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Sample records for pigmentation disorders

  1. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of ...

  2. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment ... dark-skinned people produce the most. People with albinism have little or no melanin and thus their ...

  3. Skin Pigmentation and Pigmentary Disorders: Focus on Epidermal/Dermal Cross-Talk.

    PubMed

    Bastonini, Emanuela; Kovacs, Daniela; Picardo, Mauro

    2016-06-01

    Variation in human skin and hair color is the most notable aspect of human variability and several studies in evolution, genetics and developmental biology contributed to explain the mechanisms underlying human skin pigmentation, which is responsible for differences in skin color across the world's populations. Despite skin pigmentation is primarily related to melanocytes functionality, the surrounding keratinocytes and extracellular matrix proteins and fibroblasts in the underlying dermal compartment actively contribute to cutaneous homeostasis. Many autocrine/paracrine secreted factors and cell adhesion mechanisms involving both epidermal and dermal constituents determine constitutive skin pigmentation and, whenever deregulated, the occurrence of pigmentary disorders. In particular, an increased expression of such mediators and their specific receptors frequently lead to hyperpigmentary conditions, such as in melasma and in solar lentigo, whereas a defect in their expression/release is related to hypopigmented disorders, as seen in vitiligo. All these interactions underline the relevant role of pigmentation on human evolution and biology. PMID:27274625

  4. Skin Pigmentation and Pigmentary Disorders: Focus on Epidermal/Dermal Cross-Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bastonini, Emanuela; Kovacs, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Variation in human skin and hair color is the most notable aspect of human variability and several studies in evolution, genetics and developmental biology contributed to explain the mechanisms underlying human skin pigmentation, which is responsible for differences in skin color across the world's populations. Despite skin pigmentation is primarily related to melanocytes functionality, the surrounding keratinocytes and extracellular matrix proteins and fibroblasts in the underlying dermal compartment actively contribute to cutaneous homeostasis. Many autocrine/paracrine secreted factors and cell adhesion mechanisms involving both epidermal and dermal constituents determine constitutive skin pigmentation and, whenever deregulated, the occurrence of pigmentary disorders. In particular, an increased expression of such mediators and their specific receptors frequently lead to hyperpigmentary conditions, such as in melasma and in solar lentigo, whereas a defect in their expression/release is related to hypopigmented disorders, as seen in vitiligo. All these interactions underline the relevant role of pigmentation on human evolution and biology. PMID:27274625

  5. Biology and genetics of oculocutaneous albinism and vitiligo - common pigmentation disorders in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Manga, Prashiela; Kerr, Robyn; Ramsay, Michèle; Kromberg, Jennifer G R

    2013-07-29

    Pigmentation disorders span the genetic spectrum from single-gene autosomal recessive disorders such as oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), the autosomal dominant disorder piebaldism to X-linked ocular albinism and multifactorial vitiligo. OCA connotes a group of disorders that result in hypopigmented skin due to decreased melanin production in melanocytes and loss of visual acuity. There are four non-syndromic forms, OCA1-4, which are classified based on the gene that is mutated (tyrosinase, OCA2, tyrosinase-related protein 1 and SLC45A2, respectively). Despite the fact that multiple genes account for the various forms of OCA, the phenotypes of all four forms result from disruption in the maturation and trafficking of the enzyme tyrosinase. OCA2 is the most prevalent autosomal recessive disorder among southern African blacks, affecting 1/3 900 individuals; while OCA3, although rare, is most prevalent in southern Africa. Another common pigmentation disorder in southern Africa is vitiligo, which affects 1 - 2% of people worldwide. Vitiligo is a complex, acquired disorder in which melanocytes are destroyed due to an autoimmune response. The aetiology underlying this disorder is poorly understood, although recent genetic association studies have begun to shed light on the contributing factors. Pigmentation disorders have significant psychosocial implications and co-morbidities, yet therapies are still lacking. Recent progress in our understanding of the pathobiology of both albinism and vitiligo may herald novel treatment strategies for these disorders

  6. Biology and genetics of oculocutaneous albinism and vitiligo - common pigmentation disorders in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Manga, Prashiela; Kerr, Robyn; Ramsay, Michèle; Kromberg, Jennifer G R

    2013-12-01

    Pigmentation disorders span the genetic spectrum from single-gene autosomal recessive disorders such as oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), the autosomal dominant disorder piebaldism to X-linked ocular albinism and multifactorial vitiligo. OCA connotes a group of disorders that result in hypopigmented skin due to decreased melanin production in melanocytes and loss of visual acuity. There are four non-syndromic forms, OCA1-4, which are classified based on the gene that is mutated (tyrosinase, OCA2, tyrosinase-related protein 1 and SLC45A2, respectively). Despite the fact that multiple genes account for the various forms of OCA, the phenotypes of all four forms result from disruption in the maturation and trafficking of the enzyme tyrosinase. OCA2 is the most prevalent autosomal recessive disorder among southern African blacks, affecting 1/3 900 individuals; while OCA3, although rare, is most prevalent in southern Africa. Another common pigmentation disorder in southern Africa is vitiligo, which affects 1 - 2% of people worldwide. Vitiligo is a complex, acquired disorder in which melanocytes are destroyed due to an autoimmune response. The aetiology underlying this disorder is poorly understood, although recent genetic association studies have begun to shed light on the contributing factors. Pigmentation disorders have significant psychosocial implications and co-morbidities, yet therapies are still lacking. Recent progress in our understanding of the pathobiology of both albinism and vitiligo may herald novel treatment strategies for these disorders.  PMID:24300644

  7. Possible contributions of skin pigmentation and vitamin D in a polyfactorial model of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alan E; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Tanner, Susan; Kimlin, Michael G

    2014-11-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a polyfactorial and polygenetic disorder that involves biological and psychological sub-mechanisms that differentially involve depression, seasonality, circadian rhythms, retinal sensitivity, iris pigmentation, sleep factors, and the neurotransmitters involved with these systems. Within the framework of the polyfactorial conceptualization of SAD, we review the possible contributions of vitamin D3 with respect to the aforementioned sub-mechanisms. We hypothesize that rather than functioning primarily as a proximal or direct sub-mechanism in the etiology of SAD, vitamin D likely functions in a more foundational and regulative role in potentiating the sub-mechanisms associated with the depressive and seasonality factors. There are several reasons for this position: 1. vitamin D levels fluctuate in the body seasonally, with a lag, in direct relation to seasonally-available sunlight; 2. lower vitamin D levels have been observed in depressed patients (as well as in patients with other psychiatric disorders) compared to controls; 3. vitamin D levels in the central nervous system affect the production of both serotonin and dopamine; and 4. vitamin D and vitamin D responsive elements are found throughout the midbrain regions and are especially concentrated in the hypothalamus, a region that encompasses the circadian timing systems and much of its neural circuitry. We also consider the variable of skin pigmentation as this may affect levels of vitamin D in the body. We hypothesize that people with darker skin pigmentation may experience greater risks for lower vitamin D levels that, especially following their migration to regions of higher latitude, could contribute to the emergence of SAD and other psychiatric and physical health problems.

  8. Pigmented casts.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Mariya; Romanelli, Paolo; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented casts have been reported with variable frequency in scalp biopsies from alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia and postoperative (pressure induced) alopecia. Their presence and morphology in other scalp disorders has not been described. The authors assessed for the presence and morphology of pigmented casts in 308 transversely bisected scalp biopsies from nonscarring and scarring alopecia, referred to the Department of Dermatology, University of Miami within a year. The pigmented casts were present in 21 of 29 cases of alopecia areata (72%), 7 of 7 cases of trichotillomania (100%), 1 case of friction alopecia, 4 of 28 cases of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (14%), and 4 of 4 cases of dissecting cellulitis (100%). They did not show any distinguishing features except for the morphology in trichotillomania, which included twisted, linear (zip), and "button"-like pigment aggregation. The linear arrangement was found also in friction alopecia and dissecting cellulitis. Pigmented casts in the hair canals of miniaturized/vellus hairs was a clue to alopecia areata. Pigmented casts can be observed in biopsies of different hair disorders, but they are not specific for the diagnosis. Horizontal sections allow to better assess their morphology and the follicular level of presence of pigmented casts, which in the context of the other follicular findings may be a clue to the diagnosis. PMID:23823025

  9. Efficacy of topical treatment of pigmentation skin disorders with plant hydroquinone glucosides as assessed by quantitative color analysis.

    PubMed

    Clarys, P; Barel, A

    1998-06-01

    Hydroquinone is a well known reagent used in the treatment of pigmentation disorders. The instability of the quinones and the required active concentration make topical treatment rather difficult. We tested the efficacy of an ascorbate-phytohydroquinone complex that inhibits the synthesis of melanin and promotes the degradation of the existing melanin. Lentigo senile lesions were evaluated before and after 1 month of treatment. Objective skin color evaluation was performed instrumentally. After one month of treatment, a clear depigmentation of the macules was measured. None of the volunteers reported any side effects from the prolonged treatment with the hydroquinone containing product. PMID:9675352

  10. Autologous transplantation of genetically modified iris pigment epithelial cells: A promising concept for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration and other disorders of the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkova, Irina; Kreppel, Florian; Welsandt, Gerhard; Luther, Thomas; Kozlowski, Jolanta; Janicki, Hanna; Kochanek, Stefan; Schraermeyer, Ulrich

    2002-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause for visual impairment and blindness in the elder population. Laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy and excision of neovascular membranes have met with limited success. Submacular transplantation of autologous iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cells has been proposed to replace the damaged retinal pigment epithelium following surgical removal of the membranes. We tested our hypothesis that the subretinal transplantation of genetically modified autologous IPE cells expressing biological therapeutics might be a promising strategy for the treatment of ARMD and other retinal disorders. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has strong antiangiogenic and neuroprotective activities in the eye. Subretinal transplantation of PEDF expressing IPE cells inhibited pathological choroidal neovascularization in rat models of laser-induced rupture of Bruch's membrane and of oxygen induced ischemic retinopathy. PEDF expressing IPE transplants also increased the survival and preserved rhodopsin expression of photoreceptor cells in the RCS rat, a model of retinal degeneration. These findings suggest a promising concept for the treatment of ARMD and other retinal disorders.

  11. [Macular pigments].

    PubMed

    Canovas, Renata; Cypel, Marcela; Farah, Michel Eid; Belfort, Rubens

    2009-01-01

    Lutein and Zeaxanthin are yellow pigments located at the macula. Because of your location macular pigments decrease and filter the amount of blue light that reach photoreceptors, protect the outer retina from oxidative stress and may improve the vision quality. This is a review regarding incorporation mechanism, function and knowledge update. PMID:20098912

  12. Pleiotropic effects of pigmentation genes in horses.

    PubMed

    Bellone, R R

    2010-12-01

    Horses are valued for the beauty and variety of colouration and coat patterning. To date, eleven different genes have been characterized that contribute to the variation observed in the horse. Unfortunately, mutations involving pigmentation often lead to deleterious effects in other systems, some of which have been described in the horse. This review focuses on six such pleiotropic effects or associations with pigmentation genes. These include neurological defects (lethal white foal syndrome and lavender foal syndrome), hearing defects, eye disorders (congenital stationary night blindness and multiple congenital ocular anomalies), as well as horse-specific melanoma. The pigmentation phenotype, disorder phenotype, mode of inheritance, genetic or genomic methods utilized to identify the genes involved and, if known, the causative mutations, molecular interactions and other susceptibility loci are discussed. As our understanding of pigmentation in the horse increases, through the use of novel genomic tools, we are likely to unravel yet unknown pleiotropic effects and determine additional interactions between previously discovered loci.

  13. Dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis*

    PubMed Central

    Ozkaya, Dilek Biyik; Emiroglu, Nazan; Su, Ozlem; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Bahali, Anil Gulsel; Yildiz, Pelin; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Onsun, Nahide

    2016-01-01

    Background Pigmented purpuric dermatosis is a chronic skin disorder of unknown aetiology characterised by symmetrical petechial and pigmented macules, often confined to the lower limbs. The aetiology of pigmented purpuric dermatosis is unknown. Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that allows the visualisation of morphological features invisible to the naked eye; it combines a method that renders the corneal layer of the skin translucent with an optical system that magnifies the image projected onto the retina. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the dermatoscopic findings of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. Methods This study enrolled patients diagnosed histopathologically with pigmented purpuric dermatosis who had dermatoscopic records. We reviewed the dermatoscopic images of PPD patients who attended the outpatient clinic in the Istanbul Dermatovenereology Department at the Bezmialem Vakıf University Medical Faculty. Results Dermatoscopy showed: coppery-red pigmentation (97%, n = 31) in the background, a brown network (34%, n = 11), linear vessels (22%, n = 7), round to oval red dots, globules, and patches (69%, n = 22; 75%, n = 24; 34%, n = 11; respectively), brown globules (26%, n = 8) and dots (53%, n = 17), linear brown lines (22%, n = 7), and follicular openings (13%, n = 4). Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the dermatoscopy of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. In our opinion, dermatoscopy can be useful in the diagnosis of pigmented purpuric dermatosis.

  14. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  15. Oral pigmentation: A review.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  16. Overview of plant pigments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains are four major classes of biological pigments produced in plants. Chlorophylls are the primary pigments responsible for plant green and photosynthesis. The other three are accessary pigments and secondary metabolites that yield non-green colors and...

  17. A primer on pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G

    2015-01-01

    There is at least a temporary loss of skin pigmentation with all but first-degree burns. Commonly, pigment changes persist for months, and sometimes, permanent changes in skin color add to the ultimate change in appearance that commonly affects burn patients. There are many different treatment modalities for the treatment of pigment changes, but most of them have little scientific basis and often lead to disappointing results. The purpose of this review is to discuss the molecular and cellular mechanisms of skin pigmentation, mechanisms of repigmentation after burns, treatment options for dealing with pigmentation changes, and advice for dealing with the sun after burn injury. PMID:25501768

  18. A primer on pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G

    2015-01-01

    There is at least a temporary loss of skin pigmentation with all but first-degree burns. Commonly, pigment changes persist for months, and sometimes, permanent changes in skin color add to the ultimate change in appearance that commonly affects burn patients. There are many different treatment modalities for the treatment of pigment changes, but most of them have little scientific basis and often lead to disappointing results. The purpose of this review is to discuss the molecular and cellular mechanisms of skin pigmentation, mechanisms of repigmentation after burns, treatment options for dealing with pigmentation changes, and advice for dealing with the sun after burn injury.

  19. Raman Spectroscopy for the Investigation of Carbon Based Black Pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccato, A.; Jehlicka, J.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.

    2014-06-01

    Carbon based black pigments play an important role among artists' materials. The disordered structure of these materials is investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy, which helps in the comprehension of their production processes.

  20. Ion transport in pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bellono, Nicholas W.; Oancea, Elena V.

    2014-01-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system,, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis. PMID:25034214

  1. Ion transport in pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Oancea, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis.

  2. Pigment-protein complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Siegelman, H W

    1980-01-01

    The photosynthetically-active pigment protein complexes of procaryotes and eucaryotes include chlorophyll proteins, carotenochlorophyll proteins, and biliproteins. They are either integral components or attached to photosynthetic membranes. Detergents are frequently required to solubilize the pigment-protein complexes. The membrane localization and detergent solubilization strongly suggest that the pigment-protein complexes are bound to the membranes by hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophobic interactions of proteins are characterized by an increase in entropy. Their bonding energy is directly related to temperature and ionic strength. Hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, a relatively new separation procedure, can furnish an important method for the purification of pigment-protein complexes. Phycobilisome purification and properties provide an example of the need to maintain hydrophobic interactions to preserve structure and function.

  3. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  4. Biology of pigmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, F.

    1981-01-01

    The many factors involved in the normal pigmentation of human skin are highly complex involving anatomic, biochemical, and genetic aspects of melanocytes in the skin and the influence of UV light and various hormones on the melanocytes. It is probably more than just coincidence that the melanocytes, which are of neurogenic origin, are so responsive to several trophic hormones produced in the brain. Understanding of the various factors involved in the normal pigmentary process is crucial to explaining the many alterations and anomalies in human pigmentation.

  5. Embryological pigment epithelial dystrophies.

    PubMed

    François, J

    1976-01-01

    The embryological pigment epithelial dystrophies may be due, although rather rarely, to chemical factors, such as antibiotics and thalidomide, to ionizing radiation and to infectious factors, syphilis or viral infections, such as mumps, measles, varicella, or cytomegalovirus. The most frequent and the most typical dystrophy is, nevertheless, the rubella epitheliopathy with its widespread scattered black pigment deposits, found predominantly in the posterior pole, and its unaffected visual functions. The macular dystrophy associated with deaf-mutism is also often due to a maternal rubella infection.

  6. Retinal pigment epithelial cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Sally

    2015-01-01

    The human retinal pigment epithelium forms early in development and subsequently remains dormant, undergoing minimal proliferation throughout normal life. Retinal pigment epithelium proliferation, however, can be activated in disease states or by removing retinal pigment epithelial cells into culture. We review the conditions that control retinal pigment epithelial proliferation in culture, in animal models and in human disease and interpret retinal pigment epithelium proliferation in context of the recently discovered retinal pigment epithelium stem cell that is responsible for most in vitro retinal pigment epithelial proliferation. Retinal pigment epithelial proliferation-mediated wound repair that occurs in selected macular diseases is contrasted with retinal pigment epithelial proliferation-mediated fibroblastic scar formation that underlies proliferative vitreoretinopathy. We discuss the role of retinal pigment epithelial proliferation in age-related macular degeneration which is reparative in some cases and destructive in others. Macular retinal pigment epithelium wound repair and regression of choroidal neovascularization are more pronounced in younger than older patients. We discuss the possibility that the limited retinal pigment epithelial proliferation and latent wound repair in older age-related macular degeneration patients can be stimulated to promote disease regression in age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26041390

  7. Photooxidations in pigmented Blepharisma.

    PubMed

    GIESE, A C; ZEUTHEN, E

    1949-03-20

    1. Blepharisma undulans, a protozoan with a reddish pigment, shows increased oxygen consumption under the influence of light. 2. If the light intensity is high, the animals are killed during a burst of oxygen consumption. 3. If the blepharismas are first bleached by exposure to light of low intensity they show only slightly increased oxygen consumption under the influence of light and they are not killed. 4. A preparation in which the animals are killed by heat still shows the increase in oxygen consumption on illumination with brilliant light. The supernatant solution does so as well, as does an alcohol extract of the dye. 5. The conclusion is drawn that the blepharismas are killed during photooxidation of the pigment, but the mechanism of action is not clear. Several possibilities are considered in the discussion.

  8. Pigmentary disorders in oriental skin.

    PubMed

    Jimbow, M; Jimbow, K

    1989-01-01

    Brown hyperpigmented disorders may be melanotic in which there is a normal number of epidermal melanocytes but melanin pigment is increased in the epidermis (eg, melasma), melanocytotic, in which melanocytes are increased (eg, café-au-lait macules), and nonmelanotic hyperpigmentation (eg, minocycline pigmentation). Blue hyperpigmented disorders may also be melanotic in which there is a normal number of epidermal melanocytes, but melanin pigment is present in the upper dermis (eg, gray/slate pigmentation in Riehl's melanosis), melanocytotic in which melanocytes are present in both the epidermis and dermis (eg, blue pigmentation in Nevus Ota and Mongolian spot), and nonmelanotic hyperpigmentation in which pigment is present in the deep dermis (eg, blue pigmentation in tattoos). Hypomelanosis (leukoderma) may be divided histopathologically into melanocytopenic disorders on which melanocytes are absent (eg, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome and vitiligo), melanopenic disorders in which melanocytes are present but melanin is reduced (eg, nevus depigmentosus and incontinentia pigmenti achromians), and nonmelanotic disorders in which melanin pigmentation is unaffected (nevus anemicus) and the pigmentary abnormality is caused by something other than melanin. There are numerous pigmentary disorders in the oriental skin, and some of them are either characteristic to or established in the orientals. Importantly, a number of congenital hypermelanotic and hypomelanotic diseases (eg, nevus depigmentosus, incontinentia pigmenti, and incontinentia pigmenti achromians, take a distribution following to the Blaschko's line.

  9. Raman Spectroscopy of Microbial Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid nondestructive technique providing spectroscopic and structural information on both organic and inorganic molecular compounds. Extensive applications for the method in the characterization of pigments have been found. Due to the high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for the detection of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scytonemin, and a range of other pigments found in the microbial world, it is an excellent technique to monitor the presence of such pigments, both in pure cultures and in environmental samples. Miniaturized portable handheld instruments are available; these instruments can be used to detect pigments in microbiological samples of different types and origins under field conditions. PMID:24682303

  10. Black-pigmented sputum

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Mosquera-Martínez, Joaquín; Martínez-Torre, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Black-pigmented sputum, also called “melanoptysis,” is a symptom that may be observed in certain pathologies such us coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (anthracosis). The cavitation and liquefaction of a fibrosed mass by an infectious process (tuberculosis, infections by anaerobes, etc.) or by ischemic necrosis may cause expectoration of a blackish secretion. We report the case of a patient with labor precedents as a coal worker, from whom abundant black sputum was obtained in the course of an incidental expectoration. Cyto-histological findings are shown and a differential diagnosis is established. PMID:24648674

  11. Cosmetic tattoo pigment reaction.

    PubMed

    Greywal, Tanya; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundCutaneous reactions to tattoos are most commonly granulomatous or lichenoid.PurposeWe describe a woman who developed a lymphocytic reaction following a cosmetic tattoo procedure with black dye. The reaction occurred not only at the site of the tattoos (eyebrows and eyelash lines), but also in non-tattooed skin (bilateral malar cheeks).Methods and MaterialsWe reviewed PubMed for the following terms: cosmetic, dye, granuloma, granulomatous, lichenoid, lymphocytic, perivascular, pigment, pseudolymphoma, reaction, and tattoo. We also reviewed papers containing these terms and their references.ResultsHistopathologic examination of the left eyebrow and left cheek punch biopsies showed predominantly a perivascular lymphocytic reaction secondary to exogenous tattoo pigment.ConclusionsPerivascular lymphocytic reaction is an uncommonly described complication of tattooing. Our patient had an atypical presentation since she had no prior tattoos, became symptomatic only a few days after the procedure, reacted to black dye, and involved skin both within and outside the confines of the tattoos. Her symptoms and lesions resolved after treatment with systemic and topical corticosteroids and oral antihistamines. PMID:27617722

  12. Endothelial Cells Promote Pigmentation through Endothelin Receptor B Activation.

    PubMed

    Regazzetti, Claire; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Ghorbel, Houda Hammami; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Ambrosetti, Damien; Bahadoran, Philippe; Chignon-Sicard, Bérengère; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Ballotti, Robert; Mahns, Andre; Passeron, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Findings of increased vascularization in melasma lesions and hyperpigmentation in acquired bilateral telangiectatic macules suggested a link between pigmentation and vascularization. Using high-magnification digital epiluminescence dermatoscopy, laser confocal microscopy, and histological examination, we showed that benign vascular lesions of the skin have restricted but significant hyperpigmentation compared with the surrounding skin. We then studied the role of microvascular endothelial cells in regulating skin pigmentation using an in vitro co-culture model using endothelial cells and melanocytes. These experiments showed that endothelin 1 released by microvascular endothelial cells induces increased melanogenesis signaling, characterized by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor phosphorylation, and increased tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase levels. Immunostaining for endothelin 1 in vascular lesions confirmed the increased expression on the basal layer of the epidermis above small vessels compared with perilesional skin. Endothelin acts through the activation of endothelin receptor B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and p38, to induce melanogenesis. Finally, culturing of reconstructed skin with microvascular endothelial cells led to increased skin pigmentation that could be prevented by inhibiting EDNRB. Taken together these results demonstrated the role of underlying microvascularization in skin pigmentation, a finding that could open new fields of research for regulating physiological pigmentation and for treating pigmentation disorders such as melasma.

  13. Comparative chromatography of chloroplast pigment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandolfo, M.; Sherma, J.; Strain, H. H.

    1969-01-01

    Methods for isolation of low concentration pigments of the cocklebur species are described. The methods entail two step chromatography so that the different sorption properties of the various pigments in varying column parameters can be utilized. Columnar and thin layer methods are compared. Many conditions influence separability of the chloroplasts.

  14. Nonphotosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures.

    PubMed

    Schwieterman, Edward W; Cockell, Charles S; Meadows, Victoria S

    2015-05-01

    Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data.

  15. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    PubMed Central

    Cockell, Charles S.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data. Key Words: Biosignatures—Exoplanets—Halophiles—Pigmentation—Reflectance spectroscopy—Spectral models. Astrobiology 15, 341–361. PMID:25941875

  16. New directions in phthalocyanine pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Diep VO

    1994-01-01

    Phthalocyanines have been used as a pigment in coatings and related applications for many years. These pigments are some of the most stable organic pigments known. The phthalo blue and green pigments have been known to be ultraviolet (UV) stable and thermally stable to over 400 C. These phthalocyanines are both a semiconductor and photoconductor, exhibiting catalytic activity and photostabilization capability of polymers. Many metal free and metallic phthalocyanine derivatives have been prepared. Development of the new classes of phthalocyanine pigment could be used as coating on NASA spacecraft material such as glass to decrease the optical degradation from UV light, the outside of the space station modules for UV protection, and coating on solar cells to increase lifetime and efficiency.

  17. [INHERITANCE OF EPIDERMIS PIGMENTATION IN SUNFLOWER ACHENES].

    PubMed

    Gorohivets, N A; Vedmedeva, E V

    2016-01-01

    Inheritance of epidermis pigmentation in the pericarp of sunflower seeds was studied. Inheritance of pigmentation was confirmed by three alleles Ew (epidermis devoid of pigmentation), Estr (epidermal pigmentation in strips), Edg (solid pigmentation). Dominance of the lack of epidermis pigmentation over striped epidermis and striped epidermis over solid pigmentation was established. It was shown that the striped epidermis pigmentation and the presence of testa layer are controlled by two genes, expression of which is independent from each other. Yellowish hypodermis was discovered in the sample I2K2218, which is inherited monogenically dominantly. PMID:27281924

  18. [INHERITANCE OF EPIDERMIS PIGMENTATION IN SUNFLOWER ACHENES].

    PubMed

    Gorohivets, N A; Vedmedeva, E V

    2016-01-01

    Inheritance of epidermis pigmentation in the pericarp of sunflower seeds was studied. Inheritance of pigmentation was confirmed by three alleles Ew (epidermis devoid of pigmentation), Estr (epidermal pigmentation in strips), Edg (solid pigmentation). Dominance of the lack of epidermis pigmentation over striped epidermis and striped epidermis over solid pigmentation was established. It was shown that the striped epidermis pigmentation and the presence of testa layer are controlled by two genes, expression of which is independent from each other. Yellowish hypodermis was discovered in the sample I2K2218, which is inherited monogenically dominantly.

  19. Natural pigments and sacred art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

    2010-05-01

    Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The

  20. Granulomatous reaction to red tattoo pigment treated with allopurinol.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Mariana Marteleto; Aguinaga, Felipe; Grynszpan, Rachel; Lima, Victor Maselli; Azulay, David Rubem; Cuzzi, Tullia; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia; Manela-Azulay, Mônica

    2015-09-01

    Granulomatous reactions to tattoo ink are most commonly associated with mercury sulfide, a component of red pigments. Treatment options show limited results. Allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, has been reported as a successful alternative treatment to granulomatous disorders, such as sarcoidosis and granulomatous reactions to fillers and tattoos. We report a case of granulomatous reaction to red tattoo pigment treated with allopurinol for 6 months. Good clinical improvement could be noticed during this time. Two months after we stopped the treatment, the lesion recurred. Allopurinol emerges as an important drug for the management of granulomatous reactions caused by tattoo pigments. Based on the significant clinical improvement noticed during its use, we recommend new studies to elucidate all the potential benefits of the use of allopurinol for the treatment of granulomatous reactions to tattoo ink. PMID:26211454

  1. Monitoring pigmented skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Vincent P.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Ott, Robert J.; Crawford, Diane C.; Mortimer, Peter S.

    2002-06-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancer has led to an increase in the number of patients with skin lesions that require diagnosis, mostly using subjective visual examination. Successful treatment depends on early diagnosis. Unfortunately diagnostic accuracy, even by experts, can be as low as 56%; therefore, an accurate, objective diagnostic aid is greatly needed. Reflectance characteristics of pigmented skin lesions were documented to evaluate their diagnostic potential. Reflectance spectra in the wavelength range 320-1100nm were obtained from 260 lesions. Differences between spectra from benign and malignant lesions were utilized by extracting features with the best discriminating power. Discrimination was evaluated using two techniques: multivariate statistical analysis and artificial neural networks, using histology as the standard. Each technique was tested in a blind study and assessed in terms of its ability to diagnose new cases and compared to the clinical diagnosis. The artificial neural network achieved the best diagnostic performance for discriminating between malignant melanoma and benign nevi, having a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 65%. Utilization of visible and infrared techniques for monitoring skin lesions has lead to improvements in diagnostic accuracy. We conclude that these techniques are worthy of further development and evaluation in clinical practice as a screening tool.

  2. A pigmented calcifying odontogenic cyst.

    PubMed

    Soames, J V

    1982-04-01

    A case of the pigmented variant of the calcifying odontogenic cyst occurring in a 15-year-old West Indian girl is reported. Melanin pigment was widely distributed and appeared in greatest amount in cells exhibiting the appearance of stellate reticulum. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated large numbers of melanosomes in these cells but relatively few in epithelial ghost cells. The latter contained thick bundles of tonofilaments. Melanocytes were identified and two forms were distinguished, depending on their content of premelanosomes and fully melanized melanosomes.

  3. Yolk pigments of the Mexican leaf frog.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, G V; Bagnara, J T

    1983-02-25

    Eggs of the Mexican leaf frog contain blue and yellow pigments identified as biliverdin and lutein, respectively. Both pigments are bound to proteins that occur in crystalline form in the yolk platelet. The major blue pigment is biliverdin IX alpha. The eggs vary in color from brilliant blue to pale yellow-green depending on the amount of each pigment. These pigments may provide protective coloration to the eggs. PMID:6681678

  4. Yolk pigments of the Mexican leaf frog.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, G V; Bagnara, J T

    1983-02-25

    Eggs of the Mexican leaf frog contain blue and yellow pigments identified as biliverdin and lutein, respectively. Both pigments are bound to proteins that occur in crystalline form in the yolk platelet. The major blue pigment is biliverdin IX alpha. The eggs vary in color from brilliant blue to pale yellow-green depending on the amount of each pigment. These pigments may provide protective coloration to the eggs.

  5. Microprobe analysis of chlorpromazine pigmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Benning, T.L.; McCormack, K.M.; Ingram, P.; Kaplan, D.L.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1988-10-01

    We describe the histochemical, ultrastructural, and microanalytical features of a skin biopsy specimen obtained from a patient with chlorpromazine pigmentation. Golden-brown pigment granules were present in the dermis, predominantly in a perivascular arrangement. The granules stained positively with the Fontana-Masson stain for silver-reducing substances and negatively with Perl's stain for iron. Electron microscopy revealed dense inclusion bodies in dermal histiocytes, pericytes, endothelial cells, and Schwann cells, as well as lying free in the extracellular matrix. These ''chlorpromazine bodies'' were quite dense even in unosmicated, unstained ultrathin sections, indicating that the pigmentation is related, at least in part, to the inclusions. Microprobe analysis of the chlorpromazine bodies revealed a striking peak for sulfur, which strongly suggests the presence of the drug or its metabolite within these inclusions.

  6. Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

    2012-07-01

    A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy. PMID:23180930

  7. Swapping one red pigment for another.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are bright red and yellow pigments, which are produced in only one order of plants, the Caryophyllales, and replace the more familiar anthocyanin pigments. The evolutionary origin of betalain production is a mystery, but a new study has identified the first regulator of betalain production and discovered a previously unknown link between the two pigment pathways. PMID:25547597

  8. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  9. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725 Food... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  11. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  14. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  15. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in food-contact materials....

  16. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  17. Availability and Utilization of Pigments from Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Begum, Hasina; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Khatoon, Helena; Shariff, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Microalgae are the major photosynthesizers on earth and produce important pigments that include chlorophyll a, b and c, β-carotene, astaxanthin, xanthophylls, and phycobiliproteins. Presently, synthetic colorants are used in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to problems associated with the harmful effects of synthetic colorants, exploitation of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors becomes an attractive option. There are various factors such as nutrient availability, salinity, pH, temperature, light wavelength, and light intensity that affect pigment production in microalgae. This paper reviews the availability and characteristics of microalgal pigments, factors affecting pigment production, and the application of pigments produced from microalgae. The potential of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors is enormous as an alternative to synthetic coloring agents, which has limited applications due to regulatory practice for health reasons.

  18. Availability and Utilization of Pigments from Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Begum, Hasina; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Khatoon, Helena; Shariff, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Microalgae are the major photosynthesizers on earth and produce important pigments that include chlorophyll a, b and c, β-carotene, astaxanthin, xanthophylls, and phycobiliproteins. Presently, synthetic colorants are used in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to problems associated with the harmful effects of synthetic colorants, exploitation of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors becomes an attractive option. There are various factors such as nutrient availability, salinity, pH, temperature, light wavelength, and light intensity that affect pigment production in microalgae. This paper reviews the availability and characteristics of microalgal pigments, factors affecting pigment production, and the application of pigments produced from microalgae. The potential of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors is enormous as an alternative to synthetic coloring agents, which has limited applications due to regulatory practice for health reasons. PMID:25674822

  19. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  20. Pigmented purpuric dermatosis or mycosis fungoides: A diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Riyaz, Najeeba; Sasidharanpillai, Sarita; Abdul Latheef, Ettappurath N; Davul, Hena; Ashraf, Febin

    2016-01-01

    Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD), a group of vascular disorders with variable clinical picture is reported in all races and age groups with a male predilection. There are reports of mycosis fungoides manifesting as pigmented purpura as well as progression of PPD to cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The diagnostic dilemma is compounded by PPD manifesting histological similarity to mycosis fungoides. Currently, it is believed that PPD with monoclonal T-cell population is more likely to progress to malignancy. We report a 31-year-old male patient who presented with the lichenoid clinical variant of PPD lesions that mimicked mycosis fungoides on histopathology. Gene rearrangement studies identified a polyclonal T-cell population. The patient responded to photochemotherapy, which is beneficial in both PPD and mycosis fungoides. Our case signifies the limitations of current diagnostic modalities in accurately distinguishing PPD from cutaneous lymphoma. Data on disease progression in similar cases may enable us to formulate better diagnostic definitions.

  1. Pigmented purpuric dermatosis or mycosis fungoides: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Riyaz, Najeeba; Sasidharanpillai, Sarita; Abdul Latheef, Ettappurath N.; Davul, Hena; Ashraf, Febin

    2016-01-01

    Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD), a group of vascular disorders with variable clinical picture is reported in all races and age groups with a male predilection. There are reports of mycosis fungoides manifesting as pigmented purpura as well as progression of PPD to cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The diagnostic dilemma is compounded by PPD manifesting histological similarity to mycosis fungoides. Currently, it is believed that PPD with monoclonal T-cell population is more likely to progress to malignancy. We report a 31-year-old male patient who presented with the lichenoid clinical variant of PPD lesions that mimicked mycosis fungoides on histopathology. Gene rearrangement studies identified a polyclonal T-cell population. The patient responded to photochemotherapy, which is beneficial in both PPD and mycosis fungoides. Our case signifies the limitations of current diagnostic modalities in accurately distinguishing PPD from cutaneous lymphoma. Data on disease progression in similar cases may enable us to formulate better diagnostic definitions. PMID:27294054

  2. Cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gaitan-Gaona, Francisco; Said, Mirra C; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3 cm black, ulcerated nodule located on the skin of the upper abdomen, just below the breast. The lesion was painful to the touch, but the patient reported no other associated symptoms and was otherwise healthy. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the affected skin was obtained and the histological diagnosis was cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma. PMID:27136637

  3. New group of ceramic pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepanov, E.S.; Grum-Grzhimailo, O.S.; Belostotskaya, N.S.; Bibilashvili, M.S.

    1987-03-01

    The authors assess the corrosion resistance, crystal structure, chemical composition and color properties of a variety of zircon-based materials used as pigments and protective coatings for ceramic tiles. The constituents of these materials include, apart from zircon, iron oxides, vanadium oxides, and the sulfides, selenides and tellurides of cadmium. The effects of these constituents on the structural behavior of the zirconium silicate are investigated.

  4. Non-photosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, E. W.; Cockell, C. S.; Meadows, V. S.

    2014-03-01

    Photosynthetic organisms on Earth produce potentially detectable surface reflectance biosignatures due in part to the spectral location and strength of pigment absorption. However, life on Earth uses pigments for a multitude of purposes other than photosynthesis, including coping with extreme environments. Macroscopic environments exist on Earth where the surface reflectance is significantly altered by a nonphotosynthetic pigment, such as the case of hypersaline lakes and ponds (Oren et al. 1992). Here we explore the nature and potential detectability of non-photosynthetic pigments in disk-averaged planetary observations using a combination of laboratory measurements and archival reflectance spectra, along with simulated broadband photometry and spectra. The in vivo visible reflectance spectra of a cross section of pigmented microorganisms are presented to illustrate the spectral diversity of biologically produced pigments. Synthetic broadband colors are generated to show a significant spread in color space. A 1D radiative transfer model (Meadows & Crisp 1996; Crisp 1997) is used to approximate the spectra of scenarios where pigmented organisms are widespread on planets with Earth-like atmospheres. Broadband colors are revisited to show that colors due to surface reflectivity are not robust to the addition of scattering and absorption effects from the atmosphere. We consider a èbest case' plausible scenario for the detection of nonphotosynthetic pigments by using the Virtual Planetary Laboratory's 3D spectral Earth model (Robinson et al. 2011) to explore the detectability of the surface biosignature produced by pigmented halophiles that are widespread on an Earth-analog planet.

  5. Melanin pigmented solar absorbing surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gallas, J.M.; Eisner, M.

    1980-01-01

    Selectivity enhancement is shown to result for melanin, a black biopolymer pigment, for sufficiently low sample density. The effect is proposed to follow from a consideration of the evanescent waves associated with the total internal reflection phenomenon. A relationship is discussed among powder density, pH and the paramagnetic properties of melanin; this relationship is shown to be consistent with, and offer support to an amino-acid side group proposed earlier as part of the melanin structure. A brief discussion is also presented on the optical properties of melanin and the relative importance of quinhydrone, a change transfer complex believed to exist in the polymeric structure of melanin.

  6. Pigmented Lesion of Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  7. Iris pigmentation and behavioral inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, A; Kagan, J

    1987-07-01

    Two independent investigations of the association between the temperamental dimensions of inhibition and lack of inhibition to the unfamiliar, on the one hand, and the degree of pigmentation of the iris, on the other, revealed a statistically significant relation in Caucasian children between behavioral inhibition to the unfamiliar and blue irises and uninhibited behavior and brown irises. Several biochemical interpretations of this association were discussed and it was suggested that these behavioral styles might be influenced by biological factors that are partially marked by eye color in Caucasian populations.

  8. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and phobias Bipolar disorder Depression Mood disorders Personality disorders Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia ...

  9. The bioefficacy of microemulsified natural pigments in egg yolk pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Chow, P Y; Gue, S Z; Leow, S K; Goh, L B

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that microemulsified carotenoid products show improved bioavailability over corresponding regular preparations, leading to greater yolk pigmentation at lower dosages. 2. The first trial was conducted using a maize-soya bean basal diet supplemented with either 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/kg of microemulsified Red or non-microemulsified Red. The second trial involved feeding microemulsified Yellow or non-microemulsified Yellow using a similar dosage range. The layers were divided into 4 replicates of 8 layers each (32 layers per treatment). The 8 cages of layers were fed from a single feed trough. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the trial. Each week, the eggs were collected. The whole liquid egg colour was determined by means of a commercially available yolk colour fan. Where required, HPLC-(high-performance liquid chromatography) based analysis of trans-capsanthin or trans-lutein equivalents using the Association of Analytical Communities method was carried out. Data were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA method using Statgraphics. 3. Results showed that the colour and carotenoid content of the egg yolk increased with increasing amount of carotenoids in the diet. The colour of egg yolks from layers fed similar concentrations of microemulsified versus the regular preparation was significantly different. At the commercial recommended dose of one g/kg regular Yellow or Red product, the microemulsified pigmenter is able to provide the equivalent yolk colour at a 20-30% lower dose. 4. In conclusion, the trial results supported the hypothesis that a desired yolk colour score is achievable at a significantly lower inclusion rate when carotenoid molecules are emulsified using the microemulsion nanotechnology.

  10. The spleen pigment cells in some amphibia.

    PubMed

    Scalia, Marina; Di Pietro, Cinzia; Poma, Mariangela; Ragusa, Marco; Sichel, Giovanni; Corsaro, Concetta

    2004-04-01

    It was demonstrated that the spleen pigment cells of Amphibia are macrophages: they show an ultrastructurally distinctive morphology, are able to phagocytose and react positively for non-specific esterases. These pigmented macrophages express mRNA for tyrosinase and also they show dopa oxidase activity; therefore they are able to synthesize melanins, as Kupffer cells do.

  11. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  12. Developing fungal pigments for "painting" vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sara C

    2012-02-01

    The use of fungal pigments as color additives to wood as a method to increase forest revenue is a relatively new, but quickly developing field. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is currently the primary utilized hardwood for spalting and appears to be the best suited North American hardwood for such purposes. The combination of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta has been identified in several instances as a strong fungal pairing for zone line production; however, Xylaria polymorpha is capable of creating zone lines without the antagonism of a secondary fungus. Few fungal pigments have been developed for reliable use; Scytalidium cuboideum is capable of producing a penetrating pink/red stain, as well as a blue pigment after extended incubation, and Chlorociboria sp. produces a blue/green pigment if grown on aspen (Populus tremuloides). Several opportunities exist for stimulation of fungal pigments including the use of copper sulfate and changes in wood pH. PMID:22237673

  13. Structure of plant bile pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenleber, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Selective peptide cleavage has provided a general procedure for the study of the structure, including stereochemistry, of plant bile pigments. The information derived from the synthesis and spectral analysis of a series of 2,3-dihydrodioxobilins allows the determination of the trans relative stereochemistry for ring A of the ..beta../sub 1/-phycocyanobilin from C-phycocyanin as well as for ring A of phytochrome. A complete structure proof of the five phycoerythrobilins attached to the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of B-phycoerythrin is described. One of these tetrapyrroles is doubly-peptide linked to a single peptide chain through two thioethers at the C-3' and C-18' positions. The four remaining phycoerythrobilins are singly-linked to the protein through thioethers at the C-3' position and all possess the probable stereochemistry C-2(R), C-3(R), C-3'(R), and C-16(R).

  14. Macular pigmentation complicating irritant contact dermatitis and viral warts in Laugier-Hunziker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bhoyrul, B; Paulus, J

    2016-04-01

    Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS) is a rare acquired disorder characterized by macu-lar pigmentation of the lips and oral mucosa, with frequent longitudinal melanonychia. Involvement of other areas, such as the genitalia and fingers, has rarely been described. LHS is a benign condition with no known systemic manifestations. We report the case of a woman who developed melanotic macules on her fingers and elbow 16 years after the onset of pigmentation of her lips. This unusual feature of LHS in our patient was associated with irritant contact dermatitis and viral warts. Only two cases of an association with an inflammatory dermatosis have been reported previously in the literature.

  15. Exosomes released by keratinocytes modulate melanocyte pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Lo Cicero, Alessandra; Delevoye, Cédric; Gilles-Marsens, Floriane; Loew, Damarys; Dingli, Florent; Guéré, Christelle; André, Nathalie; Vié, Katell; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2015-01-01

    Cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, which transfer proteins, lipids and RNAs to regulate recipient cell functions. Skin pigmentation relies on a tight dialogue between keratinocytes and melanocytes in the epidermis. Here we report that exosomes secreted by keratinocytes enhance melanin synthesis by increasing both the expression and activity of melanosomal proteins. Furthermore, we show that the function of keratinocyte-derived exosomes is phototype-dependent and is modulated by ultraviolet B. In sum, this study uncovers an important physiological function for exosomes in human pigmentation and opens new avenues in our understanding of how pigmentation is regulated by intercellular communication in both healthy and diseased states.

  16. Influence of intra-pigment vibrations on dynamics of photosynthetic exciton

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Yoshihiro E-mail: ysato.colby@gmail.com; Doolittle, Brian

    2014-11-14

    We have numerically investigated the effect of an underdamped intra-pigment vibrational mode on an exciton's quantum coherence and energy transfer efficiency. Our model describes a bacteriochlorophyll a pigment-protein dimer under the conditions at which photosynthetic energy transfer occurs. The dimer is modeled using a theoretical treatment of a vibronic exciton, and its dynamics are numerically analyzed using a non-Markovian and non-perturbative method. We examined the system's response to various values of the Huang-Rhys factor, site energy difference, reorganization energy, and reorganization energy difference. We found that the inclusion of the intra-pigment vibronic mode allows for long-lived oscillatory quantum coherences to occur. This excitonic coherence is robust against static site-energy disorder. The vibrational mode also promotes exciton transfer along the site-energy landscape thus improving the overall energy transfer efficiency.

  17. Alkaptonuric ochronosis presenting as palmoplantar pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Vijaikumar, M; Thappa, D M; Srikanth, S; Sethuraman, G; Nadarajan, S

    2000-06-01

    We describe a 37-year-old woman who presented with palmoplantar pigmentation, thickening and pitting of 4 years duration. Bluish pigmented patches were seen over the sclera of her eyes. Her lumbar spine showed typical calcification of the intervertebral discs. Addition of Benedict's reagent to a urine sample of the patient gave rise to greenish brown precipitate and brownish black supernatant. Alkalinization of urine turned it black. A biopsy of the palmar lesion demonstrated irregular breaking up, swelling and homogenization of collagen bundles in the reticular dermis. Yellow-brown (ochre coloured) pigment was seen lying within the collagen bundles and also freely in the deeper dermis confirming our clinical diagnosis of alkaptonuric ochronosis. To the best of our knowledge this is probably the second report of alkaptonuria presenting with palmoplantar pigmentation. PMID:10971492

  18. Conservation of the chromatophore pigment response.

    PubMed

    Dukovcic, Stephanie R; Hutchison, Janine R; Trempy, Janine E

    2010-08-01

    Toxicant sensing technology has evolved to include biological sensors, such as cell-based biosensors, which rely on viable cells to convey a measurable physiological signal. Chromatophores are a class of pigment cells that have been investigated as cell-based biosensors. We report the characterization of Oncorhynchus tshawytscha melanophores and describe the melanophore pigment response to neurotransmitters in terms of pigment area occupied. Compared with the previously described model, Betta splendens erythrophores, O. tshawytscha melanophores responded similarly, indicating that pigment responses are biologically conserved between these two species. Additionally, melanophores responded to mercuric chloride and sodium arsenite, similar to B. splendens erythrophores, suggesting that melanophores can be used as detectors for environmental toxicants. This report highlights the potential of O. tshawytscha melanophores to be used as cell-based biosensors to address environmental toxicity, and warrants a continued investigation to strengthen this technology and its applications. PMID:20809546

  19. Pseudoephedrine may cause "pigmenting" fixed drug eruption.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Esen; Elinç-Aslan, Meryem Sevinç

    2011-05-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a distinctive drug eruption characterized by recurrent well-defined lesions in the same location each time the responsible drug is taken. Two different clinical forms have been described: the common classic pigmenting form and the rare nonpigmenting form. Nonpigmenting FDE is mainly characterized by symmetrical large erythematous plaques and the dermal histopathologic reaction pattern. Pseudoephedrine is known as the major inducer of nonpigmenting FDE. Pigmenting FDE from pseudoephedrine has not been reported previously. Here, the first case of pseudoephedrine-induced pigmenting FDE is reported, showing the characteristic features of classic pigmenting FDE such as asymmetry, normal-sized lesions, and the epidermodermal histopathologic reaction pattern. Moreover, a positive occlusive patch-test reaction to pseudoephedrine could be demonstrated on postlesional FDE skin for the first time.

  20. Diagnosis and management of facial pigmented macules.

    PubMed

    Lallas, Aimilios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Moscarella, Elvira; Longo, Caterina; Simonetti, Vito; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of pigmented macules on the mottled chronic sun-damaged skin of the face is challenging and includes lentigo maligna (LM), pigmented actinic (solar) keratosis, solar lentigo, and lichen-planus-like keratosis. Although dermatoscopy improves the diagnostic accuracy of the unaided eye, the accurate diagnosis and management of pigmented facial macules remains one of the most challenging scenarios in daily practice. This is related to the fact that pigmented actinic (solar) keratosis, lichen-planus-like keratosis, and LM may reveal overlapping criteria, making their differential diagnosis clinically difficult. For this reason, practical rules have been introduced, which should help to minimize the risk for inappropriate diagnosis and management of LM.

  1. New Directions in Phthalocyanine Pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were the following: (1) investigation of the synthesis of new phthalocyanines; (2) characterization of the new phthalocyanines synthesized; (3) investigate the properties of the newly synthesized phthalocyanines with emphasis on UV protection of plastics and coatings; and (4) utilize quantum mechanics to evaluate the structural relationships with possible properties and synthetic approaches. The proposed research targeted the synthesis of phthalocyanines containing an aromatic bridge between two phthalocyanine rings. The goal was to synthesize pigments which would protect plastics when exposed to the photodegradation effects of the sun in space. The stability and extended conjugation of the phthalocyanines offer a unique opportunity for energy absorption and numerous radiative and non-radiative energy loss mechanisms. Although the original targeted phthalocyanines were changed early in the project, several new and unique phthalocyanine compounds were prepared. The basic goals of this work were met and some unique and unexpected outcomes of the work were the result of the integral use of quantum mechanics and molecular modeling with the synthetic effort.

  2. SCF/c-kit signaling is required in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced migration and differentiation of hair follicle melanocytes for epidermal pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weiming; Yang, Ke; Lei, Mingxing; Yan, Hongtao; Tang, Hui; Bai, Xiufeng; Yang, Guihong; Lian, Xiaohua; Wu, Jinjin

    2015-05-01

    Hair follicle melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) are responsible for hair pigmentation and also function as a major melanocyte reservoir for epidermal pigmentation. However, the molecular mechanism promoting McSCs for epidermal pigmentation remains elusive. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) mimics key signaling involved in melanocyte growth, migration and differentiation. We therefore investigated the molecular basis for the contribution of hair follicle McSCs to epidermal pigmentation using the TPA induction model. We found that repetitive TPA treatment of female C57BL/6 mouse dorsal skin induced epidermal pigmentation by increasing the number of epidermal melanocytes. Particularly, TPA treatment induced McSCs to initiate proliferation, exit the stem cell niche and differentiate. We also demonstrated that TPA promotes melanoblast migration and differentiation in vitro. At the molecular level, TPA treatment induced robust expression of stem cell factor (SCF) in keratinocytes and c-kit in melanoblasts and melanocytes. Administration of ACK2, a neutralizing antibody against the Kit receptor, suppressed mouse epidermal pigmentation, decreased the number of epidermal melanocytes, and inhibited melanoblast migration. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TPA promotes the expansion, migration and differentiation of hair follicle McSCs for mouse epidermal pigmentation. SCF/c-kit signaling was required for TPA-induced migration and differentiation of hair follicle melanocytes. Our findings may provide an excellent model to investigate the signaling mechanisms regulating epidermal pigmentation from mouse hair follicle McSCs, and a potential therapeutic option for skin pigmentation disorders.

  3. [Bacterial pigment prodigiosin and its genotoxic effects].

    PubMed

    Gur'ianov, I D; Karamova, N S; Iusupova, D V; Gnezdilov, O I; Koshkarova, L A

    2013-01-01

    The prodigiosin preparation was isolated and purified from Serratia marcescens ATCC 9986, using chromatographic methods. The analysis of the preparation by TLC, NMR-spectrometry and mass-spectrometry allowed to confirm the red pigment fraction as the prodigiosin and detect its purity. Originally, the specific features of the toxic and genotoxic effects of prodigiosin and the possibility of induction of mutations by pigment in the cells of Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 (Ames test) and chromosome damage of mammalian erythroblasts have been determined.

  4. Zeo-pigment for traditional ceramic industry

    SciTech Connect

    Valdes, J.J.P.; Rodriguez, A.V.; Caraballo, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    In the present work the possibility of using natural zeolites mixed with soluble salts for ceramic pigment elaboration (further named zeo-pigment) is studied. The mixture of zeolite with salts is thermally treated to produce the pigment, this procedure was followed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The obtained zeo-pigments were used to colour the porcelanized ceramic stoneware tiles at the experimental production. As it is known, it is possible to prepare a wide range of colours in these type of tiles by adding specific stains to the mixture of raw materials during grinding in the amount of 0.5 to 5 %, in this way any product called marbleized, mottled, granite, etc. ware is obtained. It is important to remember that when stains are added to the basic white body in order to produce one-color porcelanized ceramic stoneware, this does not involve great problems for the production. The physical properties of experimental produced ceramics, coloured by zeo-pigments, were studied according to European standard test. The present work is intended to be useful from the point of view of pollution prevention and waste minimization, regarding the utilization of soluble salts contained in some industrial wastes for the elaboration of ceramic pigments.

  5. FTIR study of primate color visual pigments

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kota; Kandori, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    How do we distinguish colors? Humans possess three color pigments; red-, green-, and blue-sensitive proteins, which have maximum absorbance (λmax) at 560, 530, and 420 nm, respectively, and contribute to normal human trichromatic vision (RGB). Each color pigments consists of a different opsin protein bound to a common chromophore molecule, 11-cis-retinal, whereas different chromophore-protein interactions allow preferential absorption of different colors. However, detailed experimental structural data to explain the molecular basis of spectral tuning of color pigments are lacking, mainly because of the difficulty in sample preparation. We thus started structural studies of primate color visual pigments using low-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, which needs only 0.3 mg protein for a single measurement. Here we report the first structural data of monkey red- (MR) and green- (MG) sensitive pigments, in which the information about the protein, retinal chromophore, and internal water molecules is contained. Molecular mechanism of color discrimination between red and green pigments will be discussed based on the structural data by FTIR spectroscopy. PMID:27493516

  6. Microspectrophotometry of Arthropod Visual Screening Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Strother, G. K.; Casella, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Absorption spectra of visual screening pigments obtained in vitro with a microspectrophotometer using frozen sections are given for the insects Musca domestica, Phormia regina, Libellula luctuosa, Apis mellifera (worker honeybee only), Drosophila melanogaster (wild type only) and the arachnids Lycosa baltimoriana and Lycosa miami. The spectral range covered is 260–700 nm for Lycosa and Drosophila and 310–700 nm for the remainder of the arthropods. A complete description of the instrumentation is given. For the flies, Phormia and Musca, light absorption by the yellow and red pigments is high from 310 to about 610 nm. This implies that for these insects there should be no wavelength shift in electroretinogram (ERG) results due to light leakage among neighboring ommatidia for this wavelength range. The same comment applies to Calliphora erythrocephala, which is known to have similar screening pigments. For some of the insects studied a close correspondence is noted between screening pigment absorption spectra and spectral sensitivity curves for individual photoreceptors, available in the literature. In some cases the screening pigment absorption spectra can be related to chemical extraction results, with the general observation that some of the in vitro absorption peaks are shifted to the red. The Lycosa, Apis, and Libellula dark red pigments absorb strongly over a wide spectral range and therefore prevent chemical identification. PMID:4623852

  7. FTIR study of primate color visual pigments.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Kota; Kandori, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    How do we distinguish colors? Humans possess three color pigments; red-, green-, and blue-sensitive proteins, which have maximum absorbance (λmax) at 560, 530, and 420 nm, respectively, and contribute to normal human trichromatic vision (RGB). Each color pigments consists of a different opsin protein bound to a common chromophore molecule, 11-cis-retinal, whereas different chromophore-protein interactions allow preferential absorption of different colors. However, detailed experimental structural data to explain the molecular basis of spectral tuning of color pigments are lacking, mainly because of the difficulty in sample preparation. We thus started structural studies of primate color visual pigments using low-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, which needs only 0.3 mg protein for a single measurement. Here we report the first structural data of monkey red- (MR) and green- (MG) sensitive pigments, in which the information about the protein, retinal chromophore, and internal water molecules is contained. Molecular mechanism of color discrimination between red and green pigments will be discussed based on the structural data by FTIR spectroscopy.

  8. New prodigiosin-like pigment from Alteromonas rubra.

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, N N; Gauthier, M J

    1979-01-01

    The red prodigiosin-like pigment from Alteromonas rubra was shown to be a mixture of prodigiosin (pigment 1) and a new cyclic isomer (pigment 2). The new structure was elucidated by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Careful examinations of the prodigiosins produced by Serratia marcescens, Vibrio psychoerythrus, and an unidentified red bacterium (LL-100-6) failed to disclose any of the new pigment, pigment 2. PMID:384909

  9. Betalain: a particular class of antioxidant pigment.

    PubMed

    El Gharras, Hasna

    2011-10-01

    We have analyzed the stability of betalains in juices prepared from Moroccan yellow cactus pears (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.) as a function of temperature and pH. The experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from 80 to 100 degrees C with juices at pH 3.5, 5 and 6.5. The degree of pigment retention decreased when the temperature increased. The degradation constant rates were determined for thermal degradation rates of pseudo-first order. The Arrhenius plot obtained for the degradation of betaxanthin from the yellow fruits was not linear. Regardless of the temperature of treatment, the lowest degradation was obtained for pH 5. When some stabilizers were tested for the protection of pigments, the results showed that ascorbic acid was a better protective agent at pH 3.5, increasing the protection by 40%. The inhibitive action of betalain pigments extracted from cactus pears towards corrosion of stainless steel in phosphoric acid was investigated using electrochemical polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. It was found that the presence of natural pigments reduces the corrosion rate of the tested metal, especially on addition of the red pigments (97%). The inhibition efficiency increases as the pigment concentration of extracts increases. It was also found that the pigments tested act as mixed inhibitors. The inhibitive action of the extracts is discussed in term of adsorption and that such adsorption follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated values of the free energy of adsorption indicated that the adsorption process is spontaneous.

  10. Pigmented pleomorphic adenoma, a novel melanin-pigmented benign salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yasunori; Satoh, Masanobu; Nakamura, Shin-ichi

    2004-08-01

    This paper reports a pleomorphic adenoma with grossly visible pigmentation resulting in the macroscopic appearance of melanotic lesion in a 33-year-old Japanese male. In addition to the characteristic histopathological features of a benign pleomorphic adenoma, variously formed and -sized cells, many of which were considered to be melanocytes, containing melanin pigment in their cytoplasm, were distributed in the epithelial component. In addition, melanin pigment was deposited in tumor cells of duct structures. Furthermore, condensed secretory substances with marked pigmentation were frequently seen in the tubular lumina. Perusal of the English language literature revealed only two cases of parenchymal pigmentation of salivary gland tumors: both were mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The possible histogenesis of melanocytes in the salivary gland lesions is discussed, though no firm conclusion could be drawn.

  11. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Shabnam; Prendiville, Kevin John; Martinez, Eladio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia. Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam. Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2–3 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months. Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia. PMID:27625966

  12. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Del Río, M.; Gutiérrez-León, A.; Castro, G. R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solís, C.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytán, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as añil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue.

  13. Pigmented eccrine poroma: dermoscopic and confocal features.

    PubMed

    Bombonato, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta; Moscarella, Elvira; Lallas, Aimillios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina

    2016-07-01

    Eccrine poroma is a rare benign adnexal tumor of epithelial cells originating from the terminal ductal portion of the sweat glands that is typically located on palms and soles, although other cutaneous sites can be affected [1]. It is usually nonpigmented even if there is a pigmented variant that corresponds to 17% of cases and it is usually underdiagnosed, since it is mistakenly confused with other pigmented tumors [2,3]. Dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may assist in the correct diagnosis of this tumor. Herein, we report one case of pigmented eccrine poroma (PEP) that simulated clinically a cutaneous melanoma or a basal cell carcinoma. Dermoscopy and RCM excluded the possibilities of those two diagnoses; the overall confocal findings were suggestive for a benign epithelial tumor. Histology was fundamental to diagnose this lesion as a pigmented eccrine poroma. Even if the diagnosis of eccrine poroma remains histopathological still, as in this case report, noninvasive tools such as dermoscopy and RCM examinations can be of help to rule out the diagnosis of melanoma. Larger studies on this rare pigmented variant of eccrine poroma could shed new light on the identification of specific diagnostic dermoscopic and confocal features. PMID:27648386

  14. Pigments in avocado tissue and oil.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Ofelia B O; Wong, Marie; McGhie, Tony K; Vather, Rosheila; Wang, Yan; Requejo-Jackman, Cecilia; Ramankutty, Padmaja; Woolf, Allan B

    2006-12-27

    Pigments are important contributors to the appearance and healthful properties of both avocado fruits and the oils extracted from these fruits. This study determined carotenoid and chlorophyll pigment concentrations in the skin and three sections of the flesh (outer dark green, middle pale green, and inner yellow flesh-nearest the seed) and anthocyanin concentrations in the skin of Hass avocado during ripening at 20 degrees C. Pigments were extracted from frozen tissue with acetone and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pigments were also measured in the oil extracted from freeze-dried tissue sections by an accelerated solvent extraction system using hexane. Carotenoids and chlorophylls identified in the skin, flesh, and oil were lutein, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, chlorophylls a and b, and pheophytins a and b with the highest concentrations of all pigments in the skin. Chlorophyllides a and b were identified in the skin and flesh tissues only. As the fruit ripened and softened, the skin changed from green to purple/black, corresponding to changes in skin hue angle, and a concomitant increase in cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and the loss of chlorophyllide a. In flesh tissue, chroma and lightness values decreased with ripening, with no changes in hue angle. The levels of carotenoids and chlorophylls did not change significantly during ripening. As fruit ripened, the total chlorophyll level in the oil from the flesh sections remained constant but declined in the oil extracted from the skin.

  15. Pigmented eccrine poroma: dermoscopic and confocal features

    PubMed Central

    Bombonato, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta; Moscarella, Elvira; Lallas, Aimillios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Eccrine poroma is a rare benign adnexal tumor of epithelial cells originating from the terminal ductal portion of the sweat glands that is typically located on palms and soles, although other cutaneous sites can be affected [1]. It is usually nonpigmented even if there is a pigmented variant that corresponds to 17% of cases and it is usually underdiagnosed, since it is mistakenly confused with other pigmented tumors [2,3]. Dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may assist in the correct diagnosis of this tumor. Herein, we report one case of pigmented eccrine poroma (PEP) that simulated clinically a cutaneous melanoma or a basal cell carcinoma. Dermoscopy and RCM excluded the possibilities of those two diagnoses; the overall confocal findings were suggestive for a benign epithelial tumor. Histology was fundamental to diagnose this lesion as a pigmented eccrine poroma. Even if the diagnosis of eccrine poroma remains histopathological still, as in this case report, noninvasive tools such as dermoscopy and RCM examinations can be of help to rule out the diagnosis of melanoma. Larger studies on this rare pigmented variant of eccrine poroma could shed new light on the identification of specific diagnostic dermoscopic and confocal features. PMID:27648386

  16. On the evolution of the photosynthetic pigments.

    PubMed

    Evstigneev, V B

    1975-07-01

    During the course of terrestrial evolution, some organisms developed the capability of capturing and utilizing solar radiation. Colored compounds were undoubtedly incorporated within living forms from the earliest times, but during the transition from heterotrophic to a photoautotrophic metabolism only those pigments were selected that were components of the evolving photosynthetic apparatus and were able to catalyze reactions involving storage of light energy in chemical bonds. In this communication, some properties of tetrapyrroles with a closed porphyrin ring containing a metal ion in the center are discussed. These compounds are present in all principal contemporary photosynthetic pigments, and their synthesis has been demonstrated from simpler compounds under prebiotic conditions. It is probable that during intermediate stages in the evolution of photosynthesis, pigments with oxidizing potentials lower than that of chlorophyll were utilized to store light energy although they were not capable of removing electrons from water. The evolution and function of multiple forms of a given photosynthetic pigment in vivo are discussed. 'Accessory' pigments may be regarded as rudiments of the evolutionary development of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  17. Pigmented eccrine poroma: dermoscopic and confocal features

    PubMed Central

    Bombonato, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta; Moscarella, Elvira; Lallas, Aimillios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Eccrine poroma is a rare benign adnexal tumor of epithelial cells originating from the terminal ductal portion of the sweat glands that is typically located on palms and soles, although other cutaneous sites can be affected [1]. It is usually nonpigmented even if there is a pigmented variant that corresponds to 17% of cases and it is usually underdiagnosed, since it is mistakenly confused with other pigmented tumors [2,3]. Dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may assist in the correct diagnosis of this tumor. Herein, we report one case of pigmented eccrine poroma (PEP) that simulated clinically a cutaneous melanoma or a basal cell carcinoma. Dermoscopy and RCM excluded the possibilities of those two diagnoses; the overall confocal findings were suggestive for a benign epithelial tumor. Histology was fundamental to diagnose this lesion as a pigmented eccrine poroma. Even if the diagnosis of eccrine poroma remains histopathological still, as in this case report, noninvasive tools such as dermoscopy and RCM examinations can be of help to rule out the diagnosis of melanoma. Larger studies on this rare pigmented variant of eccrine poroma could shed new light on the identification of specific diagnostic dermoscopic and confocal features.

  18. Recreating a functional ancestral archosaur visual pigment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Belinda S W; Jönsson, Karolina; Kazmi, Manija A; Donoghue, Michael J; Sakmar, Thomas P

    2002-09-01

    The ancestors of the archosaurs, a major branch of the diapsid reptiles, originated more than 240 MYA near the dawn of the Triassic Period. We used maximum likelihood phylogenetic ancestral reconstruction methods and explored different models of evolution for inferring the amino acid sequence of a putative ancestral archosaur visual pigment. Three different types of maximum likelihood models were used: nucleotide-based, amino acid-based, and codon-based models. Where possible, within each type of model, likelihood ratio tests were used to determine which model best fit the data. Ancestral reconstructions of the ancestral archosaur node using the best-fitting models of each type were found to be in agreement, except for three amino acid residues at which one reconstruction differed from the other two. To determine if these ancestral pigments would be functionally active, the corresponding genes were chemically synthesized and then expressed in a mammalian cell line in tissue culture. The expressed artificial genes were all found to bind to 11-cis-retinal to yield stable photoactive pigments with lambda(max) values of about 508 nm, which is slightly redshifted relative to that of extant vertebrate pigments. The ancestral archosaur pigments also activated the retinal G protein transducin, as measured in a fluorescence assay. Our results show that ancestral genes from ancient organisms can be reconstructed de novo and tested for function using a combination of phylogenetic and biochemical methods. PMID:12200476

  19. Recreating a functional ancestral archosaur visual pigment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Belinda S W; Jönsson, Karolina; Kazmi, Manija A; Donoghue, Michael J; Sakmar, Thomas P

    2002-09-01

    The ancestors of the archosaurs, a major branch of the diapsid reptiles, originated more than 240 MYA near the dawn of the Triassic Period. We used maximum likelihood phylogenetic ancestral reconstruction methods and explored different models of evolution for inferring the amino acid sequence of a putative ancestral archosaur visual pigment. Three different types of maximum likelihood models were used: nucleotide-based, amino acid-based, and codon-based models. Where possible, within each type of model, likelihood ratio tests were used to determine which model best fit the data. Ancestral reconstructions of the ancestral archosaur node using the best-fitting models of each type were found to be in agreement, except for three amino acid residues at which one reconstruction differed from the other two. To determine if these ancestral pigments would be functionally active, the corresponding genes were chemically synthesized and then expressed in a mammalian cell line in tissue culture. The expressed artificial genes were all found to bind to 11-cis-retinal to yield stable photoactive pigments with lambda(max) values of about 508 nm, which is slightly redshifted relative to that of extant vertebrate pigments. The ancestral archosaur pigments also activated the retinal G protein transducin, as measured in a fluorescence assay. Our results show that ancestral genes from ancient organisms can be reconstructed de novo and tested for function using a combination of phylogenetic and biochemical methods.

  20. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments.

  1. Investigations of biomimetic light energy harvesting pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Van Patten, P.G.; Donohoe, R.J.; Lindsey, J.S.; Bocian, D.F.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Nature uses chlorophyll and other porphyrinic pigments to capture and transfer light energy as a preliminary step in photosynthesis. The design of synthetic assemblies of light harvesting and energy directing pigments has been explored through synthesis and characterization of porphyrin oligomers. In this project, pigment electronic and vibrational structures have been explored by electrochemistry and dynamic and static optical measurements. Transient absorption data reveal energy transfer between pigments with lifetimes on the order of 20--200 picoseconds, while Raman data reveal that the basic porphyrin core structure is unperturbed relative to the individual monomer units. These two findings, along with an extensive series of experiments on the oxidized oligomers, reveal that coupling between the pigments is fundamentally weak, but sufficient to allow facile energy transfer as the predominant excited state process. Modeling of the expected quantum yields for energy transfer within a variety of arrays was accomplished, thereby providing a tool to guide synthetic goals.

  2. The Retinal Pigment Epithelium in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sparrrow, J.R.; Hicks, D.; Hamel, C.P.

    2014-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) constitute a simple layer of cuboidal cells that are strategically situated behind the photoreceptor (PR) cells. The inconspicuousness of this monolayer contrasts sharply with its importance [1]. The relationship between the RPE and PR cells is crucial to sight; this is evident from basic and clinical studies demonstrating that primary dysfunctioning of the RPE can result in visual cell death and blindness. RPE cells carry out many functions including the conversion and storage of retinoid, the phagocytosis of shed PR outer segment membrane, the absorption of scattered light, ion and fluid transport and RPE-PR apposition. The magnitude of the demands imposed on this single layer of cells in order to execute these tasks, will become apparent to the reader of this review as will the number of clinical disorders that take origin from these cells. PMID:21091424

  3. Diffuse partial woolly hair in a patient with epidermolysis bullosa simplex with mottled pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Gerkowicz, Agnieszka; Trüeb, Ralph M

    2014-04-01

    Diffuse partial woolly hair (DPWH) is an uncommon pilar dysplasia defined by the presence of two hair shaft populations with wooly hairs distributed diffusely among normal hairs throughout the scalp. So far the condition has been reported as an isolated disorder with familial occurrence. We report a case of DPWH in 35-year-old female patient with epidermolysis bullosa with mottled pigmentation. PMID:25191045

  4. Diffuse Partial Woolly Hair in a Patient with Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex with Mottled Pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Gerkowicz, Agnieszka; Trüeb, Ralph M

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse partial woolly hair (DPWH) is an uncommon pilar dysplasia defined by the presence of two hair shaft populations with wooly hairs distributed diffusely among normal hairs throughout the scalp. So far the condition has been reported as an isolated disorder with familial occurrence. We report a case of DPWH in 35-year-old female patient with epidermolysis bullosa with mottled pigmentation. PMID:25191045

  5. Dermal Toxicity of Flake-Like α-Alumina Pigments.

    PubMed

    Kwon, TaeWoo; Seo, HyunJeong; Jang, Seongwan; Lee, Sang-Geun; Park, Sungkyun; Park, Kang Hyun; Youn, BuHyun

    2015-02-01

    Aluminum is one of the most widely used nonferrous metals and an important industrial material, especially for automotive coatings. However, potential toxicity caused by aluminum in humans limits the used of this metal. α-alumina is the most stable form of aluminum in various phases. Although the results of studies evaluating the dermal toxicity of α-alumina remained unclear, this compound can still be used as a pigment in cosmetics for humans. In the current study, we further evaluated the dermal cytotoxic effects of α-alumina on human skin cells and an in vivo mouse model. We also measured the in vitro penetration profile of flake-like α-alumina in porcine skin and assessed the degree of cellular metabolic disorders. Our findings demonstrated that treatment with flake-like α-alumina did not significantly affect cell viability up to 24 h. This compound was found to have a non-penetration profile based on a Franz modified diffusion cell assay. In addition, flake-like α-alumina was not found to induce dermal inflammation as assessed by histology of epidermal architecture, hyperplasia, and the expression of Interleukin-1β and Cyclooxygenase-2. Results of the cellular metabolic disorder assay indicated that flake-like α-alumina does not exert a direct effect on human skin cells. Taken together, our findings provided not only evidence that flake-like α-alumina may serve as a pearlescent pigment in cosmetics but also experimental basis utilizing α-alumina for human application. Our results also obviously provide new insight of the further toxicity study to aluminum based nanoparticles for skin. PMID:26353706

  6. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  7. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  8. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-12-16

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation.

  9. Photo-oxidative stress in the eye: role of retinal pigment epithelial pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickman, Randolph D.; Dontsov, Alexander E.; Ostrovsky, Michail A.; Kumar, Neeru; Vendal, Meena; Gonzales, Mary A.

    1999-09-01

    The pigments of the retinal pigment epithelium, i.e. the intracellular granules of melanin, lipofuscin, and melanolipofuscin, have been shown to catalyze free radical activity, especially when illuminated with visible or ultraviolet light. An important question is whether these reactions are sufficient to produce oxidative damage in the eye. To address this question, the relative photoreactivity of isolated RPE pigment granules towards polyunsaturated fatty acids has been determined, including the dark as well as the light-stimulated reactions. Hydroperoxide derivatives of docosahexaenoic acid were produced by irradiation with short wavelength (< 550 nm) visible light when RPE pigments were present. Although melanosomes exhibited the greatest light-induced activity in these reactions, lipofuscin granules induced peroxidation of fatty acids in the dark. In intact, cultured RPE cells, the existence of pigment-medicated photo-reactions were demonstrated with a fluorescent indicator probe of oxidation, 2',7'- dichlorofluorescein, that was photooxidized in probe-labeled cells in a wavelength dependence fashion with peak activity in the 450 to 500 nm region. This behavior resembled the action spectrum for melanin reactivity. These findings support the hypotheses that the RPE pigments contribute to general photooxidative stress in ocular tissue, and that accumulation of lipofuscin pigment contributes to age-related oxidative stress in the RPE.

  10. Exclusion of chromosome 1q21-q31 from linkage to three pedigrees affected by the pigment-dispersion syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Paglinauan, C.; Haines, J.L.; Del Bono, E.A.; Schuman, J.; Stawski, S.; Wiggs, J.L.

    1995-05-01

    The pigment-dispersion syndrome is a form of open-angle glaucoma that usually affects individuals in the first 3 decades of life. In addition to the typical optic-nerve degeneration seen in all types of glaucoma, the pigment-dispersion syndrome is characterized by distinctive clinical features including the deposition of pigment granules from the iris epithelium on a variety of ocular structures including the trabecular meshwork. Frequently this disorder affects young myopic individuals. In the early stages of the disease, affected individuals may have clinical evidence of dispersed pigment without an associated elevation of intraocular pressure and optic-nerve degeneration. However, as the disease process progresses, many affected individuals ({approximately}50%) will develop elevated intraocular pressure and degeneration of the optic nerve, causing a permanent loss of sight. The pigment-dispersion syndrome shares several clinical features with the form of autosomal dominant juvenile open-angle glaucoma that recently has been mapped to the 1q21-q31 region of chromosome 1. Our results indicate that the pigment-dispersion syndrome, a form of glaucoma that may also affect the juvenile population, is genetically unrelated to the autosomal dominant form of juvenile glaucoma caused by a defect in a gene located in the 1q21-q31 region of chromosome 1. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Green pigments of the Pompeian artists' palette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliatis, Irene; Bersani, Danilo; Campani, Elisa; Casoli, Antonella; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Mantovan, Silvia; Marino, Iari-Gabriel; Ospitali, Francesca

    2009-08-01

    Green colored samples on wall paintings and green powder from a pigment pot found in Pompeii area are investigated by micro-Raman, FT-IR and, for one sample, SEM-EDX. To obtain the green color, green earths and malachite were used, together with mixture of Egyptian blue and yellow ochre. The mineralogical identification of the green earths has been attempted through the comparison of the vibrational features, discriminating between celadonite and glauconite spectra. Traces of a modern synthetic pigment containing copper phthalocyanine were found in a fresco fragment.

  12. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    PubMed Central

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  13. Separation of Chloroplast Pigments Using Reverse Phase Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, R. Neil

    1997-01-01

    Presents a protocol that uses reverse phase chromatography for the separation of chloroplast pigments. Provides a simple and relatively safe procedure for use in teaching laboratories. Discusses pigment extraction, chromatography, results, and advantages of the process. (JRH)

  14. Pigment oligomers as natural and artificial photosynthetic antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Green photosynthetic bacteria contain antenna complexes known as chlorosomes. These complexes are appressed to the cytoplasmic side of the inner cell membrane and function to absorb light and transfer the energy to the photochemical reaction center, where photochemical energy storage takes place. Chlorosomes differ from all other known photosynthetic antenna complexes in that the geometrical arrangement of pigments is determined primarily by pigment-pigment interactions instead of pigment-protein interactions. The bacteriochlorophyll c, d or e pigments found in chlorosomes form large oligomers with characteristic spectral properties significantly perturbed from those exhibited by monomeric pigments. Because of their close spatial interaction, the pigments are thought to be strongly coupled electronically, and many of the optical properties result from exciton interactions. This presentation will summarize existing knowledge on the chemical composition and properties of chlorosomes, the evidence for the oligomeric nature of chlorosome pigment organization and proposed structures for the oligomers, and the kinetics and mechanisms of energy transfer in chlorosomes.

  15. The peripheral clock regulates human pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Jonathan A; Tobin, Desmond J; Haslam, Iain S; Farjo, Nilofer; Farjo, Bessam; Al-Nuaimi, Yusur; Grimaldi, Benedetto; Paus, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Although the regulation of pigmentation is well characterized, it remains unclear whether cell-autonomous controls regulate the cyclic on-off switching of pigmentation in the hair follicle (HF). As human HFs and epidermal melanocytes express clock genes and proteins, and given that core clock genes (PER1, BMAL1) modulate human HF cycling, we investigated whether peripheral clock activity influences human HF pigmentation. We found that silencing BMAL1 or PER1 in human HFs increased HF melanin content. Furthermore, tyrosinase expression and activity, as well as TYRP1 and TYRP2 mRNA levels, gp100 protein expression, melanocyte dendricity, and the number gp100+ HF melanocytes, were all significantly increased in BMAL1 and/or PER1-silenced HFs. BMAL1 or PER1 silencing also increased epidermal melanin content, gp100 protein expression, and tyrosinase activity in human skin. These effects reflect direct modulation of melanocytes, as BMAL1 and/or PER1 silencing in isolated melanocytes increased tyrosinase activity and TYRP1/2 expression. Mechanistically, BMAL1 knockdown reduces PER1 transcription, and PER1 silencing induces phosphorylation of the master regulator of melanogenesis, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, thus stimulating human melanogenesis and melanocyte activity in situ and in vitro. Therefore, the molecular clock operates as a cell-autonomous modulator of human pigmentation and may be targeted for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25310406

  16. "Dry-column" chromatography of plant pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. F.; Oyama, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Separation of plant pigments which can be accomplished on thin-layer silica plates with mixture of petroleum ether, halocarbon, acetone, and polar solvent can be readily translated into dry-column technique that yields reproducible chromatograms after elution in fashion of liquid chromatography with fluorimeter as detector. Best solvent system was found to be mixture of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetone, and ethyl acetate.

  17. Molecular evolution of vertebrate visual pigments.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, S

    2000-07-01

    Dramatic improvement of our understanding of the genetic basis of vision was brought by the molecular characterization of the bovine rhodopsin gene and the human rhodopsin and color opsin genes (Nathans and Hogness, 1983; Nathans et al., 1984, 1986a,b). The availability of cDNA clones from these studies has facilitated the isolation of retinal and nonretinal opsin genes and cDNA clones from a large variety of species. Today, the number of genomic and cDNA clones of opsin genes isolated from different vertebrate species exceeds 100 and is increasing rapidly. The opsin gene sequences reveal the importance of the origin and differentiation of various opsins and visual pigments. To understand the molecular genetic basis of spectral tuning of visual pigments, it is essential to establish correlations between a series of the sequences of visual pigments and their lambda(max) values. The potentially important amino acid changes identified in this way have to be tested whether they are in fact responsible for the lambda(max)-shifts using site-directed mutagenesis and cultured cells. A major goal of molecular evolutionary genetics is to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in functional adaptations of organisms to different environments, including the mechanisms of the regulation of the spectral absorption. Therefore, both molecular evolutionary analyses of visual pigments and vision science have an important common goal.

  18. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... accepted stability testing methods), other information required by § 70.25 of this chapter, and...

  19. Retinal pigment epithelial hamartoma--unusual manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, P. R.; Walsh, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    Hamartoma of the retinal pigment epithelium is an uncommon tumour of young adults. We have seen 2 patients with this clinical diagnosis, both with unusual manifestations. In one patient growth of the tumour was observed over a 5-year period. In the second patient arterial-arterial anastomoses were detected at a site distal to the tumour. Images PMID:6722077

  20. [Pigmented villonodular synovitis: apropos of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    Mullier, J; Beauvois, S; Gebhart, M; Roelandts, M; Van Houtte, P

    2001-04-01

    Three cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis treated in recent years are described. One case presents a malignant transformation and raises the question of the benign character of these lesions. The therapeutic options are considered as well as the need for a larger series of patients to define therapeutic strategy.

  1. The peripheral clock regulates human pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Jonathan A; Tobin, Desmond J; Haslam, Iain S; Farjo, Nilofer; Farjo, Bessam; Al-Nuaimi, Yusur; Grimaldi, Benedetto; Paus, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Although the regulation of pigmentation is well characterized, it remains unclear whether cell-autonomous controls regulate the cyclic on-off switching of pigmentation in the hair follicle (HF). As human HFs and epidermal melanocytes express clock genes and proteins, and given that core clock genes (PER1, BMAL1) modulate human HF cycling, we investigated whether peripheral clock activity influences human HF pigmentation. We found that silencing BMAL1 or PER1 in human HFs increased HF melanin content. Furthermore, tyrosinase expression and activity, as well as TYRP1 and TYRP2 mRNA levels, gp100 protein expression, melanocyte dendricity, and the number gp100+ HF melanocytes, were all significantly increased in BMAL1 and/or PER1-silenced HFs. BMAL1 or PER1 silencing also increased epidermal melanin content, gp100 protein expression, and tyrosinase activity in human skin. These effects reflect direct modulation of melanocytes, as BMAL1 and/or PER1 silencing in isolated melanocytes increased tyrosinase activity and TYRP1/2 expression. Mechanistically, BMAL1 knockdown reduces PER1 transcription, and PER1 silencing induces phosphorylation of the master regulator of melanogenesis, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, thus stimulating human melanogenesis and melanocyte activity in situ and in vitro. Therefore, the molecular clock operates as a cell-autonomous modulator of human pigmentation and may be targeted for future therapeutic strategies.

  2. Pigment patterns in adult fish result from superimposition of two largely independent pigmentation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ceinos, Rosa M; Guillot, Raúl; Kelsh, Robert N; Cerdá-Reverter, José M; Rotllant, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Dorso-ventral pigment pattern differences are the most widespread pigmentary adaptations in vertebrates. In mammals, this pattern is controlled by regulating melanin chemistry in melanocytes using a protein, agouti-signalling peptide (ASIP). In fish, studies of pigment patterning have focused on stripe formation, identifying a core striping mechanism dependent upon interactions between different pigment cell types. In contrast, mechanisms driving the dorso-ventral countershading pattern have been overlooked. Here, we demonstrate that, in fact, zebrafish utilize two distinct adult pigment patterning mechanisms - an ancient dorso-ventral patterning mechanism, and a more recent striping mechanism based on cell-cell interactions; remarkably, the dorso-ventral patterning mechanism also utilizes ASIP. These two mechanisms function largely independently, with resultant patterns superimposed to give the full pattern.

  3. Carney complex: the complex of myxomas, spotty pigmentation, endocrine overactivity, and schwannomas.

    PubMed

    Carney, J A

    1995-06-01

    The complex of myxomas, spotty pigmentation, endocrine overactivity, and schwannomas (the Carney complex) is a multisystem tumorous disorder that is transmitted as a mendelian autosomal dominant trait. Approximately 150 affected patients are known worldwide. The myxomas, which tend to be multiple in the involved organ, affect the heart, skin and breast. Typical sites for the skin myxomas are the eyelids, external ear canal, and nipples. The lesions commonly recur after excision. The spotty skin pigmentation includes lentigines and blue nevi, but ephelides and junctional and compound nevi also occur. The lentigines are widespread and typically involve the centrofacial area, including the vermilion border of the lips, and the conjunctiva, especially the lacrimal caruncle and the conjunctival semilunar fold. One or more intraoral pigmented spots are seen occasionally. The blue nevi occur on the face, trunk, and limbs, but not the hands and feet. Endocrine overactivity includes Cushing's syndrome (caused by primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease), acromegaly (caused by growth hormone-producing pituitary adenoma), and sexual precocity (caused by large-cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor). The schwannomas are a special histological type, featuring psammoma bodies and melanin. Most commonly, they affect the upper gastrointestinal tract and sympathetic nerve chains, but a few have occurred in the skin. The most serious component of the Carney complex is cardiac myxoma. Patients suspected of having the syndrome (and their primary relatives) should be examined for this neoplasm.

  4. Rethinking the history of artists' pigments through chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Berrie, Barbara H

    2012-01-01

    Following a brief overview of the history of analysis of artists' pigments, I discuss the illustrative example of lead-tin yellow. Recent advances in our knowledge of artists' use of red lakes, glassy pigments, and metallic pigments in works of cultural heritage, particularly European paintings, as determined from chemical analyses are described. PMID:22708904

  5. Rethinking the History of Artists' Pigments Through Chemical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrie, Barbara H.

    2012-07-01

    Following a brief overview of the history of analysis of artists' pigments, I discuss the illustrative example of lead-tin yellow. Recent advances in our knowledge of artists' use of red lakes, glassy pigments, and metallic pigments in works of cultural heritage, particularly European paintings, as determined from chemical analyses are described.

  6. The determination and optimization of (rutile) pigment particle size distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A light scattering particle size test which can be used with materials having a broad particle size distribution is described. This test is useful for pigments. The relation between the particle size distribution of a rutile pigment and its optical performance in a gray tint test at low pigment concentration is calculated and compared with experimental data.

  7. Pigment chemistry: the red sweat of the hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    Saikawa, Yoko; Hashimoto, Kimiko; Nakata, Masaya; Yoshihara, Masato; Nagai, Kiyoshi; Ida, Motoyasu; Komiya, Teruyuki

    2004-05-27

    Within a few minutes of perspiration, the colourless, viscous sweat of the hippopotamus gradually turns red, and then brown as the pigment polymerizes. Here we isolate and characterize the pigments responsible for this colour reaction. The unstable red and orange pigments turn out to be non-benzenoid aromatic compounds that are unexpectedly acidic and have antibiotic as well as sunscreen activity.

  8. Pigment chemistry: the red sweat of the hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    Saikawa, Yoko; Hashimoto, Kimiko; Nakata, Masaya; Yoshihara, Masato; Nagai, Kiyoshi; Ida, Motoyasu; Komiya, Teruyuki

    2004-05-27

    Within a few minutes of perspiration, the colourless, viscous sweat of the hippopotamus gradually turns red, and then brown as the pigment polymerizes. Here we isolate and characterize the pigments responsible for this colour reaction. The unstable red and orange pigments turn out to be non-benzenoid aromatic compounds that are unexpectedly acidic and have antibiotic as well as sunscreen activity. PMID:15164051

  9. Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus resembling a pigmented neurofibroma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nidhi; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Kar, Rakhee; Sylvia, Mary Theresa; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus and pigmented neurofibroma (PNF) are close mimics and pose a clinicopathological challenge. We present a case of pigmented hypertrichotic plaque over lumbosacral region and discuss the differential diagnosis and its clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemistry features which may aid in differentiation. We highlight the difficulties faced in differentiating neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus from pigmented neurofibroma.

  10. The Timing of Pigmentation Lightening in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Beleza, Sandra; Santos, António M.; McEvoy, Brian; Alves, Isabel; Martinho, Cláudia; Cameron, Emily; Shriver, Mark D.; Parra, Esteban J.; Rocha, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The inverse correlation between skin pigmentation and latitude observed in human populations is thought to have been shaped by selective pressures favoring lighter skin to facilitate vitamin D synthesis in regions far from the equator. Several candidate genes for skin pigmentation have been shown to exhibit patterns of polymorphism that overlap the geospatial variation in skin color. However, little work has focused on estimating the time frame over which skin pigmentation has changed and on the intensity of selection acting on different pigmentation genes. To provide a temporal framework for the evolution of lighter pigmentation, we used forward Monte Carlo simulations coupled with a rejection sampling algorithm to estimate the time of onset of selective sweeps and selection coefficients at four genes associated with this trait in Europeans: KITLG, TYRP1, SLC24A5, and SLC45A2. Using compound haplotype systems consisting of rapidly evolving microsatellites linked to one single-nucleotide polymorphism in each gene, we estimate that the onset of the sweep shared by Europeans and East Asians at KITLG occurred approximately 30,000 years ago, after the out-of-Africa migration, whereas the selective sweeps for the European-specific alleles at TYRP1, SLC24A5, and SLC45A2 started much later, within the last 11,000–19,000 years, well after the first migrations of modern humans into Europe. We suggest that these patterns were influenced by recent increases in size of human populations, which favored the accumulation of advantageous variants at different loci. PMID:22923467

  11. Dimerization of visual pigments in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Cao, Li-Hui; Kumar, Sandeep; Enemchukwu, Nduka O; Zhang, Ning; Lambert, Alyssia; Zhao, Xuchen; Jones, Alex; Wang, Shixian; Dennis, Emily M; Fnu, Amrita; Ham, Sam; Rainier, Jon; Yau, King-Wai; Fu, Yingbin

    2016-08-01

    It is a deeply engrained notion that the visual pigment rhodopsin signals light as a monomer, even though many G protein-coupled receptors are now known to exist and function as dimers. Nonetheless, recent studies (albeit all in vitro) have suggested that rhodopsin and its chromophore-free apoprotein, R-opsin, may indeed exist as a homodimer in rod disk membranes. Given the overwhelmingly strong historical context, the crucial remaining question, therefore, is whether pigment dimerization truly exists naturally and what function this dimerization may serve. We addressed this question in vivo with a unique mouse line (S-opsin(+)Lrat(-/-)) expressing, transgenically, short-wavelength-sensitive cone opsin (S-opsin) in rods and also lacking chromophore to exploit the fact that cone opsins, but not R-opsin, require chromophore for proper folding and trafficking to the photoreceptor's outer segment. In R-opsin's absence, S-opsin in these transgenic rods without chromophore was mislocalized; in R-opsin's presence, however, S-opsin trafficked normally to the rod outer segment and produced functional S-pigment upon subsequent chromophore restoration. Introducing a competing R-opsin transmembrane helix H1 or helix H8 peptide, but not helix H4 or helix H5 peptide, into these transgenic rods caused mislocalization of R-opsin and S-opsin to the perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum. Importantly, a similar peptide-competition effect was observed even in WT rods. Our work provides convincing evidence for visual pigment dimerization in vivo under physiological conditions and for its role in pigment maturation and targeting. Our work raises new questions regarding a potential mechanistic role of dimerization in rhodopsin signaling. PMID:27462111

  12. Clinical and Laboratory Findings of Pigmented Purpuric Dermatoses

    PubMed Central

    Külcü Çakmak, Seray; Özcan, Nimet; Oğuz, Işıl Deniz; Gül, Ülker; Bıyıklı, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    Background Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD) are chronic, recurrent group of disorders characterized by petechial and pigmentary macules usually localized on the lower limbs. Its etiopathogenesis is unknown. There are very few clinical and etiological studies on PPD in the literature. Objective We aim to examine the etiopathogenetic factors of PPD retrospectively. Methods Demographic characteristics, history of co-morbid disorders and drug usage, hepatitis markers, levels of serum lipids, findings of Doppler ultrasonography in lower extremities, and patch test results of the 24 patients of PPD were examined retrospectively. The patch test results, history of drug use, and co-morbid disorders of the patients were compared with those of the control groups. Results The male-to-female ratio was 1 : 2, and 83.3% of the patients had Schamberg disease. Seventeen patients had co-morbid disorders and 16 used various drugs, but there was no statistically significant difference between the controls and patients. One patient was positive for hepatitis B surface antigen and 1, for anti-hepatitis C virus antibody. Nine had elevated total cholesterol levels, and 5 had elevated triglyceride levels. Further, 30% of them were positive for at least 1 allergen, while 16% of the control subjects were positive for at least 1 allergen, but statistically significant difference was not found between the 2 groups. Variable degrees of venous insufficiency were detected in 75% of the patients on Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremities. Conclusion Venous insufficiency and hypercholesterolemia might be the basic predisposing factors for PPD. Further studies are needed to show if diabetes mellitus and hypertension may cause perivascular inflammation in PPD. PMID:25324654

  13. Challenges of identifying eczema in darkly pigmented skin.

    PubMed

    Myers, Joan

    2015-07-01

    There is a paucity of information about the difference in the presentation of eczema in darkly pigmented skin compared to children with fair or white skin. This article describes the possible challenges of diagnosing eczema in children with darkly pigmented skin. The physiological difference in darkly pigmented skin compared with fair or white skin is explored, and how eczema may be manifested and identified in darkly pigmented skin. The author uses the term darkly pigmented skin to describe children of black Caribbean, African or Asian descent.

  14. Reaction-diffusion models of within-feather pigmentation patterning.

    PubMed

    Prum, Richard O; Williamson, Scott

    2002-04-22

    Feathers are complex, branched keratin structures that exhibit a diversity of pigmentation patterns. Feather pigments are transferred into developing feather keratinocytes from pigment cells that migrate into the tubular feather germ from the dermis. Within-feather pigment patterns are determined by differential pigmentation of keratinocytes within independent barb ridges during feather development. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that determine which keratinocytes receive pigment. We apply reaction-diffusion models to the growth of within-feather pigment patterns based on a realistic model of feather growth. These models accurately simulate the growth of a diversity of the within-feather pigmentation patterns found in real feathers, including a central patch, a 'hollow' central patch, concentric central patches, bars, chevrons, a central circular spot, rows of paired spots, and arrays of offset dots. The models can also simulate the complex transitions between distinct pigmentation patterns among feathers observed in real avian plumages, including transitions from bars to chevrons, bars to paired dots, and bars to arrays of dots. The congruence between the developmental dynamics of the simulated and observed feather patterns indicates that the reaction-diffusion models provide a realistic and accurate description of the determination of pigment pattern within avian feather follicles. The models support the hypothesis that within-feather pigmentation patterning is determined by antagonistic interactions among molecular expression gradients within the tubular follicle and feather germ.

  15. [Spectral analysis of ceramic-painting pigments from Taosi site].

    PubMed

    Li, Nai-Sheng; Yang, Yi-Min; He, Nu; Mao, Zhen-Wei

    2008-04-01

    Based on the analysis of Raman, IR spectroscopy and XRD methods, the structure of the different pigments and bond in red pigment in the ceramic from Taosi site in Xiangfeng county, Shanxi province was analyzed. It is very prominent that both red and white pigments have been well preserved. The red pigment was identified as HgS, while white pigment is CaCO3, and the bond in red pigment is CaCO3, which was made from white lime, and the reasons for its formation is because of carbon dioxide in air, which was absorbed by white lime over long history. Moreover, it was indicated that the Raman and IR spectra are more effective for identifying the ancient pigments in very few quantities than XRD. Furthermore, the fact that quartz was unfound in vermilion, suggested that the technique for synthetic vermilion might have been known in 4 000 years ago in Taosi site.

  16. Color me bad: microbial pigments as virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, George Y.; Nizet, Victor

    2009-01-01

    A hallmark feature of several pathogenic microbes is the distinctive color of their colonies when propagated in the clinical laboratory. Such pigmentation comes in a variety of hues, and has often proven useful in presumptive clinical diagnosis. Recent advances in microbial pigment biochemistry and the genetic basis of pigment production has sometimes revealed a more sinister aspect to these curious materials that change the color of reflected light by selective light absorbance. In many cases, the microbial pigment contributes to disease pathogenesis by interfering with host immune clearance mechanisms or by exhibiting pro-inflammatory or cytotoxic properties. Here, we review several examples of pigments that promote microbial virulence, including the golden staphyloxanthin of Staphylococcus aureus, the blue-green pyocyanin of Pseudomonas spp., and the dark brown or black melanin pigments of Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus spp. Targeted pigment neutralization may represent a viable concept to enhance treatment of certain difficult infectious disease conditions. PMID:19726196

  17. Pigmented Pindborg tumor of the maxilla: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Subashchandrabose; Madanagopaal, Lakshmikanth Ramiah; Sarada, Venkaterwaran

    2016-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as the Pindborg tumor, is a benign locally invasive neoplasm. Common variants of CEOT include noncalcifying, Langerhans cell, bone and cementum forming and clear cell, which have a prognostic significance. Pigmented variants are known to occur in other odontogenic tumors. However, a definitive pigmented variant of CEOT has not been reported in literature so far. Here, we report the first case of pigmented Pindborg tumor arising from the maxilla in a young female. The pigment was demonstrated as melanin by staining and confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The pigmented variant of CEOT did not recur within 18 months postsurgery. Our report indicates that it is essential to recognize the pigmented variant. We discuss the common variants of CEOT and potential histogenesis of the pigmented variant. Further studies are required to reveal the histogenesis of melanocytes and their pathological significance in the odontogenic tumors. PMID:27721633

  18. pyewacket, a new zebrafish fin pigment pattern mutant.

    PubMed

    Mellgren, Eve M; Johnson, Stephen L

    2006-06-01

    Many mutants that disrupt zebrafish embryonic pigment pattern have been isolated, and subsequent cloning of the mutated genes causing these phenotypes has contributed to our understanding of pigment cell development. However, few mutants have been identified that specifically affect development of the adult pigment pattern. Through a mutant screen for adult pigment pattern phenotypes, we identified pyewacket (pye), a novel zebrafish mutant in which development of the adult caudal fin pigment pattern is aberrant. Specifically, pye mutants have fin melanocyte pigment pattern defects and fewer xanthophores than wild-type fins. We mapped pye to an interval where a single gene, the zebrafish ortholog of the human gene DHRSX, is present. pye will be an informative mutant for understanding how xanthophores and melanocytes interact to form the pigment pattern of the adult zebrafish fin.

  19. Cone visual pigments of monotremes: filling the phylogenetic gap.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Matthew J; Anderson, Mark; Chang, Ellen; Wei, Ke-Jun; Kaul, Rajinder; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall; Grützner, Frank; Deeb, Samir S

    2008-01-01

    We have determined the sequence and genomic organization of the genes encoding the cone visual pigment of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), and inferred their spectral properties and evolutionary pathways. We prepared platypus and echidna retinal RNA and used primers of the middle-wave-sensitive (MWS), long-wave-sensitive (LWS), and short-wave sensitive (SWS1) pigments corresponding to coding sequences that are highly conserved among mammals; to PCR amplify the corresponding pigment sequences. Amplification from the retinal RNA revealed the expression of LWS pigment mRNA that is homologous in sequence and spectral properties to the primate LWS visual pigments. However, we were unable to amplify the mammalian SWS1 pigment from these two species, indicating this gene was lost prior to the echidna-platypus divergence (21 MYA). Subsequently, when the platypus genome sequence became available, we found an LWS pigment gene in a conserved genomic arrangement that resembles the primate pigment, but, surprisingly we found an adjacent (20 kb) SWS2 pigment gene within this conserved genomic arrangement. We obtained the same result after sequencing the echidna genes. The encoded SWS2 pigment is predicted to have a wavelength of maximal absorption of about 440 nm, and is paralogous to SWS pigments typically found in reptiles, birds, and fish but not in mammals. This study suggests the locus control region (LCR) has played an important role in the conservation of photo receptor gene arrays and the control of their spatial and temporal expression in the retina in all mammals. In conclusion, a duplication event of an ancestral cone visual pigment gene, followed by sequence divergence and selection gave rise to the LWS and SWS2 visual pigments. So far, the echidna and platypus are the only mammals that share the gene structure of the LWS-SWS2 pigment gene complex with reptiles, birds and fishes.

  20. Cone visual pigments of monotremes: filling the phylogenetic gap.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Matthew J; Anderson, Mark; Chang, Ellen; Wei, Ke-Jun; Kaul, Rajinder; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall; Grützner, Frank; Deeb, Samir S

    2008-01-01

    We have determined the sequence and genomic organization of the genes encoding the cone visual pigment of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), and inferred their spectral properties and evolutionary pathways. We prepared platypus and echidna retinal RNA and used primers of the middle-wave-sensitive (MWS), long-wave-sensitive (LWS), and short-wave sensitive (SWS1) pigments corresponding to coding sequences that are highly conserved among mammals; to PCR amplify the corresponding pigment sequences. Amplification from the retinal RNA revealed the expression of LWS pigment mRNA that is homologous in sequence and spectral properties to the primate LWS visual pigments. However, we were unable to amplify the mammalian SWS1 pigment from these two species, indicating this gene was lost prior to the echidna-platypus divergence (21 MYA). Subsequently, when the platypus genome sequence became available, we found an LWS pigment gene in a conserved genomic arrangement that resembles the primate pigment, but, surprisingly we found an adjacent (20 kb) SWS2 pigment gene within this conserved genomic arrangement. We obtained the same result after sequencing the echidna genes. The encoded SWS2 pigment is predicted to have a wavelength of maximal absorption of about 440 nm, and is paralogous to SWS pigments typically found in reptiles, birds, and fish but not in mammals. This study suggests the locus control region (LCR) has played an important role in the conservation of photo receptor gene arrays and the control of their spatial and temporal expression in the retina in all mammals. In conclusion, a duplication event of an ancestral cone visual pigment gene, followed by sequence divergence and selection gave rise to the LWS and SWS2 visual pigments. So far, the echidna and platypus are the only mammals that share the gene structure of the LWS-SWS2 pigment gene complex with reptiles, birds and fishes. PMID:18598396

  1. Animal pigment bilirubin discovered in plants.

    PubMed

    Pirone, Cary; Quirke, J Martin E; Priestap, Horacio A; Lee, David W

    2009-03-01

    The bile pigment bilirubin-IXalpha is the degradative product of heme, distributed among mammals and some other vertebrates. It can be recognized as the pigment responsible for the yellow color of jaundice and healing bruises. In this paper we present the first example of the isolation of bilirubin in plants. The compound was isolated from the brilliant orange-colored arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the white bird of paradise tree, and characterized by HPLC-ESMS, UV-visible, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as comparison with an authentic standard. This discovery indicates that plant cyclic tetrapyrroles may undergo degradation by a previously unknown pathway. Preliminary analyses of related plants, including S. reginae, the bird of paradise, also revealed bilirubin in the arils and flowers, indicating that the occurrence of bilirubin is not limited to a single species or tissue type. PMID:19206232

  2. The histopathology of subcutaneous minocycline pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Anneli Ririe; McCalmont, Timothy H

    2007-11-01

    Hyperpigmentation associated with prolonged minocycline use is well documented. The histopathology of cutaneous minocycline pigment is characterized by deposition of brown/black, Fontana-Masson, and Perls' positive granules deposited along elastic fibers in the papillary dermis and occurring within macrophages along vessels and eccrine units in the dermis. The subcutis may also be involved; however, the specific subcutaneous findings associated with minocycline hyperpigmentation have not been well established. We present the histopathologic findings of 4 cases of minocycline hyperpigmentation with subcutaneous involvement. Green-gray, flocculent, nonrefractile globules within macrophages were found in the subcutis of all patients. Two of 4 cases exhibited lipomembraneous changes that were also associated with pigment. These distinctive findings may provide additional clues to enable a diagnosis of drug-induced hyperpigmentation to be offered, even in the absence of a clear clinical history. PMID:17939935

  3. Examination of the dyeing properties of pigment printing fabrics in a water-ethanol mixed solvent.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Wang, Yunli; Sheng, Dan; Xu, Weilin; Cao, Genyang

    2016-11-20

    We examined the dyeing properties of pigment printing fabrics in a water-ethanol mixed solvent. SEM, infrared spectroscopy, XRD, and rheological studies were carried out to understand the results. The K/S values of all pigment printing fabrics initially increased prior to a subsequent decrease, as can be observed from SEM images of the fabric surfaces. Viscosity tests indicated that variations in the dyeing performance in the mixed solvent could be mainly attributed to the quality of the thickener. Through examination of the rheological properties of the NaAlg paste and the IR spectra of the NaAlg membrane, ethanol appeared to weaken the hydrogen bonds between the NaAlg chains and water molecules, leading to more compact and disordered NaAlg chains. As the rubbing fastness remained relatively constant upon increasing the colour depth of the printing fabrics, this indicated the potential for broadening the application range of such a system. PMID:27561507

  4. Practice and Educational Gaps in Abnormal Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Tasneem F; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2016-07-01

    Dyschromia refers to abnormal pigmentation and is one of the most common diagnoses in dermatology. However, there are many educational and practice gaps in this area, specifically in melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and vitiligo. This article aims to review the gold standard of care for these conditions as well as highlight common educational and practice gaps in these areas. Finally, possible solutions to these gaps are addressed. PMID:27363886

  5. [Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase of pigmented yeasts].

    PubMed

    Mushi, N Iu; Kupletskaia, M B; Bab'eva, I P; Egorov, N S

    1980-01-01

    116 pigmented yeast cultures were tested for the presence of L-phenylalanine-ammonia lyase transforming L-phenylalanine into trans-cinnamic acid. The enzyme was found in 54 strains. Most of these strains belonged to the genera Rhodotorula and Sporobolomyces. Toluene, along with acetone, was successfully used to increase cellular permeability of the yeast cultures while determining the activity of phenylalanine-ammonia lyase.

  6. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04543.001 PMID:25513726

  7. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation. PMID:25513726

  8. The photochromic effect of bismuth vanadate pigments. Part I: Synthesis, characterization and lightfastness of pigment coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Tuecks, A.; Beck, H.P. . E-mail: hp.beck@mx.uni-saarland.de

    2005-04-15

    We report on investigations of the photochromic effect of BiVO{sub 4} pigments. Emphasis is placed on an approach widely used in industrial color testing. By means of colorimetry {delta}E{sub ab}*-values, which measure the perceived color difference, can be calculated from reflectance spectra of non-illuminated and illuminated pigment coatings. Pigments were prepared by either wet-chemical precipitation or solid-state reactions. Depending on the choice of starting compounds, lightfastness was found to vary significantly. Small amounts of impurity phases do not seem to affect photochromism. In contrast, impurities like Fe and Pb cause intense photochromism. The role of Fe is suggested by trace analyses, which (in case of pigments synthesized by precipitation reactions) reveal a correlation between concentration and {delta}E{sub ab}*. Indications are found that other effects like pigment-lacquer interactions might also be of importance. Difference reflectance spectra turn out to vary in shape depending on the type and concentration of impurities or dopants. For BiVO{sub 4} at least three different mechanisms of photochromism can be assumed.

  9. Theoretical Simulations and Ultrafast Pump-probe Spectroscopy Experiments in Pigment-protein Photosynthetic Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, D.R.

    2000-09-12

    Theoretical simulations and ultrafast pump-probe laser spectroscopy experiments were used to study photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes and antennae found in green sulfur bacteria such as Prosthecochloris aestuarii, Chloroflexus aurantiacus, and Chlorobium tepidum. The work focused on understanding structure-function relationships in energy transfer processes in these complexes through experiments and trying to model that data as we tested our theoretical assumptions with calculations. Theoretical exciton calculations on tubular pigment aggregates yield electronic absorption spectra that are superimpositions of linear J-aggregate spectra. The electronic spectroscopy of BChl c/d/e antennae in light harvesting chlorosomes from Chloroflexus aurantiacus differs considerably from J-aggregate spectra. Strong symmetry breaking is needed if we hope to simulate the absorption spectra of the BChl c antenna. The theory for simulating absorption difference spectra in strongly coupled photosynthetic antenna is described, first for a relatively simple heterodimer, then for the general N-pigment system. The theory is applied to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) BChl a protein trimers from Prosthecochloris aestuarii and then compared with experimental low-temperature absorption difference spectra of FMO trimers from Chlorobium tepidum. Circular dichroism spectra of the FMO trimer are unusually sensitive to diagonal energy disorder. Substantial differences occur between CD spectra in exciton simulations performed with and without realistic inhomogeneous distribution functions for the input pigment diagonal energies. Anisotropic absorption difference spectroscopy measurements are less consistent with 21-pigment trimer simulations than 7-pigment monomer simulations which assume that the laser-prepared states are localized within a subunit of the trimer. Experimental anisotropies from real samples likely arise from statistical averaging over states with diagonal energies shifted by

  10. High-contrast enzymatic immunohistochemistry of pigmented tissues

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Sara M.; Seigel, Gail M.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, standard enzyme immunohistochemistry has been accomplished with brown (DAB, diaminobenzidine) substrate. This can become problematic in pigmented tissues, such as the retina, where brown pigment of retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells can be easily confounded with brown substrate. Although immunofluorescence detection methods can overcome this challenge, fluorescence may fade over a period of weeks, while enzyme substrates allow for more long-lasting, archival results. In this report, we will describe a high-contrast enzyme immunohistochemistry method ideal for pigmented tissues that utilizes purple (VIP) substrate. We compared brown (DAB) and purple (VIP) substrates in enzyme immunohistochemistry experiments using human retina (paraffin sections) and monkey retinal pigmented epithelial cells (frozen sections), both containing brown pigmented cells. We compared substrates using several primary antibodies against markers that can be detected in the retina, including GFAP, VEGF, CD147 (EMMPRIN), RHO (rhodopsin) and PAX6. Methyl green was used as a counterstain for paraffin sections. A side-by-side comparison between DAB and VIP immunohistochemistry showed excellent contrast between pigmented cells and the purple VIP substrate in both human retinal tissue and monkey pigmented epithelial cells for all of the markers tested. This was a marked improvement over DAB staining in pigmented cells and tissues. For both paraffin sections and frozen sections of pigmented tissues, purple VIP substrate is an excellent alternative to brown DAB substrate and non-permanent immunofluorescence methods. PMID:27660801

  11. Interaction between Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment and rice proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Xu, Yuan; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang; Fan, Meihua

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf (VBTL) pigment and rice proteins. In the presence of rice protein, VBTL pigment antioxidant activity and free polyphenol content decreased by 67.19% and 68.11%, respectively, and L(∗) of the protein-pigment complex decreased significantly over time. L(∗) values of albumin, globulin and glutelin during 60-min pigment exposure decreased by 55.00, 57.14, and 54.30%, respectively, indicating that these proteins had bound to the pigment. A significant difference in protein surface hydrophobicity was observed between rice proteins and pigment-protein complexes, indicating that hydrophobic interaction is a major binding mechanism between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. A significant difference in secondary structures between proteins and protein-pigment complexes was also uncovered, indicating that hydrogen bonding may be another mode of interaction between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. Our results indicate that VBTL pigment can stain rice proteins with hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions. PMID:26471554

  12. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution

    PubMed Central

    Spiewak, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review recent studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns. PMID:25421288

  13. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution.

    PubMed

    Parichy, David M; Spiewak, Jessica E

    2015-01-01

    Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage, and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve-associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns.

  14. Characterization of Sorolla's gouache pigments by means of spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, Clodoaldo; Juanes, David; Ferrazza, Livio; Carballo, Jorgelina

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the Joaquín Sorolla's gouache sketches for the oil on canvas series "Vision of Spain" commissioned by A. M. Huntington to decorate the library of the Hispanic Society of America in New York. The analyses were focused on the identification of the elemental composition of the gouache pigments by means of portable EDXRF spectrometry in a non-destructive mode. Additionally, SEM-EDX and FTIR analyses of a selected set of micro-samples were carried out to identify completely the pigments, the paint technique and the binding media. The obtained results have confirmed the identification of lead and zinc white, vermillion, earth pigments, ochre, zinc yellow, chrome yellow, ultramarine, Prussian blue, chromium based and copper-arsenic based green pigments, bone black and carbon based black pigments, and the use of gum arabic as binding media in the gouache pigments.

  15. Analytical Raman spectroscopic discrimination between yellow pigments of the Renaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.

    2011-10-01

    The Renaissance represented a major advance in painting techniques, subject matter, artistic style and the use of pigments and pigment mixtures. However, most pigments in general use were still mineral-based as most organic dyes were believed to be fugitive; the historical study of artists' palettes and recipes has assumed importance for the attribution of art works to the Renaissance period. Although the application of diagnostic elemental and molecular spectroscopic techniques play vital and complementary roles in the analysis of art works, elemental techniques alone cannot definitively provide the data needed for pigment identification. The advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the definitive diagnostic characterisation of yellow pigments that were in use during the Renaissance is demonstrated here in consideration of heavy metal oxides and sulphides; these data will be compared with those obtained from analyses of synthetic yellow pigments that were available during the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries which could have been used in unrecorded restorations of Renaissance paintings.

  16. Analytical Raman spectroscopic discrimination between yellow pigments of the Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M

    2011-10-01

    The Renaissance represented a major advance in painting techniques, subject matter, artistic style and the use of pigments and pigment mixtures. However, most pigments in general use were still mineral-based as most organic dyes were believed to be fugitive; the historical study of artists' palettes and recipes has assumed importance for the attribution of art works to the Renaissance period. Although the application of diagnostic elemental and molecular spectroscopic techniques play vital and complementary roles in the analysis of art works, elemental techniques alone cannot definitively provide the data needed for pigment identification. The advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the definitive diagnostic characterisation of yellow pigments that were in use during the Renaissance is demonstrated here in consideration of heavy metal oxides and sulphides; these data will be compared with those obtained from analyses of synthetic yellow pigments that were available during the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries which could have been used in unrecorded restorations of Renaissance paintings.

  17. Mapping pigment distribution in mud samples through hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrübeoglu, Mehrube; Nicula, Cosmina; Trombley, Christopher; Smith, Shane W.; Smith, Dustin K.; Shanks, Elizabeth S.; Zimba, Paul V.

    2015-09-01

    Mud samples collected from bodies of water reveal information about the distribution of microorganisms in the local sediments. Hyperspectral imaging has been investigated as a technology to identify phototropic organisms living on sediments collected from the Texas Coastal Bend area based on their spectral pigment profiles and spatial arrangement. The top pigment profiles identified through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been correlated with spectral signatures extracted from the hyperspectral data of mud using fast Fourier transform (FFT). Spatial distributions have also been investigated using 2D hyperspectral image processing. 2D pigment distribution maps have been created based on the correlation with pigment profiles in the FFT domain. Among the tested pigments, the results show match among four out of five pigment distribution trends between HPLC and hyperspectral data analysis. Differences are attributed mainly to the difference between area and volume of scale between the HPLC analysis and area covered by hyperspectral imaging.

  18. Oral pigmented lesions: Clinicopathologic features and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    da Silva-Jorge, Rogério; Jorge, Jacks; Lopes, Márcio A.; Vargas, Pablo A.

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of pigmented lesions of the oral cavity and perioral tissues is challenging. Even though epidemiology may be of some help in orientating the clinician and even though some lesions may confidently be diagnosed on clinical grounds alone, the definitive diagnosis usually requires histopathologic evaluation. Oral pigmentation can be physiological or pathological, and exogenous or endogenous. Color, location, distribution, and duration as well as drugs use, family history, and change in pattern are important for the differential diagnosis. Dark or black pigmented lesions can be focal, multifocal or diffuse macules, including entities such as racial pigmentation, melanotic macule, melanocytic nevus, blue nevus, smoker’s melanosis, oral melanoacanthoma, pigmentation by foreign bodies or induced by drugs, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Addison´s disease and oral melanoma. The aim of this review is to present the main oral black lesions contributing to better approach of the patients. Key words:Pigmentation, melanin, oral, diagnosis, management. PMID:22549672

  19. Remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll: consequence of nonuniform pigment profile.

    PubMed

    Sathyendranath, S; Platt, T

    1989-02-01

    Remote sensing of ocean color, applied to the estimation of chlorophyll biomass, is discussed for the case where the vertical distribution of phytoplankton pigments is nonuniform. Using a spectral model of reflectance, the consequences of vertical structure are evaluated by sensitivity analysis on a generalized pigment profile. It is shown that the assumption of a vertically homogeneous chlorophyll distribution can lead to significant errors (relative error exceeding 100%) in the estimation from satellite data of photic depth and total pigment content in the photic zone. The errors are shown to be functions of the parameters of the pigment profile. It is further shown that, if the shape of the pigment profile is known from independent data, the entire pigment profile may be recovered from the satellite data by making slight changes in the existing algorithms for chlorophyll retrieval.

  20. BASIS FOR ENHANCED BARRIER FUNCTION OF PIGMENTED SKIN

    PubMed Central

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Lin, Tzu-Kai; Santiago, Juan Luis; Celli, Anna; Zhong, Lily; Huang, Zhi-Ming; Roelandt, Truus; Hupe, Melanie; Sundberg, John P.; Silva, Kathleen A.; Crumrine, Debra; Martin-Ezquerra, Gemma; Trullas, Carles; Sun, Richard; Wakefield, Joan S.; Wei, Maria L.; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans with darkly-pigmented skin display superior permeability barrier function in comparison to humans with lightly-pigmented skin. The reduced pH of the stratum corneum (SC) of darkly-pigmented skin could account for enhanced function, because acidifying lightly-pigmented human SC resets barrier function to darkly-pigmented levels. In SKH1 (non-pigmented) vs. SKH2/J (pigmented) hairless mice, we evaluated how a pigment-dependent reduction in pH could influence epidermal barrier function. Permeability barrier homeostasis is enhanced in SKH2/J vs. SKH1 mice, correlating with a reduced pH in the lower SC that co-localizes with the extrusion of melanin granules. Darkly-pigmented human epidermis also shows substantial melanin extrusion in the outer epidermis. Both acute barrier disruption and topical basic pH challenges accelerate re-acidification of SKH2/J (but not SKH1) SC, while inducing melanin extrusion. SKH2/J mice also display enhanced expression of the SC acidifying enzyme, secretory phospholipase A2f (sPLA2f). Enhanced barrier function of SKH2/J mice could be attributed to enhanced activity of two acidic pH-dependent, ceramide-generating enzymes, β-glucocerebrosidase and acidic sphingomyelinase, leading to accelerated maturation of SC lamellar bilayers. Finally, organotypic cultures of darkly-pigmented-bearing human keratinocytes display enhanced barrier function in comparison to lightly-pigmented cultures. Together, these results suggest that the superior barrier function of pigmented epidermis can be largely attributed to the pH-lowering impact of melanin persistence/extrusion and enhanced sPLA2f expression. PMID:24732399

  1. Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy with which relevant atmospheric parameters must be estimated to derive photoplankton pigment concentrations of a given accuracy, from measurements of the ocean's apparent spectral radiance at satellite altitudes, is examined. A phytoplankton pigment algorithm is developed which relates the pigment concentration (c) to the three ratios of upwelling radiance just beneath the sea surface which can be formed from wavelengths (lambda) 440, 520 and 550 nm.

  2. Pigmentation in basal cell carcinoma involves enhanced endothelin-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Lan, Cheng-Che E; Wu, Ching-Shuang; Cheng, Chiu-Min; Yu, Chia-Li; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2005-07-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignant skin tumor. In Asian patients, marked pigmentation in BCC lesions is often observed. Recently, endothelins (ETs) have been implicated to participate in the pigmentation process of BCC. Therefore, we set out to investigate the involvement of ET in the pigmentation process of BCC and the potential regulators in the pigmentation pathway. We explored the effects of an established BCC cell line on melanocytes. The growth factor profiles of BCC culture supernatant and effects of supernatant on melanocytes were documented. Potential regulators involved in the pigmentation pathway were also studied. The immunohistochemical staining of pigmented and non-pigmented BCC specimens was performed to confirm our in vitro findings. Our results showed that BCC supernatant contained significant amount of ET-1, basic fibroblast growth factor, and nerve growth factor. Furthermore, BCC supernatant stimulated melanin formation of cultured melanocytes. Addition of ET-receptor antagonist abrogated the melanogenic effect of BCC supernatant on melanocytes. Introduction of UVB irradiation decreased the ET-1 secretion by BCC cells. Immunohistochemical staining of the pigmented facial BCC specimens showed prominent expression of ET-1 on pigmented BCC, while the non-pigmented facial BCC specimens showed little ET-1 reactivity. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) staining showed little expression on BCC specimens, regardless of pigmentation status. In summary, our results indicate that enhanced ET-1 expression in pigmented BCC plays an important role in the hyperpigmentation of this tumor. Moreover, this enhanced ET-1 cascade showed little correlation with UV irradiation and TNF-alpha expression in our study.

  3. Relationship of Gingival Pigmentation with Passive Smoking in Women

    PubMed Central

    Moravej-Salehi, Elahe; Moravej-Salehi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral mucosal pigmentation is among the most common findings in smokers, affecting smile esthetics. Passive smoking significantly compromises the health of non-smoker individuals particularly women. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of passive smoking with oral pigmentation in non-smoker women. Materials and Methods: This historical-cohort study was conducted on a case group of 50 married women who were unemployed, not pregnant, non-smoker, had no systemic condition causing cutaneous or mucosal pigmentation, were not taking any medication causing cutaneous or mucosal pigmentation and had a heavy smoker husband. The control group comprised of 50 matched females with no smoker member in the family. Both groups were clinically examined for presence of gingival pigmentation and the results were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression tests. Results: Gingival pigmentation was found in 27 (54%) passive smokers and 14 (28%) controls (P=0.01). The odds ratio (OR) of gingival pigmentation in women exposed to secondhand smoke of their husbands (adjusted for education and having a smoker parent at childhood) was 3 (95% confidence interval; CI: 1.26 – 7.09). House floor area was correlated with gingival pigmentation in female passive smokers (P=0.025). Conclusion: This study was the first to describe the relationship between secondhand smoke and gingival pigmentation in women and this effect was magnified in smaller houses. PMID:26528364

  4. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Sarah; Heath, Rebecca; Shah, Mamta

    2012-01-01

    Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options. PMID:23162241

  5. Intra-Articular Pigmentation of Synovium: An Unusual Cause

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Steven; Liew, Sue M

    2016-01-01

    An unusual grayish brown discoloration of the synovium was found during a knee arthroscopy of a 72-year-old man. He also had similar pigmentation affecting the skin on the legs, arms, hands, and face. It was found he had been taking 400 mg of amiodarone hydrochloride daily for last 7 years. Amiodarone is known to cause a slate grey pigmentation of skin and cornea, but we believe this is the first report of amiodarone-induced pigmentation of the synovium. The arthroscopist should be aware of the possibility of drug-related synovial pigmentation and include this in differential diagnosis. PMID:27583118

  6. Neodymium-YAG transscleral cyclophotocoagulation. The role of pigmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, L.B.; Nichols, D.A.; Katz, L.J.; Moster, M.R.; Poryzees, E.; Shields, J.A.; Spaeth, G.L. )

    1989-08-01

    Using a rabbit model we investigated the role of pigmentation of the ciliary body in obtaining ciliodestruction by neodymium-YAG transscleral cyclophotocoagulation. There was marked destruction of the ciliary body in pigmented rabbit eyes, but no histologic effect was observed in albino rabbit eyes. These findings suggest that pigmentation of the ciliary body is important for obtaining the desired response from neodymium-YAG transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in rabbit eyes by our technique. Further study is necessary to define the role of pigmentation in human eyes in this treatment modality.

  7. Intra-Articular Pigmentation of Synovium: An Unusual Cause.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shobhit; Hamilton, Steven; Liew, Sue M

    2016-09-01

    An unusual grayish brown discoloration of the synovium was found during a knee arthroscopy of a 72-year-old man. He also had similar pigmentation affecting the skin on the legs, arms, hands, and face. It was found he had been taking 400 mg of amiodarone hydrochloride daily for last 7 years. Amiodarone is known to cause a slate grey pigmentation of skin and cornea, but we believe this is the first report of amiodarone-induced pigmentation of the synovium. The arthroscopist should be aware of the possibility of drug-related synovial pigmentation and include this in differential diagnosis. PMID:27583118

  8. Corrosion-Indicating Pigment And Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed hydrogen-sensitive paint for metal structures changes color at onset of corrosion, involving emission of hydrogen as result of electrochemical reactions. Pigment of suitable paint includes rhodium compound RhCl(PPh3)3, known as Wilkinson's catalyst. As coating on critical parts of such structures as bridges and aircraft, paint gives early warning of corrosion, and parts thus repaired or replaced before failing catastrophically. Reveals corrosion before it becomes visible to eye. Inspection for changes in color not ordinarily necessitate removal of structure from service, and costs less than inspection by x-ray or thermal neutron radiography, ultrasonic, eddy-current, or acoustic-emission techniques.

  9. A golden age of human pigmentation genetics.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Richard A

    2006-09-01

    The zebrafish golden mutation is characterized by the production of small and irregular-shaped melanin granules, resulting in a lightening of the pigmented lateral stripes of the animal. The recent positional cloning and localization of the golden gene, combined with genotype-phenotype correlations of alleles of its human orthologue (SLC24A5) in African-American and African-Caribbean populations, provide insights into the genetic and molecular basis of human skin colour. SLC24A5 promotes melanin deposition through maturation of the melanosome, highlighting the importance of ion-exchange in the function of this organelle.

  10. Method of preparing zinc orthotitanate pigment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, D. W.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.; Gilligan, J. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Zinc orthotitanate suitable for use as a pigment for spacecraft thermal control coatings is prepared by heating a slightly zinc deficient reaction mixture of precipitated oxalates of zinc and titanium. The reaction mixture can be formed by coprecipitation of zinc and titanium oxalates from chloride solution or by mixing separately precipitated oxalates. The mixture is first heated to 400 to 600 C to remove volatiles and is then rapidly heated at 900 to 1200 C. Zinc orthotitanate produced by this method exhibits the very fine particle size needed for thermal control coatings as well as stability in a space environment.

  11. LOCALIZED PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS: CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Carvalho Godoy, Fabiola Andrea de; Faustino, Carlos Alberto Cury; Meneses, Cláudio Santos; Nishi, Sergio Tadao; Góes, César Eduardo Giancoli; Canto, Abaeté Leite do

    2011-01-01

    This case concerned a female patient with a complaint of pain in the anterior region of her left knee during and after sports activities, followed by joint blockage three months ago. From imaging examinations, simple radiography of the knee was normal and magnetic resonance showed a solid expansive mass, possibly corresponding to soft-tissue chondroma or focal nodular synovitis. Arthroscopic resection of the lesion was performed, and the diagnosis of diffuse giant cell tumor resembling localized pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) was made from the result of the anatomopathological examination. The patient presented good clinical evolution, with disappearance of symptoms and return to physical activities.

  12. Dermatoscopic features of pigmented and non-pigmented basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kiladze, N; Shulaia, T; Bulinska, A; Abrahamovych, L

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors, which accounts for about 75% of all skin cancers, its early diagnosis is crucial for proper treatment. In recent years, an increasingly important role in the early and differential diagnosis of skin tumors plays dermatoscopy, making possible to improve the diagnosis of pigmented and nonpigmented skin lesions, especially in the early stages of development. The aim of this work is to study the dermatoscopic criteria for pigmented and nonpigmented BCC using the algorithm of H. Kittler. Were studied 78 cases of different clinical types of BCC, diagnosis was based on clinical and dermatoscopic picture with further confirmation by cytology. The obtained data show that for pigmented BCC are characteristic five major signs of dermatoscopy - lines, dots, clods, circles and pseudopodia, whereas for non-pigmented form - pattern of blood vessels and, as an additional feature, structureless areas. Further studies are needed to evaluate specific dermoscopic hallmarks regarding different categories of BCC and sensitivity of these dermatoscopic features. PMID:25693214

  13. Mutations in CTNNA1 cause butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and perturbed retinal pigment epithelium integrity

    PubMed Central

    Saksens, Nicole T.M.; Krebs, Mark P.; Schoenmaker-Koller, Frederieke E.; Hicks, Wanda; Yu, Minzhong; Shi, Lanying; Rowe, Lucy; Collin, Gayle B.; Charette, Jeremy R.; Letteboer, Stef J.; Neveling, Kornelia; van Moorsel, Tamara W.; Abu-Ltaif, Sleiman; De Baere, Elfride; Walraedt, Sophie; Banfi, Sandro; Simonelli, Francesca; Cremers, Frans P.M.; Boon, Camiel J.F.; Roepman, Ronald; Leroy, Bart P.; Peachey, Neal S.; Hoyng, Carel B.; Nishina, Patsy M.; den Hollander, Anneke I.

    2015-01-01

    Butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy is an eye disease characterized by lesions in the macula that can resemble the wings of a butterfly. Here, we report the identification of heterozygous missense mutations in the α-catenin 1 (CTNNA1) gene in three families with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy. In addition, we identified a Ctnna1 missense mutation in a chemically induced mouse mutant, tvrm5. Parallel clinical phenotypes were observed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of individuals with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and in tvrm5 mice, including pigmentary abnormalities, focal thickening and elevated lesions, and decreased light-activated responses. Morphological studies in tvrm5 mice revealed increased cell shedding and large multinucleated RPE cells, suggesting defects in intercellular adhesion and cytokinesis. This study identifies CTNNA1 gene variants as a cause of macular dystrophy, suggests that CTNNA1 is involved in maintaining RPE integrity, and suggests that other components that participate in intercellular adhesion may be implicated in macular disease. PMID:26691986

  14. Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation in a child with citrin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chu-Li; Hu, Yun-Feng; Song, Yuan-Zong

    2016-09-01

    Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation (IEMP) is a rare dermatological disorder with generally unclear etiology and pathogenesis. A 5½-year-old girl was referred to hospital with a 10 month history of brown skin rashes. In early infancy, citrin deficiency had been diagnosed with the SLC25A13 genotype c.851_854del4/c.998G > A, but all clinical and laboratory abnormalities recovered following the introduction of a lactose-free and medium-chain triglyceride-enriched formula. Physical examination at referral indicated symmetric, multiple and non-scaly brown macules on the neck, trunk, buttocks and proximal parts of the extremities. Histopathology indicated epidermal basal layer hyperpigmentation with an irregular distribution, along with a large number of melanophages in the upper dermis. The diagnosis of IEMP was thus made. Within 2 years of follow up, the rashes disappeared spontaneously and gradually. To our knowledge, this is the first description of IEMP in a patient with silent citrin deficiency. PMID:27389718

  15. Sex steroids regulate skin pigmentation through nonclassical membrane-bound receptors

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Christopher A; Duperret, Elizabeth K; Zhang, Junqian; Sadeghi, Rochelle; Dahal, Ankit; O'Brien, Kevin Tyler; Cookson, Rosa; Winkler, Jeffrey D; Ridky, Todd W

    2016-01-01

    The association between pregnancy and altered cutaneous pigmentation has been documented for over two millennia, suggesting that sex hormones play a role in regulating epidermal melanocyte (MC) homeostasis. Here we show that physiologic estrogen (17β-estradiol) and progesterone reciprocally regulate melanin synthesis. This is intriguing given that we also show that normal primary human MCs lack classical estrogen or progesterone receptors (ER or PR). Utilizing both genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we establish that sex steroid effects on human pigment synthesis are mediated by the membrane-bound, steroid hormone receptors G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), and progestin and adipoQ receptor 7 (PAQR7). Activity of these receptors was activated or inhibited by synthetic estrogen or progesterone analogs that do not bind to ER or PR. As safe and effective treatment options for skin pigmentation disorders are limited, these specific GPER and PAQR7 ligands may represent a novel class of therapeutics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15104.001 PMID:27115344

  16. External beam radiotherapy as postoperative treatment of diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Bernhard . E-mail: Bernhard.Berger@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Ganswindt, Ute; Bamberg, Michael; Hehr, Thomas

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: Diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare proliferative disorder of synovial membranes with invasive and expansive growth patterns. Radical synovectomy is regarded as the treatment of choice. However, because of the high recurrence rates, additive treatment might be useful. Radiotherapy (RT) has been evaluated with positive results, but the optimal treatment schedules are vague. We have reviewed our experience with postoperative RT in cases of suspected or proven residual disease. Methods and Materials: Between December 1996 and January 2006, 7 diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis patients underwent RT at our institution. The most common location was the knee joint (5 patients). All patients underwent radical surgery and were treated subsequently with 6-MV photon RT. The total doses applied were 30-50 Gy, depending on the resection status and estimated risk of relapse. For analysis, we retrospectively reviewed all patients in April 2006. Results: The mean follow-up time was 29 months (range, 3-112 months). RT had no acute adverse effects. At the assessment, no evidence was found of recurrent or persisting disease in any patient. Of the 7 patients, 6 reported asymptomatic limb function and excellent quality of life; 1 patient had persistent restriction of joint movement after repeated surgery. No radiotherapeutic late effects were seen. Conclusion: The results of our series have confirmed the efficacy and safety of postoperative RT for diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis. Hence, this treatment should be considered for patients with suspected or proven residual disease.

  17. Photoinduced changes in photosystem II pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Atanaska S.; Busheva, Mira C.; Stoitchkova, Katerina V.; Tzonova, Iren K.

    2010-11-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants performs two seemingly opposing tasks: efficient harvest of sunlight, but also rapid and harmless dissipation of excess light energy as heat to avoid deleterious photodamage. In order to study this process in pigment-protein supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII), 77 K fluorescence and room temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the changes in structure and spectral properties of the pigments in spinach PSII membranes. The high-light treatment results in a strong quenching of the fluorescence (being largest when the excitation is absorbed by carotenoids) and a red-shift of the main maximum. Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra into four bands revealed intensive quenching of F685 and F695 bands, possible bleaching of chlorophyll a, enhanced extent of light harvesting complexes (LHCII) aggregation and increased energy transfer to aggregated LHCII. The analysis of RR spectra revealed the predominant contribution of ß-carotene (ß-Car) upon 457.8 and 488 nm excitations and lutein (Lut) at 514.5 nm. During prolonged exposure to strong light no significant bleaching of ß-Car and weak photobleaching of Lut is observed. The results will contribute to the efforts to produce more efficient and robust solar cells when exposed to fluctuations in light intensity.

  18. Dispelling myths concerning pigmented skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, V; Russo, T; Giacomel, J; Lallas, A; Alfano, R; Argenziano, G

    2016-06-01

    The history of medicine is replete with examples of debunked myths, and in daily clinical dermatological practice, we must still counter many misconceptions regarding pigmented lesions, both with patients and other medical practitioners. Debunking myths and attempting to explain the reasons for these erroneous beliefs are the purposes of this review. The literature review has been partially guided by the results obtained from an online questionnaire conducted on an Italian website (www.vediamocichiara.it) from February 15, 2015 to March 15, 2015. The remaining discussed were selected on the basis of the existing literature and our personal experience. In order to explore these misconceptions, the following are the seven most salient questions that require investigation: (i) Is it dangerous to excise moles?; (ii) Is it dangerous to traumatize moles?; (iii) Are plantar moles worrisome?; (iv) Is it necessary to selectively apply sunscreen to moles?; (v) Is it inadvisable to partially biopsy a melanoma?; (vi) Do moles turn into melanoma?; and (vii) Is it necessary to perform sentinel lymph node biopsy for thin melanomas and for atypical Spitz naevi? Myths are ubiquitous, being prevalent in dermatological practice, with many of them concerning pigmented skin lesions. By encouraging critical analysis by patients and medical practitioners, the birth and perpetuation of myths can potentially be minimized, for the ultimate benefit of patients. This requires a scientific approach to be rigorously applied to dermatology, with critical questioning of unsubstantiated hypotheses including those emanating from the mass media as well as from respected sources. PMID:26840917

  19. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments of prochloron (prochlorophyta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paerl, H. W.; Lewin, R. A.; Cheng, L.

    1983-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a gradient-elution technique was utilized to separate and quantify chlorophylls a and b as well as major carotenoid pigments present in freeze-dried preprations of prochloron-didemnid associations and in Prochloron cells separated from host colonies. Results confirm earlier spectrophotometric evidence for both chlorophylls a and b in this prokaryote. Chlorophyll a:b ratios range from 4.14 to 19.71; generally good agreement was found between ratios determined in isolated cell preprations and in symbiotic colonies (in hospite). These values are 1.5 to 5-fold higher than ratios determined in a variety of eukaryotic green plants. The carotenoids in Prochloron are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those found in various freshwater and marine blue-green algae (cyanopbytes) from high-light environments. However, Prochloron differs from cyanophytes by the absence of myxoxanthophyll and related glycosidic carotenoids. It pigment characteristics are considered sufficiently different from those of cyanophytes to justify its assignment to a separate algal division.

  20. Fruit flesh betacyanin pigments in hylocereus cacti.

    PubMed

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2002-10-01

    Determination of profiles and total contents of betacyanins in cactus fruits of Hylocereus species using chromatographic and spectrophotometric method is described. The investigated species were H. polyrhizus, H. purpusii, H. costaricensis, H. sp. 487 (all red-flesh species and hybrids made among them), and the white- or red-flesh species H. undatus. Hybrids included hybrid 1 (H. undatus white-flesh clone and H. sp. 487), hybrid 35 (H. sp. 487 and H. polyrhizus), and the reciprocal hybrid hybrid 95 (H. polyrhizus and H. sp. 487). Fruits of H. polyrhizus exhibited the highest relative concentration (expressed as percentage of the total HPLC peak area) of hylocerenin, a recently discovered pigment, and a high relative concentration of phyllocactin. Hylocerenin and isohylocerenin, present in fruits at relative concentrations of 11.7 and 5.8%, respectively, are probably responsible for the fluorescent color of the fruit pulp. H. costaricensis fruits have a much higher content of phyllocactin (63.9%), which is almost 4 times higher than the betanin content. These differences in pigment concentrations might explain the differences in red hues of the flesh of these fruits. PMID:12358484

  1. Construction of artificial pigment-protein antennae

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbald, J.

    1997-01-10

    Photosynthesis is a complex process which results in the conversion of solar radiation into chemical energy. This chemical energy is then used as the free energy source for all living organisms. In its basic form, photosynthesis can be described as the light-activated synthesis of carbohydrates from the simple molecules of water and carbon dioxide: 6H{sub 2}O + 6 CO{sub 2} light C{sub 6}H{sub 12}O{sub 6} + 6 O{sub 2} This basic mechanism actually requires numerous reaction steps. The two primary steps being: the capture of light by pigment molecules in light-harvesting antenna complexes and the transfer of this captured energy to the so-called photochemical reaction center. While the preferred pathway for energy absorbed by the chromophores in the antenna complexes is transfer to the reaction center, energy can be lost to competing processes such as internal conversion or radiative decay. Therefore, the energy transfer must be rapid, typically on the order of picoseconds, to successfully compete. The focus of the present work is on the construction of light-harvesting antenna complexes incorporating modular pigment-proteins.

  2. Fruit flesh betacyanin pigments in hylocereus cacti.

    PubMed

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Mizrahi, Yosef

    2002-10-01

    Determination of profiles and total contents of betacyanins in cactus fruits of Hylocereus species using chromatographic and spectrophotometric method is described. The investigated species were H. polyrhizus, H. purpusii, H. costaricensis, H. sp. 487 (all red-flesh species and hybrids made among them), and the white- or red-flesh species H. undatus. Hybrids included hybrid 1 (H. undatus white-flesh clone and H. sp. 487), hybrid 35 (H. sp. 487 and H. polyrhizus), and the reciprocal hybrid hybrid 95 (H. polyrhizus and H. sp. 487). Fruits of H. polyrhizus exhibited the highest relative concentration (expressed as percentage of the total HPLC peak area) of hylocerenin, a recently discovered pigment, and a high relative concentration of phyllocactin. Hylocerenin and isohylocerenin, present in fruits at relative concentrations of 11.7 and 5.8%, respectively, are probably responsible for the fluorescent color of the fruit pulp. H. costaricensis fruits have a much higher content of phyllocactin (63.9%), which is almost 4 times higher than the betanin content. These differences in pigment concentrations might explain the differences in red hues of the flesh of these fruits.

  3. Energy flow in the cryptophyte PE545 antenna is directed by bilin pigment conformation.

    PubMed

    Curutchet, Carles; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; Kongsted, Jacob; Muñoz-Losa, Aurora; van Grondelle, Rienk; Scholes, Gregory D; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2013-04-25

    Structure-based calculations are combined with quantitative modeling of spectra and energy transfer dynamics to detemine the energy transfer scheme of the PE545 principal light-harvesting antenna of the cryptomonad Rhodomonas CS24. We use a recently developed quantum-mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method that allows us to account for pigment-protein interactions at atomic detail in site energies, transition dipole moments, and electronic couplings. In addition, conformational flexibility of the pigment-protein complex is accounted for through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We find that conformational disorder largely smoothes the large energetic differences predicted from the crystal structure between the pseudosymmetric pairs PEB50/61C-PEB50/61D and PEB82C-PEB82D. Moreover, we find that, in contrast to chlorophyll-based photosynthetic complexes, pigment composition and conformation play a major role in defining the energy ladder in the PE545 complex, rather than specific pigment-protein interactions. This is explained by the remarkable conformational flexibility of the eight bilin pigments in PE545, characterized by a quasi-linear arrangement of four pyrrole units. The MD-QM/MM site energies allow us to reproduce the main features of the spectra, and minor adjustments of the energies of the three red-most pigments DBV19A, DBV19B, and PEB82D allow us to model the spectra of PE545 with a similar quality compared to our original model (model E from Novoderezhkin et al. Biophys. J.2010, 99, 344), which was extracted from the spectral and kinetic fit. Moreover, the fit of the transient absorption kinetics is even better in the new structure-based model. The largest difference between our previous and present results is that the MD-QM/MM calculations predict a much smaller gap between the PEB50/61C and PEB50/61D sites, in better accord with chemical intuition. We conclude that the current adjusted MD-QM/MM energies are more reliable in order to explore the

  4. SKIN AS A LIVING COLORING BOOK: HOW EPITHELIAL CELLS CREATE PATTERNS OF PIGMENTATION

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Lorin; Fu, Wenyu; Chirico, William J.; Brissette, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The pigmentation of mammalian skin and hair develops through the interaction of two basic cell types — pigment donors and recipients. The pigment donors are melanocytes, which produce and distribute melanin through specialized structures. The pigment recipients are epithelial cells, which acquire melanin and put it to use, collectively yielding the pigmentation visible to the eye. This review will focus on the pigment recipients, the historically less understood cell type. These end-users of pigment are now known to exert a specialized control over the patterning of pigmentation, as they identify themselves as melanocyte targets, recruit pigment donors, and stimulate the transfer of melanin. As such, this review will discuss the evidence that the skin is like a coloring book: the pigment recipients create a “picture,” a blueprint for pigmentation, which is colorless initially but outlines where pigment should be placed. Melanocytes then melanize the recipients and “color in” the picture. PMID:25104547

  5. Skin as a living coloring book: how epithelial cells create patterns of pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Lorin; Fu, Wenyu; Chirico, William J; Brissette, Janice L

    2014-11-01

    The pigmentation of mammalian skin and hair develops through the interaction of two basic cell types - pigment donors and recipients. The pigment donors are melanocytes, which produce and distribute melanin through specialized structures. The pigment recipients are epithelial cells, which acquire melanin and put it to use, collectively yielding the pigmentation visible to the eye. This review will focus on the pigment recipients, the historically less understood cell type. These end-users of pigment are now known to exert a specialized control over the patterning of pigmentation, as they identify themselves as melanocyte targets, recruit pigment donors, and stimulate the transfer of melanin. As such, this review will discuss the evidence that the skin is like a coloring book: the pigment recipients create a 'picture,' a blueprint for pigmentation, which is colorless initially but outlines where pigment should be placed. Melanocytes then melanize the recipients and 'color in' the picture.

  6. Hemozoin Pigment: An Important Tool for Low Parasitemic Malarial Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Sarita; Ghosh, Arnab; Singh, Ruchi; Singh, Dhirendra Pratap; Sharma, Bhawna; Samantaray, Jyotish Chandra; Deb, Manorama; Gaind, Rajni

    2016-01-01

    Low parasitemic condition in malaria remains a diagnostic challenge; as the available diagnostic methods failed to detect. Currently, hemozoin (Hz) pigment is gaining attention in the diagnosis of malaria. The major drawback is ease of detection of Hz in routine practice. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the role of Hz pigment and to compare the performance of quantitative buffy coat assay (QBC) and PCR in such conditions. Clinically suspected cases of malaria were examined by both Giemsa stain and immunochromatographic test (ICT). Samples positive by ICT and negative by Giemsa stain were further examined by nested PCR targeting 18S rRNA and QBC for the presence of malaria parasites and pigments. Thirty blood samples fulfilled the inclusion criteria out of which 23 were Plasmodium vivax (Pv), 4 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), and 3 mixed (Pv and Pf) by immunochromatographic test. Twenty-one out of 30 (70%) were positive by nested PCR in comparison to 25/30 (83%) by QBC. Samples containing both malaria parasites and Hz pigment by QBC completely showed concordance with the PCR result. However, 61% of total samples containing only Hz pigment were observed positive by PCR. Hz pigment remains an important tool for malaria diagnosis. Identification of leukocytes containing pigments by QBC not only indicates recent malarial infections but also puts light on severity of the disease. QBC assay is a rapid, highly sensitive, and cost-effective method to detect malaria parasites and Hz pigment especially in low parasitemic conditions. PMID:27658589

  7. Stabilized pigment and method for producing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Stanley Roy (Inventor); Freund, Thomas (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A chemical species, present in two oxidation states which differ from one another by one equivalent, is added to pigment materials to serve as a recombination center for alternately capturing electrons and holes produced by the pigment materials when they are subjected to ultraviolet light exposure.

  8. Passivation of pigment particles for thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancier, K. M.; Morrison, S. R.; Farley, E. P.

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of a matrix of 48 samples consisting of pigments and pigmented paints is described. The results obtained from testing these samples by electron spin resonance and by in situ spectral reflectance measurements in space simulation tests are presented. Conclusions and recommendations for further research are given.

  9. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    PubMed

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation. PMID:26944494

  10. Betacyanins pigments as photosensitizing agents for holographic recording medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Hernández-Hernández, E.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Santacruz-Vazquez, V.

    2014-02-01

    One of the natural most employed within the food industry are pigments of betalains by their solubility in water to give desired colorations in processed foods such as beverages, dairy, meat. However, this research shows that this type of pigments can be used as photosensitizing agents in the field of holographic recording materials.

  11. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae: biological constraints and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mulders, Kim J M; Lamers, Packo P; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing interest in naturally produced colorants, and microalgae represent a bio-technologically interesting source due to their wide range of colored pigments, including chlorophylls (green), carotenoids (red, orange and yellow), and phycobiliproteins (red and blue). However, the concentration of these pigments, under optimal growth conditions, is often too low to make microalgal-based pigment production economically feasible. In some Chlorophyta (green algae), specific process conditions such as oversaturating light intensities or a high salt concentration induce the overproduction of secondary carotenoids (β-carotene in Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco and astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis (Flotow)). Overproduction of all other pigments (including lutein, fucoxanthin, and phycocyanin) requires modification in gene expression or enzyme activity, most likely combined with the creation of storage space outside of the photosystems. The success of such modification strategies depends on an adequate understanding of the metabolic pathways and the functional roles of all the pigments involved. In this review, the distribution of commercially interesting pigments across the most common microalgal groups, the roles of these pigments in vivo and their biosynthesis routes are reviewed, and constraints and opportunities for overproduction of both primary and secondary pigments are presented.

  12. Hemozoin Pigment: An Important Tool for Low Parasitemic Malarial Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sarita; Ghosh, Arnab; Singh, Ruchi; Singh, Dhirendra Pratap; Sharma, Bhawna; Samantaray, Jyotish Chandra; Deb, Manorama; Gaind, Rajni

    2016-08-01

    Low parasitemic condition in malaria remains a diagnostic challenge; as the available diagnostic methods failed to detect. Currently, hemozoin (Hz) pigment is gaining attention in the diagnosis of malaria. The major drawback is ease of detection of Hz in routine practice. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the role of Hz pigment and to compare the performance of quantitative buffy coat assay (QBC) and PCR in such conditions. Clinically suspected cases of malaria were examined by both Giemsa stain and immunochromatographic test (ICT). Samples positive by ICT and negative by Giemsa stain were further examined by nested PCR targeting 18S rRNA and QBC for the presence of malaria parasites and pigments. Thirty blood samples fulfilled the inclusion criteria out of which 23 were Plasmodium vivax (Pv), 4 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), and 3 mixed (Pv and Pf) by immunochromatographic test. Twenty-one out of 30 (70%) were positive by nested PCR in comparison to 25/30 (83%) by QBC. Samples containing both malaria parasites and Hz pigment by QBC completely showed concordance with the PCR result. However, 61% of total samples containing only Hz pigment were observed positive by PCR. Hz pigment remains an important tool for malaria diagnosis. Identification of leukocytes containing pigments by QBC not only indicates recent malarial infections but also puts light on severity of the disease. QBC assay is a rapid, highly sensitive, and cost-effective method to detect malaria parasites and Hz pigment especially in low parasitemic conditions. PMID:27658589

  13. 21 CFR 73.350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.350 Section 73.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments....

  14. 21 CFR 73.350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.350 Section 73.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments....

  15. 21 CFR 73.350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.350 Section 73.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments....

  16. 21 CFR 73.350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.350 Section 73.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments....

  17. Pigment Production by Streptococcus agalactiae in Quasi-Defined Media

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Fraile, Manuel; Sampedro, Antonio; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; García-Peña, Maria Luisa; Ruiz-Bravo, Alfonso; Haïdour, Ali

    2001-01-01

    A quasi-defined medium that supports the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae as pigmented colonies has been developed. The medium contains starch, a peptic digest of albumin, amino acids, nucleosides, vitamins, and salts. The presence of free cysteine, which could be replaced with other sulphur-containing compounds and to a lesser degree by reducing agents, was required for pigment formation. PMID:11133484

  18. Chemical purity and toxicology of pigments used in tattoo inks.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Henrik; Lewe, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The safety of tattoo inks has obviously increased in Europe since the existence of European Union Resolution ResAP(2008)1, which resulted in the improved quality control of pigment raw materials due to the definition of impurity limits that manufacturers can refer to. High-performance pigments are mostly used in tattoo inks, and these pigments are supposed to be chemically inert and offer high light fastness and low migration in solvents. However, these pigments were not developed or produced for applications involving long-term stay in the dermis or contact with bodily fluids. Therefore, these pigments often do not comply with the purity limits of the resolution; however, it is required that every distributed tattoo ink does not contain aromatic amines and not exceed the limits of heavy metals or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Current toxicity studies of pigments underline that no ecotoxicological threat to human health or to the environment should be expected. However, the pigment as well as its impurities and coating materials must be considered. In order to evaluate the safety of pigments according to their impurities, two different validated sample preparation methods are necessary: (1) simulation of their long-term stay in the bodily fluid of the dermis and (2) simulation of cleavage due to laser removal or ultraviolet exposure. The development of standardized, validated and well-adapted methods for this application has to be part of prospective efforts. Concerning legislation, it might be appropriate that the first regulative approaches be based on those of cosmetics.

  19. [A woman with a pigmentation of the hard palate].

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Erik H; Nieken, Judith; de Visscher, Jan G A M

    2013-01-01

    A bluish flat pigmented lesion of the hard palate of a 51-year-old woman was excised to exclude malignancy, in particular oral malignant melanoma. On histopathological examination, depositions of black pigment were seen accompanied by several foreign body giant cells. Probably due to a childhood trauma, a pencil point had penetrated the hard palate. PMID:24330792

  20. Dissecting pigment architecture of individual photosynthetic antenna complexes in solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quan; Moerner, W E

    2015-11-10

    Oligomerization plays a critical role in shaping the light-harvesting properties of many photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, but a detailed understanding of this process at the level of individual pigments is still lacking. To study the effects of oligomerization, we designed a single-molecule approach to probe the photophysical properties of individual pigment sites as a function of protein assembly state. Our method, based on the principles of anti-Brownian electrokinetic trapping of single fluorescent proteins, step-wise photobleaching, and multiparameter spectroscopy, allows pigment-specific spectroscopic information on single multipigment antennae to be recorded in a nonperturbative aqueous environment with unprecedented detail. We focus on the monomer-to-trimer transformation of allophycocyanin (APC), an important antenna protein in cyanobacteria. Our data reveal that the two chemically identical pigments in APC have different roles. One (α) is the functional pigment that red-shifts its spectral properties upon trimer formation, whereas the other (β) is a "protective" pigment that persistently quenches the excited state of α in the prefunctional, monomer state of the protein. These results show how subtleties in pigment organization give rise to functionally important aspects of energy transfer and photoprotection in antenna complexes. The method developed here should find immediate application in understanding the emergent properties of other natural and artificial light-harvesting systems.

  1. Passivation of pigment particles for thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancier, K. M.; Morrison, S. R.; Farley, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Various redox couple surface additives are studied which increase the photostability of coprecipitated zinc orthotitanate pigment. The electron spin resonance technique was used to examine the characteristic photodamage centers. Results indicate that cerium surface redox additive completely passivates the pigment at the surface concentrations studied. Less passivation occurs with the iridium chloride and the iron cyanide redox couples.

  2. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    PubMed

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation.

  3. An Improved Method for Extraction and Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katayama, Nobuyasu; Kanaizuka, Yasuhiro; Sudarmi, Rini; Yokohama, Yasutsugu

    2003-01-01

    The method for extracting and separating hydrophobic photosynthetic pigments proposed by Katayama "et al." ("Japanese Journal of Phycology," 42, 71-77, 1994) has been improved to introduce it to student laboratories at the senior high school level. Silica gel powder was used for removing water from fresh materials prior to extracting pigments by a…

  4. Changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of pink chicken eggshells with different pigment intensity during incubation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Li, Zhanming

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of chicken eggshells with different intensities of pink pigment during the incubation period. We also investigated the effects of the region (small pole, equator and large pole) and pink pigment intensity of the chicken eggshell on the percent transmission of light passing through the chicken eggshells. Method. Eggs of comparable weight from a meat-type breeder (Meihuang) were used, and divided based on three levels of pink pigment (light, medium and dark) in the eggshells. During the incubation (0–21 d), the values of the eggshell pigment (ΔE, L∗, a∗, b∗) were measured. The percent transmission of light for different regions and intensities of eggshell pigmentation was measured by using the visible wavelength range of 380–780 nm. Result. Three measured indicators of eggshell color, ΔE, L∗ and a∗, did not change significantly during incubation. Compared with other regions and pigment intensities, eggshell at the small pole and with light pigmentation intensity showed the highest percent transmission of light. The transmission value varied significantly (P < 0.001) with incubation time. The element analysis of eggshells with different levels of pink pigment showed that the potassium content of the eggshells for all pigment levels decreased significantly during incubation. Conclusion. In summary, pigment intensity and the region of the eggshell influenced the percent transmission of light of eggshell. Differences in the spectral characteristics of different eggshells may influence the effects of photostimulation during the incubation of eggs. All of these results will be applicable for perfecting the design of light intensity for lighted incubation to improve productivity. PMID:27019785

  5. Changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of pink chicken eggshells with different pigment intensity during incubation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Li, Zhanming; Pan, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of chicken eggshells with different intensities of pink pigment during the incubation period. We also investigated the effects of the region (small pole, equator and large pole) and pink pigment intensity of the chicken eggshell on the percent transmission of light passing through the chicken eggshells. Method. Eggs of comparable weight from a meat-type breeder (Meihuang) were used, and divided based on three levels of pink pigment (light, medium and dark) in the eggshells. During the incubation (0-21 d), the values of the eggshell pigment (ΔE, L (∗), a (∗), b (∗)) were measured. The percent transmission of light for different regions and intensities of eggshell pigmentation was measured by using the visible wavelength range of 380-780 nm. Result. Three measured indicators of eggshell color, ΔE, L (∗) and a (∗), did not change significantly during incubation. Compared with other regions and pigment intensities, eggshell at the small pole and with light pigmentation intensity showed the highest percent transmission of light. The transmission value varied significantly (P < 0.001) with incubation time. The element analysis of eggshells with different levels of pink pigment showed that the potassium content of the eggshells for all pigment levels decreased significantly during incubation. Conclusion. In summary, pigment intensity and the region of the eggshell influenced the percent transmission of light of eggshell. Differences in the spectral characteristics of different eggshells may influence the effects of photostimulation during the incubation of eggs. All of these results will be applicable for perfecting the design of light intensity for lighted incubation to improve productivity.

  6. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na+ with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  7. Structural and functional characterization of enamel pigmentation in shrews.

    PubMed

    Dumont, M; Tütken, T; Kostka, A; Duarte, M J; Borodin, S

    2014-04-01

    Pigmented tooth enamel occurs in several vertebrate clades, ranging from mammals to fish. Although an iron compound is associated with this orange to red colored pigmentation, its chemical and structural organization within the enamel is unknown. To determine the nature of the iron compound, we investigated heavily pigmented teeth of the northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda using combined characterization techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. We found that the pigmentation of the enamel with an iron content of around 8wt% results from a close to amorphous magnetite phase deposited around the nm-sized enamel crystals. Furthermore, the influence of the pigmentation on the enamel hardness was determined by nanoindentation measurements. Finally, the biomechanical function and biological context are discussed in light of the obtained results. PMID:24556576

  8. A melanosomal two-pore sodium channel regulates pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bellono, Nicholas W.; Escobar, Iliana E.; Oancea, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular organelles mediate complex cellular functions that often require ion transport across their membranes. Melanosomes are organelles responsible for the synthesis of the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanin synthesis result in pigmentation defects, visual deficits, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Although genes encoding putative melanosomal ion transporters have been identified as key regulators of melanin synthesis, melanosome ion transport and its contribution to pigmentation remain poorly understood. Here we identify two-pore channel 2 (TPC2) as the first reported melanosomal cation conductance by directly patch-clamping skin and eye melanosomes. TPC2 has been implicated in human pigmentation and melanoma, but the molecular mechanism mediating this function was entirely unknown. We demonstrate that the vesicular signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate PI(3,5)P2 modulates TPC2 activity to control melanosomal membrane potential, pH, and regulate pigmentation. PMID:27231233

  9. [Familial cases of cutaneous myxomas and spotty pigmentation (Carney's complex)].

    PubMed

    Koyano, T; Satoh, T; Ohtaki, N

    1990-09-01

    In 1985, Carney et al reported a complex of myxomas, spotty pigmentation, and endocrine overactivity and subsequently demonstrated dominant inheritance of the condition. The criteria for diagnosis of the complex is the presence of two or more of the following conditions: (1) cardiac myxoma, (2) cutaneous myxoma, (3) mammary myxoma, (4) spotty mucocutaneous pigmentation, (5) primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (Cushing's syndrome), (6) testicular tumors (sexual precocity), (7) pituitary adenoma secreting growth hormone (acromegaly or gigantism). We encountered a family with an affected mother and daughter. Case 1 was a 43-year-old woman with multiple cutaneous myxomas, mammary myxomas and spotty mucocutaneous pigmentation. Case 2, the 19-year-old daughter of case 1 had multiple cutaneous myxomas and spotty cutaneous pigmentation. These two cases both met the criteria for the diagnosis of the complex. Our report is believed to be the first report on the complex in Japan. PMID:2266598

  10. The influence of abdominal pigmentation on desiccation and ultraviolet resistance in two species of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Matute, Daniel R; Harris, Alexandra

    2013-08-01

    Drosophila yakuba and D. santomea are sister species that differ in their levels of abdominal pigmentation; D. yakuba shows heavily pigmented posterior abdominal segments in both sexes, whereas D. santomea lacks dark pigment anywhere on its body. Using naturally collected lines, we demonstrate the existence of altitudinal variation in abdominal pigmentation in D. yakuba but not in D. santomea. We use the variation in pigmentation within D. yakuba and two body-color mutants in D. yakuba to elucidate selective advantage of differences in pigmentation. Our results indicate that although differences in abdominal pigmentation have no effect on desiccation resistance, lighter pigmentation confers ultraviolet radiation resistance in this pair of species.

  11. Preferential interactions in pigmented, polymer blends - C.I. Pigment Blue 15:4 and C.I. Pigment Red 122 - as used in a poly(carbonate)-poly(butylene terephthalate) polymer blend.

    PubMed

    Fagelman, K E; Guthrie, J T

    2005-11-18

    Some important characteristics of selected pigments have been evaluated, using the inverse gas chromatography (IGC) technique, that indicate the occurrence of preferential interactions in pigmented polymer blends. Attention has been given to copper phthalocyanine pigments and to quinacridone pigments incorporated in polycarbonate-poly(butylene terephthalate) blends. Selected supporting techniques were used to provide supplementary information concerning the pigments of interest, C.I. Pigment Blue 15:4 and C.I. Pigment Red 122. For C.I. Pigment Red 122 and for C.I. Pigment Blue, the dispersive component of the surface free energy decreases as the temperature increases, indicating the relative ease with which the molecules can be removed from the surface.

  12. The other pigment cell: specification and development of the pigmented epithelium of the vertebrate eye

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Kapil; Nguyen, Minh-Thanh T.; Skuntz, Susan; Bertuzzi, Stefano; Arnheiter, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    Summary Vertebrate retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are derived from the multipotent optic neuroepithelium, develop in close proximity to the retina, and are indispensible for eye organogenesis and vision. Recent advances in our understanding of RPE development provide evidence for how critical signaling factors operating in dorso-ventral and distal-proximal gradients interact with key transcription factors to specify three distinct domains in the budding optic neuroepithelium: the distal future retina, the proximal future optic stalk/optic nerve, and the dorsal future RPE. Concomitantly with domain specification, the eye primordium progresses from a vesicle to a cup, RPE pigmentation extends towards the ventral side, and the future ciliary body and iris form from the margin zone between RPE and retina. While much has been learned about the molecular networks controlling RPE cell specification, key questions concerning the cell proliferative parameters in RPE and the subsequent morphogenetic events still need to be addressed in greater detail. PMID:16965267

  13. Retinal pigment epithelial change and partial lipodystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, T. M.; Holdright, D. R.; Schulenberg, W. E.; Turner, R. C.; Joplin, G. F.

    1988-01-01

    Cuticular drusen and retinal pigment epithelial changes were found incidentally in a 27 year old Lebanese woman during assessment of partial lipodystrophy. Her vision was normal despite involvement of both maculae. The patient had hypocomplementaemia, but serum C3 nephritic factor was absent and renal function was normal. She had impaired glucose tolerance and a continuous infusion of glucose with model assessment (CIGMA) test revealed low normal tissue insulin sensitivity and high normal pancreatic beta cell function. Mild fasting hypertriglyceridaemia (2.0 mmol/l) may have been secondary to impaired insulin sensitivity. Endocrine function was otherwise normal apart from a completely absent growth hormone response to adequate hypoglycaemia. The simultaneous occurrence of partial lipodystrophy and retinal pigmentary epithelial and basement membrane changes appears to be a newly recognized syndrome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3255937

  14. Pigmented contact dermatitis due to musk moskene.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, R; Hirose, O; Arima, Y

    1991-07-01

    Musk moskene is a soft, sweet fragrance resembling musk ambrette which introduces a very desirable creamy powder note for cosmetic fragrance. Because of its advantages, which include low cost, oil solubility, and less sensitive to sunlight, musk moskene has recently increased its share of the market. In this paper, we reported a case with pigmented contact dermatitis from musk moskene in cheek rouges. Patch test positive reactions to cheek rouges resulted in hyperpigmentation. Both the perfume used in the cheek rouges and musk moskene, which was a component of that perfume, showed strongly positive reactions. Residual hyperpigmentation was seen on the regions of the perfume and musk moskene patch testings. Hyperpigmentation on cheeks of the patient gradually diminished after discontinuing use of the causative cheek rouge.

  15. Cutaneous pigmentation secondary to amiodarone therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, J.W.; Mendelson, D.S.; Fetter, B.F.; Ingram, P.; Gallagher, J.J.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1983-11-01

    Amiodarone (Cordarone) is an iodinated cardiac antiarrhythmic drug that causes a slate-gray discoloration of the sun-exposed skin and a yellow-brown stippling of the cornea. Histopathologically, biopsy specimens of aminodarone pigmentation sites disclose yellow-brown refractile granules in the reticular dermis. These granules were characterized by transmission electron microscopy as being concentrically arranged intralysosomal inclusions (''myelinlike'' bodies) in dermal endothelial cells and perivascular smooth-muscle cells. Electron probe x-ray analysis of these same inclusions disclosed definite peaks for iodine, evidence for the presence of amiodarone or a metabolite of the drug at these sites. Amiodarone, then, concentrates in lysosomes and causes an accumulation of lipids similar to what has been seen with other cationic amphiphilic compounds, such as the glycosphingolipid stored in Fabry's disease. Amiodarone must be recognized as a cause of a drug-induced lipid storage disease with cutaneous and corneal manifestations.

  16. Ionochromic behavior of Grecko visual pigments.

    PubMed

    Crescitelli, F

    1977-01-14

    Digitonin extracts of the retina of Gekko gekko prepared to minimize the presence of chloride ions show the photopigment to be at about 490 nanometers rather than at 521 nanometers, the position found for the same pigment in situ. The addition of chloride to the extract causes a bathochromic shift in spectral absorbance, the magnitude of the shift being related to the concentration of chloride, within limits. The effect is a specific one, and of all the anions tested only bromide causes a similar bathochromic shift. The nature of the cation is not involved since the same action is produced by the chlorides of sodium, lithium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, calcium, magnesium, beryllium, lanthanum, and choline.

  17. Tryptophan in human hair: correlation with pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bertazzo, A; Biasiolo, M; Costa, C V; Cardin de Stefani, E; Allegri, G

    2000-08-01

    The distribution of tryptophan content in human hair of various colours was evaluated, in order to study the accumulation of this amino acid, precursor of serotonin, melatonin and niacin, in hair and the influence on hair pigmentation. Pigmentation is an important factor in determining drug incorporation into hair. Results from 1211 samples of hair from healthy subjects (577 men and 634 women) show that tryptophan levels are significantly higher in males (37.83 +/- 3.45 microg/g dry hair) than in females (26.62 +/- 2.40 microg/g hair). Besides sex, age also influences the distribution of tryptophan in human hair, the highest levels being found in both sexes in the first few years of life, probably due to the influence of milk, and in aging subjects in the groups of 61-80 and > 80 years. In order to investigate the influence of hair colour, hair samples were subdivided according to colour into blond, dark blond, red, light brown, brown, black, grey and white. The hair contents of tryptophan in both sexes was higher in brown and black hair than in blond hair, but in grey and white hair concentrations were the highest, demonstrating that tryptophan accumulates among hair fibres with age. Grouping subjects by age in relation to hair colour, we observed that at ages 1-5 and 6-12 years, colour did not influence tryptophan contents, but at ages 13-19 and 20-40 years tryptophan content increased significantly from blond to brown at 13-19 years and from blond to black at 20-40 years in both sexes. Therefore, variations in tryptophan levels of human hair appear to be correlated with differences in hair colour in both sexes. Tryptophan also accumulates in hair during keratinization, as shown by the presence of high levels of this amino acid in grey and white hair. PMID:11132729

  18. Sequences associated with human iris pigmentation.

    PubMed Central

    Frudakis, Tony; Thomas, Matthew; Gaskin, Zach; Venkateswarlu, K; Chandra, K Suresh; Ginjupalli, Siva; Gunturi, Sitaram; Natrajan, Sivamani; Ponnuswamy, Viswanathan K; Ponnuswamy, K N

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether and how common polymorphisms are associated with natural distributions of iris colors, we surveyed 851 individuals of mainly European descent at 335 SNP loci in 13 pigmentation genes and 419 other SNPs distributed throughout the genome and known or thought to be informative for certain elements of population structure. We identified numerous SNPs, haplotypes, and diplotypes (diploid pairs of haplotypes) within the OCA2, MYO5A, TYRP1, AIM, DCT, and TYR genes and the CYP1A2-15q22-ter, CYP1B1-2p21, CYP2C8-10q23, CYP2C9-10q24, and MAOA-Xp11.4 regions as significantly associated with iris colors. Half of the associated SNPs were located on chromosome 15, which corresponds with results that others have previously obtained from linkage analysis. We identified 5 additional genes (ASIP, MC1R, POMC, and SILV) and one additional region (GSTT2-22q11.23) with haplotype and/or diplotypes, but not individual SNP alleles associated with iris colors. For most of the genes, multilocus gene-wise genotype sequences were more strongly associated with iris colors than were haplotypes or SNP alleles. Diplotypes for these genes explain 15% of iris color variation. Apart from representing the first comprehensive candidate gene study for variable iris pigmentation and constituting a first step toward developing a classification model for the inference of iris color from DNA, our results suggest that cryptic population structure might serve as a leverage tool for complex trait gene mapping if genomes are screened with the appropriate ancestry informative markers. PMID:14704187

  19. Picosecond Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Visual Pigments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsen, William Frederick

    We have constructed a picosecond Raman spectrometer to obtain information about primary events in visual excitation. The excitation source at 532 nm is a frequency doubled modelocked Nd:YAG laser optimized for short pulses, high repetition rates, and high pulse to pulse stability. The sample illumination geometry is optimized for pulsed Raman measurements using low magnification light collection and optical multi-channel detection. This instrument gives high signal to noise ratios and high data rates. The visual pigment rhodopsin was studied with this picosecond Raman instrument. We found that within 20 picoseconds of absorbing a photon, low wavenumber Raman bands characteristic of the first photo-intermediate bathorhodopsin appear. This scattering at 853, 875, and 920 wavenumbers arises from enhanced hydrogen out of plane vibrations from a strained all-trans configuration of the retinal chromophore in the protein. Furthermore, bands characteristic of isorhodopsin appear within the 10 picosecond pulse. We therefore conclude that the 11-cis retinal chromophore of rhodopsin isomerizes to a strained all-trans configuration and can further isomerize to a 9-cis form on absorbing a second photon, all within 20 picoseconds. Measurements starting with isorhodopsin show that the reverse process, 9-cis to trans to 11-cis, can also occur within 20 picoseconds. The resonance Raman spectra of bathorhodopsin formed from rhodopsin, however, exhibits consistent small differences from that of bathorhodopsin formed from isorhodopsin. Spectra of corresponding pigments deuterated at the retinal 12 carbon position also show slight differences. These data suggest that the bathorhodopsins formed from rhodopsin and isorhodopsin are initially different. They appear, however, to converge to a common intermediate by the end of 20 picoseconds. This resonance Raman study reveals that much of the isomerization of retinal takes place within a few picoseconds of the absorption of a photon by

  20. Comparative short-term inhalation toxicity of five organic diketopyrrolopyrrole pigments and two inorganic iron-oxide-based pigments

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Thomas; Ma-Hock, Lan; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Rey Moreno, Maria; Neubauer, Nicole; Wohlleben, Wendel; Gröters, Sibylle; Wiench, Karin; Veith, Ulrich; Teubner, Wera; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPP) are a relatively new class of organic high-performance pigments. The present inhalation and particle characterization studies were performed to compare the effects of five DPP-based pigments (coarse and fine Pigment Red 254, coarse and fine meta-chloro DPP isomer and one form of mixed chlorinated DPP isomers) and compare it to coarse and fine inorganic Pigment Red 101. Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 h/day on 5 consecutive days. Target concentrations were 30 mg/m3 as high dose for all compounds and selected based occupational exposure limits for respirable nuisance dust. Toxicity was determined after end of exposure and after 3-week recovery using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and microscopic examinations of the entire respiratory tract. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers and coarse meta-chloro DPP isomer caused marginal changes in BALF, consisting of slight increases of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and in case of coarse meta-chloro DPP increased MCP-1 and osteopontin levels. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers, Pigment Red 254, and meta-chloro DPP caused pigment deposits and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages, slight hypertrophy/hyperplasia of the bronchioles and alveolar ducts, but without evidence of inflammation. In contrast, only pigment deposition and pigment phagocytosis were observed after exposure to Pigment Red 101. All pigments were tolerated well and caused only marginal effects in BALF or no effects at all. Only minor effects were seen on the lung by microscopic examination. There was no evidence of systemic inflammation based on acute-phase protein levels in blood. PMID:27387137

  1. Comparative short-term inhalation toxicity of five organic diketopyrrolopyrrole pigments and two inorganic iron-oxide-based pigments.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thomas; Ma-Hock, Lan; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Rey Moreno, Maria; Neubauer, Nicole; Wohlleben, Wendel; Gröters, Sibylle; Wiench, Karin; Veith, Ulrich; Teubner, Wera; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPP) are a relatively new class of organic high-performance pigments. The present inhalation and particle characterization studies were performed to compare the effects of five DPP-based pigments (coarse and fine Pigment Red 254, coarse and fine meta-chloro DPP isomer and one form of mixed chlorinated DPP isomers) and compare it to coarse and fine inorganic Pigment Red 101. Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 h/day on 5 consecutive days. Target concentrations were 30 mg/m(3) as high dose for all compounds and selected based occupational exposure limits for respirable nuisance dust. Toxicity was determined after end of exposure and after 3-week recovery using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and microscopic examinations of the entire respiratory tract. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers and coarse meta-chloro DPP isomer caused marginal changes in BALF, consisting of slight increases of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and in case of coarse meta-chloro DPP increased MCP-1 and osteopontin levels. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers, Pigment Red 254, and meta-chloro DPP caused pigment deposits and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages, slight hypertrophy/hyperplasia of the bronchioles and alveolar ducts, but without evidence of inflammation. In contrast, only pigment deposition and pigment phagocytosis were observed after exposure to Pigment Red 101. All pigments were tolerated well and caused only marginal effects in BALF or no effects at all. Only minor effects were seen on the lung by microscopic examination. There was no evidence of systemic inflammation based on acute-phase protein levels in blood. PMID:27387137

  2. Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas H

    2016-06-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic mental health disorder that is frequently encountered in primary care. Many patients with depression may actually have bipolar disorder. The management of bipolar disorder requires proper diagnosis and awareness or referral for appropriate pharmacologic therapy. Patients with bipolar disorder require primary care management for comorbidities such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. PMID:27262007

  3. Enhancing skin radiance through the use of effect pigments.

    PubMed

    Funk, David; Kovarovic, Brandon; Uzunian, Gabriel; Litchauer, Jill; Daley-Bowles, Tricia; Hubschmitt, Amber

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the radiance contribution from formulating various pearlescent effect pigments into a skin cream was modeled using gloss map histograms created from digital photographs of clinical panelists. CIELab color data from the various pearlescent effect pigments applied to simulated skin tone drawdown cards was first collected to screen experimental candidates and to help select the concentration of pigment used in the formula. Optical microscopy was used to develop a simple coverage model to control for the differences in particle size and density of the effect pigments. In the subsequent in vivo study, panelists applied a weighed amount of cream containing various pearlescent effect pigments to the face and high-resolution digital photography images were collected on each panelist for image analysis. Gloss map histograms were developed through the software analysis of gray-scale images, which were used to describe the gloss, whiteness, and/or radiance contribution of each pearlescent effect pigment. The resulting gloss map histograms shared identifiable characteristics useful for statistical analysis and description. This methodology could serve as a novel way to investigate and describe the visual impact and benefit of formulating effect pigments in cosmetic creams intended for application on the skin.

  4. Oral Pigmentation in McCune-Albright Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pichard, Dominique C.; Boyce, Alison M.; Collins, Michael T.; Cowen, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The differential diagnosis for oral lentigines includes several syndromes with important associated systemic findings. McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS), a mosaic condition associated with café au lait pigmentation, is not typically considered a mucosal lentiginosis syndrome. The clinical phenotype of MAS is variable because of mosaicism, but oral pigmentation developing in mid-childhood to early adulthood should be recognized as a clinical feature of MAS. OBSERVATIONS We present 4 patients with MAS who developed oral mucosal pigmentation during childhood or early adulthood. All patients had other characteristic findings of MAS including hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, and café au lait pigmentation. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Oral pigmentation is an underrecognized finding in MAS and presents later in development compared with the other mucosal lentiginosis syndromes. The diagnosis of MAS is most commonly a clinical diagnosis because mutational analysis is challenging in mosaic conditions. Expanding the cutaneous phenotype to include oral pigmentation further characterizes the clinical findings in this mosaic condition, broadens the differential diagnosis of syndromes with oral pigmentation, and in some cases may aid in earlier diagnosis of MAS. PMID:24671640

  5. Heart pigmentation in the gray bichir, Polypterus senegalus (Actinopterygii: Polypteriformes).

    PubMed

    Reyes-Moya, I; Torres-Prioris, A; Sans-Coma, V; Fernández, B; Durán, A C

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of pigment cells in the heart is well documented in amphibians, birds and mammals. By contrast, information on heart pigmentation in fish is extremely sparse. The aim is to report the presence of pigment cells over the entire surface of the heart in the gray bichir, Polypterus senegalus. The sample consisted of 12 hearts, which, after gross anatomical examination, were studied using histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques for light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The pigment cells were located in the subepicardium, showing a regular distribution pattern across the whole heart, except for the anterior end of the outflow tract, where the pigmentation was much more intense. The cells contained dark, ovoid-shaped organelles which was consistent with a melanosome cell identity. As in other vertebrates, the physiological role of the pigment cells in the heart of the gray bichir is unknown. The absence of such cells in hearts of other polypteriforms suggests that cells containing melanin are not essential for normal fish heart function. Basing on literature data concerning tetrapods, it can be inferred that the pigment cells of the heart of the gray bichir derive from the neural crest. If this were true, our findings would provide the first evidence for the presence of neural crest-derived cells in the subepicardium of adult hearts of early actinopterygians.

  6. Precipitated green pigments: products of chromate postgalvanic waste utilization.

    PubMed

    Krysztafkiewicz, Andrzej; Klapiszewska, Beata; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2008-10-01

    The paper reports on obtaining highly dispersed chromium(III) silicates and chromium(III) oxides from postchromating waste by reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) with hydrazine as a reducing agent. Chromium(III) salt solution and sodium silicate or hydroxide solutions have been used to precipitate green pigments (silicates and oxides). The effect of the precipitation parameters on the quality of green pigments obtained has been studied, and the optimum parameters ensuring getting the product of well-developed surface area and possibly lowest diameter of primary particles have been established. The precipitated silicates and oxides have been subjected to physicochemical analysis to determine bulk density; capacities to absorb water, dibutyl phthalate, and paraffin oil; particles size; particle size distribution; and surface morphology of chromium pigment surfaces. The adsorptive properties of the oxide and silicate pigments have also been examined. The XRD analysis documented that the chromium(III) silicate pigments obtained are amorphous. In addition, the pigments have been subjected to a colorimetric appraisal using the CIE L*a*b* color space system. The high-quality green pigments obtained have shown high dispersion, small tendency to agglomerate formation, and repeatable green hue. The parameters of the products are promising for their future technological use.

  7. Synthesis of chromium containing pigments from chromium galvanic sludges.

    PubMed

    Andreola, F; Barbieri, L; Bondioli, F; Cannio, M; Ferrari, A M; Lancellotti, I

    2008-08-15

    In this work the screening results of the scientific activity conducted on laboratory scale to valorise chromium(III) contained in the galvanic sludge as chromium precursor for ceramic pigments are reported. The valorisation of this waste as a secondary raw material (SRM) is obtained by achievement of thermal and chemical stable crystal structures able to color ceramic material. Two different pigments pink CaCr(0.04)Sn(0.97)SiO(5) and green Ca(3)Cr(2)(SiO(4))(3) were synthesized by solid-state reactions using dried Cr sludge as chromium oxide precursor. The obtained pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. Furthermore the color developed in a suitable ceramic glaze was investigated in comparison with the color developed by the pigments prepared from pure Cr(2)O(3). The characterization carried out corroborates the thermal and chemical stability of the synthesized pigments and, especially for the Cr-Sn pink pigment, the powders develop an intense color that is very similar to the color developed by the pigments obtained starting from pure Cr(2)O(3). PMID:18289775

  8. Dissecting pigment architecture of individual photosynthetic antenna complexes in solution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quan; Moerner, W. E.

    2015-01-01

    Oligomerization plays a critical role in shaping the light-harvesting properties of many photosynthetic pigment−protein complexes, but a detailed understanding of this process at the level of individual pigments is still lacking. To study the effects of oligomerization, we designed a single-molecule approach to probe the photophysical properties of individual pigment sites as a function of protein assembly state. Our method, based on the principles of anti-Brownian electrokinetic trapping of single fluorescent proteins, step-wise photobleaching, and multiparameter spectroscopy, allows pigment-specific spectroscopic information on single multipigment antennae to be recorded in a nonperturbative aqueous environment with unprecedented detail. We focus on the monomer-to-trimer transformation of allophycocyanin (APC), an important antenna protein in cyanobacteria. Our data reveal that the two chemically identical pigments in APC have different roles. One (α) is the functional pigment that red-shifts its spectral properties upon trimer formation, whereas the other (β) is a “protective” pigment that persistently quenches the excited state of α in the prefunctional, monomer state of the protein. These results show how subtleties in pigment organization give rise to functionally important aspects of energy transfer and photoprotection in antenna complexes. The method developed here should find immediate application in understanding the emergent properties of other natural and artificial light-harvesting systems. PMID:26438850

  9. LIBS identification of pigments from Aula Leopoldina vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, R.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Marczak, J.; Sarzynski, A.

    2009-07-01

    Aula Leopoldina is the most representative, baroque hall in Wroclaw University. In 2008, LIBS measurements of paintings layers of Aula vault were done. LIBS spectra permitted identification of mineral pigments used for specific colors of painting layers. This identification could not be unambiguous in each case since simultaneous occurrence of elements that could be components of different pigments of the same color was observed in some samples. For example, in some red samples the presence of aluminum and iron was stated, and hence red ochre or Mars red could be used as a pigment. In other samples the cinnabar can be additionally responsible for red color. Similar problems were observed in case of blue pigments, where existence of copper may show that azurite was used, but the presence of aluminum, sodium, silicon and iron can point to application of ultramarine, Egyptian or Prussian blues. The greatest difficulties occurred during identification of white pigments. Because of presence of barium, zinc, lead and titanium, the potential pigments might be lithopone, barite, zinc white, lead white or titanium white. Final choice of the pigment is determined by the time of last renovation and this points out that the zinc white was used.

  10. Visibly healthy corals exhibit variable pigment concentrations and symbiont phenotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apprill, A. M.; Bidigare, R. R.; Gates, R. D.

    2007-06-01

    Understanding the natural variability of photosynthetic pigment ranges and distributions in healthy corals is central to evaluating how useful these measurements are for assessing the health and bleaching status of endosymbiotic reef-building corals. This study examined the photosynthetic pigment variability in visibly healthy Porites lobata and Porites lutea corals from Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii and explored whether pigment variability was related to the genetic identity or phenotypic characteristics of the symbionts. Concentrations of the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a, peridinin, chlorophyll c 2 , diadinoxanthin, diatoxanthin, β,β-carotene and dinoxanthin were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Pigment concentrations were found to range 1.5-10 fold in colonies of each species at similar depths (0-2, 2-4, 10-15 and 19-21 m). Despite the high pigment variability, pigment ratios for each species were relatively conserved over the 0-21 m depth gradient. The genetic identity of the symbiont communities was examined for each colony using 18S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphisms. All colonies contained symbionts belonging to clade C. The density and phenotypic characteristics of the symbionts were explored using flow cytometry, and fluorescence and side scatter (cell size) properties revealed phenotypically distinct symbiont subpopulations in every colony. The symbiont subpopulations displayed pigment trends that may be driven by acclimatization to irradiance microenvironments within the host. These results highlight the biological complexity of healthy coral-symbiont associations and the need for future research on pigments and symbiont subpopulation dynamics.

  11. Some properties of a photodynamic pigment from Blepharisma.

    PubMed

    GIESE, A C

    1953-11-20

    1. A pigment can be extracted from Blepharisma undulans by heat treatment of a concentrated suspension of the deeply pigmented animals. 2. In the presence of this pigment, various colorless protozoans are sensitized to light and killed if exposed long enough. The protozoans show a differential sensitivity, some being much more sensitive than others. 3. Bleached colorless blepharismas are not sensitized to their own pigment even after prolonged exposure in the most concentrated solutions available. 4. Blepharisma is also less sensitive than any of the protozoans tested to such photodynamic dyes as rose bengal. 5. The pigment is not extracted from wet blepharismas by non-polar solvents, but is readily extracted into such polar organic solvents as the alcohols. 6. When the alcohol extract is dried, the amorphous residue is readily soluble in a variety of organic solvents, but not in the most non-polar. 7. The pigment is highly stable in alcohol extract and has been kept in the dark for years. 8. The pigment is bleached by light in a photooxidation. 9. Absorption maxima are found at wave lengths 5800, 5400, 4800, and 3300 A, the latter being the largest. Similar peaks are found in alcohol and water solutions, although the heights are not exactly the same. In both alcoholic and aqueous solutions pH had an effect on the absorption spectrum. Heat has little effect but illumination with intense visible light or exposure to ultraviolet light bleaches the pigment with decreases in the characteristic peaks. 10. Preliminary absorption column experiments indicate a single pigment in the alcohol extract. 11. Experiments on the migration of zoopurpurin in agar and gelatin gels indicate that it diffuses at about the same rate as eosin and is therefore probably not a large molecule.

  12. Mineral resource of the month: iron oxide pigments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses iron oxide pigments, which have been used as colorants since human began painting as they resist color change due to sunlight exposure, have good chemical resistance and are stable under normal ambient conditions. Cyprus, Italy and Spain are among the countries that are known for the production of iron oxide pigments. Granular forms of iron oxides and nano-sized materials are cited as developments in the synthetic iron oxide pigment industry which are being used in computer disk drives and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

  13. Airborne pigmented contact dermatitis due to musk ambrette in incense.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, R; Matsunaga, K; Arima, Y

    1987-02-01

    We reported 2 patients with pigmented contact dermatitis caused by occupational airborne contactants, whitening dyes in clothes and formaldehyde in packing adhesive tapes. A women developed airborne pigmented contact dermatitis due to musk ambrette in incense. Patch testing confirmed the diagnosis. Since olden times, people in Japan have burnt incense when they worshipped their ancestors. Recently, it has been in fashion to enjoy perfumes and people may burn incense all day long every day. Our patient burnt 2 kinds of incense every day for about 5 years. We assumed musk ambrette was volatilized when incense was burnt, and contact on her face being dissolved in sebum, thus inducing allergic pigmented contact dermatitis.

  14. Passivation of pigment particles for thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, E. P.; Sancier, K. M.; Morrison, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    Five powders were received for plasma calcining during this report period. The particle size using a fluid energy mill, and obtained pigments that could be plasma calcined. Optimum results are obtained in the plasma calcining of zinc orthotitanate when finely dispersed particles are subjected to a calculated plasma temperature of 1670 C. Increasing the plasma calcining time by using multiple passes through the plasma stabilized the pigment to vacuum UV irradiation was evidenced by the resulting ESR spectra but slightly decreased the whiteness of the pigment. The observed darkening is apparently associated with the formation of Ti(+3) color centers.

  15. The extraction of pigments from fresh Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liqun; Li, Pengcheng; Fan, Shoujin

    2008-05-01

    The pigments in Laminaria japonica was extracted with six organic solvents and analyzed in spectroscopy analysis. The extractions conditions were screened by an orthogonal test and the quantity of extracted pigments was determined spectroscopically. The results show that: (1) among the six organic solvents, acetone was the most effective one for the extraction; (2) the optimum extraction conditions were as follows: the ratio of S/M (solvent volume/ material weight) was 30 ml/g; fresh seaweed was extracted 2 times in 2 h; (3) the average total content of pigments was 1.85 mg/g (calculated with dry L. japonica).

  16. Radiative properties of a painted layer containing nonspherical pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafey, H. M.; Kunitomo, T.

    1980-07-01

    The radiative properties of a painted layer containing nonspherical pigment particles are studied theoretically. The scattering properties are calculated using a new method based on the volume integral form of Maxwell's equations. The radiative transfer is treated by Chandrasekhar's theory. The effects of the optical properties of the pigment and the optical thickness are examined. It is found that the assumption for nonspherical pigments having the scattering properties calculated by the Mie theory for equivalent spherical particles leads to a considerable error in predicting the reflectances of an optically thin layer, and a small error in the case of a thick layer.

  17. Effect of light on growth, intracellular and extracellular pigment production by five pigment-producing filamentous fungi in synthetic medium.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Lee, Yong Hoon; Venil, Chidambaram Kulandaisamy; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, Perumalsamy; Chae, Jong-Chan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2010-04-01

    The competence of the living creatures to sense and respond to light is well known. The effect of darkness and different color light quality on biomass, extracellular and intracellular pigment yield of five potent pigment producers Monascus purpureus, Isaria farinosa, Emericella nidulans, Fusarium verticillioides and Penicillium purpurogenum, with different color shades such as red, pink, reddish brown and yellow, were investigated. Incubation in total darkness increased the biomass, extracellular and intracellular pigment production in all the fungi. Extracellular red pigment produced by M. purpureus resulted maximum in darkness 36.75 + or - 2.1 OD and minimum in white unscreened light 5.90 + or - 1.1 OD. Similarly, intracellular red pigment produced by M. purpureus resulted maximum in darkness 18.27 + or - 0.9 OD/g and minimum in yellow light 8.03 + or - 0.6 OD/g of substrate. The maximum biomass production was also noticed in darkness 2.51 g/L and minimum in yellow light 0.5 g/L of dry weight. In contrast, growth of fungi in green and yellow wavelengths resulted in low biomass and pigment yield. It was found that darkness, (red 780-622 nm, blue 492-455 nm) and white light influenced pigment and biomass yield. PMID:20226375

  18. Reduced Number of Pigmented Neurons in the Substantia Nigra of Dystonia Patients? Findings from Extensive Neuropathologic, Immunohistochemistry, and Quantitative Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Iacono, Diego; Geraci-Erck, Maria; Peng, Hui; Rabin, Marcie L.; Kurlan, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Background Dystonias (Dys) represent the third most common movement disorder after essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD). While some pathogenetic mechanisms and genetic causes of Dys have been identified, little is known about their neuropathologic features. Previous neuropathologic studies have reported generically defined neuronal loss in various cerebral regions of Dys brains, mostly in the basal ganglia (BG), and specifically in the substantia nigra (SN). Enlarged pigmented neurons in the SN of Dys patients with and without specific genetic mutations (e.g., GAG deletions in DYT1 dystonia) have also been described. Whether or not Dys brains are associated with decreased numbers or other morphometric changes of specific neuronal types is unknown and has never been addressed with quantitative methodologies. Methods Quantitative immunohistochemistry protocols were used to estimate neuronal counts and volumes of nigral pigmented neurons in 13 SN of Dys patients and 13 SN of age-matched control subjects (C). Results We observed a significant reduction (∼20%) of pigmented neurons in the SN of Dys compared to C (p<0.01). Neither significant volumetric changes nor evident neurodegenerative signs were observed in the remaining pool of nigral pigmented neurons in Dys brains. These novel quantitative findings were confirmed after exclusion of possible co-occurring SN pathologies including Lewy pathology, tau-neurofibrillary tangles, β-amyloid deposits, ubiquitin (ubiq), and phosphorylated-TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (pTDP43)-positive inclusions. Discussion A reduced number of nigral pigmented neurons in the absence of evident neurodegenerative signs in Dys brains could indicate previously unconsidered pathogenetic mechanisms of Dys such as neurodevelopmental defects in the SN. PMID:26069855

  19. Bactobilin: blue bile pigment isolated from Clostridium tetanomorphum.

    PubMed Central

    Brumm, P J; Fried, J; Friedmann, H C

    1983-01-01

    A blue bile pigment, possessing four acetic and four propionic acid side chains has been isolated from extracts of the anaerobic microorganism Clostridium tetanomorphum and in smaller amounts from Propionibacterium shermanii. The compound could be prepared in larger amounts by incubation of C. tetanomorphum enzyme extracts with added delta-aminolevulinic acid. The ultraviolet-visible, infrared, and proton magnetic resonance spectra of the pigment indicate a chromophore of the biliverdin type. Field-desorption mass spectrometry of the purified methyl ester showed a strong molecular ion at m/e = 962. This corresponds to the molecular weight expected for the octamethyl ester of a bilatriene type of bile pigment structurally derived from uroporphyrin III or I. Of the five possible structures, two could be eliminated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The name bactobilin is proposed for this previously unreported bile pigment. PMID:6575387

  20. Resonant imaging of carotenoid pigments in the human retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellermann, Werner; Emakov, Igor V.; McClane, Robert W.

    2002-06-01

    We have generated high spatial resolution images showing the distribution of carotenoid macular pigments in the human retina using Raman spectroscopy. A low level of macular pigments is associated with an increased risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Using excised human eyecups and resonant excitation of the pigment molecules with narrow bandwidth blue light from a mercury arc lamp, we record Raman images originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of lutein and zeaxanthin, the carotenoids comprising human macular pigments. Our Raman images reveal significant differences among subjects, both in regard to absolute levels as well as spatial distribution within the macula. Since the light levels used to obtain these images are well below established safety limits, this technique holds promise for developing a rapid screening diagnostic in large populations at risk for vision loss from age-related macular degeneration.

  1. Effect of Amaranthus Pigments on Quality Characteristics of Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cunliu; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Hui; Chen, Conggui

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the possibility of substituting Amaranthus pigments for nitrates in the of manufacture pork sausage. Five treatments of pork sausages (5% fat) with two levels of sodium nitrite (0 and 0.015%), or three levels (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%) of pigments extracted from red Amaranthus were produced. The addition of Amaranthus pigments resulted in the significant increase of a* values, sensory color, flavor and overall acceptance scores, but the significant reduction of b* values, TBA values and VBN values (p<0.05). Based mainly on the results of overall acceptance during 29 d storage, it could be concluded that Amaranthus pigments showed a potential as nitrite alternative for pork sausage manufacture. PMID:25049507

  2. Nematicidal activity of microbial pigment from Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Rahul, Suryawanshi; Chandrashekhar, Patil; Hemant, Borase; Chandrakant, Narkhede; Laxmikant, Shinde; Satish, Patil

    2014-01-01

    Ineffectiveness of available nematicides and the high damage caused by plant-parasitic nematodes result in the urgent need to find some natural remedy for their control. Bioactivity of the pigment extracted from Serratia marcescens was screened for controlling nematodes at their juvenile stage. Test pigment was found effective against juvenile stages of Radopholus similis and Meloidogyne javanica at low concentrations (LC50 values, 83 and 79 μg/mL, respectively) as compared with positive control of copper sulphate (LC50 values, 380 and 280 μg/mL, respectively). The pigment also exhibited inhibition on nematode egg-hatching ability. Characterisation of extracted pigment with TLC, FTIR, HPLC, HPTLC and spectroscopic analysis confirmed the presence of prodigiosin as a bioactive metabolite. Considering the sensory mechanism of pathogen recognition by nematodes, the use of microbial secondary metabolites can be effective for nematode control rather than using whole organism.

  3. 21 CFR 73.3128 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pigments listed in paragraph (a) of this section may be used as a color additive in contact lenses in... contact lenses in which the additive is used. (c) Labeling. The label of the color additive shall...

  4. Defensive function of pigment granules in Blepharisma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Miyake, A; Harumoto, T; Salvi, B; Rivola, V

    1990-06-29

    The defensive function of pigment granules in the red heterotrichous ciliate Blepharisma japonicum was studied by comparing normally-pigmented red cells, albino mutant cells and light-bleached cells (a phenocopy of the albino mutant) as prey for a carnivorous ciliate Dileptus margaritifer. Albino and bleached cells were eaten more readily than red cells by dilepti. Under certain conditions, dilepti were killed by red cells, but not by albino and light-bleached cells. The cell-free fluid of red cells, but not of albino and bleached cells, was toxic to dilepti. We conclude that one of the functions of pigment granules in B. japonicum is defense against predators. The offense-defense interaction between D. margaritifer and B. japonicum is, therefore, mediated by their extrusomes, toxicysts in the former and pigment granules in the latter. Other extrusomes of unknown function might also participate in offense-defense cell-cell interaction in protists.

  5. Cellulosic/wool pigment prints with remarkable antibacterial functionalities.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, N A; Eid, B M; Khalil, H M

    2015-01-22

    Several bio-active agents namely choline chloride, triclosan derivative, PEG-600 and 4-hydroxybenzophenone were successfully included into solvent-free pigment formulations, in a single-stage process, followed by screen printing and microwave-fixation to obtain antibacterial functionalized cellulosic/wool pigment prints. Results obtained signify that both the improvement in functionalization and coloration properties are governed by type of antibacterial agent, kind of substrate as well as pigment colorant. The imparted antibacterial activity of the loaded bio-active agents follows the decreasing order: G+ve (Staphylococcus aureus)>G-ve (Escherichia coli), keeping other parameters constant. The imparted functional and coloration properties showed no significant decrease even after 15 washings. Mode of interactions among the nominated substrates, the pigment paste constituents and the bioactive agents were also proposed. PMID:25439932

  6. Cellulosic/wool pigment prints with remarkable antibacterial functionalities.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, N A; Eid, B M; Khalil, H M

    2015-01-22

    Several bio-active agents namely choline chloride, triclosan derivative, PEG-600 and 4-hydroxybenzophenone were successfully included into solvent-free pigment formulations, in a single-stage process, followed by screen printing and microwave-fixation to obtain antibacterial functionalized cellulosic/wool pigment prints. Results obtained signify that both the improvement in functionalization and coloration properties are governed by type of antibacterial agent, kind of substrate as well as pigment colorant. The imparted antibacterial activity of the loaded bio-active agents follows the decreasing order: G+ve (Staphylococcus aureus)>G-ve (Escherichia coli), keeping other parameters constant. The imparted functional and coloration properties showed no significant decrease even after 15 washings. Mode of interactions among the nominated substrates, the pigment paste constituents and the bioactive agents were also proposed.

  7. The new carotenoid pigment moraxanthin is associated with toxic microalgae.

    PubMed

    Mangoni, Olga; Imperatore, Concetta; Tomas, Carmelo R; Costantino, Valeria; Saggiomo, Vincenzo; Mangoni, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    The new pigment "moraxanthin" was found in natural samples from a fish mortality site in the Inland Bays of Delaware, USA. Pure cultures of the species, tentatively named Chattonella cf. verruculosa, and natural samples contained this pigment as a dominant carotenoid. The pigment, obtained from a 10 L culture of C. cf. verruculosa, was isolated and harvested by HPLC and its structure determined from MS and 1D- and 2D-NMR. The data identified this pigment as a new acylated form of vaucheriaxanthin called moraxanthin after the berry like algal cell. Its presence in pure cultures and in natural bloom samples indicates that moraxanthin is specific to C. cf. verruculosa and can be used as a marker of its presence when HPLC is used to analyze natural blooms samples. PMID:21566797

  8. Polyketides, Toxins and Pigments in Penicillium marneffei

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Emily W. T.; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei (synonym: Talaromyces marneffei) is the most important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus in China and Southeastern Asia. The HIV/AIDS pandemic, particularly in China and other Southeast Asian countries, has led to the emergence of P. marneffei infection as an important AIDS-defining condition. Recently, we published the genome sequence of P. marneffei. In the P. marneffei genome, 23 polyketide synthase genes and two polyketide synthase-non-ribosomal peptide synthase hybrid genes were identified. This number is much higher than those of Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum, important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungi in the Western world. Phylogenetically, these polyketide synthase genes were distributed evenly with their counterparts found in Aspergillus species and other fungi, suggesting that polyketide synthases in P. marneffei did not diverge from lineage-specific gene duplication through a recent expansion. Gene knockdown experiments and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector/electrospray ionization-quadruple time of flight-mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that at least four of the polyketide synthase genes were involved in the biosynthesis of various pigments in P. marneffei, including melanin, mitorubrinic acid, mitorubrinol, monascorubrin, rubropunctatin, citrinin and ankaflavin, some of which were mycotoxins and virulence factors of the fungus. PMID:26529013

  9. Macular pigment assessment by motion photometry.

    PubMed

    Moreland, J D

    2004-10-15

    A Moreland anomaloscope was modified to measure macular pigment optical density (MPOD) profiles by motion photometry. A grating (spatial frequency 0.38 c deg(-1)), whose alternate bars were filled, respectively, with 460 nm (maximum MP absorption) and 580 nm (zero MP absorption) lights, drifted steadily at 37 degrees s(-1). The subject adjusted the 580 nm radiance to minimise perceived motion (equiluminance between 460 and 580 nm). Five or more settings were made for two foveal fields (0.9 degrees and 2.2 degrees diameter) and 11 extrafoveal annular fields (0.8 degrees -7.5 degrees eccentricity). Twenty subjects made measurements for both eyes: some with replications. MPOD profiles varied in scale (0.18-0.75 for the 0.9 degrees foveal field) and in shape. A mean profile was derived. Foveal data were optimally aligned with annular data in that profile when plotted at 0.71 of the foveal field radius. Factors that limit precision were identified, such as fixation errors foveally and Troxler's effect parafoveally.

  10. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. PMID:26370651

  11. Polyketides, toxins and pigments in Penicillium marneffei.

    PubMed

    Tam, Emily W T; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-10-30

    Penicillium marneffei (synonym: Talaromyces marneffei) is the most important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus in China and Southeastern Asia. The HIV/AIDS pandemic, particularly in China and other Southeast Asian countries, has led to the emergence of P. marneffei infection as an important AIDS-defining condition. Recently, we published the genome sequence of P. marneffei. In the P. marneffei genome, 23 polyketide synthase genes and two polyketide synthase-non-ribosomal peptide synthase hybrid genes were identified. This number is much higher than those of Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum, important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungi in the Western world. Phylogenetically, these polyketide synthase genes were distributed evenly with their counterparts found in Aspergillus species and other fungi, suggesting that polyketide synthases in P. marneffei did not diverge from lineage-specific gene duplication through a recent expansion. Gene knockdown experiments and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector/electrospray ionization-quadruple time of flight-mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that at least four of the polyketide synthase genes were involved in the biosynthesis of various pigments in P. marneffei, including melanin, mitorubrinic acid, mitorubrinol, monascorubrin, rubropunctatin, citrinin and ankaflavin, some of which were mycotoxins and virulence factors of the fungus.

  12. Glucose metabolism in rat retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Coffe, Víctor; Carbajal, Raymundo C; Salceda, Rocío

    2006-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the major transport pathway for exchange of metabolites and ions between choroidal blood supply and the neural retina. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism in RPE and its possible relationship to retinopathy, we studied the influence of different glucose concentrations on glycogen and lactate levels and CO(2) production in RPE from normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Incubation of normal RPE in the absence of glucose caused a decrease in lactate production and glycogen content. In normal RPE, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6 mM to 30 mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO(2) yield, as well as reduction in lactate and glycogen production. In RPE from diabetic rats glucose accumulation did not increase in the presence of high glucose substrate, but it showed a four- and a seven-fold increase in CO(2) production through the mitochondrial and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. We found high glycogen levels in RPE which can be used as an energy reserve for RPE itself and/or neural retina. Findings further show that the RPE possesses a high oxidative capacity. The large increase in glucose shunting to the pentose phosphate pathway in diabetic retina exposed to high glucose suggests a need for reducing capacity, consistent with increased oxidative stress. PMID:16475003

  13. Fluorescent pigments in corals are photoprotective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Anya; Larkum, Anthony; Cox, Guy; Kühl, Michael; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2000-12-01

    All reef-forming corals depend on the photosynthesis performed by their algal symbiont, and such corals are therefore restricted to the photic zone. The intensity of light in this zone declines over several orders of magnitude-from high and damaging levels at the surface to extreme shade conditions at the lower limit. The ability of corals to tolerate this range implies effective mechanisms for light acclimation and adaptation. Here we show that the fluorescent pigments (FPs) of corals provide a photobiological system for regulating the light environment of coral host tissue. Previous studies have suggested that under low light, FPs may enhance light availability. We now report that in excessive sunlight FPs are photoprotective; they achieve this by dissipating excess energy at wavelengths of low photosynthetic activity, as well as by reflecting of visible and infrared light by FP-containing chromatophores. We also show that FPs enhance the resistance to mass bleaching of corals during periods of heat stress, which has implications for the effect of environmental stress on the diversity of reef-building corals, such as enhanced survival of a broad range of corals allowing maintenance of habitat diversity.

  14. The red pigment prodigiosin is not an essential virulence factor in entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Li, JingHua; Chen, Jie; Liu, XiaoYuan; Xiang, TingTing; Zhang, Lin; Wan, YongJi

    2016-05-01

    Although pigments produced by pathogenic microbes are generally hypothesized as essential virulence factors, the role of red pigment prodigiosin in the pathogenesis of entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens is not clear. In this study, we analyzed the pathogenicity of different pigmented S. marcescens strains and their non-pigmented mutants in silkworms. Each pigmented strain and the corresponding non-pigmented mutants showed very similar LD50 value (statistically no difference), but caused very different symptom (color of the dead larva). Our results clearly indicated that the red pigment prodigiosin is not an essential virulence factor in entomopathogenic S. marcescens.

  15. Color stability of thermochromic pigment in maxillofacial silicone

    PubMed Central

    Lassila, Lippo V.J.; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Valittu, Pekka K.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Maxillofacial silicone elastomer is usually colored intrinsically with color pigments to match skin colors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the color stability of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer, colored with a thermochromic, color changing pigment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disc-shaped maxillofacial silicone specimens were prepared and divided into 3 groups: a conventionally colored control group, one group additionally colored with 0.2 wt% thermochromic pigment , and one group with 0.6 wt% thermochromic pigment. Half of the surface of each specimen was covered with an aluminium foil. All of the specimens were exposed to UV radiation in 6 hour cycles over 46 days. In between the UV exposures, half of the specimens were stored in darkness, at room temperature, and the other half was stored in an incubator, at a humidity of 97% and a temperature of +37℃. Color measurements were made with a spectrophotometer and registered according to the CIELAB L*a*b* color model system. The changes in L*, a* and b* values during artificial aging were statistically analyzed by using paired samples t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. P-values <.05 were considered as statistically significant. RESULTS The UV exposure resulted in visually noticeable and statistically significant color changes in the L*, a* and b* values in both of the test groups containing thermochromic pigment. Storage in the incubator lead to statistically significant color changes in the a* and b* values of the specimens containing thermochromic pigment, compared to those stored at room temperature. CONCLUSION The specimens containing thermochromic pigment were very sensitive to UV radiation, and the thermochromic pigment is not suitable, as such, to be used in maxillofacial prostheses. PMID:23755330

  16. Pigment compositions are linked to the habitat types in dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Norico; Tanaka, Ayumi; Horiguchi, Takeo

    2015-11-01

    Compared to planktonic species, there is little known about the ecology, physiology, and existence of benthic dinoflagellates living in sandy beach or seafloor environments. In a previous study, we discovered 13(2),17(3)-cyclopheophorbide a enol (cPPB-aE) from sand-dwelling benthic dinoflagellates. This enol had never been detected in phytoplankton despite the fact that it is a chlorophyll a catabolite. We speculated from this discovery that habitat selection might be linked to pigment compositions in dinoflagellates. To test the hypothesis of habitat selection linking to pigment compositions, we conducted extensive analysis of pigments with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for 40 species using 45 strains of dinoflagellates including three habitat types; sand-dwelling benthic forms, tidal pool inhabitants and planktonic species. The 40 dinoflagellates are also able to be distinguished into two types based on their chloroplast origins; red alga-derived secondary chloroplasts and diatom-derived tertiary ones. By plotting the pigments profiles onto three habitats, we noticed that twelve pigments including cPPB-aE were found to occur only in benthic sand-dwelling species of red alga-derived type. The similar tendency was also observed in dinoflagellates with diatom-derived chloroplasts, i.e. additional sixteen pigments including chl c 3 were found only in sand-dwelling forms. This is the first report of the occurrence of chl c 3 in dinoflagellates with diatom-derived chloroplasts. These results clarify that far greater diversity of pigments are produced by the dinoflagellates living in sand regardless of chloroplast types relative to those of planktonic and tidal pool forms. Dinoflagellates seem to produce a part of their pigments in response to their habitats. PMID:26243150

  17. Chemical purity and toxicology of pigments used in tattoo inks.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Henrik; Lewe, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The safety of tattoo inks has obviously increased in Europe since the existence of European Union Resolution ResAP(2008)1, which resulted in the improved quality control of pigment raw materials due to the definition of impurity limits that manufacturers can refer to. High-performance pigments are mostly used in tattoo inks, and these pigments are supposed to be chemically inert and offer high light fastness and low migration in solvents. However, these pigments were not developed or produced for applications involving long-term stay in the dermis or contact with bodily fluids. Therefore, these pigments often do not comply with the purity limits of the resolution; however, it is required that every distributed tattoo ink does not contain aromatic amines and not exceed the limits of heavy metals or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Current toxicity studies of pigments underline that no ecotoxicological threat to human health or to the environment should be expected. However, the pigment as well as its impurities and coating materials must be considered. In order to evaluate the safety of pigments according to their impurities, two different validated sample preparation methods are necessary: (1) simulation of their long-term stay in the bodily fluid of the dermis and (2) simulation of cleavage due to laser removal or ultraviolet exposure. The development of standardized, validated and well-adapted methods for this application has to be part of prospective efforts. Concerning legislation, it might be appropriate that the first regulative approaches be based on those of cosmetics. PMID:25833635

  18. BLEPHARISMA INTERMEDIUM: ULTRAVIOLET RESISTANCE OF PIGMENTED AND ALBINO CLONES.

    PubMed

    GIESE, A C

    1965-07-30

    An albino mutant of Blepharisma intermedium is much more sensitive (on the basis of time to regeneration of transected cells) to short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation than the wild type (containing a reddish pigment) from which the mutant derived. In the wild type, absorption of ultraviolet light by the pigment present in the outer surface of the cell presumably reduces the intensity of the radiation impinging on the vulnerable interior.

  19. Irgasan-induced pigmentation in Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kranz, R G; Lynch, D L

    1979-01-01

    Two irgasan-resistant micro-organisms (P. aeruginosa and S. marcescens) were used to study the effects of various antibiotic and chemotherapeutic agents on pigment production. These agents included streptomycin, thallium acetate, polymyxin B, hexachlorophene, irgasan, prodigiosin and DMSO (dimethyl sulphoxide). Only irgasan, compared to other drugs and membrane-active agents showed the unique property of inducing pigmentation in both P. aeruginosa and S. marcescens, i.e. prodigiosin in S. marcescens and pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa.

  20. Pigmented choroidal nevus in a child with oculocutaneous albinism.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priya; Kaliki, Swathi; Peña, Maria Soledad; Shields, Carol L

    2013-04-01

    We report the case of an 8-year-old white girl with albinism and a flat pigmented choroidal lesion in the left eye measuring 0.5 mm in diameter. There was no subretinal fluid, lipofuscin, or drusen. The patient later displayed 10 lightly-pigmented cutaneous nevi on her upper chest, left arm, and right leg at 8 months' follow-up. The choroidal nevus showed minimal change over 2 years. PMID:23352722

  1. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Bipolar Disorder Print A A ... Bipolar Disorder en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions ...

  2. Characterization of melanin pigment produced by Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, R C R; Lisboa, H C F; Pombeiro-Sponchiado, S R

    2012-04-01

    Although most of the Ascomycetes present DHN-melanin, some reports suggest that A. nidulans does not produce this type of melanin. In this study, we analyzed the pigment extracted from highly melanized strains (MEL1 and MEL2) of Aspergillus nidulans to determine the type of melanin present in this fungus. Our results showed that the pigment produced by MEL1 and MEL2 mutants possesses physical and chemical properties and UV- and IR-spectra very similar to synthetic DOPA-melanin. The characterization of this pigment in terms of its degradation products indicated the presence of indolic units, which were also found in synthetic DOPA-melanin. The analyses of the elemental composition showed that the pigment extracted from these mutants has a high percentage of nitrogen and, therefore, it cannot be DHN-melanin, which presents only trace of nitrogen. This observation was confirmed in the test with tricyclazole because this inhibitor of DHN-melanin biosynthesis did not suppress pigment production in the MEL1 and MEL2 strains. On the other hand, in a medium containing tropolone, an inhibitor of DOPA-melanin biosynthesis, the dark pigmentation of the colonies was not observed indicating that this compound inhibited melanin production in these strains. Taken together, the results obtained in this study indicate that melanin produced by these mutants is DOPA type, representing the first report on characterization of this type of melanin in A. nidulans.

  3. Distribution of unique red feather pigments in parrots

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Kevin J; Nogare, Mary C

    2005-01-01

    In many birds, red, orange and yellow feathers are coloured by carotenoid pigments, but parrots are an exception. For over a century, biochemists have known that parrots use an unusual set of pigments to produce their rainbow of plumage colours, but their biochemical identity has remained elusive until recently. Here, we use high-performance liquid chromatography to survey the pigments present in the red feathers of 44 species of parrots representing each of the three psittaciform families. We found that all species used the same suite of five polyenal lipochromes (or psittacofulvins) to colour their plumage red, indicating that this unique system of pigmentation is remarkably conserved evolutionarily in parrots. Species with redder feathers had higher concentrations of psittacofulvins in their plumage, but neither feather colouration nor historical relatedness predicted the ratios in which the different pigments appeared. These polyenes were absent from blood at the time when birds were replacing their colourful feathers, suggesting that parrots do not acquire red plumage pigments from the diet, but instead manufacture them endogenously at growing feathers. PMID:17148123

  4. Production of diagnostic pigment by phenoloxidase activity of cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C E; Kapica, L

    1972-11-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans produces brown pigmented colonies when grown on agar media made from an extract of potatoes and carrots, broad beans (Vicia faba), or Guizotia abyssinica seeds. Since other yeasts do not produce the pigment, these media are useful as differential isolation media for C. neoformans. Similar specific pigment was produced by C. neoformans on chemically defined agar media which contained six different substrates of phenoloxidase (o-diphenol: oxygen oxidoreductase EC 1.10.3.1) an enzyme which catalyses the oxidation of o-diphenols to melanin. Substrates were incorporated singly into the media and included L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechol, norepinephrine, and 3-hydroxytyramine hydrochloride (dopamine). No pigment was produced on media without substrate. Phenoloxidase activity in (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitates of C. neoformans cell-free extract was assayed by measuring increases in absorbance at 480 nm produced in solutions of L-DOPA. This reaction showed oxygen uptake and was effectively inhibited by copper chelators, but not by catalase. The enzyme also oxidized the five other substrates which induced pigment formation. Electron micrographs of cells incubated in L-DOPA showed deposition of the pigment in the cell wall. PMID:4118328

  5. [Photoreceptors and visual pigments in three species of newts].

    PubMed

    Koremiak, D A; Govardovskiĭ, V I

    2013-01-01

    Photoreceptor complement and retinal visual pigments in three newt (Caudata, Salamandridae, Pleurodelinae) species (Pleurodeles waltl, Lissotriton (Triturus) vulgaris and Cynops orientalis) were studied by light mucroscopy and microspectrophotometry. Retinas of all three species contain "red" (rhodopsin/porphyropsin) rods, large and small single cones, and double cones. Large single cones and both components of double cones contain red-sensitive (presumably LWS) visual pigment whose absorbance spectrum peaks between 593 and 611 nm. Small single cones are either blue- (SWS2, maximum absorbance between 470 and 489 nm) or UV-sensitive (SWS1, maximum absorbance between 340 and 359 nm). Chromophore composition of visual pigments (A1 vs. A2) was assessed both from template fitting of absorption spectra and by the method of selective bleaching. All pigments contained a mixture of A1 (11-cis retinal) and A2 (11-cis-3,4-dehydroretinal) chromophore in the proportion depending on the species and cell type. In all cases, A2 was dominant. However, in C. orientalis rods the fraction of A1 could reach 45%, while in P. waltl and L. vulgaris cones it did not exceed 5%. Remarkably, the absorbance of the newt blue-sensitive visual pigment was shifted by up to 45 nm toward the longer wavelength, as compared with all other amphibian SWS2-pigments. We found no "green" rods typical of retinas of Anura and some Caudata (ambystomas) in the three newt species studied. PMID:24459859

  6. Production and chemical characterization of pigments in filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Souza, Patrícia Nirlane da Costa; Grigoletto, Tahuana Luiza Bim; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Abreu, Lucas M; Guimarães, Luís Henrique Souza; Santos, Cledir; Galvão, Luciano Ribeiro; Cardoso, Patrícia Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Production of pigments by filamentous fungi is gaining interest owing to their use as food colourants, in cosmetics and textiles, and because of the important biological activities of these compounds. In this context, the objectives of this study were to select pigment-producing fungi, identify these fungi based on internal transcribed spacer sequences, evaluate the growth and pigment production of the selected strains on four different media, and characterize the major coloured metabolites in their extracts. Of the selected fungal strains, eight were identified as Aspergillus sydowii (CML2967), Aspergillus aureolatus (CML2964), Aspergillus keveii (CML2968), Penicillium flavigenum (CML2965), Penicillium chermesinum (CML2966), Epicoccum nigrum (CML2971), Lecanicillium aphanocladii (CML2970) and Fusarium sp. (CML2969). Fungal pigment production was influenced by medium composition. Complex media, such as potato dextrose and malt extract, favoured increased pigment production. The coloured compounds oosporein, orevactaene and dihydrotrichodimerol were identified in extracts of L. aphanocladii (CML2970), E. nigrum (CML2971), and P. flavigenum (CML2965), respectively. These results indicate that the selected fungal strains can serve as novel sources of pigments that have important industrial applications.

  7. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Dembeck, Lauren M; Huang, Wen; Magwire, Michael M; Lawrence, Faye; Lyman, Richard F; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-05-01

    Pigmentation varies within and between species and is often adaptive. The amount of pigmentation on the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster is a relatively simple morphological trait, which serves as a model for mapping the genetic basis of variation in complex phenotypes. Here, we assessed natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in 175 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, derived from the Raleigh, NC population. We quantified the proportion of melanization on the two most posterior abdominal segments, tergites 5 and 6 (T5, T6). We found significant genetic variation in the proportion of melanization and high broad-sense heritabilities for each tergite. Genome-wide association studies identified over 150 DNA variants associated with the proportion of melanization on T5 (84), T6 (34), and the difference between T5 and T6 (35). Several of the top variants associated with variation in pigmentation are in tan, ebony, and bric-a-brac1, genes known to affect D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation. Mutational analyses and targeted RNAi-knockdown showed that 17 out of 28 (61%) novel candidate genes implicated by the genome-wide association study affected abdominal pigmentation. Several of these genes are involved in developmental and regulatory pathways, chitin production, cuticle structure, and vesicle formation and transport. These findings show that genetic variation may affect multiple steps in pathways involved in tergite development and melanization. Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster.

  8. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Dembeck, Lauren M.; Huang, Wen; Magwire, Michael M.; Lawrence, Faye; Lyman, Richard F.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentation varies within and between species and is often adaptive. The amount of pigmentation on the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster is a relatively simple morphological trait, which serves as a model for mapping the genetic basis of variation in complex phenotypes. Here, we assessed natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in 175 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, derived from the Raleigh, NC population. We quantified the proportion of melanization on the two most posterior abdominal segments, tergites 5 and 6 (T5, T6). We found significant genetic variation in the proportion of melanization and high broad-sense heritabilities for each tergite. Genome-wide association studies identified over 150 DNA variants associated with the proportion of melanization on T5 (84), T6 (34), and the difference between T5 and T6 (35). Several of the top variants associated with variation in pigmentation are in tan, ebony, and bric-a-brac1, genes known to affect D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation. Mutational analyses and targeted RNAi-knockdown showed that 17 out of 28 (61%) novel candidate genes implicated by the genome-wide association study affected abdominal pigmentation. Several of these genes are involved in developmental and regulatory pathways, chitin production, cuticle structure, and vesicle formation and transport. These findings show that genetic variation may affect multiple steps in pathways involved in tergite development and melanization. Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster. PMID:25933381

  9. [Photoreceptors and visual pigments in three species of newts].

    PubMed

    Koremiak, D A; Govardovskiĭ, V I

    2013-01-01

    Photoreceptor complement and retinal visual pigments in three newt (Caudata, Salamandridae, Pleurodelinae) species (Pleurodeles waltl, Lissotriton (Triturus) vulgaris and Cynops orientalis) were studied by light mucroscopy and microspectrophotometry. Retinas of all three species contain "red" (rhodopsin/porphyropsin) rods, large and small single cones, and double cones. Large single cones and both components of double cones contain red-sensitive (presumably LWS) visual pigment whose absorbance spectrum peaks between 593 and 611 nm. Small single cones are either blue- (SWS2, maximum absorbance between 470 and 489 nm) or UV-sensitive (SWS1, maximum absorbance between 340 and 359 nm). Chromophore composition of visual pigments (A1 vs. A2) was assessed both from template fitting of absorption spectra and by the method of selective bleaching. All pigments contained a mixture of A1 (11-cis retinal) and A2 (11-cis-3,4-dehydroretinal) chromophore in the proportion depending on the species and cell type. In all cases, A2 was dominant. However, in C. orientalis rods the fraction of A1 could reach 45%, while in P. waltl and L. vulgaris cones it did not exceed 5%. Remarkably, the absorbance of the newt blue-sensitive visual pigment was shifted by up to 45 nm toward the longer wavelength, as compared with all other amphibian SWS2-pigments. We found no "green" rods typical of retinas of Anura and some Caudata (ambystomas) in the three newt species studied.

  10. Host pigments: potential facilitators of photosynthesis in coral symbioses.

    PubMed

    Dove, Sophie G; Lovell, Carli; Fine, Maoz; Deckenback, Jeffry; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Anthony, Kenneth R N

    2008-11-01

    Reef-building corals occur as a range of colour morphs because of varying types and concentrations of pigments within the host tissues, but little is known about their physiological or ecological significance. Here, we examined whether specific host pigments act as an alternative mechanism for photoacclimation in the coral holobiont. We used the coral Montipora monasteriata (Forskål 1775) as a case study because it occurs in multiple colour morphs (tan, blue, brown, green and red) within varying light-habitat distributions. We demonstrated that two of the non-fluorescent host pigments are responsive to changes in external irradiance, with some host pigments up-regulating in response to elevated irradiance. This appeared to facilitate the retention of antennal chlorophyll by endosymbionts and hence, photosynthetic capacity. Specifically, net P(max) Chl a(-1) correlated strongly with the concentration of an orange-absorbing non-fluorescent pigment (CP-580). This had major implications for the energetics of bleached blue-pigmented (CP-580) colonies that maintained net P(max) cm(-2) by increasing P(max) Chl a(-1). The data suggested that blue morphs can bleach, decreasing their symbiont populations by an order of magnitude without compromising symbiont or coral health. PMID:18643952

  11. Effect of pretreatments on extraction of pigment from marigold flower.

    PubMed

    Sowbhagya, Halagur B; Sushma, S B; Rastogi, Navin K; Naidu, M Madhava

    2013-02-01

    Marigold flower (Tagetes erecta L) is one of the richest sources of xanthophylls. An enzymatic pretreatment method was developed for improved extraction of pigments from marigold flowers. Pretreatment with enzyme solution increased the diffusion coefficient from 1.56 x 10(-9) m(2)/s to 4.02 x 10(-9) m(2)/s and mass transfer coefficient from 0.14 h(-1) to 0.36 h(-1) coefficients. At the same time, dry yield, resin yield and pigment yield were also found to increase along with increased retention of colour. Sodium hydroxide or citric acid pretreatments increased the diffusion coefficient during drying, but resulted in lower dry yield due to loss of soluble compounds whereas, pigment yield was higher as compared to control. The enzyme treated and air dried sample, stored at 4 °C was found to be the most stable, as indicated by a low (0.0006 day(-1)) degradation constant. Pretreatment of marigold flowers with an aqueous enzyme solution (0.2%) results in improved resin, pigment yield and retention of pigment during storage. Pretreatment of marigold flowers with sodium hydroxide citric acid followed by hydraulic pressing resulted in a significant reduction of water and also indicated improved dry yield, resin yield and pigment yield as compared to control sample. PMID:24425896

  12. Laser therapy of pigmented lesions: pro and contra.

    PubMed

    Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Lipozenčić, Jasna; Ceović, Romana; Stulhofer Buzina, Daška; Kostović, Krešimir

    2010-01-01

    Although frequently performed, laser removal of pigmented lesions still contains certain controversial issues. Epidermal pigmented lesions include solar lentigines, ephelides, café au lait macules and seborrheic keratoses. Dermal lesions include melanocytic nevi, blue nevi, drug induced hyperpigmentation and nevus of Ota and Ito. Some lesions exhibit both an epidermal and dermal component like Becker's nevus, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, melasma and nevus spilus. Due to the wide absorption spectrum of melanin (500-1100 nm), several laser systems are effective in removal of pigmented lesions. These lasers include the pigmented lesion pulsed dye laser (510 nm), the Q-switched ruby laser (694 nm), the Q-switched alexandrite laser (755 nm) and the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), which can be frequency-doubled to produce visible green light with a wavelength of 532 nm. The results of laser therapy are usually successful. However, there are still many controversies regarding the use of lasers in treating certain pigmented lesions. Actually, the essential question in removing pigmented lesions with lasers is whether the lesion has atypical features or has a malignant potential. Dermoscopy, used as a routine first-level diagnostic technique, is helpful in most cases. If there is any doubt whether the lesion is benign, then a biopsy for histologic evaluation is obligatory.

  13. Mood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... older have mood disorders. These include depression and bipolar disorder (also called manic depression). Mood disorders can increase a person's risk for heart disease, diabetes, and other diseases. Treatments include medication, psychotherapy, ...

  14. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatments and Therapies Join a Study Learn More Eating Disorders Definition There is a commonly held view that ... can lead to stroke or heart attack Binge-eating disorder People with binge-eating disorder lose control over ...

  15. Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  16. TMJ Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... referred Sally and her parents to a local dentist who specialized in jaw disorders. After examining Sally ... having symptoms of a TMJ disorder, let your dentist know. The earlier a TMJ disorder is diagnosed ...

  17. Cerebellar Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... balance. Problems with the cerebellum include Cancer Genetic disorders Ataxias - failure of muscle control in the arms and legs that result in movement disorders Degeneration - disorders caused by brain cells decreasing in ...

  18. Cone pigment polymorphism in New World monkeys: are all pigments created equal?

    PubMed

    Rowe, Mickey P; Jacobs, Gerald H

    2004-01-01

    Most platyrrhine monkeys have a triallelic M/L opsin gene polymorphism that underlies significant individual variations in color vision. A survey of the frequencies of these polymorphic genes suggests that the three alleles occur with equal frequency among squirrel monkeys (subfamily Cebinae), but are not equally frequent in a number of species from the subfamily Callitrichinae. This departure from equal frequency in the Callitrichids should slightly increase the ratio of dichromats to trichromats in the population and significantly alter the relative representation of the three possible dichromatic and trichromatic phenotypes. A particular feature of the inequality is that it leads to a relative increase in the number of trichromats whose M/L pigments have the largest possible spectral separation. To assess whether these trichromatic phenotypes are equally well equipped to make relevant visual discriminations, psychophysical experiments were run on human observers. A technique involving the functional substitution of photopigments was used to simulate the discrimination between fruits among a background of leaves. The goal of the simulation was to reproduce in the cones of human observers excitations equivalent to those produced in monkey cones as the animals view fruit. Three different viewing conditions were examined involving variations in the relative luminances of fruit and leaves and the spectrum of the illuminant. In all cases, performance was best for simulated trichromacies including M/L pigments with the largest spectral separation. Thus, the inequality of opsin gene frequency in Callitrichid monkeys may reflect adaptive pressures. PMID:15518191

  19. Positive selection of a duplicated UV-sensitive visual pigment coincides with wing pigment evolution in Heliconius butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Briscoe, Adriana D.; Bybee, Seth M.; Bernard, Gary D.; Yuan, Furong; Sison-Mangus, Marilou P.; Reed, Robert D.; Warren, Andrew D.; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2010-01-01

    The butterfly Heliconius erato can see from the UV to the red part of the light spectrum with color vision proven from 440 to 640 nm. Its eye is known to contain three visual pigments, rhodopsins, produced by an 11-cis-3-hydroxyretinal chromophore together with long wavelength (LWRh), blue (BRh) and UV (UVRh1) opsins. We now find that H. erato has a second UV opsin mRNA (UVRh2)—a previously undescribed duplication of this gene among Lepidoptera. To investigate its evolutionary origin, we screened eye cDNAs from 14 butterfly species in the subfamily Heliconiinae and found both copies only among Heliconius. Phylogeny-based tests of selection indicate positive selection of UVRh2 following duplication, and some of the positively selected sites correspond to vertebrate visual pigment spectral tuning residues. Epi-microspectrophotometry reveals two UV-absorbing rhodopsins in the H. erato eye with λmax = 355 nm and 398 nm. Along with the additional UV opsin, Heliconius have also evolved 3-hydroxy-DL-kynurenine (3-OHK)-based yellow wing pigments not found in close relatives. Visual models of how butterflies perceive wing color variation indicate this has resulted in an expansion of the number of distinguishable yellow colors on Heliconius wings. Functional diversification of the UV-sensitive visual pigments may help explain why the yellow wing pigments of Heliconius are so colorful in the UV range compared to the yellow pigments of close relatives lacking the UV opsin duplicate. PMID:20133601

  20. Inhibitors of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to stimulated epidermal pigmentation: perspective of anti-pigmenting agents.

    PubMed

    Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

  1. A molecular investigation of adsorption onto mineral pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninness, Brian J.

    Pigment suspensions are important in several processes such as ceramics, paints, inks, and coatings. In the wet state, pigments are combined with a variety of chemical species such as polymers, surfactants, and polyelectrolytes which produce a complex colloidal system. The adsorption, desorption, and redistribution of these species at the pigment-aqueous solution interface can have an impact on the behavior in both the wet state or its final dried state. The goal of this work is to establish a molecular picture of the adsorption properties of these pigmented systems. A novel in situ infrared technique has been developed which allows the detection of adsorbed surface species on pigment particles in an aqueous environment. The technique involves the use of a polymeric binder to anchor the colloidal pigment particles to the surface of an internal reflection element (IRE). The binder only weakly perturbs about 25% of the reactive surface sites (hydroxyl groups) on silica. The reaction of succinic anhydride with an aminosilanized silica surface has been quantified using this technique. The adsorption dynamics of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB) at the TiO2-aqueous solution interface has been investigated using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and electrokinetic analysis. At low bulk concentrations, C16TAB is shown to adsorb as isolated islands with a "defective" bilayer structure. Anionic probe molecules are shown to effectively "tune" the adsorbed surfactant microstructure. The results indicate that the structure of the adsorbed surfactant layer, and not the amount of adsorbed surfactant, dictates the subsequent adsorption behavior of the system. Atomic Layer Deposition is used to deposit a TiO2 layer onto the surfaces of silica and kaolin pigments. The process involves the cyclic reaction sequence of the vapors of TiCl4 and H2O. Three complete deposition cycles are needed before the surfaces

  2. Tongue Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... more, written in everyday language. Home Mouth and Dental Disorders Lip and Tongue Disorders Burning Mouth Syndrome Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Lip Changes and Discoloration Lip Inflammation Lip ...

  3. Phonological disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Articulation disorder; Developmental articulation disorder; Speech distortion; Sound distortion ... and bones that are used to make speech sounds. These changes may include cleft palate and problems ...

  4. Melanocyte Stem Cells as Potential Therapeutics in Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Hee; Fisher, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Melanocytes produce pigment granules that color both skin and hair. In the hair follicles melanocytes are derived from stem cells (MelSC) that are present in hair bulges or sub-bulge regions and function as melanocyte reservoirs. Quiescence, maintenance, activation, and proliferation of MelSC are controlled by specific activities in the microenvironment that can influence the differentiation and regeneration of melanocytes. Therefore, understanding MelSC and their niche may lead to use of MelSC in new treatments for various pigmentation disorders. Areas covered We describe here pathophysiological mechanisms by which melanocyte defects lead to skin pigmentation disorders such as vitiligo and hair graying. The development, migration, and proliferation of melanocytes and factors involved in the survival, maintenance, and regeneration of MelSC are reviewed with regard to the biological roles and potential therapeutic applications in skin pigmentation diseases. Expert Opinion MelSC biology and niche factors have been studied mainly in murine experimental models. Human MelSC markers or methods to isolate them are much less well understood. Identification, isolation and culturing of human MelSC would represent a major step toward new biological therapeutic options for patients with recalcitrant pigmentary disorders or hair graying. By modulating the niche factors for MelSC it may one day be possible to control skin pigmentary disorders and prevent or reverse hair graying. PMID:25104310

  5. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  6. Any Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  7. Antisocial Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  8. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  9. Borderline Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  10. Coral Pigments: Quantification Using HPLC and Detection by Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottone, Mary C.

    1995-01-01

    Widespread coral bleaching (loss of pigments of symbiotic dinoflagellates), and the corresponding decline in coral reef health worldwide, mandates the monitoring of coral pigmentation. Samples of the corals Porites compressa and P. lobata were collected from a healthy reef at Puako, Hawaii, and chlorophyll (chl) a, peridinin, and Beta-carotene (Beta-car) were quantified using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detailed procedures are presented for the extraction of the coral pigments in 90% acetone, and the separation, identification, and quantification of the major zooxanthellar pigments using spectrophotometry and a modification of the HPLC system described by Mantoura and Llewellyn (1983). Beta-apo-8-carotenal was found to be inadequate as in internal standard, due to coelution with chl b and/or chl a allomer in the sample extracts. Improvements are suggested, which may result in better resolution of the major pigments and greater accuracy in quantification. Average concentrations of peridinin, chl a, and Beta-car in corals on the reef were 5.01, 8.59, and 0.29, micro-grams/cm(exp 2), respectively. Average concentrations of peridinin and Beta-car did not differ significantly between the two coral species sampled; however, the mean chl a concentration in P. compressa specimens (7.81 ,micro-grams/cm(exp 2) was significantly lower than that in P. lobata specimens (9.96 11g/cm2). Chl a concentrations determined spectrophotometrically were significantly higher than those generated through HPLC, suggesting that spectrophotometry overestimates chl a concentrations. The average ratio of chl a-to-peridinin concentrations was 1.90, with a large (53%) coefficient of variation and a significant difference between the two species sampled. Additional data are needed before conclusions can be drawn regarding average pigment concentrations in healthy corals and the consistency of the chl a/peridinin ratio. The HPLC pigment concentration values

  11. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page You are here Home » Personality Disorder Personality Disorder What is “Personality?” Personality refers to a distinctive set of traits, ... family, friends, and co-workers. What is a Personality Disorder? Those who struggle with a personality disorder ...

  12. Seeking carotenoid pigments in amber-preserved fossil feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Daniel B.; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Dove, Carla J.; Grimaldi, David A.; James, Helen F.

    2014-06-01

    Plumage colours bestowed by carotenoid pigments can be important for visual communication and likely have a long evolutionary history within Aves. Discovering plumage carotenoids in fossil feathers could provide insight into the ecology of ancient birds and non-avian dinosaurs. With reference to a modern feather, we sought chemical evidence of carotenoids in six feathers preserved in amber (Miocene to mid-Cretaceous) and in a feather preserved as a compression fossil (Eocene). Evidence of melanin pigmentation and microstructure preservation was evaluated with scanning electron and light microscopies. We observed fine microstructural details including evidence for melanin pigmentation in the amber and compression fossils, but Raman spectral bands did not confirm the presence of carotenoids in them. Carotenoids may have been originally absent from these feathers or the pigments may have degraded during burial; the preservation of microstructure may suggest the former. Significantly, we show that carotenoid plumage pigments can be detected without sample destruction through an amber matrix using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Retinal photoreceptors and visual pigments in Boa constrictor imperator.

    PubMed

    Sillman, A J; Johnson, J L; Loew, E R

    2001-09-01

    The photoreceptors of Boa constrictor, a boid snake of the subfamily Boinae, were examined with scanning electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry. The retina of B. constrictor is duplex but highly dominated by rods, cones comprising 11% of the photoreceptor population. The rather tightly packed rods have relatively long outer segments with proximal ends that are somewhat tapered. There are two morphologically distinct, single cones. The most common cone by far has a large inner segment and a relatively stout outer segment. The second cone, seen only infrequently, has a substantially smaller inner segment and a finer outer segment. The visual pigments of B. constrictor are virtually identical to those of the pythonine boid, Python regius. Three different visual pigments are present, all based on vitamin A(1.) The visual pigment of the rods has a wavelength of peak absorbance (lambda(max)) at 495 +/- 2 nm. The visual pigment of the more common, large cone has a lambda(max) at 549 +/- 1 nm. The small, rare cone contains a visual pigment with lambda(max) at 357 +/- 2 nm, providing the snake with sensitivity in the ultraviolet. We suggest that B. constrictor might employ UV sensitivity to locate conspecifics and/or to improve hunting efficiency. The data indicate that wavelength discrimination above 430 nm would not be possible without some input from the rods.

  14. Alkylpyrroles in a kerogen pyrolysate: Evidence for abundant tetrapyrrole pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Sinninghe Damste, J.S.; De Leeuw, J.W. ); Eglinton, T.I. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA )

    1992-04-01

    C{sub 1}-C{sub 6} alkylated pyrroles were identified as major constituents of the flash pyrolysate of a kerogen from the Miocene Monterey Formation (California, USA) using gas chromatography with an N-selective detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major alkylpyrroles identified are 2,3,4-trimethylpyrrole; 3-ethyl-4-methylpyrrole; 2,3-dimethyl-4-ethylpyrrole; 2,4-dimethyl-3-ethylpyrrole; and 3-ethyl-2,4,5-trimethylpyrrole. The alkyl substitution patterns of the alkylpyrroles strongly suggest an origin from tetrapyrrole pigments. Evidence for this hypothesis was provided by flash pyrolysis of the tetrapyrrole pigments chlorophyll-a, protoporphyrin-IX dimethyl ester, and bilirubin, which yielded alkylpyrroles with a similar isomer distribution. Quantitative pyrolysis using a polymer internal standard of both the kerogen and the tetrapyrrole pigments revealed that ca. 5% of the kerogen consists of macromolecularly bound tetrapyrrole pigments or that this fraction contains ca. 5% insoluble tetrapyrrole salts. These results show that in specific cases tetrapyrrole pigments can contribute significantly to the sedimentary organic matter.

  15. Microtubule polarity confers direction to pigment transport in chromatophores.

    PubMed

    McNiven, M A; Porter, K R

    1986-10-01

    The cellular mechanisms used to direct translocating organelles are poorly understood. It is believed that the intrinsic structural polarity of microtubules may play a role in this process. We have examined the effects that differently oriented microtubules have upon the direction of pigment transport in surgically severed melanophore arms. In a previous paper (McNiven, M. A., M. Wang, and K. R. Porter, 1984, Cell, 37:753-765) we reported that after isolation, arms repolarized and reoriented their microtubules outward from their centers as if to form new "microcells." Pigment aggregation in these arms was toward a new focal point located at the arm centers. In this study we monitored pigment movement in isolated arms containing taxol-stabilized microtubules to test if the reversal in direction of pigment transport is dependent upon the repolarization of microtubules. We report that taxol delays both the microtubule reorientation and reversal in transport direction in a concentration-dependent manner. These and other presented data suggest that the polarity of the microtubule population within a melanophore confers direction on pigment transport.

  16. Bio-optical modeling of photosynthetic pigments in corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochberg, Eric J.; Apprill, Amy M.; Atkinson, Marlin J.; Bidigare, Robert R.

    2006-03-01

    The spectral reflectance of coral is inherently related to the amounts of photosynthetic pigments present in the zooxanthellae. There are no studies, however, showing that the suite of major photosynthetic pigments can be predicted from optical reflectance spectra. In this study, we measured cm-scale in vivo and in situ spectral reflectance for several colonies of the massive corals Porites lobata and Porites lutea, two colonies of the branching coral Porites compressa, and one colony of the encrusting coral Montipora flabellata in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. For each reflectance spectrum, we collected a tissue sample and utilized high-performance liquid chromatography to quantify six major photosynthetic pigments, located in the zooxanthellae. We used multivariate multiple regression analysis with cross-validation to build and test an empirical linear model for predicting pigment concentrations from optical reflectance spectra. The model accurately predicted concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c 2, peridinin, diadinoxanthin, diatoxanthin and β-carotene, with correlation coefficients of 0.997, 0.941, 0.995, 0.996, 0.980 and 0.984, respectively. The relationship between predicted and actual concentrations was 1:1 for each pigment, except chlorophyll c 2. This simple empirical model demonstrates the potential for routine, rapid, non-invasive monitoring of coral-zooxanthellae status, and ultimately for remote sensing of reef biogeochemical processes.

  17. Anticorrosion Properties of Pigments based on Ferrite Coated Zinc Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benda, P.; Kalendová, A.

    The paper deals with a new anticorrosion pigment, synthesized on a core-shell basis. For its syntheses a starting substance is used that forms the lamellar shaped core; namely lamellar zinc. The cover of the core is represented by zinc oxide, which is in fact partly oxidized lamellar zinc core, and is created during the calcination of the pigment. The compound that forms the top layer of the core, a ferrite, is also formed during calcination. The formula for the prepared pigment is then defined as MexZn1-xFe2O4/Zn and the formula of thin ferrite layer is MexZn1-xFe2O4 (where Me = Ca, Mg). Due to its shape, this anticorrosion pigment includes another anticorrosion effect, the so called "barrier effect". The mechanisms of anticorrosion effect, corrosion efficiency and mechanical properties were investigated for epoxy-ester paint systems with 10%pigment volume concentration (PVC). Mechanical tests were performed to determine the adhesiveness and mechanical resistance of paints and accelerated corrosion tests were carried out to evaluate efficiency against chemical degradation factors.

  18. Algal pigments in Southern Ocean abyssal foraminiferans indicate pelagobenthic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedhagen, Tomas; Cheah, Wee; Bracher, Astrid; Lejzerowicz, Franck

    2014-10-01

    The cytoplasm of four species of abyssal benthic foraminiferans from the Southern Ocean (around 51°S; 12°W and 50°S; 39°W) was analysed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and found to contain large concentrations of algal pigments and their degradation products. The composition of the algal pigments in the foraminiferan cytoplasm reflected the plankton community at the surface. Some foraminiferans contained high ratios of chlorophyll a/degraded pigments because they were feeding on fresher phytodetritus. Other foraminiferans contained only degraded pigments which shows that they utilized degraded phytodetritus. The concentration of algal pigment and corresponding degradation products in the foraminiferan cytoplasm is much higher than in the surrounding sediment. It shows that the foraminiferans collect a diluted and sparse food resource and concentrate it as they build up their cytoplasm. This ability contributes to the understanding of the great quantitative success of foraminiferans in the deep sea. Benthic foraminiferans are a food source for many abyssal metazoans. They form a link between the degraded food resources, phytodetritus, back to the active metazoan food chains.

  19. Retinal photoreceptors and visual pigments in Boa constrictor imperator.

    PubMed

    Sillman, A J; Johnson, J L; Loew, E R

    2001-09-01

    The photoreceptors of Boa constrictor, a boid snake of the subfamily Boinae, were examined with scanning electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry. The retina of B. constrictor is duplex but highly dominated by rods, cones comprising 11% of the photoreceptor population. The rather tightly packed rods have relatively long outer segments with proximal ends that are somewhat tapered. There are two morphologically distinct, single cones. The most common cone by far has a large inner segment and a relatively stout outer segment. The second cone, seen only infrequently, has a substantially smaller inner segment and a finer outer segment. The visual pigments of B. constrictor are virtually identical to those of the pythonine boid, Python regius. Three different visual pigments are present, all based on vitamin A(1.) The visual pigment of the rods has a wavelength of peak absorbance (lambda(max)) at 495 +/- 2 nm. The visual pigment of the more common, large cone has a lambda(max) at 549 +/- 1 nm. The small, rare cone contains a visual pigment with lambda(max) at 357 +/- 2 nm, providing the snake with sensitivity in the ultraviolet. We suggest that B. constrictor might employ UV sensitivity to locate conspecifics and/or to improve hunting efficiency. The data indicate that wavelength discrimination above 430 nm would not be possible without some input from the rods. PMID:11550183

  20. Comparison of pigment content of paint samples using spectrometric methods.

    PubMed

    Trzcińska, Beata; Kowalski, Rafał; Zięba-Palus, Janina

    2014-09-15

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate the influence of pigment concentration and its distribution in polymer binder on the possibility of colour identification and paint sample comparison. Two sets of paint samples: one containing red and another one green pigment were prepared. Each set consisted of 13 samples differing gradually in the concentration of pigment. To obtain the sets of various colour shades white paint was mixed with the appropriate pigment in the form of a concentrated suspension. After solvents evaporation the samples were examined using spectrometric methods. The resin and main filler were identified by IR method. Colour and white pigments were identified on the base of Raman spectra. Colour of samples were compared based on Vis spectrometry according to colour theory. It was found that samples are homogenous (parameter measuring colour similarity ΔE<3). The values of ΔE between the neighbouring samples in the set revealed decreasing linear function and between the first and following one--a logarithmic function.

  1. Seeking carotenoid pigments in amber-preserved fossil feathers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel B; Nascimbene, Paul C; Dove, Carla J; Grimaldi, David A; James, Helen F

    2014-01-01

    Plumage colours bestowed by carotenoid pigments can be important for visual communication and likely have a long evolutionary history within Aves. Discovering plumage carotenoids in fossil feathers could provide insight into the ecology of ancient birds and non-avian dinosaurs. With reference to a modern feather, we sought chemical evidence of carotenoids in six feathers preserved in amber (Miocene to mid-Cretaceous) and in a feather preserved as a compression fossil (Eocene). Evidence of melanin pigmentation and microstructure preservation was evaluated with scanning electron and light microscopies. We observed fine microstructural details including evidence for melanin pigmentation in the amber and compression fossils, but Raman spectral bands did not confirm the presence of carotenoids in them. Carotenoids may have been originally absent from these feathers or the pigments may have degraded during burial; the preservation of microstructure may suggest the former. Significantly, we show that carotenoid plumage pigments can be detected without sample destruction through an amber matrix using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

  2. Comparison of pigment content of paint samples using spectrometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzcińska, Beata; Kowalski, Rafał; Zięba-Palus, Janina

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate the influence of pigment concentration and its distribution in polymer binder on the possibility of colour identification and paint sample comparison. Two sets of paint samples: one containing red and another one green pigment were prepared. Each set consisted of 13 samples differing gradually in the concentration of pigment. To obtain the sets of various colour shades white paint was mixed with the appropriate pigment in the form of a concentrated suspension. After solvents evaporation the samples were examined using spectrometric methods. The resin and main filler were identified by IR method. Colour and white pigments were identified on the base of Raman spectra. Colour of samples were compared based on Vis spectrometry according to colour theory. It was found that samples are homogenous (parameter measuring colour similarity ΔE < 3). The values of ΔE between the neighbouring samples in the set revealed decreasing linear function and between the first and following one - a logarithmic function.

  3. Group B streptococcal haemolysin and pigment, a tale of twins

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Fraile, Manuel; Dramsi, Shaynoor; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Group B streptococcus [(GBS or Streptococcus agalactiae)] is a leading cause of neonatal meningitis and septicaemia. Most clinical isolates express simultaneously a β-haemolysin/cytolysin and a red polyenic pigment, two phenotypic traits important for GBS identification in medical microbiology. The genetic determinants encoding the GBS haemolysin and pigment have been elucidated and the molecular structure of the pigment has been determined. The cyl operon involved in haemolysin and pigment production is regulated by the major two-component system CovS/R, which coordinates the expression of multiple virulence factors of GBS. Genetic analyses indicated strongly that the haemolysin activity was due to a cytolytic toxin encoded by cylE. However, the biochemical nature of the GBS haemolysin has remained elusive for almost a century because of its instability during purification procedures. Recently, it has been suggested that the haemolytic and cytolytic activity of GBS is due to the ornithine rhamnopolyenic pigment and not to the CylE protein. Here we review and summarize our current knowledge of the genetics, regulation and biochemistry of these twin GBS phenotypic traits, including their functions as GBS virulence factors. PMID:24617549

  4. Vertical distribution of pigmented and non-pigmented nanoflagellates in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Sheng-Fang; Lin, Fan-Wei; Chan, Ya-Fan; Chiang, Kuo-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Nanoflagellates can be separated into two groups according to their trophic mode, i.e. pigmented nanoflagellates (PNF) and heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF). However, a newly identified group, mixotrophic nanoflagellates (MNF), are pigmented and show the ability of prey on bacteria. To examine the vertical variations in PNF and HNF abundances, as well as their relationships and the nutritional strategies that they might use, two summer cruises were undertaken in the East China Sea in July 2011 (OR1 966) and July 2012 (OR1 1004). The results show that both HNF and PNF abundances decline with increasing water depth. Vertical variations of abundances are believed to be influenced by prey and light, for HNF and PNF respectively. Over a large part of the sampling area, the ratio of PNF to HNF abundances is about 1:1 in the disphotic and euphotic zones, but exceeds 1.5 in the nutrient-depleted environment along the margin of the continental shelf. The correlation between PNF abundance and bacteria/Synechococcus abundance is positive where PNF/HNF >1.5. However, there is no significant correlation between PNF/HNF abundance when PNF/HNF >1.5 and light/nutrients, indicating that vertical distributions are influenced mainly by prey (bacteria and Synechococcus) in the nutrient-depleted environment. This study assumes that PNF consists mostly of MNF. In the euphotic zone they receive energy from photosynthesis, which is stimulated by the available nutrients from grazing. Their abundance is thus higher than that of HNF. However, in the disphotic zone, both PNF and HNF satisfy their nutrient demands by grazing, and PNF/HNF is close to 1. In other words, mixotrophy might be the main trophic mode for PNF in the nutrient-depleted, oligotrophic environment. Meanwhile, in deeper water (300 m), the much lower prey density means that MNF cannot satisfy the basic energy demands of metabolism and photosynthesis, and thus HNF abundance exceeds that of PNF.

  5. N-Nicotinoyl dopamine, a novel niacinamide derivative, retains high antioxidant activity and inhibits skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bora; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Su Min; Lee, Soung-Hoon; Lee, Jin Won; Kim, Myung Kyoo; Lee, Kye Jong; Kim, Hyuk; Lee, Joo Dong; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2011-11-01

    We synthesized a novel derivative of a well-known skin-lightening compound niacinamide, N-nicotinoyl dopamine (NND). NND did not show inhibitory effects of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. However, NND retains high antioxidant activity without affecting viability of cells. In a reconstructed skin model, topical applications of 0.05% and 0.1% NND induced skin lightening and decreased melanin production without affecting the viability and morphology of melanocytes and overall tissue histology. Moreover, no evidence for skin irritation or sensitization was observed when 0.1% NND emulsion was applied onto the skin of 52 volunteers. The effect of NND on skin lightening was further revealed by pigmented spot analyses of human clinical trial. Overall, NND treatment may be a useful trial for skin lightening and treating pigmentary disorders.

  6. Expression of microphthalmia transcription factor, S100 protein, and HMB-45 in malignant melanoma and pigmented nevi

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jianxin; Wang, Yanlong; Li, Fuqiu; Wang, Jinfeng; Mu, Yan; Mei, Xianglin; Li, Xue; Zhu, Wenjing; Jin, Xianhua; Yu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is a type of malignant tumor, which originates from neural crest melanocytes. MM progresses rapidly and results in a high mortality rate. The present study aims to investigate the expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF), the S100 protein, and HMB-45 in MM and pigmented nevi. A total of 32 MM samples (including three skin metastasis, three lymph node metastasis and two spindle cell MM samples), two Spitz nevus samples, four pigmented nevus samples and two blue nevus samples were collected. The expression levels of S100 protein, HMB-45, and MITF were observed via immunostaining. The S100 protein exhibited high positive rates in MM and pigment disorders (96.7 and 100%, respectively), but with low specificity. The S100 protein was also expressed in fibroblasts, myoepithelial cells, histocytes and Langerhans cells in normal skin samples. HMB-45 had high specificity. Its positive expression was only confined to MM cells and junctional nevus cells. Furthermore, HMB-45 was not expressed in melanocytes in the normal tissue samples around the tumor or in the benign intradermal nevus cells. MITF exhibited high specificity and high sensitivity. It was expressed in the nuclei of melanocytes, MM cells and nevus cells. It was observed to be strongly expressed in metastatic MM and spindle cell MMs. Thus, MITF may present as a specific immunomarker for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of MM. PMID:27602212

  7. Inhibition of skin pigmentation by an extract of Lepidium apetalum and its possible implication in IL-6 mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyunjung; Ahn, Soomi; Lee, Byeong G; Chang, Ihseop; Hwang, Jae S

    2005-12-01

    The development of effective skin-lightening agents is an increasingly important area of research aimed at the treatment of hyperpigmentation induced by UV irradiation or by medical conditions such as melasma, postinflammatory melanoderma and solar lentigo. Although some inhibit tyrosinase, identifying and understanding the mechanisms of action of other agents is an important goal if more effective pigmentation inhibitors are to be developed. We present here that an extract of Lepidium apetalum (ELA) decreased UV-induced skin pigmentation in brown guinea pigs and melanogenesis of HM3KO human melanoma cells. Interestingly, ELA did not reduce melanogenesis in HM3KO cells unless they were co-cultivated in keratinocyte-conditioned medium prepared by culturing keratinocytes with ELA. Under these conditions, ELA decreased tyrosinase mRNA and protein expression as well as melanin content via an ELA-mediated increase in keratinocyte IL-6 production which in turn was shown to decrease in the expression Mitf, a transcription factor implicated in tyrosinase gene expression and melanocyte differentiation. The results reveal that ELA may be an effective inhibitor of hyperpigmentation caused by UV irradiation or by pigmented skin disorders through a mechanism involving IL-6-mediated downregulation of Mitf rather than a direct inhibition of tyrosinase activity.

  8. Expression of microphthalmia transcription factor, S100 protein, and HMB-45 in malignant melanoma and pigmented nevi

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jianxin; Wang, Yanlong; Li, Fuqiu; Wang, Jinfeng; Mu, Yan; Mei, Xianglin; Li, Xue; Zhu, Wenjing; Jin, Xianhua; Yu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is a type of malignant tumor, which originates from neural crest melanocytes. MM progresses rapidly and results in a high mortality rate. The present study aims to investigate the expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF), the S100 protein, and HMB-45 in MM and pigmented nevi. A total of 32 MM samples (including three skin metastasis, three lymph node metastasis and two spindle cell MM samples), two Spitz nevus samples, four pigmented nevus samples and two blue nevus samples were collected. The expression levels of S100 protein, HMB-45, and MITF were observed via immunostaining. The S100 protein exhibited high positive rates in MM and pigment disorders (96.7 and 100%, respectively), but with low specificity. The S100 protein was also expressed in fibroblasts, myoepithelial cells, histocytes and Langerhans cells in normal skin samples. HMB-45 had high specificity. Its positive expression was only confined to MM cells and junctional nevus cells. Furthermore, HMB-45 was not expressed in melanocytes in the normal tissue samples around the tumor or in the benign intradermal nevus cells. MITF exhibited high specificity and high sensitivity. It was expressed in the nuclei of melanocytes, MM cells and nevus cells. It was observed to be strongly expressed in metastatic MM and spindle cell MMs. Thus, MITF may present as a specific immunomarker for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of MM.

  9. Characterization of lapis lazuli and corresponding purified pigments for a provenance study of ultramarine pigments used in works of art.

    PubMed

    Favaro, M; Guastoni, A; Marini, F; Bianchin, S; Gambirasi, A

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we propose an analytical methodology for attributing provenance to natural lapis lazuli pigments employed in works of art, and for distinguishing whether they are of natural or synthetic origin. A multitechnique characterization of lazurite and accessory phases in lapis lazuli stones from Afghan, Siberian and Chilean quarries, on the pigments obtained by their purification, and on synthetic ultramarine pigments was performed. According to the results obtained, infrared spectroscopy is not a suitable technique for distinguishing the provenance of lapis lazuli, but a particular absorbance band makes it relatively easy to determine whether it is of natural or synthetic origin. On the other hand, EDS elemental composition and XRD patterns show the presence of specific mineral phases associated with specific lapis lazuli sources, and can be used to distinguish the provenance of the stones as well as-albeit to a lesser extent-the corresponding purified blue pigments. In contrast, FEG-SEM observations clearly show different stone textures depending on their provenance, although these distinctive features do not persist in the corresponding pigments. PCA analyses of EDS data allow Afghan lapis lazuli stone to be distinguished from Chilean and Siberian ones, and can distinguish between the pigments resulting from their purification as well as synthetic blue ones. Although this methodology was developed using a limited number of samples, it was tested on lapis lazuli pigments collected from three paintings (from the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries) in order to perform a preliminary validation of the technique, and based on the results, the provenance of the blue pigments employed in those artworks is proposed. Finally, upon analytically monitoring the process of purifying lapis lazuli to obtain the corresponding pigments, it was found that ion-exchange reactions occur between the alkali modifiers of silicate/aluminosilicate phases and free carboxylic acids

  10. Characterization of lapis lazuli and corresponding purified pigments for a provenance study of ultramarine pigments used in works of art.

    PubMed

    Favaro, M; Guastoni, A; Marini, F; Bianchin, S; Gambirasi, A

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we propose an analytical methodology for attributing provenance to natural lapis lazuli pigments employed in works of art, and for distinguishing whether they are of natural or synthetic origin. A multitechnique characterization of lazurite and accessory phases in lapis lazuli stones from Afghan, Siberian and Chilean quarries, on the pigments obtained by their purification, and on synthetic ultramarine pigments was performed. According to the results obtained, infrared spectroscopy is not a suitable technique for distinguishing the provenance of lapis lazuli, but a particular absorbance band makes it relatively easy to determine whether it is of natural or synthetic origin. On the other hand, EDS elemental composition and XRD patterns show the presence of specific mineral phases associated with specific lapis lazuli sources, and can be used to distinguish the provenance of the stones as well as-albeit to a lesser extent-the corresponding purified blue pigments. In contrast, FEG-SEM observations clearly show different stone textures depending on their provenance, although these distinctive features do not persist in the corresponding pigments. PCA analyses of EDS data allow Afghan lapis lazuli stone to be distinguished from Chilean and Siberian ones, and can distinguish between the pigments resulting from their purification as well as synthetic blue ones. Although this methodology was developed using a limited number of samples, it was tested on lapis lazuli pigments collected from three paintings (from the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries) in order to perform a preliminary validation of the technique, and based on the results, the provenance of the blue pigments employed in those artworks is proposed. Finally, upon analytically monitoring the process of purifying lapis lazuli to obtain the corresponding pigments, it was found that ion-exchange reactions occur between the alkali modifiers of silicate/aluminosilicate phases and free carboxylic acids

  11. Chemical research on red pigments after adverse reactions to tattoo.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, A; Toniolo, C; Giulianelli, V; Serafini, M; Persechino, S

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the incidence of tattooing is on the rise compared to the past, especially among adolescents, and it leads to the urgency of monitoring the security status of tattooing centers, as well as to inform people about the risks of tattoo practice. In our clinical experience, 20% of tattooed patients presented adverse reactions, like allergic contact dermatitis, psoriasis with Koebner's phenomena and granulomatous reactions, with the latter most prevalent and most often related to red pigment. Adverse reactions to tattoo pigments, especially the red one, are well known and described in literature. Great attention has to be focused on the pigments used, especially for the presence of new substances, often not well known. For this reason, we decided to perform a study on 12 samples of red tattoo ink, obtained by patients affected by different cutaneous reactions in the site of tattoo, to analyze their chemical composition. PMID:26934738

  12. Laser-generated acoustic wave studies on tattoo pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Lorna M.; Dickinson, Mark R.; King, Terence A.

    1996-01-01

    A Q-switched alexandrite laser (180 ns at 755 nm) was used to irradiate samples of agar embedded with red, black and green tattoo dyes. The acoustic waves generated in the samples were detected using a PVDF membrane hydrophone and compared to theoretical expectations. The laser pulses were found to generate acoustic waves in the black and green samples but not in the red pigment. Pressures of up to 1.4 MPa were produced with irradiances of up to 96 MWcm-2 which is comparable to the irradiances used to clear pigment embedded in skin. The pressure gradient generated across pigment particles was approximately 1.09 X 1010 Pam-1 giving a pressure difference of 1.09 +/- 0.17 MPa over a particle with mean diameter 100 micrometers . This is not sufficient to permanently damage skin which has a tensile strength of 7.4 MPa.

  13. Phytoplankton pigment patterns and wind forcing off central California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Mark R.; Barksdale, Brett

    1991-01-01

    Mesoscale variability in phytoplankton pigment distributions of central California during the spring-summer upwelling season are studied via a 4-yr time series of high-resolution coastal zone color scanner imagery. Empirical orthogonal functions are used to decompose the time series of spatial images into its dominant modes of variability. The coupling between wind forcing of the upper ocean and phytoplankton distribution on mesoscales is investigated. Wind forcing, in particular the curl of the wind stress, was found to play an important role in the distribution of phytoplankton pigment in the California Current. The spring transition varies in timing and intensity from year to year but appears to be a recurrent feature associated with the rapid onset of the upwelling-favorable winds. Although the underlying dynamics may be dominated by processes other than forcing by wind stress curl, it appears that curl may force the variability of the filaments and hence the pigment patterns.

  14. The effects of polymer pigmentation on fingermark development techniques.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Simon R; Ojeda, Jesus J; Downham, Rory; Sears, Vaughn G; Jones, Benjamin J

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of latent fingerprint development techniques is heavily influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the deposition surface. The use of powder suspensions is increasing for development of prints on a range of surfaces. We demonstrate that carbon powder suspension development on polymers is detrimentally affected by the presence of common white pigment, titanium dioxide. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrates that patches of the compound are clearly associated with increased levels of powder adhesion. Substrates with nonlocalized titanium dioxide content also exhibit increased levels of carbon powder staining on a surface-wide basis. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and complementary techniques demonstrate the importance of levels of the pigment within the top 30 nm. The association is independent of fingermark deposition and may be related to surface energy variation. The detrimental effect of the pigment is not observed with small-particle reagent (MoS2 SPR) or cyanoacrylate (superglue) fuming techniques that exploit different development mechanisms.

  15. Chemical research on red pigments after adverse reactions to tattoo.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, A; Toniolo, C; Giulianelli, V; Serafini, M; Persechino, S

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the incidence of tattooing is on the rise compared to the past, especially among adolescents, and it leads to the urgency of monitoring the security status of tattooing centers, as well as to inform people about the risks of tattoo practice. In our clinical experience, 20% of tattooed patients presented adverse reactions, like allergic contact dermatitis, psoriasis with Koebner's phenomena and granulomatous reactions, with the latter most prevalent and most often related to red pigment. Adverse reactions to tattoo pigments, especially the red one, are well known and described in literature. Great attention has to be focused on the pigments used, especially for the presence of new substances, often not well known. For this reason, we decided to perform a study on 12 samples of red tattoo ink, obtained by patients affected by different cutaneous reactions in the site of tattoo, to analyze their chemical composition.

  16. Bioactive Pigments from Marine Bacteria: Applications and Physiological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Soliev, Azamjon B.; Hosokawa, Kakushi; Enomoto, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Research into natural products from the marine environment, including microorganisms, has rapidly increased over the past two decades. Despite the enormous difficulty in isolating and harvesting marine bacteria, microbial metabolites are increasingly attractive to science because of their broad-ranging pharmacological activities, especially those with unique color pigments. This current review paper gives an overview of the pigmented natural compounds isolated from bacteria of marine origin, based on accumulated data in the literature. We review the biological activities of marine compounds, including recent advances in the study of pharmacological effects and other commercial applications, in addition to the biosynthesis and physiological roles of associated pigments. Chemical structures of the bioactive compounds discussed are also presented. PMID:21961023

  17. Ion beam induced luminescence analysis of painting pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaranta, A.; Salomon, J.; Dran, J. C.; Tonezzer, M.; Della Mea, G.

    2007-01-01

    Ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) has been exploited for the first time in the analysis of inorganic painting pigments. The elemental constituents of the different compounds have been determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The acquisition time of each spectrum ranges from 100 ms to a few seconds, depending on the luminescence intensity. The luminescence features are fingerprints of the different compounds, thus identifying the provenience of pigments of the same nominal composition. Organic varnish layers do not affect the IBIL features, allowing the identification of pigments, like lapis-lazuli, whose identification with PIXE is hindered by the varnish. IBIL proved to be a technique complementary to PIXE in the archeometry and cultural heritage analysis fields.

  18. Evolution of dim-light and color vision pigments.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Shozo

    2008-01-01

    A striking level of diversity of visual systems in different species reflects their adaptive responses to various light environments. To study the adaptive evolution of visual systems, we need to understand how visual pigments, the light-sensitive molecules, have tuned their wavelengths of light absorption. The molecular basis of spectral tuning in visual pigments, a central unsolved problem in phototransduction, can be understood only by studying how different species have adapted to various light environments. Certain amino acid replacements at 30 residues explain some dim-light and color vision in vertebrates. To better understand the molecular and functional adaptations of visual pigments, we must identify all critical amino acid replacements that are involved in the spectral tuning and elucidate the effects of their interactions on the spectral shifts.

  19. Human cone pigment expressed in transgenic mice yields altered vision.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, G H; Fenwick, J C; Calderone, J B; Deeb, S S

    1999-04-15

    Genetically driven alterations in the complement of retinal photopigments are fundamental steps in the evolution of vision. We sought to determine how a newly added photopigment might impact vision by studying a transgenic mouse that expresses a human cone photopigment. Electroretinogram (ERG) measurements indicate that the added pigment works well, significantly changing spectral sensitivity without deleteriously affecting the operation of the native cone pigments. Visual capacities of the transgenic mice were established in behavioral tests. The new pigment was found to provide a significant expansion of the spectral range over which mice can perceive light, thus underlining the immediate utility of acquiring a new photopigment. The transgenic mouse also has the receptor basis for a novel color vision capacity, but tests show that potential was not realized. This failure likely reflects limitations in the organizational arrangement of the mouse retina.

  20. [Pigmentation of Serratia marcescens and spectral properties of prodigiosin].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, I N; Ogorodnikova, T I

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentation of Serratia marcescens depends on the composition of the cultivation medium. The cultures grown on glycerol-peptone medium and on the medium with acetate are red and yellow (yellowish orange), respectively, with the color depending on the ambient pH. S. marcescens cells growth on glycerol-peptone medium (visually of red color) contain two forms of prodigiosin: the "red" and "yellow" ones with absorption maxima at 535 and 460-470 nm, respectively. The absorption spectrum of prodigiosin in the native pigment-protein complex was different from the spectrum of the pigment dissolved in ethanol and resembled that of the cell suspension in the presence of an additional absorption maximum at 500 nm.

  1. Protocol optimization for enhanced production of pigments in Spirulina.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Neeraj; Pabbi, Sunil; Walia, Suresh; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina has attracted special attention due to its importance as human foodstuff and natural colours with specific functional properties. These functional properties have been attributed to phycobilins, carotenoids, phenolics and unsaturated fatty acids. Present study was conducted under controlled phytotron conditions to identify the efficient strains of Spirulina in terms of pigment synthesis and to optimize their enhanced production. Methodology for enhanced production was standardized by varying specific environmental parameters (light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, pH and NaCl level). Different strains of Spirulina depicted variability and environmental parameters showed distinct influence on pigments. Growth and pigment production was recorded to be most efficient under optimized conditions of light intensity (70 μmol m(-2) s(-1)), temperature (30 °C), CO2 concentration (550 ppm and 750 ppm), pH (10.5) and NaCl level (2 g L(-1)). PMID:24764599

  2. Betaxanthins as pigments responsible for visible fluorescence in flowers.

    PubMed

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; Escribano, Josefa; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2005-11-01

    Betalains are water-soluble nitrogen-containing pigments present in flowers and fruits of plants of the order Caryophyllales, where they replace anthocyanins. This article describes how flowers containing yellow betaxanthins are fluorescent. Betaxanthins exhibit spectra with excitation maxima between 463 nm and 474 nm and emission maxima between 509 nm and 512 nm. Thus, betaxanthins are able to absorb blue light and emit green light. Relations between fluorescence and the structural properties of the pigments are discussed. For the first time, pictures of flowers naturally emitting light are presented. Yellow flowers of the ornamental plant Portulaca grandiflora were chosen as a model for the studies in fluorescence due to the existence of the white phenotype, which was used as a control. Studies were also performed in Lampranthus productus flowers, which contain dopaxanthin as a single pigment. The visible fluorescence of betaxanthins inside the petal cells was detected in a confocal microscope after laser excitation.

  3. Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Carbohydrates are sugars. ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism NOTE: This is ...

  4. Pigment production in Spirulina fussiformis in different photophysical conditions.

    PubMed

    Madhyastha, H K; Vatsala, T M

    2007-09-01

    The present investigation makes a comparative investigation of individual light source on the different commercially important pigments in Spirulina fussiformis in photobioreactor culture condition. Continuous culture system was carried out throughout the experimental condition. Initially, seed culture, corresponding to 0.2 g/L on dry weight basis was cultivated in Zarrouks medium with different colored light source in reactor. Maximum daily biomass productivity, 0.8 g/L, 0.75 g/L and 0.69 g/L in white light (WL), blue light (BL) and green light (GL), respectively, conditions was noticed. Pigment content during WL treatment showed the highest accumulation (5.5 microg/mL) of chlorophyll whereas, other pigments roughly remained constant without much change, implying WL intensity is better for chlorophyll synthesis. On the other hand, chlorophyll and phycocyanin content gradually increased up to 7 microg/mL and 2 mg/mL, respectively, at BL intensity. The response to GL was negative to all pigments studied except for phycocyanin; in this case a highest production (2.5 mg/mL) was seen during 18 days experimental period. Additionally, when yellow light (YL) treatment experiments were conducted, the rate of production gradually decreased from 6th day onward in all pigments demonstrating the photobleaching effect of YL. The average rate of pigments production did not show significant accumulation in red light (RL) light treatment except phycoerythrin which showed an increasing trend of production. It is worth to mention here that higher light intensity is better for production of phycocyanin and phycoerythrin in Spirulina.

  5. Harnessing Solar Energy Using Photosynthetic and Organic Pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, Toby Ryan

    Fossil fuels are a finite energy resource that must be supplemented or replaced by more stable forms of electrical energy. Solar technology research strives to supplement and provide eventual replacement for fossil fuel technology. This experiment focused on the use of natural pigments as photo-sensitizers in the current generation of solar cells called dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Pigments from purified chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a/b, crude spinach (Spinacia oleracea) extract, phycocyanin, and chlorophyllin were used to construct DSSCs and evaluated, along with a control containing no pigment, for solar energy conversion. The anode of the solar cells consisted of titanium dioxide (TiO2) plates soaked in pigment solutions for twenty-four hours. The plates were assembled, along with an electrolyte sandwiched between cells, and a platinum-coated counter plate that functioned as the cathode. A gasket seal was placed between the plates and held together with rubber bands. The DSSCs were each tested for a maximum power (Pmax) point and a resistor was selected that corresponded to the resistance at that point. The cells were randomly placed into a power block assembly located in an environmental chamber with lighting that provided an average of 27,590 lumens at the surface of DSSCs. With appropriate resistors in place, the cells were subjected to twelve-hour days and twelve-hour nights for ten days, and measurements were recorded every ten minutes. Data were collected to obtain values for voltage in millivolts (mV), current in microamps (microA), and power in microwatts (microW), as well as beginning and ending efficiencies in converting light to usable energy. Voltages were substantially higher during the day than at night for all pigments, except for the control, indicating that the pigments functioned as DSSCs. Hence, only daytime values were used for data analysis. Voltage during the ten-day experiment ranged from 3.99 to 274 mV; current ranged

  6. Pigment developed to protect spacecraft/solar cells from Sun's harmful rays.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A pigment (phthalocyanine) is studied at the Marshall Materials and Processes Lab. The pigment has the ability to protect spacecraft against the harmful effects of the Sun's ultraviolet rays, and to increase the efficiency and life of solar cells.

  7. Discrimination of Pigments of Microalgae, Bacteria and Yeasts Using Lightweight Handheld Raman Spectrometers: Prospects for Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehlicka, J.; Osterrothova, K.; Nedbalova, L.; Gunde-Cimerman, N.; Oren, A.

    2014-06-01

    Handheld Raman instrumentation with 532 nm lasers can be used to distinguish carotenoids of autotrophic microalgae, purple sulfur bacteria, halophilic Archaea and pigmented yeasts. Pigments are proposed as biomarkers for astrobiology of Mars.

  8. Coastal zone color scanner pigment concentrations in the southern ocean and relationships to geophysical surface features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, J. C.; Mcclain, C. R.; Sullivan, C. W.; Ryan, J. P.; Leonard, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Climatological data on the distribution of surface pigment fields in the entire southern ocean over a seasonal cycle are examined. The occurrence of intense phytoplankton blooms during austral summer months and during other seasons in different regions is identified and analyzed. The highest pigment concentrations are observed at high latitudes and over regions with water depths usually less than 600 m. Basin-scale pigment distribution shows a slightly asymmetric pattern of enhanced pigment concentrations about Antarctica, with enhanced concentrations extending to lower latitudes in the Atlantic and Indian sectors than in the Pacific sector. A general increase in pigment concentrations is evident from the low latitudes toward the Antarctic circumpolar region. Spatial relationships between pigment and archived geophysical data reveal significant correlation between pigment distributions and both bathymetry and wind stress, while general hemispheric scale patterns of pigment distributions are most coherent with the geostrophic flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

  9. Analytical Investigation Of Pigments, Ground Layer And Media Of Cartonnage Fragments From Greek Roman Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifi, Hala. A. M.

    Some cartonnage fragments from Hawara, Fayoum Excavation were examined to identify pigments, media and grounds. It belonged to the Greek-Roman period. They were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X ray analysis (EDS) equipped with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). These techniques were used to identify the composition and morphology of grounds, nature of pigments and media used in cartonnage fragments. The coarse ground layer was composed of calcite and traces of quartz. The fine ground layer used under the pigments directly was composed of calcite only. Carbon black was used as black pigment while lead oxide as red pigment, showing the influence of Roman and Greek pigments on Egyptian art in these later periods. Blue colorant was identified as cuprorivaite and yellow pigment was goethite. Animal glue was used in the four pigments as medium colored.

  10. Chemistry and Artists' Colors: Part III. Preparation and Properties of Artists' Pigments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orna, Mary Virginia

    1980-01-01

    Describes laboratory methods for synthesizing chrome yellow, prussian blue, and phthalalocyanine blue; reviews chemical properties of artists' pigments including chemical structure and light-scattering properties; and explains how pigments are classified. (CS)

  11. Bleeding Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as clotting factors. If you have a bleeding disorder, you either do not have enough platelets or ... they don't work the way they should. Bleeding disorders can be the result of other diseases, such ...

  12. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  13. TMJ disorders

    MedlinePlus

    TMD; Temporomandibular joint disorders; Temporomandibular muscle disorders ... There are 2 matching temporomandibular joints on each side of your head. They are located just in front of your ears. The abbreviation "TMJ" refers to the ...

  14. Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... panic disorder? Panic disorder is characterized by recurrent panic attacks—an uncontrollable and terrifying response to ordinary, nonthreatening ... is also persistent anxiety or fear about the panic attacks and changes in behavior in an attempt to ...

  15. Rumination disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Katzman DK, Kearney SA, Becker AE. Feeding and eating disorders. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Eating Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  16. Learning Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or language therapists also work with the children. Learning disorders do not go away, but strategies to work around them can make them less of a problem. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

  17. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  18. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Erzegovesi, Stefano; Bellodi, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Twenty years have passed from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and, in the meanwhile, a lot of research data about eating disorders has been published. This article reviews the main modifications to the classification of eating disorders reported in the "Feeding and Eating Disorders" chapter of the DSM-5, and compares them with the ICD-10 diagnostic guidelines. Particularly, we will show that DSM-5 criteria widened the diagnoses of anorexia and bulimia nervosa to less severe forms (so decreasing the frequency of Eating Disorders, Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) diagnoses), introduced the new category of Binge Eating Disorder, and incorporated several feeding disorders that were first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. On the whole, the DSM-5 revision should allow the clinician to make more reliable and timely diagnoses for eating disorders. PMID:27319605

  19. Tailbone Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bottom of your backbone, or spine. Tailbone disorders include tailbone injuries, pain, infections, cysts and tumors. ... cause of such injuries. Symptoms of various tailbone disorders include pain in the tailbone area, pain upon ...

  20. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... produce more of them in response to Allergic disorders Skin conditions Parasitic and fungal infections Autoimmune diseases Some cancers Bone marrow disorders In some conditions, the eosinophils can move outside ...

  1. Tooth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... include eating, speaking and even smiling. But tooth disorders are nothing to smile about. They include problems ... your teeth. Fortunately, you can prevent many tooth disorders by taking care of your teeth and keeping ...

  2. Neuromuscular Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Neuromuscular disorders affect the nerves that control your voluntary muscles. Voluntary muscles are the ones you can control, like ... and your ability to breathe. Examples of neuromuscular disorders include Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Multiple sclerosis Myasthenia gravis ...

  3. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  4. Neurocognitive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Organic mental disorder (OMS); Organic brain syndrome ... Beck BJ, Tompkins KJ. Mental disorders due to another medical condition. In: Stern TA, Fava M, Wilens TE, Rosenbaum JF, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical ...

  5. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

  6. Dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2005-01-01

    The dissociative disorders, including "psychogenic" or "functional" amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity disorder (DID, also known as multiple personality disorder), and depersonalization disorder, were once classified, along with conversion disorder, as forms of hysteria. The 1970s witnessed an "epidemic" of dissociative disorder, particularly DID, which may have reflected enthusiasm for the diagnosis more than its actual prevalence. Traditionally, the dissociative disorders have been attributed to trauma and other psychological stress, but the existing evidence favoring this hypothesis is plagued by poor methodology. Prospective studies of traumatized individuals reveal no convincing cases of amnesia not attributable to brain insult, injury, or disease. Treatment generally involves recovering and working through ostensibly repressed or dissociated memories of trauma; at present, there are few quantitative or controlled outcome studies. Experimental studies are few in number and have focused largely on state-dependent and implicit memory. Depersonalization disorder may be in line for the next "epidemic" of dissociation.

  7. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Erzegovesi, Stefano; Bellodi, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Twenty years have passed from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and, in the meanwhile, a lot of research data about eating disorders has been published. This article reviews the main modifications to the classification of eating disorders reported in the "Feeding and Eating Disorders" chapter of the DSM-5, and compares them with the ICD-10 diagnostic guidelines. Particularly, we will show that DSM-5 criteria widened the diagnoses of anorexia and bulimia nervosa to less severe forms (so decreasing the frequency of Eating Disorders, Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) diagnoses), introduced the new category of Binge Eating Disorder, and incorporated several feeding disorders that were first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. On the whole, the DSM-5 revision should allow the clinician to make more reliable and timely diagnoses for eating disorders.

  8. Gingival pigmentation index proposal of a new index with a brief review of current indices

    PubMed Central

    Peeran, Syed Wali; Ramalingam, Karthikeyan; Peeran, Syed Ali; Altaher, Omar Basheer; Alsaid, Fatma Mojtaba; Mugrabi, Marei Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetic expectations have increased with time and current trends speak volumes about gingival esthetics and smile designing. Gingival pigmentation especially on the labial aspect of anterior teeth has become an important component of general esthetics. Various physiologic and pathologic factors cause gingival pigmentation. The existing indices do not deal with the etiology, extent and severity of gingival pigmentation. Hence, we propose a new classification and index for gingival pigmentation to assess the treatment needs for the patient. PMID:24966785

  9. Controlling composition and color characteristics of Monascus pigments by pH and nitrogen sources in submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Kan; Song, Da; Chen, Gong; Pistolozzi, Marco; Wu, Zhenqiang; Quan, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Submerged fermentations of Monascus anka were performed with different nitrogen sources at different pH in 3 L bioreactors. The results revealed that the Monascus pigments dominated by different color components (yellow pigments, orange pigments or red pigments) could be selectively produced through pH control and nitrogen source selection. A large amount of intracellular pigments dominated by orange pigments and a small amount of water-soluble extracellular yellow pigments were produced at low pH (pH 2.5 and 4.0), independently of the nitrogen source employed. At higher pH (pH 6.5), the role of the nitrogen source became more significant. In particular, when ammonium sulfate was used as nitrogen source, the intracellular pigments were dominated by red pigments with a small amount of yellow pigments. Conversely, when peptone was used, intracellular pigments were dominated by yellow pigments with a few red pigments derivatives. Neither the presence of peptone nor ammonium sulfate promoted the production of intracellular orange pigments while extracellular pigments with an orangish red color were observed in both cases, with a higher yield when peptone was used. Two-stage pH control fermentation was then performed to improve desirable pigments yield and further investigate the effect of pH and nitrogen sources on pigments composition. These results provide a useful strategy to produce Monascus pigments with different composition and different color characteristics.

  10. Replacement of thermally produced calcined clay with chemically structured pigments and methods for the same. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen-Shaw, M.

    1997-01-23

    This investigation focuses on layered pigments for the paper industry, more specifically layered (two non-identical particles) pigments for paper coating, with resulting improved opacity (brightness).

  11. Effects of blue light on pigment biosynthesis of Monascus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Xue, Chunmao; Chen, Mianhua; Wu, Shufen; Li, Zhenjing; Wang, Changlu

    2016-04-01

    The influence of different illumination levels of blue light on the growth and intracellular pigment yields of Monascus strain M9 was investigated. Compared with darkness, constant exposure to blue light of 100 lux reduced the yields of six pigments, namely, rubropunctatamine (RUM), monascorubramine (MOM), rubropunctatin (RUN), monascorubrin (MON), monascin (MS), and ankaflavin (AK). However, exposure to varying levels of blue light had different effects on pigment production. Exposure to 100 lux of blue light once for 30 min/day and to 100 lux of blue light once and twice for 15 min/day could enhance RUM, MOM, MS, and AK production and reduce RUN and MON compared with non-exposure. Exposure to 100 lux twice for 30 min/day and to 200 lux once for 45 min/day decreased the RUM, MOM, MS, and AK yields and increased the RUN and MON. Meanwhile, the expression levels of pigment biosynthetic genes were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated that gene MpPKS5, mppR1, mppA, mppB, mmpC, mppD, MpFasA, MpFasB, and mppF were positively correlated with the yields of RUN and MON, whereas mppE and mppR2 were associated with RUM, MOM, MS, and AK production. PMID:27033206

  12. Effect of wavelength on cutaneous pigment using pulsed irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, K.A.; Murray, S.; Kurban, A.K.; Tan, O.T.

    1989-05-01

    Several reports have been published over the last two decades describing the successful removal of benign cutaneous pigmented lesions such as lentigines, cafe au lait macules' nevi, nevus of Ota, and lentigo maligna by a variety of lasers such as the excimer (351 nm), argon (488,514 nm), ruby (694 nm), Nd:YAG (1060 nm), and CO/sub 2/ (10,600 nm). Laser treatment has been applied to lesions with a range of pigment depths from superficial lentigines in the epidermis to the nevus of Ota in the reticular dermis. Widely divergent laser parameters of wavelength, pulse duration, energy density, and spotsizes have been used, but the laser parameters used to treat this range of lesions have been arbitrary, with little effort focused on defining optimal laser parameters for removal of each type. In this study, miniature black pig skin was exposed to five wavelengths (504, 590, 694, 720, and 750 nm) covering the absorption spectrum of melanin. At each wavelength, a range of energy densities was examined. Skin biopsies taken from laser-exposed sites were examined histologically in an attempt to establish whether optimal laser parameters exist for destroying pigment cells in skin. Of the five wavelengths examined, 504 nm produced the most pigment specific injury; this specificity being maintained even at the highest energy density of 7.0 J/cm2. Thus, for the destruction of melanin-containing cells in the epidermal compartment, 504 nm wavelength appears optimal.

  13. Melanin: the biophysiology of oral melanocytes and physiological oral pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The presence of melanocytes in the oral epithelium is a well-established fact, but their physiological functions are not well defined. Melanin provides protection from environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species; and melanocytes function as stress-sensors having the capacity both to react to and to produce a variety of microenvironmental cytokines and growth factors, modulating immune, inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Melanocytes also act as neuroendocrine cells producing local neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, catecholamines and opioids, and hormones of the melanocortin system such as proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, that participate in intracellular and in intercellular signalling pathways, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis. There is a wide range of normal variation in melanin pigmentation of the oral mucosa. In general, darker skinned persons more frequently have oral melanin pigmentation than light-skinned persons. Variations in oral physiological pigmentation are genetically determined unless associated with some underlying disease. In this article, we discuss some aspects of the biophysiology of oral melanocytes, of the functions of melanin, and of physiological oral pigmentation. PMID:24661309

  14. Gene regulation networks generate diverse pigmentation patterns in plants.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nick W; Davies, Kevin M; Schwinn, Kathy E

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of pigmentation patterns observed in plants occurs due to the spatial distribution and accumulation of colored compounds, which may also be associated with structural changes to the tissue. Anthocyanins are flavonoids that provide red/purple/blue coloration to plants, often forming complex patterns such as spots, stripes, and vein-associated pigmentation, particularly in flowers. These patterns are determined by the activity of MYB-bHLH-WDR (MBW) transcription factor complexes, which activate the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, resulting in anthocyanin pigment accumulation. Recently, we established that the MBW complex controlling anthocyanin synthesis acts within a gene regulation network that is conserved within at least the Eudicots. This network involves hierarchy, reinforcement, and feedback mechanisms that allow for stringent and responsive regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. The gene network and mobile nature of the WDR and R3-MYB proteins provide exciting new opportunities to explore the basis of pigmentation patterning, and to investigate the evolutionary history of the MBW components in land plants.

  15. Variability of surface pigment concentrations in the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, Charles R.; Yoder, James A.; Blanton, J. O.; Atkinson, L. P.; Lee, T. N.

    1988-01-01

    A time sequence of surface pigment images of the South Atlantic Bight (SAB), derived from the Nimbus 7 CZCS for the period between November 1978 and October 1979, was correlated with in situ observations of hydrographic parameters, fresh-water discharge, sea level, coastal winds, and currents in order to couple physical processes and the spatial and temporal variability of the surface pigment fields. A definite seasonal modulation of the surface pigment fields was found, with the concentrations in the Georgia Bight being highest in summer, and those north of Cape Romain highest in winter. This phase difference was found to be the result of variations in wind fields, Gulf Stream-shelf interactions, and fresh-water discharge patterns. At some locations (e.g., near Charleston) the alongshore band of high pigment concentrations increased in width throughout the year; at other locations (near Jacksonville), the alongsore band exhibited a minimum width in the summer and a maximum width in the fall of 1979.

  16. Removal of dogs' gingival pigmentation with CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Jose A. P.; Chavantes, Maria C.; Gioso, Marco A.; Pesce, Hildeberto F.; Jatene, Adib D.

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the ability of CO2 laser to remove physiologic pigmentation of gingiva. Dogs were chosen for this study because of their intense black pigmentation on the gingiva, similar to what can be found in human negroes and other dark- skinned races. Three specimens were irradiated at the left side of the buccal aspect of the gingiva, while for comparison the right side was used as a control. CO2 laser in a continuous mode applying 3 watt power was used (Xanar-20, USA). The portion to be irradiated was continuously irrigated with saline solution, to prevent tissue damage from the excessive heat generated. The handpiece device irradiated the target easily and fast, with no bleeding. All the pigmentation could be removed from the portion exposed to the laser beam. A 45th day follow up showed very little repigmentation just in one of the specimens. It could be concluded that CO2 laser irradiation can be an alternative to remove pigmentation of the gingiva for cosmetic purposes. The risk of repigmentation exists, so the patients should be aware of this inconvenience, sometimes demanding further irradiation.

  17. 21 CFR 73.3128 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... pigments. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive is formed by depositing titanium or iron salts from a basic solution onto mica, followed by calcination to produce titanium dioxide or iron oxides on mica. Mica used to manufacture the color additive shall conform in identity and...

  18. 21 CFR 73.3128 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pigments. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive is formed by depositing titanium or iron salts from a basic solution onto mica, followed by calcination to produce titanium dioxide or iron oxides on mica. Mica used to manufacture the color additive shall conform in identity and...

  19. Exploration of industrially important pigments from soil fungi.

    PubMed

    Akilandeswari, P; Pradeep, B V

    2016-02-01

    The worldwide interest of the current era is to increase tendency towards the use of natural substances instead of synthetic ones. So, alternative and effective environment friendly sustainable technologies are highly needed. Due to a broad range of biological activities, fungi are considered as a significant source of pigments. Among the fungal species in the soil, the genera of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, and Trichoderma are dominant. The pigments commonly produced by fungi belong to aromatic polyketide groups such as melanins, quinones, flavins, ankaflavin, anthraquinone, and naphthoquinone. The use of fungal pigments has benefits which comprise easy and fast growth in the cheap culture medium and different color shades being independent of weather conditions and would be useful in various industrial applications. In relation to the toxic effects of the synthetic dyes, the natural dyes are easily degradable since they cause no detrimental effects. Thus, the study of pigments produced by soil fungi has tremendous use in medical, textile coloring, food coloring, and cosmetics.

  20. Phytogenic pigments in animal nutrition: potentials and risks.

    PubMed

    Faehnrich, Bettina; Lukas, Brigitte; Humer, Elke; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-03-30

    Phytogenic pigments are secondary plant compounds responsible for coloring effects in plant tissues. In particular, phenolic flavonoids and terpenoid carotenoids, but also rare compounds like curcumin and betalain, form this group of biochemical agents used in animal nutrition. From the perspective of ecological mutuality between plants and animals, these compounds are of crucial importance because they serve as visual attraction for herbivores but also signal nutritional and/or health-promoting values. This review focuses on the properties of phytogenic pigments which are likely to impact feed intake and preferences of livestock. Also natural prophylactic and/or therapeutic properties and, in particular, the potential of pigments to enhance quality and health value of animal products for human consumption are important issues. Nevertheless, reasonable limits of use due to possible adverse indications have been suggested recently. Pathways of digestion, metabolism and excretion in animals play a crucial role not only in the evaluation of effectiveness but also in the prediction of potential risks for human consumption. The popularity of natural feed additives is growing; therefore, more research work is needed to better understand metabolic pathways in the animal's body and to better estimate the potentials and risks of pigmenting plant compounds used in animal nutrition. PMID:26415572

  1. Exploration of industrially important pigments from soil fungi.

    PubMed

    Akilandeswari, P; Pradeep, B V

    2016-02-01

    The worldwide interest of the current era is to increase tendency towards the use of natural substances instead of synthetic ones. So, alternative and effective environment friendly sustainable technologies are highly needed. Due to a broad range of biological activities, fungi are considered as a significant source of pigments. Among the fungal species in the soil, the genera of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, and Trichoderma are dominant. The pigments commonly produced by fungi belong to aromatic polyketide groups such as melanins, quinones, flavins, ankaflavin, anthraquinone, and naphthoquinone. The use of fungal pigments has benefits which comprise easy and fast growth in the cheap culture medium and different color shades being independent of weather conditions and would be useful in various industrial applications. In relation to the toxic effects of the synthetic dyes, the natural dyes are easily degradable since they cause no detrimental effects. Thus, the study of pigments produced by soil fungi has tremendous use in medical, textile coloring, food coloring, and cosmetics. PMID:26701360

  2. Pigmented orbital mass due to remote pencil trauma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian J; Gupta, Shivani; Flint, Andrew; Singer, Thomas R; Elner, Victor M

    2012-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman with a medial canthal mass associated with new-onset epiphora was found to have a darkly pigmented mass arising from the lacrimal sac wall because of intranasal pencil trauma 40 years before. Resection of the graphite-induced granuloma with dacryocystorhinostomy was curative.

  3. 21 CFR 73.3128 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.3128 Section 73.3128 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3128 Mica-based...

  4. Synthesis of Copper Pigments, Malachite and Verdigris: Making Tempera Paint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; Mahon, Megan L.; Halpern, Erica M.

    2011-01-01

    Malachite and verdigris, two copper-based pigments, are synthesized in this experiment intended for use in a general chemistry laboratory. The preparation of egg tempera paint from malachite is also described. All procedures can be done with a magnetic stir plate, standard glassware present in any first-year laboratory, and household chemicals.…

  5. Historic perspectives. Macular yellow pigment. The first 200 years.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, J J; Pruett, R C; Delori, F C

    1981-01-01

    Since 1782 there has been continuing controversy concerning the curious central coloration referred to as "macular yellow," but no cumulative source of information on the subject exists. This paper reviews the research efforts of two centuries to determine the existence, nature, location, and function of a specialized pigment in the foveal region. Using white-light illumination, it is difficult to see a macular yellow spot in the living eye; it is best observed and documented by red-free ophthalmoscopy and blue-light monochromatic photography. Histologic, biochemical, and spectral absorption data suggest that the yellow color is due to a xanthophyllic pigment, lutein, that is distributed in all retinal layers internal to the outer nuclear layer, with greatest concentration in the outer and inner plexiform layers. Clinically absent in newborns, the pigment gradually accumulates from dietary sources and appears to serve both as an optical filter, by absorbing blue light and reducing chromatic aberration, and in a protective capacity, preventing actinic damage. The absorption characteristics of the yellow pigment contribute to the central dark spot seen during fluorescein angiography and to the risk of photocoagulation near the fovea. Its apparent absence in albinos and the reported functional improvement in certain degenerative retinopathies following supplemental xanthophyll administration suggest a possible role in hereditary or acquired maculopathies. PMID:6758089

  6. 21 CFR 73.1350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.1350 Section 73.1350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... heating to produce one of the following combinations: Titanium dioxide on mica; iron oxide on...

  7. 21 CFR 73.1350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.1350 Section 73.1350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... heating to produce one of the following combinations: Titanium dioxide on mica; iron oxide on...

  8. 21 CFR 73.350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... may be safely used as a color additive in food as follows: (i) In amounts up to 1.25 percent, by... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.350 Section 73.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  9. 21 CFR 73.1350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.1350 Section 73.1350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... heating to produce one of the following combinations: Titanium dioxide on mica; iron oxide on...

  10. 21 CFR 73.1350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.1350 Section 73.1350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... heating to produce one of the following combinations: Titanium dioxide on mica; iron oxide on...

  11. 21 CFR 73.1350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.1350 Section 73.1350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... heating to produce one of the following combinations: Titanium dioxide on mica; iron oxide on...

  12. Apollo 12 lunar material - Effects on plant pigments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material returned by Apollo 12 contained 21 to 35% more total pigment than control tissues. This difference is due primarily to increased chlorophyll a concentrations per gram fresh weight of tissue in experimental cultures. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control cultures.

  13. Effects of blue light on pigment biosynthesis of Monascus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Xue, Chunmao; Chen, Mianhua; Wu, Shufen; Li, Zhenjing; Wang, Changlu

    2016-04-01

    The influence of different illumination levels of blue light on the growth and intracellular pigment yields of Monascus strain M9 was investigated. Compared with darkness, constant exposure to blue light of 100 lux reduced the yields of six pigments, namely, rubropunctatamine (RUM), monascorubramine (MOM), rubropunctatin (RUN), monascorubrin (MON), monascin (MS), and ankaflavin (AK). However, exposure to varying levels of blue light had different effects on pigment production. Exposure to 100 lux of blue light once for 30 min/day and to 100 lux of blue light once and twice for 15 min/day could enhance RUM, MOM, MS, and AK production and reduce RUN and MON compared with non-exposure. Exposure to 100 lux twice for 30 min/day and to 200 lux once for 45 min/day decreased the RUM, MOM, MS, and AK yields and increased the RUN and MON. Meanwhile, the expression levels of pigment biosynthetic genes were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated that gene MpPKS5, mppR1, mppA, mppB, mmpC, mppD, MpFasA, MpFasB, and mppF were positively correlated with the yields of RUN and MON, whereas mppE and mppR2 were associated with RUM, MOM, MS, and AK production.

  14. Phytogenic pigments in animal nutrition: potentials and risks.

    PubMed

    Faehnrich, Bettina; Lukas, Brigitte; Humer, Elke; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-03-30

    Phytogenic pigments are secondary plant compounds responsible for coloring effects in plant tissues. In particular, phenolic flavonoids and terpenoid carotenoids, but also rare compounds like curcumin and betalain, form this group of biochemical agents used in animal nutrition. From the perspective of ecological mutuality between plants and animals, these compounds are of crucial importance because they serve as visual attraction for herbivores but also signal nutritional and/or health-promoting values. This review focuses on the properties of phytogenic pigments which are likely to impact feed intake and preferences of livestock. Also natural prophylactic and/or therapeutic properties and, in particular, the potential of pigments to enhance quality and health value of animal products for human consumption are important issues. Nevertheless, reasonable limits of use due to possible adverse indications have been suggested recently. Pathways of digestion, metabolism and excretion in animals play a crucial role not only in the evaluation of effectiveness but also in the prediction of potential risks for human consumption. The popularity of natural feed additives is growing; therefore, more research work is needed to better understand metabolic pathways in the animal's body and to better estimate the potentials and risks of pigmenting plant compounds used in animal nutrition.

  15. Response of pigmented Serratia marcescens to the illumination.

    PubMed

    Ryazantseva, Irina N; Saakov, Vladimir S; Andreyeva, Irina N; Ogorodnikova, Tatjana I; Zuev, Yuriy F

    2012-01-01

    Variations in the illumination conditions (light/darkness) affected both the biosynthesis of prodigiosin and energy metabolism of the pigmented strain ATCC 9986 Serratia marcescens growing aerobical in the batch culture were shown. In the process incubation the transition of the pigmented culture from illumination within (24 h, 48 h) in the dark conditions increased the prodigiosin synthesis by 2.0, 2.5 times, respectively. At the same time, the illumination did not influence the prodigiosin biosynthesis in the stationary growth phase. In the initial period of prodigiosin synthesis the rate of oxygen consumption was higher than later when the pigment synthesis gradually decreased. The respiration activity of colorless strain 24-5 is not independent from the lighting conditions. The regulation of energetic pathways in the light and in darkness has been revealed. Prodigiosin is associated with the hydrophobic protein and it is represented pigment protein complex by diameter of particles less 100 kDa. Fluorescence spectrum of prodigiosin and it the absorption spectra of derivatives of high orders D(IV) and D(VIII) were described.

  16. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    PubMed Central

    Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics. PMID:27114883

  17. Historic perspectives. Macular yellow pigment. The first 200 years.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, J J; Pruett, R C; Delori, F C

    1981-01-01

    Since 1782 there has been continuing controversy concerning the curious central coloration referred to as "macular yellow," but no cumulative source of information on the subject exists. This paper reviews the research efforts of two centuries to determine the existence, nature, location, and function of a specialized pigment in the foveal region. Using white-light illumination, it is difficult to see a macular yellow spot in the living eye; it is best observed and documented by red-free ophthalmoscopy and blue-light monochromatic photography. Histologic, biochemical, and spectral absorption data suggest that the yellow color is due to a xanthophyllic pigment, lutein, that is distributed in all retinal layers internal to the outer nuclear layer, with greatest concentration in the outer and inner plexiform layers. Clinically absent in newborns, the pigment gradually accumulates from dietary sources and appears to serve both as an optical filter, by absorbing blue light and reducing chromatic aberration, and in a protective capacity, preventing actinic damage. The absorption characteristics of the yellow pigment contribute to the central dark spot seen during fluorescein angiography and to the risk of photocoagulation near the fovea. Its apparent absence in albinos and the reported functional improvement in certain degenerative retinopathies following supplemental xanthophyll administration suggest a possible role in hereditary or acquired maculopathies.

  18. Social stress effects on pigmentation and monoamines in Arctic charr.

    PubMed

    Backström, Tobias; Heynen, Martina; Brännäs, Eva; Nilsson, Jan; Winberg, Svante; Magnhagen, Carin

    2015-09-15

    Pigmentation often signals status and in general melanin-based pigmentation is indicative of aggression and stress resilience in vertebrates. This is evident in the salmonids Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) where more melanin spotted individuals are more stress resilient. However, in the salmonid Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) it seems as if it is carotenoid-based pigmentation that signals aggression and stress resilience. In our study, social stress effects on carotenoid-based spots, and behavioural and physiological stress responses were investigated. Socially stressed individuals have more spots, and behavioural stress responses were associated with spots. Some of the results concerning physiological stress responses, such as plasma cortisol levels and monoaminergic activity, are associated with spottiness. Further, the earlier proposed lateralization of spots, with left side connected to stress responsiveness and right side to aggression, is to some extent validated although not conclusively. In conclusion, this study provides further evidence that more stressed charr have more carotenoid spots, and for the first time monoaminergic activity is shown to be connected with carotenoid pigmentation.

  19. Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation with papillomatosis (IEMPP): A controversial entity.

    PubMed

    Pang, Y Z; Koh, W L; Ang, C C

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old man with a 6-month history of progressive development of hyperpigmented, velvety plaques on the face and body. A diagnosis of idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation with papillomatosis (IEMPP) was determined. This entity is discussed. PMID:27617467

  20. Plant Pigment Identification: A Classroom and Outreach Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Kathleen C. A.; Odendaal, Antoinette Y.; Carlson, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a class of pigments responsible for the bright colors of many flowers, fruits, and vegetables typically resulting in shades of red, blue, and purple. Students were asked to perform an activity to enable them to identify which anthocyanin was present in one of several possible plant materials through a hands-on activity. Students…

  1. Affective Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a heterogeneous disorder with lifetime prevalence of "major depressive disorder" estimated to be 16.2%. Although the disorder is common and impairs functioning, it often goes untreated, with less than adequate response even when treated. We review research indicating the likely value of utilizing currently available, well-validated,…

  2. Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  3. The red-green visual pigment gene region in adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Aubourg, P; Feil, R; Guidoux, S; Kaplan, J C; Moser, H; Kahn, A; Mandel, J L

    1990-01-01

    Although recent data established that a specific very-long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase is defective in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), the ALD gene is still unidentified. The ALD locus has been mapped to Xq28, like the red and green color pigment genes. Abnormal color vision has been observed in 12 of 27 patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), a milder form of ALD. Furthermore, rearrangements of the color vision gene cluster were found in four of eight ALD kindreds. This led us to propose that a single DNA rearrangement could underlie both ALD and abnormal color vision in these patients. Study of 34 French ALD patients failed to reveal a higher than expected frequency of green/red visual pigment rearrangements 3' to the red/green color vision gene complex. The previous report of such rearrangements was based on small numbers and lack of knowledge that the frequency of "abnormal" color vision arrays on molecular analysis was twice as high as expected on the basis of the frequency of phenotypic color vision defects. The red/green color pigment (R/GCP) region was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in 14 of these patients, and we did not find any fragment size difference between the patients and normal individuals who have the same number of pigment genes. The R/GCP region was also analyzed in 29 French and seven North American ALD patients by using six genomic DNA probes, isolated from a cosmid walk, that flank the color vision genes. No deletions were found with probes that lie 3' of the green pigment genes. One of the eight previously reported ALD individuals has a long deletion 5' of the red pigment gene, a deletion causing blue cone monochromacy. This finding and the previous findings of a 45% frequency of phenotypic color vision defects in patients with AMN may suggest that the ALD/AMN gene lies 5' to the red pigment gene and that the frequent phenotypic color vision anomalies owe their origin to deleted DNA that includes regulatory genes for

  4. Somatic symptom disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders; Somatization disorder; Somatiform disorders; Briquet syndrome; Illness anxiety disorder ... history of abuse. SSD is similar to illness anxiety disorder . This is when a person is overly ...

  5. Crystal structure, optical properties and colouring performance of karrooite MgTi{sub 2}O{sub 5} ceramic pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Matteucci, Francesco Cruciani, Giuseppe; Dondi, Michele; Gasparotto, Giorgio; Tobaldi, David Maria

    2007-11-15

    Karrooite, MgTi{sub 2}O{sub 5}, is a promising ceramic pigment due to its high refractoriness and refractive indices, as well as its ability to host transition metal ions in two crystallographically distinct octahedral sites. The colouring performance was investigated combining X-ray powder diffraction with UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy on karrooite doped with V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co or Ni (M) according to the formula Mg{sub 1-x}Ti{sub 2-x}M{sub 2x}O{sub 5}, with x=0.02 and 0.05. Transition metals solubility in the karrooite lattice is not complete and a second phase is always present (geikielite or rutile). Structural data proved that incorporation of different chromophore ions into the karrooite structure affects unit cell parameters, bond length distances and angles, site occupancies and therefore cation order-disorder. Optical spectra exhibit broad absorbance bands of Co(II), Cr(IV), Fe(III), Mn(II), Mn(III), Ni(II), V(IV) with distinct contributions by cations in the M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} sites. Karrooite pigments have colours ranging from orange to brown-tan (Cr, Fe, Mn, V) to green (Co) and yellow (Ni) that are stable in low-temperature (<1050 deg. C) ceramic glazes and glassy coatings. - Graphical abstract: Karrooite is a promising ceramic pigment for high refractoriness and refractive indices. Incorporation of V(IV), Cr(IV), Mn(II)+Mn(III), Fe(III), Co(II) or Ni(II) in two crystallographically distinct octahedral sites affects unit cell parameters, bond length distances and cation order-disorder, leading also to distinct optical bands from the two different sites, so reducing colour purity.

  6. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  7. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  8. 40 CFR 415.640 - Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. 415.640 Section 415.640 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.640 Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 415.340 - Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chrome pigments production subcategory. 415.340 Section 415.340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.340 Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  10. 40 CFR 415.640 - Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. 415.640 Section 415.640 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.640 Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 415.340 - Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chrome pigments production subcategory. 415.340 Section 415.340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.340 Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  12. 40 CFR 415.640 - Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. 415.640 Section 415.640 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.640 Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 415.340 - Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chrome pigments production subcategory. 415.340 Section 415.340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.340 Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  14. 40 CFR 415.340 - Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... chrome pigments production subcategory. 415.340 Section 415.340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.340 Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  15. 40 CFR 415.640 - Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. 415.640 Section 415.640 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.640 Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  16. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis.

  17. 40 CFR 415.340 - Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chrome pigments production subcategory. 415.340 Section 415.340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.340 Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  18. 40 CFR 415.640 - Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. 415.640 Section 415.640 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.640 Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  19. Prodigiosin from Vibrio sp. DSM 14379; a new UV-protective pigment.

    PubMed

    Borić, Maja; Danevčič, Tjaša; Stopar, David

    2011-10-01

    Pigments such as melanin, scytonemin and carotenoids protect microbial cells against the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The role in UV protection has never been assigned to the prodigiosin pigment. In this work, we demonstrate that prodigiosin provides a significant level of protection against UV stress in Vibrio sp. DSM 14379. In the absence of pigment production, Vibrio sp. was significantly more susceptible to UV stress, and there was no difference in UV survival between the wild-type strain and non-pigmented mutant. The pigment's protective role was more important at higher doses of UV irradiation and correlated with pigment concentration in the cell. Pigmented cells survived high UV exposure (324 J/m(2)) around 1,000-fold more successfully compared to the non-pigmented mutant cells. Resistance to UV stress was conferred to the non-pigmented mutant by addition of exogenous pigment extract to the growth medium. A level of UV protection equivalent to that exhibited by the wild-type strain was attained by the non-pigmented mutant once the prodigiosin concentration had reached comparable levels to those found in the wild-type strain. In co-culture experiments, prodigiosin acted as a UV screen, protecting both the wild-type and non-pigmented mutants. Our results suggest a new ecophysiological role for prodigiosin.

  20. Argon Laser Photoablation for Treating Benign Pigmented Conjunctival Nevi

    PubMed Central

    Alsharif, Abdulrahman M.; Al-Gehedan, Saeed M.; Alasbali, Tariq; Alkuraya, Hisham S.; Lotfy, Nancy M.; Khandekar, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of argon laser photoablation of benign conjunctival pigmented nevi with different clinical presentations. Patients and Methods: This interventional case series was conducted between July 2014 and January 2015. Patients presenting with benign conjunctival nevi were included. Data were collected on the clinical features at presentation, argon laser photoablation, and follow-up at 8 and 24 weeks. Postoperative photography allowed recording of the success of each case and the overall success rate. Complete removal of conjunctival pigments was considered an absolute success. Partial pigmentation requiring repeat laser treatment was considered a qualified success. Results: There were 14 eyes (four right eyes and ten left eyes) with benign pigmented conjunctival nevi. There were three males and eight females in the study sample. The median age was 36 (25% percentile: 26 years). Three patients had bilateral lesions. The nevi were located temporally in nine eyes, nasally in three eyes, and on the inferior bulbar conjunctiva in two eyes. The mean horizontal and vertical diameters of nevi were 5 ± 2 mm and 4 ± 2.7 mm, respectively. The mean follow-up period was 5 months. Following laser treatment, no eyes had subconjunctival hemorrhage, infection, scarring, neovascularization, recurrence, or corneal damage. The absolute success rate of laser ablation was 79%. Three eyes with elevated nevi had one to three sessions of laser ablation resulting in a qualified success rate of 100%. Conclusions: Argon laser ablation was a safe and effective treatment for the treatment of selective benign pigmented conjunctival nevi in Arab patients. PMID:27555708

  1. Human skin pigmentation as an adaptation to UV radiation

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Nina G.; Chaplin, George

    2010-01-01

    Human skin pigmentation is the product of two clines produced by natural selection to adjust levels of constitutive pigmentation to levels of UV radiation (UVR). One cline was generated by high UVR near the equator and led to the evolution of dark, photoprotective, eumelanin-rich pigmentation. The other was produced by the requirement for UVB photons to sustain cutaneous photosynthesis of vitamin D3 in low-UVB environments, and resulted in the evolution of depigmented skin. As hominins dispersed outside of the tropics, they experienced different intensities and seasonal mixtures of UVA and UVB. Extreme UVA throughout the year and two equinoctial peaks of UVB prevail within the tropics. Under these conditions, the primary selective pressure was to protect folate by maintaining dark pigmentation. Photolysis of folate and its main serum form of 5-methylhydrofolate is caused by UVR and by reactive oxygen species generated by UVA. Competition for folate between the needs for cell division, DNA repair, and melanogenesis is severe under stressful, high-UVR conditions and is exacerbated by dietary insufficiency. Outside of tropical latitudes, UVB levels are generally low and peak only once during the year. The populations exhibiting maximally depigmented skin are those inhabiting environments with the lowest annual and summer peak levels of UVB. Development of facultative pigmentation (tanning) was important to populations settling between roughly 23° and 46° , where levels of UVB varied strongly according to season. Depigmented and tannable skin evolved numerous times in hominin evolution via independent genetic pathways under positive selection. PMID:20445093

  2. Salt and Pepper Pigmentation - Skin Manifestation of Systemic Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraju, D; Prakash, G; Yoganandh, T; Subramanian, S R; Ramkumar, S

    2015-09-01

    A 50 year old male presented with progressive difficulty in swallowing both liquid and solid food with no history of Raynaud's phenomenon. A general examination revealed skin changes in the form of thickening, hyperpigmentation and tightening of skin of fingers, hand, forearm and legs. The patient had painless skin induration over the legs, forearm and hand. Salt and pepper pigmentation was seen on the upper back (Figure 1a), over mastoid process (Figure 1b) and the concha of pinna (Figure 1c). Anti-Scl 70 was positive. Anti-centromere antibodies were negative. Pulmonary function testing (PFT) revealed very severe restrictive lung disease. Barium swallow study was normal. Despite being advised to undergo oesophageal manometry test in view of dysphagia, patient was not willing for the same. Diagnosis of systemic sclerosis was made. Systemic sclerosis is a disease in which extensive fibrosis, vascular alterations and autoantibodies against various cellular antigens being the principal features with a female to male ratio of 4:1. Skin pigmentation changes among other features of skin involvement include a salt-and-pepper appearance due to diffuse hyperpigmentation with sparing of the perifollicular areas. This may be due to the richer capillary network that may warm the perifollicular skin and preserve melanogenesis producing the perifollicular pigment retention in systemic sclerosis.1,2 Both cellular and humoral immune factors in combination with external factors such as trauma or inflammation may trigger the destruction of melanocytes.3 Moreover, various physical factors like temperature changes as well as genetic, hormonal factors may influence pigment formation. Such changes in pigmentation is also seen during repigmentation around hair follicles in vitiligo. Clinically, both vitiligo and depigmented lesions of systemic sclerosis present as chalk-white macules with well-defined borders. However, mucosal involvement is commonly seen in vitiligo while depigmented

  3. Addiction disorders.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Joseph O; Duncan, Mark H

    2014-09-01

    Substance use disorders are common in primary care settings, but detection, assessment, and management are seldom undertaken. Substantial evidence supports alcohol screening and brief intervention for risky drinking, and pharmacotherapy is effective for alcohol use disorders. Substance use disorders can complicate the management of chronic noncancer pain, making routine monitoring and assessment for substance use disorders an important aspect of long-term opioid prescribing. Patients with opioid use disorders can be effectively treated with methadone in opioid treatment programs or with buprenorphine in the primary care setting.

  4. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  5. Pigment Production on L-Tryptophan Medium by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Chaskes, Stuart; Cammer, Michael; Nieves, Edward; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years strains previously grouped within Cryptococcus neoformans have been divided into two species C. neoformans and C. gattii, with Cryptococcus neoformans comprising serotypes A, D, and AD and C. gattii comprising serotypes B and C. Cryptococcus neoformans have also been subdivided into two varieties C. neoformans var. grubii, serotype A, and C. neoformans var. neoformans, serotype D. We analyzed the growth and pigment production characteristics of 139 strains of Cryptococcus spp. in L-tryptophan containing media. Nearly all strains of Cryptococcus, including each variety and serotype tested produced a pink water-soluble pigment (molecular weight of 535.2 Da) from L-tryptophan. Consequently, the partial separation of the species was based on whether the pink pigment was secreted into the medium (extracellular) or retained as an intracellular pigment. On L-tryptophan medium C. neoformans var. grubii and serotype AD produced a pink extracellular pigment. In contrast, for C. gattii, the pink pigment was localized intracellularly and masked by heavy production of brown pigments. Pigment production by C. neoformans var. neoformans was variable with some strains producing the pink extracellular pigment and others retained the pink pigment intracellularly. The pink intracellular pigment produced by strains of C. neoformans var. neoformans was masked by production of brown pigments. Cryptococcus laccase mutants failed to produce pigments from L-tryptophan. This is the first report that the enzyme laccase is involved in tryptophan metabolism. Prior to this report Cryptococcus laccase produced melanin or melanin like-pigments from heterocyclic compounds that contained ortho or para diphenols, diaminobenzenes and aminophenol compounds. The pigments produced from L-tryptophan were not melanin. PMID:24736553

  6. Pigment production on L-tryptophan medium by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Chaskes, Stuart; Cammer, Michael; Nieves, Edward; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years strains previously grouped within Cryptococcus neoformans have been divided into two species C. neoformans and C. gattii, with Cryptococcus neoformans comprising serotypes A, D, and AD and C. gattii comprising serotypes B and C. Cryptococcus neoformans have also been subdivided into two varieties C. neoformans var. grubii, serotype A, and C. neoformans var. neoformans, serotype D. We analyzed the growth and pigment production characteristics of 139 strains of Cryptococcus spp. in L-tryptophan containing media. Nearly all strains of Cryptococcus, including each variety and serotype tested produced a pink water-soluble pigment (molecular weight of 535.2 Da) from L-tryptophan. Consequently, the partial separation of the species was based on whether the pink pigment was secreted into the medium (extracellular) or retained as an intracellular pigment. On L-tryptophan medium C. neoformans var. grubii and serotype AD produced a pink extracellular pigment. In contrast, for C. gattii, the pink pigment was localized intracellularly and masked by heavy production of brown pigments. Pigment production by C. neoformans var. neoformans was variable with some strains producing the pink extracellular pigment and others retained the pink pigment intracellularly. The pink intracellular pigment produced by strains of C. neoformans var. neoformans was masked by production of brown pigments. Cryptococcus laccase mutants failed to produce pigments from L-tryptophan. This is the first report that the enzyme laccase is involved in tryptophan metabolism. Prior to this report Cryptococcus laccase produced melanin or melanin like-pigments from heterocyclic compounds that contained ortho or para diphenols, diaminobenzenes and aminophenol compounds. The pigments produced from L-tryptophan were not melanin. PMID:24736553

  7. Acquired, Idiopathic, Patterned Facial Pigmentation (AIPFP) Including Periorbital Pigmentation and Pigmentary Demarcation Lines on Face Follows the Lines of Blaschko on Face

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Nilendu; Chakraborty, Sayantani; Bhattacharya, Sneha Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acquired, non-nevoid, apparently idiopathic facial pigmentation are distributed over some specific locations like periorbital area, zygomatic area, malar area, root of nose, perioral and mandibular area. Periorbital pigmentation is the most well known entity in this group. These are bilaterally distributed homogenously diffuse gray to dark gray or slate-gray colored patches showing progressive intensification of pigmentation. These are often considered as physiologic or constitutional pigmentation. Some portions of the margins of these patches were described previously as pigmentary demarcation line (PDL- F, G, H). Aim: To analyze the distributional patterns of acquired, apparently idiopathic facial pigmentations and to evaluate the etiologic aspects of these conditions. Materials and Methods: Spatial patterns, distribution, and orientation were analyzed among 187 individuals with idiopathic non-nevoid, facial pigmentation. Observed patterns were compared with various pigmentary nevi and Blaschko's lines on face. Results: It was found that most of the idiopathic facial pigmentary alterations including periorbital pigmentation and PDL on face had specific patterned distribution that had high similarity to that of the pigmentary nevi and Blaschko's lines on face. Conclusion: It is hypothesized here that phenotypic expression of acquired patterned pigmentation (AIFPFP) is due to genetically determined increased pigmentary functional activity to various known and unknown yet natural factors like UV rays and aging. Mosaicism was a definite possibility. We also consider that the patterns actually reflected the normal patterns of embryological human pigmentation on face. PMID:24470659

  8. Seasonal and interannual variability of pigment concentrations across a California Current frontal zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, A. C.; Strub, P. T.

    1990-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of the latitudinal position of the California Current frontal zone was investigated by examining satellite images of phytoplankton pigment from the coastal-zone color scanner for the periods 1979-1983 and 1986. The pigment concentrations associated with the zonal front were also determined. A general seasonal cycle of pigment concentrations is was established. It was found that variations in the frontal structure are controlled primarily by changes in pigment concentration north of the front. Seasonal variations were found to be minimal south of the front, where pigment concentrations remain low throughout the spring, summer, and fall.

  9. Modifying skin pigmentation – approaches through intrinsic biochemistry and exogenous agents

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Michaela; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2008-01-01

    Rates of skin cancer continue to increase despite the improved use of traditional sunscreens to minimize damage from ultraviolet radiation. The public perception of tanned skin as being healthy and desirable, combined with the rising demand for treatments to repair irregular skin pigmentation and the desire to increase or decrease constitutive skin pigmentation, arouses great interest pharmaceutically as well as cosmeceutically. This review discusses the intrinsic biochemistry of pigmentation, details mechanisms that lead to increased or decreased skin pigmentation, and summarizes established and potential hyper- and hypo-pigmenting agents and their modes of action. PMID:19578486

  10. Argentinean prehistoric pigments' study by combined SEM/EDX and molecular spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darchuk, L.; Tsybrii, Z.; Worobiec, A.; Vázquez, C.; Palacios, O. M.; Stefaniak, E. A.; Gatto Rotondo, G.; Sizov, F.; Van Grieken, R.

    2010-05-01

    Composition of the prehistoric pigments' (from Carriqueo rock shelter, Rio Negro province, Argentina) has been analysed by means of molecular spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and micro-Raman) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Red and yellow pigments were recognized as red and yellow ochre. The matrix of the pigments is composed of one or more substances. According to the matrix composition yellow and red pigments were also divided into two groups—i.e. those containing kaolinite or sulphates. Green pigment was detected as green earth, made up of celadonite as a chromophore.

  11. Argentinean prehistoric pigments' study by combined SEM/EDX and molecular spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Darchuk, L; Tsybrii, Z; Worobiec, A; Vázquez, C; Palacios, O M; Stefaniak, E A; Gatto Rotondo, G; Sizov, F; Van Grieken, R

    2010-05-01

    Composition of the prehistoric pigments' (from Carriqueo rock shelter, Rio Negro province, Argentina) has been analysed by means of molecular spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and micro-Raman) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Red and yellow pigments were recognized as red and yellow ochre. The matrix of the pigments is composed of one or more substances. According to the matrix composition yellow and red pigments were also divided into two groups-i.e. those containing kaolinite or sulphates. Green pigment was detected as green earth, made up of celadonite as a chromophore. PMID:20227337

  12. Relative Pigment Composition and Remote Sensing Reflectance of Caribbean Shallow-Water Corals.

    PubMed

    Torres-Pérez, Juan L; Guild, Liane S; Armstrong, Roy A; Corredor, Jorge; Zuluaga-Montero, Anabella; Polanco, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Reef corals typically contain a number of pigments, mostly due to their symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic dinoflagellates. These pigments usually vary in presence and concentration and influence the spectral characteristics of corals. We studied the variations in pigment composition among seven Caribbean shallow-water Scleractinian corals by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis to further resolve the discrimination of corals. We found a total of 27 different pigments among the coral species, including some alteration products of the main pigments. Additionally, pigments typically found in endolithic algae were also identified. A Principal Components Analysis and a Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed the separation of coral species based on pigment composition. All the corals were collected under the same physical environmental conditions. This suggests that pigment in the coral's symbionts might be more genetically-determined than influenced by prevailing physical conditions of the reef. We further investigated the use of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) as a tool for estimating the total pigment concentration of reef corals. Depending on the coral species, the Rrs and the total symbiont pigment concentration per coral tissue area correlation showed 79.5-98.5% confidence levels demonstrating its use as a non-invasive robust technique to estimate pigment concentration in studies of coral reef biodiversity and health. PMID:26619210

  13. Relative Pigment Composition and Remote Sensing Reflectance of Caribbean Shallow-Water Corals

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Pérez, Juan L.; Guild, Liane S.; Armstrong, Roy A.; Corredor, Jorge; Zuluaga-Montero, Anabella; Polanco, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Reef corals typically contain a number of pigments, mostly due to their symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic dinoflagellates. These pigments usually vary in presence and concentration and influence the spectral characteristics of corals. We studied the variations in pigment composition among seven Caribbean shallow-water Scleractinian corals by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis to further resolve the discrimination of corals. We found a total of 27 different pigments among the coral species, including some alteration products of the main pigments. Additionally, pigments typically found in endolithic algae were also identified. A Principal Components Analysis and a Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed the separation of coral species based on pigment composition. All the corals were collected under the same physical environmental conditions. This suggests that pigment in the coral’s symbionts might be more genetically-determined than influenced by prevailing physical conditions of the reef. We further investigated the use of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) as a tool for estimating the total pigment concentration of reef corals. Depending on the coral species, the Rrs and the total symbiont pigment concentration per coral tissue area correlation showed 79.5–98.5% confidence levels demonstrating its use as a non-invasive robust technique to estimate pigment concentration in studies of coral reef biodiversity and health. PMID:26619210

  14. Additional evidence for blepharismin photoreceptor pigment mediating step-up photophobic response of unicellular organism, Blepharisma.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, T; Watanabe, Y; Sagara, Y; Takayanagi, M; Kato, Y

    1995-07-01

    In the ciliated protozoan, Blepharisma japonicum, the pink-colored pigment (blepharismin) contained in the pigment granules is believed to be the photoreceptor pigment responsible for the step-up photophobic response. When the cells partially bleached by extrusion of the pigment granules caused by cold shock were subsequently cultured under illuminated conditions, the pigment-less granules regenerated and the cells were further bleached (pigment content below 0.5%). The photosensitivity of such colorless cells disappeared completely. In contrast, the blepharismin pigment regenerated gradually when such colorless cells were transferred to darkness. The photosensitivity of the cells also recovered with regeneration of the pigment. We found that blepharismin pigment was not photobleached in the absence of O2. The step-up photophobic response was also completely repressed in the absence of O2. These results strongly confirm that blepharismin is a photoreceptor pigment mediating photobehavior of Blepharisma and that O2 is required for the early step in the phototransduction of the light-excited pigment.

  15. Differences in pigmentation between life cycle stages in Scrippsiella lachrymosa (dinophyceae).

    PubMed

    Persson, Agneta; Smith, Barry C; Cyronak, Tyler; Cooper, Emily; DiTullio, Giacomo R

    2016-02-01

    Various life cycle stages of cyst-producing dinoflagellates often appear differently colored under the microscope; gametes appear paler while zygotes are darker in comparison to vegetative cells. To compare physiological and photochemical competency, the pigment composition of discrete life cycle stages was determined for the common resting cyst-producing dinoflagellate Scrippsiella lachrymosa. Vegetative cells had the highest cellular pigment content (25.2 ± 0.5 pg · cell(-1) ), whereas gamete pigment content was 22% lower. The pigment content of zygotes was 82% lower than vegetative cells, even though they appeared darker under the microscope. Zygotes of S. lachrymosa contained significantly higher cellular concentrations of β-carotene (0.65 ± 0.15 pg · cell(-1) ) than all other life stages. Photoprotective pigments and the de-epoxidation ratio of xanthophylls-cycle pigments in S. lachrymosa were significantly elevated in zygotes and cysts compared to other stages. This suggests a role for accessory pigments in combating intracellular oxidative stress during sexual reproduction or encystment. Resting cysts contained some pigments even though chloroplasts were not visible, suggesting that the brightly colored accumulation body contained photosynthetic pigments. The differences in pigmentation between life stages have implications for interpretation of pigment data from field samples when sampled during dinoflagellate blooms.

  16. Methods for culturing retinal pigment epithelial cells: a review of current protocols and future recommendations.

    PubMed

    Fronk, Aaron H; Vargis, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium is an important part of the vertebrate eye, particularly in studying the causes and possible treatment of age-related macular degeneration. The retinal pigment epithelium is difficult to access in vivo due to its location at the back of the eye, making experimentation with age-related macular degeneration treatments problematic. An alternative to in vivo experimentation is cultivating the retinal pigment epithelium in vitro, a practice that has been going on since the 1970s, providing a wide range of retinal pigment epithelial culture protocols, each producing cells and tissue of varying degrees of similarity to natural retinal pigment epithelium. The purpose of this review is to provide researchers with a ready list of retinal pigment epithelial protocols, their effects on cultured tissue, and their specific possible applications. Protocols using human and animal retinal pigment epithelium cells, derived from tissue or cell lines, are discussed, and recommendations for future researchers included. PMID:27493715

  17. Methods for culturing retinal pigment epithelial cells: a review of current protocols and future recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Fronk, Aaron H; Vargis, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium is an important part of the vertebrate eye, particularly in studying the causes and possible treatment of age-related macular degeneration. The retinal pigment epithelium is difficult to access in vivo due to its location at the back of the eye, making experimentation with age-related macular degeneration treatments problematic. An alternative to in vivo experimentation is cultivating the retinal pigment epithelium in vitro, a practice that has been going on since the 1970s, providing a wide range of retinal pigment epithelial culture protocols, each producing cells and tissue of varying degrees of similarity to natural retinal pigment epithelium. The purpose of this review is to provide researchers with a ready list of retinal pigment epithelial protocols, their effects on cultured tissue, and their specific possible applications. Protocols using human and animal retinal pigment epithelium cells, derived from tissue or cell lines, are discussed, and recommendations for future researchers included. PMID:27493715

  18. [Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

  19. [Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders.

  20. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Pigments: A Critical Assessment of a High-Throughput Method for Analysis of Algal Pigment Mixtures by Spectral Deconvolution

    PubMed Central

    Thrane, Jan-Erik; Kyle, Marcia; Striebel, Maren; Haande, Sigrid; Grung, Merete; Rohrlack, Thomas; Andersen, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The Gauss-peak spectra (GPS) method represents individual pigment spectra as weighted sums of Gaussian functions, and uses these to model absorbance spectra of phytoplankton pigment mixtures. We here present several improvements for this type of methodology, including adaptation to plate reader technology and efficient model fitting by open source software. We use a one-step modeling of both pigment absorption and background attenuation with non-negative least squares, following a one-time instrument-specific calibration. The fitted background is shown to be higher than a solvent blank, with features reflecting contributions from both scatter and non-pigment absorption. We assessed pigment aliasing due to absorption spectra similarity by Monte Carlo simulation, and used this information to select a robust set of identifiable pigments that are also expected to be common in natural samples. To test the method’s performance, we analyzed absorbance spectra of pigment extracts from sediment cores, 75 natural lake samples, and four phytoplankton cultures, and compared the estimated pigment concentrations with concentrations obtained using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The deviance between observed and fitted spectra was generally very low, indicating that measured spectra could successfully be reconstructed as weighted sums of pigment and background components. Concentrations of total chlorophylls and total carotenoids could accurately be estimated for both sediment and lake samples, but individual pigment concentrations (especially carotenoids) proved difficult to resolve due to similarity between their absorbance spectra. In general, our modified-GPS method provides an improvement of the GPS method that is a fast, inexpensive, and high-throughput alternative for screening of pigment composition in samples of phytoplankton material. PMID:26359659

  1. Pigment Cell Progenitors in Zebrafish Remain Multipotent through Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Dinwiddie, April; Mahalwar, Prateek; Schach, Ursula; Linker, Claudia; Irion, Uwe; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2016-08-01

    The neural crest is a transient, multipotent embryonic cell population in vertebrates giving rise to diverse cell types in adults via intermediate progenitors. The in vivo cell-fate potential and lineage segregation of these postembryonic progenitors is poorly understood, and it is unknown if and when the progenitors become fate restricted. We investigate the fate restriction in the neural crest-derived stem cells and intermediate progenitors in zebrafish, which give rise to three distinct adult pigment cell types: melanophores, iridophores, and xanthophores. By inducing clones in sox10-expressing cells, we trace and quantitatively compare the pigment cell progenitors at four stages, from embryogenesis to metamorphosis. At all stages, a large fraction of the progenitors are multipotent. These multipotent progenitors have a high proliferation ability, which diminishes with fate restriction. We suggest that multipotency of the nerve-associated progenitors lasting into metamorphosis may have facilitated the evolution of adult-specific traits in vertebrates. PMID:27453500

  2. Isolation and characterization of pigmented algicidal bacteria from seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaima, A.; Gires, U.; Asmat, A.

    2014-09-01

    Some dinoflagellate species are toxic and widely distributed in Malaysian marines ecosystems. They can cause many problems to aquatic life due to the production of various potential and natural toxins that accumulate in filter feeding shellfish and cause food poisoning to human. In recent decades, bacteria have been widely used as a biological control against these harmful algae. In the present study, pigmented bacteria isolated from marine water of Port Dickson beach was studied for their anti-algal activity towards toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Four isolates were studied and only one was capable of inhibiting algal growth when treated with bacterial culture. The algilytic effect on dinoflagellate was evaluated based on direct cell count under the microscope. Results showed that only isolate Sdpd-310 with orange colour has an inhibitory effect on A. minutum growth. This study demonstrated the rapid algicidal activity of a marine pigmented bacteria against the toxic dinoflagellate A. minutum.

  3. Optothermal skin pigment spectral depth profiling using an OPO laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Peng; Guo, Xinxin; Notingher, Ioan; Cowen, Anna J.; O'Driscoll, Don; Imhof, Robert E.

    1999-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a research program to quantify the factors that determine the visual appearance of human skin. We use in-vivo opto-thermal transient emission radiometry (OTTER) with a tunable OPO laser (400 - 590 nm) to measure spectrally resolved pigment depth profiles. Radiation in this wavelength range is only weakly absorbed by stratum corneum and epidermis, but strongly absorbed by sub-surface pigments, mainly melanin and haemoglobin. These produce characteristic delayed thermal wave (DTW) signals, detected using a high speed Mercury Cadmium Telluride detector sensitive in the wavelength range 6 - 13 microns. The measured intensity-time profiles yield the desired concentration depth profiles through either model-based non-linear least-squares analysis or model-independent inverse analysis. Results on melanin and haemoglobin distributions within normal, tape stripped and wash-damaged skin are presented.

  4. Marking adult mosquitoes using an aerially applied fluorescent pigment.

    PubMed

    Meek, C L; Broussard, B B; Andis, M D

    1987-09-01

    A water soluble, fluorescent pigment was aerially applied to caged Culex quinquefasciatus adults in a south Louisiana marshland pasture. Mosquitoes held in cages on 1 m stakes were greater than 90% marked. This number was significantly greater (P less than 0.01) than the number of marked mosquitoes held in cages that were placed in dense vegetation (greater than or equal to 0.5 m high) near the ground surface (70% marked). In a second aerial test with caged Aedes sollicitans in an open, grassy area of the marshland pasture, the pigment marked 100% of the adult mosquitoes held in cages 1 m above the ground and 98% of the caged mosquitoes on the ground surface. Greater than 96% of the adults collected from an emerging population of Ae. sollicitans within the test area were marked as well as 100% of wild caught deer fly adults, Chrysops flavidus complex, in the test area. PMID:2904958

  5. Spectrometric Investigation of Pigments and Substrata in Wood Paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiojdeanu, Catalina; Vasilescu, Angela; Manea, Mihaela; Constantin, Florin; Saliba, James

    2014-02-01

    A polychrome and gilded wooden artifact was found, in a heavily deteriorated state, in the stores of the Mdina Cathedral Museum, Malta. The object represents two zoomorphic angels holding a coat of arms. Stylistically, the artifact matches with parts of a late 16th century Organ balcony, currently exhibited at the same Museum. The present study aims to establish whether or not the newly recovered artifact might have formed part of the balcony ensemble by means of material identification techniques. The combined use of XRF, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy ensure a detailed characterization of the material used. In the case of pigments, for both artifacts the blue pigment was smalt, while cinnabar was used for red and flesh tones. The metallic decorative parts of the panels are gilded, confirmed by the presence of Au peaks in the X-ray spectra. The supporting structure of both artifacts was manufactured from poplar wood.

  6. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric identification of dyes and pigments.

    PubMed

    Soltzberg, L J; Hagar, Amanda; Kridaratikorn, Supicha; Mattson, Anne; Newman, Richard

    2007-11-01

    We have used MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to characterize a selection of dyes from the Schweppe dye collection and pigments from the Tate Gallery collection. MALDI-TOF mass spectra of such samples are easily obtained and, through observation of both positive and negative ion spectra, provide a convenient, versatile method for dye characterization and identification. Such pairs of positive and negative ion spectra immediately distinguish between acidic and basic dyes and provide the characteristic mass of either the molecular ion or a simply related fragment ion. This approach is especially useful in situations where very small amounts of analyte are available, as in museum research and forensic analysis. In the case of textile dyes, we have carried out identification on material from single fibers and, with insoluble pigments, have begun to identify components of historically important pastel sticks from submicrogram samples.

  7. Patterns of Reactions to Red Pigment Tattoo and Treatment Methods.

    PubMed

    Forbat, Emily; Al-Niaimi, Firas

    2016-03-01

    Tattoos are common and used extensively as either body art or cosmetic make-up; more rarely, they can be traumatic in nature. We have systemically analysed the literature for the patterns of red pigment tattoo reactions and their treatment options. Our search identified 18 articles; there was 1 non-randomised controlled trial, and the rest were small case studies. In total 139 patients were included within the studies. This review systematically analyses the different subsets of red tattoo reactions including lichenoid, dermatitis, granulomatous, pseudolymphomatous and miscellaneous reactions. The current evidence for the treatment for the above is presented. Dermatitis and lichenoid reactions appear to be the most common subtype of red pigment reactions with various treatment methods applied showing laser intervention to have some degree of success. PMID:26972808

  8. Characterization of the melanin pigment of a cosmopolitan fungal endophyte.

    PubMed

    Suryanarayanan, Trichur S; Ravishankar, Jagadesa P; Venkatesan, Govindan; Murali, Thokur S

    2004-08-01

    Phyllosticta capitalensis (teleomorph Guignardia mangiferae) occurs as a foliar endophyte in woody trees belonging to different families of both temperate and tropical regions. We isolated this endophyte from plants in different habitats, such as mangroves, dry deciduous forest, moist deciduous forest and semi-evergreen forest. This endophyte was found to produce a black pigment that was characterized to be melanin based on uv-visible, IR and ESR spectra and chemical tests. Tricyclazole, a specific inhibitor of pentaketide melanin biosynthesis, inhibited synthesis of the pigment indicating it is a 1-8, dihydroxynaphthalene. This appears to be the first report of such a melanin in Phyllosticta or other foliar endophytes. Melanin in the hyphae of P. capitalensis may be responsible for the success of this fungus as a cosmopolitan endophyte, since melanin is known to enhance the survival capability of fungi in stressful environments.

  9. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Rome, Ellen S

    2003-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in girls and young women. Management of eating disorders typically requires a multidisciplinary team approach, often spear-headed by the clinician initially detecting the illness. This article addresses the definitions and prevalence of eating disorders, tips on recognition and management of medical complications, and reproductive health concerns for these young women. Issues surrounding care of the patient with the female athlete triad, or amenorrhea, osteopenia, and eating disorders, are also discussed. PMID:12836725

  10. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... parasites , particularly ones that invade tissue, cause eosinophilia. Cancers that cause eosinophilia include Hodgkin lymphoma , leukemia , and myeloproliferative disorders . If the number of eosinophils is only ...

  11. Adult-Onset Leukoencephalopathy with Axonal Spheroids and Pigmented Glia Caused by a Novel R782G Mutation in CSF1R.

    PubMed

    Foulds, Nicola; Pengelly, Reuben J; Hammans, Simon R; Nicoll, James A R; Ellison, David W; Ditchfield, Adam; Beck, Sarah; Ennis, Sarah

    2015-05-15

    We report a new family with autosomal dominant inheritance of a late onset rapidly progressive leukodystrophy in which exome sequencing has revealed a novel mutation p.R782G in the Colony-Stimulating Factor 1 Receptor gene (CSF1R). Neuropathology of two affected family members showed cerebral white matter degeneration with axonal swellings and pigmented macrophages. The few recently reported families with CSF1R mutations had been previously labelled "hereditary diffuse leukencephalopathy with axonal spheroids" (HDLS) and "pigmentary orthochromatic leukodystrophy" (POLD), disorders which now appear to form a disease continuum. The term "adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia" (ALSP) has been proposed to encompass this spectrum. As CSF1R regulates microglia this mutation implies that dysregulation of microglia is the primary cause of the disease.

  12. A Diatom Light-Harvesting Pigment-Protein Complex 1

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Alan L.; Alberte, Randall S.

    1984-01-01

    A light-harvesting pigment-protein complex was isolated from the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum using the zwitterionic detergent CHAPS (3-[3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate). Detergent-solubilized membranes were fractionated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation into three components. The medium density fraction contained chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin. This fraction was purified by DEAE-ion exchange chromatography, and contained chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin in a molar ratio of 2.4:1.0:4.8. Fluorescence emission and excitation spectra of the isolated complex demonstrated that light energy absorbed by chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin was coupled to chlorophyll a fluorescence. Upon denaturation, the apoprotein yielded a polypeptide doublet at 17.5 to 18.0 kilodaltons which accounted for 30 to 40% of the toal membrane protein. These findings indicate that this pigment-protein complex is a major component of the diatom photosynthetic lammellae. The quantitative amino acid composition of the apoprotein was very similar to those reported for other membrane-bound pigment-protein complexes. Based on the protein to chlorophyll a ratio of 7700 grams protein per mole chlorophyll a for the complex, each apoprotein molecule contains, to the nearest integer, two chlorophyll a, one chlorophyll c, and five fucoxanthin molecules. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the 17.5 to 18.0 kilodaltons apoprotein showed a monospecific reaction with only the 17.5 to 18.0 protein zone from denatured P. tricornutum membranes as well as to the nondenatured pigment-protein complex. It appears that this complex is common to other diatom species. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16663869

  13. A case report of green pigmentation in the permanent dentition.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Colin P; O'Morain, Donnchadh; Keightley, Alexander; Welbury, Richard R

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic green discoloration of teeth is an uncommon condition which mainly affects the primary dentition. Children can be teased about this, resulting in a loss of self-esteem and problems with social integration. The purpose of this paper was to present a case of green pigmentation in the permanent dentition caused by hyperbilirubinemia during infancy and an intermediate restorative approach to mask the esthetic deficiency arising from this. PMID:23433625

  14. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments in solar saltern microbial mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Joan; Grimalt, Joan O.; de Wit, Rutger; Keely, Brendan J.; Maxwell, James R.

    1994-11-01

    The distributions of carotenoids, chlorophylls, and their degradation products have been studied in two microbial mat systems developed in the calcite and calcite/gypsum evaporite domains of a solar saltern system. Phormidium valderianum and Microcoleus chthonoplastes are the dominant cyanobacterial species, respectively, and large amounts of Chloroflexus-like bacteria occur in the carbonate/gypsum mat. In both systems, the major pigments are chlorophyll a, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and myxoxanthophyll, which originate from these mat-building cyanobacteria. This common feature contrasts with differences in other pigments that are specific for each mat community. Thus, chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin, reflecting diatom inputs, are only found in the calcite mat, whereas the calcite/gypsum mat contains high concentrations of bacteriochlorophylls c produced by the multicellular green filamentous bacteria. In both cases, the depth concentration profiles (0-30 and 0-40 mm) show a relatively good preservation of the cyanobacterial carotenoids, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, myxoxanthophyll, and echinenone. This contrasts with the extensive biodegradation of cyanobacterial remains observed microscopically. Fucoxanthin in the calcite mat is also transformed at a faster rate than the cyanobacterial carotenoids. Chlorophyll a, the major pigment in both mats, exhibits different transformation pathways. In the calcite/gypsum mat, it is transformed via C-13 2 carbomethoxy defunctionalization prior to loss of the phytyl chain, leading to the formation of pyrophaeophytin a and, subsequently, pyrophaeophorbide a. On the other hand, the occurrence of the enzyme chlorophyllase, attributed to diatoms in the calcite mat, gives rise to extensive phytyl hydrolysis, with the formation of chlorophyllide a, pyrophaeophorbide a and, in minor proportion, phaeophorbide a. Studies of the sources of the photosynthetic pigments and of their transformation pathways in such simplified ecosystems provide a

  15. Intraocular involvement with subretinal pigment epithelium infiltrates by mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed Central

    Erny, B. C.; Egbert, P. R.; Peat, I. M.; Shorrock, K.; Rosenthal, A. R.

    1991-01-01

    We report a case of intraocular mycosis fungoides in a 48-year-old man. The patient presented with decreased visual acuity, white subretinal lesions, and vitritis. Post-mortem histopathology revealed malignant T cell infiltrates consistent with mycosis fungoides in the retina, vitreous, and between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane Focal atrophy of the RPE, along with the sub-RPE infiltrates, correlated with the clinically visible fundus lesions. Images PMID:1751471

  16. Diversity and distribution of pigmented heterotrophic bacteria in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Du, Hailian; Jiao, Nianzhi; Hu, Yaohua; Zeng, Yonghui

    2006-07-01

    A systematic investigation of marine pigmented heterotrophic bacteria (PHB) based on the cultivation method and sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes was conducted in Chinese coastal and shelf waters and the Pacific Ocean. Both the abundance of PHB and the ratio of PHB to CFU decreased along trophic gradients from coastal to oceanic waters, with the highest values of 9.9 x 10(3) cell mL(-1) and 39.6%, respectively, in the Yangtze River Estuary. In contrast to the total heterotrophic bacteria (TB) and CFU, which were present in the whole water column, PHB were primarily confined to the euphotic zone, with the highest abundance of PHB and ratio of PHB to CFU occurring in surface water. In total, 247 pigmented isolates were obtained during this study, and the phylogenetic analysis showed a wide genetic diversity covering 25 genera of six phylogenetic classes: Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Flavobacteria and Sphingobacteria. PHB belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Sphingobacteria were obtained mainly from the South China Sea and East China Sea; PHB from the Pacific Ocean water were predominantly affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria, and most isolates from the Yangtze River Estuary fell into the classes Actinobacteria and Bacilli. The isolates exhibited various colours (e.g. golden, yellow, red, pink and orange), with genus or species specificity. Furthermore, the pigment of PHB cells absorbed light mainly in the wavelength range between 450 and 550 nm. In conclusion, our work has revealed that PHB with broad genetic diversity are widely distributed in the marine environment, and may account for up to 39.6% of culturable bacteria, equivalent to 1.4% of the total microbial community. This value might even be underestimated because it is probable that not all pigmented bacteria were isolated. Their abundance and genetic distribution are heavily influenced by environmental properties, such as light and nutrition

  17. CONTROL OF PIGMENT PRODUCTION IN MOUSE MELANOMA CELLS IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Silagi, Selma

    1969-01-01

    A clonally derived amelanotic melanoma cell line repeatedly has been forced to produce pigment by the inhibitor of DNA synthesis, I-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) at sublethal levels. One ara-C-derived melanotic line has been cloned, and has continued to produce pigment for 2 years on normal medium. The inhibitor is most effective when administered to synchronized cells in four pulses on successive days at 1.8 x 10-5 M during the S phase of the cell cycle. Colcemid at a sublethal concentration, and growth on medium solidified with agar also evoked pigment production in this line, but a large number of other inhibitors of biosynthetic processes did not, under the conditions tested. The melanotic lines are active producers of tyrosinase (DOPA oxidase), whereas the amelanotic line produces an inhibitor of tyrosinase activity. Both enzyme and inhibitor are labile at 4° C and -20° C, and decay of the inhibitor in homogenates of amelanotic cells reveals a low level of residual DOPA oxidase activity. The mean population doubling time of a cloned melanotic line is 23 hr, and that of a cloned amelanotic line 16.5 hr. A similar decrease in rate of growth is found in other melanotic lines and is believed to be a significant factor in maintaining this differentiated function. Rapid growth may be related to the production of an inhibitor by the amelanotic cells. PMID:4981070

  18. Zinc uptake in vitro by human retinal pigment epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.A.; Rothman, R.J.

    1987-11-01

    Zinc, an essential trace element, is present in unusually high concentrations in the chorioretinal complex relative to most other tissues. Because little has been known about the interactions between the retinal pigment epithelium and free or protein-associated zinc, we studied /sup 65/Zn uptake by human retinal pigment epithelium in vitro. When monolayers were exposed to differing concentrations from 0 to 30 microM /sup 65/Zn in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium with 5.4 gm/l glucose at 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C, we observed a temperature-dependent saturable accumulation of the radiolabel. With 15 microM /sup 65/Zn, we saw a biphasic pattern of uptake with a rapid first phase and a slower second phase over 120 min. Uptake of /sup 65/Zn was inhibited by iodacetate and cold, and reduced approximately 50% by the addition of 2% albumin to the labelling medium. Neither ouabain nor 2-deoxyglucose inhibited uptake. Cells previously exposed to /sup 65/Zn retained approximately 70% of accumulated /sup 65/Zn 60 min after being changed to radiolabel-free medium. Following removal of cells from the extracellular matrix adherent to the dish bottom, a variable amount of nonspecific binding of /sup 65/Zn to the residual matrix was demonstrated. These observations are consistent with a facilitated type of transport and demonstrate the ability of human retinal pigment epithelium in vitro to accumulate and retain zinc.

  19. Detecting Phycocynanin-Pigmented Microbes in Reflected Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Robert K.

    2008-01-01

    A recently invented method of measuring concentrations of phycocynanin-pigmented algae and bacteria in water is based on measurement of the spectrum of reflected sunlight. When present in sufficiently high concentrations, phycocynanin-pigmented microorganisms can be hazardous to the health of humans who use, and of animals that depend on, an affected body of water. The present method is intended to satisfy a need for a rapid, convenient means of detecting hazardous concentrations of phycocynanin-pigmented microorganisms. Rapid detection will speed up the issuance of public health warnings and performance of corrective actions. The method involves the measurement of light reflected from a body of water in at least two, but preferably five wavelength bands. In one version of the method, the five wavelength bands are bands 1, 3, 4, 5, and 7 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral imaging instrument aboard the Landsat-7 satellite (see table). In principle, other wavelength bands indicative of phycocynanin could be used alternatively or in addition to these five. Moreover, although the method was originally intended specifically for processing Landsat- 7 TM data, it is equally applicable to processing of data from other satellite-borne instruments or from airborne, hand-held, buoy-mounted, tower-mounted, or otherwise mounted instruments that measure radiances of light reflected from water in the wavelength bands of interest.

  20. Identification of microbial pigments in evaporitic matrices using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vítek, Petr; Jehlička, Jan; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Wierzchos, Jacek

    2010-05-01

    An evaporitic environment is considered as one of the possible habitats for life on Mars. From terrestrial geological scenarios we know that microorganisms inhabiting such an extreme environment (halophiles) are rich in protective pigments, depending on the metabolic pathways and specific adaptation to the harsh environmental conditions. Carotenoids typically occur within the cells of halophiles (bacteria, archaea as well as eukaryotic algae) in large amounts as part of their photosystem and protective adaptation to high doses of UV radiation that are typical for most recent evaporitic environments. Chlorophyll occurs in halophilic cyanobacteria together with carotenoids and possibly other pigments which are synthetised in response to the high UV radiation insolation. Here we present the results of Raman spectroscopic investigations of a) beta-carotene in experimentally prepared mixtures with halite, gypsum and epsomite; and b) cyanobacterial colonies inhabiting real halite and gypsum matrices in the Atacama Desert. Our results demonstrate the possibility of detection of beta-carotene - a typical carotenoid - in relatively low concentrations within the evaporitic powdered mixtures; the lowest concentration of carotenoid signal detected was 0,1 mg kg-1, which represents 100 ppb. Raman spectroscopic analyses of natural specimens (endolithic cyanobacteria) from the Atacama desert revealed the presence of scytonemin, an extremely efficient UV protective pigment, carotenoids of various types and chlorophyll. The detection potential as well as limitations of Raman spectroscopy as a part of a payload within future robotic space missions focused on the search for life on Mars is discussed.

  1. Pigment signatures of phytoplankton communities in the Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupel, P.; Matsuoka, A.; Ruiz-Pino, D.; Gosselin, M.; Marie, D.; Tremblay, J.-É.; Babin, M.

    2015-02-01

    Phytoplankton are expected to respond to recent environmental changes of the Arctic Ocean. In terms of bottom-up control, modifying the phytoplankton distribution will ultimately affect the entire food web and carbon export. However, detecting and quantifying changes in phytoplankton communities in the Arctic Ocean remains difficult because of the lack of data and the inconsistent identification methods used. Based on pigment and microscopy data sampled in the Beaufort Sea during summer 2009, we optimized the chemotaxonomic tool CHEMTAX (CHEMical TAXonomy) for the assessment of phytoplankton community composition in an Arctic setting. The geographical distribution of the main phytoplankton groups was determined with clustering methods. Four phytoplankton assemblages were determined and related to bathymetry, nutrients and light availability. Surface waters across the whole survey region were dominated by prasinophytes and chlorophytes, whereas the subsurface chlorophyll maximum was dominated by the centric diatoms Chaetoceros socialis on the shelf and by two populations of nanoflagellates in the deep basin. Microscopic counts showed a high contribution of the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium spp. to total carbon biomass, suggesting high grazing activity at this time of the year. However, CHEMTAX was unable to detect these dinoflagellates because they lack peridinin. In heterotrophic dinoflagellates, the inclusion of the pigments of their prey potentially leads to incorrect group assignments and some misinterpretation of CHEMTAX. Thanks to the high reproducibility of pigment analysis, our results can serve as a baseline to assess change and spatial or temporal variability in several phytoplankton populations that are not affected by these misinterpretations.

  2. Organic Semiconductors based on Dyes and Color Pigments.

    PubMed

    Gsänger, Marcel; Bialas, David; Huang, Lizhen; Stolte, Matthias; Würthner, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Organic dyes and pigments constitute a large class of industrial products. The utilization of these compounds in the field of organic electronics is reviewed with particular emphasis on organic field-effect transistors. It is shown that for most major classes of industrial dyes and pigments, i.e., phthalocyanines, perylene and naphthalene diimides, diketopyrrolopyrroles, indigos and isoindigos, squaraines, and merocyanines, charge-carrier mobilities exceeding 1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) have been achieved. The most widely investigated molecules due to their n-channel operation are perylene and naphthalene diimides, for which even values close to 10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) have been demonstrated. The fact that all of these π-conjugated colorants contain polar substituents leading to strongly quadrupolar or even dipolar molecules suggests that indeed a much larger structural space shows promise for the design of organic semiconductor molecules than was considered in this field traditionally. In particular, because many of these dye and pigment chromophores demonstrate excellent thermal and (photo-)chemical stability in their original applications in dyeing and printing, and are accessible by straightforward synthetic protocols, they bear a particularly high potential for commercial applications in the area of organic electronics.

  3. PMEL Amyloid Fibril Formation: The Bright Steps of Pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bissig, Christin; Rochin, Leila; van Niel, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    In pigment cells, melanin synthesis takes place in specialized organelles, called melanosomes. The biogenesis and maturation of melanosomes is initiated by an unpigmented step that takes place prior to the initiation of melanin synthesis and leads to the formation of luminal fibrils deriving from the pigment cell-specific pre-melanosomal protein (PMEL). In the lumen of melanosomes, PMEL fibrils optimize sequestration and condensation of the pigment melanin. Interestingly, PMEL fibrils have been described to adopt a typical amyloid-like structure. In contrast to pathological amyloids often associated with neurodegenerative diseases, PMEL fibrils represent an emergent category of physiological amyloids due to their beneficial cellular functions. The formation of PMEL fibrils within melanosomes is tightly regulated by diverse mechanisms, such as PMEL traffic, cleavage and sorting. These mechanisms revealed increasing analogies between the formation of physiological PMEL fibrils and pathological amyloid fibrils. In this review we summarize the known mechanisms of PMEL fibrillation and discuss how the recent understanding of physiological PMEL amyloid formation may help to shed light on processes involved in pathological amyloid formation. PMID:27589732

  4. Boron-containing organic pigments from a Jurassic red alga.

    PubMed

    Wolkenstein, Klaus; Gross, Jürgen H; Falk, Heinz

    2010-11-01

    Organic biomolecules that have retained their basic chemical structures over geological periods (molecular fossils) occur in a wide range of geological samples and provide valuable paleobiological, paleoenvironmental, and geochemical information not attainable from other sources. In rare cases, such compounds are even preserved with their specific functional groups and still occur within the organisms that produced them, providing direct information on the biochemical inventory of extinct organisms and their possible evolutionary relationships. Here we report the discovery of an exceptional group of boron-containing compounds, the borolithochromes, causing the distinct pink coloration of well-preserved specimens of the Jurassic red alga Solenopora jurassica. The borolithochromes are characterized as complicated spiroborates (boric acid esters) with two phenolic moieties as boron ligands, representing a unique class of fossil organic pigments. The chiroptical properties of the pigments unequivocally demonstrate a biogenic origin, at least of their ligands. However, although the borolithochromes originated from a fossil red alga, no analogy with hitherto known present-day red algal pigments was found. The occurrence of the borolithochromes or their possible diagenetic products in the fossil record may provide additional information on the classification and phylogeny of fossil calcareous algae.

  5. Developmental origin of the posterior pigmented epithelium of iris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobing; Xiong, Kai; Lu, Lei; Gu, Dandan; Wang, Songtao; Chen, Jing; Xiao, Honglei; Zhou, Guomin

    2015-03-01

    Iris epithelium is a double-layered pigmented cuboidal epithelium. According to the current model, the neural retina and the posterior iris pigment epithelium (IPE) are derived from the inner wall of the optic cup, while the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the anterior IPE are derived from the outer wall of the optic cup during development. Our current study shows evidence, contradicting this model of fetal iris development. We demonstrate that human fetal iris expression patterns of Otx2 and Mitf transcription factors are similar, while the expressions of Otx2 and Sox2 are complementary. Furthermore, IPE and RPE exhibit identical morphologic development during the early embryonic period. Our results suggest that the outer layer of the optic cup forms two layers of the iris epithelium, and the posterior IPE is the inward-curling anterior rim of the outer layer of the optic cup. These findings provide a reasonable explanation of how IPE cells can be used as an appropriate substitute for RPE cells.

  6. Plastids of Marine Phytoplankton Produce Bioactive Pigments and Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Heydarizadeh, Parisa; Poirier, Isabelle; Loizeau, Damien; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Schoefs, Benoît; Bertrand, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton is acknowledged to be a very diverse source of bioactive molecules. These compounds play physiological roles that allow cells to deal with changes of the environmental constrains. For example, the diversity of light harvesting pigments allows efficient photosynthesis at different depths in the seawater column. Identically, lipid composition of cell membranes can vary according to environmental factors. This, together with the heterogenous evolutionary origin of taxa, makes the chemical diversity of phytoplankton compounds much larger than in terrestrial plants. This contribution is dedicated to pigments and lipids synthesized within or from plastids/photosynthetic membranes. It starts with a short review of cyanobacteria and microalgae phylogeny. Then the bioactivity of pigments and lipids (anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-allergic activities, and cardio- neuro-, hepato- and photoprotective effects), alone or in combination, is detailed. To increase the cellular production of bioactive compounds, specific culture conditions may be applied (e.g., high light intensity, nitrogen starvation). Regardless of the progress made in blue biotechnologies, the production of bioactive compounds is still limited. However, some examples of large scale production are given, and perspectives are suggested in the final section. PMID:24022731

  7. PMEL Amyloid Fibril Formation: The Bright Steps of Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bissig, Christin; Rochin, Leila; van Niel, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    In pigment cells, melanin synthesis takes place in specialized organelles, called melanosomes. The biogenesis and maturation of melanosomes is initiated by an unpigmented step that takes place prior to the initiation of melanin synthesis and leads to the formation of luminal fibrils deriving from the pigment cell-specific pre-melanosomal protein (PMEL). In the lumen of melanosomes, PMEL fibrils optimize sequestration and condensation of the pigment melanin. Interestingly, PMEL fibrils have been described to adopt a typical amyloid-like structure. In contrast to pathological amyloids often associated with neurodegenerative diseases, PMEL fibrils represent an emergent category of physiological amyloids due to their beneficial cellular functions. The formation of PMEL fibrils within melanosomes is tightly regulated by diverse mechanisms, such as PMEL traffic, cleavage and sorting. These mechanisms revealed increasing analogies between the formation of physiological PMEL fibrils and pathological amyloid fibrils. In this review we summarize the known mechanisms of PMEL fibrillation and discuss how the recent understanding of physiological PMEL amyloid formation may help to shed light on processes involved in pathological amyloid formation. PMID:27589732

  8. Efficient transgenesis mediated by pigmentation rescue in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Harrold, Itrat; Carbonneau, Seth; Moore, Bethany M; Nguyen, Gina; Anderson, Nicole M; Saini, Amandeep S; Kanki, John P; Jette, Cicely A; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish represents a revolutionary tool in large-scale genetic and small-molecule screens for gene and drug discovery. Transgenic zebrafish are often utilized in these screens. Many transgenic fish lines are maintained in the heterozygous state due to the lethality associated with homozygosity; thus, their progeny must be sorted to ensure a population expressing the transgene of interest for use in screens. Sorting transgenic embryos under a fluorescence microscope is very labor-intensive and demands fine-tuned motor skills. Here we report an efficient transgenic method of utilizing pigmentation rescue of nacre mutant fish for accurate naked-eye identification of both mosaic founders and stable transgenic zebrafish. This was accomplished by co-injecting two constructs with the I-SceI meganuclease enzyme into pigmentless nacre embryos: I-SceI-mitfa:mitfa-I-SceI to rescue the pigmentation and I-SceI-zpromoter:gene-of-interest-I-SceI to express the gene of interest under a zebrafish promoter (zpromoter). Pigmentation rescue reliably predicted transgene integration. Compared with other transgenic techniques, our approach significantly increases the overall percentage of founders and facilitates accurate naked-eye identification of stable transgenic fish, greatly reducing laborious fluorescence microscope sorting and PCR genotyping. Thus, this approach is ideal for generating transgenic fish for large-scale screens. PMID:26757807

  9. The complex of myxomas, spotty pigmentation, and endocrine overactivity.

    PubMed

    Carney, J A; Gordon, H; Carpenter, P C; Shenoy, B V; Go, V L

    1985-07-01

    Of 40 patients (16 males and 24 females), 29 had cardiac myxoma(s), 14 had skin pigmentation (lentigo and several types of nevi) which also commonly affected the lips, 6 had skin myxoma(s), and 12 had both pigmentation and myxoma(s); 18 had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (Cushing syndrome was present in 11); 10 had myxoid mammary fibroadenomas; 9 had testicular tumor(s) (large-cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor, Leydig cell tumor, or adrenocortical rest tumor, or a combination); and 4 had pituitary adenoma with gigantism or acromegaly. The maximum number of conditions present together was five, occurring in two patients; each of the remaining patients had at least two of the conditions. The overlap, in this sizeable number of patients, of various combinations of the same rare or very rare conditions unlikely to occur together by chance with any degree of frequency is striking evidence for a unique syndrome. The patients were young (mean age at diagnosis of the first component, 18 years). Pathologic involvement tended to be multicentric (heart and skin) and bilateral in paired organs (adrenal, breast, and testis). Thirteen patients (32%) are alive and well. Twelve patients are alive but with complications of cardiac myxoma (in 8), testicular tumors (in 2), residual Cushing syndrome (in 1), or bilateral pulmonary nodules (in 1). Twelve patients are dead: 9 of cardiac myxoma, 1 of intracranial (nonpituitary) tumor, and 2 postoperatively. The status of three is unknown. PMID:4010501

  10. Efficient transgenesis mediated by pigmentation rescue in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Harrold, Itrat; Carbonneau, Seth; Moore, Bethany M; Nguyen, Gina; Anderson, Nicole M; Saini, Amandeep S; Kanki, John P; Jette, Cicely A; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish represents a revolutionary tool in large-scale genetic and small-molecule screens for gene and drug discovery. Transgenic zebrafish are often utilized in these screens. Many transgenic fish lines are maintained in the heterozygous state due to the lethality associated with homozygosity; thus, their progeny must be sorted to ensure a population expressing the transgene of interest for use in screens. Sorting transgenic embryos under a fluorescence microscope is very labor-intensive and demands fine-tuned motor skills. Here we report an efficient transgenic method of utilizing pigmentation rescue of nacre mutant fish for accurate naked-eye identification of both mosaic founders and stable transgenic zebrafish. This was accomplished by co-injecting two constructs with the I-SceI meganuclease enzyme into pigmentless nacre embryos: I-SceI-mitfa:mitfa-I-SceI to rescue the pigmentation and I-SceI-zpromoter:gene-of-interest-I-SceI to express the gene of interest under a zebrafish promoter (zpromoter). Pigmentation rescue reliably predicted transgene integration. Compared with other transgenic techniques, our approach significantly increases the overall percentage of founders and facilitates accurate naked-eye identification of stable transgenic fish, greatly reducing laborious fluorescence microscope sorting and PCR genotyping. Thus, this approach is ideal for generating transgenic fish for large-scale screens.

  11. Plastids of marine phytoplankton produce bioactive pigments and lipids.

    PubMed

    Heydarizadeh, Parisa; Poirier, Isabelle; Loizeau, Damien; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Schoefs, Benoît; Bertrand, Martine

    2013-09-01

    Phytoplankton is acknowledged to be a very diverse source of bioactive molecules. These compounds play physiological roles that allow cells to deal with changes of the environmental constrains. For example, the diversity of light harvesting pigments allows efficient photosynthesis at different depths in the seawater column. Identically, lipid composition of cell membranes can vary according to environmental factors. This, together with the heterogenous evolutionary origin of taxa, makes the chemical diversity of phytoplankton compounds much larger than in terrestrial plants. This contribution is dedicated to pigments and lipids synthesized within or from plastids/photosynthetic membranes. It starts with a short review of cyanobacteria and microalgae phylogeny. Then the bioactivity of pigments and lipids (anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-allergic activities, and cardio- neuro-, hepato- and photoprotective effects), alone or in combination, is detailed. To increase the cellular production of bioactive compounds, specific culture conditions may be applied (e.g., high light intensity, nitrogen starvation). Regardless of the progress made in blue biotechnologies, the production of bioactive compounds is still limited. However, some examples of large scale production are given, and perspectives are suggested in the final section.

  12. Organic Semiconductors based on Dyes and Color Pigments.

    PubMed

    Gsänger, Marcel; Bialas, David; Huang, Lizhen; Stolte, Matthias; Würthner, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Organic dyes and pigments constitute a large class of industrial products. The utilization of these compounds in the field of organic electronics is reviewed with particular emphasis on organic field-effect transistors. It is shown that for most major classes of industrial dyes and pigments, i.e., phthalocyanines, perylene and naphthalene diimides, diketopyrrolopyrroles, indigos and isoindigos, squaraines, and merocyanines, charge-carrier mobilities exceeding 1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) have been achieved. The most widely investigated molecules due to their n-channel operation are perylene and naphthalene diimides, for which even values close to 10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) have been demonstrated. The fact that all of these π-conjugated colorants contain polar substituents leading to strongly quadrupolar or even dipolar molecules suggests that indeed a much larger structural space shows promise for the design of organic semiconductor molecules than was considered in this field traditionally. In particular, because many of these dye and pigment chromophores demonstrate excellent thermal and (photo-)chemical stability in their original applications in dyeing and printing, and are accessible by straightforward synthetic protocols, they bear a particularly high potential for commercial applications in the area of organic electronics. PMID:27028553

  13. Anxiety Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Marilyn

    Anxiey, in general, helps one to cope. It rouses a person to action and gears one up to face a threatening situation. It makes students study harder for exams, and keeps presenters on their toes when making speeches. But an anxiety disorder can prevent one from coping and can disrupt daily life. Anxiety disorders are not just a case of "nerves,"…

  14. Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  15. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... or digestive problems Problems sleeping, or wanting to sleep all of the time Feeling tired all of the time Thoughts about death and suicide Causes & Risk Factors What causes bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder may be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. It sometimes runs in ...

  16. Pituitary Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the "master control gland" - it makes hormones that affect growth and the functions of other glands in the body. With pituitary disorders, you often have too much or too little of one of your hormones. Injuries can cause pituitary disorders, but the most common cause is a pituitary tumor.

  17. EATING DISORDERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are complex disorders that are often perplexing to therapists and difficult to manage. The purpose of this chapter is to review the history, nature, etiology, and treatment of these disorders, as well as to provide a brief introduction to the proposed d...

  18. Anticorrosive pigments. January 1980-December 1989 (A Bibliography from World Surface Coatings Abstracts). Report for January 1980-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the composition and preparation of pigments that have good anticorrosion and weather-resistant qualities. Included are non-lead pigments to replace lead-based pigments, and reports of tests on pigments and the anticorrosive properties. There are some references to resin compositions developed specifically for use with these pigments. (Contains 194 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  19. Displaced retinal ganglion cells in albino and pigmented rats

    PubMed Central

    Nadal-Nicolás, Francisco M.; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; Villegas-Pérez, María P.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2014-01-01

    We have studied in parallel the population of displaced retinal ganglion cells (dRGCs) and normally placed (orthotopic RGCs, oRGCs) in albino and pigmented rats. Using retrograde tracing from the optic nerve, from both superior colliculi (SC) or from the ipsilateral SC in conjunction with Brn3 and melanopsin immunodetection, we report for the first time their total number and topography as well as the number and distribution of those dRGCs and oRGCs that project ipsi- or contralaterally and/or that express any of the three Brn3 isoforms or melanopsin. The total number of RGCs (oRGCs+dRGCs) is 84,706 ± 1249 in albino and 90,440 ± 2236 in pigmented, out of which 2383 and 2428 are melanopsin positive (m-RGCs), respectively. Regarding dRGCs: i/ albino rats have a significantly lower number of dRGCs than pigmented animals (0.5% of the total number of RGCs vs. 2.5%, respectively), ii/ dRGCs project massively to the contralateral SC, iii/ the percentage of ipsilaterality is higher for dRGCs than for oRGCs, iv/ a higher proportion of ipsilateral dRGCs is observed in albino than pigmented animals, v/ dRGC topography is very specific, they predominate in the equatorial temporal retina, being densest where the oRGCs are densest, vi/ Brn3a detects all dRGCs except half of the ipsilateral ones and those that express melanopsin, vii/ the proportion of dRGCs that express Brn3b or Brn3c is slightly lower than in the oRGC population, viii/ a higher percentage of dRGCs (13% albino, 9% pigmented) than oRGCs (2.6%) express melanopsin, ix/ few m-RGCs (displaced and orthotopic) project to the ipsilateral SC, x/ the topography of m-dRGCs does not resemble the general distribution of dRGCs, xi/ The soma size in m-oRGCs ranges from 10 to 21 μm and in m-dRGCs from 8 to 15 μm, xii/ oRGCs and dRGCs have the same susceptibility to axonal injury and ocular hypertension. Although the role of mammalian dRGCs remains to be determined, our data suggest that they are not misplaced by an

  20. Bees' subtle colour preferences: how bees respond to small changes in pigment concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papiorek, Sarah; Rohde, Katja; Lunau, Klaus

    2013-07-01

    Variability in flower colour of animal-pollinated plants is common and caused, inter alia, by inter-individual differences in pigment concentrations. If and how pollinators, especially bees, respond to these small differences in pigment concentration is not known, but it is likely that flower colour variability impacts the choice behaviour of all flower visitors that exhibit innate and learned colour preferences. In behavioural experiments, we simulated varying pigment concentrations and studied its impact on the colour choices of bumblebees and honeybees. Individual bees were trained to artificial flowers having a specific concentration of a pigment, i.e. Acridine Orange or Aniline Blue, and then given the simultaneous choice between three test colours including the training colour, one colour of lower and one colour of higher pigment concentration. For each pigment, two set-ups were provided, covering the range of low to middle and the range of middle to high pigment concentrations. Despite the small bee-subjective perceptual contrasts between the tested stimuli and regardless of training towards medium concentrations, bees preferred neither the training stimuli nor the stimuli offering the highest pigment concentration but more often chose those stimuli offering the highest spectral purity and the highest chromatic contrast against the background. Overall, this study suggests that bees choose an intermediate pigment concentration due to its optimal conspicuousness. It is concluded that the spontaneous preferences of bees for flower colours of high spectral purity might exert selective pressure on the evolution of floral colours and of flower pigmentation.

  1. Identification of colorants in pigmented pen inks by laser desorption mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Papson, Kaitlin; Stachura, Sylwia; Boralsky, Luke; Allison, John

    2008-01-01

    Pigments are rapidly replacing dyes as colorants in pen and printer inks, due to their superior colors and stability. Unfortunately, tools commonly used in questioned document examination for analyzing pen inks, such as TLC, cannot be used for the analysis of insoluble pigments on paper. Laser desorption mass spectrometry is demonstrated here as a tool for analyzing pigment-based pen inks. A pulsed nitrogen laser can be focused onto a pen stroke from a pigmented ink pen on paper, and positive and negative ions representative of the pigment can be generated for subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. Targeted pens for this work were a set of Uni-ball 207 pigmented ink pens containing blue, light blue, orange, green, violet, red, pink, and black inks. Copper phthalocyanine was identified as the pigment used to make both blue inks. A mixture of halogenated copper phthalocyanines were identified in the green ink. Unexpectedly, the pink ink was found to contain a red pigment, Pigment Red 12, treated with a mixture of water-soluble dyes. Each sample yielded ions representative of the pigments present.

  2. An Inverse Modeling Approach to Estimating Phytoplankton Pigment Concentrations from Phytoplankton Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moisan, John R.; Moisan, Tiffany A. H.; Linkswiler, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton absorption spectra and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigment observations from the Eastern U.S. and global observations from NASA's SeaBASS archive are used in a linear inverse calculation to extract pigment-specific absorption spectra. Using these pigment-specific absorption spectra to reconstruct the phytoplankton absorption spectra results in high correlations at all visible wavelengths (r(sup 2) from 0.83 to 0.98), and linear regressions (slopes ranging from 0.8 to 1.1). Higher correlations (r(sup 2) from 0.75 to 1.00) are obtained in the visible portion of the spectra when the total phytoplankton absorption spectra are unpackaged by multiplying the entire spectra by a factor that sets the total absorption at 675 nm to that expected from absorption spectra reconstruction using measured pigment concentrations and laboratory-derived pigment-specific absorption spectra. The derived pigment-specific absorption spectra were further used with the total phytoplankton absorption spectra in a second linear inverse calculation to estimate the various phytoplankton HPLC pigments. A comparison between the estimated and measured pigment concentrations for the 18 pigment fields showed good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.5) for 7 pigments and very good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.7) for chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin. Higher correlations result when the analysis is carried out at more local geographic scales. The ability to estimate phytoplankton pigments using pigment-specific absorption spectra is critical for using hyperspectral inverse models to retrieve phytoplankton pigment concentrations and other Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) from passive remote sensing observations.

  3. Hydroxyl PAMAM dendrimer-based gene vectors for transgene delivery to human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Kambhampati, Siva P.; Mishra, Manoj K.; Wu, Tony; Song, Eric; Hanes, Justin; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

    2015-02-01

    Ocular gene therapy holds promise for the treatment of numerous blinding disorders. Despite the significant progress in the field of viral and non-viral gene delivery to the eye, significant obstacles remain in the way of achieving high-level transgene expression without adverse effects. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is involved in the pathogenesis of retinal diseases and is a key target for a number of gene-based therapeutics. In this study, we addressed the inherent drawbacks of non-viral gene vectors and combined different approaches to design an efficient and safe dendrimer-based gene-delivery platform for delivery to human RPE cells. We used hydroxyl-terminated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers functionalized with various amounts of amine groups to achieve effective plasmid compaction. We further used triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as a nuclear localization enhancer for the dendrimer-gene complex and achieved significant improvement in cell uptake and transfection of hard-to-transfect human RPE cells. To improve colloidal stability, we further shielded the gene vector surface through incorporation of PEGylated dendrimer along with dendrimer-TA for DNA complexation. The resultant complexes showed improved stability while minimally affecting transgene delivery, thus improving the translational relevance of this platform.Ocular gene therapy holds promise for the treatment of numerous blinding disorders. Despite the significant progress in the field of viral and non-viral gene delivery to the eye, significant obstacles remain in the way of achieving high-level transgene expression without adverse effects. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is involved in the pathogenesis of retinal diseases and is a key target for a number of gene-based therapeutics. In this study, we addressed the inherent drawbacks of non-viral gene vectors and combined different approaches to design an efficient and safe dendrimer-based gene-delivery platform for delivery to human RPE

  4. Autism spectrum disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Autism; Autistic disorder; Asperger syndrome; Childhood disintegrative disorder; Pervasive developmental disorder ... to better diagnosis and newer definitions of ASD. Autism spectrum disorder now includes syndromes that used to ...

  5. Paranoid personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorder - paranoid ... Causes of paranoid personality disorder are unknown. The disorder appears to be more common in families with psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional ...

  6. [Affective disorders and eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity.

  7. Sedimentary pigments on the Pakistan margin: Controlling factors and organic matter dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woulds, Clare; Cowie, Greg L.

    2009-03-01

    Sedimentary pigments can provide information on various aspects of benthic processes and biogeochemistry. In this study, sediments from sites at depths of 140 to 1850 m spanning the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), and representing dramatic contrasts in depositional conditions and benthic communities, were analysed for pigment yields and compositions. This has allowed a rare consideration of how different factors, including oxygen concentration, organic matter (OM) supply and biological activity (e.g., degree of bioturbation) may influence sedimentary pigment distribution in a continental margin environment. It has also allowed one of the first efforts to study the impact of biological activity on pigment concentrations in the natural environment, rather than in a microcosm setting. Total extractable surface sediment pigment concentrations showed a range of ˜1.5-49 μg g -1 of dry sediment. The pigment suite was dominated by pheophytin and pheophorbide (which together constituted ˜75% of total pigments), with minor amounts of chlorophyll- a, alloxanthin, diatoxanthin, zeaxanthin and β-carotene. Low oxygen concentration appeared to influence pigment abundance by increasing the concentration of refractory pigments ultimately buried. In addition, maximal pigment abundances were associated with minimal amounts of sediment mixing by macrofauna, and at one site macrofaunal digestion may have altered the relative dominance of the different pheopigments. In contrast, the lack of a marked increase in pigment concentrations after the summer monsoon plus the lack of a correlation between pigment concentration and water depth suggest that OM supply plays a relatively small role in controlling sedimentary pigments. Pigment concentrations and suites, together with modelled decay half-lives (˜0.8-15 years), suggest that in general OM on the Pakistan margin, despite the low oxygen concentrations and monsoon-driven productivity, is surprisingly degraded compared to

  8. [Spectral sensitivity and visual pigments of the coastal crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus].

    PubMed

    Shukoliukov, S A; Zak, P P; Kalamkarov, G R; Kalishevich, O O; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    1980-01-01

    It has been shown that the compound eye of the coastal crab has one photosensitive pigment rhodopsin and screening pigments, black and orange one. The orange pigment has lambda max = 480 nm, rhodopsin in digitonin is stable towards hydroxylamin action, has lambda max = 490-495 nm and after bleaching is transformed into free retinene and opsin. The pigments with lambda max = 430 and 475 nm of the receptor part of the eye are also solubilized. These pigments are not photosensitive but they dissociate under the effect of hydroxylamine. The curye of spectral sensitivity of the coastal crab has the basic maximum at approximately 525 nm and the additional one at 450 nm, which seems to be provided by a combination of the visual pigment--rhodopsin (lambda max 500 nm) with a carotinoid filter (lambda max 480-490). Specific features of the visual system of coastal crab are discussed.

  9. Characterization of black pigment used in 30 BC fresco wall paint using instrumental methods and chemometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Several standard powdered black pigments were characterized by means of thermogravimetry TG-DTG and allied techniques. These pigments were used to make standard plaster frescoes at this purpose prepared. The latter ones were subjected to Raman and reflectance analysis. The results obtained, together with TG data, were chemometrically processed and used to identify an analogous standard fresco fabricated by an unknown commercial black pigment, obtaining excellent results. Results The same colorimetric and reflectometric techniques, coupled with suitable chemometric techniques, were then successfully used to identify the type of black pigment present in an ancient roman fresco of the Imperial Age (30 B.C.). Conclusion TG-DTG resulted useful techniques to autenticate powdered black pigments.Colorimetry and Raman, but also the only colorimetry, were useful to identify an ancient black pigment in situ. PMID:22594437

  10. The challenges and limitations of chemical analysis of particulate pigments of very low solubility.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    When performing a chemical analysis of colorants in tattoo products, specific degradation products as well as impurity patterns can be predicted. Mislabeling or false declarations can also be avoided using this test. It is notable that pigment identification in tattoo products may serve as a precursory technique to recognize the colorants contained in a patient's tattoo prior to laser removal therapy. In contrast to the analysis of banned pigments, positive identification of pigments will normally require few reference substances. Given the fact that tattoo pigments are nearly insoluble in water and many organic solvents, different chemical pigment analyses are outlined and evaluated. Related publications from the study of art are also mentioned. It is recommended that access to comprehensive pigment standards and spectroscopic databanks should be offered to laboratories dealing with tattoo product analysis in the future.

  11. Effects of centrophenoxine on lipofuscin in the retinal pigment epithelium of old mice.

    PubMed

    Dylewski, D P; Nandy, S; Nandy, K

    1983-01-01

    The effects of centrophenoxine on the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of 17 month old female mice have been studied. Animals were injected subcutaneously for 3 months (60 injections) with the drug (0.1 mg/g of body wt) daily in 0.1 M phosphate buffered saline at pH 7.0. The morphological changes in the pigment layers of the retina of both eyes were studied by light and electron microscopy and the lipofuscin pigment was demonstrated by its autofluorescence and ultrastructural characteristics. There was a significant reduction of the lipofuscin pigment in the treated animals, but the melanin pigment remained unchanged. The lipofuscin granules also appeared less osmiophilic and showed a greater preponderance of membranes and vacuoles. Although the precise mechanism of action of the drug is not clear, an increased protective function of the pigment epithelium by the drug has been suggested.

  12. Extraction of pigment information from near-UV vis absorption spectra of extra virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Domenici, Valentina; Ancora, Donatella; Cifelli, Mario; Serani, Andrea; Veracini, Carlo Alberto; Zandomeneghi, Maurizio

    2014-09-24

    This work reports a new approach to extract the maximum chemical information from the absorption spectrum of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) in the 390-720 nm spectral range, where "oil pigments" dominate the light absorption. Four most important pigments, i.e., two carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene) and two chlorophylls (pheophytin-a and pheophytin-b), are chosen as reference oil pigments, being present in all the reported analytical data regarding pigments of EVOOs. The method allows the quantification of the concentration values of these four pigments directly from the deconvolution of the measured absorption spectrum of EVOOs. Advantages and limits of the method and the reliability of the pigment family quantification are discussed. The main point of this work is the description of a fast and simple method to extract of such information in less than a minute, through the mathematical analysis of the UV-vis spectrum of untreated samples of oil.

  13. Monascus: a Reality on the Production and Application of Microbial Pigments.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, Francielo; Meinicke Bühler, Rose Marie; Cesar de Carvalho, Júlio; de Oliveira, Débora; Moritz, Denise Estevez; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Monascus species can produce yellow, orange, and red pigments, depending on the employed cultivation conditions. They are classified as natural pigments and can be applied for coloration of meat, fishes, cheese, beer, and pates, besides their use in inks for printer and dyes for textile, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. These natural pigments also present antimicrobial activity on pathogenic microorganisms and other beneficial effects to the health as antioxidant and anticholesterol activities. Depending on the substrates, the operational conditions (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen), and fermentation mode (state solid fermentation or submerged fermentation), the production can be directed for one specific color dye. This review has a main objective to present an approach of Monascus pigments as a reality to obtaining and application of natural pigments by microorganisms, as to highlight properties that makes this pigment as promising for worldwide industrial applications. PMID:26472672

  14. Monascus: a Reality on the Production and Application of Microbial Pigments.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, Francielo; Meinicke Bühler, Rose Marie; Cesar de Carvalho, Júlio; de Oliveira, Débora; Moritz, Denise Estevez; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Monascus species can produce yellow, orange, and red pigments, depending on the employed cultivation conditions. They are classified as natural pigments and can be applied for coloration of meat, fishes, cheese, beer, and pates, besides their use in inks for printer and dyes for textile, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. These natural pigments also present antimicrobial activity on pathogenic microorganisms and other beneficial effects to the health as antioxidant and anticholesterol activities. Depending on the substrates, the operational conditions (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen), and fermentation mode (state solid fermentation or submerged fermentation), the production can be directed for one specific color dye. This review has a main objective to present an approach of Monascus pigments as a reality to obtaining and application of natural pigments by microorganisms, as to highlight properties that makes this pigment as promising for worldwide industrial applications.

  15. The influence of temperature on the color of TiO{sub 2}:Cr pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes Vieira, Fagner Ticiano; Silva Melo, Danniely; Jackson Guedes de Lima, Severino; Longo, Elson; Paskocimas, Carlos Alberto; Silva Junior, Wilson; Gouveia de Souza, Antonio; Garcia dos Santos, Ieda Maria

    2009-05-06

    TiO{sub 2}:Cr brown pigments were prepared via a polymeric precursor derived from the Pechini method. The pigments were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-vis spectroscopy, and colorimetry. The increase of the calcination temperature from 700 to 1000 deg. C led to a decrease in the L* values, corresponding to darkening of the pigments. The pigments obtained in this work are darker than those produced by a solid-state reaction method reported before. The change in the pigment color is due to the anatase-rutile phase transition, which leads to a shift in the charge transfer bond (Ti{sup 4+} {r_reversible} O{sup 2-}) due to a change in the crystal field around the chromophore ions. Moreover, the oxidation state of chromium was observed to change, and this also alters the color of the pigments.

  16. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma--comparing the diagnostic methods of SIAscopy and dermoscopy.

    PubMed

    Terstappen, Karin; Larkö, Olle; Wennberg, Ann-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Pigmented basal cell carcinomas can be difficult to distinguish clinically from melanoma. Dermoscopy has proven to be useful in the differential diagnosis of the two tumour types. SIAscopy (Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis) is a fairly new technique of imaging pigmented skin lesions that has been presented previously as a useful tool in diagnosing melanoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SIAscopy can be useful in diagnosing pigmented basal cell carcinomas. Twenty-one pigmented basal cell carcinomas were analysed, comparing dermoscopic and SIAscopic findings. The results, in this limited setting, show that SIAscopy has no advantages over dermoscopy when diagnosing pigmented basal cell carcinomas. On the contrary, pigmented basal cell carcinomas show, in SIAscopy, similar features to those previously reported for melanoma.

  17. Pigment cell interactions and differential xanthophore recruitment underlying zebrafish stripe reiteration and Danio pattern evolution

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Larissa B.; Bain, Emily J.; Parichy, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Fishes have diverse pigment patterns, yet mechanisms of pattern evolution remain poorly understood. In zebrafish, Danio rerio, pigment-cell autonomous interactions generate dark stripes of melanophores that alternate with light interstripes of xanthophores and iridophores. Here, we identify mechanisms underlying the evolution of a uniform pattern in D. albolineatus in which all three pigment cell classes are intermingled. We show that in this species xanthophores differentiate precociously over a wider area, and that cis regulatory evolution has increased expression of xanthogenic Colony Stimulating Factor-1 (Csf1). Expressing Csf1 similarly in D. rerio has cascading effects, driving the intermingling of all three pigment cell classes and resulting in the loss of stripes, as in D. albolineatus. Our results identify novel mechanisms of pattern development and illustrate how pattern diversity can be generated when a core network of pigment-cell autonomous interactions is coupled with changes in pigment cell differentiation. PMID:25374113

  18. Development of Betta splendens embryos and larvae reveals variation in pigmentation patterns.

    PubMed

    Carey, Alexis N; Lyvers, Benjamin H; Ferrill, Rachel N; Johnson, Rachel L; Dumaine, Anne Marie; Sly, Belinda J

    2016-06-01

    Vertebrate pigmentation provides an ideal system for studying the intersections between evolution, genetics, and developmental biology. Teleost fish, with their accessible developmental stages and intense and diverse colours produced by chromatophores, are an ideal group for study. We set out to test whether Betta splendens is a good model organism for studying the evolution and development of diverse pigmentation. Our results demonstrate that B. splendens can be bred to produce large numbers of offspring with easily visualized pigment cells. Depending on the colour of the parents, there was variation in larval pigmentation patterns both within and between breeding events. In juveniles the developing adult pigmentation patterns showed even greater variation. These results suggest that B. splendens has great potential as a model organism for pigmentation studies.

  19. Pigmentation in Xiphophorus: an emerging system in ecological and evolutionary genetics.

    PubMed

    Culumber, Zachary W

    2014-02-01

    The genus Xiphophorus has great potential to contribute to the study of vertebrate pigmentation and elucidating the relative influence of ecology, physiology, and behavior on evolution at the molecular level. More importantly, the association between pigmentation and a functional oncogene offers the potential to understand the evolution and maintenance of cancer-causing genetic elements. Using criteria laid out recently in the literature, I demonstrate the power of the Xiphophorus system for studying pigment evolution through integrative organismal biology. Using the most recent phylogeny, the phylogenetic distribution of several important pigmentation loci are reevaluated. I then review support for existing hypotheses of the functional importance of pigmentation. Finally, new observations and hypotheses regarding some of the characteristics of pigment patterns in natural populations and open questions and future directions in the study of the evolution of these traits are discussed.

  20. Pigment cell interactions and differential xanthophore recruitment underlying zebrafish stripe reiteration and Danio pattern evolution.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Larissa B; Bain, Emily J; Parichy, David M

    2014-11-06

    Fishes have diverse pigment patterns, yet mechanisms of pattern evolution remain poorly understood. In zebrafish, Danio rerio, pigment-cell autonomous interactions generate dark stripes of melanophores that alternate with light interstripes of xanthophores and iridophores. Here, we identify mechanisms underlying the evolution of a uniform pattern in D. albolineatus in which all three pigment cell classes are intermingled. We show that in this species xanthophores differentiate precociously over a wider area, and that cis regulatory evolution has increased expression of xanthogenic Colony Stimulating Factor-1 (Csf1). Expressing Csf1 similarly in D. rerio has cascading effects, driving the intermingling of all three pigment cell classes and resulting in the loss of stripes, as in D. albolineatus. Our results identify novel mechanisms of pattern development and illustrate how pattern diversity can be generated when a core network of pigment-cell autonomous interactions is coupled with changes in pigment cell differentiation.

  1. Solar spectral optical properties of pigments--Part II: survey ofcommon colorants

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem

    2004-06-15

    Various pigments are characterized by determination ofparameters S (backscattering) and K (absorption) as functions ofwavelength in the solar spectral range of 300 to 2500 nm. Measured valuesof S for generic titanium dioxide (rutile) white pigment are in roughagreement with values computed from the Mie theory, supplemented by asimple multiple scattering model. Pigments in widespread use areexamined, with particular emphasis on those that may be useful forformulating non-white materials that can reflect the near-infrared (NIR)portion of sunlight, such as the complex inorganic color pigments (mixedmetal oxides). These materials remain cooler in sunlight than comparablecolors. NIR-absorptive pigments are to be avoided. High NIR reflectancecan be produced by a reflective metal substrate, a NIR-reflectiveunderlayer, or directly by the use of a pigment that scatters strongly inthe NIR.

  2. Development of Betta splendens embryos and larvae reveals variation in pigmentation patterns.

    PubMed

    Carey, Alexis N; Lyvers, Benjamin H; Ferrill, Rachel N; Johnson, Rachel L; Dumaine, Anne Marie; Sly, Belinda J

    2016-06-01

    Vertebrate pigmentation provides an ideal system for studying the intersections between evolution, genetics, and developmental biology. Teleost fish, with their accessible developmental stages and intense and diverse colours produced by chromatophores, are an ideal group for study. We set out to test whether Betta splendens is a good model organism for studying the evolution and development of diverse pigmentation. Our results demonstrate that B. splendens can be bred to produce large numbers of offspring with easily visualized pigment cells. Depending on the colour of the parents, there was variation in larval pigmentation patterns both within and between breeding events. In juveniles the developing adult pigmentation patterns showed even greater variation. These results suggest that B. splendens has great potential as a model organism for pigmentation studies. PMID:27172056

  3. Algal Accessory Pigment Detection Using AVIRIS Image-Derived Spectral Radiance Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.

    1996-01-01

    Visual and derivative analyses of AVIRIS spectral data can be used to detect algal accessory pigments in aquatic communities. This capability extends the use of remote sensing for the study of aquatic ecosystems by allowing detection of taxonomically significant pigment signatures which yield information about the type of algae present. Such information allows remote sensing-based assessment of aquatic ecosystem health, as in the detection of nuisance blooms of cyanobacteria or toxic blooms of dinoflagellates. Remote sensing of aquatic systems has traditionally focused on quantification of chlorophyll a, a photoreactive (and light-harvesting) pigment which is common to all algae as well as cyanobacteria (bluegreen algae). Due to the ubiquitousness of this pigment within algae, chl a is routinely measured to estimate algal biomass both during ground-truthing and using various airborne or satellite based sensors, including AVIRIS. Within the remote sensing and aquatic sciences communities, ongoing research has been performed to detect algal accessory pigments for assessment of algal population composition. This research is based on the fact that many algal accessory pigments are taxonomically significant, and all are spectrally unique. Aquatic scientists have been refining pigment analysis techniques, primarily high performance liquid chromatography, or HPLC, to detect specific pigments as a time-saving alternative to individual algal cell identifications and counts. Remote sensing scientists are investigating the use of pigment signatures to construct pigment libraries analogous to mineral spectral libraries used in geological remote sensing applications. The accessory pigment approach has been used successfully in remote sensing using data from the Thematic Mapper, low-altitude, multiple channel scanners, field spectroradiometers and the AVIRIS hyperspectral scanner. Due to spectral and spatial resolution capabilities, AVIRIS is the sensor of choice for such

  4. Effect of cadmium chloride on the distal retinal pigment cells of the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, P.S.; Fingerman, M.; Nguyen, L.K.; Obih, P.

    1997-03-01

    Crustaceans have two sets of pigmentary effectors, chromatophores and retinal pigment cells. Retinal pigments control the amount of light striking the rhabdom, the photosensitive portion of each ommatidium, screening the rhabdom in bright light and uncovering it in darkness or dim light. Migration of the distal pigment in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilalor, is regulated by a light-adapting hormone and a dark-adapting hormone. The black chromatophores of this crab are also controlled by a pair of hormones. Both pigmentary effectors exhibit circadian rhythms. The effects of some organic and inorganic pollutants on the ability of Uca pugilator to change color have been described. Exposure of this crab to naphthalene or cadmium results in decreased ability to disperse the pigment in their black chromatophores, the exposed crabs becoming paler than the unexposed crabs. Norepinephrine triggers release of both the black pigment-dispersing hormone and the light-adapting hormone. In view of the facts that (a) these hormones which regulate the black chromatophores and distal pigment are synthesized in and released from the eyestalk neuroendocrine complex, (b) the black pigment-dispersing hormone and the light-adapting hormone may actually be the same hormone. having two different activities and (c) release of both the black pigment-dispersing hormone and the light-adapting hormone is triggered by norepinephrine, the present investigation was carried out to determine the effect of cadmium on distal pigment migration in Uca pugilator. More specifically, for comparison with the previously reported effect of cadmium on pigment migration in the black chromatophores, we wished to determine whether the distal pigment of fiddler crabs exposed to cadmium chloride is capable of as wide a range of movement as in unexposed crabs, and if not what might be the explanation. This is the first report of the effect of a pollutant on a retinal pigment of any crustacean. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Spectral tuning and evolution of primate short-wavelength-sensitive visual pigments.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Livia S; Davies, Wayne L; Robinson, Phyllis R; Hunt, David M

    2012-01-22

    The peak sensitivities (λ(max)) of the short-wavelength-sensitive-1 (SWS1) pigments in mammals range from the ultraviolet (UV) (360-400 nm) to the violet (400-450 nm) regions of the spectrum. In most cases, a UV or violet peak is determined by the residue present at site 86, with Phe conferring UV sensitivity (UVS) and either Ser, Tyr or Val causing a shift to violet wavelengths. In primates, however, the tuning mechanism of violet-sensitive (VS) pigments would appear to differ. In this study, we examine the tuning mechanisms of prosimian SWS1 pigments. One species, the aye-aye, possesses a pigment with Phe86 but in vitro spectral analysis reveals a VS rather than a UVS pigment. Other residues (Cys, Ser and Val) at site 86 in prosimians also gave VS pigments. Substitution at site 86 is not, therefore, the primary mechanism for the tuning of VS pigments in primates, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that substitutions at site 86 have occurred at least five times in primate evolution. The sole potential tuning site that is conserved in all primate VS pigments is Pro93, which when substituted by Thr (as found in mammalian UVS pigments) in the aye-aye pigment shifted the peak absorbance into the UV region with a λ(max) value at 371 nm. We, therefore, conclude that the tuning of VS pigments in primates depends on Pro93, not Tyr86 as in other mammals. However, it remains uncertain whether the initial event that gave rise to the VS pigment in the ancestral primate was achieved by a Thr93Pro or a Phe86Tyr substitution.

  6. Application of principal component analysis to multispectral imaging data for evaluation of pigmented skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Lihacova, Ilze; Kuzmina, Ilona; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-11-01

    Non-invasive and fast primary diagnostics of pigmented skin lesions is required due to frequent incidence of skin cancer - melanoma. Diagnostic potential of principal component analysis (PCA) for distant skin melanoma recognition is discussed. Processing of the measured clinical multi-spectral images (31 melanomas and 94 nonmalignant pigmented lesions) in the wavelength range of 450-950 nm by means of PCA resulted in 87 % sensitivity and 78 % specificity for separation between malignant melanomas and pigmented nevi.

  7. Spectral tuning and evolution of primate short-wavelength-sensitive visual pigments

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Livia S.; Davies, Wayne L.; Robinson, Phyllis R.; Hunt, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The peak sensitivities (λmax) of the short-wavelength-sensitive-1 (SWS1) pigments in mammals range from the ultraviolet (UV) (360–400 nm) to the violet (400–450 nm) regions of the spectrum. In most cases, a UV or violet peak is determined by the residue present at site 86, with Phe conferring UV sensitivity (UVS) and either Ser, Tyr or Val causing a shift to violet wavelengths. In primates, however, the tuning mechanism of violet-sensitive (VS) pigments would appear to differ. In this study, we examine the tuning mechanisms of prosimian SWS1 pigments. One species, the aye-aye, possesses a pigment with Phe86 but in vitro spectral analysis reveals a VS rather than a UVS pigment. Other residues (Cys, Ser and Val) at site 86 in prosimians also gave VS pigments. Substitution at site 86 is not, therefore, the primary mechanism for the tuning of VS pigments in primates, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that substitutions at site 86 have occurred at least five times in primate evolution. The sole potential tuning site that is conserved in all primate VS pigments is Pro93, which when substituted by Thr (as found in mammalian UVS pigments) in the aye-aye pigment shifted the peak absorbance into the UV region with a λmax value at 371 nm. We, therefore, conclude that the tuning of VS pigments in primates depends on Pro93, not Tyr86 as in other mammals. However, it remains uncertain whether the initial event that gave rise to the VS pigment in the ancestral primate was achieved by a Thr93Pro or a Phe86Tyr substitution. PMID:21697177

  8. The roles of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and pigmentation in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Jennifer J; Fisher, David E

    2014-12-01

    MITF and pigmentation play important roles in both normal melanocyte and transformed melanoma cell biology. MITF is regulated by many pathways and it also regulates many targets, some of which are still being discovered and functionally validated. MITF is involved in a wide range of processes in melanocytes, including pigment synthesis and lineage survival. Pigmentation itself plays an important role as the interface between genetic and environmental factors that contribute to melanoma.

  9. Blood stasis contributions to the perception of skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Stamatas, Georgios N; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2004-01-01

    The chromatic characteristics of skin color arise from the interactions of light (primarily absorption and scattering) with the epidermis and the dermis. The primary light absorbers in skin are hemoglobin and melanin. Most of scattering is attributed to collagen fibers and in pigmented skin to melanosomes. Traditionally skin redness is considered to arise due to locally elevated concentrations of hemoglobin, whereas skin pigmentation is attributed to melanin. In this study we attempt to understand better the contributions of these chromophores to the perceived skin color using spectral analysis of skin color reactions induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation or pressure. In the first experiment 12 individuals with skin phototypes III-IV were irradiated on the back using a solar simulator with doses ranging from 0.7 to 3 MED. The skin reactions were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 after irradiation. Evaluations included diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and clinical assessment of the erythema and the pigment reaction. Apparent concentrations of melanin, oxy-, and deoxy-hemoglobin were calculated from the absorption spectra. In the second experiment the levels of deoxy-hemoglobin of the volar forearm of ten volunteers were selectively altered by either application of a pressure cuff or by topical application of 3% H(2)O(2). Changes in skin color appearance were documented by photography, colorimetry, and DRS. In the UV exposure experiment all reactions were dose dependent. Oxy-hemoglobin values increased to a maximum on day 1, correlating well with the clinical evaluation of erythema, and then decreased exponentially to base line. Melanin showed a significant increase on day 7 and remained relatively constant for the next 3 weeks, correlating well with the clinical evaluation of pigmentation (tanning). Deoxy-hemoglobin increased slightly on day 1 and remained elevated for the next 2 weeks. Thus, deoxy-hemoglobin correlated moderately with the clinical erythema

  10. Bipolar disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss of self-esteem Thoughts of death or suicide Trouble getting to sleep or sleeping too much ... with bipolar disorder are at high risk of suicide . They may use alcohol or other substances . This ...

  11. Bronchial Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... when the airways shrink while you are exercising Bronchiolitis, an inflammation of the small airways that branch off from the bronchi Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a condition affecting infants Treatment of bronchial disorders depends on the cause.

  12. Taste Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... combine with a food’s aroma to produce a perception of flavor. It is flavor that lets you ... The most common taste disorder is phantom taste perception : a lingering, often unpleasant taste even though there ...

  13. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  14. Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... by recurrent episodes of paralyzing fear, known as panic attacks. Panic disorder, which affects three million to six ... Americans, typically surfaces between ages fifteen and nineteen. Panic attacks may be precipitated by specific events, but they ...

  15. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... and friends again. Eating disorders involve both the mind and body. So medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dietitians ...

  16. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  17. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  18. Cartilage Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... cartilage problems include Tears and injuries, such as sports injuries Genetic factors Other disorders, such as some types of arthritis Osteoarthritis results from breakdown of cartilage. NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

  19. TMJ Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the popular belief that a bad bite or orthodontic braces can trigger TMJ disorders. There is no ... effective – and may make the problem worse – include orthodontics to change the bite; crown and bridge work ...

  20. Hartnup disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have a family history of Hartnup disorder. Genetic counseling is recommended if you have a family history ... Genetic counseling may help prevent some cases. Eating a high-protein diet may prevent amino acid deficiencies that ...