fluids. For successful operation, slurry transport systems should be designed to operate in the turbulent flow regime and at a flow rate at least 30% greater than the deposition velocity. The deposition velocity is defined as the slurry flow rate at which the solid particles tend to settle in the pipe. Due to the importance of accurately determining the deposition velocity and the uncertainties of current methods for predicting the deposition velocity of coarse particle slurries, it is recommended that experimental efforts be performed as a part of the system design. The capacity of the haulage system should be compatible with the mine's projected coal output in order to avoid operational delays and the necessity for in-mine coal storage. The slurry pumps must generate sufficient discharge pressure to overcome the resultant friction losses in horizontal and vertical pipe sections and to satisfy the slurry hoisting requirements.

  12. Cholesterol-lowering potential in human subjects of fat from pigs fed rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Sandström, B; Bügel, S; Lauridsen, C; Nielsen, F; Jensen, C; Skibsted, L H

    2000-08-01

    The possibility of achieving blood-lipid-lowering characteristics of pig fat by increasing the content of unsaturated fat in pig feed was evaluated. Three pig feeding regimens were applied: basal feed (no added fat or vitamin E), basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg feed), and basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg) + vitamin E (200 mg/kg). Meat and meat products from the three pig groups were incorporated into diets providing 86 g pig fat/10 MJ. The diets were served to twelve healthy human male subjects for 3 weeks each in a randomised crossover design. The diets prepared from pigs fed rapeseed oil had a lower content of saturated fatty acids (approximately 9 v. 11% of energy) and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (approximately 6 v. 4% of energy) than the diet prepared from pigs fed the basal feed. Diets based on fat from pigs fed the rapeseed oil resulted in significantly lower (approximately 4%, P = 0.019) total serum cholesterol concentration compared with the diet from pigs fed the basal feed. No differences were observed in LDL-, HDL- or VLDL-cholesterol, or in triacylglycerol or VLDL-triacylglycerol concentrations. Addition of vitamin E to the pig feed resulted in only a minor increase in vitamin E content in the human subjects' diet and the vitamin E content was low in all three pig diets. Plasma vitamin E concentration in the human subjects at the end of the period with diets from pigs fed rapeseed oil without vitamin E was significantly lower (P = 0.04) than in the other two diet periods. In conclusion, an increased content of rapeseed oil in pig feed changes the fatty acid composition of the pig fat in a way that has a potential to reduce blood cholesterol concentrations in human subjects. However, intake of pig fat with a higher content of unsaturated fatty acids needs to be matched by a higher dietary intake of vitamin E.

  13. Preparing polymeric matrix composites using an aqueous slurry technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor); Towell, Timothy W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous process was developed to prepare a consolidated composite laminate from an aqueous slurry. An aqueous poly(amic acid) surfactant solution was prepared by dissolving a poly(amic acid) powder in an aqueous ammonia solution. A polymeric powder was added to this solution to form a slurry. The slurry was deposited on carbon fiber to form a prepreg which was dried and stacked to form a composite laminate. The composite laminate was consolidated using pressure and was heated to form the polymeric matrix. The resulting composite laminate exhibited high fracture toughness and excellent consolidation.

  14. Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, C.J.

    1998-01-08

    A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples.

  15. Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan; Ngoc, Pham Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-02-01

    Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only reduced E. coli concentrations by 1 to 2 log units to 3.70 ± 0.84 Escherichia coli (log10) cfu/ml on average in effluent as compared with raw slurry. Biogas effluent was commonly used to fertilize vegetables or discharged directly into the garden or aquatic recipients. Reduced problems with bad smells and flies were reported as main reasons for establishing a biogas digester. Further studies are needed to assess human and animal health hazards associated with the discharge and use of biogas effluent from small-scale biogas systems.

  16. The Importance of the Solids Loading on Confirming the Dielectric Nanosize Dependence of BaTiO3 Powders by Slurry Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Nie, Yi Mei; Li, Shu Jing; Liang, Hai Yan

    2013-01-01

    The dielectric nanosize dependence of BaTiO3 powders was investigated by the slurry method, where two series of BaTiO3 slurries with 10 vol% and 30 vol% solids loadings were prepared as model samples. Applying the Bruggeman-Hanai equation, the high-frequency limiting permittivity (εh) of the slurries was extracted from the dielectric spectra. The εh of the 10 vol% slurry showed abnormal size independence in the range from 100 nm to 700 nm, and the εh of the 30 vol% slurry exhibited good agreement with the previous prediction. Through analysing quantitatively the response of εh to the changing permittivity of the powders under different solids loading, it was found that the εh of the slurry with lower solids loading is more inclined to be interfered by the systematic and random errors. Furthermore, a high permittivity value was found in the BaTiO3 powders with 50 nm particle size. PMID:23844376

  17. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  18. Urolithiasis in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maes, D G D; Vrielinck, J; Millet, S; Janssens, G P J; Deprez, P

    2004-11-01

    Urolithiasis in sows and neonatal pigs is well-known, but information on its occurrence and impact in finishing pigs is sparse. This study reports three outbreaks of urolithiasis in finishing pigs. In one herd, no symptoms were observed, whereas in the other herds the presence of calculi caused obstruction of the urinary tract resulting in death. Using infra-red spectroscopy, the predominant mineral-type found in the uroliths was calcium carbonate (calcite). Only small amounts of calcium oxalate (< 1%) could be detected. A high urinary pH, small abnormalities in the mineral composition of the feed and insufficient drinking water were the most important risk factors identified. To prevent urolithiasis, it is important to ensure adequate water intake, to provide a balanced mineral diet, and to avoid urinary tract infections.

  19. Struvite precipitation in raw and co-digested swine slurries for nutrients recovery in batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Taddeo, Raffaele; Lepistö, Raghida

    2015-01-01

    The release of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from agro-industrial sources is a major environmental concern. Furthermore, the scarcity of mineable P and the growing demand for food worldwide necessitate that we find an alternative P source. This study applied struvite precipitation for N-P recovery to slurries with high levels of organics and ammonia to achieve environmental protection from excessive nutrients diffusion and to generate a sustainable P source. Batch tests were carried out on raw and co-digested swine slurries to study the feasibility of struvite precipitation and the effect of several parameters, including pH, reaction time, competing ions (Ca²⁺, K⁺), total solids (TS), and alkalinity. The batch assays with raw swine slurries showed high N-P removals (up to 80%), while the anaerobic liquor returned lower recovery efficiency due to the high solids and alkali content. Struvite crystallization was detected at pH values as low as 6, and the characteristics of the recovered struvite matched those of the theoretical. Slight co-precipitation of calcium-phosphates occurred and was dependent on the Ca²⁺/Mg²⁺ ratio rather than on varying pH values. Struvite precipitation was shown to be feasible in complex matrices as agro-industrial effluents, characterized by high NH(4)(+), alkalinity, solids and organic content, and interfering ions such as Ca²⁺ and K⁺. PMID:25812099

  20. Multiple model approach to evaluation of accelerated carbonation for steelmaking slag in a slurry reactor.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Hsing-Lu; Chang, E-E; Kim, Hyunook; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2016-07-01

    Basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) exhibits highly alkaline properties due to its high calcium content, which is beneficial to carbonation reaction. In this study, accelerated carbonation of BOFS was evaluated under different reaction times, temperatures, and liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios in a slurry reactor. CO2 mass balance within the slurry reactor was carried out to validate the technical feasibility of fixing gaseous CO2 into solid precipitates. After that, a multiple model approach, i.e., theoretical kinetics and empirical surface model, for carbonation reaction was presented to determine the maximal carbonation conversion of BOFS in a slurry reactor. On one hand, the reaction kinetics of BOFS carbonation was evaluated by the shrinking core model (SCM). Calcite (CaCO3) was identified as a reaction product through the scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses, which provided the rationale of applying the SCM in this study. The rate-limiting step of carbonation was found to be ash-diffusion controlled, and the effective diffusivity for carbonation of BOFS in a slurry reactor were determined accordingly. On the other hand, the carbonation conversion of BOFS was predicted by the response surface methodology (RSM) via a nonlinear mathematical programming. According to the experimental data, the highest carbonation conversion of BOFS achieved was 57% under an L/S ratio of 20 mL g(-1), a CO2 flow rate of 0.1 L min(-1), and a pressure of 101.3 kPa at 50 °C for 120 min. Furthermore, the applications and limitations of SCM and RSM were examined and exemplified by the carbonation of steelmaking slags.

  1. Section A, view at parking structure of the slurry wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section A, view at parking structure of the slurry wall tiebacks with rods exposed from level B2, looking east/northeast. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  2. Slurry F-T reactor hydrodynamics and scale-up

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.N.; O'Dowd, W.; Ruether, J.A.; Stiegel, G.J.; Shah, Y.T.

    1984-01-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of hydrocarbons by the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over a catalyst via the indirect liquefaction route has only been demonstrated on a commercial scale in fixed-bed and entrained-bed reactors. The slurry reactor has been found to offer important advantages, such as low H/sub 2//CO feed ratios and isothermal stability on the laboratory and pilot-plant scale. Recent findings concerning slurry bubble column hydrodynamics are presented, and their relevance to slurry F-T reactor design and scale-up are discussed. The need for optimization of a slurry F-T reactor is apparent owing in large part to the nonselective formation of products on the catalyst, and the influence of hydrodynamics on the overall conversion of reactants. In this regard, the important transport resistances in the formation of products, and the influence of reactor dimensions on reactor performance are discussed. 9 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  3. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYSTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

    2005-09-29

    This report covers the third year of this research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we utilized experimental data from the STSR, that were obtained during the first two years of the project, to perform vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations and estimate kinetic parameters. We used a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) with estimated values of binary interaction coefficients for the VLE calculations. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Occasional discrepancies (for some of the experimental data) between calculated and experimental values of the liquid phase composition were ascribed to experimental errors. The VLE calculations show that the vapor and the liquid are in thermodynamic equilibrium under reaction conditions. Also, we have successfully applied the Levenberg-Marquardt method (Marquardt, 1963) to estimate parameters of a kinetic model proposed earlier by Lox and Froment (1993b) for FTS on an iron catalyst. This kinetic model is well suited for initial studies where the main goal is to learn techniques for parameter estimation and statistical analysis of estimated values of model parameters. It predicts that the chain growth parameter ({alpha}) and olefin to paraffin ratio are independent of carbon number, whereas our experimental data show that they vary with the carbon number

  4. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOEpatents

    Nodd, Dennis G.; Walker, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing with an atomizing air flow and directed into the combustion chamber. The atomizer includes a swirler located immediately adjacent to where the fuel slurry is introduced into the combustion chamber and which has a single center channel through which the carbonaceous material-water slurry flows into a plurality of diverging channels continuous with the center channel from which the slurry exits the swirler immediately adjacent to an aperture in the combustion chamber. The swirler includes a plurality of slots around its periphery extending the length thereof through which the atomizing air flows and by means of which the atomizing air is deflected so as to exert a maximum shear force upon the carbonaceous material-water slurry as it exits the swirler and enters the combustion chamber. A circulating coolant system or boiler feed water is provided around the periphery of the burner along the length thereof to regulate burner operating temperature, eliminate atomizer plugging, and inhibit the generation of sparklers, thus increasing combustion efficiency. A secondary air source directs heated air into the combustion chamber to promote recirculation of the hot combustion gases within the combustion chamber.

  5. Effective use of fly ash slurry as fill material.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, S; Kawaguchi, M; Yasuhara, K

    2000-09-15

    A lot of effort has been put into increasing coal ash utilization; however, 50% of total amount is disposed of on land and in the sea. Several attempts have been reported recently concerning slurried coal fly ash use for civil engineering materials, such as for structural fill and backfill. The authors have studied this issue for more than 15 years and reported its potential for (1) underwater fills, (2) light weight backfills, and (3) light weight structural fills, through both laboratory tests and construction works. This paper is an overview of the results obtained for slurry, focusing on the following. (1) Coal fly ash reclaimed by slurry placement shows lower compressibility, higher ground density, and higher strength than by the other methods. This higher strength increases stability against liquefaction during earthquake. (2) Higher stability of the fly ash ground formed by slurry placement is caused by higher density and its self-hardening property. (3) Stability of fly ash reclaimed ground can be increased by increasing density and also by strength enhancement by cement addition. (4) Technical data obtained through a man-made island construction project shows the advantages of fly ash slurry in terms of mechanical properties such as higher stability against sliding failure, sufficient ground strength, and also in terms of cost saving. (5) Concentration in leachates from the placed slurry is lower than the Japanese environmental law. (6) In order to enlarge the fly ash slurry application toward a lightweight fill, mixtures of air foam, cement and fly ash were examined. Test results shows sufficient durability of this material against creep failure. This material was then used as lightweight structural fill around a high-rise building, and showed sufficient quality. From the above data, it can be concluded that coal fly ash slurry can be effectively utilized in civil engineering projects.

  6. Polishing slurry induced surface haze on phosphate laser glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E; Ehrmann, P R; Steele, R A

    2004-03-12

    The effects of residual polishing slurry on the surface topology of highly-polished, Nd-doped metaphosphate laser glasses are reported. Glass samples were pitched polished using cerium oxide or zirconium oxide slurry at different pHs and then washed by different methods that allowed varying amounts of residual slurry to ''dry'' on the surface. Upon re-washing with water, some of the samples showed surface haze (scatter), which scaled with the amount of residual slurry. Profilometry measurements showed that the haze is the result of shallow surface pits (100 nm - 20 {micro}m wide x {approx}15 nm deep). Chemical analyses of material removed during rewashing, confirmed the removal of glass components as well as the preferential removal of modifier ions (e.g. K{sup 1+} and Mg{sup 2+}). The surface pits appear to result from reaction of the glass with condensed liquid at the slurry particle-glass interface that produces water-soluble phosphate products that dissolves away with subsequent water contact. Aggressive washing, to remove residual slurry immediately following polishing, can minimize surface haze on phosphate glasses. It is desirable to eliminate haze from glass used in high-peak-power lasers, since it can cause scatter-induced optical modulation that can cause damage to downstream optics.

  7. Design, maintenance extend FGD system slurry valve life

    SciTech Connect

    LeMay, B.; Willyard, B.; Polasek, S.; Clarkson, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This article describes how power plants in Florida, Oklahoma and Texas adopted improved maintenance techniques and sought better design criteria to gain greater slurry valve reliability. Slurry valves, a vital part of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system, are critical to a power plant`s ability to meet or exceed acid rain emission requirements. The performance and reliability of these valves can significantly affect unit operation and load capacity. For example, slurry valves installed on the suction and discharge ends of scrubber tower pumps are a main point of isolation. When these valves malfunction, the scrubber tower must be shut down. Problems with valves that control the feed system and reaction tank alter slurry pH and density, and also affect unit load. In addition, a single valve that serves dual-pumping systems from the slurry storage tank to the reaction tank can cause a system outage. Because of their key role in system operation, specific maintenance approaches were developed at several power plants to improve slurry valve reliability and run times.

  8. Development of slurry erosion resistant materials by laser-based direct metal deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarrapareddy, Eswar

    -shaped probe and a linear scale with a digital readout. The damaged surfaces are characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the possible application of a material failure model, called damage initiation and damage propagation, to the case of the impingement of a mixture of solid and liquid particles on the Ni-Tung FGMs, Ni-Tung 40, and 4140 steels. Potentiodynamic polarization curves are generated for the three tested materials to illustrate the susceptibility of the materials for an erosive environment. Further, a nano-based material system resistant to the impingement of solid and liquid particles on solid surfaces was developed by the LBDMD process. The nano-based materials system contains five percent tungsten carbide (WC) nano-particles that are agglomerated with nickel-tungsten carbide 60 (Ni-Tung 60) by a ball mill operation for slurry erosion resistance applications. Slurry erosion tests are performed on the LBDMD processed depositions with a ceramic proppant delivered at different impingement angles using an abrasive water jet machine. From these tests, the amount of material removed, depth of penetration, and profile of the formed crater are computed as a function of the abrasive water jet impingement angles. The nano-based materials system exhibited better performance for slurry erosion resistance than the monolithic Ni-Tung 60 depositions and 4140 steels. In order to understand the role of the WC-nano particles influence on slurry erosion resistance and to understand the characteristic features of erosion surfaces, subsurfaces, and the erosion mechanism, different advanced characterization tools are used. This nano-based materials system was applied for the restoration of damaged oil drilling crossover tools. A material failure model (MFM) called progressive damage initiation and propagation for the impingement of solid and liquid particles on the solid surfaces has been used to numerically simulate the slurry erosion process by using the

  9. A Simple "Pig" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  10. St. Paul's Pig Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Penny Folley

    1982-01-01

    Describes a guinea pig (cavy) breeding and management program developed as part of an elementary school science curriculum. Includes comments on show competitions (sponsored by the American Rabbit Breeders Association) to measure the success of the breeding program and to enable children to experience the business world. (Author/JN)

  11. Trace element determination in different milk slurries.

    PubMed

    García, E M; Lorenzo, M L; Cabrera, C; López, M C; Sánchez, J

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the contents of trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest in 90 samples of whole, low-fat, skim, condensed, evaporated and powdered milks. Slurries of the samples were prepared with Triton X-100 and analysed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The temperature-time programme of the graphite oven was optimized for each element, and the accuracy, precision, selectivity and sensitivity of the method were verified. Concentrations of the trace elements we investigated were: Pb 0-0.211 microgram/g, Cd 0-28.985 ng/g, Al 0.528-4.025 micrograms/g, Cu 0.041-0.370 microgram/g, Cr 0-0.177 microgram/g, Mn 0.024-0.145 microgram/g, Se 0-23.333 ng/g, Zn 0.297-0.827 microgram/g and Ni 0.058-1.750 micrograms/g. (A value of zero indicates that the element was undetectable by our methods.) Concentrations of the pairs of elements Cu-Cd, Mn-Cd, Mn-Cu, Zn-Mn, Ni-Cu, Ni-Mn and Ni-Zn were significantly correlated (P < 0.001). Linear discriminant analysis confirmed the separation between the six types of milk analyzed.

  12. Mechanics of Bubbles in Sludges and Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Denn, Morton M.; Rossen, William R.

    1999-06-01

    This project is focusing on key issues associated with the flammable gas safety hazard and its role in safe storage and in future waste operations such as salt-well pumping, waste transfers, and sluicing and retrieval of tank waste. The purpose of this project is to develop a basic understanding of how single bubbles (of flammable gases) behave in representative waste simulants and then develop a framework for predicting macroscopic full-tank behavior from the underlying single-bubble behavior. The specific objectives of this research are as follows: 1. quantitatively describe the interaction of bubbles with waste materials (both sludges and slurries) to understand the physical mechanisms by which barometric pressure changes give rise to a hysteresis between level and pressure 2. develop improved methods for estimating retained gas by properly accounting for the interactions of bubbles with the waste 3. determine how to estimate waste physical properties from the observed hysteresis and the limitations of these estimates 4. determine how barometric pressure fluctuations induce slow upward migration and release of gas bubbles.

  13. New technology improves cement-slurry design

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A promising geothermal concession is located in a tea plantation on the island of Java. A drilling project was undertaken to evaluate and harness this resource for geothermal electricity generation. The program used two slimhole rigs to drill appraisal wells to establish the potential of the field. Geothermal wells present the most severe conditions to which cements are exposed. As a result, their performance requirements are among the most stringent. Geothermal cements are usually designed to provide at least 1,000 psi compressive strength and no more than 1.0-md water permeability. While casings with tight annular clearances require that good cementing practices be observed, they also create conditions that demand much greater care and control in slurry and procedure design than regular casing cementation. Free-water and thickening-time requirements are similar for geothermal and slimhole conditions, but the use of perlite and silica flour complicate the rheology required for geothermal wells. The paper describes liquid-cement premix, applications, laboratory testing, field pilot testing, and field operations.

  14. Slurry combustion. Volume 1, Text: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Essenhigh, R.

    1993-06-21

    The project described in this Report was to investigate the possibility of using sorbent added to coal-water fuel (CWF) mixtures as a means of reducing SOX emissions when burning Ohio coal. The results are significantly encouraging, with SOX concentrations reduced by amounts ranging from 25% to 65%, depending on the sorbent type and the firing conditions, where one major condition identified was the residence time in the flame gases. With the sorbent-loaded slurrys, the trend generally showed increasing SO{sub 2} capture with increasing sorbent loading. There were significant differences between the two different mixture formulations, however: The calcite/No. 8-seam mixture showed significantly higher SO{sub 2} capture at all times (ranging from 45% to 65%) than did the dolomite/No. 5 seam mixture (ranging from 25% to 45%). If the successes so far achieved are not to be wasted, advantage should be taken of these encouraging results by extending the work at both the present scale to determine the other unknown factors controlling sorption efficiency, and at larger scale to start implementation in commercial systems.

  15. The effect of local or general anesthesia on the physiology and behavior of tail docked pigs.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M A; Davis, B L; McGlone, J J

    2011-06-01

    Tail docking of pigs is a routine procedure on farms to help control tail-biting behavior; however, docking can cause pain. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of local or general anesthesia on the physiology (experiment 1) and behavior (experiment 2) of tail docked pigs. Pigs were allocated to one of six treatment groups: (i) sham docking (CON); (ii) docking using conventional cutting (CUT) with side-cutting pliers; (iii) CUT docking plus local anesthesia injected immediately before docking (LA); (iv) CUT docking plus short-acting local anesthesia applied topically to the tail wound (SHORT); (v) CUT docking plus long-acting anesthesia applied topically to the tail wound (LONG) and (vi) CUT docking while the pig was anesthetized with carbon dioxide gas (CO(2)). In experiment 1, blood samples were collected from pigs (10 pigs per treatment) before and 30, 60 and 120 min after docking to measure leukocyte counts and percentages and cortisol concentrations. In experiment 2, the above treatments were repeated (10 pigs per treatment); the percentage of stress vocalizations were recorded during the administration of the treatments and behavior was recorded for up to 120 min after docking or handling. All pigs were weighed before and 24 h after docking and wound healing was recorded until weaning. The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in CUT, LA, SHORT and LONG compared with CON pigs. At 30 min, cortisol concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in CUT, LA, LONG and CO(2) compared with CON pigs. Cortisol concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) between SHORT and CON pigs 30 min after docking. Cortisol concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) among pigs given pain relief at the time of docking compared with pigs' docked without pain relief. Body weight change and wound scores did not differ (P > 0.05) among treatments. The percentage of stress vocalizations increased (P < 0.05) in CUT, SHORT and LONG, but not in CON, LA and CO(2) pigs in

  16. Abundance and distribution of feral pigs at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, 2010-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Leopold, Christina R.; Kendall, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Hakalau Forest Unit of the Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex has intensively managed feral pigs (Sus scrofa) and monitored feral pig presence with surveys of all managed areas since 1988. Results of all available data regarding pig management activities through 2004 were compiled and analyzed, but no further analyses had been conducted since then. The objective of this report was to analyze recent feral ungulate surveys at the Hakalau Forest Unit to determine current pig abundance and distribution. Activity indices for feral pigs, consisting of the presence of fresh or intermediate sign at 422 stations, each with approximately 20 sample plots, were compiled for years 2010–2013. A calibrated model based on the number of pigs removed from one management unit and concurrent activity surveys was applied to estimate pig abundance in other management units. Although point estimates appeared to decrease from 489.1 (±105.6) in 2010 to 407.6 (±88.0) in 2013, 95% confidence intervals overlapped, indicating no significant change in pig abundance within all management units. Nonetheless, there were significant declines in pig abundance over the four-year period within management units 1, 6, and 7. Areas where pig abundance remained high include the southern portion of Unit 2. Results of these surveys will be useful for directing management actions towards specific management units.

  17. Redox Potential as a Means to Control the Treatment of Slurry to Lower H2S Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Hjorth, Maibritt; Pedersen, Christina Ø; Feilberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Slurry can be oxidized to eliminate undesirable emissions, including malodorous hydrogen sulfide (H2S). However, it is difficult to assess the optimal amount of oxidizing agent required. In this study, one cow and one pig manure, each in three particle size ranges were oxidized with 0–350 mg ozone/L manure. Redox and H2S concentration were measured continuously. During ozonation the manures gave equivalent redox potential curves. A relatively rapid rise in redox potential was observed within a range of −275 mV to −10 mV, with all manures changing as a minimum from −200 mV to −80 mV. The gaseous H2S emissions were decreased by 99.5% during the redox increase (−200 mV to −80 mV). This is attributed to H2S oxidation by ozone and oxygen, and is not due to H2S deprotonation or gas flushing. By identifying the initiation of the final redox level following the rise, the amount of ozone required to remove H2S from the manure samples was estimated to be in the range of 6–24 mg O3/L manure, depending on the type of manure. Hence, continuous monitoring of redox potential (termination of the redox rise) during the oxidation treatment is a simple method of achieving cost-effective minimization of H2S emissions from slurry. PMID:22778588

  18. Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dudukovic, M.P.

    1999-05-14

    The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research Engineering Company was to improve the knowledge base for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. During the first year (July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996) of this three year program novel experimental tools (computer aided radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), particle image velocimetry (PIV), heat probe, optical fiber probe and gamma ray tomography) were developed and tuned for measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field, holdup distribution, heat transfer and bubble size. The accomplishments were delineated in the First Technical Annual Report. The second year (July, 1996--June 30, 1997) was spent on further development and tuning of the novel experimental tools (e.g., development of Monte Carlo calibration for CARPT, optical probe development), building up the hydrodynamic data base using these tools and comparison of the two techniques (PIV and CARPT) for determination of liquid velocities. A phenomenological model for gas and liquid backmixing was also developed. All accomplishments were summarized in the Second Annual Technical Report. During the third and final year of the program (July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998) and during the nine months no cost extension, the high pressure facility was completed and a set of data was taken at high pressure conditions. Both PIV, CT and CARPT were used. More fundamental hydrodynamic modeling was also undertaken and model predictions were compared to data. The accomplishments for this period are summarized in this report.

  19. Preparation and combustion of high ash coal tailing slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ziping; Zhang Wenfu; Fu Xiaoheng; Wang Zuna; Li Hui

    1998-12-31

    Flotation tailings from a coal preparation plant are known for their high ash, low heating value, high moisture content even after thickening and filtration, and difficult handability. However, they can be easily converted into a slurry fuel for boilers. Two flotation tailings, containing ash of 31.89% and 41.87% respectively, have been converted into slurry fuel with the following properties: solid content being 70.4% and 74.4% respectively; low heating value, 13,694kj/kg and 10,970kj/kg; and viscosity, 379 mPa.s and 180 mPa.s at a shear rate of 100s{sup {minus}1}. An eccentric slant jet coal slurry burner was installed at the boiler. Slurry atomizing nozzle operated at low pressure. Both slurries gave stable combustion without supporting fuel under the condition of cool air supply. A new way of flotation tailing utilization was demonstrated. China has more than 200 coal preparation plants washing more than 300 million tons of coal annually. These preparation plants generate more than 10 million tons of tailing annually, most of which is not currently being used, causing great environmental pollution and waste management difficulties for the enterprises. Comprehensive utilization of coal washer tailings is one of the key issues of environmental protection and energy saving in China.

  20. Runoff nutrient transport as affected by land application method, swine growth stage, and runoff rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to measure the effects of slurry application method, swine growth stage, and flow rate on runoff nutrient transport. Swine slurry was obtained from production units containing grower pigs, finisher pigs, or sows and gilts. The swine slurry was applied using broadcast, disk, ...

  1. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  2. Detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) through the different stages of pig manure composting plants

    PubMed Central

    García, M; Fernández-Barredo, S; Pérez-Gracia, M T

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an increasing cause of acute hepatitis in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of HEV in pig manure composting plants located in Spain. For this purpose, a total of 594 samples were taken in 54 sampling sessions from the different stages of composting treatment in these plants as follows: slurry reception ponds, anaerobic ponds, aerobic ponds, fermentation zone and composting final products. HEV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) in four (80%) of five plants studied, mainly in the first stages of the process. HEV was not detected in any final product (compost) sample, destined to be commercialized as a soil fertilizer, suggesting that composting is a suitable method to eliminate HEV and thus, to reduce the transmission of HEV from pigs to humans. PMID:24206540

  3. Functionalized bio-artifact fabricated via selective slurry extrusion. Part 1: Preparation of slurry containing tourmaline superfine powders.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongbin; Xu, Anping; Qu, Yunxia; Liu, Yushan

    2011-12-01

    The far infrared dental porcelain slurry for fabricating artificial tooth via selective slurry extrusion (SSE) of solid freeform fabrication (also known as rapid prototyping) techniques was prepared by using tourmaline as additive and employing ball-milling approach. After characterization by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, it was found that the far infrared emission properties of the dental porcelain were apparently improved in the ranges of 2000-1201 cm(-1) and 881-600 cm(-1). This is due to the increase of the number of infrared active bonds that are from the tourmaline superfine powders. Moreover, it was also found that the tourmaline superfine powders can improve the pseudo-plastic properties of dental porcelain slurries, which results from the increase of the absolute value of zeta potential of the suspensions. Slurries with pseudo-plastic behavior are highly desirable in controlling the shape of the extrudate during solid freeform fabrication. With the functionalized material, a variety of bio-artifacts beneficial to body health can be built by using selective slurry extrusion machine. PMID:22409019

  4. Functionalized bio-artifact fabricated via selective slurry extrusion. Part 1: Preparation of slurry containing tourmaline superfine powders.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongbin; Xu, Anping; Qu, Yunxia; Liu, Yushan

    2011-12-01

    The far infrared dental porcelain slurry for fabricating artificial tooth via selective slurry extrusion (SSE) of solid freeform fabrication (also known as rapid prototyping) techniques was prepared by using tourmaline as additive and employing ball-milling approach. After characterization by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, it was found that the far infrared emission properties of the dental porcelain were apparently improved in the ranges of 2000-1201 cm(-1) and 881-600 cm(-1). This is due to the increase of the number of infrared active bonds that are from the tourmaline superfine powders. Moreover, it was also found that the tourmaline superfine powders can improve the pseudo-plastic properties of dental porcelain slurries, which results from the increase of the absolute value of zeta potential of the suspensions. Slurries with pseudo-plastic behavior are highly desirable in controlling the shape of the extrudate during solid freeform fabrication. With the functionalized material, a variety of bio-artifacts beneficial to body health can be built by using selective slurry extrusion machine.

  5. Gas distribution effects on waste properties: Viscosities of bubbly slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Shah, R.R.; Davis, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns for double-shell tanks that contain waste slurries. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to develop models for the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of a particulate slurry, develop an experimental method (capillary rheometer), collect data on the viscosity of a bubbly slurry, and develop a theoretical basis for interpreting the experimental data from the capillary rheometer.

  6. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOEpatents

    Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1985-11-05

    The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

  7. Slurry sample introduction with microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusiewicz, Henryk; Sturgeon, Ralph E.

    1993-04-01

    The successful direct introduction of aqueous slurry samples into a highly efficient TE 101 microwave plasma has been demonstrated. Slurry samples from a spray chamber are fed directly into the cavity with no desolvation apparatus. A V-groove, clog-free Babington-type nebulizer was evaluated for use with high solids content solutions. Slurry concentrations up to 10% m/v were used for the microwave induced plasma work with calibration by the standard additions method. Results are presented for the analysis of two NRCC Standard Reference Materials, i.e. TORT-1 (Lobster Hepatopancreas) and PACS-21 (Marine Sediment). Agreement between analytical results and certified values for the test elements Cd, Cu, Fe and Zn (in the range of 28-850 μg/g) was good. No memory effects were evident and the nebulizer system had a rapid clean-out time.

  8. [Microbial anaerobic dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in paddy soil slurry].

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Yao, Xiao-yan; Chen, Chen; Shen, Chao-feng; Qin, Zhi-hui; Huang, Rong-lang

    2015-10-01

    We studied the dechlorination process of Aroclor1260, a high-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) mixture in an anaerobic paddy soil slurry, and further analyzed the related microbial community structures. The Aroclor1260 was reduced up to 55.5% in the natural paddy soil slurry in 128 days, and the reduction percentage dropped to 46.9% after incoculating the paddy soil slurry with a PCBs-dechlorination enrichment culture. The dechlorination mainly occurred in congeners of pentachlorobiphenyl, hexachlorobiphenyl, and specially, the heptachlorobiphenyl, with pentachlorobiphenyl accumulated as dechlorination intermediate. Hydrogen gas produced from fermentation of organic matters was maintained at a lower partial pressure due to its consumption during the dechlorination process, so that the methanogens was suppressed as well. The microbial community structure was significantly different between natural and inoculated paddy soils. Introducing the PCBs-dechlorination enrichment culture changed the local microbial community by the competition between the exogenetic dchlorinators and the indigenous bacteria, overall decreasing the dechlorination activity.

  9. Development of slurry erosion resistant materials by laser-based direct metal deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarrapareddy, Eswar

    -shaped probe and a linear scale with a digital readout. The damaged surfaces are characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the possible application of a material failure model, called damage initiation and damage propagation, to the case of the impingement of a mixture of solid and liquid particles on the Ni-Tung FGMs, Ni-Tung 40, and 4140 steels. Potentiodynamic polarization curves are generated for the three tested materials to illustrate the susceptibility of the materials for an erosive environment. Further, a nano-based material system resistant to the impingement of solid and liquid particles on solid surfaces was developed by the LBDMD process. The nano-based materials system contains five percent tungsten carbide (WC) nano-particles that are agglomerated with nickel-tungsten carbide 60 (Ni-Tung 60) by a ball mill operation for slurry erosion resistance applications. Slurry erosion tests are performed on the LBDMD processed depositions with a ceramic proppant delivered at different impingement angles using an abrasive water jet machine. From these tests, the amount of material removed, depth of penetration, and profile of the formed crater are computed as a function of the abrasive water jet impingement angles. The nano-based materials system exhibited better performance for slurry erosion resistance than the monolithic Ni-Tung 60 depositions and 4140 steels. In order to understand the role of the WC-nano particles influence on slurry erosion resistance and to understand the characteristic features of erosion surfaces, subsurfaces, and the erosion mechanism, different advanced characterization tools are used. This nano-based materials system was applied for the restoration of damaged oil drilling crossover tools. A material failure model (MFM) called progressive damage initiation and propagation for the impingement of solid and liquid particles on the solid surfaces has been used to numerically simulate the slurry erosion process by using the

  10. Research engine test of coal slurry fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    The program discussed in this report involved evaluation of the combustion characteristics of several coal slurry fuels in a single cylinder test engine operating under conditions simulating medium size and speed commercial diesel engines. Baseline performance was established using a reference DF-2 test fuel. Slurry fuels tested included: (1) 45% of a low volatile coal in diesel fuel; (2) 40% of cleaned of a cleaned high-volatile coal in a carrier containing 91% methanol and 9% water; and (3) 41% cleaned, high volatile coal in methanol. The testing program demonstrated the importance of several engine operating and fuel composition parameters on engine and ancillary system performance: (1) coal particle top size of 38 microns was identified as the limiting value for the test equipment utilized in this study; coal volatility affects burnout, but ignition is unaffected as long as the slurry carrier provides the ignition source; coal ash content affects the wear rate, but wear rate is not linear with ash content or total ash throughput; and engine components may require modifications in order to handle fuels containing abrasive solid materials. These tests demonstrated that slurry fuels are a viable alternative to highly refined petroleum fuels in medium speed diesel engine applications. However, additional research is required before widespread application of these fuels can occur. The study demonstrated the lack of available information on the microscale mechanisms of slurry fuel atomization, ignition, and combustion in the diesel engine combustion chamber environment. Also, the problems of burning a coal/water slurry in the engine were not addressed. 12 references, 51 figures, 14 tables.

  11. Development of Alternative Rheological Measurements for DWPF Slurry Samples (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. c.

    2005-09-01

    Rheological measurements are used to evaluate the fluid dynamic behavior of Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, slurry samples. Measurements are currently made on non-radioactive simulant slurries using two state-of-the-art rheometers located at the Aiken County Technical Laboratory, ACTL. Measurements are made on plant samples using a rheometer in the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL, Shielded Cells facility. Low activity simulants or plant samples can be analyzed using a rheometer located in a radioactive hood in SRNL. Variations in the rheology of SB2 simulants impacted the interpretation of results obtained in a number of related studies. A separate rheological study was initiated with the following four goals: (1) Document the variations seen in the simulant slurries, both by a review of recent data, and by a search for similar samples for further study. (2) Attempt to explain the variations in rheological behavior, or, failing that, reduce the number of possible causes. In particular, to empirically check for rheometer-related variations. (3) Exploit the additional capabilities of the rheometers by developing new measurement methods to study the simulant rheological properties in new ways. (4) Formalize the rheological measurement process for DWPF-related samples into a series of protocols. This report focuses on the third and fourth goals. The emphasis of this report is on the development and formalization of rheological measurement methods used to characterize DWPF slurry samples. The organization is by rheological measurement method. Progress on the first two goals was documented in a concurrent technical report, Koopman (2005). That report focused on the types and possible causes of unusual rheological behavior in simulant slurry samples. It was organized by the sample being studied. The experimental portion of this study was performed in the period of March to April 2004. A general rheology protocol for routine DWPF slurry samples, Koopman

  12. REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION OF A NITROGEN HETEROCYCLIC HERBICIDE IN ANOXIC AQUIFER SLURRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied the metabolic fate of bromacil in anaerobic aquifer slurries held under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, or methanogenic conditions. Liquid chromatograhy-mass spectrometry of the slurries confirmed that bromacil was debrominated under methanogenic conditions but was not...

  13. Method for maximizing the pumpability efficiency of a hydrocarbon slurry by controlling the wax crystal content

    SciTech Connect

    Tackett, J.E.

    1982-01-12

    The efficiency of pumping a hydrocarbon slurry in a pipeline is determined prior to transportation by the relationship: delta P AEBX wherein delta P is the pressure drop expected to be experienced by the slurry in the pipeline in pounds per square inch (psi), ''A'' and ''B'' are constants relating to the size of the pipeline, the flow rate of the slurry and the hydrodynamic volume of the wax crystals, and ''X'' is the wax crystal content in the slurry from the congealed particles in percentage by weight. The wax crystal content of the slurry is measured, such as by nuclear magnetic resonance and/or differential scanning calorimetry, and is used in conjunction with the constants ''A'' and ''B'' to determine the expected pressure drop of the slurry in a particular pipeline. The wax crystal content of the slurry may then be modified, if necessary, to obtain desirable or optimum slurry pumpability conditions for the pipeline.

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of 14 Escherichia coli Phages Isolated from Cattle Slurry.

    PubMed

    Smith, R; O'Hara, M; Hobman, J L; Millard, A D

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of bacteriophages in slurry from dairy cows remains largely unknown. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of 14 bacteriophages isolated from dairy cow slurry using Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 as a host. PMID:26722010

  15. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  16. Elaboration of metal matrix composites from thixotropic alloy slurries using a new magnetohydrodynamic caster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivès, Charles

    1993-06-01

    The working principle and the peculiarities of a new electromagnetic rheocaster, which is based on the use of rotating permanent magnets and which allows the production of intense three-dimensional (3-D) multiphase flows in solidifying semisolid alloy slurries and metal matrix composites, are described. This process can be applied to the direct continuous casting of billets, tubes, and slabs and is characterized by very low electric power consumption. Local measurement techniques are applied to the study of the evolution of non-Newtonian magnetohydrodynamic multiphase flow phenomena with the rotational speed of the inductor, the solid fraction of the aluminum alloy matrix, and the size and volume percent of SiC particles. An order of magnitude analysis of the various forces acting on the suspended crystals and SiC particles is given. The Theological behavior of electromagnetically rheocast ferrous metals, simulated by a lead-tin alloy, is also investigated. Satisfactory results concerning the microstructure of solidified aluminum slurries and aluminum matrix composites (homogeneity, crystal shape, grain size, fraction of primary solid, and distribution of SiC particles) were obtained. A discussion is presented relating the metallurgical findings to the heat and three-phase flow measurements.

  17. Application of bimetallic iron (BioCAT slurry) for pentachlorophenol removal from sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Dien, Nguyen Thanh; De Windt, Wim; Buekens, Alfons; Chang, Moo Been

    2013-05-15

    Bimetallic iron nanoparticles have mostly been applied to the degradation of chlorinated compounds in the aqueous phase. In this study, the degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) spiked into sandy soil is considered as a first exploratory step for remediating PCP in real contaminated soil using a commercial preparation of bimetallic iron (Trade name BioCAT). After 21 days of treatment a PCP removal efficiency of 90% was achieved, along with 70% dechlorination efficiency, for a dosage of 600 mg BioCAT slurry/kg soil. Degradation of PCP by BioCAT follows first order kinetics in PCP. Stepwise dechlorination is the main pathway of PCP elimination from soil slurries contacted with BioCAT. Such dechlorination is confirmed by the appearance of intermediate products, as well as by release of chlorides. Additionally, the increasing pH value and the rapid decrease of the oxidation/reduction potential (ORP) also attest to the reductive dechlorination of PCP. The reaction products comprehend lower chlorinated phenols, including three TeCP isomers, four TrCP isomers, four DCP isomers, two MCP isomers and phenol. These findings indicate that BioCAT could be applied for field treatment of PCP-contaminated soil under ambient conditions.

  18. SYNTHESIS OF NON-RADIOACTIVE SLURRIES TO SIMULATE THE PROCESSING BEHAVIOR OF PARTICLES IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLURRIES 626-G

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Eibling, R.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-03

    Process development using non-radioactive analogs to high-level radioactive waste slurries is an established cost effective alternative to working with actual samples of the real waste. Current simulated waste slurries, however, do not capture all of the physical behavior of real waste. New methods of preparing simulants are under investigation along with mechanisms for altering certain properties of finished simulants. These methods have achieved several notable successes recently in the areas of rheology and foaminess. Particle size is also being manipulated more effectively than in the past, though not independently of the rheological properties. The interaction between rheology and foaminess has exhibited counter-intuitive behavior with more viscous slurries being less foamy even though drainage of liquid from the foam lamellae should be inhibited by higher viscosities.

  19. 30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry... structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an existing or...

  20. 30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry... structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an existing or...

  1. 30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry... structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an existing or...

  2. 30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry... structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an existing or...

  3. 30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry... structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an existing or...

  4. Slurry pumping techniques for feeding high-pressure coal gasification reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, W. G.; Tarman, P. B.

    1977-01-01

    Operating experience in pumping coal and coal char slurries at pressures up to 1500 psig is discussed. The design specifications for the mixing tanks, pumps, piping, and slurry heaters are given along with pressure drop and minimum flow velocity data on water-lignite slurries.

  5. DWPF DECON FRIT: SUMP AND SLURRY SOLIDS ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Peeler, D.; Click, D.

    2010-10-20

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to perform analyses on samples of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) decon frit slurry (i.e., supernate samples and sump solid samples). Four 1-L liquid slurry samples were provided to SRNL by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) from the 'front-end' decon activities. Additionally, two 1-L sump solids samples were provided to SRNL for compositional and physical analysis. In this report, the physical and chemical characterization results of the slurry solids and sump solids are reported. Crawford et al. (2010) provide the results of the supernate analysis. The results of the sump solids are reported on a mass basis given the samples were essentially dry upon receipt. The results of the slurry solids were converted to a volume basis given approximately 2.4 grams of slurry solids were obtained from the {approx}4 liters of liquid slurry sample. Although there were slight differences in the analytical results between the sump solids and slurry solids the following general summary statements can be made. Slight differences in the results are also captured for specific analysis. (1) Physical characterization - (a) SEM/EDS analysis suggested that the samples were enriched in Li and Si (B and Na not detectable using the current EDS system) which is consistent with two of the four principle oxides of Frit 418 (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O and SiO{sub 2}). (b) SEM/EDS analysis also identified impurities which were elementally consistent with stainless steel (i.e., Fe, Ni, Cr contamination). (c) XRD results indicated that the sump solids samples were amorphous which is consistent with XRD results expected for a Frit 418 based sample. (d) For the sump solids, SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the particle size of the sump solids were consistent with that of an as received Frit 418 sample from a current DWPF vendor. (e) For the slurry solids, SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the particle size range

  6. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors. Seventh technical progress report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Gidaspow, D.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this investigation is to convert our ``learning gas solid-liquid`` fluidization model into a predictive design model. The IIT hydrodynamic model computes the phase velocities and the volume fractions of gas, liquid and particulate phase. Model verification involves a comparison of these computed velocities and volume fractions to experimental values. A hydrodynamic model for multiphase flows, based on the principles of mass, momentum and energy conservation for each phase, was developed and applied to model gas-liquid, gas-liquid-solid fluidization and gas-solid-solid separation. To simulate the industrial slurry bubble column reactors, a computer program based on the hydrodynamic model was written with modules for chemical reactions (e.g. the synthesis of methanol), phase changes and heat exchangers. In the simulations of gas-liquid two phases flow system, the gas hold-ups, computed with a variety of operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas and liquid velocities, agree well with the measurements obtained at Air Products` pilot plant. The hydrodynamic model has more flexible features than the previous empirical correlations in predicting the gas hold-up of gas-liquid two-phase flow systems. In the simulations of gas-liquid-solid bubble column reactors with and without slurry circulation, the code computes volume fractions, temperatures and velocity distributions for the gas, the liquid and the solid phases, as well as concentration distributions for the species (CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}0H, ... ), after startup from a certain initial state. A kinetic theory approach is used to compute a solid viscosity due to particle collisions. Solid motion and gas-liquid-solid mixing are observed on a color PCSHOW movie made from computed time series data. The steady state and time average catalyst concentration profiles, the slurry height and the rates of methanol production agree well with the measurements obtained at an Air Products` pilot plant.

  7. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  8. The Pig--Pet, Pork or Sacrifice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Arthur

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the various roles of the pig in children's books, including E. B. White's CHARLOTTE'S WEB and Nina Bawden's PEPPERMINT PIG. Notes that, although pigs are often used as metaphors for greed, gluttony, and squalor, the portrayal of pigs in children's literature is typically positive. (MM)

  9. A novel kind of TSV slurry with guanidine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Hong; Yuling, Liu; Baoguo, Zhang; Xinhuan, Niu; Liying, Han

    2015-10-01

    The effect of a novel alkaline TSV (through-silicon-via) slurry with guanidine hydrochloride (GH) on CMP (chemical mechanical polishing) was investigated. The novel alkaline TSV slurry was free of any inhibitors. During the polishing process, the guanidine hydrochloride serves as an effective surface-complexing agent for TSV CMP applications, the removal rate of barrier (Ti) can be chemically controlled through tuned selectivity with respect to the removal rate of copper and dielectric, which is helpful to modifying the dishing and gaining an excellent topography performance in TSV manufacturing. In this paper, we mainly studied the working mechanism of the components of slurry and the skillful application guanidine hydrochloride in the TSV slurry. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308), the Fund Project of Hebei Provincial Department of Education, China (No. QN2014208), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. E2013202247), and Colleges and Universities Scientific research project of Hebei Province, China (No. Z2014088).

  10. Geosynthetic tubes for confining pressurized slurry: Some design aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Leshchinsky, D.; Ling, H.I.; Leshchinsky, O.; Gilbert, P.A.

    1996-08-01

    This paper deals with geosynthetic tubes that are made of several geosynthetic sheets sewn together to form a shell capable of confining pressurized slurry. The slurry is sufficiently fluid so that it is possible to hydraulically fill the tube. After pumping the slurry in, the geosynthetic shell acts as a cheese cloth, allowing seepage of liquid out and retaining the solid particles. The availability of a wide selection of geosynthetics in terms of strength, durability, and permeability enables the use of hydraulically filled tubes in many applications, some of which may be considered critical (e.g., encapsulate contaminated soil). This paper presents an overview of an analysis to calculate both stresses in the geosynthetic and geometry of the tube. It also verifies the correctness and validity of the results obtained from a computer program developed to solve the problem. An instructive parametric study implies that the most critical factor needed to assure successful construction is the pumping pressure; a slight accidental increase in this pressure may result in a very significant stress increase in the encapsulating geosynthetic. Pressure increase beyond a certain level, however, has little influence on the storage capacity of the tube. Guidance in selecting an adequate geosynthetic, including partial safety factors and filtration properties, is also presented. Design aspects associated with required spacing of inlets and head loss of the slurry as it flows through the tube are considered outside the scope of this paper.

  11. Method for freeforming objects with low-binder slurry

    DOEpatents

    Cesarano, III, Joseph; Calvert, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

  12. Bench Scale Test of Absorption Slurry-ice Maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasao, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

    Slurry ice system is desirable as cold heat source for air conditioning, because it requires less conveyance power or less pipe size. On the other hand, recently absorption refrigerator is reevaluated because it can utilize various types of waste heat and it does not use fluorocarbon refrigerant. But it had been regarded to be difficult to make ice by absorption refrigerator because the refrigerant is water. However making slurry ice is possible, of cource, if the slurry ice generated by partial freezing of water is continuously taken away from the evaporator. This method was certified experimentally with a bench scale model. For ice making continuously, ice had not to be frozen stiff at water surface or inside wall of the evaporator. Then refrigerant water in the evaporator was raised swirl flow. And inside wall of the evaporator was finished by water repellent coating, and heated from outside wall. This slurry ice was adaptable to hydraulic transportation, because ice was needle crystal with about 5 mm length and ice temperature was 0°C.

  13. Apparatus for converting biomass to a pumpable slurry

    DOEpatents

    Ergun, Sabri; Schaleger, Larry L.; Wrathall, James A.; Yaghoubzadeh, Nasser

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus used in the pretreatment of wood chips in a process for converting biomass to a liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel. The apparatus functions to break down the wood chips to a size distribution that can be readily handled in a slurry form. Low maintenance operation is obtained by hydrolyzing the chips in a pressure vessel having no moving parts.

  14. Large-bore viscometry tests on a shale slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    The report covers work undertaken on behalf of the National Coal Board. Full-scale tests were carried out using a 4-inch-diameter tube viscometer to measure pipeline losses over a range of slurry throughputs. Bench-scale rotational viscometry tests were also performed to corroborate the full-scale test results.

  15. METHOD OF MAKING UO$sub 2$-Bi SLURRIES

    DOEpatents

    Hahn, H.T.

    1960-05-24

    A process is given of preparing an easily dispersible slurry of uranium dioxide in bismuth. A mixture of bismuth oxide, uranium, and bismuth are heated in a capsule to a temperature over the melting point of bismuth oxide. The amount of bismuth oxide used is less than that stoichiometrically required because the oxygen in the capsule also enters into the reaction.

  16. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O'Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  17. Oxidation-Resistant Slurry Coating for Carbon-Based Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    New process uses paint sprayer and vacuum furnace to produce silicon carbide outer layer. In cross section of silicon and silicon carbide reaction zone, top layer of silicon adheres to silicon carbide layer. Crystals prominent on melted top surface of slurry coating. Process especially useful in coating repair.

  18. Breakup of evaporating/burning slurry drops by additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, P. Roy; Gerstein, M.

    Single drops of silicon carbide-cumene slurry were suspended from a quartz fiber and ignited. An inert material such as silicon carbide was chosen so that the droplets can be burned until all the fuel is consumed and only the inert residue is left on the quartz fiber. Benzoyl peroxide was added to cumene and the time to disruption of the liquid drop was measured. In the case of benzoyl peroxide, the breaking up of the drop resulting from its thermal decomposition produced CO 2. Both the drop disruption time and the burning of the slurry to dryness were predicted theoretically. Radiation absorption was found to be an important factor in the case of the slurry. Benzoyl peroxide and carbamide peroxide were investigated as additives to a boron slurry to determine if effective drop break-up could be achieved. Both additives produced drop shattering. The carbamide peroxide was particularly effective due to the production of O 2. The green flame associated with boron burning was clearly evident.

  19. Indian Creek-AML: Coal slurry reclamation (Kansas case history)

    SciTech Connect

    Witthar, S.R.

    1998-12-31

    Black and Veatch, assisted by Jack Nawrot, developed conceptual and final designs and provided construction assistance to create grasslands and wetlands in order to reclaim an abandoned coal mine for the state of Kansas. The mine included spoils, a coal refuse dump, and slurry pond in the Indian Creek drainage basin in east central Kansas. The Indian Creek flowed from an off-site abandoned mine and through the coal slurry pond where its waters became more polluted. The intent of the reclamation project was to improve water quality and create a wildlife refuge. The coal refuse was covered and seeded with a diversity of vegetation including several grasses and legume. The slurry pond was developed into a series of large wetland cells to improve water quality. Prior to reclamation, the water leaving the site had a typical pH of 3.3, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6, an iron content which typically over 22 mg/L and ranging over 100 mg/L, and contained large amounts of coal slurry. The acid sediment in the slurry killed fish and caused visible damage to a new large concrete box culvert several miles downstream of the site. Post-reclamation water quality leaving the Indian Creek site showed immediate improvement even before vegetation was reestablished. The existing wetland treatment systems have been successfully treating water for over seven years with the pH of the water leaving the wetlands above 7 and soluble iron content less than 1 mg/L. Fish in the constructed wetlands support waterfowl which now nest onsite.

  20. Aerosols generated by spills of viscous solutions and slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M Y; Hodgson, W H

    1986-12-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases caused by accidents. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop methods for estimating source terms from these accidents. Experiments were run by spilling viscous solutions and slurries to determine the mass and particle-size distribution of the material made airborne. In all cases, 1 L of solution was spilled from a height of 3 m. Aqueous solutions of sucrose (0 to 56%) gave a range of viscosities from 1.3 to 46 cp. The percent of spill mass made airborne from the spills of these solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.0001. The mass of particles made airborne decreased as solution viscosity increased. Slurry loading ranged from 25 to 51% total solids. The maximum source airborne (0.0046 wt %) occurred with the slurry that had the lightest loading of soluble solids. The viscosity of the carrying solution also had an impact on the source term from spilling slurries. The effect of surface tension on the source term was examined in two experiments. Surface tension was halved in these spills by adding a surfactant. The maximum weight percent airborne from these spills was 0.0045, compared to 0.003 for spills with twice the surface tension. The aerodynamic mass medium diameters for the aerosols produced by spills of the viscous solutions, slurries, and low surface tension liquids ranged from 0.6 to 8.4 ..mu..m, and the geometric standard deviation ranged from 3.8 to 28.0.

  1. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  2. Seroprevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pig batches at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt

    2014-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. are one of the main causes of foodborne bacterial infections in Europe. Slaughter pigs are the main reservoir and carcasses are contaminated during a sub-optimal hygienically slaughtering-process. Serology is potentially an easy option to test for the Yersinia-status of the pig (batches) before slaughter. A study of the variation in activity values (OD%) of Yersinia spp. in pigs and pig batches when applying a serological test were therefore conducted. In this study, pieces of the diaphragm of 7047 pigs, originating from 100 farms, were collected and meat juice was gathered, where after an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Pigtype Yopscreen (Labor Diagnostik Leipzig, Qiagen, Leipzig, Germany) was performed. The results were defined positive if the activity values exceeded the proposed cut-off value of 30 OD%. Results at pig level displayed a bimodal-shaped distribution with modes at 0-10% (n=879) and 50-60% (n=667). The average OD% was 51% and 66% of the animals tested positive. The within-batch seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 100% and also showed a bimodal distribution with modes at 0% (n=7) and 85-90% (n=16). On 7 farms, no single seropositive animal was present and in 22 farms, the mean OD% was below 30%. Based on the results obtained at slaughter, 66% of the pigs had contact with enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. at farm level. The latter occurred in at least 93% of the farms indicating that most farms are harboring enteropathogenic Yersinia spp.

  3. Foam pigs solve pipe cleaning problems offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, P.C.R.; Neto, S.J.A.

    1995-10-02

    Pipeline systems in which conventional pigs cannot be run are common in such complex offshore installations as are found in Brazil`s Campos basin. These systems may contain changing pipe diameters or wet christmas trees and manifolds. A new concept for using low cost, low-density foam pigs for both liquid removal in wet-gas pipelines and paraffin removal in oil and multiphase pipelines has been successfully tested offshore Brazil. Although the present discussion focuses on condensate and paraffin removal in pipelines, the principles can be applied to several kinds of operations including general pipeline cleaning, product removal or separation in pipeline, corrosion evaluation, and chemical product application.

  4. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    DOEpatents

    Loth, John L.; Smith, William C.; Friggens, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  5. Bioremediation of diethylhexyl phthalate contaminated soil: a feasibility study in slurry- and solid-phase reactors.

    PubMed

    Di Gennaro, P; Collina, E; Franzetti, A; Lasagni, M; Luridiana, A; Pitea, D; Bestetti, G

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to verify the possibility of applying bioremediation as a treatment strategy on a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) manufacturing site in the north of Italy contaminated by diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) at a concentration of 5.51 mg/g of dry soil. Biodegradation kinetic experiments with DEHP contaminated soil samples were performed in both slurry- and solid-phase systems. The slurry-phase results showed that the cultural conditions, such as N and P concentrations and the addition of a selected DEHP degrading strain, increased the natural DEHP degradation rate. On the basis of these data, experiments to simulate bioventing on contaminated soil columns were performed. The DEHP concentration reached 0.63 mg/g of dry soil in 76 days (89% of degradation). A kinetic equation was developed to fit the experimental data and to predict the concentration of contaminant after treatment. The data obtained are encouraging for a future in situ application of the bioventing technology.

  6. Potential nitrification in alum-treated soil slurries amended with poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Gandhapudi, S K; Coyne, M S; D'Angelo, E M; Matocha, C

    2006-03-01

    Alum is used to reduce environmental pollutants in poultry production. Alum decreases NH3 volatilization and increases total N and NH4+-N compared to untreated poultry manure. Nitrification in poultry wastes could therefore be stimulated due to higher NH4+ concentrations or could be inhibited because the soil environment is acidified. A 10-day laboratory study was conducted to study potential nitrification rates in soil slurries (20 g soil in 150 ml water) amended with 2.0 g alum-treated poultry manure. Fecal bacteria, NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, orthophosphate, pH, and NH3 were measured at 2-day intervals. Alum significantly reduced fecal bacteria concentrations through day 6. Water-soluble P was reduced 82% by day 10. Alum-treated manure had significantly increased NH4+ concentrations by day 8 and 10, and significantly decreased NO2- and NO3- concentrations by days 6-10. Alum's effect on potential nitrification was inhibitory in the soil environment. Slurries with alum-treated poultry manure had reduced nitrification rates, fecal bacteria, and soluble P. Therefore, in addition to reducing P loss, alum could temporarily reduce the risk for environmental pollution from land-applied manures in terms of both NO3- and fecal bacteria loss.

  7. Bioremediation of diethylhexyl phthalate contaminated soil: a feasibility study in slurry- and solid-phase reactors.

    PubMed

    Di Gennaro, P; Collina, E; Franzetti, A; Lasagni, M; Luridiana, A; Pitea, D; Bestetti, G

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to verify the possibility of applying bioremediation as a treatment strategy on a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) manufacturing site in the north of Italy contaminated by diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) at a concentration of 5.51 mg/g of dry soil. Biodegradation kinetic experiments with DEHP contaminated soil samples were performed in both slurry- and solid-phase systems. The slurry-phase results showed that the cultural conditions, such as N and P concentrations and the addition of a selected DEHP degrading strain, increased the natural DEHP degradation rate. On the basis of these data, experiments to simulate bioventing on contaminated soil columns were performed. The DEHP concentration reached 0.63 mg/g of dry soil in 76 days (89% of degradation). A kinetic equation was developed to fit the experimental data and to predict the concentration of contaminant after treatment. The data obtained are encouraging for a future in situ application of the bioventing technology. PMID:15667113

  8. On line multielement determination of coal slurries using a direct current plasma

    SciTech Connect

    McCreary, T.W.; Yoon, R.; Long, G.L.

    1986-10-30

    In this fourth quarter of research, we feel that we have established a preliminary mechanism for chemical reactions that may occur in the direct current plasma (DCP) relative to organic species. Briefly, the organic species created by dissociation of propane (or any organic compound) in the plasma cause a depression in the emission signal seen with most elements under normal plasma conditions. By reducing the argon flow to the sleeves, the organic species is better entrained within a plasma ''plume'', and the desirable organic/metal oxide reactions can occur, with a consequent enhancement of signal. This first year's work will be detailed in a paper to be submitted to Applied Spectroscopy for publication; a preliminary copy of this paper is attached. Coal samples are being prepared for analysis using the DCP. Unfortunately, the Babington nebulizer which was constructed for this work did not provide a signal-to-noise ratio that was suitable for slurry work. We have ordered a Babington nebulizer which was specifically designed for the direct current plasma; this nebulizer should arrive in early November, at which time the slurry studies will begin.

  9. Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs

    PubMed Central

    Květina, Jaroslav; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kuneš, Martin; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopáčová, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:21217873

  10. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Birck, Malene M; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken M; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility. PMID:25350490

  11. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Birck, Malene M; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken M; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility.

  12. Non-Terminal Blood Sampling Techniques in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Birck, Malene M.; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken M.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models1-3. However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages4,5. Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals6. All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility. PMID:25350490

  13. Welfare assessment in transgenic pigs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP).

    PubMed

    Huber, Reinhard C; Remuge, Liliana; Carlisle, Ailsa; Lillico, Simon; Sandøe, Peter; Sørensen, Dorte B; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Olsson, I Anna S

    2012-08-01

    Since large animal transgenesis has been successfully attempted for the first time about 25 years ago, the technology has been applied in various lines of transgenic pigs. Nevertheless one of the concerns with the technology--animal welfare--has not been approached through systematic assessment and statements regarding the welfare of transgenic pigs have been based on anecdotal observations during early stages of transgenic programs. The main aim of the present study was therefore to perform an extensive welfare assessment comparing heterozygous transgenic animals expressing GFP with wildtype animals along various stages of post natal development. The protocol used covered reproductory performance and behaviour in GFP and wildtype sows and general health and development, social behaviour, exploratory behaviour and emotionality in GFP and wildtype littermates from birth until an age of roughly 4 months. The absence of significant differences between GFP and wildtype animals in the parameters observed suggests that the transgenic animals in question are unlikely to suffer from deleterious effects of transgene expression on their welfare and thus support existing anecdotal observations of pigs expressing GFP as healthy. Although the results are not surprising in the light of previous experience, they give a more solid fundament to the evaluation of GFP expression as being relatively non-invasive in pigs. The present study may furthermore serve as starting point for researchers aiming at a systematic characterization of welfare relevant effects in the line of transgenic pigs they are working with.

  14. Gaseous emissions during the fattening of pigs kept either on fully slatted floors or on straw flow.

    PubMed

    Philippe, F-X; Laitat, M; Canart, B; Vandenheede, M; Nicks, B

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the environmental impact of the straw-flow system for fattening pigs with the slatted-floor system by measuring pollutant gas emissions such as ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), manure nitrogen (N) content and emissions of water vapour (H2O). Three successive batches of 32 pigs were fattened. For each batch, pigs were allotted to two groups raised in separated rooms fitted either with a concrete totally slatted-floor system (0.75 m2 per pig) or with a straw-flow system (0.79 m2 per pig). With this last system, pigs were kept on a sloped floor, straw being provided daily at the top of the pen. Throughout the fattening period, about 34.4 kg of straw were supplied per pig. The straw, mixed with dung, travelled down the slope by pig motion and went out of the pen to a scraped passage. The solid fraction was scraped every day, stored in a heap in the room and removed every month, 1 week before each period of gaseous emission measurement. The liquid fraction was automatically pumped from the scraped passage into a hermetic tank, which was emptied at the end of each fattening period. Rooms were ventilated mechanically in order to maintain a constant ambient temperature. Once a month, the emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4, CO2 and H2O were measured hourly for 6 consecutive days via infrared photoacoustic detection. Mean daily emissions per pig fattened on the slatted floor or on the sloped floor were, respectively, 4.98 and 13.31 g NH3, 0.67 and 0.68 g N2O, 15.2 and 8.88 g CH4, 548 g and 406 g CO2 equivalents, 1.61 and 1.77 kg CO2 and 2.33 and 2.95 kg H2O. Except for N2O emissions, all the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001). From the slatted-floor system, the amount of slurry removed per fattening period was on average 256 kg per pig. From the straw-flow system, solid manure amounted on average to 209 kg per pig and liquid manure to 53 kg per pig. The total N-content of the manure

  15. ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2001-10-01

    In the second year of the project, the Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column is further developed. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and makes use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. An experimental set for studying a two-dimensional bubble column is also developed. The operation of the bubble column is being tested and diagnostic methodology for quantitative measurements is being developed. An Eulerian computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column is also being developed. The liquid and bubble motions are being analyzed and the results are being compared with the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures is also being studied. Further progress was also made in developing a thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion. The balance laws are obtained and the constitutive laws are being developed. Progress was also made in measuring concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. The general objective of this project is to provide the needed fundamental understanding of three-phase slurry reactors in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel synthesis. The other main goal is to develop a computational capability for predicting the transport and processing of three-phase coal slurries. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop a thermodynamically consistent rate-dependent anisotropic model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction for application to coal liquefaction. Also establish the

  16. Guinea pig models of asthma.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Alice E; Mazzone, Stuart B

    2014-01-01

    Described in this unit are methods for establishing guinea pig models of asthma. Sufficient detail is provided to enable investigators to study bronchoconstriction, cough, airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and remodeling. PMID:25446291

  17. RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-02-08

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg

  18. Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

    1980-03-31

    The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

  19. Review: influenza virus in pigs.

    PubMed

    Crisci, Elisa; Mussá, Tufária; Fraile, Lorenzo; Montoya, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Influenza virus disease still remains one of the major threats to human health, involving a wide range of animal species and pigs play an important role in influenza ecology. Pigs were labeled as "mixing vessels" since they are susceptible to infection with avian, human and swine influenza viruses and genetic reassortment between these viruses can occur. After the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009 with a swine origin virus, the most recent research in "influenzology" is directed at improving knowledge of porcine influenza virus infection. This tendency is probably due to the fact that domestic pigs are closely related to humans and represent an excellent animal model to study various microbial infectious diseases. In spite of the role of the pig in influenza virus ecology, swine immune responses against influenza viruses are not fully understood. Considering these premises, the aim of this review is to focus on the in vitro studies performed with porcine cells and influenza virus and on the immune responses of pigs against human, avian and swine influenza viruses in vivo. The increased acceptance of pigs as suitable and valuable models in the scientific community may stimulate the development of new tools to assess porcine immune responses, paving the way for their consideration as the future "gold standard" large-animal model in immunology.

  20. Corrosion inhibitors for water-base slurry in multiblade sawing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Odonnell, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a water-base slurry instead of the standard PC oil vehicle was proposed for multiblade sawing (MBS) silicon wafering technology. Potential cost savings were considerable; however, significant failures of high-carbon steel blades were observed in limited tests using a water-based slurry during silicon wafering. Failures were attributed to stress corrosion. A specially designed fatigue test of 1095 steel blades in distilled water with various corrosion inhibitor solutions was used to determine the feasibility of using corrosion inhibitors in water-base MBS wafering. Fatigue tests indicate that several corrosion inhibitors have significant potential for use in a water-base MBS operation. Blade samples tested in these specific corrosion-inhibitor solutions exhibited considerably greater lifetime than those blades tested in PC oil.

  1. Critical parameters for coarse coal underground slurry haulage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Factors are identified which must be considered in meeting the requirements of a transportation system for conveying, in a pipeline, the coal mined by a continuous mining machine to a storage location neat the mine entrance or to a coal preparation plant located near the surface. For successful operation, the slurry haulage the system should be designed to operated in the turbulent flow regime at a flow rate at least 30% greater than the deposition velocity (slurry flow rate at which the solid particles tend to settle in the pipe). The capacity of the haulage system should be compatible with the projected coal output. Partical size, solid concentration, density, and viscosity of the suspension are if importance as well as the selection of the pumps, pipes, and valves. The parameters with the greatest effect on system performance ar flow velocity, pressure coal particle size, and solids concentration.

  2. Flow resistance of ice slurry in bends and elbow pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezgoda-Żelasko, B.; Żelasko, J.

    2014-08-01

    The present paper covers the flow of ice slurry made of a 10.6% ethanol solution through small-radius bends and elbow pipes. The paper presents the results of experimental research on the flow resistances of Bingham-fluid ice slurry in bends and elbows. The research, performed for three pipe diameters and a relative bend radius of 1<=D/di<=2, has made it possible to take into consideration the influence of friction resistances as well the of the flow geometry on the total local resistance coefficients. The study attempts to make the local resistance coefficient dependent on the Dean number defined for a generalized Reynolds number according to Metzner-Reade

  3. New cement additive improves slurry properties and saves cost

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, R.; Hibbeler, J.; DiLullo, G.; Shotton, E.A.

    1994-12-31

    A new cement additive has been developed which improves slurry performance and reduces cost. The additive is a vitrified aggregate of calcium-magnesium aluminosilicates with potential cementitious reactivity, hereafter abbreviated CMAS. CMAS has been used successfully on oil and gas wells throughout Indonesia. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the technical enhancements and cost effectiveness of slurries incorporating CMAS. Laboratory data is presented and working mechanisms are defined to highlight CMAS`s positive effect on; compressive strength, fluid loss control, free water control, gas migration control, resistance to strength retrogression and aggressive fluids. Finally, case studies and an economic analysis are presented to show the cost savings for actual well applications.

  4. Experiments on densely-loaded non-Newtonian slurries in laminar and turbulent pipe flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joel T.; Mannheimer, Richard J.; Grimley, Terrence A.; Morrow, Thomas B.

    1989-06-01

    An experimental description of the flow structure of non-Newtonian slurries in the laminar, transitional, and fully-developed turbulent pipe flow regimes was the primary objective of this research. Experiments were conducted in a large-scale pipe slurry flow facility with an inside diameter of 51 mm (2 inches). Approximately, 550 liters (145 gal) of slurry were necessary in the operation of the loop. Detailed velocity profile measurements by a two-color, two-component laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) were accomplished in a transparent test section with an optically transparent slurry. These velocity measurements were apparently the first ever reported for a non-Newtonian slurry with a yield value. The transparent slurry was formulated for these experiments from silica with a particle size of one to two microns, mineral oil, and Stoddard solvent. From linear regression analysis of concentric-cylinder viscometer data, the slurry exhibited yield-power-law behavior with a yield stress of 100 dynes/cm(sup 2), and an exponent of 0.630 for a solids concentration of 5.65 percent by weight. Good agreement was attained with rheological data derived from the pressure drop data in the flow loop under laminar flow conditions. The rheological properties of the transparent slurry were similar to many industrial slurries, including coal slurries, which have a yield value.

  5. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Reused Oxide Chemical Mechanical Planarization Slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung-Joon; Eom, Dae-Hong; Park, Jin-Goo

    2001-03-01

    The recycle of Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) slurries has been actively considered in the industry to reduce the cost-of-consumables (COC) because of the sharp increase of the consumption of slurry in CMP@. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the used oxide slurry physically and chemically to establish a means of reprocessing it. The characteristics of slurry were determined according to pH, solid content, specific gravity and particle size. These characteristics were affected and varied by deionized water inflow during the CMP process. The tetraethylorthosilicate removal rate was strongly dependent on the solid content and pH of slurry solutions. The solid content played a major role in determining the removal rates. Regardless of the number of polishings, the removal rate was almost the same at a solid content when it was modified by adding new slurry. The mean particle size of slurries did not change at all even in the five times recycled slurry. Even though there was a slight increase in the fraction of large particles in the range of 20 to 120 μm in the recycled slurries, no changes in thickness uniformity or defect density were observed when polishing was performed in either new or recycled slurry.

  6. Planarization effect evaluation of acid and alkaline slurries in the copper interconnect process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hu; Yan, Li; Yuling, Liu; Yangang, He

    2015-03-01

    We observed and analyzed the acid and HEBUT alkaline of Cu chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) slurry to evaluate their effects. Material analysis has shown that the planarity surfaces and the removal rate of alkaline slurry are better than the acid slurry during metal CMP processes. The global surface roughness and the small-scale surface roughness by 10 × 10 μm2 of copper film polished by the SVTC slurry are 1.127 nm and 2.49 nm. However, it is found that the surface roughnesses of copper films polished by the HEBUT slurry are 0.728 nm and 0.215 nm. All other things being equal, the remaining step heights of copper films polished by the SVTC slurry and HEBUT slurry are respectively 150 nm and 50 nm. At the end of the polishing process, the dishing heights of the HEBUT slurry and the SVTC slurry are approximately both 30 nm, the erosion heights of the HEBUT slurry and the SVTC slurry are approximately both 20 nm. The surface states of the copper film after CMP are tested, and the AFM results of two samples are obviously seen. The surface polished by SVTC slurry shows many spikes. This indicates that the HEBUT alkaline slurry is promising for inter-level dielectric (ILD) applications in ultra large-scale integrated circuits (ULSI) technology. Project supported by the Special Project Items No. 2 in National Long-Term Technology Development Plan (No. 2009ZX02308), the Doctoral Program Foundation of Xinjiang Normal University Plan (No. XJNUBS1226), the Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification, Ministry of Education, and the Inorganic Chemistry Key Disciplines of Xinjiang Normal University.

  7. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are an attractive donor cell type for production of cloned pigs as well as genetically modified cloned pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Li, Zicong; He, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liwen; Shi, Junsong; Zhou, Rong; Xu, Weihua; Liu, Dewu; Wu, Zhenfang

    2013-10-01

    The somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique has been widely applied to clone pigs or to produce genetically modified pigs. Currently, this technique relies mainly on using terminally differentiated fibroblasts as donor cells. To improve cloning efficiency, only partially differentiated multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), thought to be more easily reprogrammed to a pluripotent state, have been used as nuclear donors in pig SCNT. Although in vitro-cultured embryos cloned from porcine MSCs (MSCs-embryos) were shown to have higher preimplantation developmental ability than cloned embryos reconstructed from fibroblasts (Fs-embryos), the difference in in vivo full-term developmental rate between porcine MSCs-embryos and Fs-embryos has not been investigated so far. In this study, we demonstrated that blastocyst total cell number and full-term survival abilities of MSCs-embryos were significantly higher than those of Fs-embryos cloned from the same donor pig. The enhanced developmental potential of MSCs-embryos may be associated with their nuclear donors' DNA methylation profile, because we found that the methylation level of imprinting genes and repeat sequences differed between MSCs and fibroblasts. In addition, we showed that use of transgenic porcine MSCs generated from transgene plasmid transfection as donor cells for SCNT can produce live transgenic cloned pigs. These results strongly suggest that porcine bone marrow MSCs are a desirable donor cell type for production of cloned pigs and genetically modified cloned pigs via SCNT.

  8. Study of unsteady flow conditions for slurry fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ekmann, J.M.; Wildman, D.J.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    During the past three years, transport characteristics of coal-water mixtures (CWMs) have been studied at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. The effort has concentrated predominantly on studying flow conditions in straight horizontal and vertical sections, and to a lesser extent on studying the flow patterns around elbows of a one-inch-diameter loop and a two-inch-diameter loop. Steady-state flow was characterized for in-house prepared slurries and commercially prepared slurries. For lower concentrated slurries (55 wt % to 60 wt %) and coarse particle size distributions (50% finer than 75 microns), nonhomogeneous flow conditions were encountered across horizontal test sections. Since nonhomogeneous conditions existed in straight sections during steady-state flow, it was decided to further investigate flow conditions during changes in velocity (magnitude and direction). This paper concentrates on nonuniform flow conditions of two types. The first nonuniform flow condition arises from sudden increases in the magnitude of the flow velocity. Pressure measurements recorded at a fixed position in the vertical section of the two-inch-diameter loop during sudden changes in velocity can be analyzed via classic control theory to evaluate the dynamic properties of the CWM. The second nonuniform flow condition occurs as the CWM passes through a bend. Both long-radius bends and 90-degree elbows made of glass and steel have been studied. Pressure-loss data around the long-radius bends and elbows were analyzed with a modified version of the model developed by Ito for single-phase flow around bends. Flow patterns around glass bends and elbows were observed for slurries prepared of vinyl coating powder and water. They are described in an effort to increase understanding of the pressure-loss data. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  9. METHOD OF INCREASING THE DISPERSIBILITY OF SLURRY PARTICLES

    DOEpatents

    McBride, J.P.

    1959-12-15

    A method is described for increasing the dispersibility of metallic oxide particles, particularly thorium oxide, in slurries. Organo-silicon compounds, such as organosilicon halides and silicate esters, are deposited on the surface of the oxide particles. A firing step conducted at temperatures of 600 to 1200 deg C removes the organic groups leaving a surface coating of silica, which provides the desired increase in particle dispersibility.

  10. Dewatering/reconstitution of fine clean coal slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, D.J.; Shao, X.; Parekh, B.K.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes an innovative approach for in-situ dewatering/hardening of fine clean coal slurry. The technique uses various fibrous waste materials added to coal slurry before dewatering process to obtain a dewatered product with lower cake moisture as well as sufficient strength to facilitate its handling. The study was conducted on both vacuum and pressure bench scale apparatus for dewatering and reconstitution of fine clean coal slurry. The fibrous waste materials investigated included plastic, newspaper, carpet mixed office waste, raw paper and wood fibers. The effects of several surfactants and flocculants on final moisture content of the filter cakes were also determined. The results showed that using the vacuum filter, addition of 10 Kg/ton of mixed office waste fibers decreased the filter cake moisture from 41.3 to 34.8% by weight, a 16% moisture reduction over the baseline data. The addition of fibers showed moisture reduction as well as large improvement in solids loading as much as 2 fold over those observed in the absence of fibers. For the pressure filtration, the addition of plastic fibers provided a filter cake containing 21.4% moisture which is about 2.1% lower than that of the untreated filter cake. The average final cake moisture reduction of 1.5% was achieved for the test fibers using the pressure filter. It was also found that fiber addition in pressure filtration led to shorter cake formation time thus increasing the filtration rate of the coal slurry. The hardening properties of the dried filter cakes with fibers improved significantly such that the cake compression strength improved from 0 to 4.5 Kg/cm{sup 2}, impact resistance from 0 to 4, abrasion resistance from 0 to 70%, and dust reduction efficiency from 0 to 75%.

  11. Dewatering/reconstitution of fine clean coal slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, D.J.; Shao, X.; Parekh, B.K.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes an innovative approach for in-situ dewatering/hardening of fine clean coal slurry. The technique uses various fibrous waste materials added to coal slurry before dewatering process to obtain a dewatered product with lower cake moisture as well as sufficient strength to facilitate its handling. The study was conducted on both vacuum and pressure bench scale apparatus for dewatering and reconstitution of fine clean coal slurry. The fibrous waste materials investigated included plastic, newspaper, carpet, mixed office waste, raw paper and wood fibers. The effects of several surfactants and flocculants; on final moisture content of the filter cakes were also determined. The results showed that using the vacuum filter, addition of 10 Kg/ton of mixed office waste fibers decreased the filter cake moisture from 41.3 to 34.8 percent by weight, a 16 percent moisture reduction over the baseline data. The addition of fibers showed moisture reduction as well as large improvement in solids loading as much as 2 fold over those observed in the absence of fibers. For the pressure filtration, the addition of plastic fibers provided a filter cake containing 21.4 percent moisture which is about 2.1 percent lower than that of the untreated filter cake. The average final cake moisture reduction of 1.5 percent was achieved for the tested fibers using the pressure filter. It was also found that fiber addition in pressure filtration led to shorter cake formation time thus increasing the filtration rate of the coal slurry. The hardening properties of the dried filter cakes with fibers improved significantly such that the cake compression strength improved from 0 to 4.5 Kg/cm{sup 2}, impact resistance from 0 to 4, abrasion resistance from 0 to 70 percent, and dust reduction efficiency from 0 to 75 percent.

  12. Rheology of slurries and environmental impacts in the mining industry.

    PubMed

    Boger, David V

    2013-01-01

    The world's resource industries are the largest producers of waste. Much of this waste is produced as a fine particle slurry, which is pumped to a storage area, generally at a low concentration, where it behaves like a Newtonian fluid. Simply removing, reusing, and recycling water from the slurry represents a step toward a more sustainable practice in this industry. As the concentration of such a slurry is increased as a result of dewatering, the materials exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, which is characterized by shear thinning, a yield stress, and in some instances thixotropic behavior. Such high-concentration, nonideal (dirty) suspensions in the resource industries have meant that new rheological methods and techniques have been needed to measure and interpret the basic flow properties. Also, some older empirical techniques have needed to be modified and interpreted in a more fundamental way so that the results could be used in design. This article reviews these techniques and illustrates how the industry itself has motivated their development. Understanding and exploiting this rheology has resulted in dramatic improvement in the waste-disposal strategy for some industries, but many have failed to embrace the available technology. The reasons for this are discussed. The article concludes that a greater positive change in waste-management practice will occur in the future, motivated by several factors, including public perception, tighter regulation, and perhaps even commonsense life cycle accounting.

  13. Reductive dechlorination of chlorobenzenes in surfactant-amended sediment slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoof, P.L.; Jafvert, C.T.

    1996-11-01

    Microbial anaerobic dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was examined in sediment slurries amended with two classes of nonionic surfactant, polyoxyethylene (POE) sorbitan fatty acid esters (Tweens) and POE alcohols (Brijs). The rationale for surfactant addition was to increase the bioavailability of highly sorbed organic pollutants to degrading microorganisms by enhancing their solubility. The solubility of HCB was initially enhanced via micellar partitioning; however, primary degradation of most surfactants occurred within 10 d. Dechlorination activity was significantly reduced at POE alcohol concentrations above the critical micelle concentration (cmc), with or without the occurrence of surfactant degradation. Tween 80 decreased HCB dechlorination at concentrations significantly above the cmc. At concentrations closer to the cmc, Tween 80 increased dechlorination rate constants four- to fivefold in acclimated slurries. Additions of Tween 80 at or below the cmc stimulated dechlorination activity in unacclimated slurries that exhibited very little activity in unamended controls. An average of 89% of HCB was dechlorinated after 90 d, compared to 20% in unamended sediments. No effect was observed for POE alcohols at these sub-cmc levels. The lack of a stimulated response for the POE alcohols suggests that Tween 80 may not be acting simply as a source of carbon or energy.

  14. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. [Microbial anaerobic dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in paddy soil slurry].

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Yao, Xiao-yan; Chen, Chen; Shen, Chao-feng; Qin, Zhi-hui; Huang, Rong-lang

    2015-10-01

    We studied the dechlorination process of Aroclor1260, a high-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) mixture in an anaerobic paddy soil slurry, and further analyzed the related microbial community structures. The Aroclor1260 was reduced up to 55.5% in the natural paddy soil slurry in 128 days, and the reduction percentage dropped to 46.9% after incoculating the paddy soil slurry with a PCBs-dechlorination enrichment culture. The dechlorination mainly occurred in congeners of pentachlorobiphenyl, hexachlorobiphenyl, and specially, the heptachlorobiphenyl, with pentachlorobiphenyl accumulated as dechlorination intermediate. Hydrogen gas produced from fermentation of organic matters was maintained at a lower partial pressure due to its consumption during the dechlorination process, so that the methanogens was suppressed as well. The microbial community structure was significantly different between natural and inoculated paddy soils. Introducing the PCBs-dechlorination enrichment culture changed the local microbial community by the competition between the exogenetic dchlorinators and the indigenous bacteria, overall decreasing the dechlorination activity. PMID:26995917

  16. Formation of disperse-slurry of H-coal residue

    SciTech Connect

    Yaghmaie, F.; Vasconcellos, S.R.

    1986-03-11

    A process is described for forming a disperse-slurry in aqueous medium of 40-400 mesh particles of a hydrophobic H-coal residue containing phenolic components which are conducive to creaming. The process consists of: contacting the hydrophobic H-coal residue, containing phenolic components which are conducive to creaming, with 0.01-1 parts per 100 parts of residue of an alkali metal salt or an amine salt of an alkylbenzene sulfonic acid wherein the alkyl group contains 10-18 carbon atoms whereby the salt is absorbed onto the particles; and comminuting, in the presence of 50-200 parts of aqueous medium per 100 parts of residue, the hydrophobic H-coal residue, containing phenolic components which are conducive to creaming, in the presence of the alkali metal salt or amine salt of the alkylbenzene sulfonic acid wherein the alkyl group contains 10-18 carbon atoms thereby forming a slurry of comminuted hydrophobic H-coal residue in aqueous medium characterized by decreased creaming, enhanced dispersability, decreased wall adhesion, and reduced phase separation; and recovering the slurry of comminuted hydrophobic H-coal residue in aqueous medium characterized by decreased creaming, enhanced dispersability, decreased wall adhesion, and reduced phase separation.

  17. Formation of disperse-slurry of coal liquefaction residue

    SciTech Connect

    Corbeels, R.J.; Vasconcellos, S.R.

    1986-03-11

    This patent describes a process for forming a disperse-slurry in aqueous medium of comminuted particles of a hydrophobic coal liquefaction residue containing phenolic components which are conducive to creaming. This process consists of: contacting the hydrophobic H-coal residue, containing phenolic components which are conducive to creaming, with 0.001-0.1 parts per 100 parts of aqueous medium of a cationic surfactant R/sup 1/R/sup 2/R/sup 3/R/sup 4/N+X- wherein R/sup 1/ is a C/sub 12/-C/sub 20/ hydrocarbon group; each of R/sup 2/, R/sup 3/ and R/sup 4/ is a C/sub 1/-C/sub 6/ lower hydrocarbon group or a poly(oxyalkylene) group having 12-25 repeating units; and X is an inert anion whereby the surfactant is adsorbed onto the particles; and comminuting, in the presence of aqueous medium, the hydrophobic coal liquefaction residue, containing phenolic components which are conducive to creaming, in the presence of the surfactant thereby forming a slurry of comminuted hydrophobic coal liquefaction residue in aqueous medium characterized by decreased creaming decreased wall adhesion, and reduced phase separation; and recovering the slurry of comminuted hydrophobic coal liquefaction residue in aqueous medium characterized by decreased creaming, enhanced dispersability, decreased wall adhesion, and reduced phase separation.

  18. Yield Stress Reduction of DWPF Melter Feed Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.E.; Smith, M.E.

    2007-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides and soluble sodium salts. The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit. Beads were produced from the DWPF process frit by fire polishing. The frit was allowed to free fall through a flame

  19. Process for gasifying carbonaceous material from a recycled condensate slurry

    DOEpatents

    Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.

    1981-01-01

    Coal or other carbonaceous material is gasified by reaction with steam and oxygen in a manner to minimize the problems of effluent water stream disposal. The condensate water from the product gas is recycled to slurry the coal feed and the amount of additional water or steam added for cooling or heating is minimized and preferably kept to a level of about that required to react with the carbonaceous material in the gasification reaction. The gasification is performed in a pressurized fluidized bed with the coal fed in a water slurry and preheated or vaporized by indirect heat exchange contact with product gas and recycled steam. The carbonaceous material is conveyed in a gas-solid mixture from bottom to top of the pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with the solids removed from the product gas and recycled steam in a supported moving bed filter of the resulting carbonaceous char. Steam is condensed from the product gas and the condensate recycled to form a slurry with the feed coal carbonaceous particles.

  20. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOEpatents

    Robben, Franklin A.

    1985-01-01

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  1. Effect of cattle slurry pre-treatment by separation and addition of nitrification inhibitors on gaseous emissions and N dynamics: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José; Fangueiro, David; Chadwick, David R; Misselbrook, Tom H; Coutinho, João; Trindade, Henrique

    2010-04-01

    The application of untreated or treated animal manure to soils can result in increased N and C gaseous emissions contributing to ecosystem change and global warming. In the present study, dairy cattle slurry (liquid manure) was subjected first to pre-treatment by separation using a screw press to obtain a liquid (LF) and a solid fraction (SF). Then, the different fractions and the whole slurry (WS) were combined with two nitrification inhibitors (NI), dicyandiamide (DCD) or 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP), were applied to soil to assess the effect of slurry treatment by separation and NI addition on soil N dynamics and CH4, CO2, NH3, NO and N2O emissions. The WS and the two slurry fractions, combined or not with DCD or DMPP, were applied to soil at an equivalent field dosage of 120 kg total N ha(-1). Controls including a soil only, soil-DCD and soil-DMPP treatments were also included. The mixtures were incubated for 93-d at 20 degrees C. Results obtained show that NI inhibited nitrification between 16 and 30-d in WS and LF, with DMPP having a longer effect over time compared to DCD. There was no significant effect of NI on nitrification for the SF treatment. Nitrification inhibitors did not significantly affect (P>0.05) the CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions, but significantly decreased (P<0.05) NO emissions. Furthermore, the two NIs had a similar effect on gaseous emissions. Throughout the entire experiment, the greatest amount of NO was released from the LF treatment (without NI), while the greatest amount of N2O was released from the SF treatment. Slurry separation had no impact on N emissions, while the combination of this process with one of the two NI led to a small reduction in total N emissions.

  2. Electrophoretic Deposition Applied to Thick Metal-Ceramic Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Windes, William Enoch; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Reimanis, Ivar E.

    2002-08-01

    Electrophoretic deposition was used to fabricate thick (4 mm) metal–ceramic deposits from a non-aqueous slurry of nickel and alumina particles. A high solid volume in the slurry was identified as the primary parameter for depositing thick cermet coatings rather than the applied electric potential or ionic additive concentration. Ionic additives (MgCl2, AlCl3, etc.) were found to adequately suspend the alumina particles and provide rapid deposition rates. The nickel particles proved to be more difficult to suspend in solution, thereby sacrificing control of the deposition composition. The use of small (3.0 µm) particles and continuously pumping the slurry alleviated the suspension problems but small electric potentials (100 V/cm) were required to avoid the formation of rough, columnar deposits on the depositing electrode.

  3. Design and use of multiple blade slurry sawing in a production atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynah, F. P., Jr.; Ross, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    The technique and uses of the multiple blade slurry (MBS) saw are considered. Multiple bands of steel are arranged in a frame and the frame is reciprocated with the steel bands to a workpiece, while simultaneously applying abrasive at the point of contact. The blades wear slots in the workpiece and progress through the piece resulting in several parts of wafers. The transition to MBA from diamond slicing is justified by savings resulting from minimized kerf losses, minimized subsurface damage, and improved surface quality off the saw. This allows wafering much closer to finished thickness specifications. The current state of the art MBS technology must be significantly improved if the low cost solar array (LSA) goals are to be attained. It is concluded that although MBS will never be the answer to every wafering requirement, the economical production of wafers to LSA project specifications will be achieved.

  4. Using the refractive index matched technique to study the flow properties of slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D J; Ekmann, J M; Kadambi, J R; Chen, R C

    1991-01-01

    In this study, Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) is used to measure liquid and solid axial velocity profiles for slurries with solids loadings as great as 25 volume percent. Axial velocity profiles were measured during flow through straight horizontal pipe and through concentric contractions. These results are presented and compared. These same solid-liquid mixtures have been rheologically characterized. Yield stresses and shear thinning behavior have been observed in mixtures with solids loadings of 15 volume percent or greater. The theoretical analyses of Hanks and Dadia and Hanks and Ricks were applied to the flow data though the constant-diameter pipe where appropriate. The effect of the rheological properties on the flow properties through horizontal, constant-diameter pipe and concentric contraction geometry are discussed.

  5. A low-cost solid–liquid separation process for enzymatically hydrolyzed corn stover slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, David A.; Lischeske, James J.; Biddy, Mary J.; Stickel, Jonathan J.

    2015-07-01

    Solid-liquid separation of intermediate process slurries is required in some process configurations for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to transportation fuels. Thermochemically pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed corn stover slurries have proven difficult to filter due to formation of very low permeability cakes that are rich in lignin. Treatment of two different slurries with polyelectrolyte flocculant was demonstrated to increase mean particle size and filterability. Filtration flux was greatly improved, and thus scaled filter unit capacity was increased approximately 40-fold compared with unflocculated slurry. Although additional costs were accrued using polyelectrolyte, techno-economic analysis revealed that the increase in filter capacity significantly reduced overall production costs. Fuel production cost at 95% sugar recovery was reduced by $1.35 US per gallon gasoline equivalent for dilute-acid pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed slurries and $3.40 for slurries produced using an additional alkaline de-acetylation preprocessing step that is even more difficult to natively filter.

  6. Bioremediation of solid TNT particles in a soil slurry reactor: Mass transfer considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Gilcrease, P.C.; Murphy, V.G.; Reardon, K.F.

    1996-12-31

    The bioreduction of solid TNT by a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain was investigated in a stirred tank reactor. Experiments in which TNT beads were the only solids present indicated that the biodegradation mechanism is dissolution followed by degradation in bulk solution. Dissolution may limit the overall rate, in which case degradation can be enhanced through increased agitation. Since soil slurries may contain high concentrations of solids other than TNT, Teflon chips were added to investigate two separate effects on TNT dissolution in slurries. First, Teflon solids increase the viscosity of the slurry, resulting in lower solid-liquid mass transfer coefficients. Second, the agitated Teflon slurry can grind or comminute TNT particles, creating additional surface area for mass transfer. Enhanced dissolution rates were observed for TNT beads in a Teflon slurry at higher agitator speeds. This suggests that the biodegradation of solid TNT nuggets in a soil slurry bioreactor may be enhanced under conditions that promote particle attrition.

  7. Influence of slurry flocculation on the character and compaction of spray-dried silicon nitride granules

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hideo; Shinohara, Nobuhiro; Okumiya, Masataro; Uematsu, Keizo; JunIchiro, Tsubaki; Iwamoto, Yuji; Kamiya, Hidehiro

    1995-04-01

    The effect of slurry flocculation on the characteristics of silicon nitride granules prepared by the spray drying process is investigated. The flocculation state of an aqueous silicon nitride slurry is controlled by adding nitric acid and evaluated as a function of pH. Dense and hard silicon nitride granules result from a well-dispersed slurry having a high pH (e.g., 10.8). These hard granules retain their shape in green compacts and form detrimental defects. Lowering the pH of the slurry to a certain value (e.g., pH 7.9) results in slurry flocculation. Granules prepared from this flocculated slurry have low density and low diametral compression strength and contribute to the elimination large pores in green compacts.

  8. Analysis of the polishing slurry flow of chemical mechanical polishing by polishing pad with phyllotactic pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yushan; Zhang, Tian; Wang, Jun; Li, Nan; Duan, Min; Xing, Xue-Ling

    2011-05-01

    In order to make the polishing slurry distribution more uniform over the polishing region, a new kind of polishing pad, which has sunflower seed pattern, has been designed based on the phyllotaxis theory of biology, and the boundary conditions of polishing slurry flow have been established. By the help of computational fluid dynamics software (FLUENT), the flow state of the polishing slurry is simulated and the effects of the phyllotactic parameters of polishing pad on the flow field of polishing slurry are analyzed. The results show that when the polishing slurry is imported from the center of phyllotaxis polishing pad, the slurry flows along the counterclockwise and clockwise spiral grooves of phyllotatic pattern, which make fluid flow divergence around, and the flow field becomes more uniform.

  9. Analysis of the polishing slurry flow of chemical mechanical polishing by polishing pad with phyllotactic pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yushan; Zhang, Tian; Wang, Jun; Li, Nan; Duan, Min; Xing, Xue-Ling

    2010-12-01

    In order to make the polishing slurry distribution more uniform over the polishing region, a new kind of polishing pad, which has sunflower seed pattern, has been designed based on the phyllotaxis theory of biology, and the boundary conditions of polishing slurry flow have been established. By the help of computational fluid dynamics software (FLUENT), the flow state of the polishing slurry is simulated and the effects of the phyllotactic parameters of polishing pad on the flow field of polishing slurry are analyzed. The results show that when the polishing slurry is imported from the center of phyllotaxis polishing pad, the slurry flows along the counterclockwise and clockwise spiral grooves of phyllotatic pattern, which make fluid flow divergence around, and the flow field becomes more uniform.

  10. Burning of suspended coal-water slurry droplet with oil as combustion additive

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, S.C.; Manwani, P.

    1986-10-01

    Coal-water slurries have been regarded as a potential substitute for heavy fuel oil. Various demonstrations of coal-water slurry combustion have been performed; however, a fundamental understanding of how the combustion process of a slurry fuel is enhanced is still not adequate. The combustion of coal-water mixture droplets suspended on microthermocouples has been investigated. It was found that droplets of lignite coal (which is a noncaking coal) burn effectively; however, droplets of bituminous coal (which is a caking coal) are relatively difficult to burn. During the heat-up of bituminous coal-water slurry droplets may turn to ''popcorn'' and show significant agglomeration. The incomplete combustion of coal-water slurry droplets in furnaces has been reported, and this is a drawback of this process. The objective of the present study is to explore the possibility of enhancing the combustion of coal-water slurry droplets with the use of a combustible emulsified oil.

  11. Reducing Nitrogen loadings to estuaries in Denmark, 1990-2010. Results and costs of measures applied in catchments to 10 Danish estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windolf, J.; Blicher-Mathiesen, G.; Carstensen, N. J.; Kronvang, B.

    2012-04-01

    The Nitrogen loading to 10 Danish estuaries has since 1990 been reduced by on average 42%. Thirty percent of this reduction is due to a reduction in Nitrogen loss from diffuse sources. Nitrogen surplus and the change in this surplus is shown to be a strong overall indicator for the trends in Nitrogen loading to most estuaries. The Nitrogen surplus has been reduced due to general national regulations and mitigation measures applied leading to an increased efficiency of Nitrogen use in cattle slurry (30%) and in pig slurry (ca. 40%). These improvements are paralleled by a reduced application of commercial N-fertilizer. Mean flow-weighted total Nitrogen concentrations in inlet fresh waters to estuaries have been reduced by 18-56% resulting in reductions of total Nitrogen concentrations (24-62%) in the inner and middle parts of the estuaries. The large variations in total Nitrogen loadings and concentrations in estuaries are due to both attenuation and time delays of Nitrogen in groundwater aquifers depending on catchment soil type and geology. This also implies varying costs of reducing the Nitrogen loadings from agricultural land (24-94 Euro/kg N reduced). Knowledge of the outcome of responses in the form of national regulations of agricultural N management for the N cycling from field to estuaries is important for decision makers and catchment managers working with the implementation of EU Directives such as the Water Framework Directive. Based on our findings we suggest that further reductions of Nitrogen loadings from agricultural land should be based on targeted and catchment specific measures leading to the most cost efficient way to achieve good ecological quality in the individual estuaries.

  12. Effect of plastic viscosity and yield value on spray characteristics of magnesium-slurry fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prok, George M

    1957-01-01

    Magnesium slurries were sprayed onto a sheet of paper from an air-atomizing injector. Drop sizes and distributions were then determined from photomicrographs. Four different surface-active additives were used in preparing the slurries to give plastic viscosities between 0.22 and 0.51 poise and yield values between 150 and 810 dynes-cm(exp 2). It was found that there was no significant variation in the spray characteristics of these slurries when tested under the same conditions.

  13. Effects of cattle slurry acidification on ammonia and methane evolution during storage.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Søren O; Andersen, Astrid J; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification before storage is known to reduce NH(3) emissions, but recent observations have indicated that CH(4) emissions are also reduced. We investigated the evolution of CH(4) from fresh and aged cattle slurry during 3 mo of storage as influenced by pH adjustment to 5.5 with sulfuric acid. In a third storage experiment, cattle slurry acidified with commercial equipment on two farms was incubated. In the manipulation experiments, effects of acid and sulfate were distinguished by adding hydrochloric acid and potassium sulfate separately or in combination, rather than sulfuric acid. In one experiment sulfur was also added to slurry as the amino acid methionine in separate treatments. In each treatment 20-kg portions of slurry (n = 4) were stored for 95 d. All samples were subsampled nine to 10 times for determination of NH(3) and CH(4) evolution rates using a 2-L flow-through system. In all experiments, the pH of acidified cattle slurry increased gradually to between 6.5 and 7. Acidification of slurry reduced the evolution of CH(4) by 67 to 87%. The greatest reduction was observed with aged cattle slurry, which had a much higher potential for CH(4) production than fresh slurry. Sulfate and methionine amendment to cattle slurry without pH adjustment also significantly inhibited methanogenesis, probably as a result of sulfide production. The study suggests that complex microbial interactions involving sulfur transformations and pH determine the potential for CH(4) emission during storage of cattle slurry, and that slurry acidification may be a cost-effective greenhouse gas mitigation option. PMID:22218177

  14. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

  15. Slurry and Plasma-spray Coating of Selective Emitting Rare-earth Oxides on High Temperature Resistant Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobler, W. J.; Durisch, W.

    2007-02-01

    Selective emitting coatings of the rare-earth oxides Yb2O3 and Yb-doped garnet have been applied on SiC by slurry coating and on the high refractory intermetallic compound MoSi2 by vacuum plasma-spraying. The TPV emitters produced are fully operable in oxygen atmosphere at high temperatures > 1500 °C. The novel technique of pairing MoSi2 substrate with plasma-sprayed rare-earth oxide results in highly thermal shock stable emitters due to an ideal match of the thermal expansion coefficients of intermetallic compound and ceramics.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX SOLIDS WITH LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.

    2011-11-11

    Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). In the summer of 2011, Tank 50H contained two standard slurry pumps and two quad volute slurry pumps. Current requirements for mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste moved both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that were failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to mix solids with liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange Process (SCIX), SRNL computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, Tank 50H operating experience, and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters of pumps needed to mix the solid particles with the liquid in Tank 50H. The analysis determined pump requirements to suspend the solids with no 'dead zones', but did not determine the pump requirements to produce a homogeneous suspension. In addition, the analysis determined the pump requirements to prevent the accumulation of a large amount of solid particles under the telescoping transfer pump. The conclusions from this analysis follow: (1) The analysis shows that three Quad Volute pumps should be able to suspend the solid particles expected ({approx}0.6 g/L insoluble solids, {approx}5 micron) in Tank 50H. (2) Three standard slurry pumps may not be able to suspend the solid particles in Tank 50H; (3) The ability of two Quad Volute pumps to fully suspend all of the solid particles in Tank 50H is marginal; and (4) One standard slurry pump should be able to achieve a

  17. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, Joseph P.; Marek, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper (II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the orginal organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge and transferred to a virtrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage.

  19. Recovery of gallium and arsenic from GaAs wafer manufacturing slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Jadvar, R.; McCoy, B.J. ); Ford, B.; Galt, J. )

    1991-11-01

    Lapping and polishing slurries from the gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafer manufacturing process were used to develop simple and inexpensive methods for separation and recovery of valuable gallium and toxic arsenic. The lapping slurry, containing GaAs, glycerol, alumina, iron oxide, and water, is treated by a process involving water addition, dissolution of GaAs, mixing, sedimentation, decantation, and evaporation. The polishing slurry, containing GaAs, silica, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hypochlorite and water, is treated simply by a repetitive cycle of adding water, mixing, settling, decanting, and evaporating. After treatment, the slurries contain less than 5 ppm of dissolved arsenic and are considered non-hazardous.

  20. Flow velocity analysis for avoidance of solids deposition during transport of Hanford tank waste slurries

    SciTech Connect

    ESTEY, S.D.

    1999-02-25

    This engineering analysis calculates minimum slurry transport velocities intended to maintain suspensions of solid particulate in slurries. This transport velocity is also known as the slurry flow critical velocity. It is not universally recognized that a transfer line flow velocity in excess of the slurry critical velocity is a requirement to prevent solids deposition and possible line plugging. However, slurry critical velocity seems to be the most prevalent objective measure to prevent solids deposition in transfer lines. The following critical velocity correlations from the literature are investigated: Durand (1953), Spells (1955), Sinclair (1962), Zandi and Gavatos (1967), Babcock (1968), Shook (1969), and Oroskar and Turian (1980). The advantage of these critical velocity correlations is that their use is not reliant upon any measure of bulk slurry viscosity. The input parameters are limited to slurry phase densities and mass fractions, pipe diameter, particle diameter, and viscosity of the pure liquid phase of the slurry. Consequently, the critical velocity calculation does not require determination of system pressure drops. Generalized slurry properties can, therefore, be recommended if the slurry can be adequately described by these variables and if the liquid phase viscosity is known. Analysis of these correlations are presented, indicating that the Oroskar and Turian (1980) models appear to be more conservative for smaller particulate sizes, typically those less than 100 microns diameter. This analysis suggests that the current Tank Farms waste compatibility program criteria may be insufficient to prevent particulate solids settling within slurry composition ranges currently allowed by the waste compatibility program. However, in order to relate a critical velocity associated with a certain slurry composition to a system limit, a means of relating the system capabilities to the slurry composition must be found. Generally, this means expressing the bulk

  1. Effect of Surface-active Additives on Physical Properties of Slurries of Vapor-process Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, Murray L

    1955-01-01

    The presence of 3 to 5 percent surface-active additive gave the lowest Brookfield apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield value that were obtained for slurry fuels containing approximately 50 percent vapor-process magnesium in JP-1 fuel. The slurries settled little and were easily remixed. A polyoxyethylene dodecyl alcohol was the most effective of 13 additives tested in reducing the Brookfield apparent viscosity and the yield value of the slurry. The seven most effective additives all had a hydroxyl group plus an ester or polyoxethylene group in the molecule. The densities of some of the slurries were measured.

  2. Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelin, G.

    1991-10-15

    The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butytl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch; (2) addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst; and, (3) addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

  3. Guinea-pig reaginic antibody

    PubMed Central

    Margni, R. A.; Hajos, Silvia E.

    1973-01-01

    The physicochemical and biological properties of purified guinea-pig reaginic antibody were studied. It is a labile protein different to γ1. Its antibody activity is completely destroyed by heating at 56° for 6 hours and by treatment with mercaptoethanol. The capacity to give PCA is decreased by repeated freezing and thawing. It is a bivalent antibody, haemagglutinating, does not fix complement and is capable of sensitizing guinea-pig skin for PCA reaction after a latent period of a week but not after 3 hours. Reaginic antibody appears on day 7–8 after the first inoculation and the higher levels (PCA reaction) are obtained at the eleventh to thirteenth days. After the fifteenth to seventeenth days the PCA is negative. The reaginic antibody does not pass the placenta. Higher levels of reaginic antibody were obtained when the guinea-pigs were inoculated with the antigen in saline with simultaneous inoculation, intraperitoneally, of killed Bordetella pertussis, phase I. PMID:4354828

  4. Guinea-pig reaginic antibody

    PubMed Central

    Margni, R. A.; Hajos, Silvia E.

    1973-01-01

    The methods for isolation and purification of a guinea-pig serum protein with homocytotropic antibody activity and characteristics of IgE are described. By precipitation in the equivalence zone or immunoadsorption and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, we isolated an homocytotropic antibody, that was not able to give a precipitin line when it was reacted directly with the antigen. It was capable of sensitizing guinea-pig skin for PCA after a latent period of 24–48 hours but not after 3 hours; it was sensitive to treatment with mercaptoethanol. It had antigenic determinants present in the other guinea-pig immunoglobulins and particular antigenic determinants. All these properties make us believe that this protein belongs to an immunoglobulin different from γ1 and similar to the reaginic antibody (IgE) described in other species. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4126261

  5. Coccidiosis in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Ellis, P A; Wright, A E

    1961-07-01

    The attention of laboratory workers is drawn to the possibility of coccidiosis as a cause of death in guinea-pigs. The purchase of a number of guinea-pigs infected with this protozoon was followed by 12 deaths when these animals were injected with material for diagnostic purposes. No deaths occurred in the laboratory stock herd, as these were kept separate from the newcomers and were not infected. The life history of the parasite is described, together with the post-mortem findings in our series of animals.

  6. Soil slurry reactors for the assessment of contaminant biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscano, G.; Colarieti, M. L.; Greco, G.

    2012-04-01

    Slurry reactors are frequently used in the assessment of feasibility of biodegradation in natural soil systems. The rate of contaminant removal is usually quantified by zero- or first-order kinetics decay constants. The significance of such constants for the evaluation of removal rate in the field could be questioned because the slurry reactor is a water-saturated, well-stirred system without resemblance with an unsaturated fixed bed of soil. Nevertheless, a kinetic study with soil slurry reactors can still be useful by means of only slightly more sophisticated kinetic models than zero-/first-order decay. The use of kinetic models taking into account the role of degrading biomass, even in the absence of reliable experimental methods for its quantification, provides further insight into the effect of nutrient additions. A real acceleration of biodegradation processes is obtained only when the degrading biomass is in the growth condition. The apparent change in contaminant removal course can be useful to diagnose biomass growth without direct biomass measurement. Even though molecular biology techniques are effective to assess the presence of potentially degrading microorganism in a "viable-but-nonculturable" state, the attainment of conditions for growth is still important to the development of enhanced remediation techniques. The methodology is illustrated with reference to data gathered for two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway (continuous contamination by aircraft deicing fluids) and the Trecate site in Italy (aged contamination by crude oil spill). This research is part of SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7).

  7. Preparation and utilization of slurry fuel with flotation tailing

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Shixin; Jiang Qiyun; Lui Qing; Shao Peozao; Wang Zuna; Guo Baoxin

    1993-12-31

    Most coal preparation plants treating metallurgical coal employ flotation process for recovering concentrate from -0.5mm fraction. For full utilization of combustibles, the common practice of flotation operation is to give a relatively low ash concentrate while leaving a medium ash tailing as an inferior fuel. In this case, the dilute flotation tailing is thickened and dewatered, giving a filtering cake containing about 20-30% moisture as the final product. Difficulties are confronted in handling of this sticky mass. Besides, combustion of such high-moisture inferior fuel would be less efficient and more pollutant. Ways have been sought to solve these problems. Conversion of such dewatered flotation tailing into slurry fuel is one of possible options in view of its good handleability and high efficiency of carbon burnout in combustion even in small outfits. In Chinese situation, a coal mine area always includes population points and associate utilities and consumes about 5% of coal produced, some of which should be of good quality. Clean and efficient usage of such coal sludge in-situ will be of benefit to the mine in that locally consumed coal could be substituted, which can be in turns loaded out as regular commodity or joining with the main stream to coal preparation plant for production of more premium coal. Datun Coal Preparation Plant employs jig-flotation process and produces concentrate for coking plants. It has a designed annual capacity of treating 1.8 Mt feed coal and the highest record of operation was 2.1 Mt. Average yield of flotation tailing in recent years is 3.5%. Economy would be the prime importance to be considered for converting this sludge into slurry fuel, as preparation of coal slurry is usually considered to be expensive.

  8. Magnetic sorbents added to soil slurries lower Cr aqueous concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravantinos, Konstantinos; Isari, Ekavi; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Werner, David

    2016-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) acts as a strong binding agent that lowers the pollutant concentration and, thus its toxicity. Another promising sorbent material in environmental applications is biochar (BC) which is obtained from the incomplete combustion of carbon-rich biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. Both of these materials could be used as soil or sediment amendments that would lower the toxicity in the aqueous phase. A draw back of this technique is that although the pollutant will remain non- bioavailable for many years being sorbed into these sorbents, it actually stays into the system. The objective of this study was (a) to synthesize a magnetic powdered activated carbon (AC/Fe) and magnetic powdered biochar (BC/Fe) produced from a commercial AC sample and BC, respectively and (b) to evaluate the potential use of AC/Fe and BC/Fe to lower Cr concentration that desorb from two soils in their soil slurries. The two soil samples originate from the vicinity of a local metal shop. The BC was produced from olive pomace. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of each sorbent were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles and the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Isotherms with 30 adsorption and 20 desorption points were conducted at liquid nitrogen temperature (77K). Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using t-plot method and Harkins & Jura equation. For both AC/Fe, surface area measurements resulted in 66% those of corresponding AC. For BC/Fe, the surface area was 82% that of BC. Our previous studies have shown that both AC/Fe and BC/Fe are effective sorbents for mercury in aqueous solutions but with lower sorption capacity compared to the initial materials (50-75% lower). Batch experiments with all sorbent samples and each soil were conducted at room temperature (25oC) in order to compare the sorption properties of the materials. The soil slurries demonstrated low Cr concentrations (10.9 and 14.6

  9. YIELD STRESS REDUCTION OF DWPF MELTER FEED SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M; Michael02 Smith, M

    2006-12-28

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate). The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit

  10. Modular plant recovers high quality fuel from slurry pond

    SciTech Connect

    Batanian, D.C.; Terry, R.L.; Watters, L.A.

    1999-07-01

    For more than forty years, Peabody Coal Company operated a large deep mine complex near the town of Pawnee, approximately 15 miles southeast of Springfield in Christian County, Illinois. The Peabody Mine No.10 recovered No.6 (Herrin) seam raw coal from a depth of about 350 feet. All of the run-of-mine production was washed in a cleaning plant that utilized jigs and water-only cyclone circuits to produce a clean coal sold exclusively in the domestic steam coal market. Cleaning plant capacity was approximately 1,150 tons per hour, and clean coal production averaged about 2.5 million tons per year. When the economically recoverable reserves of No.6 coal were depleted in 1994, the mine was closed and the plant idled. Clean coal produced at Mine No.10 had an average ash content of about 10.0%, total sulfur of 3.50% and a heating value of 10,300 BTU/lb. Due to the relative inefficiency of the plant fine coal cleaning circuitry, significant quantities of coal reported to the tailings thickener as refuse. Thickener underflow was pumped to nearby slurry impoundments, which by 1994 were estimated to contain more than 5 million tons of material. Following the mine closure, the slurry ponds were reclaimed and the coal cleaning plant was dismantled. In 1997, USA Coal contracted for the erection of two synthetic fuel production facilities at the old Mine No.10 site. These facilities became operational in June of 1998 and qualified for Section 29 federal tax credits. In January of 1998, Sedgman was awarded a contract to design and build a preparation plant capable of recovering fine coal from the slurry impoundments at the Mine No.10 site. The fine coal recovery plant was erected in under 4 months utilizing modular construction techniques, which not only reduced field construction time but will also allow for rapid relocation of the recovery plant when all the slurry pond material at this site is depleted. From a raw plant feed of 325 tons per hour of 3.0 MM x 0 material, the

  11. Effect of phorbol esters on guniea pig skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bourin, M C; Delescluse, C; Fürstenberger, G; Marks, F; Schweizer, J; Klein-Szanto, A J; Prunieras, M

    1982-01-01

    When topically applied to guniea pig ear skin the tumor promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced inflammation and epidermal hyperproliferation which could be inhibited by indomethacin. This inhibition could be reversed both by prostaglandins E and F. Five minutes after TPA treatment an increase in the level of prostaglandin E but not of prostaglandin F was observed in the epidermis. The non-promoting phorbol ester 4-O-methyl-TPA also stimulated epidermal cell proliferation but this stimulation was not inhibited by indomethacin. The above results are in agreement with those already reported in the mouse system with these two compounds. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity has been evaluated in the epidermis of guniea pig ear after topical application of 20 nmol of TPA. No increase was noted. This is in contrast with the well documented activation of ODC in mouse skin treated with TPA. Since TPA acts as a promoter in the mouse whereas both croton oil and TPA have no promoting action in the guinea pig, the above result supports the view that ODC activationis related to promotion, and provides a possible explanation for the resistance of this animal species to promotion. This resistance is further documented by the fact that no "dark cells" were found in guinea pig ear skin.

  12. An investigation on the rheological behavior of metallic semi-solid slurries of Al-6.5 pct Si and semi-solid composite slurries of SiC particulates in an Al-6.5 pct Si alloy matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moon, H.-K.; Ito, Y.; Cornie, J. A.; Flemings, M. C.

    1993-01-01

    The rheology of SiC particulate/Al-6.5 pct Si composite slurries was explored. The rheological behavior of the composite slurries shows both thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviors. Isostructural experiments on the composite slurries revealed a Newtonian behavior beyond a high shear rate limit. The rheology of fully molten composite slurries over the low to high shear rate range indicates the existence of a low shear rate Newtonian region, an intermediate pseudoplastic region and a high shear rate Newtonian region. The isostructural studies indicate that the viscosity of a composite slurry depends upon the shearing history of a given volume of material. An unexpected shear thinning was noted for SiC particulate + alpha slurries as compared to semi-solid metallic slurries at the same fraction solid. The implications of these findings for the processing of slurries into cast components is discussed.

  13. Characterisation of the microbial diversity in a pig manure storage pit using small subunit rDNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Snell-Castro, Raúl; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Dabert, Patrick

    2005-04-01

    The microbial community structure of pig manure slurry (PMS) was determined with comparative analysis of 202 bacterial, 44 archaeal and 33 eukaryotic small subunit (SSU) rDNA partial sequences. Based on a criterion of 97% of sequence similarity, the phylogenetic analyses revealed a total of 108, eight and five phylotypes for the Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya lineages, respectively. Only 36% of the bacterial phylotypes were closely related (>or=97% similarity) to any previously known sequence in databases. The bacterial groups most often represented in terms of phylotype and clone abundance were the Eubacterium (22% of total sequences), the Clostridium (15% of sequences), the Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Streptococcus subdivision (20% of sequences), theMycoplasma and relatives (10% of sequences) and the Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides (20% of sequences). The global microbial community structure and phylotype diversity show a close relationship to the pig gastrointestinal tract ecosystem whereas phylotypes from the Acholeplasma-Anaeroplasma and the Clostridium purinolyticum groups appear to be better represented in manure. Archaeal diversity was dominated by three phylotypes clustering with a group of uncultured microorganisms of unknown activity and only distantly related to the Thermoplasmales and relatives. Other Archaea were methanogenic H2/CO2 utilisers. No known acetoclastic Archaea methanogen was found. Eukaryotic diversity was represented by a pluricellular nematode, two Alveolata, a Blastocystis and an Entamoebidae. Manure slurry physico-chemical characteristics were analysed. Possible inhibitory effects of acetate, sulphide and ammonia concentrations on the microbial anaerobic ecosystem are discussed. PMID:16329909

  14. Effect of resonant microwave power on a PIG ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.E.; Gavin, B.F.; MacGill, R.A.

    1984-08-01

    We have investigated the effect of applying microwave power at the electron cyclotron frequency on the characteristics of the ion beam extracted from a hot-cathode PIG ion source. No change was seen in the ion charge state distribution. A small but significant reduction in the beam noise level was seen, and it is possible that the technique may find application in situations where beam quiescence is important. 29 references, 2 figures.

  15. Saving genetic resources of native pigs in Occidental and Oriental countries - practical examples of the characterization and utilization of native pigs in Hungary and Laos.

    PubMed

    Rátky, Jozsef; Egerszegi, Istvan; Toth, Peter; Keonuchan, Soukanh; Nagai, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Manabe, Noboru; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter

    2013-10-01

    Worldwide, only a few "fatty" pig breeds exist with different and/or regional utilization. Using the Hungarian Mangalica, which almost went extinct in Europe and the Lao Moo Lat pig, which still has a large population in South-East Asia as exemples, we wanted to demonstrate that indigenous (fatty) pig breeds may represent both national value and tremendous economic potential. Since these less prolific and less productive breeds cannot contribute to mass production, new market roles and methods should be established for them in the premium segment of pork trading. Thus their preservation and propagation needs the comprehensive collaboration of commercial, governmental actors and researchers. Briefly summarizing the history, we report the current results of reproductive physiology research. The commercial renaissance of Mangalica pigs is indebted to the enthusiastic efforts of basic scientists, pig breeding experts and dedicated Mangalica producers. Scientific achievements were applied to practical breeding and production of delicious pork and processed products, which ultimately made the economic success in the Mangalica sector possible. Both, research on and utilization of endangered (pig) breeds maintain not only breed diversities, but also may improve the livelihood of farmers worldwide.

  16. Oxfendazole flukicidal activity in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Pedro; Terrones, Susana; Cabrera, María; Hoban, Cristian; Ceballos, Laura; Moreno, Laura; Canton, Candela; Donadeu, Meritxell; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

    2014-08-01

    Although oxfendazole (OFZ) is a well know broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic, the assessment of its potential trematodicidal activity remains unexplored. OFZ administration at single high doses has been recommended to control Taenia solium cysticercus in pigs. The current study investigated the flukicidal activity obtained after a single high (30mg/kg) oral dose of OFZ in pigs harbouring a natural Fasciola hepatica infection. Sixteen (16) local ecotype pigs were randomly allocated into two (2) experimental groups of 8 animals each named as follow: Untreated control and OFZ treated, in which animals received OFZ (Synanthic(®), Merial Ltd., 9.06% suspension) orally at 30mg/kg. At seven (7) days post-treatment, all the animals were sacrificed and direct adult liver fluke counts were performed following the WAAVP guidelines. None of the animals involved in this experiment showed any adverse event during the study. OFZ treatment as a single 30mg/kg oral dose showed a 100% efficacy against F. hepatica. In conclusion, the trial described here demonstrated an excellent OFZ activity against F. hepatica in naturally infected pigs, after its administration at a single oral dose of 30mg/kg.

  17. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance. PMID:21214019

  18. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  19. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Wittmer, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  20. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, T.N.; Wittmer, D.E.

    1995-10-10

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  1. Bioslurry reactor for treatment of slurries containing minerals, soils and sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Hanify, D.E.; Duncan, S.P.; Emmett, R.C. Jr.; Brox, G.H.; O'Connor, L.T.

    1993-07-13

    Apparatus for use in treating, through use of bacteria, minerals, soils or sludges which have been contaminated with hazardous waste organic compounds, said apparatus is described comprising: slurry-forming means for adding water to said minerals, soils or sludges to form a slurry; screening means, associated with said slurry-forming means, for removing all solid material of a preselected size from said slurry; a container means associated with said screening means for containing a quantity of slurry and bacteria suited to treat hazardous waste organic compounds; an oxygen supply means mounted within said container means, said oxygen supply means including at least one flexible porous membrane diffuser adapted for receiving a supply of oxygen-containing gas and distributing said gas into said container means in a form of fine bubbles; a mixing means mounted within said container means for mixing and recirculating the slurry contained within said container means; an exhaust gas recycling means mounted on said container means for drawing off a quantity of exhaust gases from said container means, treating said exhaust gas by extracting carbon dioxide therefrom, injecting oxygen into said quantity of exhaust gas and thereafter reintroducing said treated exhaust gas into said container means by means of said oxygen supply means, wherein said container means is sealed to prevent escape of exhaust gases; and dewatering means, associated with said container means, for receiving said slurry from said container means and dewatering said slurry.

  2. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment,...

  3. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... of the initial plan approval, the person owning, operating, or controlling a water, sediment,...

  4. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment,...

  5. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... of the initial plan approval, the person owning, operating, or controlling a water, sediment,...

  6. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of 30 CFR 77.216(a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-5 Water, sediment...

  7. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of 30 CFR 77.216(a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-5 Water, sediment...

  8. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... of the initial plan approval, the person owning, operating, or controlling a water, sediment,...

  9. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment,...

  10. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment,...

  11. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... of the initial plan approval, the person owning, operating, or controlling a water, sediment,...

  12. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of 30 CFR 77.216(a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-5 Water, sediment...

  13. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and....216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements... of the initial plan approval, the person owning, operating, or controlling a water, sediment,...

  14. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of 30 CFR 77.216(a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-5 Water, sediment...

  15. 30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction of hazards; program requirements. (a) All water, sediment,...

  16. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of 30 CFR 77.216(a... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-5 Water, sediment...

  17. Upland and wetland vegetation establishment on coal slurry in northern Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Skeel, V.A.; Nawrot, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    Since the Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory`s (CWRL) Mined Land Reclamation Program`s first establishment of a wetland on slurry in 1976, industry, state, and federal agency interest in reclamation alternatives for inactive slurry has increased. CWRL has been involved in pre-reclamation site characterization and monitoring for inactive slurry impoundments throughout Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, and Washington. Geochemical site characterization of three slurry impoundments at the AECI Bee Veer Mine located near Macon, Missouri began in April 1990. A substrate sampling grid was established for all slurry impoundments with a centerline orientated parallel to the discharge to decant flow pattern. Surface (0--6 in.) and subsurface (30--36 in.) slurry samples were collected annually and analyzed for acid-base balance, immediate acidity macro- and micro-nutrients, potential phytotoxic metallic ions and salts, and texture. Water table elevations and water quality were monitored quarterly from shallow ({le}12 ft.) piezometers. General reclamation plans included annual (3 years) incremental limestone amendments (35--50 tons/acre) and direct vegetation establishment. Cool and warm season grasses dominate vegetation cover in upland habitats (slurry cell RDA1) while wetland habitats (palustrine emergent seasonally-permanently inundated) have been established in slurry cells (RDA2 and RDA3). Isolated hot spots continue to be amended with limestone and supplemental vegetation establishment is scheduled.

  18. High density ash slurry pumping and disposal: An environmentally safe and economical alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Broek, B. van den

    1999-07-01

    The paper describes conventional ash disposal systems; high density slurry transportation and disposal systems, including the design, disposal site, technical features, sloped disposal site operating parameters, slurry quality and deposit management; typical operational questions; specific advantages of the proposed GEHO system; and GEHO piston diaphragm pumps.

  19. Documented performance of a slurry wall at a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Zamojski, L.D.; Reinknecht, D.F.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents data on the performance of a soil-bentonite slurry wall installed at the FLR Landfill site. The wall was approximately 1,600 meters or 5,250 lineal ft in length, and varied in depth for 6 m (20 ft) to 13 m (43 ft). Pre-construction laboratory testing was performed and identified a mix of 4 percent bentonite by dry weight as being required to provide the necessary hydraulic conductivity of 1{times}10E-7 cm/sec. Because of limited space near the trench, the construction contractor was required to use a central mixing plant (pugmill). The pugmill provided computerized weight documentation of the mix proportions to insure a homogeneous backfill mix. It also gave permanent records of the amount of materials used. The hydraulic conductivity of the installed, slurry wall was determined by post-construction testing. With the use of a central mixing plant, a consistent good quality soil-bentonite wall was obtained together with the necessary documentation for the regulatory agencies. The main source of environmental concern at FLR was the reported deposition of approximately 86 metric tons of hazardous chemicals at the site which included phthalates, heavy metals and vinyl chloride monomers. Landfill gas emissions containing methane, hydrogen sulfide and volatile organic compounds were also observed.

  20. Heavy oil hydroprocessing with group VI metal slurry catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, J.; Pasek, E.A.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a process comprising the preparation of a dispersed Group VIB metal sulfide hydrocarbon oil hydroprocessing catalyst. It comprises reacting ammonia and a Group of VIB metal compound in water to form an aqueous ammonium Group VIB metal compounds, reacting aqueous ammonium Group VIB metal compounds with hydrogen sulfide essentially in the absence of feed oil in a low temperature sulfiding step at a temperature in the range 70{sup 0} to 350{sup 0}F, continuing the reaction of aqueous ammonium Group VIB metal compound with hydrogen sulfide in an intermediate temperature sulfiding step at a temperature in the range 180{sup 0} to 700{sup 0}F which is higher than the temperature in the low temperature sulfiding step and essentially without feed oil, with drawing an aqueous effluent stream from the intermediate temperature sulfiding step, passing the effluent stream to a separator zone, removing ammonia from the aqueous effluent stream in the separator zone leaving a separator residue, passing the separator residue together with feed hydrocarbon oil and hydrogen sulfide to a high temperature sulfiding step at a temperature in the range 500{sup 0} to 750{sup 0}F which is higher than the temperature in the intermediate temperature sulfiding step, the residence time in each of the sulfiding steps being at least 0.02 hours, withdrawing from the high temperature sulfiding step an aqueous-oil-slurry containing dispersed group VIB metal sulfide slurry catalyst.