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  1. Carotenoids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This short article indicated that greater understanding of the biological functions of carotenoids mediated via their oxidative metabolites through their effects on these important cellular pathways and molecular targets, as well as their significance to cancer prevention, is needed. In considering ...

  2. Carotenoids in marine animals.

    PubMed

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-02-22

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade.

  3. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  4. Carotenoid-Protein Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, George; Helliwell, John R.

    Chapter 5 shows that the aggregation of carotenoid molecules can have a profound effect on their properties and hence their functioning in biological systems. Another important influence is the interaction between carotenoids and other molecules. The way that interactions of carotenoids with lipid bilayers influence the structure and properties of membranes and membrane-asociated processes is discussed in Chapter 10, and the aggregation of carotenoid molecules within the bilayers in Chapter 5. Of particular importance, though, are interactions between carotenoids and proteins. These allow the hydrophobic carotenoids to be transported, to exist, and to function in an aqueous environment. In some cases they may modify strongly the light-absorption properties and hence the colour and photochemistry of the carotenoids.

  5. Carotenoid metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Nazia; Li, Li; Lu, Shan; Khin, Nay Chi; Pogson, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. They are colorants and critical components of the human diet as antioxidants and provitamin A. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the genes and enzymes involved in carotenoid metabolism and describe recent progress in understanding the regulatory mechanisms underlying carotenoid accumulation. The importance of the specific location of carotenoid enzyme metabolons and plastid types as well as of carotenoid-derived signals is discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Encapsulation of Carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Henelyta S.; Schuchmann, Heike P.; Engel, Robert; Walz, Elke; Briviba, Karlis

    Carotenoids are natural pigments, which are synthesized by microorganisms and plants. More than 600 naturally occurring carotenoids have been found in the nature. The main sources of carotenoids are fruits, vegetables, leaves, peppers, and certain types of fishes, sea foods, and birds. Carotenoids may protect cells against photosensitization and work as light-absorbing pigments during photosynthesis. Some carotenoids may inhibit the destructive effect of reactive oxygen species. Due to the antioxidative properties of carotenoids, many investigations regarding their protective effects against cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancers, as well as other degenerative illnesses, have been carried out in the last years (Briviba et al. 2004; Krinsky et al. 2004; Kirsh et al. 2006). A diet rich in carotenoids may also contribute to photoprotection against UV radiation (Stahl et al. 2006). In vitro studies have shown that carotenoids such as β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene stimulate bone formation and mineralization. The results may be related to prevention of osteoporosis (Kim et al. 2003; Yamaguchi and Uchiyama 2003; 2004; Yamaguchi et al. 2005).

  7. Carotenoid metabolism in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. Th...

  8. Carotenoids in Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Henríquez, Vitalia; Escobar, Carolina; Galarza, Janeth; Gimpel, Javier

    Carotenoids are a class of isoprenoids synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms as well as by some non-photosynthetic bacteria and fungi with broad applications in food, feed and cosmetics, and also in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. Microalgae represent an important source of high-value products, which include carotenoids, among others. Carotenoids play key roles in light harvesting and energy transfer during photosynthesis and in the protection of the photosynthetic apparatus against photooxidative damage. Carotenoids are generally divided into carotenes and xanthophyls, but accumulation in microalgae can also be classified as primary (essential for survival) and secondary (by exposure to specific stimuli).In this chapter, we outline the high value carotenoids produced by commercially important microalgae, their production pathways, the improved production rates that can be achieved by genetic engineering as well as their biotechnological applications.

  9. Carotenoids of biotechnological importance.

    PubMed

    Sandmann, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are natural pigments with antioxidative functions that protect against oxidative stress. They are essential for humans and must be supplied through the diet. Carotenoids are the precursors for the visual pigment rhodopsin, and lutein and zeaxanthin must be accumulated in the yellow eye spot to protect the retina from excess light and ultraviolet damage. There is a global market for carotenoids as food colorants, animal feed, and nutraceuticals. Some carotenoids are chemically synthesized, whereas others are from natural sources. Microbial mass production systems of industrial interest for carotenoids are in use, and new ones are being developed by metabolic pathway engineering of bacteria, fungi, and plants. Several examples will be highlighted in this chapter.

  10. Functions of Intact Carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, George

    The traditional view that carotenoids are a class of plant pigments does not do justice to their versatility. This versatility will become clear from the overview of the biological roles of carotenoids, in animals and microorganisms as well as in plants, that is given in this Chapter. It has become customary and convenient to differentiate biological effects of carotenoids into functions, actions and associations [1]. `Functions' have been defined as effects or properties that are essential for the normal well-being of the organism. Biological responses that follow the administration of carotenoids in the diet or as supplements are considered as `actions'. When an effect is seen but a causal relationship to the carotenoid has not been demonstrated, this is described as an `association'. The line between these is often not clear, however.

  11. Nutrition Updates "Carotenoids and Health"

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This symposium covered current topics in carotenoids and health, with special emphasis on healthy aging. The carotenoids covered were beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and beta-cryptoxanthin. Topics included the best food sources of these carotenoids, the importance of carotenoids as antioxidants an...

  12. Carotenoids and Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Uragami, Chiasa; Cogdell, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are ubiquitous and essential pigments in photosynthesis. They absorb in the blue-green region of the solar spectrum and transfer the absorbed energy to (bacterio-)chlorophylls, and so expand the wavelength range of light that is able to drive photosynthesis. This is an example of singlet-singlet energy transfer, and so carotenoids serve to enhance the overall efficiency of photosynthetic light reactions. Carotenoids also act to protect photosynthetic organisms from the harmful effects of excess exposure to light. Triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophylls to carotenoids plays a key role in this photoprotective reaction. In the light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria and chlorophytes, carotenoids have an additional role of structural stabilization of those complexes. In this article we review what is currently known about how carotenoids discharge these functions. The molecular architecture of photosynthetic systems will be outlined first to provide a basis from which to describe carotenoid photochemistry, which underlies most of their important functions in photosynthesis.

  13. Biomarkers of carotenoid bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Granado-Lorencio, F; Blanco-Navarro, I; Pérez-Sacristán, B; Hernández-Álvarez, E

    2017-09-01

    The use of biomarkers constitutes an essential tool to assess the bioavailability of carotenoids in humans. The present article aims to review several methodological, host-related and modulating factors relevant on assessing and interpreting carotenoid bioavailability. Markers for carotenoid bioavailability can be broadly divided into direct, biochemical or "analytical" markers and indirect, physiological or "functional" indicators. Analytical markers usually refer to biochemical indicators of intake and/or status (short and long term exposure) while functional measures may be interpreted in terms of cumulative exposure, biological effect (bioactivity) or modification of risk factors. Both types of markers display advantages and limitations but, in general, a relationship exists among the type of marker, the biological specimen needed and the time required for a change. Humans may absorb a wide range of carotenes and xanthophylls and many of them may be found in serum and tissues. However, under physiological conditions, the several classes of dietary carotenoids may behave unequally leading to a different systemic profile and, moreover, they can be selectively accumulated at target tissues. In addition, some carotenoids may be chemically and enzymatically modified generating different oxidative metabolites and apocarotenoids. Quantitatively, the biological response upon carotenoid intervention (assessed by analytical and functional markers) is highly variable but the use of large doses and long-term protocols may lead to saturation effects and the loss of linearity in the response. Also, despite carotenoid exposition is considered to be safe, markers of overexposure include clinical signs (i.e. carotenodermia, corneal rings and retinopathy) and biochemical indicators (hypercarotenemia, xanthophyll esters). Overall, both host-related and methodological factors may influence analytical and functional markers to assess carotenoid bioavailability although the

  14. BIOSYNTHESIS OF YEAST CAROTENOIDS

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Kenneth L.; Nakayama, T. O. M.; Chichester, C. O.

    1964-01-01

    Simpson, Kenneth L. (University of California, Davis), T. O. M. Nakayama, and C. O. Chichester. Biosynthesis of yeast carotenoids. J. Bacteriol. 88:1688–1694. 1964.—The biosynthesis of carotenoids was followed in Rhodotorula glutinis and in a new strain, 62-506. The treatment of the growing cultures by methylheptenone, or ionone, vapors permitted observations of the intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway. On the basis of concentration changes and accumulation in blocked pathways, the sequence of carotenoid formation is postulated as phytoene, phytofluene, ζ-carotene, neurosporene, β-zeacarotene, γ-carotene, torulin, a C40 aldehyde, and torularhodin. Torulin and torularhodin were established as the main carotenoids of 62-506. PMID:14240958

  15. Carotenoids in Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telfer, Alison; Pascal, Andrew; Gall, Andrew

    Carotenoids are the secret ingredient in photosynthesis; masked by the green of chlorophyll, they are only revealed in their true glory during senescence, when chlorophyll is degraded to display the glowing colours of autumn. Yet the presence of these orange and yellow pigments is absolutely essential for oxygenic photosynthesis. This Chapter will explain the importance of carotenoids to oxygenic organisms and also their roles in anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, where their presence is often more obvious but in other ways may be less crucial.

  16. [Carotenoids as natural antioxidants].

    PubMed

    Igielska-Kalwat, Joanna; Gościańska, Joanna; Nowak, Izabela

    2015-04-07

    Human organisms have many defence mechanisms able to neutralise the harmful effects of the reactive species of oxygen. Antioxidants play an important role in reducing the oxidative damage to the human organism. Carotenoids are among the strongest antioxidants. They have 11 coupled double bonds, so they can be classified as polyisoprenoids, show low polarity and can occur in acyclic, monocyclic or bicyclic forms. The carotenoids of the strongest antioxidant properties are lycopene, lutein, astaxanthin and β-carotene. Carotenoids with strong antioxidant properties have found wide application in medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. These compounds are highly active against both reactive oxygen species and free radicals. Comparing β-carotene, astaxanthin and lycopene with other antioxidants (e.g. vitamin C and E), it can be concluded that these compounds have higher antioxidant activity, e.g. against singlet oxygen. Astaxanthin is a stronger antioxidant compared to β-carotene, vitamin E and vitamin C, respectively 54, 14 and 65 times. Carotenoids have a salutary effect on our body, making it more resistant and strong to fight chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to review the literature concerning free radicals and their adverse effects on the human body and carotenoids, as strong, natural antioxidants.

  17. Carotenoids, chemistry, sources and physiology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter for the Enclyclopedia of Human Nutrition (3rd edition) summarizes the structure, chemical and physiological mechanisms, dietary sources, and metabolism of carotenoids. Carotenoids are a family of phytonutrients which have antioxidant properties under most physiological conditions. Num...

  18. Progress in Microbial Carotenoids Production.

    PubMed

    Saini, Ramesh Kumar; Keum, Young-Soo

    2017-03-01

    Carotenoids are versatile isoprenoids pigments, play a vital role in the cellular system, starting from antioxidant to gene regulation. Carotenoids are widely used in food, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics owing to their vitamin A, antioxidant and anticancer activities. The demand of carotenoids in various sectors has triggered the research to explore a commercially viable and environmentally friendly production. This article presents a short review of progress in carotenoids production from microbial platforms.

  19. Carotenoid fluorescence in Dunaliella salina

    PubMed Central

    van Es, Marjon A.; Janssen, Marcel; Brandenburg, Willem A.; Wijffels, René H.

    2010-01-01

    Dunaliella salina is a halotolerant green alga that is well known for its carotenoid producing capacity. The produced carotenoids are mainly stored in lipid globules. For various research purposes, such as production and extraction kinetics, we would like to determine and/or localise the carotenoid globules in vivo. In this study, we show that the carotenoid-rich globules emit clear green fluorescence, which can be used in, for example, fluorescence microscopy (e.g. CLSM) to obtain pictures of the cells and their carotenoid content. PMID:20835349

  20. Carotenoids and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Voutilainen, Sari; Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Rissanen, Tiina H

    2006-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death in Western countries. Nutrition has a significant role in the prevention of many chronic diseases such as CVD, cancers, and degenerative brain diseases. The major risk and protective factors in the diet are well recognized, but interesting new candidates continue to appear. It is well known that a greater intake of fruit and vegetables can help prevent heart diseases and mortality. Because fruit, berries, and vegetables are chemically complex foods, it is difficult to pinpoint any single nutrient that contributes the most to the cardioprotective effects. Several potential components that are found in fruit, berries, and vegetables are probably involved in the protective effects against CVD. Potential beneficial substances include antioxidant vitamins, folate, fiber, and potassium. Antioxidant compounds found in fruit and vegetables, such as vitamin C, carotenoids, and flavonoids, may influence the risk of CVD by preventing the oxidation of cholesterol in arteries. In this review, the role of main dietary carotenoids, ie, lycopene, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin, in the prevention of heart diseases is discussed. Although it is clear that a higher intake of fruit and vegetables can help prevent the morbidity and mortality associated with heart diseases, more information is needed to ascertain the association between the intake of single nutrients, such as carotenoids, and the risk of CVD. Currently, the consumption of carotenoids in pharmaceutical forms for the treatment or prevention of heart diseases cannot be recommended.

  1. Plastids and carotenoid accumulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plastids are ubiquitously in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids except proplastids can synth...

  2. Carotenoids and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Slattery, M L; Benson, J; Curtin, K; Ma, K N; Schaeffer, D; Potter, J D

    2000-02-01

    Carotenoids have numerous biological properties that may underpin a role for them as chemopreventive agents. However, except for beta-carotene, little is known about how dietary carotenoids are associated with common cancers, including colon cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between dietary alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin and the risk of colon cancer. Data were collected from 1993 case subjects with first primary incident adenocarcinoma of the colon and from 2410 population-based control subjects. Dietary data were collected from a detailed diet-history questionnaire and nutrient values for dietary carotenoids were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture-Nutrition Coordinating Center carotenoid database (1998 updated version). Lutein was inversely associated with colon cancer in both men and women [odds ratio (OR) for upper quintile of intake relative to lowest quintile of intake: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.04; P = 0.04 for linear trend]. The greatest inverse association was observed among subjects in whom colon cancer was diagnosed when they were young (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.92; P = 0.02 for linear trend) and among those with tumors located in the proximal segment of the colon (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.91; P < 0.01 for linear trend). The associations with other carotenoids were unremarkable. The major dietary sources of lutein in subjects with colon cancer and in control subjects were spinach, broccoli, lettuce, tomatoes, oranges and orange juice, carrots, celery, and greens. These data suggest that incorporating these foods into the diet may help reduce the risk of developing colon cancer.

  3. Carotenoid-binding proteins; accessories to carotenoid function.

    PubMed

    Pilbrow, Jodi; Garama, Daniel; Carne, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the widespread biological importance of carotenoids is increasing. Accompanying this is the developing recognition that the interaction of carotenoids with other molecules, such as proteins, is also essential. Here the significance of carotenoid-protein interactions with respect to biological function is reviewed for three well characterised carotenoprotein complexes; crustacyanin, the orange carotenoid protein and glutathione-S-transferase P1. In addition a preliminary report is made on the recent partial purification of an echinenone-binding protein extracted from a New Zealand sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus.

  4. Biological activities of carotenoid metabolites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Considerable research effort has been expended in an attempt to substantiate and understand the potential roles of carotenoids in human health and disease. Early studies dealt with beta-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids, but more recent research efforts have focused on the potential roles ...

  5. Carotenoids and lung cancer prevention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the molecular actions of carotenoids is critical for human studies involving carotenoids for prevention of lung cancer and cancers at other tissue sites. While the original hypothesis prompting the beta-carotene intervention trials was that beta-carotene exerts beneficial effects thro...

  6. Biological roles of fungal carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Javier; Carmen Limón, M

    2015-08-01

    Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments widespread in nature, produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. They are also found in animals, which usually obtain them through the diet. Carotenoids in plants provide striking yellow, orange or red colors to fruits and flowers, and play important metabolic and physiological functions, especially relevant in photosynthesis. Their functions are less clear in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Different fungi produce diverse carotenoids, but the mutants unable to produce them do not exhibit phenotypic alterations in the laboratory, apart of lack of pigmentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functional basis for carotenoid production in fungi. Different lines of evidence support a protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress and exposure to visible light or UV irradiation. In addition, the carotenoids are intermediary products in the biosynthesis of physiologically active apocarotenoids or derived compounds. This is the case of retinal, obtained from the symmetrical oxidative cleavage of β-carotene. Retinal is the light-absorbing prosthetic group of the rhodopsins, membrane-bound photoreceptors present also in many fungal species. In Mucorales, β-carotene is an intermediary in the synthesis of trisporoids, apocarotenoid derivatives that include the sexual hormones the trisporic acids, and they are also presumably used in the synthesis of sporopollenin polymers. In conclusion, fungi have adapted their ability to produce carotenoids for different non-essential functions, related with stress tolerance or with the synthesis of physiologically active by-products.

  7. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Daucus carota.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kevin; Cerda, Ariel; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is one of the most important vegetable cultivated worldwide and the main source of dietary provitamin A. Contrary to other plants, almost all carrot varieties accumulate massive amounts of carotenoids in the root, resulting in a wide variety of colors, including those with purple, yellow, white, red and orange roots. During the first weeks of development the root, grown in darkness, is thin and pale and devoid of carotenoids. At the second month, the thickening of the root and the accumulation of carotenoids begins, and it reaches its highest level at 3 months of development. This normal root thickening and carotenoid accumulation can be completely altered when roots are grown in light, in which chromoplasts differentiation is redirected to chloroplasts development in accordance with an altered carotenoid profile. Here we discuss the current evidence on the biosynthesis of carotenoid in carrot roots in response to environmental cues that has contributed to our understanding of the mechanism that regulates the accumulation of carotenoids, as well as the carotenogenic gene expression and root development in D. carota.

  8. Food predictors of plasma carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Sara J; Willett, Walter C; Rosner, Bernard A; Eliassen, A Heather

    2013-10-11

    Empirical prediction models that weight food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) food items by their relation to nutrient biomarker concentrations may estimate nutrient exposure better than nutrient intakes derived from food composition databases. Carotenoids may especially benefit because contributing foods vary in bioavailability and assessment validity. Our objective was to develop empirical prediction models for the major plasma carotenoids and total carotenoids and evaluate their validity compared with dietary intakes calculated from standard food composition tables. 4180 nonsmoking women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) blood subcohort with previously measured plasma carotenoids were randomly divided into training (n = 2787) and testing (n = 1393) subsets. Empirical prediction models were developed in the training subset by stepwise selection from foods contributing ≥0.5% to intake of the relevant carotenoid. Spearman correlations between predicted and measured plasma concentrations were compared to Spearman correlations between dietary intake and measured plasma concentrations for each carotenoid. Three to 12 foods were selected for the α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, and total carotenoids prediction models. In the testing subset, Spearman correlations with measured plasma concentrations for the calculated dietary intakes and predicted plasma concentrations, respectively, were 0.31 and 0.37 for α-carotene, 0.29 and 0.31 for β-carotene, 0.36 and 0.41 for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.28 and 0.31 for lutein/zeaxanthin, 0.22 and 0.23 for lycopene, and 0.22 and 0.27 for total carotenoids. Empirical prediction models may modestly improve assessment of some carotenoids, particularly α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin.

  9. Food Predictors of Plasma Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Sara J.; Willett, Walter C.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Eliassen, A. Heather

    2013-01-01

    Empirical prediction models that weight food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) food items by their relation to nutrient biomarker concentrations may estimate nutrient exposure better than nutrient intakes derived from food composition databases. Carotenoids may especially benefit because contributing foods vary in bioavailability and assessment validity. Our objective was to develop empirical prediction models for the major plasma carotenoids and total carotenoids and evaluate their validity compared with dietary intakes calculated from standard food composition tables. 4180 nonsmoking women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) blood subcohort with previously measured plasma carotenoids were randomly divided into training (n = 2787) and testing (n = 1393) subsets. Empirical prediction models were developed in the training subset by stepwise selection from foods contributing ≥0.5% to intake of the relevant carotenoid. Spearman correlations between predicted and measured plasma concentrations were compared to Spearman correlations between dietary intake and measured plasma concentrations for each carotenoid. Three to 12 foods were selected for the α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, and total carotenoids prediction models. In the testing subset, Spearman correlations with measured plasma concentrations for the calculated dietary intakes and predicted plasma concentrations, respectively, were 0.31 and 0.37 for α-carotene, 0.29 and 0.31 for β-carotene, 0.36 and 0.41 for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.28 and 0.31 for lutein/zeaxanthin, 0.22 and 0.23 for lycopene, and 0.22 and 0.27 for total carotenoids. Empirical prediction models may modestly improve assessment of some carotenoids, particularly α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin. PMID:24152746

  10. Signal Functions of Carotenoid Colouration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blount, Jonathan D.; McGraw, Kevin J.

    The importance of carotenoids for natural colouration, in relation to other classes of pigments and structural colours, has been outlined in Chapter 10. But colour only has significance if it is perceived, identified and interpreted by other organisms (animals). In other words, colour is a means of communication, a signal. Now, in this Chapter, this new direction for carotenoid research, behavioural ecology, is highlighted. Various hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the signal functions of colour, and particularly of carotenoids, in plants and animals are discussed and the empirical evidence to support these hypotheses is presented.

  11. Chemistry and biotechnology of carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Namitha, K K; Negi, P S

    2010-09-01

    Carotenoids are one of the most widespread groups of pigments in nature and more than 600 of these have been identified. Beside provitamin A activity, carotenoids are important as antioxidants and protective agents against various diseases. They are isoprenoids with a long polyene chain containing 3 to 15 conjugated double bonds, which determines their absorption spectrum. Cyclization at one or both ends occurs in hydrocarbon carotene, while xanthophylls are formed by the introduction of oxygen. In addition, modifications involving chain elongation, isomerization, or degradation are also found. The composition of carotenoids in food may vary depending upon production practices, post-harvest handling, processing, and storage. In higher plants they are synthesized in the plastid. Both mevalonate dependent and independent pathway for the formation of isopentenyl diphosphate are known. Isopentenyl diphosphate undergoes a series of addition and condensation reactions to form phytoene, which gets converted to lycopene. Cyclization of lycopene either leads to the formation of β-carotene and its derivative xanthophylls, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and violaxanthin or α-carotene and lutein. Even though most of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes have been cloned and identified, some aspects of carotenoid formation and manipulation in higher plants especially remain poorly understood. In order to enhance the carotenoid content of crop plants to a level that will be required for the prevention of diseases, there is a need for research in both the basic and the applied aspects.

  12. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vílchez, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Cuaresma, María; Bédmar, Francisco; Garbayo, Inés; Vega, José M.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon. PMID:21556162

  13. Marine carotenoids: biological functions and commercial applications.

    PubMed

    Vílchez, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Cuaresma, María; Bédmar, Francisco; Garbayo, Inés; Vega, José M

    2011-03-03

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon.

  14. Enhancement of carotenoid-to-chlorophyll singlet energy transfer by carotenoid-carotenoid interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Zurdo, J; Fernández-Cabrera, C; Ramírez, J M

    1992-01-01

    The apparent quantum yield of singlet-singlet spirilloxanthin-to-bacteriochlorophyll a energy transfer increases linearly with the residual spirilloxanthin content in Rhodospirillum rubrum membrane vesicles from which this carotenoid has been partially removed. Since it has been previously shown that carotenoid-carotenoid interaction is a linear function of the residual spirilloxanthin level in the major pigment-protein complex of those vesicles (Zurdo, J., R. M. Lozano, C. Fernandez-Cabrera, and J. M. Ramirez. 1991. Biochem. J. 274:881-884), it appears that such degenerate interaction enhances singlet energy transfer. Part of the enhancement may be explained if the energy donor is the spirilloxanthin 1Bu----1Ag (S2----S0) transition, because exciton coupling probably brings its energy closer to that of the Qx (S2----S0) transition of bacteriochlorophyll. In contrast, it seems that the possible stabilization of the spirilloxanthin 2Ag (S1) state would hardly improve energy transfer, because this hidden state probably lies below the S1 bacteriochlorophyll state. In any case, the stabilizing effects of carotenoid-carotenoid interactions seem insufficient to explain the enhancement of energy transfer. Direct or indirect effects of carotenoid dimerization on the three-dimensional structure of the pigment cluster appear to be required to account for such enhancement. PMID:1617133

  15. Enhancement of carotenoid-to-chlorophyll singlet energy transfer by carotenoid-carotenoid interaction.

    PubMed

    Zurdo, J; Fernández-Cabrera, C; Ramírez, J M

    1992-06-01

    The apparent quantum yield of singlet-singlet spirilloxanthin-to-bacteriochlorophyll a energy transfer increases linearly with the residual spirilloxanthin content in Rhodospirillum rubrum membrane vesicles from which this carotenoid has been partially removed. Since it has been previously shown that carotenoid-carotenoid interaction is a linear function of the residual spirilloxanthin level in the major pigment-protein complex of those vesicles (Zurdo, J., R. M. Lozano, C. Fernandez-Cabrera, and J. M. Ramirez. 1991. Biochem. J. 274:881-884), it appears that such degenerate interaction enhances singlet energy transfer. Part of the enhancement may be explained if the energy donor is the spirilloxanthin 1Bu----1Ag (S2----S0) transition, because exciton coupling probably brings its energy closer to that of the Qx (S2----S0) transition of bacteriochlorophyll. In contrast, it seems that the possible stabilization of the spirilloxanthin 2Ag (S1) state would hardly improve energy transfer, because this hidden state probably lies below the S1 bacteriochlorophyll state. In any case, the stabilizing effects of carotenoid-carotenoid interactions seem insufficient to explain the enhancement of energy transfer. Direct or indirect effects of carotenoid dimerization on the three-dimensional structure of the pigment cluster appear to be required to account for such enhancement.

  16. Carotenoids' production from halophilic bacteria.

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Moreno, María; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; García, María Teresa; Mellado, Encarnación

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids have received considerable attention due to their interesting industrial applications and, more importantly, their potential beneficial effects on human health. Halophiles comprise a heterogeneous group of microorganisms that need salts for optimal growth. The pigments produced by these halophilic organisms comprise phytoene, β-carotene, lycopene, derivatives of bacterioruberin, and salinixanthin. Here, we describe the procedure to obtain salinixanthin from the extremely halophilic bacterium Salinibacter ruber. Additionally, we describe the expression of the β-carotene biosynthetic genes crtE, crtY, crtI, and crtB from Pantoea agglomerans in the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata obtaining a strain able to produce practically pure β-carotene. Thus, the use of these halophilic microorganisms as a source of carotenoids constitutes an important commercial alternative in the production of carotenoids from biological sources.

  17. Carotenoid-dependent signals and the evolution of plasma carotenoid levels in birds.

    PubMed

    Simons, Mirre J P; Maia, Rafael; Leenknegt, Bas; Verhulst, Simon

    2014-12-01

    Sexual selection has resulted in a wide array of ornaments used in mate choice, and such indicator traits signal quality honestly when they bear costs, precluding cheating. Carotenoid-dependent coloration has attracted considerable attention in this context, because investing carotenoids in coloration has to be traded off against its physiological functions; carotenoids are antioxidants and increase immunocompetence. This trade-off is hypothesized to underlie the honesty of carotenoid-dependent coloration, signaling the "handicap" of allocating carotenoids away from somatic maintenance toward sexual display. Utilizing recent advances in modeling adaptive evolution, we used a comparative approach to investigate the evolution of plasma carotenoid levels using a species-level phylogeny of 178 bird species. We find that the evolutionary optimum for carotenoid levels is higher in lineages that evolved carotenoid-dependent coloration, with strong attraction toward this optimum. Hence, carotenoids do not appear to be limiting, given that higher carotenoid levels readily evolve in response to the evolution of carotenoid-dependent coloration. These findings challenge the assumption that carotenoids are a scarce resource and thus also challenge the hypothesis that physiological resource value of carotenoids underlies honesty of carotenoid-dependent traits. Therefore, the comparative evidence suggests that other factors, such as the acquisition and incorporation of carotenoids, are involved in maintaining signal honesty.

  18. Carotenoid biosynthesis regulatory mechanisms in plants.

    PubMed

    Othman, Rashidi; Mohd Zaifuddin, Fatimah Azzahra; Hassan, Norazian Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are bioactive compounds with remarkably special properties produced by plants in response to internal and external stresses. In this review paper, we focus on the subject of carotenoid biosynthesis and several factors that have been reported to significantly enhance or reduce carotenoid accumulation in studied plant species. These factors include varietal aspects, location, growing season, and type of stress experienced by a plant. In addition, we propose that there are three stress resistance mechanisms in plants: avoidance, tolerance, and acclimation. Better understanding of the environmental factors affecting carotenoid biosynthesis will help researchers to develop methods for enhancing the production of carotenoids and other pigments to desired concentrations in plant crops.

  19. Chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chromoplasts are special organelles that possess superior ability to synthesize and store massive amounts of carotenoids. They are responsible for the distinctive colors found in fruits, flowers, and roots. Chromoplasts exhibit various morphologies and are derived from either pre-existing chloroplas...

  20. Carotenoid metabolism and regulation in horticultural crops

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hui; Zhang, Junxiang; Nageswaran, Divyashree; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature. The vivid yellow, orange, and red colors of many horticultural crops are attributed to the overaccumulation of carotenoids, which contribute to a critical agronomic trait for flowers and an important quality trait for fruits and vegetables. Not only do carotenoids give horticultural crops their visual appeal, they also enhance nutritional value and health benefits for humans. As a result, carotenoid research in horticultural crops has grown exponentially over the last decade. These investigations have advanced our fundamental understanding of carotenoid metabolism and regulation in plants. In this review, we provide an overview of carotenoid biosynthesis, degradation, and accumulation in horticultural crops and highlight recent achievements in our understanding of carotenoid metabolic regulation in vegetables, fruits, and flowers. PMID:26504578

  1. Comparative biochemical studies of carotenoids in catfishes.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, M; Ikuno, Y; Nagata, S; Kodama, K; Matsuno, T

    2002-11-01

    The carotenoids of 12 species of Siluriformes fishes (eight families) were investigated from a comparative biochemical point of view. The patterns of carotenoids in catfishes belonging to the family Siluridae were quite different from those of the other seven families of catfishes (Bagridae, Amblycipitidae, Clariidae, Plotosidae, Ictaluridae, Callichthyidae and Malapteruridae). 7, 8-Dihydro-beta-carotene; 7, 8, 7', 8'- and 7, 8, 9, 10-tetrahydro-beta-carotene; (3R)-7', 8'-dihydro-beta-cryptoxanthin; 7, 8-dihydrolutein A; 7, 8-dihydrolutein B; parasiloxanthin; 7', 8'-dihydroparasiloxanthin; and 4 or 4'-hydroxyparasiloxanthin were characteristic carotenoids found in only one family, Siluridae, and these carotenoids accounted for 24-60% of total carotenoids. In catfishes belonging to the other seven families except Siluridae, the carotenoid patterns were very similar and the most predominant carotenoid was zeaxanthins (23-56%). Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  2. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition.

  3. Carotenoid-based coloration in cichlid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Sefc, Kristina M.; Brown, Alexandria C.; Clotfelter, Ethan D.

    2014-01-01

    Animal colors play important roles in communication, ecological interactions and speciation. Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many yellow, orange and red hues in animals. Whereas extensive knowledge on the proximate mechanisms underlying carotenoid coloration in birds has led to testable hypotheses on avian color evolution and signaling, much less is known about the expression of carotenoid coloration in fishes. Here, we promote cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Cichlidae) as a system in which to study the physiological and evolutionary significance of carotenoids. Cichlids include some of the best examples of adaptive radiation and color pattern diversification in vertebrates. In this paper, we examine fitness correlates of carotenoid pigmentation in cichlids and review hypotheses regarding the signal content of carotenoid-based ornaments. Carotenoid-based coloration is influenced by diet and body condition and is positively related to mating success and social dominance. Gaps in our knowledge are discussed in the last part of this review, particularly in the understanding of carotenoid metabolism pathways and the genetics of carotenoid coloration. We suggest that carotenoid metabolism and transport are important proximate mechanisms responsible for individual and population-differences in cichlid coloration that may ultimately contribute to diversification and speciation. PMID:24667558

  4. Carotenoid depletion in serum of young type-1 diabetics fed low-carotenoid diets.

    PubMed

    Granado, F; Olmedilla, B; Blanco, I

    2004-01-01

    Type-1 diabetics have been considered to be at risk for increased oxidative stress which has been implicated in the development of long-term diabetes complications. Evidence suggests that antioxidant activity may be an important mechanism by which carotenoids could confer protection in human health. Our aim was to compare the serum carotenoid depletion rate in type-1 diabetics and control subjects consuming low-carotenoid diets. Ten type-1 diabetics and 8 controls followed a very low-carotenoid diet for 21 days. Dietary intake was recorded daily and fasting blood samples collected at baseline and after 1, 2, 3, 6, 11, 15, 16, 17, and 21 days. Individual carotenoids in serum were analyzed by a validated HPLC method. In both groups, carotenoid intake was less than 5% of the season-adjusted carotenoid reference intake. These diets resulted in decreased serum carotenoid levels in both groups, although depletion curves, final mean concentrations and the estimated half-life of carotenoids in serum revealed no differences between type-1 diabetics and controls. Levels of other minor serum carotenoids, cis-isomers and keto-carotenoids, also decreased whereas serum retinol and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol did not change during the study. Upon a low-carotenoid intake, the depletion rate of carotenoids in serum in young type-1 diabetics does not differ from that observed in matched related controls. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Carotenoids in a Corynebacterineae, Gordonia terrae AIST-1: carotenoid glucosyl mycoloyl esters.

    PubMed

    Takaichi, Shinichi; Maoka, Takashi; Akimoto, Naoshige; Carmona, Marvelisa L; Yamaoka, Yukiho

    2008-10-01

    We isolated a strain of Corynebacterineae from surface seawater from the Inland Sea of Japan. This strain, AIST-1, was determined to be a strain of Gordonia terrae based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The colony was red-colored, and the pigments were identified to be carotenoid derivatives. The structures of two major carotenoids were (2'S)-deoxymyxol 1'-glucoside, a dihydroxyl derivative of gamma-carotene with 12 conjugated double bonds, and (2'S)-4-ketodeoxymyxol 1'-glucoside. Their glucosyl acyl esters and mycoloyl esters were also identified. While these carotenoid moieties have been found in only a few other bacteria, the carotenoid mycoloyl esters are novel carotenoid derivatives. The type strain of G. terrae NBRC 10016T also contained the same carotenoids, but the composition of the two carotenoid glucosides was low and the total carotenoid content was less than one tenth of that of strain AIST-1.

  6. Microalgae as Sources of Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Ana Catarina; Amaro, Helena M.; Malcata, Francisco Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Marine microalgae constitute a natural source of a variety of drugs for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic applications—which encompass carotenoids, among others. A growing body of experimental evidence has confirmed that these compounds can play important roles in prevention (and even treatment) of human diseases and health conditions, e.g., cancer, cardiovascular problems, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy, cataracts and some neurological disorders. The underlying features that may account for such favorable biological activities are their intrinsic antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumoral features. In this invited review, the most important issues regarding synthesis of carotenoids by microalgae are described and discussed—from both physiological and processing points of view. Current gaps of knowledge, as well as technological opportunities in the near future relating to this growing field of interest, are also put forward in a critical manner. PMID:21731554

  7. Carotenoid changes of intact watermelons after storage.

    PubMed

    Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Collins, Julie K

    2006-08-09

    Watermelon contains lycopene, a red carotenoid pigment that has strong antioxidant properties. The lycopene content of watermelon is substantial, contributing 8-20 mg per 180 g serving. There are no reports on carotenoid changes in whole watermelon during storage. Three types of watermelon, open-pollinated seeded, hybrid seeded, and seedless types, were stored at 5, 13, and 21 degrees C for 14 days and flesh color, composition, and carotenoid content were compared to those of fruit not stored. Watermelons stored at 21 degrees C had increased pH, chroma, and carotenoid content compared to fresh fruit. Compared to fresh fruit, watermelons stored at 21 degrees C gained 11-40% in lycopene and 50-139% in beta-carotene, whereas fruit held at 13 degrees C changed little in carotenoid content. These results indicate that carotenoid biosynthesis in watermelons can be affected by temperature and storage.

  8. Carotenoids in Aquaculture: Fish and Crustaceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerkeng, Bjorn

    This Chapter deals with selected topics on the use of carotenoids for colouration in aquaculture and incudes examples from ecological studies which support our understanding of functions and actions of carotenoids and colouration in fishes and crustaceans. Animal colours may be physical or structural in origin [1], e.g. Tyndall blues and iridescent diffraction colours, or they may be due to pigments, including carotenoids (Chapter 10).

  9. Carotenoid photoprotection in artificial photosynthetic antennas.

    PubMed

    Kloz, Miroslav; Pillai, Smitha; Kodis, Gerdenis; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L; van Grondelle, Rienk; Kennis, John T M

    2011-05-11

    A series of phthalocyanine-carotenoid dyads in which a phenylamino group links a phthalocyanine to carotenoids having 8-11 backbone double bonds were examined by visible and near-infrared femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy combined with global fitting analysis. The series of molecules has permitted investigation of the role of carotenoids in the quenching of excited states of cyclic tetrapyrroles. The transient behavior varied dramatically with the length of the carotenoid and the solvent environment. Clear spectroscopic signatures of radical species revealed photoinduced electron transfer as the main quenching mechanism for all dyads dissolved in a polar solvent (THF), and the quenching rate was almost independent of carotenoid length. However, in a nonpolar solvent (toluene), quenching rates displayed a strong dependence on the conjugation length of the carotenoid and the mechanism did not include charge separation. The lack of any rise time components of a carotenoid S(1) signature in all experiments in toluene suggests that an excitonic coupling between the carotenoid S(1) state and phthalocyanine Q state, rather than a conventional energy transfer process, is the major mechanism of quenching. A pronounced inhomogeneity of the system was observed and attributed to the presence of a phenyl-amino linker between phthalocyanine and carotenoids. On the basis of accumulated work on various caroteno-phthalocyanine dyads and triads, we have now identified three mechanisms of tetrapyrrole singlet excited state quenching by carotenoids in artificial systems: (i) Car-Pc electron transfer and recombination; (ii)(1) Pc to Car S(1) energy transfer and fast internal conversion to the Car ground state; (iii) excitonic coupling between (1)Pc and Car S(1) and ensuing internal conversion to the ground state of the carotenoid. The dominant mechanism depends upon the exact molecular architecture and solvent environment. These synthetic systems are providing a deeper understanding

  10. Foraging for carotenoids: do colorful male hihi target carotenoid-rich foods in the wild?

    PubMed Central

    Thorogood, Rose; Karadas, Filiz; Raubenheimer, David; Kilner, Rebecca M.; Ewen, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary access to carotenoids is expected to determine the strength of carotenoid-based signal expression and potentially to maintain signal honesty. Species that display carotenoid-based yellow, orange, or red plumage are therefore expected to forage selectively for carotenoid-rich foods when they are depositing these pigments during molt, but whether they actually do so is unknown. We set out to address this in the hihi (Notiomystis cincta), a New Zealand passerine where males, but not females, display yellow carotenoid-based plumage. We measured circulating carotenoid concentrations in male and female hihi during breeding and molt, determined the nutritional content of common foods in the hihi diet, and conducted feeding observations of male and female hihi during molt. We found that although male and female hihi do not differ significantly in plasma carotenoid concentration, male hihi have a greater proportion of carotenoid-rich foods in their diet than do females. This is a consequence of a greater fruit and lower invertebrate intake than females and an avoidance of low-carotenoid content fruit. By combining behavioral observations with quantification of circulating carotenoids, we present evidence that colorful birds forage to maximize carotenoid intake, a conclusion we would not have drawn had we examined plasma carotenoids alone. PMID:25214753

  11. Foraging for carotenoids: do colorful male hihi target carotenoid-rich foods in the wild?

    PubMed

    Walker, Leila K; Thorogood, Rose; Karadas, Filiz; Raubenheimer, David; Kilner, Rebecca M; Ewen, John G

    2014-09-01

    Dietary access to carotenoids is expected to determine the strength of carotenoid-based signal expression and potentially to maintain signal honesty. Species that display carotenoid-based yellow, orange, or red plumage are therefore expected to forage selectively for carotenoid-rich foods when they are depositing these pigments during molt, but whether they actually do so is unknown. We set out to address this in the hihi (Notiomystis cincta), a New Zealand passerine where males, but not females, display yellow carotenoid-based plumage. We measured circulating carotenoid concentrations in male and female hihi during breeding and molt, determined the nutritional content of common foods in the hihi diet, and conducted feeding observations of male and female hihi during molt. We found that although male and female hihi do not differ significantly in plasma carotenoid concentration, male hihi have a greater proportion of carotenoid-rich foods in their diet than do females. This is a consequence of a greater fruit and lower invertebrate intake than females and an avoidance of low-carotenoid content fruit. By combining behavioral observations with quantification of circulating carotenoids, we present evidence that colorful birds forage to maximize carotenoid intake, a conclusion we would not have drawn had we examined plasma carotenoids alone.

  12. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis: A Colorful Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Sola, M. Águila; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Plant carotenoids are a family of pigments that participate in light harvesting and are essential for photoprotection against excess light. Furthermore, they act as precursors for the production of apocarotenoid hormones such as abscisic acid and strigolactones. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the genes and enzymes of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway (which is now almost completely elucidated) and on the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. We also discuss the relevance of Arabidopsis as a model system for the study of carotenogenesis and how metabolic engineering approaches in this plant have taught important lessons for carotenoid biotechnology. PMID:22582030

  13. Software application for the calculation of dietary intake of individual carotenoids and of its contribution to vitamin A intake.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz; Cuadrado-Vives, Carmen; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Las aplicaciones informáticas utilizadas para valorar la ingesta dietética suelen centrarse en macro y micronutrientes, pero no en otros componentes de la dieta con potenciales efectos beneficiosos sobre la salud, entre los que están los carotenoides. El grado en que cada carotenoide ejerce diversas actividades biológicas es diferente y por tanto, interesa utilizar datos de su composición en alimentos de forma individualizada. Objetivo: Elaborar una aplicación informática con datos individualizados de carotenoides que permita el cálculo de su ingesta dietética y la consulta del contenido de estos compuestos en los alimentos. Material y métodos: Aplicación informática desarrollada con Java 7, que incluye una base de datos de carotenoides (luteína, zeaxantina, licopeno, ?-criptoxantina, ?- caroteno y ?-caroteno) en alimentos (incluyendo aquellos que son principales contribuyentes a la ingesta de carotenoides en Europa), generados por HPLC. Se incluyen las variables relativas a los alimentos, sujetos y dietas, que son necesarias para una correcta información del contenido de carotenoides en alimentos y para el cálculo de su ingesta. Resultados: La aplicación informática permite calcular la ingesta dietética individualizada de carotenoides, a partir de 128 alimentos (crudos y cocinados) y su contribución a la ingesta de vitamina A, en las dos formas utilizadas actualmente, equivalentes de retinol y equivalentes de actividad de retinol. Conclusiones: Con esta aplicación informática se facilita la consulta de concentraciones de carotenoides en alimentos y el cálculo de su ingesta de forma ágil, específica y precisa, aspectos imprescindibles en los estudios de investigación sobre dieta y salud.

  14. Carotenoid metabolism and regulation in horticultural crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature. The vivid yellow, orange, and red colors in many horticultural crops attribute to overaccumulation of carotenoids, which contribute to a critical agronomic trait for flowers and an important quality trait for fruits and vegeta...

  15. Carotenoids in Algae: Distributions, Biosyntheses and Functions

    PubMed Central

    Takaichi, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    For photosynthesis, phototrophic organisms necessarily synthesize not only chlorophylls but also carotenoids. Many kinds of carotenoids are found in algae and, recently, taxonomic studies of algae have been developed. In this review, the relationship between the distribution of carotenoids and the phylogeny of oxygenic phototrophs in sea and fresh water, including cyanobacteria, red algae, brown algae and green algae, is summarized. These phototrophs contain division- or class-specific carotenoids, such as fucoxanthin, peridinin and siphonaxanthin. The distribution of α-carotene and its derivatives, such as lutein, loroxanthin and siphonaxanthin, are limited to divisions of Rhodophyta (macrophytic type), Cryptophyta, Euglenophyta, Chlorarachniophyta and Chlorophyta. In addition, carotenogenesis pathways are discussed based on the chemical structures of carotenoids and known characteristics of carotenogenesis enzymes in other organisms; genes and enzymes for carotenogenesis in algae are not yet known. Most carotenoids bind to membrane-bound pigment-protein complexes, such as reaction center, light-harvesting and cytochrome b6f complexes. Water-soluble peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein (PCP) and orange carotenoid protein (OCP) are also established. Some functions of carotenoids in photosynthesis are also briefly summarized. PMID:21747749

  16. Method of producing purified carotenoid compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggink, Laura (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of producing a carotenoid in solid form includes culturing a strain of Chlorophyta algae cells in a minimal inorganic medium and separating the algae comprising a solid form of carotenoid. In one embodiment f the invention, the strain of Chlorophyta algae cells includes a strain f Chlamydomonas algae cells.

  17. Functional properties of carotenoids originating from algae.

    PubMed

    Christaki, Efterpi; Bonos, Eleftherios; Giannenas, Ilias; Florou-Paneri, Panagiota

    2013-01-15

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid molecules which are synthesised de novo by photosynthetic plants, fungi and algae and are responsible for the orange, yellow and some red colours of various fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids are lipophilic compounds, some of which act as provitamins A. These compounds can be divided into xanthophylls and carotenes. Many macroalgae and microalgae are rich in carotenoids, where these compounds aid in the absorption of sunlight. Industrially, these carotenoids are used as food pigments (in dairy products, beverages, etc.), as feed additives, in cosmetics and in pharmaceuticals, especially nowadays when there is an increasing demand by consumers for natural products. Production of carotenoids from algae has many advantages compared to other sources; for example, their production is cheap, easy and environmentally friendly; their extraction is easier, with higher yields, and there is no lack of raw materials or limited seasonal variation. Recently, there has been considerable interest in dietary carotenoids with respect to their antioxidant properties and their ability to reduce the incidence of some chronic diseases where free radicals are involved. Possibly, carotenoids protect cells from oxidative stress by quenching singlet oxygen damage with various mechanisms. Therefore, carotenoids derived from algae could be a leading natural resource in the research for potential functional ingredients. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. CAROTENOIDS AND THE VISUAL CYCLE

    PubMed Central

    Wald, George

    1935-01-01

    1. Carotenoids have been identified and their quantities measured in the eyes of several frog species. The combined pigment epithelium and choroid layer of an R. pipiens or esculenta eye contain about 1γ of xanthophyll and about 4γ of vitamin A. During light adaptation the xanthophyll content falls 10 to 20 per cent. 2. Light adapted retinas contain about 0.2–0.3 γ of vitamin A alone. 3. Dark adapted retinas contain only a trace of vitamin A. The destruction of their visual purple with chloroform liberates a hitherto undescribed carotenoid, retinene. The bleaching of visual purple to visual yellow by light also liberates retinene. Free retinene is removed from the isolated retina by two thermal processes: reversion to visual purple and decomposition to colorless products, including vitamin A. This is the source of the vitamin A of the light adapted retina. 4. Isolated retinas which have been bleached and allowed to fade completely contain several times as much vitamin A as retinas from light adapted animals. The visual purple system therefore expends vitamin A and is dependent upon the diet for its replacement. 5. Visual purple behaves as a conjugated protein in which retinene is the prosthetic group. 6. Vitamin A is the precursor of visual purple as well as the product of its decomposition. The visual processes therefore constitute a cycle. PMID:19872932

  19. Carotenoid gene expression explains the difference of carotenoid accumulation in carrot root tissues.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Florent; Hartmann, Laura; Dubois-Laurent, Cécile; Welsch, Ralf; Huet, Sébastien; Hamama, Latifa; Briard, Mathilde; Peltier, Didier; Gagné, Séverine; Geoffriau, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    Main conclusion Variations in gene expression can partially explain the difference of carotenoid accumulation in secondary phloem and xylem of fleshy carrot roots. The carrot root is well divided into two different tissues separated by vascular cambium: the secondary phloem and xylem. The equilibrium between these two tissues represents an important issue for carrot quality, but the knowledge about the respective carotenoid accumulation is sparse. The aim of this work was (i) to investigate if variation in carotenoid biosynthesis gene expression could explain differences in carotenoid content in phloem and xylem tissues and (ii) to investigate if this regulation is differentially modulated in the respective tissues by water-restricted growing conditions. In this work, five carrot genotypes contrasting by their root color were studied in control and water-restricted conditions. Carotenoid content and the relative expression of 13 genes along the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway were measured in the respective tissues. Results showed that in orange genotypes and the purple one, carotenoid content was higher in phloem compared to xylem. For the red one, no differences were observed. Moreover, in control condition, variations in gene expression explained the different carotenoid accumulations in both tissues, while in water-restricted condition, no clear association between gene expression pattern and variations in carotenoid content could be detected except in orange-rooted genotypes. This work shows that the structural aspect of carrot root is more important for carotenoid accumulation in relation with gene expression levels than the consequences of expression changes upon water restriction.

  20. The Importance of Carotenoid Dose in Supplementation Studies with Songbirds.

    PubMed

    Koch, Rebecca E; Wilson, Alan E; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoid coloration is the one of the most frequently studied ornamental traits in animals. Many studies of carotenoid coloration test the associations between carotenoid coloration and measures of performance, such as immunocompetence and oxidative state, proceeding from the premise that carotenoids are limited resources. Such studies commonly involve supplementing the diets of captive birds with carotenoids. In many cases, however, the amount of carotenoid administered is poorly justified, and even supposedly carotenoid-limited diets may saturate birds' systems. To quantify the relationships among the amount of carotenoids administered in experiments, levels of circulating carotenoids, and quantities of carotenoids deposited into colored ornaments, we performed a meta-analysis of 15 published studies that supplemented carotenoids to one of seven songbird species. We used allometric scaling equations to estimate the per-gram carotenoid consumption of each study's subjects, and we used meta-regression to evaluate the effects of this carotenoid dose on differences in coloration and plasma carotenoid levels between supplemented and control groups of birds. After accounting for supplementation duration and species, we observed a significant positive correlation between carotenoid intake and response of plasma carotenoid level to supplementation. The presence of supplemental carotenoids also tended to increase the expression of ornamental coloration, but the magnitude of the carotenoid dose did not significantly affect how strongly coloration changed with supplementation. Further, coloration effect sizes had no significant relationship with plasma carotenoid effect sizes. We also found significant heterogeneity in responses among studies and species, and the parameters used to measure color significantly affected response to supplementation. Our results emphasize the importance of performing dosage trials to determine what supplementation levels provide limited

  1. Phytochrome-mediated Carotenoids Biosynthesis in Ripening Tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R L; Jen, J J

    1975-09-01

    Red light induced and far red light inhibited carotenoid biosynthesis in ripening tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) when compared to controls kept in the dark. Red illumination following far red illumination reversed the inhibitory action of far red light on carotenoid biosynthesis, suggesting a phytochrome-mediated process. Quantitation of individual carotenoids favored the hypothesis of two separate carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in tomatoes.

  2. Native carotenoids composition of some tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Enrique; Giuffrida, Daniele; Menchaca, Dania; Dugo, Paola; Torre, Germana; Meléndez-Martinez, Antonio J; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-10-15

    Many tropical fruits can be considered a reservoir of bioactive substances with a special interest due to their possible health-promoting properties. The interest in carotenoids from a nutritional standpoint has recently greatly increased, because of their important health benefits. Here we report the native carotenoids composition in six tropical fruits from Panama, which is considered a region of great biodiversity. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In Corozo 32 different carotenoids were detected, including a high content of β-carotene and lycopene. Sastra showed the highest content of zeaxanthin among the fruit investigated. In Sapote 22 different carotenoids were detected, including β-carotene and 10 different zeaxanthin-di-esters. Frutita showed a very high content of the apo-carotenoid β-citraurin, and of a number of its esters. In Maracuyà chino 14 carotenoids were detected, including a high amounts of mono-esterified lauric acid with β-cryptoxanthin and with cryptocapsin. Mamey rojo was characterised by ketocarotenoids with κ rings, both hydroxylated and not hydroxylated.

  3. Carotenoids and health in older people.

    PubMed

    Woodside, Jayne V; McGrath, Alanna J; Lyner, Natalie; McKinley, Michelle C

    2015-01-01

    As the proportion of older people increases, so will chronic disease incidence and the proportion of the population living with disability. Therefore, new approaches to maintain health for as long as possible in this age group are required. Carotenoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds found predominantly in fruit and vegetables that have been proposed to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Such properties may impact on the risk diseases which predominate in older people, and also ageing-related physiological changes. Working out the effect of carotenoid intake versus fruit and vegetable intake is difficult, and the strong correlation between individual carotenoid intakes also complicates any attempt to examine individual carotenoid health effects. Similarly, research to determine whether carotenoids consumed as supplements have similar benefits to increased dietary intake through whole foods, is still required. However, reviewing the recent evidence suggests that carotenoid intake and status are relatively consistently associated with reduced CVD risk, although β-carotene supplementation does not reduce CVD risk and increases lung cancer risk. Increased lycopene intake may reduce prostate cancer progression, with a potential role for carotenoids at other cancer sites. Lutein and zeaxanthin have a plausible role in the maintenance of eye health, whilst an association between carotenoid intake and cognitive and physical health appears possible, although research is limited to date. Given this accruing evidence base to support a specific role for certain carotenoids and ageing, current dietary advice to consume a diet rich in fruit and vegetables would appear prudent, and efforts maintained to encourage increased intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Carotenoid Photoprotection in Artificial Photosynthetic Antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Kloz, Miroslav; Pillai, Smitha; Kodis, Gerdenis; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; van Grondelle, Rienk; Kennis, John T. M.

    2011-04-14

    A series of phthalocyanine-carotenoid dyads in which a phenylamino group links a phthalocyanine to carotenoids having 8-11 backbone double bonds were examined by visible and near-infrared femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy combined with global fitting analysis. The series of molecules has permitted investigation of the role of carotenoids in the quenching of excited states of cyclic tetrapyrroles. The transient behavior varied dramatically with the length of the carotenoid and the solvent environment. Clear spectroscopic signatures of radical species revealed photoinduced electron transfer as the main quenching mechanism for all dyads dissolved in a polar solvent (THF), and the quenching rate was almost independent of carotenoid length. However, in a nonpolar solvent (toluene), quenching rates displayed a strong dependence on the conjugation length of the carotenoid and the mechanism did not include charge separation. The lack of any rise time components of a carotenoid S1 signature in all experiments in toluene suggests that an excitonic coupling between the carotenoid S1 state and phthalocyanine Q state, rather than a conventional energy transfer process, is the major mechanism of quenching. A pronounced inhomogeneity of the system was observed and attributed to the presence of a phenyl-amino linker between phthalocyanine and carotenoids. On the basis of accumulated work on various caroteno-phthalocyanine dyads and triads, we have now identified three mechanisms of tetrapyrrole singlet excited state quenching by carotenoids in artificial systems: (i) Car-Pc electron transfer and recombination; (ii)1Pc to Car S1 energy transfer and fast internal conversion to the Car ground state; (iii) excitonic coupling between 1Pc and Car S1 and ensuing internal conversion to the ground state of the carotenoid. The dominant mechanism depends upon the exact molecular architecture and solvent environment

  5. Extraction and chromatography of carotenoids from pumpkin.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jung Sook; Burri, Betty Jane C; Quan, Zhejiu; Neidlinger, Terry R

    2005-05-06

    Vitamin A deficiency is a health problem in Southeast Asia that can be corrected by feeding orange fruits and vegetables such as mango. Pumpkin is a traditional Korean food that is easy to store and is already believed to have health benefits. We extracted carotenoids from pumpkin by liquid-liquid extraction and by supercritical fluid extraction. We measured carotenoids by reversed-phase chromatography with diode array detection. The major carotenoid in pumpkin (> 80%) is beta-carotene, with lesser amounts of lutein, lycopene, alpha-carotene and cis-beta-carotene. Pumpkin is a rich source of beta-carotene and might be useful for preventing Vitamin A deficiency.

  6. Interrelationships between maternal carotenoid status and newborn infant macular pigment optical density and carotenoid status.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Bradley S; Chan, Gary; Hoffman, Robert O; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakov, Igor V; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S

    2013-08-15

    Deposition of the macular pigment carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin in the human retina occurs early in life. In this study, we examined the interrelationships of maternal carotenoid status and newborn infant macular pigment levels and systemic carotenoid status. As a secondary measure, we also evaluated the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on carotenoid status in term newborn infants. We measured mother and infant skin carotenoids using resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS), serum carotenoids by HPLC, and mother breast milk carotenoids by HPLC. We measured infant macular pigment levels using noninvasive blue light reflectometry. We enrolled 30 healthy term infants, their mothers, and 10 IUGR infants and their mothers. A subset of 16 infants was imaged for macular pigment optical density (MPOD). Infant serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with MPOD (r = 0.68, P = 0.007). Mother serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with infant MPOD (r = 0.59, P = 0.032). Infant and mother serum lutein did not correlate with MPOD. Mother-infant correlations were found for total serum carotenoids (r = 0.42, P = 0.020) and skin carotenoids (r = 0.48, P = 0.001). No difference was seen between IUGR infants and controls in total serum or skin carotenoids. Mothers of IUGR infants had lower total serum carotenoids (P = 0.019) and breast milk carotenoids than controls (P = 0.006). Our findings suggest that maternal zeaxanthin status may play a more important role than lutein status in macular pigment deposition in utero. Controlled trials are needed to determine whether maternal zeaxanthin prenatal supplementation can raise infant macular pigment levels and/or improve ocular function.

  7. Interrelationships Between Maternal Carotenoid Status and Newborn Infant Macular Pigment Optical Density and Carotenoid Status

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Bradley S.; Chan, Gary; Hoffman, Robert O.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakov, Igor V.; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Deposition of the macular pigment carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin in the human retina occurs early in life. In this study, we examined the interrelationships of maternal carotenoid status and newborn infant macular pigment levels and systemic carotenoid status. As a secondary measure, we also evaluated the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on carotenoid status in term newborn infants. Methods. We measured mother and infant skin carotenoids using resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS), serum carotenoids by HPLC, and mother breast milk carotenoids by HPLC. We measured infant macular pigment levels using noninvasive blue light reflectometry. Results. We enrolled 30 healthy term infants, their mothers, and 10 IUGR infants and their mothers. A subset of 16 infants was imaged for macular pigment optical density (MPOD). Infant serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with MPOD (r = 0.68, P = 0.007). Mother serum zeaxanthin levels correlated with infant MPOD (r = 0.59, P = 0.032). Infant and mother serum lutein did not correlate with MPOD. Mother–infant correlations were found for total serum carotenoids (r = 0.42, P = 0.020) and skin carotenoids (r = 0.48, P = 0.001). No difference was seen between IUGR infants and controls in total serum or skin carotenoids. Mothers of IUGR infants had lower total serum carotenoids (P = 0.019) and breast milk carotenoids than controls (P = 0.006). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that maternal zeaxanthin status may play a more important role than lutein status in macular pigment deposition in utero. Controlled trials are needed to determine whether maternal zeaxanthin prenatal supplementation can raise infant macular pigment levels and/or improve ocular function. PMID:23838770

  8. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  9. Carotenoid maintenance handicap and the physiology of carotenoid-based signalisation of health.

    PubMed

    Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomás

    2010-01-01

    Despite a reasonable scientific interest in sexual selection, the general principles of health signalisation via ornamental traits remain still unresolved in many aspects. This is also true for the mechanism preserving honesty of carotenoid-based signals. Although it is widely accepted that this type of ornamentation reflects an allocation trade-off between the physiological utilisation of carotenoids (mainly in antioxidative processes) and their deposition in ornaments, some recent evidence suggests more complex interactions. Here, we further develop the models currently proposed to explain the honesty of carotenoid-based signalisation of heath status by adding the handicap principle concept regulated by testosterone. We propose that under certain circumstances carotenoids may be dangerous for the organism because they easily transform into toxic cleavage products. When reserves of other protective antioxidants are insufficient, physiological trade-offs may exist between maintenance of carotenoids for ornament expression and their removal from the body. Furthermore, we suggest that testosterone which enhances ornamentation by increasing carotenoid bioavailability may also promote oxidative stress and hence lower antioxidant reserves. The presence of high levels of carotenoids required for high-quality ornament expression may therefore represent a handicap and only individuals in prime health could afford to produce elaborate colourful ornaments. Although further testing is needed, this 'carotenoid maintenance handicap' hypothesis may offer a new insight into the physiological aspects of the relationship between carotenoid function, immunity and ornamentation.

  10. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while β-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of β-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice.

  11. Carotenoid maintenance handicap and the physiology of carotenoid-based signalisation of health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Despite a reasonable scientific interest in sexual selection, the general principles of health signalisation via ornamental traits remain still unresolved in many aspects. This is also true for the mechanism preserving honesty of carotenoid-based signals. Although it is widely accepted that this type of ornamentation reflects an allocation trade-off between the physiological utilisation of carotenoids (mainly in antioxidative processes) and their deposition in ornaments, some recent evidence suggests more complex interactions. Here, we further develop the models currently proposed to explain the honesty of carotenoid-based signalisation of heath status by adding the handicap principle concept regulated by testosterone. We propose that under certain circumstances carotenoids may be dangerous for the organism because they easily transform into toxic cleavage products. When reserves of other protective antioxidants are insufficient, physiological trade-offs may exist between maintenance of carotenoids for ornament expression and their removal from the body. Furthermore, we suggest that testosterone which enhances ornamentation by increasing carotenoid bioavailability may also promote oxidative stress and hence lower antioxidant reserves. The presence of high levels of carotenoids required for high-quality ornament expression may therefore represent a handicap and only individuals in prime health could afford to produce elaborate colourful ornaments. Although further testing is needed, this ‘carotenoid maintenance handicap’ hypothesis may offer a new insight into the physiological aspects of the relationship between carotenoid function, immunity and ornamentation.

  12. Latin American food sources of carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    1999-09-01

    Latin America has a wide variety of carotenogenic foods, notable for the diversity and high levels of carotenoids. A part of this natural wealth has been analyzed. Carrot, red palm oil and some cultivars of squash and pumpkin are sources of both beta-carotene and alpha-carotene. beta-carotene is the principal carotenoid of the palm fruits burití, tucumã and bocaiuva, other fruits such as loquat, marolo and West Indian cherry, and sweet potato. Buriti also has high amounts of alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene. beta-Cryptoxanthin is the major carotenoid in caja, nectarine, orange-fleshed papaya, orange, peach, tangerine and the tree tomato. Lycopene predominates in tomato, red-fleshed papaya, guava, pitanga and watermelon. Pitanga also has substantial amounts of beta-cryptoxanthin, gamma-carotene and rubixanthin. Zeaxanthin, principal carotenoid of corn, is also predominant only in piquí. delta-Carotene is the main carotenoid of the peach palm and zeta-carotene of passion fruit. Lutein and beta-carotene, in high concentrations, are encountered in the numerous leafy vegetables of the region, as well as in other green vegetables and in some varieties of squash and pumpkin. Violaxanthin is the principal carotenoid of mango and mamey and is also found in appreciable amounts in green vegetables. Quantitative, in some cases also qualitative, differences exist among cultivars of the same food. Generally, carotenoids are in greater concentrations in the peel than in the pulp, increase considerably during ripening and are in higher levels in foods produced in hot places. Other Latin America indigenous carotenogenic foods must be investigated before they are supplanted by introduced crops, which are often poorer sources of carotenoids.

  13. Coprophagy: an unusual source of essential carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Negro, J J; Grande, J M; Tella, J L; Garrido, J; Hornero, D; Donázar, J A; Sanchez-Zapata, J A; BenItez, J R; Barcell, M

    2002-04-25

    The rare Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) stands out among the Old World vultures (Family Accipitridae) because of its brightly ornamented head, which is coloured yellow by carotenoid pigments, and its practice of feeding on faeces. Here we show that Egyptian vultures obtain these pigments from the excrement of ungulates. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that faeces can be used as a source of carotenoids by a vertebrate.

  14. Correlations Between Macular, Skin, and Serum Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    Conrady, Christopher D.; Bell, James P.; Besch, Brian M.; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Farnsworth, Kelliann; Ermakov, Igor; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakova, Maia; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Ocular and systemic measurement and imaging of the macular carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin have been employed extensively as potential biomarkers of AMD risk. In this study, we systematically compare dual wavelength retinal autofluorescence imaging (AFI) of macular pigment with skin resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) and serum carotenoid levels in a clinic-based population. Methods Eighty-eight patients were recruited from retina and general ophthalmology practices from a tertiary referral center and excluded only if they did not have all three modalities tested, had a diagnosis of macular telangiectasia (MacTel) or Stargardt disease, or had poor AFI image quality. Skin, macular, and serum carotenoid levels were measured by RRS, AFI, and HPLC, respectively. Results Skin RRS measurements and serum zeaxanthin concentrations correlated most strongly with AFI macular pigment volume under the curve (MPVUC) measurements up to 9° eccentricity relative to MPVUC or rotationally averaged macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measurements at smaller eccentricities. These measurements were reproducible and not significantly affected by cataracts. We also found that these techniques could readily identify subjects taking oral carotenoid-containing supplements. Conclusions Larger macular pigment volume AFI and skin RRS measurements are noninvasive, objective, and reliable methods to assess ocular and systemic carotenoid levels. They are an attractive alternative to psychophysical and optical methods that measure MPOD at a limited number of eccentricities. Consequently, skin RRS and MPVUC at 9° are both reasonable biomarkers of macular carotenoid status that could be readily adapted to research and clinical settings. PMID:28728169

  15. Correlations Between Macular, Skin, and Serum Carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Conrady, Christopher D; Bell, James P; Besch, Brian M; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Farnsworth, Kelliann; Ermakov, Igor; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakova, Maia; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S

    2017-07-01

    Ocular and systemic measurement and imaging of the macular carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin have been employed extensively as potential biomarkers of AMD risk. In this study, we systematically compare dual wavelength retinal autofluorescence imaging (AFI) of macular pigment with skin resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) and serum carotenoid levels in a clinic-based population. Eighty-eight patients were recruited from retina and general ophthalmology practices from a tertiary referral center and excluded only if they did not have all three modalities tested, had a diagnosis of macular telangiectasia (MacTel) or Stargardt disease, or had poor AFI image quality. Skin, macular, and serum carotenoid levels were measured by RRS, AFI, and HPLC, respectively. Skin RRS measurements and serum zeaxanthin concentrations correlated most strongly with AFI macular pigment volume under the curve (MPVUC) measurements up to 9° eccentricity relative to MPVUC or rotationally averaged macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measurements at smaller eccentricities. These measurements were reproducible and not significantly affected by cataracts. We also found that these techniques could readily identify subjects taking oral carotenoid-containing supplements. Larger macular pigment volume AFI and skin RRS measurements are noninvasive, objective, and reliable methods to assess ocular and systemic carotenoid levels. They are an attractive alternative to psychophysical and optical methods that measure MPOD at a limited number of eccentricities. Consequently, skin RRS and MPVUC at 9° are both reasonable biomarkers of macular carotenoid status that could be readily adapted to research and clinical settings.

  16. Human ocular carotenoid-binding proteins†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith

    2014-01-01

    Two dietary carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, are specifically delivered to the human macula at the highest concentration anywhere in the body. Whenever a tissue exhibits highly selective uptake of a compound, it is likely that one or more specific binding proteins are involved in the process. Over the past decade, our laboratory has identified and characterized several carotenoid-binding proteins from human retina including a pi isoform of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) as a zeaxanthin-binding protein, a member of the steroidogenic acute regulatory domain (StARD) family as a lutein-binding protein, and tubulin as a less specific, but higher capacity site for carotenoid deposition. In this article, we review the purification and characterization of these carotenoid-binding proteins, and we relate these ocular carotenoid-binding proteins to the transport and uptake role of serum lipoproteins and scavenger receptor proteins in a proposed pathway for macular pigment carotenoid delivery to the human retina. PMID:20820671

  17. [Investigation needs on carotenoids in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Muñoz de Chávez, M; Chávez, A; Calvo, C

    1999-09-01

    Many recent papers show the important role of bioactive phytochemicals to maintain a good health status. Among them the carotenoids are the best known. About 637 have been described and possibly 70 of them could have an important role in human health, 16 have been found in human brain in high amounts. Most of the studies have found relations between the carotenoids and chronic non-communicable diseases like several types of cancer, atherogenic disease and some degenerative pathology of the eye. This relation is mediated by genes and age. Studies of carotenoids are of scientific and economic interest for Latin America as many tropical products are high sources of these compounds. Therefore the first task is to analyze them and iniciate some evaluation on its metabolic availability. A coordinated regional work is proposed, in which 40 or 50 fruits and vegetables are analyzed in terms of the seven carotenoids most related to human health. At the same time it will be important to start epidemiological studies that will compare groups with different levels of consumption of fruits and vegetables and make chronic disease risk analysis. In some countries of the Latin American region, with the support of FAO and INFOODS, some courses and meetings are taking place so that in a short time period the carotenoid composition of the important regional foods will be completed and a carotenoid regional food composition table be published.

  18. Metabolic engineering towards biotechnological production of carotenoids in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Lee, P C; Schmidt-Dannert, C

    2002-10-01

    Carotenoids are important natural pigments produced by many microorganisms and plants. Traditionally, carotenoids have been used in the feed, food and nutraceutical industries. The recent discoveries of health-related beneficial properties attributed to carotenoids have spurred great interest in the production of structurally diverse carotenoids for pharmaceutical applications. The availability of a considerable number of microbial and plant carotenoid genes that can be functionally expressed in heterologous hosts has opened ways for the production of diverse carotenoid compounds in heterologous systems. In this review, we will describe the recent progress made in metabolic engineering of non-carotenogenic microorganisms for improved carotenoid productivity. In addition, we will discuss the application of combinatorial and evolutionary strategies to carotenoid pathway engineering to broaden the diversity of carotenoid structures synthesized in recombinant hosts.

  19. Carotenoid-oxygenases: Key Players for Carotenoid Function and Homeostasis in Mammalian Biology

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Glenn P.; Amengual, Jaume; Palczewski, Grzegorz; Babino, Darwin; von Lintig, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Humans depend on a dietary intake of lipids to maintain optimal health. Among various classes of dietary lipids, the physiological importance of carotenoids is still controversially discussed. On one hand, it is well established that carotenoids such as β,β-carotene are a major source for vitamin A that plays critical roles for vision and many aspects of cell physiology. On the other hand, large clinical trials have failed to show clear health benefits of carotenoids supplementation and even suggest adverse health effects in individuals at risk of disease. In recent years, key molecular players for carotenoid metabolism have been identified, including an evolutionarily well conserved family of carotenoid-oxygenases. Studies in knockout mouse models for these enzymes revealed that carotenoid metabolism is a highly regulated process and that this regulation already takes place at the level of intestinal absorption. These studies also provided evidence that of β,β-carotene conversion can influence retinoid-dependent processes in the mouse embryo and in adult tissues. Moreover, these analyses provide an explanation for adverse health effects of carotenoids by showing that a pathological accumulation of these compounds can induce oxidative stress in mitochondria and cell signaling pathways related to disease. Advancing knowledge about carotenoid metabolism will contribute to a better understanding of the biochemical and physiological roles of these important micronutrients in health and disease. PMID:21569862

  20. Resonance Raman spectroscopic evaluation of skin carotenoids as a biomarker of carotenoid status for human studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) is a non-invasive method that has been developed to assess carotenoid status in human tissues including human skin in vivo. Skin carotenoid status, as assessed by RRS, has been suggested as a promising biomarker for use in human studies. This manuscript describes...

  1. Carotenoid-enriched transgenic corn delivers bioavailable carotenoids to poultry and protects them against coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Nogareda, Carmina; Moreno, Jose A; Angulo, Eduardo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Portero, Manuel; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are health-promoting organic molecules that act as antioxidants and essential nutrients. We show that chickens raised on a diet enriched with an engineered corn variety containing very high levels of four key carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene, zeaxanthin and lutein) are healthy and accumulate more bioavailable carotenoids in peripheral tissues, muscle, skin and fat, and more retinol in the liver, than birds fed on standard corn diets (including commercial corn supplemented with colour additives). Birds were challenged with the protozoan parasite Eimeria tenella and those on the high-carotenoid diet grew normally, suffered only mild disease symptoms (diarrhoea, footpad dermatitis and digital ulcers) and had lower faecal oocyst counts than birds on the control diet. Our results demonstrate that carotenoid-rich corn maintains poultry health and increases the nutritional value of poultry products without the use of feed additives.

  2. Carotenoids in DPPC vesicles: membrane dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socaciu, Carmen; Lausch, Carsten; Diehl, Horst A.

    1999-09-01

    Incorporation of carotenoids into membranes is supposed to change their physical properties with consequences to signal transduction and membrane protein activities. Here the physical parameters membrane fluidity, micropolarity and anisotropy are considered and measured in multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles of dipalmitoylphosphatidyicholine (DPPC) after incorporation of 1, 2.5 and 5 mol% β-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, or astaxhanthin using 4 mol% pyrene or 1 μM 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) as fluorescent labels. Contrary to other investigations, no significant change in membrane fluidity (as evaluated by the pyrene excimer method) can be found. But a change of micropolarity in the pyrene label environment is obtained from the pyrene monomer fluorescence emission fine structure after incorporation of carotenoids. The membrane anisotropy is enhanced significantly only by those carotenoids which incorporate worst into the membrane. This leads to the hypothesis that carotenoid incorporation into membranes is governed not only by carotenoid polarity hut also by their ability to change membrane anisotropy.

  3. Diversifying Carotenoid Biosynthetic Pathways by Directed Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Umeno, Daisuke; Tobias, Alexander V.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2005-01-01

    Microorganisms and plants synthesize a diverse array of natural products, many of which have proven indispensable to human health and well-being. Although many thousands of these have been characterized, the space of possible natural products—those that could be made biosynthetically—remains largely unexplored. For decades, this space has largely been the domain of chemists, who have synthesized scores of natural product analogs and have found many with improved or novel functions. New natural products have also been made in recombinant organisms, via engineered biosynthetic pathways. Recently, methods inspired by natural evolution have begun to be applied to the search for new natural products. These methods force pathways to evolve in convenient laboratory organisms, where the products of new pathways can be identified and characterized in high-throughput screening programs. Carotenoid biosynthetic pathways have served as a convenient experimental system with which to demonstrate these ideas. Researchers have mixed, matched, and mutated carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes and screened libraries of these “evolved” pathways for the emergence of new carotenoid products. This has led to dozens of new pathway products not previously known to be made by the assembled enzymes. These new products include whole families of carotenoids built from backbones not found in nature. This review details the strategies and specific methods that have been employed to generate new carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in the laboratory. The potential application of laboratory evolution to other biosynthetic pathways is also discussed. PMID:15755953

  4. Functions of Carotenoid Metabolites and Breakdown Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, George

    It is not only intact carotenoids but also fragments of carotenoid molecules that have important natural functions and actions. The electron-rich polyene chain of the carotenoids is very susceptible to oxidative breakdown, which may be enzymic or non-enzymic. Central cleavage gives C20 compounds, retinoids, as described in Chapter 16. Cleavage at other positions gives smaller fragments, notably C10, C13 and C15 compounds that retain the carotenoid end group. The formation of these is described in Chapter 17 and in Volume 3, Chapter 4. Oxidative breakdown can also take place during storage, processing and curing of plant material, and the products contribute to the desired aroma/flavour properties of, for example, tea, wine and tobacco. The importance of vitamin A (C20) in animals is well known. Vitamin A deficiency is still a major concern in many parts of the world. It can lead to blindness and serious ill-health or death, especially in young children. Volatile smaller carotenoid fragments (`norisoprenoids') are widespread scent/flavour compounds in plants.

  5. Absorbance changes of carotenoids in different solvents.

    PubMed

    Zang, L Y; Sommerburg, O; van Kuijk, F J

    1997-01-01

    Carotenoids are typically measured in tissues with the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and quantitation is usually done by calibrating with stock solutions in solvents. Four carotenoids including lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and beta-carotene were dissolved in hexane and methanol respectively, and their absorbance characteristics were compared. Lutein shows absorbance spectra that are almost independent of solvents at various concentrations. Spectra of zeaxanthin, lycopene and beta-carotene were found to be more solvent-dependent. The absorbance of zeaxanthin at lambda max is about approximately 2 times larger in methanol than in hexane at the higher concentrations, and increased non-linearly with increasing concentration in hexane. The absorbance of lycopene at lambda max in hexane is approximately 4 fold larger than in methanol, but the absorbance of the methanol sample can be recovered by re-extracting this sample in hexane. The absorbance of beta-carotene in hexane is larger than in methanol, and increased linearly with increasing concentration. But beta-carotene showed a non-linear concentration effect in methanol. There are very small variations in lambda max for all four carotenoids between hexane and methanol, due to differences in molar extinction coefficients. The non-linear concentration effects for these carotenoids are probably due to differences in solubility leading to the formation of microcrystals. Thus, care should be taken with quantitation of tissue carotenoid values, when they depend on measurement of concentrations in stock solutions.

  6. Bioactivity of Carotenoids - Chasms of Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Torsten

    2017-02-10

    Carotenoid dietary intake, especially within fruits/vegetables and their plasma levels have been associated in many epidemiological studies with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases, including type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, several types of cancer, and agerelated macular degeneration. However, intervention trials with isolated carotenoids (as supplements) have fallen short of fulfi lling the hopes that were placed in these lipophilic pigments, often producing no positive or even adverse effects, such as increased lung cancer rate or total mortality. More recent studies have suggested that certain metabolites, and not necessarily the native compounds may be (the most) biologically active ones, such as certain apocarotenals (originating following enzymatic cleavage) and other more polar compounds, acting as more suitable electrophiles to react with transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-KB) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). In addition, it appears that questions of dosing are likewise crucial, as may be interactions of non-provitamin A carotenoids and their derivatives with retinoic acid receptors (RAR) or retinoid X receptors (RXR). Furthermore, our picture on carotenoid metabolism may be incomplete, as our knowledge on e. g. the interaction with the microbiota is virtually nil. In this position article, it is aimed to highlight some of the discrepancies that appear to trouble carotenoid-related research, and point out some of the existing gaps in our knowledge.

  7. Carotenoids: potential allies of cardiovascular health?

    PubMed Central

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of natural, fat-soluble pigments found principally in plants. They have potential antioxidant biological properties because of their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. Epidemiologic studies supported the hypothesis that antioxidants could be used as an inexpensive means of both primary and secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. In fact, the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in the vessels plays a key role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The resistance of LDL to oxidation is increased by high dietary antioxidant intake, so that carotenoids, as part of food patterns such as the Mediterranean diet, may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health too. Further properties of carotenoids leading to a potential reduction of cardiovascular risk are represented by lowering of blood pressure, reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and markers of inflammation (such as C-reactive protein), and improvement of insulin sensitivity in muscle, liver, and adipose tissues. In addition, recent nutrigenomics studies have focused on the exceptional ability of carotenoids in modulating the expression of specific genes involved in cell metabolism. The aim of this review is to focus attention to this effect of some carotenoids to prevent CVD. PMID:25660385

  8. Metabolism of carotenoid pigments in birds.

    PubMed

    Brush, A H

    1990-09-01

    Carotenoid pigments are an important component in the plumage of birds. The metabolic precursors are dietary in origin but many species have the capacity to chemically modify and selectively deposit the pigments. The ensuing plumage patterns are important in communication and identification. The bright yellows, oranges, and reds are due mostly to xanthophylls; keto and hydroxy carotenes. Some are deposited unmodified (e.g., lutein) whereas others are modified chemically (canthaxanthin, astaxanthin). Early workers concentrated on demonstrating that feather carotenoids were derived from the diet and deposited selectively. Progress in defining and solving biological problems depended on advances in chemical and analytical techniques. Subsequent investigation showed that various plumage colormorphs, seasonal plumage changes or colors in common mutant, were due to relatively simple chemical changes in carotenoids but had profound biological consequences. Equally important was the realization that many of these processes were under genetic control. Validation came from feeding studies of flamingos and finches. Recent studies have employed the plumage carotenoids to test hypotheses of genetic divergence, to relate plumage color to environmental process, and to demonstrate the influence of synthetic changes on color. Understanding the processes has advanced with the introduction of high-resolution separation techniques and the ability to determine both conformation and absolute configuration. The next steps will be in the direction of understanding the enzymatic modification, transport, and tissue selectivity of feather carotenoids.

  9. Iridophores and not carotenoids account for chromatic variation of carotenoid-based coloration in common lizards (Lacerta vivipara).

    PubMed

    San-Jose, Luis M; Granado-Lorencio, Fernando; Sinervo, Barry; Fitze, Patrick S

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Carotenoids typically need reflective background components to shine. Such components, iridophores, leucophores, and keratin- and collagen-derived structures, are generally assumed to show no or little environmental variability. Here, we investigate the origin of environmentally induced variation in the carotenoid-based ventral coloration of male common lizards (Lacerta vivipara) by investigating the effects of dietary carotenoids and corticosterone on both carotenoid- and background-related reflectance. We observed a general negative chromatic change that was prevented by β-carotene supplementation. However, chromatic changes did not result from changes in carotenoid-related reflectance or skin carotenoid content but from changes in background-related reflectance that may have been mediated by vitamin A1. An in vitro experiment showed that the encountered chromatic changes most likely resulted from changes in iridophore reflectance. Our findings demonstrate that chromatic variation in carotenoid-based ornaments may not exclusively reflect differences in integumentary carotenoid content and, hence, in qualities linked to carotenoid deposition (e.g., foraging ability, immune response, or antioxidant capacity). Moreover, skin carotenoid content and carotenoid-related reflectance were related to male color polymorphism, suggesting that carotenoid-based coloration of male common lizards is a multicomponent signal, with iridophores reflecting environmental conditions and carotenoids reflecting genetically based color morphs.

  10. Carotenoid profiling and the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in developing coffee grain.

    PubMed

    Simkin, Andrew J; Kuntz, Marcel; Moreau, Helene; McCarthy, James

    2010-06-01

    Roasted coffee contains a complex array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which make an important contribution to the characteristic flavour and aroma of the final beverage. It is thought that a few of the potent coffee aroma components, such as "beta-damascenone", could be derived from carotenoid precursors. In order to further investigate the potential link between carotenoids and coffee aroma profiles, we have measured the carotenoid content in developing coffee grain. The data obtained confirms the presence of lutein in the grain, and additionally shows that the immature coffee grain also contains significant amounts of beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin. Complimentary quantitative gene expression analysis revealed that all the carotenoid biosynthetic genes examined are expressed in the grain, and that the transcript levels are gene and stage dependent. Furthermore, consistent with the reduction of the carotenoid levels at the last stage of grain development (mature-red), most of the transcript levels were also found to be lower at the final developmental stage. Quantitative expression analysis of the carotenoid genes was also carried out for the developing pericarp tissue of the coffee cherries. Again, all the genes examined were expressed, and in most cases, the highest transcript levels were detected around the large green-yellow stages, a period when carotenoid synthesis is probably greatest.

  11. Subchromoplast sequestration of carotenoids affects regulatory mechanisms in tomato lines expressing different carotenoid gene combinations.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Marilise; Mora, Leticia; Enfissi, Eugenia M A; Bramley, Peter M; Fraser, Paul D

    2013-11-01

    Metabolic engineering of the carotenoid pathway in recent years has successfully enhanced the carotenoid contents of crop plants. It is now clear that only increasing biosynthesis is restrictive, as mechanisms to sequestrate these increased levels in the cell or organelle should be exploited. In this study, biosynthetic pathway genes were overexpressed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines and the effects on carotenoid formation and sequestration revealed. The bacterial Crt carotenogenic genes, independently or in combination, and their zygosity affect the production of carotenoids. Transcription of the pathway genes was perturbed, whereby the tissue specificity of transcripts was altered. Changes in the steady state levels of metabolites in unrelated sectors of metabolism were found. Of particular interest was a concurrent increase of the plastid-localized lipid monogalactodiacylglycerol with carotenoids along with membranous subcellular structures. The carotenoids, proteins, and lipids in the subchromoplast fractions of the transgenic tomato fruit with increased carotenoid content suggest that cellular structures can adapt to facilitate the sequestration of the newly formed products. Moreover, phytoene, the precursor of the pathway, was identified in the plastoglobule, whereas the biosynthetic enzymes were in the membranes. The implications of these findings with respect to novel pathway regulation mechanisms are discussed.

  12. Assembly of photoactive orange carotenoid protein from its domains unravels a carotenoid shuttle mechanism.

    PubMed

    Moldenhauer, Marcus; Sluchanko, Nikolai N; Buhrke, David; Zlenko, Dmitry V; Tavraz, Neslihan N; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Hildebrandt, Peter; Maksimov, Eugene G; Friedrich, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The photoswitchable orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is indispensable for cyanobacterial photoprotection by quenching phycobilisome fluorescence upon photoconversion from the orange OCP(O) to the red OCP(R) form. Cyanobacterial genomes frequently harbor, besides genes for orange carotenoid proteins (OCPs), several genes encoding homologs of OCP's N- or C-terminal domains (NTD, CTD). Unlike the well-studied NTD homologs, called Red Carotenoid Proteins (RCPs), the role of CTD homologs remains elusive. We show how OCP can be reassembled from its functional domains. Expression of Synechocystis OCP-CTD in carotenoid-producing Escherichia coli yielded violet-colored proteins, which, upon mixing with the RCP-apoprotein, produced an orange-like photoswitchable form that further photoconverted into a species that quenches phycobilisome fluorescence and is spectroscopically indistinguishable from RCP, thus demonstrating a unique carotenoid shuttle mechanism. Spontaneous carotenoid transfer also occurs between canthaxanthin-coordinating OCP-CTD and the OCP apoprotein resulting in formation of photoactive OCP. The OCP-CTD itself is a novel, dimeric carotenoid-binding protein, which can coordinate canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin, effectively quenches singlet oxygen and interacts with the Fluorescence Recovery Protein. These findings assign physiological roles to the multitude of CTD homologs in cyanobacteria and explain the evolutionary process of OCP formation.

  13. An in vitro digestion method adapted for carotenoids and carotenoid esters: moving forward towards standardization.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniele Bobrowski; Mariutti, Lilian Regina Barros; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti

    2016-12-07

    In vitro digestion methods are a useful approach to predict the bioaccessibility of food components and overcome some limitations or disadvantages associated with in vivo methodologies. Recently, the INFOGEST network published a static method of in vitro digestion with a proposal for assay standardization. The INFOGEST method is not specific for any food component; therefore, we aimed to adapt this method to assess the in vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids and carotenoid esters in a model fruit (Byrsonima crassifolia). Two additional steps were coupled to the in vitro digestion procedure, centrifugation at 20 000g for the separation of the aqueous phase containing mixed micelles and exhaustive carotenoid extraction with an organic solvent. The effect of electrolytes, enzymes and bile acids on carotenoid micellarization and stability was also tested. The results were compared with those found with a simpler method that has already been used for carotenoid bioaccessibility analysis. These values were in the expected range for free carotenoids (5-29%), monoesters (9-26%) and diesters (4-28%). In general, the in vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids assessed by the adapted INFOGEST method was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those assessed by the simplest protocol, with or without the addition of simulated fluids. Although no trend was observed, differences in bioaccessibility values depended on the carotenoid form (free, monoester or diester), isomerization (Z/E) and the in vitro digestion protocol. To the best of our knowledge, it was the first time that a systematic identification of carotenoid esters by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS after in vitro digestion using the INFOGEST protocol was carried out.

  14. Photodegradation of carotenoids in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, D.A.

    1987-04-01

    Photodegradation of vitamins in vitro is responsible for large losses of these nutrients in foods, beverages, and semisynthetic liquid formula diets. In vivo photodegradation of vitamins has been reported for riboflavin in jaundiced infants exposed to blue light and for folate in patients with chronic psoriasis given photochemotherapy. Two recent studies of normal subjects have also shown that photodegradation of carotenoids in plasma occurs with cumulative exposure of the skin to an artificial light source having maximal spectral emission in the UVA range. Females showed a larger effect of the UV light on their plasma carotenoid levels than males. These observations have identified a need for further investigation of the role of sunlight exposure as a determinant of plasma carotenoid levels and vitamin A status in human subjects.

  15. Carotenoid diagenesis in a marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, C. D.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The major carotenoids at three levels (3, 40, and 175 m below the sediment-water interface) in a core from a marine sediment (Cariaco Trench, off Venezuela) have been examined. Mass and electronic spectral data have provided evidence for the onset of a progressive reduction of carotenoids in the geological column. The time scale of the process appears to depend on the particular carotenoid. Reduction of up to two double bonds is observed for the diol, zeaxanthin, in the oldest sediment (about 340,000 years old) but no reduction is observed in the younger samples (about 5000 and 56,000 years old). The diketone, canthaxanthin, shows evidence of reduction of up to two double bonds in the 56,000-yr sample and up to five double bonds in the oldest sample. No reduction of beta-carotene was observed in any of the samples.

  16. Carotenoid diagenesis in a marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, C. D.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The major carotenoids at three levels (3, 40, and 175 m below the sediment-water interface) in a core from a marine sediment (Cariaco Trench, off Venezuela) have been examined. Mass and electronic spectral data have provided evidence for the onset of a progressive reduction of carotenoids in the geological column. The time scale of the process appears to depend on the particular carotenoid. Reduction of up to two double bonds is observed for the diol, zeaxanthin, in the oldest sediment (about 340,000 years old) but no reduction is observed in the younger samples (about 5000 and 56,000 years old). The diketone, canthaxanthin, shows evidence of reduction of up to two double bonds in the 56,000-yr sample and up to five double bonds in the oldest sample. No reduction of beta-carotene was observed in any of the samples.

  17. Carotenoids: more than just beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Gellenbeck, K W

    1998-12-01

    Fruits and vegetables of the human diet contain many of the over 600 carotenoid pigments that have been identified in plants. Led by work with beta-carotene, researchers have constantly been learning more about the metabolism of these compounds in the human body. Research work is now expanding beyond beta-carotene in an effort to understand what happens to all the pigments found in the human diet. This discussion briefly looks at research results on the carotenoids found in human serum as well as the effects of supplementation. Recent confusing results from large intervention trials with beta-carotene and lung cancer incidence are emphasized in relation to supplementation doses and beta-carotene source (synthetic vs. natural). The summation of results emphasizes the importance of the broad spectrum of carotenoids in the diet and relates to supplementation products currently being designed for the marketplace.

  18. Dietary carotenoids are associated with cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers mediated by serum carotenoid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Chung, Sang-Jin; McCullough, Marjorie L; Song, Won O; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2014-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia and elevated circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations are cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Previous studies indicated that higher serum carotenoid concentrations were inversely associated with some of these biomarkers. However, whether dietary carotenoid intake is inversely associated with these CVD risk biomarkers is not well known. We assessed the associations between individual dietary carotenoid intake and CVD risk biomarkers and tested whether the serum carotenoid concentrations explain (mediate) or influence the strength of (moderate) the associations, if any association exists. Dietary data collected from 2 24-h dietary recalls and serum measurements in adult men (n = 1312) and women (n = 1544) from the NHANES 2003-2006 were used. Regression models designed for survey analysis were used to examine the associations between individual dietary carotenoids and log-transformed blood cholesterol, CRP, and tHcy. The corresponding individual serum carotenoid concentration was considered as mediator (and moderator if applicable). After adjustment for covariates, significant inverse associations with LDL cholesterol were observed for dietary β-carotene (P < 0.05) and lutein + zeaxanthin (P < 0.001), and with tHcy for dietary β-carotene (P < 0.05), lycopene (P < 0.05), and total carotenoids (P < 0.05). Dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake was also positively associated with HDL cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.01). Most of these associations were null after additional adjustment for corresponding serum carotenoid concentrations, indicating the complete mediation effects of serum carotenoids. Serum β-carotene significantly moderated the associations between dietary β-carotene and CRP (P-interaction < 0.05), and quartile 4 of dietary β-carotene was associated with lower CRP concentrations only among participants with serum β-carotene > 0.43 μmol/L. In this population-based cross-sectional study

  19. Structure and Properties of Carotenoid Cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaane-Jensen, Synnove; Lutnees, Bjart Frode

    Naturally occurring carotenoids are familiar as yellow, orange or red pigments with λmax below 600 nm in organic solvents. Carotenoids with short polyene chains, such as the triene phytoene (44) and the pentaene phytofluene (42), absorb light only in the UV region and are colourless. Compounds that absorb light in the near infrared (NIR) region above ca. 900 nm are also colourless, unless they also absorb light in the 600-900 nm region, in which case they appear blue. True carotenoproteins (Chapter 6) are purple-blue and absorb light above 600 nm.

  20. Carotenoids Database: structures, chemical fingerprints and distribution among organisms.

    PubMed

    Yabuzaki, Junko

    2017-01-01

    To promote understanding of how organisms are related via carotenoids, either evolutionarily or symbiotically, or in food chains through natural histories, we built the Carotenoids Database. This provides chemical information on 1117 natural carotenoids with 683 source organisms. For extracting organisms closely related through the biosynthesis of carotenoids, we offer a new similarity search system 'Search similar carotenoids' using our original chemical fingerprint 'Carotenoid DB Chemical Fingerprints'. These Carotenoid DB Chemical Fingerprints describe the chemical substructure and the modification details based upon International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) semi-systematic names of the carotenoids. The fingerprints also allow (i) easier prediction of six biological functions of carotenoids: provitamin A, membrane stabilizers, odorous substances, allelochemicals, antiproliferative activity and reverse MDR activity against cancer cells, (ii) easier classification of carotenoid structures, (iii) partial and exact structure searching and (iv) easier extraction of structural isomers and stereoisomers. We believe this to be the first attempt to establish fingerprints using the IUPAC semi-systematic names. For extracting close profiled organisms, we provide a new tool 'Search similar profiled organisms'. Our current statistics show some insights into natural history: carotenoids seem to have been spread largely by bacteria, as they produce C30, C40, C45 and C50 carotenoids, with the widest range of end groups, and they share a small portion of C40 carotenoids with eukaryotes. Archaea share an even smaller portion with eukaryotes. Eukaryotes then have evolved a considerable variety of C40 carotenoids. Considering carotenoids, eukaryotes seem more closely related to bacteria than to archaea aside from 16S rRNA lineage analysis. : http://carotenoiddb.jp.

  1. Accumulation of Paprika Carotenoids in Human Plasma and Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Azusa; Ichihara, Takashi; Takaha, Takeshi; Kuriki, Takashi; Nihei, Hideko; Kawamoto, Kazuhisa; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Maoka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation (incorporation) of paprika carotenoid in human plasma and erythrocytes was investigated. A paprika carotenoid supplement (14 mg/day) was ingested for 4 weeks by 5 young healthy volunteers (3 men and 2 women). After 2 weeks of carotenoid ingestion, the carotenoid levels in plasma and erythrocytes increased by 1.2-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively. Characteristic carotenoids found in paprika (capsanthin, cucurbitaxanthin A, and cryptocapsin) were detected in both plasma and erythrocytes. An oxidative metabolite of capsanthin (capsanthone) was also found in both plasma and erythrocytes.

  2. Carotenoid biosynthesis in extremophilic Deinococcus-Thermus bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bing; Hua, Yuejin

    2010-11-01

    Bacteria from the phylum Deinococcus-Thermus are known for their resistance to extreme stresses including radiation, oxidation, desiccation and high temperature. Cultured Deinococcus-Thermus bacteria are usually red or yellow pigmented because of their ability to synthesize carotenoids. Unique carotenoids found in these bacteria include deinoxanthin from Deinococcus radiodurans and thermozeaxanthins from Thermus thermophilus. Investigations of carotenogenesis will help to understand cellular stress resistance of Deinococcus-Thermus bacteria. Here, we discuss the recent progress toward identifying carotenoids, carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes and pathways in some species of Deinococcus-Thermus extremophiles. In addition, we also discuss the roles of carotenoids in these extreme bacteria.

  3. Carotenoid composition and in vitro pharmacological activity of rose hips.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Györgyi; Molnár, Péter; Radó-Turcsi, Erika; Deli, József; Kawase, Masami; Satoh, Kazue; Tanaka, Toru; Tani, Satoru; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Gyémánt, Nóra; Molnár, József

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare carotenoid extracts of Rose hips (Rosa canina L.) with regard to their phytochemical profiles and their in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), cytotoxic, multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal and radical scavenging activity. Carotenoid composition was investigated in the different fractionation of rose hips, using extraction methods. Six main carotenoids - epimers of neochrome, lutein, zeaxanthin, rubixanthin, lycopene, β,β-carotene - were identified from Rose hips by their chromatographic behavior and UV-visible spectra, which is in accordance with other studies on carotenoids in this plant material. The active principles in the carotenoid extract might differ, depending upon the extraction procedures.

  4. The carotenoid-continuum: carotenoid-based plumage ranges from conspicuous to cryptic and back again

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are frequently used by birds to colour their plumage with green, yellow, orange or red hues, and carotenoid-based colours are considered honest signals of quality, although they may have other functions, such as crypsis. It is usually assumed that red through yellow colours have a signalling function while green is cryptic. Here we challenge this notion using the yellow and green colouration of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), great tits (Parus major) and greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) as a model. Results The relationship between colouration (chroma, computed using visual sensitivities of conspecifics) and detectability (contrast against natural backgrounds as perceived by conspecifics and avian predators) followed a similar curvilinear pattern for yellow and green plumage with minimum detectability at intermediate levels of carotenoid deposition. Thus, for yellow and green plumage, colours at or close to the point of minimum detectability may aid in crypsis. This may be the case for blue and great tit green and yellow plumage, and greenfinch green plumage, all of which had comparably low levels of detectability, while greenfinch yellow plumage was more chromatic and detectable. As yellow and green blue tit colouration are strongly affected by carotenoid availability during moult, variation in pigment availability between habitats may affect the degree of background-matching or the costliness of producing cryptic plumage. Conclusions Increasing carotenoid-deposition in the integument does not always lead to more conspicuous colours. In some cases, such as in blue or great tits, carotenoid deposition may be selected through enhanced background-matching, which in turn suggests that producing cryptic plumage may entail costs. We stress however, that our data do not rule out a signalling function of carotenoid-based plumage in tits. Rather, it shows that alternative functions are plausible and that assuming a signalling function based solely on

  5. Carotenoids from Haloarchaea and Their Potential in Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo-Baños, Montserrat; Garbayo, Inés; Vílchez, Carlos; Bonete, María José; Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María

    2015-08-25

    The production of pigments by halophilic archaea has been analysed during the last half a century. The main reasons that sustains this research are: (i) many haloarchaeal species possess high carotenoids production availability; (ii) downstream processes related to carotenoid isolation from haloarchaea is relatively quick, easy and cheap; (iii) carotenoids production by haloarchaea can be improved by genetic modification or even by modifying several cultivation aspects such as nutrition, growth pH, temperature, etc.; (iv) carotenoids are needed to support plant and animal life and human well-being; and (v) carotenoids are compounds highly demanded by pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food markets. Several studies about carotenoid production by haloarchaea have been reported so far, most of them focused on pigments isolation or carotenoids production under different culture conditions. However, the understanding of carotenoid metabolism, regulation, and roles of carotenoid derivatives in this group of extreme microorganisms remains mostly unrevealed. The uses of those haloarchaeal pigments have also been poorly explored. This work summarises what has been described so far about carotenoids production by haloarchaea and their potential uses in biotechnology and biomedicine. In particular, new scientific evidence of improved carotenoid production by one of the better known haloarchaeon (Haloferax mediterranei) is also discussed.

  6. Carotenoids from Haloarchaea and Their Potential in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo-Baños, Montserrat; Garbayo, Inés; Vílchez, Carlos; Bonete, María José; Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María

    2015-01-01

    The production of pigments by halophilic archaea has been analysed during the last half a century. The main reasons that sustains this research are: (i) many haloarchaeal species possess high carotenoids production availability; (ii) downstream processes related to carotenoid isolation from haloarchaea is relatively quick, easy and cheap; (iii) carotenoids production by haloarchaea can be improved by genetic modification or even by modifying several cultivation aspects such as nutrition, growth pH, temperature, etc.; (iv) carotenoids are needed to support plant and animal life and human well-being; and (v) carotenoids are compounds highly demanded by pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food markets. Several studies about carotenoid production by haloarchaea have been reported so far, most of them focused on pigments isolation or carotenoids production under different culture conditions. However, the understanding of carotenoid metabolism, regulation, and roles of carotenoid derivatives in this group of extreme microorganisms remains mostly unrevealed. The uses of those haloarchaeal pigments have also been poorly explored. This work summarises what has been described so far about carotenoids production by haloarchaea and their potential uses in biotechnology and biomedicine. In particular, new scientific evidence of improved carotenoid production by one of the better known haloarchaeon (Haloferax mediterranei) is also discussed. PMID:26308012

  7. Changes in carotenoids during processing and storage of foods.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    1999-09-01

    Being highly unsaturated, carotenoids are susceptible to isomerization and oxidation during processing and storage of foods. Isomerization of trans-carotenoids to cis-carotenoids, promoted by contact with acids, heat treatment and exposure to light, diminishes the color and the vitamin A activity of carotenoids. The major cause of carotenoid loss, however, is enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidation, which depends on the availability of oxygen and the carotenoid structure. It is stimulated by light, heat, some metals, enzymes and peroxides and is inhibited by antioxidants. Data on percentage losses of carotenoids during food processing and storage are somewhat conflicting, but carotenoid degradation is known to increase with the destruction of the food cellular structure, increase of surface area or porosity, length and severity of the processing conditions, storage time and temperature, transmission of light and permeability to O2 of the packaging. Contrary to lipid oxidation, for which the mechanism is well established, the oxidation of carotenoids is not well understood. It involves initially epoxidation, formation of apocarotenoids and hydroxylation. Subsequent fragmentations presumably result in a series of compounds of low molecular masses. Completely losing its color and biological activities, the carotenoids give rise to volatile compounds which contribute to the aroma/flavor, desirable in tea and wine and undesirable in dehydrated carrot. Processing can also influence the bioavailability of carotenoids, a topic that is currently of great interest.

  8. A carotenoid health index based on plasma carotenoids and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Michael S

    2011-12-01

    While there have been many studies on health outcomes that have included measurements of plasma carotenoids, this data has not been reviewed and assembled into a useful form. In this review sixty-two studies of plasma carotenoids and health outcomes, mostly prospective cohort studies or population-based case-control studies, are analyzed together to establish a carotenoid health index. Five cutoff points are established across the percentiles of carotenoid concentrations in populations, from the tenth to ninetieth percentile. The cutoff points (mean ± standard error of the mean) are 1.11 ± 0.08, 1.47 ± 0.08, 1.89 ± 0.08, 2.52 ± 0.13, and 3.07 ± 0.20 µM. For all cause mortality there seems to be a low threshold effect with protection above every cutoff point but the lowest. But for metabolic syndrome and cancer outcomes there tends to be significant positive health outcomes only above the higher cutoff points, perhaps as a triage effect. Based on this data a carotenoid health index is proposed with risk categories as follows: very high risk: <1 µM, high risk: 1-1.5 µM, moderate risk: 1.5-2.5 µM, low risk: 2.5-4 µM, and very low risk: >4 µM. Over 95 percent of the USA population falls into the moderate or high risk category of the carotenoid health index.

  9. Resonance Raman spectroscopic evaluation of skin carotenoids as a biomarker of carotenoid status for human studies.

    PubMed

    Mayne, Susan T; Cartmel, Brenda; Scarmo, Stephanie; Jahns, Lisa; Ermakov, Igor V; Gellermann, Werner

    2013-11-15

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) is a non-invasive method that has been developed to assess carotenoid status in human tissues including human skin in vivo. Skin carotenoid status has been suggested as a promising biomarker for human studies. This manuscript describes research done relevant to the development of this biomarker, including its reproducibility, validity, feasibility for use in field settings, and factors that affect the biomarker such as diet, smoking, and adiposity. Recent studies have evaluated the response of the biomarker to controlled carotenoid interventions, both supplement-based and dietary [e.g., provision of a high-carotenoid fruit and vegetable (F/V)-enriched diet], demonstrating consistent response to intervention. The totality of evidence supports the use of skin carotenoid status as an objective biomarker of F/V intake, although in the cross-sectional setting, diet explains only some of the variation in this biomarker. However, this limitation is also a strength in that skin carotenoids may effectively serve as an integrated biomarker of health, with higher status reflecting greater F/V intake, lack of smoking, and lack of adiposity. Thus, this biomarker holds promise as both a health biomarker and an objective indicator of F/V intake, supporting its further development and utilization for medical and public health purposes.

  10. Carotenoids in unexpected places: gall midges, lateral gene transfer, and carotenoid biosynthesis in animals.

    PubMed

    Cobbs, Cassidy; Heath, Jeremy; Stireman, John O; Abbot, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    Carotenoids are conjugated isoprenoid molecules with many important physiological functions in organisms, including roles in photosynthesis, oxidative stress reduction, vision, diapause, photoperiodism, and immunity. Until recently, it was believed that only plants, microorganisms, and fungi were capable of synthesizing carotenoids and that animals acquired them from their diet, but recent studies have demonstrated that two arthropods (pea aphid and spider mite) possess a pair of genes homologous to those required for the first step of carotenoid biosynthesis. Absent in all other known animal genomes, these genes appear to have been acquired by aphids and spider mites in one or several lateral gene transfer events from a fungal donor. We report the third case of fungal carotenoid biosynthesis gene homologs in an arthropod: flies from the family Cecidomyiidae, commonly known as gall midges. Using phylogenetic analyses we show that it is unlikely that lycopene cyclase/phytoene synthase and phytoene desaturase homologs were transferred singly to an ancient arthropod ancestor; instead we propose that genes were transferred independently from related fungal donors after divergence of the major arthropod lineages. We also examine variation in intron placement and copy number of the carotenoid genes that may underlie function in the midges. This trans-kingdom transfer of carotenoid genes may represent a key innovation, underlying the evolution of phytophagy and plant-galling in gall midges and facilitating their extensive diversification across plant lineages.

  11. Resonance Raman Spectroscopic Evaluation of Skin Carotenoids as a Biomarker of Carotenoid Status for Human Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mayne, Susan T.; Cartmel, Brenda; Scarmo, Stephanie; Jahns, Lisa; Ermakov, Igor V.; Gellermann, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) is a non-invasive method that has been developed to assess carotenoid status in human tissues including human skin in vivo. Skin carotenoid status has been suggested as a promising biomarker for human studies. This manuscript describes research done relevant to the development of this biomarker, including its reproducibility, validity, feasibility for use in field settings, and factors that affect the biomarker such as diet, smoking, and adiposity. Recent studies have evaluated the response of the biomarker to controlled carotenoid interventions, both supplement-based and dietary [e.g., provision of a high-carotenoid fruit and vegetable (F/V)-enriched diet], demonstrating consistent response to intervention. The totality of evidence supports the use of skin carotenoid status as an objective biomarker of F/V intake, although in the cross-sectional setting, diet explains only some of the variation in this biomarker. However, this limitation is also a strength in that skin carotenoids may effectively serve as an integrated biomarker of health, with higher status reflecting greater F/V intake, lack of smoking, and lack of adiposity. Thus, this biomarker holds promise as both a health biomarker and an objective indicator of F/V intake, supporting its further development and utilization for medical and public health purposes. PMID:23823930

  12. Ultrafast spectroscopy tracks carotenoid configurations in the orange and red carotenoid proteins from cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Šlouf, Václav; Kuznetsova, Valentyna; Fuciman, Marcel; de Carbon, Céline Bourcier; Wilson, Adjélé; Kirilovsky, Diana; Polívka, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    A quenching mechanism mediated by the orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is one of the ways cyanobacteria protect themselves against photooxidative stress. Here, we present a femtosecond spectroscopic study comparing OCP and RCP (red carotenoid protein) samples binding different carotenoids. We confirmed significant changes in carotenoid configuration upon OCP activation reported by Leverenz et al. (Science 348:1463-1466. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa7234 , 2015) by comparing the transient spectra of OCP and RCP. The most important marker of these changes was the magnitude of the transient signal associated with the carotenoid intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) state. While OCP with canthaxanthin exhibited a weak ICT signal, it increased significantly for canthaxanthin bound to RCP. On the contrary, a strong ICT signal was recorded in OCP binding echinenone excited at the red edge of the absorption spectrum. Because the carbonyl oxygen responsible for the appearance of the ICT signal is located at the end rings of both carotenoids, the magnitude of the ICT signal can be used to estimate the torsion angles of the end rings. Application of two different excitation wavelengths to study OCP demonstrated that the OCP sample contains two spectroscopically distinct populations, none of which is corresponding to the photoactivated product of OCP.

  13. Influence of Phenylalanine on Carotenoid Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, L.; Ni, X.; Luo, X.

    2015-01-01

    The carotenoids lutein and β-carotene form, in 1:1 ethanol-water mixtures H-aggregates, of different strengths. The effects of phenylalanine on these aggregates were recorded by UV-Vis absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and Raman spectra. The H-aggregate of lutein was characterized by a large 78 nm blue shift in the absorption spectra, confirming the strong coupling between hydroxyl groups of adjacent molecules. The 15 nm blue shift in the β-carotene mixture also indicates that it was assembled by weak coupling between polyenes. After adding phenylalanine, the reducing absorption strength of the aggregates of lutein and reappearance of vibrational substructure indicate that the hydroxyl and amino groups of phenylalanine may coordinate to lutein and disaggregate the H-aggregates. However, phenylalanine had no effect on aggregates of β-carotene. The Raman spectra show three bands of carotenoids whose intensities decreased with increasing phenylalanine concentration. The frequency of ν1 corresponding to the length of the conjugated region was more sensitive to the solution of lutein. This coordination of phenylalanine to lutein could increase the length of the conjugated region. In addition, phenylalanine significantly affected the excited electronic states of carotenoids, which were crucial in the energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophyll a in vivo.

  14. Long-lived coherence in carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. A.; Cannon, E.; Van Dao, L.; Hannaford, P.; Quiney, H. M.; Nugent, K. A.

    2010-08-01

    We use two-colour vibronic coherence spectroscopy to observe long-lived vibrational coherences in the ground electronic state of carotenoid molecules, with decoherence times in excess of 1 ps. Lycopene and spheroidene were studied isolated in solution, and within the LH2 light-harvesting complex extracted from purple bacteria. The vibrational coherence time is shown to increase significantly for the carotenoid in the complex, providing further support to previous assertions that long-lived electronic coherences in light-harvesting complexes are facilitated by in-phase motion of the chromophores and surrounding proteins. Using this technique, we are also able to follow the evolution of excited state coherences and find that for carotenoids in the light-harvesting complex the langS2|S0rang superposition remains coherent for more than 70 fs. In addition to the implications of this long electronic decoherence time, the extended coherence allows us to observe the evolution of the excited state wavepacket. These experiments reveal an enhancement of the vibronic coupling to the first vibrational level of the C-C stretching mode and/or methyl-rocking mode in the ground electronic state 70 fs after the initial excitation. These observations open the door to future experiments and modelling that may be able to resolve the relaxation dynamics of carotenoids in solution and in natural light-harvesting systems.

  15. The regulation of carotenoid pigmentation in flowers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changfu; Bai, Chao; Sanahuja, Georgina; Yuan, Dawei; Farré, Gemma; Naqvi, Shaista; Shi, Lianxuan; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2010-12-01

    Carotenoids fulfill many processes that are essential for normal growth and development in plants, but they are also responsible for the breathtaking variety of red-to-yellow colors we see in flowers and fruits. Although such visual diversity helps to attract pollinators and encourages herbivores to distribute seeds, humans also benefit from the aesthetic properties of flowers and an entire floriculture industry has developed on the basis that new and attractive varieties can be produced. Over the last decade, much has been learned about the impact of carotenoid metabolism on flower color development and the molecular basis of flower color. A number of different regulatory mechanisms have been described ranging from the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in carotenoid synthesis to the control of carotenoid storage in sink organs. This means we can now explain many of the natural colorful varieties we see around us and also engineer plants to produce flowers with novel and exciting varieties that are not provided by nature.

  16. Continuous production of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Janssen, Marcel; Brandenburg, Willem A; Wijffels, René H

    2011-03-07

    During the in situ extraction of β-carotene from Dunaliella salina, the causal relationship between carotenoid extraction and cell death indicated that cell growth and cell death should be at equilibrium for a continuous in situ extraction process. In a flat-panel photobioreactor that was operated as a turbidostat cell numbers of stressed cells were kept constant while attaining a continuous well-defined light-stress. In this way it was possible to study the balance between cell growth and cell death and determine whether both could be increased to reach higher volumetric productivities of carotenoids. In the two-phase system a volumetric productivity of 8.3 mg β-carotene L(RV)(-1)d(-1) was obtained. In situ extraction contributed only partly to this productivity. The major part came from net production of carotenoid-rich biomass, due to a high growth rate of the cells and subsequent dilution of the reactor. To reach equilibrium between cell growth and cell death, sparging rates of dodecane could have been increased. However, already at the applied sparging rate of 286 L(dod)L(RV)(-1)min(-1) emulsion formation of the dodecane in the aqueous phase appeared. In a turbidostat without in situ extraction a volumetric productivity of 13.5 mg β-caroteneL(RV)(-1)d(-1) was reached, solely based on the continuous production of carotenoid-rich biomass. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Galloxanthin, a carotenoid from the chicken retina.

    PubMed

    WALD, G

    1948-05-20

    A new carotenoid has been isolated from the chicken retina for which the name galloxanthin is proposed. This substance has the properties of a hydroxy carotenoid or xanthophyll. It has not yet been crystallized. On a chromatogram of calcium carbonate it is adsorbed just below astaxanthin and above lutein. The absorption spectrum of galloxanthin lies in a region where natural carotenoids have not ordinarily been found. Its main, central absorption band falls at about 400 mmicro. The position of its spectrum suggests a conjugated system of eight double bonds. This relatively short polyene structure must be reconciled with very strong adsorption affinities. With antimony trichloride, galloxanthin yields a deep blue product, possessing a main absorption band at 785 to 795 mmicro, and a secondary maximum at about 710 mmicro which may not be due to galloxanthin itself. Galloxanthin appears to be one of the carotenoid filter pigments associated with cone vision in the chicken. It may act as an auxiliary to the other filter pigments in differentiating colors; or its primary function may be to exclude violet and near ultraviolet radiations for which the eye has a large chromatic aberration.

  18. Accumulation and bioavailability of dietary carotenoids in vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Kopsell, Dean A; Kopsell, David E

    2006-10-01

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments found in many vegetable crops that are reported to have the health benefits of cancer and eye disease reduction when consumed in the diet. Research shows that environmental and genetic factors can significantly influence carotenoid concentrations in vegetable crops, and that changing cultural management strategies could be advantageous, resulting in increased vegetable carotenoid concentrations. Improvements in vegetable carotenoid levels have been achieved using traditional breeding methods and molecular transformations to stimulate biosynthetic pathways. Postharvest and processing activities can alter carotenoid chemistry, and ultimately affect bioavailability. Bioavailability data emphasize the importance of carotenoid enhancement in vegetable crops and the need to characterize potential changes in carotenoid composition during cultivation, storage and processing before consumer purchase.

  19. Oxidative stress does not influence carotenoid mobilization and plumage pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Caroline; Andersson, Staffan

    2008-02-07

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to create a link between 'good genes' and carotenoid coloration via an allocation conflict between external pigmentation and internal antioxidant functions. However, although carotenoid displays have been extensively investigated, there are no experimental tests of the antioxidant efficiency of carotenoids in vivo. We induced oxidative stress in a small passerine (the great tit, Parus major) under both carotenoid deprivation and supplementation, and investigated the effect on carotenoid mobilization (i.e. plasma) and allocation (i.e. deposition in feather incorporation and liver storage). We found no effects of the stressor on either mobilization or allocation of carotenoids. These results reject the previously suggested superior role of carotenoid's function as antioxidant in vivo with important implications for signal content and honesty.

  20. A review on factors influencing bioaccessibility and bioefficacy of carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshani, A M B

    2017-05-24

    Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent deficiency disorders in the world. As shown by many studies plant food based approaches have a real potential on prevention of vitamin A deficiency in a sustainable way. Carotenoids are important as precursors of vitamin A as well as for prevention of cancers, coronary heart diseases, age-related macular degeneration, cataract etc. Bioaccessibility and bioefficacy of carotenoids are known to be influenced by numerous factors including dietary factors such as fat, fiber, dosage of carotenoid, location of carotenoid in the plant tissue, heat treatment, particle size of food, carotenoid species, interactions among carotenoids, isomeric form and molecular linkage and subject characteristics. Therefore even when carotenoids are found in high quantities in plant foods their utilization may be unsatisfactory because some factors are known to interfere as negative effectors.

  1. Macular and serum carotenoid concentrations in patients with malabsorption syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ward, Matthew S; Zhao, Da You; Bernstein, Paul S

    2008-03-01

    The carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin are believed to protect the human macula by absorbing blue light and quenching free radicals. Intestinal malabsorption syndromes such as celiac and Crohn's disease are known to cause deficiencies of lipid-soluble nutrients. We hypothesized that subjects with nutrient malabsorption syndromes will demonstrate lower carotenoid levels in the macula and blood, and that these lower levels may correlate with early-onset maculopathy. Resonance Raman spectrographic (RRS) measurements of macular carotenoid levels were collected from subjects with and without a history of malabsorption syndromes. Carotenoids were extracted from serum and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Subjects with malabsorption (n = 22) had 37% lower levels of macular carotenoids on average versus controls (n = 25, P < 0.001). Malabsorption was not associated with decreased serum carotenoid levels. Convincing signs of early maculopathy were not observed. We conclude that intestinal malabsorption results in lower macular carotenoid levels.

  2. Physalis alkekengi carotenoidic extract inhibitor of soybean lipoxygenase-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Chedea, Veronica Sanda; Pintea, Adela; Bunea, Andrea; Braicu, Cornelia; Stanila, Andreea; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the carotenoidic saponified extract of Physalis alkekengi sepals (PA) towards the lipoxygenase (LOX) oxidation of linoleic acid. Lipoxygenase activity in the presence of carotenoids, standard and from extract, was followed by its kinetic behaviour determining the changes in absorption at 234 nm. The standard carotenoids used were β-carotene (β-car), lutein (Lut), and zeaxanthin (Zea). The calculated enzymatic specific activity (ESA) after 600 s of reaction proves that PA carotenoidic extract has inhibitory effect on LOX oxidation of linoleic acid. A longer polyenic chain of carotenoid structure gives a higher ESA during the first reaction seconds. This situation is not available after 600 s of reaction and may be due to a destruction of this structure by cooxidation of carotenoids, besides the classical LOX reaction. The PA carotenoidic extract inhibiting the LOX-1 reaction can be considered a source of lipoxygenase inhibitors.

  3. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    PubMed

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  4. Identification of Plastoglobules as a Site of Carotenoid Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Rottet, Sarah; Devillers, Julie; Glauser, Gaétan; Douet, Véronique; Besagni, Céline; Kessler, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids play an essential role in light harvesting and protection from excess light. During chloroplast senescence carotenoids are released from their binding proteins and are eventually metabolized. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) is involved in carotenoid breakdown in senescing leaf and desiccating seed, and is part of the proteome of plastoglobules (PG), which are thylakoid-associated lipid droplets. Here, we demonstrate that CCD4 is functionally active in PG. Leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana ccd4 mutants constitutively expressing CCD4 fused to yellow fluorescent protein showed strong fluorescence in PG and reduced carotenoid levels upon dark-induced senescence. Lipidome-wide analysis indicated that β-carotene, lutein, and violaxanthin were the principle substrates of CCD4 in vivo and were cleaved in senescing chloroplasts. Moreover, carotenoids were shown to accumulate in PG of ccd4 mutant plants during senescence, indicating translocation of carotenoids to PG prior to degradation. PMID:28018391

  5. Oxidative stress does not influence carotenoid mobilization and plumage pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Isaksson, Caroline; Andersson, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    Summary Oxidative stress has been suggested to create a link between ‘good genes’ and carotenoid coloration via an allocation conflict between external pigmentation and internal antioxidant functions. However, although carotenoid displays have been extensively investigated, there are no experimental tests of the antioxidant efficiency of carotenoids in vivo. We induced oxidative stress in a small passerine (the great tit, Parus major) under both carotenoid deprivation and supplementation, and investigated the effect on carotenoid mobilization (i.e. plasma) and allocation (i.e. deposition in feather incorporation and liver storage). We found no effects of the stressor on either mobilization or allocation of carotenoids. These results reject the previously suggested superior role of carotenoid's function as antioxidant in vivo with important implications for signal content and honesty. PMID:18029305

  6. Carotenoid biosynthesis and overproduction in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium glutamicum contains the glycosylated C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin as yellow pigment. Starting from isopentenyl pyrophosphate, which is generated in the non-mevalonate pathway, decaprenoxanthin is synthesized via the intermediates farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, lycopene and flavuxanthin. Results Here, we showed that the genes of the carotenoid gene cluster crtE-cg0722-crtBIYeYfEb are co-transcribed and characterized defined gene deletion mutants. Gene deletion analysis revealed that crtI, crtEb, and crtYeYf, respectively, code for the only phytoene desaturase, lycopene elongase, and carotenoid C45/C50 ɛ-cyclase, respectively. However, the genome of C. glutamicum also encodes a second carotenoid gene cluster comprising crtB2I2-1/2 shown to be co-transcribed, as well. Ectopic expression of crtB2 could compensate for the lack of phytoene synthase CrtB in C. glutamicum ΔcrtB, thus, C. glutamicum possesses two functional phytoene synthases, namely CrtB and CrtB2. Genetic evidence for a crtI2-1/2 encoded phytoene desaturase could not be obtained since plasmid-borne expression of crtI2-1/2 did not compensate for the lack of phytoene desaturase CrtI in C. glutamicum ΔcrtI. The potential of C. glutamicum to overproduce carotenoids was estimated with lycopene as example. Deletion of the gene crtEb prevented conversion of lycopene to decaprenoxanthin and entailed accumulation of lycopene to 0.03 ± 0.01 mg/g cell dry weight (CDW). When the genes crtE, crtB and crtI for conversion of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to lycopene were overexpressed in C. glutamicum ΔcrtEb intensely red-pigmented cells and an 80 fold increased lycopene content of 2.4 ± 0.3 mg/g CDW were obtained. Conclusion C. glutamicum possesses a certain degree of redundancy in the biosynthesis of the C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin as it possesses two functional phytoene synthase genes. Already metabolic engineering of only the terminal reactions

  7. What are carotenoids signaling? Immunostimulatory effects of dietary vitamin E, but not of carotenoids, in Iberian green lizards.

    PubMed

    Kopena, Renata; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2014-12-01

    In spite that carotenoid-based sexual ornaments are one of the most popular research topics in sexual selection of animals, the antioxidant and immunostimulatory role of carotenoids, presumably signaled by these colorful ornaments, is still controversial. It has been suggested that the function of carotenoids might not be as an antioxidant per se, but that colorful carotenoids may indirectly reflect the levels of nonpigmentary antioxidants, such as melatonin or vitamin E. We experimentally fed male Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi) additional carotenoids or vitamin E alone, or a combination of carotenoids and vitamin E dissolved in soybean oil, whereas a control group only received soybean oil. We examined the effects of the dietary supplementations on phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced skin-swelling immune response and body condition. Lizards that were supplemented with vitamin E alone or a combination of vitamin E and carotenoids had greater immune responses than control lizards, but animals supplemented with carotenoids alone had lower immune responses than lizards supplemented with vitamin E and did not differ from control lizards. These results support the hypothesis that carotenoids in green lizards are not effective as immunostimulants, but that they may be visually signaling the immunostimulatory effects of non-pigmentary vitamin E. In contrast, lizards supplemented with carotenoids alone have higher body condition gains than lizards in the other experimental groups, suggesting that carotenoids may be still important to improve condition.

  8. What are carotenoids signaling? Immunostimulatory effects of dietary vitamin E, but not of carotenoids, in Iberian green lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopena, Renata; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2014-12-01

    In spite that carotenoid-based sexual ornaments are one of the most popular research topics in sexual selection of animals, the antioxidant and immunostimulatory role of carotenoids, presumably signaled by these colorful ornaments, is still controversial. It has been suggested that the function of carotenoids might not be as an antioxidant per se, but that colorful carotenoids may indirectly reflect the levels of nonpigmentary antioxidants, such as melatonin or vitamin E. We experimentally fed male Iberian green lizards ( Lacerta schreiberi) additional carotenoids or vitamin E alone, or a combination of carotenoids and vitamin E dissolved in soybean oil, whereas a control group only received soybean oil. We examined the effects of the dietary supplementations on phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced skin-swelling immune response and body condition. Lizards that were supplemented with vitamin E alone or a combination of vitamin E and carotenoids had greater immune responses than control lizards, but animals supplemented with carotenoids alone had lower immune responses than lizards supplemented with vitamin E and did not differ from control lizards. These results support the hypothesis that carotenoids in green lizards are not effective as immunostimulants, but that they may be visually signaling the immunostimulatory effects of non-pigmentary vitamin E. In contrast, lizards supplemented with carotenoids alone have higher body condition gains than lizards in the other experimental groups, suggesting that carotenoids may be still important to improve condition.

  9. Dissecting carotenoid from structural components of carotenoid-based coloration: a field experiment with great tits (Parus major).

    PubMed

    Jacot, Alain; Romero-Diaz, Cristina; Tschirren, Barbara; Richner, Heinz; Fitze, Patrick S

    2010-07-01

    Carotenoid-based yellowish to red plumage colors are widespread visual signals used in sexual and social communication. To understand their ultimate signaling functions, it is important to identify the proximate mechanism promoting variation in coloration. Carotenoid-based colors combine structural and pigmentary components, but the importance of the contribution of structural components to variation in pigment-based colors (i.e., carotenoid-based colors) has been undervalued. In a field experiment with great tits (Parus major), we combined a brood size manipulation with a simultaneous carotenoid supplementation in order to disentangle the effects of carotenoid availability and early growth condition on different components of the yellow breast feathers. By defining independent measures of feather carotenoid content (absolute carotenoid chroma) and background structure (background reflectance), we demonstrate that environmental factors experienced during the nestling period, namely, early growth conditions and carotenoid availability, contribute independently to variation in yellow plumage coloration. While early growth conditions affected the background reflectance of the plumage, the availability of carotenoids affected the absolute carotenoid chroma, the peak of maximum ultraviolet reflectance, and the overall shape, that is, chromatic information of the reflectance curves. These findings demonstrate that environment-induced variation in background structure contributes significantly to intraspecific variation in yellow carotenoid-based plumage coloration.

  10. Regulation of carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in citrus juice sacs in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Kato, Masaya; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Takagi, Toshihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Nesumi, Hirohisa

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, to investigate the mechanisms regulating carotenoid accumulation in citrus, a culture system was set up in vitro with juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.). The juice sacs of all the three varieties enlarged gradually with carotenoid accumulation. The changing patterns of carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in juice sacs in vitro were similar to those ripening on trees in the three varieties. Using this system, the changes in the carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in response to environmental stimuli were investigated. The results showed that carotenoid accumulation was induced by blue light treatment, but was not affected by red light treatment in the three varieties. Different regulation of CitPSY expression, which was up-regulated by blue light while unaffected by red light, led to different changes in carotenoid content in response to these two treatments in Satsuma mandarin and Valencia orange. In all three varieties, increases in carotenoid content were observed with sucrose and mannitol treatments. However, the accumulation of carotenoid in the two treatments was regulated by distinct mechanisms at the transcriptional level. With abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, the expression of the genes investigated in this study was up-regulated in Satsuma mandarin and Lisbon lemon, indicating that ABA induced its own biosynthesis at the transcriptional level. This feedback regulation of ABA led to decreases in carotenoid content. With gibberellin (GA) treatment, carotenoid content was significantly decreased in the three varieties. Changes in the expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism varied among the three varieties in response to GA treatment. These results provided insights into improving carotenoid content and composition in citrus during fruit

  11. Regulation of carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in citrus juice sacs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Kato, Masaya; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Takagi, Toshihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Nesumi, Hirohisa

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, to investigate the mechanisms regulating carotenoid accumulation in citrus, a culture system was set up in vitro with juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.). The juice sacs of all the three varieties enlarged gradually with carotenoid accumulation. The changing patterns of carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in juice sacs in vitro were similar to those ripening on trees in the three varieties. Using this system, the changes in the carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in response to environmental stimuli were investigated. The results showed that carotenoid accumulation was induced by blue light treatment, but was not affected by red light treatment in the three varieties. Different regulation of CitPSY expression, which was up-regulated by blue light while unaffected by red light, led to different changes in carotenoid content in response to these two treatments in Satsuma mandarin and Valencia orange. In all three varieties, increases in carotenoid content were observed with sucrose and mannitol treatments. However, the accumulation of carotenoid in the two treatments was regulated by distinct mechanisms at the transcriptional level. With abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, the expression of the genes investigated in this study was up-regulated in Satsuma mandarin and Lisbon lemon, indicating that ABA induced its own biosynthesis at the transcriptional level. This feedback regulation of ABA led to decreases in carotenoid content. With gibberellin (GA) treatment, carotenoid content was significantly decreased in the three varieties. Changes in the expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism varied among the three varieties in response to GA treatment. These results provided insights into improving carotenoid content and composition in citrus during fruit

  12. Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration. PMID:22233462

  13. Carotenoid Production by Halophilic Archaea Under Different Culture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Calegari-Santos, Rossana; Diogo, Ricardo Alexandre; Fontana, José Domingos; Bonfim, Tania Maria Bordin

    2016-05-01

    Carotenoids are pigments that may be used as colorants and antioxidants in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Since they also benefit human health, great efforts have been undertaken to search for natural sources of carotenoids, including microbial ones. The optimization of culture conditions to increase carotenoid yield is one of the strategies used to minimize the high cost of carotenoid production by microorganisms. Halophilic archaea are capable of producing carotenoids according to culture conditions. Their main carotenoid is bacterioruberin with 50 carbon atoms. In fact, the carotenoid has important biological functions since it acts as cell membrane reinforcement and it protects the microorganism against DNA damaging agents. Moreover, carotenoid extracts from halophilic archaea have shown high antioxidant capacity. Therefore, current review summarizes the effect of different culture conditions such as salt and carbon source concentrations in the medium, light incidence, and oxygen tension on carotenoid production by halophilic archaea and the strategies such as optimization methodology and two-stage cultivation already used to increase the carotenoid yield of these microorganisms.

  14. Metabolic engineering for the microbial production of carotenoids and related products with a focus on the rare C50 carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Heider, Sabine A E; Peters-Wendisch, Petra; Wendisch, Volker F; Beekwilder, Jules; Brautaset, Trygve

    2014-05-01

    Carotenoids, a subfamily of terpenoids, are yellow- to red-colored pigments synthesized by plants, fungi, algae, and bacteria. They are ubiquitous in nature and take over crucial roles in many biological processes as for example photosynthesis, vision, and the quenching of free radicals and singlet oxygen. Due to their color and their potential beneficial effects on human health, carotenoids receive increasing attention. Carotenoids can be classified due to the length of their carbon backbone. Most carotenoids have a C40 backbone, but also C30 and C50 carotenoids are known. All carotenoids are derived from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) as a common precursor. Pathways leading to IPP as well as metabolic engineering of IPP synthesis and C40 carotenoid production have been reviewed expertly elsewhere. Since C50 carotenoids are synthesized from the C40 carotenoid lycopene, we will summarize common strategies for optimizing lycopene production and we will focus our review on the characteristics, biosynthesis, glycosylation, and overproduction of C50 carotenoids.

  15. Carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bing; Sun, Zongtao; Xu, Zhenjian; Shen, Shaochuan; Wang, Hu; Hua, Yuejin

    2008-12-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans strain R1 synthesizes deinoxanthin, a unique carotenoid product, which contributes to cell resistance following various stresses. The biosynthetic pathway of deinoxanthin is unclear, although several enzymes are presumed to be involved. The gene (dr2250) predicted by gene homologue analysis to encode carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase (CrtD) was deleted to investigate its function. A mutant deficient in the gene homologue of crtLm (dr0801) was also constructed to verify the catalytic function of the gene product in the native host. Carotenoid analysis of the resultant mutants verified that DR2250 encodes carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase, which catalyses the C-3',4'-desaturation of the monocyclic precursor of deinoxanthin but not acyclic carotenoids. Mutation of the gene homologue of crtLm (dr0801) resulted in accumulation of lycopene, confirming that it encodes the lycopene cyclase in the native host. The lack of CrtD decreased the antioxidant capacity of the mutant deficient in dr2250 compared with the wild-type, indicating that the C-3',4'-desaturation step contributes to the antioxidant capacity of deinoxanthin in D. radiodurans.

  16. Modification of carotenoid levels by abscission agents and expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in 'valencia' sweet orange.

    PubMed

    Alferez, Fernando; Pozo, Luis V; Rouseff, Russell R; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2013-03-27

    The effect of 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP) and ethephon on peel color, flavedo carotenoid gene expression, and carotenoid accumulation was investigated in mature 'Valencia' orange ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) fruit flavedo at three maturation stages. Abscission agent application altered peel color. CMNP was more effective than ethephon in promoting green-to-red (a) and blue-to-yellow (b) color at the middle and late maturation stages and total carotenoid changes at all maturation stages. Altered flow of carotenoid precursors during maturation due to abscission agents was suggested by changes in phytoene desaturase (Pds) and ζ-carotene desaturase (Zds) gene expression. However, each abscission agent affected downstream expression differentially. Ethephon application increased β-carotene hydroxilase (β-Chx) transcript accumulation 12-fold as maturation advanced from the early to middle and late stages. CMNP markedly increased β- and ε-lycopene cyclase (Lcy) transcript accumulation 45- and 15-fold, respectively, at midmaturation. Patterns of carotenoid accumulation in flavedo were supported in part by gene expression changes. CMNP caused greater accumulation of total flavedo carotenoids at all maturation stages when compared with ethephon or controls. In general, CMNP treatment increased total red carotenoids more than ethephon or the control but decreased total yellow carotenoids at each maturation stage. In control fruit flavedo, total red carotenoids increased and yellow carotenoids decreased as maturation progressed. Trends in total red carotenoids during maturation were consistent with measured a values. Changes in carotenoid accumulation and expression patterns in flavedo suggest that regulation of carotenoid accumulation is under transcriptional, translational, and post-translational control.

  17. Optical absorption spectra of dications of carotenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Jeevarajan, J.A.; Wei, C.C.; Jeevarajan, A.S.; Kispert, L.D.

    1996-04-04

    Quantitative optical absorption spectra of the cation radicals and the dications of canthaxanthin (I), {beta}carotene (II), 7`-cyano-7`-ethoxycarbonyl-7`-apo-{beta}-carotene (III), and 7`,7`-dimethyl-7`-apo-{beta}-carotene (IV) in dichloromethane solution are reported. Exclusive formation of dications occurs when the carotenoids are oxidized with ferric chloride. Addition of neutral carotenoid to the dications results in equilibrium formation of cation radicals. Oxidation with iodine in dichloromethane affords only cation radicals; electrochemical oxidation under suitable conditions yields both dications and cation radicals. Values of the optical parameters depend on the nature of the oxidative medium. The oscillator strengths calculated for gas phase cation radicals and dications of I-IV using the INDO/S method show the same trend as the experimental values. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Carotenoid:β-cyclodextrin stability is independent of pigment structure.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, Elisabet; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2017-04-15

    Carotenoids refer to a wide class of lipophilic pigments synthesized by plants, exert photoprotective and antioxidant properties that are lost upon carotenoid degradation. Their inclusion into hydrophilic host-molecules could improve their stability. Cyclodextrins, provide a hydrophobic cavity in the core of their structure while the outer configuration is suitable with aqueous environments. Carotenoids can accommodate into the hydrophobic core of cyclodextrins and therefore, they are protected from exogenous stress. Literature reported that carotenoid structure could modulate stability of the complexes, however no conclusions can be drawn as the studies performed so far were not completely analogous. We describe the synthesis of several carotenoids/β-CDs inclusion complexes and provide experimental evidences that β-CDs inclusion renders these compounds more stability towards the oxidizing agents (2,2'-azobis, 2-methylpropionamidine dihydrochloride and hydrogen peroxide). Esterified carotenoids were also used in this work to screen the influence of this particular structural configuration of xanthophylls against oxidation.

  19. Biotechnological production of value-added carotenoids from microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Wichuk, Kristine; Brynjólfsson, Sigurður; Fu, Weiqi

    2014-01-01

    We recently evaluated the relationship between abiotic environmental stresses and lutein biosynthesis in the green microalga Dunaliella salina and suggested a rational design of stress-driven adaptive evolution experiments for carotenoids production in microalgae. Here, we summarize our recent findings regarding the biotechnological production of carotenoids from microalgae and outline emerging technology in this field. Carotenoid metabolic pathways are characterized in several representative algal species as they pave the way for biotechnology development. The adaptive evolution strategy is highlighted in connection with enhanced growth rate and carotenoid metabolism. In addition, available genetic modification tools are described, with emphasis on model species. A brief discussion on the role of lights as limiting factors in carotenoid production in microalgae is also included. Overall, our analysis suggests that light-driven metabolism and the photosynthetic efficiency of microalgae in photobioreactors are the main bottlenecks in enhancing biotechnological potential of carotenoid production from microalgae. PMID:24691165

  20. Carotenoid extraction methods: A review of recent developments.

    PubMed

    Saini, Ramesh Kumar; Keum, Young-Soo

    2018-02-01

    The versatile use of carotenoids in feed, food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries has emphasized the optimization of extraction methods to obtain the highest recovery. The choice of method for carotenoid extraction from food matrices is crucial, owing to the presence of diverse carotenoids with varied levels of polarity, and the presence of various physical and chemical barriers in the food matrices. This review highlights the theoretical aspects and recent developments of various conventional and nonconventional methods used for the extraction of carotenoids, including ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Recent applications of non-toxic and environmentally safe solvents (green solvents) and ionic liquids (IL) for carotenoid extraction are also described. Additionally, future research challenges in the context of carotenoids extractions are also identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioaccessibility of carotenoids from Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Gille, Andrea; Trautmann, Andreas; Posten, Clemens; Briviba, Karlis

    2015-08-01

    Microalgae can contribute to a balanced diet because of their composition. Beside numerous essential nutrients, carotenoids are in the focus for food applications. The bioavailability of carotenoids from photoautotrophic-cultivated Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii) was compared. An in vitro digestion model was used to investigate carotenoid bioaccessibility. Furthermore, the effect of sonication on bioaccessibility was assessed. Lutein was the main carotenoid in both species. C. reinhardtii showed higher amounts of lutein and β-carotene than C. vulgaris. In contrast to C. reinhardtii, no β-carotene and only 7% of lutein were bioaccessible in nonsonicated C. vulgaris. Sonication increased the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from C. vulgaris to a level comparable with C. reinhardtii (β-carotene: ≥ 10%; lutein: ≥ 15%). Thus, C. reinhardtii represents a good carotenoid source for potential use in foods without processing, while the application of processing methods, like sonication, is necessary for C. vulgaris.

  2. Marine carotenoids: Bioactivities and potential benefits to human health.

    PubMed

    Chuyen, Hoang Van; Eun, Jong-Bang

    2017-08-13

    Among natural pigments, carotenoids play important roles in physiological functions. The characteristics of carotenoids and their effects on human health have been reported for a long time, but most studies have focused on carotenoids from vegetables, fruits, and other parts of higher plants. Few reports are available on carotenoids from marine sources, such as seaweeds, microalgae, and marine animals, which have attracted attention in recent decades. Hundreds of carotenoids have been identified and isolated from marine organisms and their beneficial physiological functions, such as anticancer, antiobesity, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective activities have been reported. The purpose of this review is to discuss the literature on the beneficial bioactivities of some of the most abundant marine carotenoids, including fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, cantaxanthin, peridinin, fucoxanthinol, and halocynthiaxanthin.

  3. Raman spectra of carotenoids in natural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withnall, Robert; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Silver, Jack; Edwards, Howell G. M.; de Oliveira, Luiz F. C.

    2003-08-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of naturally occurring carotenoids have been obtained from nautilus, periwinkle ( Littorina littorea) and clam shells under 514.5 nm excitation and these spectra are compared with the resonance Raman spectra obtained in situ from tomatoes, carrots, red peppers and saffron. The tomatoes, carrots and red peppers gave rise to resonance Raman spectra exhibiting a ν1 band at ca. 1520 cm -1, in keeping with its assignment to carotenoids with ca. nine conjugated carboncarbon double bonds in their main chains, whereas the resonance Raman spectrum of saffron showed a ν1 band at 1537 cm -1 which can be assigned to crocetin, having seven conjugated carboncarbon double bonds. A correlation between ν1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length has been used to interpret the data obtained from the shells, and the wavenumber position (1522 cm -1) of the ν1 band of the carotenoid in the orange clam shell suggests that it contains nine conjugated double bonds in the main chain. However, the black periwinkle and nautilus shells exhibit ν1 bands at 1504 and 1496 cm -1, respectively. On the basis of the correlation between ν1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length, this indicates that they contain carotenoids with longer conjugated chains, the former having ca. 11 double bonds and the latter ca. 13 or even more. Raman spectra of the nautilus, periwinkle and clam shells also exhibited a strong band at 1085 cm -1 and a doublet with components at 701 and 705 cm -1, which can be assigned to biogenic calcium carbonate in the aragonite crystallographic form.

  4. Optimal nutrition: vitamin A and the carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Thurnham, D I; Northrop-Clewes, C A

    1999-05-01

    There are two major dietary sources of vitamin A: easily absorbed retinyl palmitate in foods of animal origin, and poorly bioavailable carotenoids from plant foods. Plasma retinol is tightly controlled, probably by regulation of retinol-binding protein (RBP) formation in the liver, and only hormonal factors (e.g. oral contraceptives) and infection will alter the homeostasis. Delivery of retinol to the tissues is facilitated by the RBP-retinol complex; however, there is evidence that this mechanism can be bypassed when very high doses of vitamin A are given. Some retinyl ester may be released to tissues from chylomicrons when the latter bind to tissue lipoprotein receptors during their passage from the gut to the liver following a meal. High-dose vitamin A therapy is a means of rapidly improving vitamin A status in persons with sub-optimal vitamin A nutrition but there are dangers of toxic symptoms (e.g. teratogenicity) from excess vitamin A usage. Evidence is presented to suggest that the plasma retinol: RBP may be a guide to optimal vitamin A status, since values less than one frequently occur in less-developed countries and during infection. In contrast to plasma retinol, plasma carotenoids reflect the dietary intake of plant foods. However, absorption is limited by poor bioavailability and a saturable uptake mechanism in competition with other phytochemicals. Recent work on bioavailability suggests that the calculation of plant food vitamin A activity should be re-examined. Illness has little influence on plasma levels except by suppressing appetite. Carotenoids are generally regarded as non-toxic yet intervention studies with beta-carotene in smokers have been associated with increased lung cancer and heart disease. Some carotenoids are important as vitamin A precursors, but the physiological importance of their antioxidant properties is not known and consequently the amount needed for optimal nutrition is uncertain.

  5. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments of prochloron (prochlorophyta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paerl, H. W.; Lewin, R. A.; Cheng, L.

    1983-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a gradient-elution technique was utilized to separate and quantify chlorophylls a and b as well as major carotenoid pigments present in freeze-dried preprations of prochloron-didemnid associations and in Prochloron cells separated from host colonies. Results confirm earlier spectrophotometric evidence for both chlorophylls a and b in this prokaryote. Chlorophyll a:b ratios range from 4.14 to 19.71; generally good agreement was found between ratios determined in isolated cell preprations and in symbiotic colonies (in hospite). These values are 1.5 to 5-fold higher than ratios determined in a variety of eukaryotic green plants. The carotenoids in Prochloron are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those found in various freshwater and marine blue-green algae (cyanopbytes) from high-light environments. However, Prochloron differs from cyanophytes by the absence of myxoxanthophyll and related glycosidic carotenoids. It pigment characteristics are considered sufficiently different from those of cyanophytes to justify its assignment to a separate algal division.

  6. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments of prochloron (prochlorophyta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paerl, H. W.; Lewin, R. A.; Cheng, L.

    1983-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a gradient-elution technique was utilized to separate and quantify chlorophylls a and b as well as major carotenoid pigments present in freeze-dried preprations of prochloron-didemnid associations and in Prochloron cells separated from host colonies. Results confirm earlier spectrophotometric evidence for both chlorophylls a and b in this prokaryote. Chlorophyll a:b ratios range from 4.14 to 19.71; generally good agreement was found between ratios determined in isolated cell preprations and in symbiotic colonies (in hospite). These values are 1.5 to 5-fold higher than ratios determined in a variety of eukaryotic green plants. The carotenoids in Prochloron are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those found in various freshwater and marine blue-green algae (cyanopbytes) from high-light environments. However, Prochloron differs from cyanophytes by the absence of myxoxanthophyll and related glycosidic carotenoids. It pigment characteristics are considered sufficiently different from those of cyanophytes to justify its assignment to a separate algal division.

  7. A Unified Picture of S* in Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In π-conjugated chain molecules such as carotenoids, coupling between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom is of central importance. It governs both dynamic and static properties, such as the time scales of excited state relaxation as well as absorption spectra. In this work, we treat vibronic dynamics in carotenoids on four electronic states (|S0⟩, |S1⟩, |S2⟩, and |Sn⟩) in a physically rigorous framework. This model explains all features previously associated with the intensely debated S* state. Besides successfully fitting transient absorption data of a zeaxanthin homologue, this model also accounts for previous results from global target analysis and chain length-dependent studies. Additionally, we are able to incorporate findings from pump-deplete-probe experiments, which were incompatible to any pre-existing model. Thus, we present the first comprehensive and unified interpretation of S*-related features, explaining them by vibronic transitions on either S1, S0, or both, depending on the chain length of the investigated carotenoid. PMID:27509302

  8. [Carotenoid pigments: structural and physicochemical considerations].

    PubMed

    Meléndez-Martínez, Antonio J; Vicario, Isabel M; Heredia, Francisco J

    2007-06-01

    Carotenoid are ubiquitous compounds serving a series of functions that make them special. Thus, they are regarded as essential compounds for life mainly due to the different roles they perform in photosynthesis as we currently know it. For many years, the nutritional relevance ot carotenoids was due to some of them exhibiting vitamin A activity, although the interest in these pigments has expanded dramatically in the last years owing to a large variety of surveys that seem to indicate that they are antioxidant and may be beneficial for the prevention of several chronic non-transmissible human diseases, albeit there is some controversy in this regard. In any case, it is clear that the different functions and effects attributed to these isoprenoids stem from their physical and chemical properties, the latter being due to their chemical structure. Due to the diverse benefitial actions carotenoids are responsible for and, above all, to their nutritional importance, the main objective of this review is to describe such features, whose knowledge is indispensable to have a holistic view of the different roles they play and for the design of new studies.

  9. Development of a rapid, simple assay of plasma total carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasma total carotenoids can be used as an indicator of risk of chronic disease. Laboratory analysis of individual carotenoids by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is time consuming, expensive, and not amenable to use beyond a research laboratory. The aim of this research is to establish a rapid, simple, and inexpensive spectrophotometric assay of plasma total carotenoids that has a very strong correlation with HPLC carotenoid profile analysis. Results Plasma total carotenoids from 29 volunteers ranged in concentration from 1.2 to 7.4 μM, as analyzed by HPLC. A linear correlation was found between the absorbance at 448 nm of an alcohol / heptane extract of the plasma and plasma total carotenoids analyzed by HPLC, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.989. The average coefficient of variation for the spectrophotometric assay was 6.5% for the plasma samples. The limit of detection was about 0.3 μM and was linear up to about 34 μM without dilution. Correlations between the integrals of the absorption spectra in the range of carotenoid absorption and total plasma carotenoid concentration gave similar results to the absorbance correlation. Spectrophotometric assay results also agreed with the calculated expected absorbance based on published extinction coefficients for the individual carotenoids, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.988. Conclusion The spectrophotometric assay of total carotenoids strongly correlated with HPLC analysis of carotenoids of the same plasma samples and expected absorbance values based on extinction coefficients. This rapid, simple, inexpensive assay, when coupled with the carotenoid health index, may be useful for nutrition intervention studies, population cohort studies, and public health interventions. PMID:23006902

  10. Carotenoid Antenna Binding and Function in Retinal Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-13

    REPORT Carotenoid antenna binding and function in retinal proteins 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Xanthorhodopsin, a proton pump from the...eubacterium Salinibacter ruber, is a unique dual chromophore system that contains, in addition to retinal, the carotenoid salinixanthin as a light... carotenoid ring near the retinal ring. Substitution of the small glycine with bulky tryptophan in this site eliminates binding. The second factor is the 4

  11. The carotenoid dioxygenase gene family in maize, sorghum, and rice

    PubMed Central

    Vallabhaneni, Ratnakar; Bradbury, Louis M. T.; Wurtzel, Eleanore T.

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoids and their apocarotenoid derivatives play essential physiological and developmental roles and provide plants tolerance to a variety of stresses. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases mediate the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids. A better understanding of biosynthesis vs. degradation could be useful for controlling carotenoid levels leading to improved plant fitness and/or enhanced content of nutritionally valuable carotenoids. The Poaceae (grass) plant family contains many crops of agronomic value. Therefore this study focused on characterizing the carotenoid dioxygenase gene family in the grass species maize, rice, and sorghum with comparison made to newly identified gene families in two non-seed plants as well as an alga and previously identified eudicot genes. Genome analysis was used to map grass genes encoding the carotenoid dioxygenases to chromosome locations. Sequences of encoded proteins were phylogenetically compared. CCD8b was identified as a new class of cleavage dioxygenases that may play a specialized role in apocarotenoid biogenesis. A simple PCR assay was developed to measure CCD1 gene copy number which is known to vary in maize. Using a panel of maize inbred lines varying in carotenoid content, linear regression analysis revealed a statistically significant negative correlation between copy number of CCD1 and carotenoid content, an effect likely mediated through the resulting elevated levels of endosperm CCD1 transcripts in high copy number lines. The PCR assay adds to a growing toolbox for metabolic engineering of maize endosperm carotenoids. This new tool can be used to select maize lines that are less likely to promote endosperm carotenoid degradation, thus predicting optimal results in metabolic engineering of endosperm provitamin A and/or nonprovitamin A carotenoids. PMID:20670614

  12. ProCarDB: a database of bacterial carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Nupur, L N U; Vats, Asheema; Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Raghava, Gajendra P S; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Ashwani

    2016-05-26

    Carotenoids have important functions in bacteria, ranging from harvesting light energy to neutralizing oxidants and acting as virulence factors. However, information pertaining to the carotenoids is scattered throughout the literature. Furthermore, information about the genes/proteins involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids has tremendously increased in the post-genomic era. A web server providing the information about microbial carotenoids in a structured manner is required and will be a valuable resource for the scientific community working with microbial carotenoids. Here, we have created a manually curated, open access, comprehensive compilation of bacterial carotenoids named as ProCarDB- Prokaryotic Carotenoid Database. ProCarDB includes 304 unique carotenoids arising from 50 biosynthetic pathways distributed among 611 prokaryotes. ProCarDB provides important information on carotenoids, such as 2D and 3D structures, molecular weight, molecular formula, SMILES, InChI, InChIKey, IUPAC name, KEGG Id, PubChem Id, and ChEBI Id. The database also provides NMR data, UV-vis absorption data, IR data, MS data and HPLC data that play key roles in the identification of carotenoids. An important feature of this database is the extension of biosynthetic pathways from the literature and through the presence of the genes/enzymes in different organisms. The information contained in the database was mined from published literature and databases such as KEGG, PubChem, ChEBI, LipidBank, LPSN, and Uniprot. The database integrates user-friendly browsing and searching with carotenoid analysis tools to help the user. We believe that this database will serve as a major information centre for researchers working on bacterial carotenoids.

  13. Ultrastructural deposition forms and bioaccessibility of carotenoids and carotenoid esters from goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.).

    PubMed

    Hempel, Judith; Schädle, Christopher N; Sprenger, Jasmin; Heller, Annerose; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2017-03-01

    Goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.) have been known to contain strikingly high levels of zeaxanthin, while the physical deposition form and bioaccessibility of the latter was yet unknown. In the present study, we associated ripening-induced modifications in the profile of carotenoids with fundamental changes of the deposition state of carotenoids in goji berries. Unripe fruit contained common chloroplast-specific carotenoids being protein-bound within chloroplastidal thylakoids. The subsequent ripening-induced transformation of chloroplasts to tubular chromoplasts was accompanied by an accumulation of up to 36mg/100g FW zeaxanthin dipalmitate and further minor xanthophyll esters, prevailing in a presumably liquid-crystalline state within the nano-scaled chromoplast tubules. The in vitro digestion unraveled the enhanced liberation and bioaccessibility of zeaxanthin from these tubular aggregates in goji berries as compared to protein-complexed lutein from spinach. Goji berries therefore might represent a more potent source of macular pigments than green leafy vegetables like spinach.

  14. Effects of carotenoids from lucerne, marigold and tomato on egg yolk pigmentation and carotenoid composition.

    PubMed

    Karadas, F; Grammenidis, E; Surai, P F; Acamovic, T; Sparks, N H C

    2006-10-01

    1. The effects of various sources of natural carotenoids (Px alfalfa concentrate, tomato powder and marigold extract) as feed additives in quail diets on egg yolk pigmentation and carotenoid composition were investigated. 2. Adult Japanese quail were fed one of 5 different diets for 23 d: three diets each contained Px alfalfa concentrate (PX) or tomato powder (TP) or marigold extract (MG), one diet contained marigold extract and tomato powder (MG + TP) and a control diet (wheat/barley based) was low in carotenoid. All products were added at a rate of 2%, apart from marigold extract which was added at a rate of 0.2%. 3. Visual assessment of yolk colour (Roche colour fan) showed a stabilised yolk colour of 1.6, 7.7, 8.5, 8.8 and 10.6 for the control, PX, TP, MG and MG + TP treatments, respectively. 4. The total carotenoid concentration of the egg yolks were 2.2, 22.4, 4.1, 39.0 and 37.7 microg/g for the experimental groups fed the following diets: control, PX, TP, MG and MG + TP, respectively. Deposition of retinol, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in the egg yolk was unaffected by treatments. 5. Lutein was shown to be the major carotenoid in the egg yolk, comprising 1.65, 17.97, 2.03, 31.14 and 28.57 microg/g in control, PX, TP, MG and MG + TP, respectively. Inclusion of TP in the quail diet resulted in lycopene transfer to the egg. 6. It was concluded that, in comparison with the control group, there was an increase in the yolk concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and beta-carotene in eggs produced by female quail fed diets supplemented with natural carotenoids.

  15. A Carotenoid Health Index Based on Plasma Carotenoids and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    While there have been many studies on health outcomes that have included measurements of plasma carotenoids, this data has not been reviewed and assembled into a useful form. In this review sixty-two studies of plasma carotenoids and health outcomes, mostly prospective cohort studies or population-based case-control studies, are analyzed together to establish a carotenoid health index. Five cutoff points are established across the percentiles of carotenoid concentrations in populations, from the tenth to ninetieth percentile. The cutoff points (mean ± standard error of the mean) are 1.11 ± 0.08, 1.47 ± 0.08, 1.89 ± 0.08, 2.52 ± 0.13, and 3.07 ± 0.20 µM. For all cause mortality there seems to be a low threshold effect with protection above every cutoff point but the lowest. But for metabolic syndrome and cancer outcomes there tends to be significant positive health outcomes only above the higher cutoff points, perhaps as a triage effect. Based on this data a carotenoid health index is proposed with risk categories as follows: very high risk: <1 µM, high risk: 1-1.5 µM, moderate risk: 1.5-2.5 µM, low risk: 2.5-4 µM, and very low risk: >4 µM. Over 95 percent of the USA population falls into the moderate or high risk category of the carotenoid health index. PMID:22292108

  16. Specific Appetite for Carotenoids in a Colorful Bird

    PubMed Central

    Senar, Juan Carlos; Møller, Anders Pape; Ruiz, Iker; Negro, Juan José; Broggi, Juli; Hohtola, Esa

    2010-01-01

    Background Since carotenoids have physiological functions necessary for maintaining health, individuals should be selected to actively seek and develop a specific appetite for these compounds. Methodology/Principal Findings Great tits Parus major in a diet choice experiment, both in captivity and the field, preferred carotenoid-enriched diets to control diets. The food items did not differ in any other aspects measured besides carotenoid content. Conclusions/Significance Specific appetite for carotenoids is here demonstrated for the first time, placing these compounds on a par with essential nutrients as sodium or calcium. PMID:20502717

  17. A mitochondrial enzyme degrades carotenoids and protects against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Amengual, Jaume; Lobo, Glenn P; Golczak, Marcin; Li, Hua Nan M; Klimova, Tatyana; Hoppel, Charles L; Wyss, Adrian; Palczewski, Krzysztof; von Lintig, Johannes

    2011-03-01

    Carotenoids are the precursors for vitamin A and are proposed to prevent oxidative damage to cells. Mammalian genomes encode a family of structurally related nonheme iron oxygenases that modify double bonds of these compounds by oxidative cleavage and cis-to-trans isomerization. The roles of the family members BCMO1 and RPE65 for vitamin A production and vision have been well established. Surprisingly, we found that the third family member, β,β-carotene-9',10'-oxygenase (BCDO2), is a mitochondrial carotenoid-oxygenase with broad substrate specificity. In BCDO2-deficient mice, carotenoid homeostasis was abrogated, and carotenoids accumulated in several tissues. In hepatic mitochondria, accumulated carotenoids induced key markers of mitochondrial dysfunction, such as manganese superoxide dismutase (9-fold), and reduced rates of ADP-dependent respiration by 30%. This impairment was associated with an 8- to 9-fold induction of phosphor-MAP kinase and phosphor-AKT, markers of cell signaling pathways related to oxidative stress and disease. Administration of carotenoids to human HepG2 cells depolarized mitochondrial membranes and resulted in the production of reactive oxygen species. Thus, our studies in BCDO2-deficient mice and human cell cultures indicate that carotenoids can impair respiration and induce oxidative stress. Mammalian cells thus express a mitochondrial carotenoid-oxygenase that degrades carotenoids to protect these vital organelles.

  18. Involvement of Ethylene in Phytochrome-mediated Carotenoid Synthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bin G.; Burg, Stanley P.

    1972-01-01

    Accumulation of carotenoid pigments in the shoot apex of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum cv. Alaska) seedlings is completely prevented by ethylene. Under certain conditions carotenoid synthesis is normally controlled by endogenously produced ethylene. The gas completely inhibits carotenoid synthesis induced either by continuous white light or brief illumination with red light, but only partially inhibits light-induced chlorophyll formation. Far red illumination followed by red illumination reverses the action of red light on carotenoid synthesis. Red light-induced carotenogenesis is partly or wholly caused by phytochrome-mediated inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis. PMID:16658014

  19. Accumulation of Carotenoids and Expression of Carotenoid Biosynthetic Genes during Maturation in Citrus Fruit1

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masaya; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Sugiura, Minoru; Hyodo, Hiroshi; Yano, Masamichi

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes during fruit maturation was investigated in three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.). We cloned the cDNAs for phytoene synthase (CitPSY), phytoene desaturase (CitPDS), ζ-carotene (car) desaturase (CitZDS), carotenoid isomerase (CitCRTISO), lycopene β-cyclase (CitLCYb), β-ring hydroxylase (CitHYb), zeaxanthin (zea) epoxidase (CitZEP), and lycopene ε-cyclase (CitLCYe) from Satsuma mandarin, which shared high identities in nucleotide sequences with Valencia orange, Lisbon lemon, and other plant species. With the transition of peel color from green to orange, the change from β,ε-carotenoid (α-car and lutein) accumulation to β,β-carotenoid (β-car, β-cryptoxanthin, zea, and violaxanthin) accumulation was observed in the flavedos of Satsuma mandarin and Valencia orange, accompanying the disappearance of CitLCYe transcripts and the increase in CitLCYb transcripts. Even in green fruit, high levels of β,ε-carotenoids and CitLCYe transcripts were not observed in the juice sacs. As fruit maturation progressed in Satsuma mandarin and Valencia orange, a simultaneous increase in the expression of genes (CitPSY, CitPDS, CitZDS, CitLCYb, CitHYb, and CitZEP) led to massive β,β-xanthophyll (β-cryptoxanthin, zea, and violaxanthin) accumulation in both the flavedo and juice sacs. The gene expression of CitCRTISO was kept low or decreased in the flavedo during massive β,β-xanthophyll accumulation. In the flavedo of Lisbon lemon and Satsuma mandarin, massive accumulation of phytoene was observed with a decrease in the transcript level for CitPDS. Thus, the carotenoid accumulation during citrus fruit maturation was highly regulated by the coordination of the expression among carotenoid biosynthetic genes. In this paper, the mechanism leading to diversity in

  20. Directed evolution of carotenoid synthases for the production of unnatural carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Furubayashi, Maiko; Umeno, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    Directed evolution is a well-established strategy to confer novel catalytic functions to the enzymes. Thanks to the relative ease of establishing color screening, carotenogenic enzymes can be rapidly evolved in the laboratory for novel functions. The combinatorial usages of the evolvants result in the creation of diverse set of novel, sometimes unnatural carotenoids. This chapter describes the directed evolution of diapophytoene (C(30) carotenoid) synthase CrtM to function in the foreign C(40) pathway, and the use of the CrtM variants thus obtained for the production of novel backbone structures.

  1. Carotenoids and Carotenoid Esters of Red and Yellow Physalis (Physalis alkekengi L. and P. pubescens L.) Fruits and Calyces.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin; Hempel, Judith; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Ni, Yuanying; Carle, Reinhold

    2017-08-02

    Carotenoid profiles of fruits and calyces of red (Physalis alkekengi L.) and yellow (P. pubescens L.) Physalis were characterized by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS(n). Altogether 69 carotenoids were detected in red Physalis, thereof, 45 were identified. In yellow Physalis, 40 carotenoids were detected and 33 were identified. Zeaxanthin esters with various fatty acids were found to be the most abundant carotenoids in red Physalis, accounting for 51-63% of total carotenoids, followed by β-cryptoxanthin esters (16-24%). In yellow Physalis, mainly free carotenoids such as lutein and β-carotene were found. Total carotenoid contents ranged between 19.8 and 21.6 mg/100 g fresh red Physalis fruits and 1.28-1.38 mg/100 g fresh yellow Physalis fruits, demonstrating that Physalis fruits are rich sources of dietary carotenoids. Yellow Physalis calyces contained only 153-306 μg carotenoids/g dry weight, while those of red Physalis contained substantially higher amounts (14.6-17.6 mg/g dry weight), thus possibly exhibiting great potential as a natural source for commercial zeaxanthin extraction.

  2. Health Effects of Carotenoids during Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Zielińska, Monika A.; Wesołowska, Aleksandra; Pawlus, Beata; Hamułka, Jadwiga

    2017-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is particularly important during pregnancy since it is needed not only for maintaining the health of the mother, but also determines the course of pregnancy and its outcome, fetus development as well as the child’s health after birth and during the later period of life. Data coming from epidemiological and interventions studies support the observation that carotenoids intake provide positive health effects in adults and the elderly population. These health effects are the result of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies have also demonstrated the significant role of carotenoids during pregnancy and infancy. Some studies indicate a correlation between carotenoid status and lower risk of pregnancy pathologies induced by intensified oxidative stress, but results of these investigations are equivocal. Carotenoids have been well studied in relation to their beneficial role in the prevention of preeclampsia. It is currently hypothesized that carotenoids can play an important role in the prevention of preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction. Carotenoid status in the newborn depends on the nutritional status of the mother, but little is known about the transfer of carotenoids from the mother to the fetus. Carotenoids are among the few nutrients found in breast milk, in which the levels are determined by the mother’s diet. Nutritional status of the newborn directly depends on its diet. Both mix feeding and artificial feeding may cause depletion of carotenoids since infant formulas contain only trace amounts of these compounds. Carotenoids, particularly lutein and zeaxanthin play a significant role in the development of vision and nervous system (among others, they are important for the development of retina as well as energy metabolism and brain electrical activity). Furthermore, more scientific evidence is emerging on the role of carotenoids in the prevention of disorders affecting preterm infants, who are

  3. Carotenoids in Staple Cereals: Metabolism, Regulation, and Genetic Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Shengnan; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids play a critical role in animal and human health. Animals and humans are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, and therefore rely upon diet as sources of these compounds. However, major staple cereals often contain only small amounts of carotenoids in their grains. Consequently, there is considerable interest in genetic manipulation of carotenoid content in cereal grain. In this review, we focus on carotenoid metabolism and regulation in non-green plant tissues, as well as genetic manipulation in staple cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat. Significant progress has been made in three aspects: (1) seven carotenogenes play vital roles in carotenoid regulation in non-green plant tissues, including 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase influencing isoprenoid precursor supply, phytoene synthase, β-cyclase, and ε-cyclase controlling biosynthesis, 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases responsible for degradation, and orange gene conditioning sequestration sink; (2) provitamin A-biofortified crops, such as rice and maize, were developed by either metabolic engineering or marker-assisted breeding; (3) quantitative trait loci for carotenoid content on chromosomes 3B, 7A, and 7B were consistently identified, eight carotenogenes including 23 loci were detected, and 10 gene-specific markers for carotenoid accumulation were developed and applied in wheat improvement. A comprehensive and deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism in crops will be beneficial in improving our precision in improving carotenoid contents. Genomic selection and gene editing are emerging as transformative technologies for provitamin A biofortification. PMID:27559339

  4. Heterologous carotenoid-biosynthetic enzymes: functional complementation and effects on carotenoid profiles in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Song, Gyu Hyeon; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Choi, Bo Hyun; Han, Se Jong; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2013-01-01

    A limited number of carotenoid pathway genes from microbial sources have been studied for analyzing the pathway complementation in the heterologous host Escherichia coli. In order to systematically investigate the functionality of carotenoid pathway enzymes in E. coli, the pathway genes of carotenogenic microorganisms (Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, Rhodopirellula baltica, and Pantoea ananatis) were modified to form synthetic expression modules and then were complemented with Pantoea agglomerans pathway enzymes (CrtE, CrtB, CrtI, CrtY, and CrtZ). The carotenogenic pathway enzymes in the synthetic modules showed unusual activities when complemented with E. coli. For example, the expression of heterologous CrtEs of B. linens, C. glutamicum, and R. baltica influenced P. agglomerans CrtI to convert its substrate phytoene into a rare product-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene-along with lycopene, which was an expected product, indicating that CrtE, the first enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, can influence carotenoid profiles. In addition, CrtIs of R. sphaeroides and R. capsulatus converted phytoene into an unusual lycopene as well as into neurosporene. Thus, this study shows that the functional complementation of pathway enzymes from different sources is a useful methodology for diversifying biosynthesis as nature does.

  5. Heterologous Carotenoid-Biosynthetic Enzymes: Functional Complementation and Effects on Carotenoid Profiles in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gyu Hyeon; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Choi, Bo Hyun; Han, Se Jong

    2013-01-01

    A limited number of carotenoid pathway genes from microbial sources have been studied for analyzing the pathway complementation in the heterologous host Escherichia coli. In order to systematically investigate the functionality of carotenoid pathway enzymes in E. coli, the pathway genes of carotenogenic microorganisms (Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, Rhodopirellula baltica, and Pantoea ananatis) were modified to form synthetic expression modules and then were complemented with Pantoea agglomerans pathway enzymes (CrtE, CrtB, CrtI, CrtY, and CrtZ). The carotenogenic pathway enzymes in the synthetic modules showed unusual activities when complemented with E. coli. For example, the expression of heterologous CrtEs of B. linens, C. glutamicum, and R. baltica influenced P. agglomerans CrtI to convert its substrate phytoene into a rare product—3,4,3′,4′-tetradehydrolycopene—along with lycopene, which was an expected product, indicating that CrtE, the first enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, can influence carotenoid profiles. In addition, CrtIs of R. sphaeroides and R. capsulatus converted phytoene into an unusual lycopene as well as into neurosporene. Thus, this study shows that the functional complementation of pathway enzymes from different sources is a useful methodology for diversifying biosynthesis as nature does. PMID:23144136

  6. Expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes and changes in carotenoids during ripening in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Namitha, Kanakapura Krishnamurthy; Archana, Surya Narayana; Negi, Pradeep Singh

    2011-04-01

    To study the expression pattern of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes, changes in their expression at different stages of maturity in tomato fruit (cv. Arka Ahuti) were investigated. The genes regulating carotenoid production were quantified by a dot blot method using a DIG (dioxigenin) labelling and detection kit. The results revealed that there was an increase in the levels of upstream genes of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway such as 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (Lyt B), phytoene synthase (PSY), phytoene desaturase (PDS) and ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS) by 2-4 fold at the breaker stage as compared to leaf. The lycopene and β-carotene content was analyzed by HPLC at different stages of maturity. The lycopene (15.33 ± 0.24 mg per 100 g) and β-carotene (10.37 ± 0.46 mg per 100 g) content were found to be highest at 5 days post-breaker and 10 days post-breaker stage, respectively. The lycopene accumulation pattern also coincided with the color values at different stages of maturity. These studies may provide insight into devising gene-based strategies for enhancing carotenoid accumulation in tomato fruits.

  7. Comparative in vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids from relevant contributors to carotenoid intake.

    PubMed

    Granado-Lorencio, Fernando; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Herrero-Barbudo, Carmen; Pérez-Sacristan, Belén; Blanco-Navarro, Inmaculada; Blazquez-García, Silvia

    2007-07-25

    To compare the in vitro bioaccessibility of lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and alpha-and beta-carotenes from relevant dietary contributors, a gastrointestinal model was used to assess the stability, isomerization, carotenol ester hydrolysis, and micellarization. Salivar, gastric, duodenal, and micellar phases were extracted, with and without saponification, and analyzed by using a quality-controlled HPLC method. The stability of carotenoids under digestion conditions was >75%, regardless of the food analyzed, whereas micellarization ranged from 5 to 100%, depending on the carotenoid and the food. cis-Isomers were maintained in processed foods, but increased in fresh foods. Xanthophyll ester hydrolysis was incomplete (<40%), and both free and ester forms were incorporated into supernatants, regardless of the xanthophyll involved and the food assessed. In vitro bioaccesibility varies widely both for different carotenoids in a given food and for a given carotenoid in different foods. Although in vitro bioaccesibility may not be enough to predict the in vivo bioavailability, it may be relevant for the food industry and for food-based dietary guidelines.

  8. A molecular genetic analysis of carotenoid biosynthesis and the effects of carotenoid mutations on other photosynthetic genes in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.

    1989-04-01

    The nine known R. capsulatus carotenoid genes are contained within the 46 kilobase (kb) photosynthesis gene cluster. An 11 kb subcluster containing eight of these genes has been cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. A new gene, crtK, has been located in the middle of the subcluster. The carotenoid gene cluster contains sequences homologous to Escherichia coli ..omega../sup 70/ promoters, rho-independent transcription terminators, and prokaryotic transcriptional factor binding sites. The phenotypes and genotypes of ten transposon Tn5.7 insertion mutations within the carotenoid gene cluster have been analyzed, by characterization of the carotenoids accumulated and high resolution mapping of the Tn5.7 insertions. The enzymatic blockages in previously uncharacterized early carotenoid mutants have been determined using a new in vitro synthesis system, suggesting specific roles for the CrtB and CrtE gene products. The expression of six of the eight carotenoid genes in the cluster is induced upon the shift from dark chemoheterotrophic to anaerobic photosynthetic growth. The magnitude of the induction is equivalent to that of genes encoding structural photosynthesis polypeptides, although the carotenoid genes are induced earlier after the growth shift. Different means of regulating photosynthesis genes in R. capsulatus are discussed, and a rationale for the temporal pattern of expression of the carotenoid genes during photosynthetic adaptation is presented. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the two dehydrogenases of the R. capsulatus carotenoid biosynthesis pathway reveals two regions of strong similarity. The effect of carotenoid mutations on the photosynthetic phenotype has been studied by examining growth rates, pigments, pigment-protein complexes and gene expression for a complete set of carotenoid mutants. 161 refs.

  9. The effects of dietary carotenoid supplementation and retinal carotenoid accumulation on vision-mediated foraging in the house finch.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Matthew B; McGraw, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    For many bird species, vision is the primary sensory modality used to locate and assess food items. The health and spectral sensitivities of the avian visual system are influenced by diet-derived carotenoid pigments that accumulate in the retina. Among wild House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), we have found that retinal carotenoid accumulation varies significantly among individuals and is related to dietary carotenoid intake. If diet-induced changes in retinal carotenoid accumulation alter spectral sensitivity, then they have the potential to affect visually mediated foraging performance. In two experiments, we measured foraging performance of house finches with dietarily manipulated retinal carotenoid levels. We tested each bird's ability to extract visually contrasting food items from a matrix of inedible distracters under high-contrast (full) and dimmer low-contrast (red-filtered) lighting conditions. In experiment one, zeaxanthin-supplemented birds had significantly increased retinal carotenoid levels, but declined in foraging performance in the high-contrast condition relative to astaxanthin-supplemented birds that showed no change in retinal carotenoid accumulation. In experiments one and two combined, we found that retinal carotenoid concentrations predicted relative foraging performance in the low- vs. high-contrast light conditions in a curvilinear pattern. Performance was positively correlated with retinal carotenoid accumulation among birds with low to medium levels of accumulation (∼0.5-1.5 µg/retina), but declined among birds with very high levels (>2.0 µg/retina). Our results suggest that carotenoid-mediated spectral filtering enhances color discrimination, but that this improvement is traded off against a reduction in sensitivity that can compromise visual discrimination. Thus, retinal carotenoid levels may be optimized to meet the visual demands of specific behavioral tasks and light environments.

  10. The Effects of Dietary Carotenoid Supplementation and Retinal Carotenoid Accumulation on Vision-Mediated Foraging in the House Finch

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Matthew B.; McGraw, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Background For many bird species, vision is the primary sensory modality used to locate and assess food items. The health and spectral sensitivities of the avian visual system are influenced by diet-derived carotenoid pigments that accumulate in the retina. Among wild House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), we have found that retinal carotenoid accumulation varies significantly among individuals and is related to dietary carotenoid intake. If diet-induced changes in retinal carotenoid accumulation alter spectral sensitivity, then they have the potential to affect visually mediated foraging performance. Methodology/Principal Findings In two experiments, we measured foraging performance of house finches with dietarily manipulated retinal carotenoid levels. We tested each bird's ability to extract visually contrasting food items from a matrix of inedible distracters under high-contrast (full) and dimmer low-contrast (red-filtered) lighting conditions. In experiment one, zeaxanthin-supplemented birds had significantly increased retinal carotenoid levels, but declined in foraging performance in the high-contrast condition relative to astaxanthin-supplemented birds that showed no change in retinal carotenoid accumulation. In experiments one and two combined, we found that retinal carotenoid concentrations predicted relative foraging performance in the low- vs. high-contrast light conditions in a curvilinear pattern. Performance was positively correlated with retinal carotenoid accumulation among birds with low to medium levels of accumulation (∼0.5–1.5 µg/retina), but declined among birds with very high levels (>2.0 µg/retina). Conclusion/Significance Our results suggest that carotenoid-mediated spectral filtering enhances color discrimination, but that this improvement is traded off against a reduction in sensitivity that can compromise visual discrimination. Thus, retinal carotenoid levels may be optimized to meet the visual demands of specific behavioral tasks and

  11. Regulatory control of carotenoid accumulation in winter squash during storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Postharvest storage of fruits and vegetables is often required and frequently results in nutritional quality change. In this study, we investigated carotenoid storage plastids, carotenoid content, and its regulation during 3-month storage of winter squash butternut fruits. We showed that storage imp...

  12. Consumption of carotenoid-rich diet improves plasma inflammatory markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multiple studies have investigated the effects of carotenoids on a limited selection of cytokines. However, inflammation is a complex system involving numerous interacting cytokines. In this study, a broad array of 30 cytokines was measured after consumption of low- and high-carotenoid diets. Nine m...

  13. Manipulation of Carotenoid Content in Plants to Improve Human Health.

    PubMed

    Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, Maria Jesús; Zacarias, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are essential components for human nutrition and health, mainly due to their antioxidant and pro-vitamin A activity. Foods with enhanced carotenoid content and composition are essential to ensure carotenoid feasibility in malnourished population of many countries around the world, which is critical to alleviate vitamin A deficiency and other health-related disorders. The pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis is currently well understood, key steps of the pathways in different plant species have been characterized and the corresponding genes identified, as well as other regulatory elements. This enables the manipulation and improvement of carotenoid content and composition in order to control the nutritional value of a number of agronomical important staple crops. Biotechnological and genetic engineering-based strategies to manipulate carotenoid metabolism have been successfully implemented in many crops, with Golden rice as the most relevant example of β-carotene improvement in one of the more widely consumed foods. Conventional breeding strategies have been also adopted in the bio-fortification of carotenoid in staple foods that are highly consumed in developing countries, including maize, cassava and sweet potatoes, to alleviate nutrition-related problems. The objective of the chapter is to summarize major breakthroughs and advances in the enhancement of carotenoid content and composition in agronomical and nutritional important crops, with special emphasis to their potential impact and benefits in human nutrition and health.

  14. Production and conversion of functional carotenoids by bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carotenoids are red, orange, and yellow color pigments composed of isoprenyl units. They are well known to have beneficial health effects including anti-oxidant activity, anti-cardiovascular disease, and anti-cancer effects. These carotenoids are mainly synthesized in plants and photosynthetic alg...

  15. Ultrafast time-resolved vibrational spectroscopies of carotenoids in photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Sugisaki, Mitsuru; Yoshizawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses the application of time-resolved vibrational spectroscopies to the studies of carotenoids in photosynthesis. The focus is on the ultrafast time regime and the study of photophysics and photochemistry of carotenoids by femtosecond time-resolved stimulated Raman and four-wave mixing spectroscopies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vibrational spectroscopies and bioenergetic systems.

  16. Non-invasive in vivo measurement of macular carotenoids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A non-invasive in vivo method for assessing macular carotenoids includes performing Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) on a retina of a subject. A spatial representation of carotenoid levels in the macula based on data from the OCT of the retina can be generated.

  17. Molecular Factors Controlling Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting by Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    Polívka, Tomáš; Frank, Harry A.

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoids are naturally-occurring pigments that absorb light in the spectral region in which the sun irradiates maximally. These molecules transfer this energy to chlorophylls, initiating the primary photochemical events of photosynthesis. Carotenoids also regulate the flow of energy within the photosynthetic apparatus and protect it from photo-induced damage caused by excess light absorption. To carry out these functions in nature, carotenoids are bound in discrete pigment-protein complexes in close proximity to chlorophylls. A few 3D structures of these carotenoid complexes have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Thus, the stage is set for attempting to correlate the structural information with the spectroscopic properties of carotenoids to understand the molecular mechanism(s) of their function in photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we summarize current spectroscopic data describing the excited state energies and ultrafast dynamics of purified carotenoids in solution and bound in light-harvesting complexes from purple bacteria, marine algae, and green plants. Many of these complexes can be modified using mutagenesis or pigment exchange which facilitates making the correlations between structure and function. We describe the structural and electronic factors controlling the function of carotenoids as energy donors. We also discuss unresolved issues related to the nature of spectroscopically dark excited states, which could play a role in light-harvesting. To illustrate the interplay between structural determinations and spectroscopic investigations that exemplifies work in the field, we describe the spectroscopic properties of four light-harvesting complexes whose structures have been determined to atomic resolution. The first, the LH2 complex from the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, contains the carotenoid, rhodopin glucoside. The second is the LHCII trimeric complex from higher plants which uses the carotenoids, lutein, neoxanthin

  18. Molecular factors controlling photosynthetic light harvesting by carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Polívka, Tomás; Frank, Harry A

    2010-08-17

    Carotenoids are naturally occurring pigments that absorb light in the spectral region in which the sun irradiates maximally. These molecules transfer this energy to chlorophylls, initiating the primary photochemical events of photosynthesis. Carotenoids also regulate the flow of energy within the photosynthetic apparatus and protect it from photoinduced damage caused by excess light absorption. To carry out these functions in nature, carotenoids are bound in discrete pigment-protein complexes in the proximity of chlorophylls. A few three-dimensional structures of these carotenoid complexes have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Thus, the stage is set for attempting to correlate the structural information with the spectroscopic properties of carotenoids to understand the molecular mechanism(s) of their function in photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we summarize current spectroscopic data describing the excited state energies and ultrafast dynamics of purified carotenoids in solution and bound in light-harvesting complexes from purple bacteria, marine algae, and green plants. Many of these complexes can be modified using mutagenesis or pigment exchange which facilitates the elucidation of correlations between structure and function. We describe the structural and electronic factors controlling the function of carotenoids as energy donors. We also discuss unresolved issues related to the nature of spectroscopically dark excited states, which could play a role in light harvesting. To illustrate the interplay between structural determinations and spectroscopic investigations that exemplifies work in the field, we describe the spectroscopic properties of four light-harvesting complexes whose structures have been determined to atomic resolution. The first, the LH2 complex from the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, contains the carotenoid rhodopin glucoside. The second is the LHCII trimeric complex from higher plants which uses the carotenoids

  19. Carotenoids and their isomers: color pigments in fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hock-Eng; Prasad, K Nagendra; Kong, Kin-Weng; Jiang, Yueming; Ismail, Amin

    2011-02-18

    Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as 'functional food ingredients'. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids extensively studied in this regard include β-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Coloration of fruits and vegetables depends on their growth maturity, concentration of carotenoid isomers, and food processing methods. This article focuses more on several carotenoids and their isomers present in different fruits and vegetables along with their concentrations. Carotenoids and their geometric isomers also play an important role in protecting cells from oxidation and cellular damages.

  20. Carotenoid incorporation into microsomes: yields, stability and membrane dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socaciu, Carmen; Jessel, Robert; Diehl, Horst A.

    2000-12-01

    The carotenoids β-carotene (BC), lycopene (LYC), lutein (LUT), zeaxanthin (ZEA), canthaxanthin (CTX) and astaxanthin (ASTA) have been incorporated into pig liver microsomes. Effective incorporation concentrations in the range of about 1-6 nmol/mg microsomal protein were obtained. A stability test at room temperature revealed that after 3 h BC and LYC had decayed totally whereas, gradually, CTX (46%), LUT (21%), ASTA (17%) and ZEA (5%) decayed. Biophysical parameters of the microsomal membrane were changed hardly by the incorporation of carotenoids. A small rigidification may occur. Membrane anisotropy seems to offer only a small tolerance for incorporation of carotenoids and seems to limit the achievable incorporation concentrations of the carotenoids into microsomes. Microsomes instead of liposomes should be preferred as a membrane model to study mutual effects of carotenoids and membrane dynamics.

  1. Marine Carotenoids against Oxidative Stress: Effects on Human Health.

    PubMed

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2015-09-30

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments that are produced in some plants, algae, fungi, and bacterial species, which accounts for their orange and yellow hues. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants thanks to their ability to quench singlet oxygen, to be oxidized, to be isomerized, and to scavenge free radicals, which plays a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases. Unusual marine environments are associated with a great chemical diversity, resulting in novel bioactive molecules. Thus, marine organisms may represent an important source of novel biologically active substances for the development of therapeutics. In this respect, various novel marine carotenoids have recently been isolated from marine organisms and displayed several utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Marine carotenoids (astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein but also the rare siphonaxanthin, sioxanthin, and myxol) have recently shown antioxidant properties in reducing oxidative stress markers. This review aims to describe the role of marine carotenoids against oxidative stress and their potential applications in preventing and treating inflammatory diseases.

  2. Magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopic studies of carotenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Kispert, L.D.

    1991-05-01

    It is our goal to study the role of a host lattice in the formation of radicals and excited singlet and triplet states that are relevant to photosynthesis. Particular emphasis is being placed on determining what is special about carotenoids that natural photosynthetic systems require them as antennae as well as for protection. We are thus manipulating the host matrix so as to understand the carotenoid function (protection, quenching, energy transfer and antenna) and the structure of carotenoid cations. To characterize their properties, we have carried out EPR, ENDOR, optical, molecular orbital and electrochemical studies of carotenoids and carotenoid cations produced chemically, electrochemically, radiolytically (x-ray irradiated freon matrices) and photolytically (solution photolysis by excimer radiation) as a function of the host matrix. 36 refs.

  3. Carotenoids in Marine Invertebrates Living along the Kuroshio Current Coast

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi; Akimoto, Naoshige; Tsushima, Miyuki; Komemushi, Sadao; Mezaki, Takuma; Iwase, Fumihito; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Sameshima, Naomi; Mori, Miho; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids of the corals Acropora japonica, A. secale, and A. hyacinthus, the tridacnid clam Tridacna squamosa, the crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci, and the small sea snail Drupella fragum were investigated. The corals and the tridacnid clam are filter feeders and are associated with symbiotic zooxanthellae. Peridinin and pyrrhoxanthin, which originated from symbiotic zooxanthellae, were found to be major carotenoids in corals and the tridacnid clam. The crown-of-thorns starfish and the sea snail D. fragum are carnivorous and mainly feed on corals. Peridinin-3-acyl esters were major carotenoids in the sea snail D. fragum. On the other hand, ketocarotenoids such as 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin and astaxanthin were major carotenoids in the crown-of-thorns starfish. Carotenoids found in these marine animals closely reflected not only their metabolism but also their food chains. PMID:21892355

  4. Carotenoids in marine invertebrates living along the Kuroshio current coast.

    PubMed

    Maoka, Takashi; Akimoto, Naoshige; Tsushima, Miyuki; Komemushi, Sadao; Mezaki, Takuma; Iwase, Fumihito; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Sameshima, Naomi; Mori, Miho; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids of the corals Acropora japonica, A. secale, and A. hyacinthus, the tridacnid clam Tridacna squamosa, the crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci, and the small sea snail Drupella fragum were investigated. The corals and the tridacnid clam are filter feeders and are associated with symbiotic zooxanthellae. Peridinin and pyrrhoxanthin, which originated from symbiotic zooxanthellae, were found to be major carotenoids in corals and the tridacnid clam. The crown-of-thorns starfish and the sea snail D. fragum are carnivorous and mainly feed on corals. Peridinin-3-acyl esters were major carotenoids in the sea snail D. fragum. On the other hand, ketocarotenoids such as 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin and astaxanthin were major carotenoids in the crown-of-thorns starfish. Carotenoids found in these marine animals closely reflected not only their metabolism but also their food chains.

  5. Carotenoids Assist in Cyanobacterial Photosystem II Assembly and Function

    PubMed Central

    Zakar, Tomas; Laczko-Dobos, Hajnalka; Toth, Tunde N.; Gombos, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls) are ubiquitous constituents of living organisms. They are protective agents against oxidative stresses and serve as modulators of membrane microviscosity. As antioxidants they can protect photosynthetic organisms from free radicals like reactive oxygen species that originate from water splitting, the first step of photosynthesis. We summarize the structural and functional roles of carotenoids in connection with cyanobacterial Photosystem II. Although carotenoids are hydrophobic molecules, their complexes with proteins also allow cytoplasmic localization. In cyanobacterial cells such complexes are called orange carotenoid proteins, and they protect Photosystem II and Photosystem I by preventing their overexcitation through phycobilisomes (PBS). Recently it has been observed that carotenoids are not only required for the proper functioning, but also for the structural stability of PBSs. PMID:27014318

  6. Carotenoids and their fatty-acid esters in banana peel.

    PubMed

    Subagio, A; Morita, N; Sawada, S

    1996-12-01

    In relation to banana ripening, banana peel was examined for carotenoid pigments by a combination of alumina column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Carotenoids and their fatty-acid esters were first separated by an alumina column into five fractions, of which each was further subfractionated by HPLC with different kinds of solvent. The carotenoid content of the banana peel was in the range of 3-4 micrograms per gram as lutein equivalent. The ingredients of the carotenoids were ascertained to consist of lutein, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, violaxanthin, auroxanthin, neoxanthin, isolutein, beta-cryptoxanthin and alpha-cryptoxanthin. Most of the oxygenated carotenoids were found to occur in the esterified form, mainly with myristate, and to a lesser extent with laurate, palmitate or caprate.

  7. Illuminating colors: regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation by light.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Briardo; Martinez-Garcia, Jaime F; Stange, Claudia; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Light stimulates the biosynthesis of carotenoids and regulates the development of plastid structures to accommodate these photoprotective pigments. Work with Arabidopsis revealed molecular factors coordinating carotenoid biosynthesis and storage with photosynthetic development during deetiolation, when underground seedlings emerge to the light. Some of these factors also adjust carotenoid biosynthesis in response to plant proximity (i.e., shade), a mechanism that was readapted in tomato to monitor fruit ripening progression. While light positively impacts carotenoid production and accumulation in most cases, total carotenoid levels decrease in roots of colored carrot cultivars when illuminated. The recent discovery that such cultivars might be photomorphogenic mutants provides an explanation for this striking phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biosynthesis of Carotenoids in Plants: Enzymes and Color.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Saavedra, Carolina; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most important biocolor isoprenoids responsible for yellow, orange and red colors found in nature. In plants, they are synthesized in plastids of photosynthetic and sink organs and are essential molecules for photosynthesis, photo-oxidative damage protection and phytohormone synthesis. Carotenoids also play important roles in human health and nutrition acting as vitamin A precursors and antioxidants. Biochemical and biophysical approaches in different plants models have provided significant advances in understanding the structural and functional roles of carotenoids in plants as well as the key points of regulation in their biosynthesis. To date, different plant models have been used to characterize the key genes and their regulation, which has increased the knowledge of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in plants. In this chapter a description of each step in the carotenoid synthesis pathway is presented and discussed.

  9. Physiological stress links parasites to carotenoid-based colour signals.

    PubMed

    Mougeot, F; Martínez-Padilla, J; Bortolotti, G R; Webster, L M I; Piertney, S B

    2010-03-01

    Vertebrates commonly use carotenoid-based traits as social signals. These can reliably advertise current nutritional status and health because carotenoids must be acquired through the diet and their allocation to ornaments is traded-off against other self-maintenance needs. We propose that the coloration more generally reveals an individual's ability to cope with stressful conditions. We tested this idea by manipulating the nematode parasite infection in free-living red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) and examining the effects on body mass, carotenoid-based coloration of a main social signal and the amount of corticosterone deposited in feathers grown during the experiment. We show that parasites increase stress and reduce carotenoid-based coloration, and that the impact of parasites on coloration was associated with changes in corticosterone, more than changes in body mass. Carotenoid-based coloration appears linked to physiological stress and could therefore reveal an individual's ability to cope with stressors.

  10. A mitochondrial enzyme degrades carotenoids and protects against oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Amengual, Jaume; Lobo, Glenn P.; Golczak, Marcin; Li, Hua Nan M.; Klimova, Tatyana; Hoppel, Charles L.; Wyss, Adrian; Palczewski, Krzysztof; von Lintig, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the precursors for vitamin A and are proposed to prevent oxidative damage to cells. Mammalian genomes encode a family of structurally related nonheme iron oxygenases that modify double bonds of these compounds by oxidative cleavage and cis-to-trans isomerization. The roles of the family members BCMO1 and RPE65 for vitamin A production and vision have been well established. Surprisingly, we found that the third family member, β,β-carotene-9′,10′-oxygenase (BCDO2), is a mitochondrial carotenoid-oxygenase with broad substrate specificity. In BCDO2-deficient mice, carotenoid homeostasis was abrogated, and carotenoids accumulated in several tissues. In hepatic mitochondria, accumulated carotenoids induced key markers of mitochondrial dysfunction, such as manganese superoxide dismutase (9-fold), and reduced rates of ADP-dependent respiration by 30%. This impairment was associated with an 8- to 9-fold induction of phosphor-MAP kinase and phosphor-AKT, markers of cell signaling pathways related to oxidative stress and disease. Administration of carotenoids to human HepG2 cells depolarized mitochondrial membranes and resulted in the production of reactive oxygen species. Thus, our studies in BCDO2-deficient mice and human cell cultures indicate that carotenoids can impair respiration and induce oxidative stress. Mammalian cells thus express a mitochondrial carotenoid-oxygenase that degrades carotenoids to protect these vital organelles.—Amengual, J., Lobo, G. P., Golczak, M., Li, H. N. M., Klimova, T., Hoppel, C. L., Wyss, A., Palczewski, K., von Lintig, J. A mitochondrial enzyme degrades carotenoids and protects against oxidative stress. PMID:21106934

  11. Carotenoid profiling in tubers of different potato (Solanum sp) cultivars: accumulation of carotenoids mediated by xanthophyll esterification.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Orozco, Rebeca; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso

    2013-12-01

    The carotenoid profile of sixty potato cultivars (commercial, bred, old and native cultivars) has been characterised in order to provide information to be used in selective breeding programs directed to improve the nutritional value of this important staple food. Cultivars were segregated into three groups according to the major pigment in the carotenoid profile: violaxanthin (37 cultivars; especially those with higher carotenoid content), lutein (16 cultivars), and neoxanthin (7 cultivars). Other minor carotenoids were antheraxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene, while zeaxanthin was absent in all sample. The total carotenoid content ranged from 50.0 to 1552.0 μg/100 g dry wt, with an average value of about 435.3 μg/100 g dry wt. Sipancachi, Poluya and Chaucha native cultivars showed the highest carotenoid content (1020.0, 1478.2 and 1551.2 μg/100 g dry wt, respectively). Xanthophyll esters were present in most cultivars, mainly as diesterified forms, being observed a direct correlation between the carotenoid content and the esterified fraction, suggesting that the esterification process facilitates the accumulation of these lipophilic compounds within the plastids. Therefore, the presence of xanthophyll esters should be a phenotypic character to be included in the breeding studies, and more efforts should be dedicated to the understanding of the biochemical process leading to this structural modification of carotenoids in plants.

  12. Single v. multiple measures of skin carotenoids by resonance Raman spectroscopy as a biomarker of usual carotenoid status.

    PubMed

    Scarmo, Stephanie; Cartmel, Brenda; Lin, Haiqun; Leffell, David J; Ermakov, Igor V; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S; Mayne, Susan T

    2013-09-14

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) is a non-invasive method of assessing carotenoid status in the skin, which has been suggested as an objective indicator of fruit/vegetable intake. The present study assessed agreement and identified predictors of single v. multiple RRS measures of skin carotenoid status. A total of seventy-four participants had their skin carotenoid status measured in the palm of the hand by RRS at six time points over 6 months. Questionnaires were administered to collect information on demographic, lifestyle and dietary data. Mean age of the participants was 36.6 years, 62.2% were female, 83.8% Caucasian and 85.1% were non-smoking at baseline. There was a good agreement between a single measure of skin carotenoids by RRS and multiple measures (weighted κ = 0.80; 95% CI 0.72, 0.88). The same variables were significantly associated with carotenoid status based on single or multiple measures, including a positive association with intake of total carotenoids (P< 0.01) and an inverse association with season of measurement (P≤ 0.05). The exception was recent sun exposure, which emerged as a significant predictor of lower carotenoid status only when using multiple RRS measures (P≤ 0.01). A single RRS measure was reasonably accurate at classifying usual skin carotenoid status. Researchers using RRS may want to take into account other factors that are associated with the biomarker, including season of measurement and recent sun exposure.

  13. Single v. multiple measures of skin carotenoids by resonance Raman spectroscopy as a biomarker of usual carotenoid status

    PubMed Central

    Scarmo, Stephanie; Cartmel, Brenda; Lin, Haiqun; Leffell, David J.; Ermakov, Igor V.; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S.; Mayne, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) is a non-invasive method of assessing carotenoid status in the skin, which has been suggested as an objective indicator of fruit/vegetable intake. The present study assessed agreement and identified predictors of single v. multiple RRS measures of skin carotenoid status. A total of seventy-four participants had their skin carotenoid status measured in the palm of the hand by RRS at six time points over 6 months. Questionnaires were administered to collect information on demographic, lifestyle and dietary data. Mean age of the participants was 36.6 years, 62.2% were female, 83.8% Caucasian and 85.1% were non-smoking at baseline. There was a good agreement between a single measure of skin carotenoids by RRS and multiple measures (weighted κ = 0.80; 95% CI 0.72, 0.88). The same variables were significantly associated with carotenoid status based on single or multiple measures, including a positive association with intake of total carotenoids (P<0.01) and an inverse association with season of measurement (P≤0.05). The exception was recent sun exposure, which emerged as a significant predictor of lower carotenoid status only when using multiple RRS measures (P≤0.01). A single RRS measure was reasonably accurate at classifying usual skin carotenoid status. Researchers using RRS may want to take into account other factors that are associated with the biomarker, including season of measurement and recent sun exposure. PMID:23351238

  14. Carotenoid composition of hydroponic leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mieko; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2003-04-23

    Because hydroponic production of vegetables is becoming more common, the carotenoid composition of hydroponic leafy vegetables commercialized in Campinas, Brazil, was determined. All samples were collected and analyzed in winter. Lactucaxanthin was quantified for the first time and was found to have concentrations similar to that of neoxanthin in the four types of lettuce analyzed. Lutein predominated in cress, chicory, and roquette (75.4 +/- 10.2, 57.0 +/- 10.3, and 52.2 +/- 12.6 microg/g, respectively). In the lactucaxanthin-containing lettuces, beta-carotene and lutein were the principal carotenoids (ranging from 9.9 +/- 1.5 to 24.6 +/- 3.1 microg/g and from 10.2 +/- 1.0 to 22.9 +/- 2.6 microg/g, respectively). Comparison of hydroponic and field-produced curly lettuce, taken from neighboring farms, showed that the hydroponic lettuce had significantly lower lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin contents than the conventionally produced lettuce. Because the hydroponic farm had a polyethylene covering, less exposure to sunlight and lower temperatures may have decreased carotenogenesis.

  15. Resonance Raman detection of carotenoid antioxidants in living human tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Sharifzadeh, M.; Ermakova, Maia; Gellermann, W.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to the beneficial effects of carotenoid antioxidants in the human body. Several studies, for example, support the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the prevention of age-related eye diseases. If present in high concentrations in the macular region of the retina, lutein and zeaxanthin provide pigmentation in this most light sensitive retinal spot, and as a result of light filtering and/or antioxidant action, delay the onset of macular degeneration with increasing age. Other carotenoids, such as lycopene and beta-carotene, play an important role as well in the protection of skin from UV and short-wavelength visible radiation. Lutein and lycopene may also have protective function for cardiovascular health, and lycopene may play a role in the prevention of prostate cancer. Motivated by the growing importance of carotenoids in health and disease, and recognizing the lack of any accepted noninvasive technology for the detection of carotenoids in living human tissue, we explore resonance Raman spectroscopy as a novel approach for noninvasive, laser optical carotenoid detection. We review the main results achieved recently with the Raman detection approach. Initially we applied the method to the detection of macular carotenoid pigments, and more recently to the detection of carotenoids in human skin and mucosal tissues. Using skin carotenoid Raman instruments, we measure the carotenoid response from the stratum corneum layer of the palm of the hand for a population of 1375 subjects and develope a portable skin Raman scanner for field studies. These experiments reveal that carotenoids are a good indicator of antioxidant status. They show that people with high oxidative stress, like smokers, and subjects with high sunlight exposure, in general, have reduced skin carotenoid levels, independent of their dietary carotenoid consumption. We find the Raman technique to be precise, specific, sensitive, and well suitable for clinical as well as

  16. Resonance Raman detection of carotenoid antioxidants in living human tissue.

    PubMed

    Ermakov, Igor V; Sharifzadeh, M; Ermakova, Maia; Gellermann, W

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to the beneficial effects of carotenoid antioxidants in the human body. Several studies, for example, support the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the prevention of age-related eye diseases. If present in high concentrations in the macular region of the retina, lutein and zeaxanthin provide pigmentation in this most light sensitive retinal spot, and as a result of light filtering and/or antioxidant action, delay the onset of macular degeneration with increasing age. Other carotenoids, such as lycopene and beta-carotene, play an important role as well in the protection of skin from UV and short-wavelength visible radiation. Lutein and lycopene may also have protective function for cardiovascular health, and lycopene may play a role in the prevention of prostate cancer. Motivated by the growing importance of carotenoids in health and disease, and recognizing the lack of any accepted noninvasive technology for the detection of carotenoids in living human tissue, we explore resonance Raman spectroscopy as a novel approach for noninvasive, laser optical carotenoid detection. We review the main results achieved recently with the Raman detection approach. Initially we applied the method to the detection of macular carotenoid pigments, and more recently to the detection of carotenoids in human skin and mucosal tissues. Using skin carotenoid Raman instruments, we measure the carotenoid response from the stratum corneum layer of the palm of the hand for a population of 1375 subjects and develop a portable skin Raman scanner for field studies. These experiments reveal that carotenoids are a good indicator of antioxidant status. They show that people with high oxidative stress, like smokers, and subjects with high sunlight exposure, in general, have reduced skin carotenoid levels, independent of their dietary carotenoid consumption. We find the Raman technique to be precise, specific, sensitive, and well suitable for clinical as well as

  17. Coordinate expression of multiple bacterial carotenoid genes in canola leading to altered carotenoid production.

    PubMed

    Ravanello, Monica P; Ke, Dangyang; Alvarez, Julie; Huang, Bihua; Shewmaker, Christine K

    2003-10-01

    Carotenoids have drawn much attention recently because of their potentially positive benefits to human health as well as their utility in both food and animal feed. Previous work in canola (Brassica napus) seed over-expressing the bacterial phytoene synthase gene (crtB) demonstrated a change in carotenoid content, such that the total levels of carotenoids, including phytoene and downstream metabolites like beta-carotene, were elevated 50-fold, with the ratio of beta- to alpha-carotene being 2:1. This result raised the possibility that the composition of metabolites in this pathway could be modified further in conjunction with the increased flux obtained with crtB. Here we report on the expression of additional bacterial genes for the enzymes geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (crtE), phytoene desaturase (crtI) and lycopene cyclase (crtY and the plant B. napus lycopene beta-cyclase) engineered in conjunction with phytoene synthase (crtB) in transgenic canola seed. Analysis of the carotenoid levels by HPLC revealed a 90% decrease in phytoene levels for the double construct expressing crtB in conjunction with crtI. The transgenic seed from all the double constructs, including the one expressing the bacterial crtB and the plant lycopene beta-cyclase showed an increase in the levels of total carotenoid similar to that previously observed by expressing crtB alone but minimal effects were observed with respect to the ratio of beta- to alpha-carotene compared to the original construct. However, the beta- to alpha-carotene ratio was increased from 2:1 to 3:1 when a triple construct consisting of the bacterial phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase and lycopene cyclase genes were expressed together. This result suggests that the bacterial genes may form an aggregate complex that allows in vivo activity of all three proteins through substrate channeling. This finding should allow further manipulation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway for downstream products with

  18. Carotenoid biosynthetic genes in Brassica rapa: comparative genomic analysis, phylogenetic analysis, and expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu; Sun, Rifei

    2015-07-03

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid compounds synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms. Despite much research on carotenoid biosynthesis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, there is a lack of information on the carotenoid pathway in Brassica rapa. To better understand its carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, we performed a systematic analysis of carotenoid biosynthetic genes at the genome level in B. rapa. We identified 67 carotenoid biosynthetic genes in B. rapa, which were orthologs of the 47 carotenoid genes in A. thaliana. A high level of synteny was observed for carotenoid biosynthetic genes between A. thaliana and B. rapa. Out of 47 carotenoid biosynthetic genes in A. thaliana, 46 were successfully mapped to the 10 B. rapa chromosomes, and most of the genes retained more than one copy in B. rapa. The gene expansion was caused by the whole-genome triplication (WGT) event experienced by Brassica species. An expression analysis of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes suggested that their expression levels differed in root, stem, leaf, flower, callus, and silique tissues. Additionally, the paralogs of each carotenoid biosynthetic gene, which were generated from the WGT in B. rapa, showed significantly different expression levels among tissues, suggesting differentiated functions for these multi-copy genes in the carotenoid pathway. This first systematic study of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in B. rapa provides insights into the carotenoid metabolic mechanisms of Brassica crops. In addition, a better understanding of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in B. rapa will contribute to the development of conventional and transgenic B. rapa cultivars with enriched carotenoid levels in the future.

  19. Electronic absorption and ground state structure of carotenoid molecules.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Pinto, Maria M; Sansiaume, Elodie; Hashimoto, Hideki; Pascal, Andrew A; Gall, Andrew; Robert, Bruno

    2013-09-26

    Predicting the complete electronic structure of carotenoid molecules remains an extremely complex problem, particularly in anisotropic media such as proteins. In this paper, we address the electronic properties of nine relatively simple carotenoids by the combined use of electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopies. Linear carotenoids exhibit an excellent correlation between (i) the inverse of their conjugation chain length N, (ii) the energy of their S0 → S2 electronic transition, and (iii) the position of their ν1 Raman band (corresponding to the stretching mode of their conjugated C═C bonds). For cyclic carotenoids such as β-carotene, this correlation is also observed between the latter two parameters (S0 → S2 energy and ν1 frequency), whereas their "nominal" conjugation length N does not follow the same relationship. We conclude that β-carotene and cyclic carotenoids in general exhibit a shorter effective conjugation length than that expected from their chemical structure. In addition, the effect of solvent polarizability on these molecular parameters was investigated for four of the carotenoids used in this study. We demonstrate that resonance Raman spectroscopy can discriminate between the different effects underlying shifts in the S0 → S2 transition of carotenoid molecules.

  20. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Intraerythrocytic Stages of Plasmodium falciparum*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Tonhosolo, Renata; D'Alexandri, Fabio L.; de Rosso, Veridiana V.; Gazarini, Marcos L.; Matsumura, Miriam Y.; Peres, Valnice J.; Merino, Emilio F.; Carlton, Jane M.; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Mercadante, Adriana Z.; Kimura, Emília A.; Katzin, Alejandro M.

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are widespread lipophilic pigments synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and some nonphotosynthetic fungi and bacteria. All carotenoids are derived from the C40 isoprenoid precursor geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, and their chemical and physical properties are associated with light absorption, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activity. Carotenoids are generally synthesized in well defined subcellular organelles, the plastids, which are also present in the phylum Apicomplexa, which comprises a number of important human parasites, such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Recently, it was demonstrated that Toxoplasma gondii synthesizes abscisic acid. We therefore asked if Plasmodium falciparum is also capable of synthesizing carotenoids. Herein, biochemical findings demonstrated the presence of carotenoid biosynthesis in the intraerythrocytic stages of the apicomplexan parasite P. falciparum. Using metabolic labeling with radioisotopes, in vitro inhibition tests with norflurazon, a specific inhibitor of plant carotenoid biosynthesis, the results showed that intraerythrocytic stages of P. falciparum synthesize carotenoid compounds. A plasmodial enzyme that presented phytoene synthase activity was also identified and characterized. These findings not only contribute to the current understanding of P. falciparum evolution but shed light on a pathway that could serve as a chemotherapeutic target. PMID:19203994

  1. THE CAROTENOID BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAY: THINKING IN ALL DIMENSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Shumskaya, Maria; Wurtzel, Eleanore T.

    2013-01-01

    The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway serves manifold roles in plants related to photosynthesis, photoprotection, development, stress hormones, and various volatiles and signalling apocarotenoids. The pathway also produces compounds that impact human nutrition and metabolic products that contribute to fragrance and flavour of food and non-food crops. It is no surprise that the pathway has been a target of metabolic engineering, most prominently in the case of Golden Rice. The future success and predictability of metabolic engineering of carotenoids rests in the ability to target carotenoids for specific physiological purposes as well as to simultaneously modify carotenoids along with other desired traits. Here, we ask whether predictive metabolic engineering of the carotenoid pathway is indeed possible. Despite a long history of research on the pathway, at this point in time we can only describe the pathway as a parts list and have almost no knowledge of the location of the complete pathway, how it is assembled, and whether there exists any trafficking of the enzymes or the carotenoids themselves. We discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the “complete” pathway and make the argument that predictive metabolic engineering of the carotenoid pathway (and other pathways) will require investigation of the three dimensional state of the pathway as it may exist in plastids of different ultrastructures. Along with this message we point out the need to develop new types of visualization tools and resources that better reflect the dynamic nature of biosynthetic pathways. PMID:23683930

  2. Raman measurement of carotenoid composition in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner

    2004-07-01

    The carotenoids lycopene and beta-carotene are powerful antioxidants in skin and are thought to act as scavengers for free radicals and singlet oxygen. The role of carotenoid species in skin health is of strong current interest. We demonstrate the possibility to use Resonance Raman spectroscopy for fast, non-invasive, highly specific, and quantitative detection of beta-carotene and lycopene in human skin. Analyzing Raman signals originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of the carotenoid molecules under blue and green laser excitation, we were able to characterize quantitatively the relative concentrations of each carotenoid species in-vivo. In the selective detection, we take advantage of different Raman cross-section spectral profiles for beta-carotene and lycopene molecules, and obtain a quantitative assessment of individual long-chain carotenoid species in the skin rather than their cumulative levels. Preliminary dual-wavelength Raman measurements reveal significant differences in the carotenoid composition of different subjects. The technique holds promise for rapid screening of carotenoid compositions in human skin in large populations and may be suitable in clinical studies for assessing the risk for cutaneous diseases.

  3. Carotenoids acts as reinforcers of the Acholeplasma laidlawii lipid bilayer.

    PubMed Central

    Rottem, S; Markowitz, O

    1979-01-01

    Acholeplasma laidlawii cells grown with oleic acid produced much more colored carotenoids than did cells grown with elaidic acid. The amount of carotenoids was decreased 80 to 90% by growing the cells with 0.05 M propionate, resulting in a marked increase in the mobility of both 5-doxylstearate and 12-doxylstearate incorporated into the membranes. The fatty acid composition of the propionate-grown cells differed from that of cells grown without propionate by containing odd-numbered rather than even-numbered saturated fatty acids, but the ratios of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids were the same. To determine whether the carotenoids are the cause for the restricted mobility in the membranes, the carotenoids were selectively removed from A. laidlawii membranes by incubating the membranes with phosphatidylcholine vesicles. The carotenoid-depleted membranes showed an increase in the mobility of the hydrocarbon chains of the spin-labeled fatty acids. Furthermore, the incorporation of carotenoids into artificial membrane vesicles restricted the mobility of the hydrocarbon chain. Our results support the notion that the carotenoids in A. laidlawii act as a rigid insert reinforcing the membrane bilayer. PMID:533770

  4. A complex carotenoid palette tunes avian colour vision.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Matthew B; Collins, Aaron M; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M Carter; Timlin, Jerilyn A; Corbo, Joseph C

    2015-10-06

    The brilliantly coloured cone oil droplets of the avian retina function as long-pass cut-off filters that tune the spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors and are hypothesized to enhance colour discrimination and improve colour constancy. Although it has long been known that these droplets are pigmented with carotenoids, their precise composition has remained uncertain owing to the technical challenges of measuring these very small, dense and highly refractile optical organelles. In this study, we integrated results from high-performance liquid chromatography, hyperspectral microscopy and microspectrophotometry to obtain a comprehensive understanding of oil droplet carotenoid pigmentation in the chicken (Gallus gallus). We find that each of the four carotenoid-containing droplet types consists of a complex mixture of carotenoids, with a single predominant carotenoid determining the wavelength of the spectral filtering cut-off. Consistent with previous reports, we find that the predominant carotenoid type in the oil droplets of long-wavelength-sensitive, medium-wavelength-sensitive and short-wavelength-sensitive type 2 cones are astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and galloxanthin, respectively. In addition, the oil droplet of the principal member of the double cone contains a mixture of galloxanthin and two hydroxycarotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). Short-wavelength-absorbing apocarotenoids are present in all of the droplet types, providing filtering of light in a region of the spectrum where filtering by hydroxy- and ketocarotenoids may be incomplete. Thus, birds rely on a complex palette of carotenoid pigments within their cone oil droplets to achieve finely tuned spectral filtering.

  5. Limiting immunopathology: Interaction between carotenoids and enzymatic antioxidant defences.

    PubMed

    Babin, A; Saciat, C; Teixeira, M; Troussard, J-P; Motreuil, S; Moreau, J; Moret, Y

    2015-04-01

    The release of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) during the inflammatory response generates damages to host tissues, referred to as immunopathology, and is an important factor in ecological immunology. The integrated antioxidant system, comprising endogenous antioxidant enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutase SOD, and catalase CAT) and dietary antioxidants (e.g. carotenoids), helps to cope with immune-mediated oxidative stress. Crustaceans store large amounts of dietary carotenoids for yet unclear reasons. While being immunostimulants and antioxidants, the interaction of these pigments with antioxidant enzymes remains unclear. Here, we tested the interaction between dietary supplementation with carotenoids and immune challenge on immune defences and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT, in the amphipod crustacean Gammarus pulex. Dietary supplementation increased the concentrations of circulating carotenoids and haemocytes in the haemolymph, while the immune response induced the consumption of circulating carotenoids and a drop of haemocyte density. Interestingly, supplemented gammarids exhibited down-regulated SOD activity but high CAT activity compared to control ones. Our study reveals specific interactions of dietary carotenoids with endogenous antioxidant enzymes, and further underlines the potential importance of carotenoids in the evolution of immunity and/or of antioxidant mechanisms in crustaceans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The metabolomics of carotenoids in engineered cell factory.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guan-Nan; Zhu, Yue-Hui; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2009-07-01

    Carotenoids such as beta-carotene, lycopene, and antheraxanthin have plenty of scientific and commercial value. The comprehensive investigation of carotenoids drives people to improve and develop all kinds of analytical techniques to approach or even achieve "versatile" analysis. The metabolic engineering efforts in plants and algae have progressed rapidly, aiming to enable the use of plants and algae as "cell factories" for producing specific or novel carotenoids, such as beta-carotene (provitamin A) in Gold rice, while the emerging technologies of metabolomics support it by providing comprehensive analysis of carotenoids biochemical characterizations. This review describes metabolomics as a high-throughput platform to study carotenoids, including the engineering methods in the plants or algae, the bioinformatics for metabolomics, and the metabolomics of carotenoids in engineered cell factory. Modern systems biology tools, together with the development of genomics and metabolomics databases, will dramatically facilitate the advancement of our knowledge in gene-to-metabolite networks in plants. Metabolomics accompanying genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics as well as bioinformatics facilitate metabolic engineering efforts towards designing superior biocatalysts in cell factories. Ongoing advances in biological techniques coupled with crucial metabolic networks will further promote plants and algae as attractive platforms for the production of numerous high-value compounds such as carotenoids.

  7. Biotechnological production of carotenoids by yeasts: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mata-Gómez, Luis Carlos; Montañez, Julio César; Méndez-Zavala, Alejandro; Aguilar, Cristóbal Noé

    2014-01-21

    Nowadays, carotenoids are valuable molecules in different industries such as chemical, pharmaceutical, poultry, food and cosmetics. These pigments not only can act as vitamin A precursors, but also they have coloring and antioxidant properties, which have attracted the attention of the industries and researchers. The carotenoid production through chemical synthesis or extraction from plants is limited by low yields that results in high production costs. This leads to research of microbial production of carotenoids, as an alternative that has shown better yields than other aforementioned. In addition, the microbial production of carotenoids could be a better option about costs, looking for alternatives like the use of low-cost substrates as agro-industrials wastes. Yeasts have demonstrated to be carotenoid producer showing an important growing capacity in several agro-industrial wastes producing high levels of carotenoids. Agro-industrial wastes provide carbon and nitrogen source necessary, and others elements to carry out the microbial metabolism diminishing the production costs and avoiding pollution from these agro-industrial wastes to the environmental. Herein, we discuss the general and applied concepts regarding yeasts carotenoid production and the factors influencing carotenogenesis using agro-industrial wastes as low-cost substrates.

  8. Biotechnological production of carotenoids by yeasts: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, carotenoids are valuable molecules in different industries such as chemical, pharmaceutical, poultry, food and cosmetics. These pigments not only can act as vitamin A precursors, but also they have coloring and antioxidant properties, which have attracted the attention of the industries and researchers. The carotenoid production through chemical synthesis or extraction from plants is limited by low yields that results in high production costs. This leads to research of microbial production of carotenoids, as an alternative that has shown better yields than other aforementioned. In addition, the microbial production of carotenoids could be a better option about costs, looking for alternatives like the use of low-cost substrates as agro-industrials wastes. Yeasts have demonstrated to be carotenoid producer showing an important growing capacity in several agro-industrial wastes producing high levels of carotenoids. Agro-industrial wastes provide carbon and nitrogen source necessary, and others elements to carry out the microbial metabolism diminishing the production costs and avoiding pollution from these agro-industrial wastes to the environmental. Herein, we discuss the general and applied concepts regarding yeasts carotenoid production and the factors influencing carotenogenesis using agro-industrial wastes as low-cost substrates. PMID:24443802

  9. Physalis alkekengi Carotenoidic Extract Inhibitor of Soybean Lipoxygenase-1 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chedea, Veronica Sanda; Pintea, Adela; Bunea, Andrea; Braicu, Cornelia; Stanila, Andreea; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the carotenoidic saponified extract of Physalis alkekengi sepals (PA) towards the lipoxygenase (LOX) oxidation of linoleic acid. Lipoxygenase activity in the presence of carotenoids, standard and from extract, was followed by its kinetic behaviour determining the changes in absorption at 234 nm. The standard carotenoids used were β-carotene (β-car), lutein (Lut), and zeaxanthin (Zea). The calculated enzymatic specific activity (ESA) after 600 s of reaction proves that PA carotenoidic extract has inhibitory effect on LOX oxidation of linoleic acid. A longer polyenic chain of carotenoid structure gives a higher ESA during the first reaction seconds. This situation is not available after 600 s of reaction and may be due to a destruction of this structure by cooxidation of carotenoids, besides the classical LOX reaction. The PA carotenoidic extract inhibiting the LOX-1 reaction can be considered a source of lipoxygenase inhibitors. PMID:24511537

  10. Modulation of the carotenoid bioaccessibility through liposomal encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chen; Zhang, Yating; Abbas, Shabbar; Feng, Biao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xia, Shuqin

    2014-11-01

    The low bioaccessibility of carotenoids is currently a challenge to their incorporation in pharmaceutics, nutraceuticals and functional foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulating effects of liposome encapsulation on the bioaccessibility, and its relationship with carotenoid structure and incorporated concentration. The physical stability of liposomes, lipid digestibility, carotenoids release and bioaccessibility were investigated during incubation in a simulated gastrointestinal tract. Analysis on the liposome size and morphology showed that after digestion, the majority of particles maintained spherical shape with only an increase of size in liposomes loading β-carotene or lutein. However, a large proportion of heterogeneous particles were visible in the micelle phase of liposomes loading lycopene or canthaxanthin. It was also found that the release of lutein and β-carotene from liposomes was inhibited in a simulated gastric fluid, while was slow and sustained in a simulated intestinal fluid. By contrast, lycopene and canthaxanthin exhibited fast and considerable release in the gastrointestinal media. Both carotenoid bioaccessibility and micellization content decreased with the increase of incorporated concentration. Anyway, the bioaccessibility of carotenoids after encapsulated in liposomes was in the following order: lutein>β-carotene>lycopene>canthaxanthin. Bivariate correlation analysis revealed that carotenoid bioaccessibility depended strongly on the incorporating ability of carotenoids into a lipid bilayer, loading content, and nature of the system.

  11. A complex carotenoid palette tunes avian colour vision

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Matthew B.; Collins, Aaron M.; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M. Carter; Timlin, Jerilyn A.; Corbo, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    The brilliantly coloured cone oil droplets of the avian retina function as long-pass cut-off filters that tune the spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors and are hypothesized to enhance colour discrimination and improve colour constancy. Although it has long been known that these droplets are pigmented with carotenoids, their precise composition has remained uncertain owing to the technical challenges of measuring these very small, dense and highly refractile optical organelles. In this study, we integrated results from high-performance liquid chromatography, hyperspectral microscopy and microspectrophotometry to obtain a comprehensive understanding of oil droplet carotenoid pigmentation in the chicken (Gallus gallus). We find that each of the four carotenoid-containing droplet types consists of a complex mixture of carotenoids, with a single predominant carotenoid determining the wavelength of the spectral filtering cut-off. Consistent with previous reports, we find that the predominant carotenoid type in the oil droplets of long-wavelength-sensitive, medium-wavelength-sensitive and short-wavelength-sensitive type 2 cones are astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and galloxanthin, respectively. In addition, the oil droplet of the principal member of the double cone contains a mixture of galloxanthin and two hydroxycarotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). Short-wavelength-absorbing apocarotenoids are present in all of the droplet types, providing filtering of light in a region of the spectrum where filtering by hydroxy- and ketocarotenoids may be incomplete. Thus, birds rely on a complex palette of carotenoid pigments within their cone oil droplets to achieve finely tuned spectral filtering. PMID:26446559

  12. Carotenoid accumulation in the tissues of zebra finches: predictors of integumentary pigmentation and implications for carotenoid allocation strategies.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Kevin J; Toomey, Matthew B

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoid pigments produce the bright yellow to red ornamental colors of many animals, especially birds, and must ultimately be derived from the diet. However, they are also valuable for many physiological functions (e.g., antioxidants, immunostimulants, photoprotection, visual tuning, yolk nourishment to embryos), and as a result they are present in numerous internal body tissues (e.g., liver, adipose tissue, retina) whose carotenoid types and amounts are rarely studied in the context of color acquisition. Because male and female animals typically place different priorities on fitness-enhancing activities (e.g., gametic investment in females, sexual attraction in males), carotenoid allocation may track such investment patterns in the two sexes, and we can test for such sex-specific priorities of carotenoids by assessing body-tissue distributions of these pigments. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to identify and quantify carotenoid pigments from the plasma, liver, adipose tissue, and retina as well as the beak and legs of male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a species in which males display sexually attractive, red, carotenoid-based beak coloration and females also display some (albeit a less rich orange) beak color. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the predictors of carotenoid-based leg coloration-another potentially important visual signal-in this species. The same suite of dietary (e.g., lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin) and metabolically derived (e.g., dehydrolutein, anhydrolutein) yellow and orange carotenoids was present in plasma, liver, and adipose tissue of both sexes. Retina contained two different metabolites (astaxanthin and galloxanthin) that serve specific functions in association with unique photoreceptor types in the eye. Beaks were enriched with four red ketocarotenoid derivatives in both sexes (alpha-doradexanthin, adonirubin, astaxanthin, and canthaxanthin), while the carotenoid profile of legs

  13. Oxidation of carotenoids by heat and tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Hurst, John S; Contreras, Janice E; Siems, Werner G; Van Kuijk, Frederik J G M

    2004-01-01

    The stability to autoxidation of the polar carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, was compared to that of the less polar carotenoids, beta-carotene and lycopene at physiologically or pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of 2 and 6 microM, after exposure to heat or cigarette smoke. Three methodological approaches were used: 1) Carotenoids dissolved in solvents with different polarities were incubated at 37 and 80 degrees C for different times. 2) Human plasma samples were subjected to the same temperature conditions. 3) Methanolic carotenoid solutions and plasma were also exposed to whole tobacco smoke from 1-5 unfiltered cigarettes. The concentrations of individual carotenoids in different solvents were determined spectrophotometrically. Carotenoids from plasma were extracted and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Carotenoids were generally more stable at 37 than at 80 degrees C. In methanol and dichloromethane the thermal degradation of beta-carotene and lycopene was faster than that of lutein and zeaxanthin. However, in tetrahydrofuran beta-carotene and zeaxanthin degraded faster than lycopene and lutein. Plasma carotenoid levels at 37 degrees C did not change, but decreased at 80 degrees C. The decrease of beta-carotene and lycopene levels was higher than those for lutein and zeaxanthin. Also in the tobacco smoke experiments the highest autoxidation rates were found for beta-carotene and lycopene at 2 microM, but at 6 microM lutein and zeaxanthin depleted to the same extent as beta-carotene. These data support our previous studies suggesting that oxidative stress degrade beta-carotene and lycopene faster than lutein and zeaxanthin. The only exception was the thermal degradation of carotenoids solubilized in tetrahydrofuran, which favors faster breakdown of beta-carotene and zeaxanthin.

  14. Structural and Functional Roles of Carotenoids in Chlorosomes

    PubMed Central

    Arellano, Juan B.; Collins, Aaron M.; Laurinmäki, Pasi; Torkkeli, Mika; Löflund, Benita; Serimaa, Ritva E.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Tuma, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Chlorosomes are large light-harvesting complexes found in three phyla of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. Chlorosomes are primarily composed of self-assembling pigment aggregates. In addition to the main pigment, bacteriochlorophyll c, d, or e, chlorosomes also contain variable amounts of carotenoids. Here, we use X-ray scattering and electron cryomicroscopy, complemented with absorption spectroscopy and pigment analysis, to compare the morphologies, structures, and pigment compositions of chlorosomes from Chloroflexus aurantiacus grown under two different light conditions and Chlorobaculum tepidum. High-purity chlorosomes from C. aurantiacus contain about 20% more carotenoid per bacteriochlorophyll c molecule when grown under low light than when grown under high light. This accentuates the light-harvesting function of carotenoids, in addition to their photoprotective role. The low-light chlorosomes are thicker due to the overall greater content of pigments and contain domains of lamellar aggregates. Experiments where carotenoids were selectively extracted from intact chlorosomes using hexane proved that they are located in the interlamellar space, as observed previously for species belonging to the phylum Chlorobi. A fraction of the carotenoids are localized in the baseplate, where they are bound differently and cannot be removed by hexane. In C. tepidum, carotenoids cannot be extracted by hexane even from the chlorosome interior. The chemical structure of the pigments in C. tepidum may lead to π-π interactions between carotenoids and bacteriochlorophylls, preventing carotenoid extraction. The results provide information about the nature of interactions between bacteriochlorophylls and carotenoids in the protein-free environment of the chlorosome interior. PMID:23396908

  15. Variability of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Orange Colored Capsicum spp.

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Ivette; Hamby, Shane; Romero, Joslynn; Bosland, Paul W.; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    Pepper, Capsicum spp., is a worldwide crop valued for heat, nutrition, and rich pigment content. Carotenoids, the largest group of plant pigments, function as antioxidants and as vitamin A precursors. The most abundant carotenoids in ripe pepper fruits are β-carotene, capsanthin, and capsorubin. In this study, the carotenoid composition of orange fruited Capsicum lines was defined along with the allelic variability of the biosynthetic enzymes. The carotenoid chemical profiles present in seven orange pepper varieties were determined using a novel UPLC method. The orange appearance of the fruit was due either to the accumulation of β-carotene, or in two cases, due to only the accumulation of red and yellow carotenoids. Four carotenoid biosynthetic genes, Psy, Lcyb, CrtZ-2, and Ccs were cloned and sequenced from these cultivars. This data tested the hypothesis that different alleles for specific carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes are associated with specific carotenoid profiles in orange peppers. While the coding regions within Psy and CrtZ-2 did not change in any of the lines, the genomic sequence contained introns not previously reported. Lcyb and Ccs contained no introns but did exhibit polymorphisms resulting in amino acid changes; a new Ccs variant was found. When selectively breeding for high provitamin A levels, phenotypic recurrent selection based on fruit color is not sufficient, carotenoid chemical composition should also be conducted. Based on these results, specific alleles are candidate molecular markers for selection of orange pepper lines with high β-carotene and therefore high pro-vitamin A levels. PMID:20582146

  16. Carotenoids in white- and red-fleshed loquat fruits.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chun-Hua; Xu, Chang-Jie; Sun, Chong-De; Li, Xian; Chen, Kun-Song

    2007-09-19

    Fruits of 23 loquat ( Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) cultivars, of which 11 were white-fleshed and 12 red-fleshed, were analyzed for color, carotenoid content, and vitamin A values. Color differences between two loquat groups were observed in the peel as well as in the flesh. beta-Carotene and lutein were the major carotenoids in the peel, which accounted for about 60% of the total colored carotenoids in both red- and white-fleshed cultivars. beta-Cryptoxanthin and, in some red-fleshed cultivars, beta-carotene were the most abundant carotenoids in the flesh, and in total, they accounted for over half of the colored carotenoids. Neoxanthin, violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, 9- cis-violaxanthin, phytoene, phytofluene, and zeta-carotene were also identified, while zeaxanthin, alpha-carotene, and lycopene were undetectable. Xanthophylls were highly esterified. On average, 1.3- and 10.8-fold higher levels of colored carotenoids were observed in the peel and flesh tissue of red-fleshed cultivars, respectively. The percentage of beta-carotene among colored carotenoids was higher in both the peel and the flesh of red-fleshed cultivars. Correlations between the levels of total colored carotenoids and the color indices were analyzed. The a* and the ratio of a*/ b* were positively correlated with the total content of colored carotenoids, while L*, b*, and H degrees correlated negatively. Vitamin A values, as retinol equivalents (RE), of loquat flesh were 0.49 and 8.77 microg/g DW (8.46 and 136.41 microg/100 g FW) on average for white- and red-fleshed cultivars, respectively. The RE values for the red-fleshed fruits were higher than fruits such as mango, red watermelon, papaya, and orange as reported in the literature, suggesting that loquat is an excellent source of provitamin A.

  17. Selection and taxonomic identification of carotenoid-producing marine actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Romero, Francisco; Fernández-Chimeno, Rosa Isabel; de la Fuente, Juan Luis; Barredo, José-Luis

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids are important pigments produced by plants and many microorganisms, including fungi, microalgae, cyanobacteria, and bacteria. Marine actinomycetes are a group of bacteria that produce a variety of metabolites with economic potential. Here, we describe a general method of selecting marine actinomycetes as carotenoids' producers. The screening is carried out at two levels: the first one involves a quick selection of strains by visual color inspection, and the second consists in the analysis of the extracts by HPLC. The taxonomic analysis of the producing strains gives us an overview of the groups of actinomycetes in which carotenoids can be found.

  18. Carotenoid cation formation and the regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting.

    PubMed

    Holt, Nancy E; Zigmantas, Donatas; Valkunas, Leonas; Li, Xiao-Ping; Niyogi, Krishna K; Fleming, Graham R

    2005-01-21

    Photosynthetic light harvesting in excess light is regulated by a process known as feedback deexcitation. Femtosecond transient absorption measurements on thylakoid membranes show selective formation of a carotenoid radical cation upon excitation of chlorophyll under conditions of maximum, steady-state feedback deexcitation. Studies on transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants confirmed that this carotenoid radical cation formation is correlated with feedback deexcitation and requires the presence of zeaxanthin, the specific carotenoid synthesized during high light exposure. These results indicate that energy transfer from chlorophyll molecules to a chlorophyllzeaxanthin heterodimer, which then undergoes charge separation, is the mechanism for excess energy dissipation during feedback deexcitation.

  19. Voltage-dependent absorbance change of carotenoids in halophilic archaebacteria.

    PubMed

    Seki, S I; Sasabe, H; Tomioka, H

    1996-10-02

    Membrane vesicles of wild-type Halobacterium sp. mex strain show a wavy absorbance change which has not been so far reported in halophilic archaebacteria. A white mutant strain lacking carotenoids did not show the wavy absorbance change. The wavy absorbance change in the range of 440-590 nm was induced by a red flash (600-640 nm), which photoexcited electrogenic ion pumps, mex bacteriorhodopsin and mex halorhodopsin but not carotenoids. The wavy change was also caused by K+ diffusion potentials without light. These results suggest that the wavy absorbance change in the membrane vesicles is the voltage-dependent absorbance change of the carotenoids.

  20. Carotenoid Composition of the Fruit of Red Mamey (Pouteria sapota).

    PubMed

    Murillo, Enrique; Turcsi, Erika; Szabó, Ildikó; Mosquera, Yesuri; Agócs, Attila; Nagy, Veronika; Gulyás-Fekete, Gergely; Deli, József

    2016-09-28

    The detailed carotenoid analysis of red mamey (Pouteria sapota) was achieved by HPLC-DAD-MS, chemical tests, and cochromatography with authentic samples. Altogether 47 components were detected and 34 identified from the total extract or after fractionation with column chromatography. The main carotenoids were cryptocapsin, sapotexanthin, and capsanthin 5,6-epoxide. Some further minor components containing the κ-end group with or without a hydroxy group and their 5,6-epoxy precursors were identified. Some comments are made about the biosynthesis of κ-carotenoids in red mamey.

  1. Subchromoplast Sequestration of Carotenoids Affects Regulatory Mechanisms in Tomato Lines Expressing Different Carotenoid Gene Combinations[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Marilise; Mora, Leticia; Enfissi, Eugenia M.A.; Bramley, Peter M.; Fraser, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic engineering of the carotenoid pathway in recent years has successfully enhanced the carotenoid contents of crop plants. It is now clear that only increasing biosynthesis is restrictive, as mechanisms to sequestrate these increased levels in the cell or organelle should be exploited. In this study, biosynthetic pathway genes were overexpressed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines and the effects on carotenoid formation and sequestration revealed. The bacterial Crt carotenogenic genes, independently or in combination, and their zygosity affect the production of carotenoids. Transcription of the pathway genes was perturbed, whereby the tissue specificity of transcripts was altered. Changes in the steady state levels of metabolites in unrelated sectors of metabolism were found. Of particular interest was a concurrent increase of the plastid-localized lipid monogalactodiacylglycerol with carotenoids along with membranous subcellular structures. The carotenoids, proteins, and lipids in the subchromoplast fractions of the transgenic tomato fruit with increased carotenoid content suggest that cellular structures can adapt to facilitate the sequestration of the newly formed products. Moreover, phytoene, the precursor of the pathway, was identified in the plastoglobule, whereas the biosynthetic enzymes were in the membranes. The implications of these findings with respect to novel pathway regulation mechanisms are discussed. PMID:24249831

  2. Theoretical investigation of carotenoid ultraviolet spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, João B. L.; Durães, Jussara A.; Sales, Maria J. A.; Vilela, Alessandra F. A.; E Silva, Geraldo M.; Gargano, Ricardo

    We have determined the π band-gaps of the main carotenoids present in poly(methyl)methacrylate/buriti blends, namely, trans-β-carotene, 13-cis-β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene, phytofluene, and zeaxanthin. Semiempirical, model Hamiltonian, and density functional calculations were carried out to study these structures. The geometries were fully optimized using AM1, PM3, and B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) methods. The TD-DFT and ZINDO/S methods were applied for the calculation of the electronic absorption spectra of the optimized B3LYP geometries. The calculated spectra using the polarizable continuum model for the solvent effects were compared with the available experimental.

  3. Subcellular Localization of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Selstam, Eva; Norling, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    The biosynthesis pathway of carotenoids in cyanobacteria is partly described. However, the subcellular localization of individual steps is so far unknown. Carotenoid analysis of different membrane subfractions in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 shows that “light” plasma membranes have a high carotenoid/protein ratio, when compared to “heavier” plasma membranes or thylakoids. The localization of CrtQ and CrtO, two well-defined carotenoid synthesis pathway enzymes in Synechocystis, was studied by epitope tagging and western blots. Both enzymes are locally more abundant in plasma membranes than in thylakoids, implying that the plasma membrane has higher synthesis rates of β-carotene precursor molecules and echinenone. PMID:26083372

  4. Carotenoids from guava (Psidium guajava l.): isolation and structure elucidation.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, A Z; Steck, A; Pfander, H

    1999-01-01

    Sixteen carotenoids were isolated from the flesh of Brazilian red guavas (Psidium guajava L.). Their structures were established by means of UV-visible, 400 and 500 MHz (1)H NMR, 120 and 125 MHz (13)C NMR, mass, and circular dichroism spectra. The carotenoids were identified as phytofluene, (all-E)-, (9Z)-, (13Z)-, and (15Z)-beta-carotene, (all-E)-gamma-carotene, (all-E)-, (9Z)-, (13Z)-, and (15Z)-lycopene, (all-E,3R)-beta-cryptoxanthin, (all-E, 3R)-rubixanthin, (all-E,3S,5R,8S)-cryptoflavin, (all-E,3R,3'R, 6'R)-lutein, (all-E,3S,5R,6R,3'S,5'R,8'R)-, and (all-E,3S,5R,6R,3'S, 5'R,8'S)-neochrome. Thirteen of the carotenoids identified are reported as guava carotenoids for the first time.

  5. Anticancer properties of carotenoids in prostate cancer. A review.

    PubMed

    Soares, Nathalia da Costa Pereira; Teodoro, Anderson Junger; Lotsch, Priscila Falagan; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Borojevic, Radovan

    2015-10-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer of men in the world. Several epidemiological studies have linked increased carotenoids consumption with decreased prostate cancer risk. These findings are supported by in vitro and in vivo experiments showing that carotenoids not only enhance the antioxidant response of prostate cells, but that they are able to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis and decrease the metastatic capacity of prostate cancer cells. However, clear clinical evidence supporting the use of carotenoids in prevention or treatment of prostate cancer is not available, due to the limited number of published randomized clinical trials, and the varying protocols used in the existing studies. The scope of the present review is to discuss the potential impact of carotenoids on prostate cancer by giving an overview of the molecular mechanisms and in vitro / in vivo effects.

  6. Effects of exogenous glucose on carotenoid accumulation in tomato leaves.

    PubMed

    Mortain-Bertrand, Anne; Stammitti, Linda; Telef, Nadège; Colardelle, Patrice; Brouquisse, Renaud; Rolin, Dominique; Gallusci, Philippe

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the effect of carbohydrate on carotenoid accumulation in leaves, excised plants of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum var. cerasiformae, wva 106) were supplied with glucose through the transpiration stream for 48 h. We report here that sugar accumulation in leaves led to a decrease of carotenoid content, which was related to the reduction of Chl. The decrease in carotenoid amount correlated with a sugar-induced repression of genes encoding enzymes of the carotenoid and of the Rohmer pathways. The lower 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase transcript level probably leads to a decreased metabolic flux through the methylerythritol pathway and subsequently to a lower amount of substrate available for plastidic isoprenoid synthesis. Differences between responses of young (sink) and mature (source) leaves to carbohydrate accumulation are discussed.

  7. Maternally invested carotenoids compensate costly ectoparasitism in the hihi

    PubMed Central

    Ewen, John G.; Thorogood, Rose; Brekke, Patricia; Cassey, Phillip; Karadas, Filiz; Armstrong, Doug P.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary ingested carotenoid biomolecules have been linked to both improved health and immunity in nestling birds. Here, we test whether maternally invested egg carotenoids can offset the cost of parasitism in developing nestling hihi (Notiomystis cincta) from the bloodsucking mite (Ornithonyssus bursa). Our results reveal clear negative effects of parasitism on nestlings, and that maternally derived carotenoids compensate this cost, resulting in growth parameters and ultimate mass achieved being similar to nonparasitized young. Our results offer an unique example of a direct positive relationship between enhanced maternal investment of carotenoids and an ability to cope with a specific and costly parasite in young birds. As O. bursa infestations reduce population viability in hihi, our findings also highlight the importance of key nutritional resources for endangered bird populations to better cope with common parasite infestations. PMID:19620733

  8. Enzymic Pathways for Formation of Carotenoid Cleavage Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischmann, Peter; Zorn, Holger

    Degraded carotenoids (apocarotenoids, norisoprenoids) have been a subject of intensive research for several decades. From the perspective of human physiology and nutrition, the retinoids, acting as vitamins, signalling molecules, and visual pigments, attracted the greatest attention (Chapters 15 and 16). Plant scientists, however, detected a wealth of different apocarotenoids, presumably derived by the excentric cleavage of carotenoids in various species, the plant hormone abscisic acid (1, Scheme 6) being the best-investigated example. With the onset of fruit ripening, flower opening or senescence of green tissues, carotenoids are degraded oxidatively to smaller, volatile compounds. The natural biological functions of the reaction products are outlined in Chapter 15. As many of these apocarotenoids act as potent flavour compounds, food chemists and flavourists worldwide have investigated meticulously their structural and sensory properties. Many aspects of carotenoid metabolites and breakdown products as aroma compounds are presented in a comprehensive book [1].

  9. No detectable carotenoid concentrations in serum of llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Raila, J; Schweigert, F J; Stanitznig, A; Lambacher, B; Franz, S; Baldermann, S; Wittek, T

    2016-11-09

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments and important for a variety of physiological functions. They are major dietary vitamin A precursors and act as lipophilic antioxidants in a variety of tissues and are associated with important health benefits in humans and animals. All animals must acquire carotenoids from their diet, but to our knowledge, there are no studies investigating the intestinal carotenoid absorption and their blood concentrations in New World camelids. The present study aimed to assess the serum concentrations of selected carotenoids in llamas (n = 13) and alpacas (n = 27). Serum carotenoids as well as retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and these were unable to detect any carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, α- and β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene) in the samples. The concentrations of retinol in alpacas (2.89 ± 1.13 μmol/l; mean ± SD) were higher (p = 0.024) than those found in llamas (2.05 ± 0.87 μmol/l); however, the concentrations of α-tocopherol were not significantly (p = 0.166) different (llamas: 3.98 ± 1.83 μmol/l; alpacas: 4.95 ± 2.14 μmol/l). The results show that both llamas and alpacas are not able to absorb intact carotenoids, but efficiently convert provitamin A carotenoids to retinol.

  10. Skin total carotenoids predict plasma carotenoid levels during a 28-week experimental feeding study with varying levels of vegetables and fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective biomarkers are needed to assess adherence to vegetable and fruit intervention trials. This study compared plasma carotenoid concentrations to non-invasive skin carotenoid assessments. Thirty participants consumed a low-carotenoid diet (6 wk, Phases 1 & 3), a provided diet containing 6 c/da...

  11. Meal triacylglycerol profile modulates postprandial absorption of carotenoids in humans.

    PubMed

    Goltz, Shellen R; Campbell, Wayne W; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Failla, Mark L; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2012-06-01

    Dietary lipids are considered to be primary potentiators of carotenoid absorption, yet the amount and source required to optimize bioavailability has not been systematically evaluated. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of both amount and source of triacylglycerols on postprandial absorption of carotenoids from vegetable salads. Healthy subjects (n = 29) were randomized using a Latin square design (3 × 3) and consumed three identical salads with 3, 8, or 20 g of canola oil, soybean oil, or butter. Blood was collected from 0-10 h and triacylglycerol-rich fractions (TRLs) were isolated by ultracentrifugation. Carotenoid contents of TRL fractions were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. Considering all lipid sources, 20 g of lipid promoted higher absorption compared to 3 and 8 g for all carotenoid species (p < 0.05), except for α-carotene (p = 0.07). The source of lipid had less impact on the absorption of carotenoids than amount of lipid. Pooling results from all lipid amounts, monounsaturated fatty acid rich canola oil trended toward enhancing absorption of lutein and α-carotene compared to saturated fatty acid rich butter (p = 0.06 and p = 0.08, respectively). While both amount and source of co-consumed lipid affect carotenoid bioavailability from vegetables, amount appears to exert a stronger effect. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Seeking carotenoid pigments in amber-preserved fossil feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Daniel B.; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Dove, Carla J.; Grimaldi, David A.; James, Helen F.

    2014-06-01

    Plumage colours bestowed by carotenoid pigments can be important for visual communication and likely have a long evolutionary history within Aves. Discovering plumage carotenoids in fossil feathers could provide insight into the ecology of ancient birds and non-avian dinosaurs. With reference to a modern feather, we sought chemical evidence of carotenoids in six feathers preserved in amber (Miocene to mid-Cretaceous) and in a feather preserved as a compression fossil (Eocene). Evidence of melanin pigmentation and microstructure preservation was evaluated with scanning electron and light microscopies. We observed fine microstructural details including evidence for melanin pigmentation in the amber and compression fossils, but Raman spectral bands did not confirm the presence of carotenoids in them. Carotenoids may have been originally absent from these feathers or the pigments may have degraded during burial; the preservation of microstructure may suggest the former. Significantly, we show that carotenoid plumage pigments can be detected without sample destruction through an amber matrix using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Bioavailability of natural carotenoids in human skin compared to blood.

    PubMed

    Meinke, Martina C; Darvin, Maxim E; Vollert, Henning; Lademann, Jürgen

    2010-10-01

    Skin functions and structure are significantly influenced by nutrients. Antioxidants protect the supportive layer of the skin against any damaging irradiation effects and the action of free radicals. A lack of suitable methods means that the pharmacokinetic properties of systemically applied carotenoids transferred into the skin remain poorly understood. In this study, a natural kale extract or placebo oil were given orally to 22 healthy volunteers for 4 weeks. Carotenoid bioaccessibility was evaluated using non-invasive resonance Raman spectroscopy on the palm and forehead skin. For the analysis of the blood serum, the standard HPLC method was used. The blood and skin levels of the carotenoids increased significantly during the study but compared to the blood serum values, increases in skin were delayed and depended on the dermal area as well as on the carotenoid. Lycopene, measured as being low in the extract, increases more in the skin compared to the blood indicating that the natural mixture of the extract stabilizes the antioxidative network in the skin. After supplementation had ended, the carotenoids decreased much faster in the blood than in the skin. The delayed decrease in the skin may indicate a peripheral buffer function of the skin for carotenoids.

  14. Raman detection of carotenoid pigments in the human retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellermann, Werner; Ermakov, Igor V.; McClane, Robert W.; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2000-04-01

    We have used resonance Raman scattering as a novel, non- invasive, in-vivo optical technique to measure the concentration of carotenoid pigment in the human retina. Using argon laser excitation we are able to measure two strong carotenoid resonance Raman signals at 1159 and 1525 wave numbers, respectively. The required laser power levels are within the limits given by safety standards for ocular exposure. Of the approximately ten carotenoid pigment found in normal human serum, the species lutein and zeaxanthin are concentrated in high amounts in the cells of the human macula, which is an approximately 5 mm diameter area of the retina in which the visual acuity is highest. These carotenoids give the macula a characteristic yellow coloration, and it is speculated that these molecules function as filter to attenuate photochemical damage and/or image degradation under bright UV/blue light exposures. In addition, they are thought to act as free-radical scavenging antioxidants. Studies have shown that there may be a link between macular degenerative diseases, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in the US, and the presence or absence of the carotenoids. We describe an instrument capable of measuring the macular carotenoids in human subjects in a non-invasive, rapid and quantitative way.

  15. Seeking carotenoid pigments in amber-preserved fossil feathers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel B; Nascimbene, Paul C; Dove, Carla J; Grimaldi, David A; James, Helen F

    2014-06-09

    Plumage colours bestowed by carotenoid pigments can be important for visual communication and likely have a long evolutionary history within Aves. Discovering plumage carotenoids in fossil feathers could provide insight into the ecology of ancient birds and non-avian dinosaurs. With reference to a modern feather, we sought chemical evidence of carotenoids in six feathers preserved in amber (Miocene to mid-Cretaceous) and in a feather preserved as a compression fossil (Eocene). Evidence of melanin pigmentation and microstructure preservation was evaluated with scanning electron and light microscopies. We observed fine microstructural details including evidence for melanin pigmentation in the amber and compression fossils, but Raman spectral bands did not confirm the presence of carotenoids in them. Carotenoids may have been originally absent from these feathers or the pigments may have degraded during burial; the preservation of microstructure may suggest the former. Significantly, we show that carotenoid plumage pigments can be detected without sample destruction through an amber matrix using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

  16. Seeking carotenoid pigments in amber-preserved fossil feathers

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Daniel B.; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Dove, Carla J.; Grimaldi, David A.; James, Helen F.

    2014-01-01

    Plumage colours bestowed by carotenoid pigments can be important for visual communication and likely have a long evolutionary history within Aves. Discovering plumage carotenoids in fossil feathers could provide insight into the ecology of ancient birds and non-avian dinosaurs. With reference to a modern feather, we sought chemical evidence of carotenoids in six feathers preserved in amber (Miocene to mid-Cretaceous) and in a feather preserved as a compression fossil (Eocene). Evidence of melanin pigmentation and microstructure preservation was evaluated with scanning electron and light microscopies. We observed fine microstructural details including evidence for melanin pigmentation in the amber and compression fossils, but Raman spectral bands did not confirm the presence of carotenoids in them. Carotenoids may have been originally absent from these feathers or the pigments may have degraded during burial; the preservation of microstructure may suggest the former. Significantly, we show that carotenoid plumage pigments can be detected without sample destruction through an amber matrix using confocal Raman spectroscopy. PMID:24909554

  17. Carotenoid binding to proteins: Modeling pigment transport to lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Reszczynska, Emilia; Welc, Renata; Grudzinski, Wojciech; Trebacz, Kazimierz; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I

    2015-10-15

    Carotenoid pigments play numerous important physiological functions in human organism. Very special is a role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the retina of an eye and in particular in its central part, the macula lutea. In the retina, carotenoids can be directly present in the lipid phase of the membranes or remain bound to the protein-pigment complexes. In this work we address a problem of binding of carotenoids to proteins and possible role of such structures in pigment transport to lipid membranes. Interaction of three carotenoids, beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin with two proteins: bovine serum albumin and glutathione S-transferase (GST) was investigated with application of molecular spectroscopy techniques: UV-Vis absorption, circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Interaction of pigment-protein complexes with model lipid bilayers formed with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine was investigated with application of FTIR, Raman imaging of liposomes and electrophysiological technique, in the planar lipid bilayer models. The results show that in all the cases of protein and pigment studied, carotenoids bind to protein and that the complexes formed can interact with membranes. This means that protein-carotenoid complexes are capable of playing physiological role in pigment transport to biomembranes.

  18. Role of carotenoids in the phototropic response of corn seedings

    SciTech Connect

    Vierstra, R.D.; Poff, K.L.

    1981-10-01

    The herbicide 4 chloro-5-(methylamino)-2-..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..,-trifluoro-m-tolyl)-3(2H)- pyridazinone (SAN 9789), which blocks the synthesis in higher plants of colored carotenoids but not of flavins, was used to examine the involvement of carotenoids in corn seeding phototropism. It was concluded that ''bulk'' carotenoids are not the photoreceptor pigment based on the results that increasing concentrations of SAN 9789 (up to 100 micromolar) did not alter the phototropic sensitivity to 380 nanometers light (using geotropism as a control) and did not increase the threshold intensities of fluence response curves for both 380 and 450 nanometers light even though carotenoid content was reduced to 1 to 2% of normal. SAN 9789 treatment, however, did reduce seedling sensitivity toward 450 nanometers light indicating that carotenoids are involved in phototropism. Carotenoids, which are located mainly in the primary leaves, may act in phototropism as an internal screen, enhancing the light intensity gradient across the seedling and thus contributing to the ability of the seedling to perceive light direction. These results, indicate that the action spectra for phototropic responses can be significantly affected by the absorbance of screening pigments in vivo thus altering its shape from the in vitro absorption spectrum of the photoreceptor pigment.

  19. Cancer chemoprevention by natural carotenoids as an efficient strategy.

    PubMed

    Bolhassani, Azam

    2015-01-01

    The use of specific compounds to suppress the growth of tumors or reverse carcinogenesis is defined as chemoprevention. Natural products have been known as one of the most important resources of anticancer agents. Among them, carotenoids are lipophilic molecules accumulating in lipophilic compartments including lipoproteins and/or membranes. Various carotenoids were used as major phytonutrients to inhibit the development of tumors in vitro and in vivo. They have shown different functions such as scavenging free radicals, inhibition of angiogenesis, prevention of cell propagation, and apoptosis induction in lung, colon, breast and prostate. Regarding these roles, most carotenoids possess anti-oxidant properties. However, their therapeutic use is problematic due to the lack of solubility of carotenoids in water. Hence, recent studies have been focused on uncommon carotenoids soluble in water because of their glycosylated form, such as crocin(s) extracted from saffron. These structures with their cytotoxicity effects on human cancer cells are suggested as the most suitable compounds for cancer treatment. Herein, we summarize different functions of carotenoids for suppressing tumor growth.

  20. Production of carotenoids by microalgae: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Varela, João C; Pereira, Hugo; Vila, Marta; León, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    Carotenoids are a wide group of lipophylic isoprenoids synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and also by some non-photosynthetic bacteria and fungi. Animals, which cannot synthesize carotenoids de novo, must include them in their diet to fulfil essential provitamin, antioxidant, or colouring requirements. Carotenoids are indispensable in light harvesting and energy transfer during photosynthesis and in the protection of the photosynthetic apparatus against photooxidative damage. In this review, we outline the factors inducing carotenoid accumulation in microalgae, the knowledge acquired on the metabolic pathways responsible for their biosynthesis, and the recent achievements in the genetic engineering of this pathway. Despite the considerable progress achieved in understanding and engineering algal carotenogenesis, many aspects remain to be elucidated. The increasing number of sequenced microalgal genomes and the data generated by high-throughput technologies will enable a better understanding of carotenoid biosynthesis in microalgae. Moreover, the growing number of industrial microalgal species genetically modified will allow the production of novel strains with enhanced carotenoid contents.

  1. Heterosis for carotenoid concentration and profile in maize hybrids.

    PubMed

    Burt, Andrew J; Grainger, Christopher M; Shelp, Barry J; Lee, Elizabeth A

    2011-12-01

    Production of high-lutein maize grain is of particular interest as a value-added feed source to produce high-lutein eggs. In this paper, it is demonstrated that heterosis for total carotenoid concentration and for the ratio of lutein to zeaxanthin (L:Z ratio), or profile type, exists infrequently in yellow dent crosses. However, yellow dent inbred maize lines A619 and CG102, both possessing high-lutein profiles, produce F1 seed with a classic overdominant expression of lutein levels (i.e., 49 µg/g dry weight (DW) above the high-parent value). Reciprocal crosses of A619 and CG102 with one another and with two high-zeaxanthin (i.e., low lutein), high-carotenoid lines both suggest that the A619 and CG102 high-lutein phenotypes are achieved by different and complementary genotypes. The contribution of CG102 to the heterotic response was examined using a QTL-based approach that involved phenotyping the mapping population in a testcross to A619. Significant QTL were found at loci known to be involved in the carotenoid pathway but also at loci proximate to, but separate from, known carotenoid pathway steps. Exploiting an overdominant heterotic response for lutein and total carotenoids should be given strong consideration as a viable method of producing high-carotenoid hybrid maize lines.

  2. Carotenoids microencapsulation by spray drying method and supercritical micronization.

    PubMed

    Janiszewska-Turak, Emilia

    2017-09-01

    Carotenoids are used as natural food colourants in the food industry. As unstable natural pigments they need protection. This protection can involve the microencapsulation process. There are numerous techniques that can be used for carotenoid protection, but two of them -spray drying and supercritical micronization - are currently the most commonly used. The objective of this paper is to describe these two techniques for carotenoid microencapsulation. In this review information from articles from the last five years was taken into consideration. Pigments described in the review are all carotenoids. Short summary of carotenoids sources was presented. For the spray drying technique, a review of carrier material and process conditions was made. Moreover, a short description of some of the most suitable processes involving supercritical fluids for carotenoids (astaxanthin, β-carotene, lutein and lycopene) encapsulation was given. These include the Supercritical Antisolvent process (SAS), Particles from Gas-Saturated Solutions (PGSS), Supercritical Fluid Extraction From an Emulsion (SFEE) and Solution Enhanced Dispersion by Supercritical fluids (SEDS). In most cases the studies, independently of the described method, were conducted on the laboratory scale. In some a scale-up was also tested. In the review a critical assessment of the used methods was made. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of genotype and environment on citrus juice carotenoid content.

    PubMed

    Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Dubois, Cecile; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2009-10-14

    A selection of orange and mandarin varieties belonging to the same Citrus accession and cultivated in Mediterranean (Corsica), subtropical (New Caledonia), and tropical areas (principally Tahiti) were studied to assess the effect of genotype and environmental conditions on citrus juice carotenoid content. Juices from three sweet orange cultivars, that is, Pera, Sanguinelli, and Valencia ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), and two mandarin species ( Citrus deliciosa Ten and Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan), were analyzed by HPLC using a C(30) column. Annual carotenoid content variations in Corsican fruits were evaluated. They were found to be very limited compared to variations due to varietal influences. The statistical analysis (PCA, dissimilarity tree) results based on the different carotenoid compounds showed that citrus juice from Corsica had a higher carotenoid content than citrus juices from tropical origins. The tropical citrus juices were clearly differentiated from citrus juices from Corsica, and close correlations were obtained between beta-cryptoxanthin and phytoene (r = 0.931) and beta-carotene and phytoene (r = 0.918). More broadly, Mediterranean conditions amplified interspecific differentiation, especially by increasing the beta-cryptoxanthin and cis-violaxanthin content in oranges and beta-carotene and phytoene-phytofluene content in mandarins. Thus, at a quantitative level, environmental conditions also had a major role in determining the levels of carotenoids of nutritional interest, such as the main provitamin A carotenoids in citrus juice (beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene).

  4. Triplet excited state spectra and dynamics of carotenoids from the thermophilic purple photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum

    SciTech Connect

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Blankenship, R. E.

    2011-01-13

    Light-harvesting complex 2 from the anoxygenic phototrophic purple bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum was purified and studied by steady-state absorption, fluorescence and flash photolysis spectroscopy. Steady-state absorption and fluorescence measurements show that carotenoids play a negligible role as supportive energy donors and transfer excitation to bacteriochlorophyll-a with low energy transfer efficiency of ~30%. HPLC analysis determined that the dominant carotenoids in the complex are rhodopin and spirilloxanthin. Carotenoid excited triplet state formation upon direct (carotenoid) or indirect (bacteriochlorophyll-a Q{sub x} band) excitation shows that carotenoid triplets are mostly localized on spirilloxanthin. In addition, no triplet excitation transfer between carotenoids was observed. Such specific carotenoid composition and spectroscopic results strongly suggest that this organism optimized carotenoid composition in the light-harvesting complex 2 in order to maximize photoprotective capabilities of carotenoids but subsequently drastically suppressed their supporting role in light-harvesting process.

  5. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se H; Kim, Moon S; Lee, Bun Y; Lee, Pyung C

    2016-02-23

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored thus far. Here, we generated 13 novel structures of C30 carotenoids and one C35 carotenoid, including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures, through directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of various C30 carotenoid structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-α-tocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid 4,4'-diapotorulene on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results demonstrate that a series of structurally novel carotenoids possessing biologically beneficial properties can be synthesized in E. coli.

  6. Evidence for decreased interaction and improved carotenoid bioavailability by sequential delivery of a supplement.

    PubMed

    Salter-Venzon, Dawna; Kazlova, Valentina; Izzy Ford, Samantha; Intra, Janjira; Klosner, Allison E; Gellenbeck, Kevin W

    2017-05-01

    Despite the notable health benefits of carotenoids for human health, the majority of human diets worldwide are repeatedly shown to be inadequate in intake of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables, according to current health recommendations. To address this deficit, strategies designed to increase dietary intakes and subsequent plasma levels of carotenoids are warranted. When mixed carotenoids are delivered into the intestinal tract simultaneously, competition occurs for micelle formation and absorption, affecting carotenoid bioavailability. Previously, we tested the in vitro viability of a carotenoid mix designed to deliver individual carotenoids sequentially spaced from one another over the 6 hr transit time of the human upper gastrointestinal system. We hypothesized that temporally and spatially separating the individual carotenoids would reduce competition for micelle formation, improve uptake, and maximize efficacy. Here, we test this hypothesis in a double-blind, repeated-measure, cross-over human study with 12 subjects by comparing the change of plasma carotenoid levels for 8 hr after oral doses of a sequentially spaced carotenoid mix, to a matched mix without sequential spacing. We find the carotenoid change from baseline, measured as area under the curve, is increased following consumption of the sequentially spaced mix compared to concomitant carotenoids delivery. These results demonstrate reduced interaction and regulation between the sequentially spaced carotenoids, suggesting improved bioavailability from a novel sequentially spaced carotenoid mix.

  7. Vitamin C, provitamin A carotenoids, and other carotenoids in high-pressurized orange juice during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Plaza, Lucía; De Ancos, Begoña; Cano, M Pilar

    2003-01-29

    Vitamin C, provitamin A carotenoids, and other carotenoids were measured in freshly squeezed juices from oranges (Citrus sinensis L. var. Valencia late) that were subjected to high-pressure (HP) treatment. Also, the stability of these compounds was studied during refrigerated storage at 4 degrees C. HP treatment is an alternative to heat preservation methods for foods; therefore, it is essential to assess the impact of HP on bioactive compounds. Several processes that combine HP treatment with heat treatment for various time periods were assayed: T0, fresh juice (without treatment); T1, 100 MPa/60 degrees C/5 min; T2, 350 MPa/30 degrees C/2.5 min; T3, 400 MPa/40 degrees C/1 min. Fresh and treated samples were kept refrigerated (4 degrees C) over 10 days. After application of HP and during the refrigeration period, the qualitative and quantitative determination of vitamin C, provitamin A carotenoids (beta- and alpha-carotene; beta- and alpha-cryptoxanthin), and the xanthophylls zeaxanthin and lutein was achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography. T1 and T3 juices showed a decrease in ascorbic acid and total vitamin C just after HP treatment (D0) compared with T0 juices. On the contrary, T2 juices, just after HP treatment (D0), had the same levels of both compounds compared to untreated juices. T1, T2, and T3 treatments led to an increase in the extraction of carotenoids and provitamin A carotenoids. Total carotenoid content after the 10-day refrigerated storage period resulted in no significant quantitative changes in T1 juices, whereas in T2 and T3 juices small losses were found at the end of the storage period (20.56 and 9.16%, respectively). These losses could be influenced by the depleted protection of vitamin C toward carotenoid oxidation during the same period. A similar trend was found in provitamin A carotenoids for the different treated juices.

  8. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis ORF Rv0654 encodes a carotenoid oxygenase mediating central and excentric cleavage of conventional and aromatic carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Scherzinger, Daniel; Scheffer, Erdmann; Bär, Cornelia; Ernst, Hansgeorg; Al-Babili, Salim

    2010-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is assumed to lack carotenoids, which are widespread pigments fulfilling important functions as radical scavengers and as a source of apocarotenoids. In mammals, the synthesis of apocarotenoids, including retinoic acid, is initiated by the β-carotene cleavage oxygenases I and II catalyzing either a central or an excentric cleavage of β-carotene, respectively. The M. tuberculosis ORF Rv0654 codes for a putative carotenoid oxygenase conserved in other mycobacteria. In the present study, we investigated the corresponding enzyme, here named M. tuberculosis carotenoid cleavage oxygenase (MtCCO). Using heterologously expressed and purified protein, we show that MtCCO converts several carotenoids and apocarotenoids in vitro. Moreover, the identification of the products suggests that, in contrast to other carotenoid oxygenases, MtCCO cleaves the central C15-C15' and an excentric double bond at the C13-C14 position, leading to retinal (C(20)), β-apo-14'-carotenal (C(22)) and β-apo-13-carotenone (C(18)) from β-carotene, as well as the corresponding hydroxylated products from zeaxanthin and lutein. Moreover, the enzyme cleaves also 3,3'-dihydroxy-isorenieratene representing aromatic carotenoids synthesized by other mycobacteria. Quantification of the products from different substrates indicates that the preference for each of the cleavage positions is determined by the hydroxylation and the nature of the ionone ring. The data obtained in the present study reveal MtCCO to be a novel carotenoid oxygenase and indicate that M. tuberculosis may utilize carotenoids from host cells and interfere with their retinoid metabolism.

  9. Alpha and omega of carotenoid cleavage.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, M R

    2004-01-01

    molecular oxygen and is activated by ferrous ions. It is highly specific for 15:15' ethylenic bond of carotenoids although it has fairly broad specificity towards a number of carotenoids with at least one intact beta-ionone ring. The dioxygenase was recently cloned from Drosophila melanogaster and from the chicken intestine. The recombinant protein was found to form retinal as the sole cleavage product of beta-carotene. No apo-carotenoids were formed. Therefore, it is unequivocally proven that the major, if not the sole, pathway of beta-carotene cleavage to vitamin A is by oxidative cleavage of the central ethylenic bond of beta-carotene to yield two molecules of retinal. Most recently, human dioxygenase has also been cloned. Thus, the wisdom, vision and epoch-making mission of Jim Olson in the science of beta-carotene metabolism have been accomplished. I have no doubt that the impact of his original discovery of the dioxygenase and its importance in vitamin A nutriture should be forthcoming in the near future.

  10. Carotenoids, carotenoid esters, and anthocyanins of yellow-, orange-, and red-peeled cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale L.).

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Vargas, Ester; Conrad, Jürgen; Hempel, Judith; Gras, Claudia C; Ziegler, Jochen U; Mayer, Angelika; Jiménez, Víctor; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2016-06-01

    Pigment profiles of yellow-, orange-, and red-peeled cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apples were investigated. Among 15 identified carotenoids and carotenoid esters, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin palmitate were the most abundant in peels and pulp of all samples. Total carotenoid concentrations in the pulp of yellow- and red-peeled cashew apples were low (0.69-0.73 mg/100g FW) compared to that of orange-peeled samples (2.2mg/100g FW). The color difference between the equally carotenoid-rich yellow and red colored samples indicated the presence of a further non-carotenoid pigment type in red peels. Among four detected anthocyanins, the major anthocyanin was unambiguously identified as 7-O-methylcyanidin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside by NMR spectroscopy. Red and yellow peel color was chiefly determined by the presence and absence of anthocyanins, respectively, while the orange appearance of the peel was mainly caused by increased carotenoid concentrations. Thus, orange-peeled fruits represent a rich source of provitamin A (ca. 124 μg retinol-activity-equivalents/100g pulp, FW).

  11. Diversity, physiology, and evolution of avian plumage carotenoids and the role of carotenoid-protein interactions in plumage color appearance.

    PubMed

    LaFountain, Amy M; Prum, Richard O; Frank, Harry A

    2015-04-15

    The diversity of vibrant plumage colors in birds has evolved as a direct result of social and environmental pressures. To fully understand these underlying pressures it is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms for the creation of novel plumage colors which include the metabolic transformations of dietary carotenoids and spectral tuning of the molecules within the feather protein environment. Recent advances in this field have greatly expanded the number and breadth of avian species for which plumage pigmentation has been characterized, making it possible to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of carotenoid usage in plumage. Resonance Raman and classical Raman spectroscopic techniques have been employed with great effect in the study of carotenoids in situ. The application of these methods have two benefits: to identify carotenoids in feathers that are unavailable for destructive sampling; and to study the spectral tuning resulting from the interaction between the carotenoids and the proteins to which they are bound. This review presents a summary of recent advances in the understanding of the molecular factors controlling the coloration of avian carotenoid plumage obtained through the application of both bioanalytical and spectroscopic methodologies.

  12. Evolution of carotenoid pigmentation in caciques and meadowlarks (Icteridae): repeated gains of red plumage coloration by carotenoid C4-oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Nicholas R; McGraw, Kevin J; Omland, Kevin E

    2014-03-01

    Many animals use carotenoid pigments to produce yellow, orange, and red coloration. In birds, at least 10 carotenoid compounds have been documented in red feathers; most of these are produced through metabolic modification of dietary precursor compounds. However, it is poorly understood how lineages have evolved the biochemical mechanisms for producing red coloration. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to identify the carotenoid compounds present in feathers from 15 species across two clades of blackbirds (the meadowlarks and allies, and the caciques and oropendolas; Icteridae), and mapped their presence or absence on a phylogeny. We found that the red plumage found in meadowlarks includes different carotenoid compounds than the red plumage found in caciques, indicating that these gains of red color are convergent. In contrast, we found that red coloration in two closely related lineages of caciques evolved twice by what appear to be similar biochemical mechanisms. The C4-oxygenation of dietary carotenoids was responsible for each observed transition from yellow to red plumage coloration, and has been commonly reported by other researchers. This suggests that the C4-oxygenation pathway may be a readily evolvable means to gain red coloration using carotenoids.

  13. High carotenoid production by a halotolerant bacterium, Kocuria sp. strain QWT-12 and anticancer activity of its carotenoid

    PubMed Central

    Sarvari, Sajad; Moakedi, Faezeh

    2017-01-01

    Halophilic prokaryotes are extremophile microorganisms that grow optimally in media containing salts and almost appeared pigmented. Many of them contain high concentrations of carotenoids. Amongst 15 strains of halophilic prokaryotes isolated from industrial tannery wastewater in Qom, a Gram-stain-positive coccoid, aerobic, non-endospore-forming, halotolerant bacterium designated as strain QWT-12 showed high capacity in the production of carotenoids in a wide range of culture medium factors. 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that this strain belongs to the genus Kocuria. Carotenoids from this strain were extracted by methanol. MTT assay for extracted carotenoid was carried out against seven cancer cell lines belonging to breast, lung and prostate cancer with negative control of fibroblast cell line through six concentration levels to find out IC50. Based on statistical analysis of data from MTT assay, IC50 of 1, 4 and 8 mg/ml for MCF-7, (A549 and MDA-MB-468) and MDA-MB-231 respectively. Additionally, qualitative carotenoid determination was carried out using spectrophotometric method in 300-600 nm and thin layer chromatography, respectively. According to the obtained results from mass spectrophotometry, absorption spectrum of strain QWT-12 is similar to the absorption spectrum of the carotenoid neurosporene. PMID:28827999

  14. Analysis of carotenoid accumulation and expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes in different organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jeongyeo; Park, Woo Tae; Kwon, Do Yeon; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Kim, Hye Ran; Park, Sang Un

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between carotenoid accumulation and expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes was investigated in the flowers, stems, young leaves, old leaves, and roots of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of BrPSY, BrPDS, BrZDS, BrLCYB, BrLCYE, BrCHXB, and BrZEP leading to the production of carotenoids were highest in the flowers or the leaves and lowest in the roots of Chinese cabbage. In contrast, the mRNA expression of BrNCED, a gene involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, was highest in the roots. High-performance liquid chromatography revealed that carotenoids, namely, lutein and β-carotene, were distributed predominantly in the flowers and leaves, with very little in the underground organ, the roots. Specifically, old leaves contained 120.3 μg/g lutein and 103.93 μg/g β-carotene, which is the most potent dietary precursor of vitamin A. Moreover, we found a relatively large amount of cis isomers of β-carotene, namely, 9-cis β-carotene and 13-cis β-carotene, in Chinese cabbage. These results provide insight into carotenoid biosynthetic mechanisms in Chinese cabbage and may be helpful in the metabolic engineering of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants. PMID:27540344

  15. Validation model for Raman based skin carotenoid detection.

    PubMed

    Ermakov, Igor V; Gellermann, Werner

    2010-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy holds promise as a rapid objective non-invasive optical method for the detection of carotenoid compounds in human tissue in vivo. Carotenoids are of interest due to their functions as antioxidants and/or optical absorbers of phototoxic light at deep blue and near UV wavelengths. In the macular region of the human retina, carotenoids may prevent or delay the onset of age-related tissue degeneration. In human skin, they may help prevent premature skin aging, and are possibly involved in the prevention of certain skin cancers. Furthermore, since carotenoids exist in high concentrations in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, and are routinely taken up by the human body through the diet, skin carotenoid levels may serve as an objective biomarker for fruit and vegetable intake. Before the Raman method can be accepted as a widespread optical alternative for carotenoid measurements, direct validation studies are needed to compare it with the gold standard of high performance liquid chromatography. This is because the tissue Raman response is in general accompanied by a host of other optical processes which have to be taken into account. In skin, the most prominent is strongly diffusive, non-Raman scattering, leading to relatively shallow light penetration of the blue/green excitation light required for resonant Raman detection of carotenoids. Also, sizable light attenuation exists due to the combined absorption from collagen, porphyrin, hemoglobin, and melanin chromophores, and additional fluorescence is generated by collagen and porphyrins. In this study, we investigate for the first time the direct correlation of in vivo skin tissue carotenoid Raman measurements with subsequent chromatography derived carotenoid concentrations. As tissue site we use heel skin, in which the stratum corneum layer thickness exceeds the light penetration depth, which is free of optically confounding chromophores, which can be easily optically accessed for in vivo RRS

  16. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Carotenoid and Chlorophyll Harmonophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarz, Danielle Barbara

    Information regarding the structure and function of living tissues and cells is instrumental to the advancement of cell biology and biophysics. Nonlinear optical microscopy can provide such information, but only certain biological structures generate nonlinear optical signals. Therefore, structural specificity can be achieved by introducing labels for nonlinear optical microscopy. Few studies exist in the literature about labels that facilitate harmonic generation, coined "harmonophores". This thesis consists of the first major investigation of harmonophores for third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy. Carotenoids and chlorophylls were investigated as potential harmonophores. Their nonlinear optical properties were studied by the THG ratio technique. In addition, a tunable refractometer was built in order to determine their second hyperpolarizability (gamma). At 830 nm excitation wavelength, carotenoids and chlorophylls were found to have large negative gamma values however, at 1028 nm, the sign of gamma reversed for carotenoids and remained negative for chlorophylls. Consequently, at 1028 nm wavelength, THG signal is canceled with mixtures of carotenoids and chlorophylls. Furthermore, when such molecules are covalently bonded as dyads or interact within photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, it is found that additive effects with the gamma values still play a role, however, the overall gamma value is also influenced by the intra-pigment and inter-pigment interaction. The nonlinear optical properties of aggregates containing chlorophylls and carotenoids were the target of subsequent investigations. Carotenoid aggregates were imaged with polarization-dependent second harmonic generation and THG microscopy. Both techniques revealed crystallographic information pertaining to H and J aggregates and beta-carotene crystalline aggregates found in orange carrot. In order to demonstrate THG enhancement due to labeling, cultured cells were labeled with carotenoid

  17. Dietary supplementation with a natural carotenoid mixture decreases oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kiokias, S; Gordon, M H

    2003-09-01

    To determine whether dietary supplementation with a natural carotenoid mixture counteracts the enhancement of oxidative stress induced by consumption of fish oil. A randomised double-blind crossover dietary intervention. Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition, School of Food Biosciences, The University of Reading, Whiteknights PO Box 226, Reading RG6 6AP, UK. A total of 32 free-living healthy nonsmoking volunteers were recruited by posters and e-mails in The University of Reading. One volunteer withdrew during the study. The volunteers consumed a daily supplement comprising capsules containing fish oil (4 x 1 g) or fish oil (4 x 1 g) containing a natural carotenoid mixture (4 x 7.6 mg) for 3 weeks in a randomised crossover design separated by a 12 week washout phase. The carotenoid mixture provided a daily intake of beta-carotene (6.0 mg), alpha-carotene (1.4 mg), lycopene (4.5 mg), bixin (11.7 mg), lutein (4.4 mg) and paprika carotenoids (2.2 mg). Blood and urine samples were collected on days 0 and 21 of each dietary period. The carotenoid mixture reduced the fall in ex vivo oxidative stability of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) induced by the fish oil (P=0.045) and it reduced the extent of DNA damage assessed by the concentration of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in urine (P=0.005). There was no effect on the oxidative stability of plasma ex vivo assessed by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity test. beta-Carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene and lutein were increased in the plasma of subjects consuming the carotenoid mixture. Plasma triglyceride levels were reduced significantly more than the reduction for the fish oil control (P=0.035), but total cholesterol, HDL and LDL levels were not significantly changed by the consumption of the carotenoid mixture. Consumption of the natural carotenoid mixture lowered the increase in oxidative stress induced by the fish oil as assessed by ex vivo oxidative stability of LDL and DNA degradation product in urine. The carotenoid

  18. Natural variation in expression of genes associated with carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several groups have reported on massive accumulation of total carotenoids in cassava storage root (CSR). Naturally occurring color variation associated with carotenoid accumulation was observed in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root of landraces from Amazon. Here carotenoid profiles from...

  19. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering for Marine Carotenoids: New Opportunities and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations. PMID:25233369

  20. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering for marine carotenoids: new opportunities and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-09-17

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations.

  1. Carotenoids: actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability and bioavailability and their protective role in humans.

    PubMed

    Maiani, Giuseppe; Castón, María Jesús Periago; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Cambrodón, Isabel Goñi; Bysted, Anette; Granado-Lorencio, Fernando; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Knuthsen, Pia; Valoti, Massimo; Böhm, Volker; Mayer-Miebach, Esther; Behsnilian, Diana; Schlemmer, Ulrich

    2009-09-01

    Carotenoids are one of the major food micronutrients in human diets and the overall objective of this review is to re-examine the role of carotenoids in human nutrition. We have emphasized the attention on the following carotenoids present in food and human tissues: beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin; we have reported the major food sources and dietary intake of these compounds. We have tried to summarize positive and negative effects of food processing, storage, cooking on carotenoid content and carotenoid bioavailability. In particular, we have evidenced the possibility to improve carotenoids bioavailability in accordance with changes and variations of technology procedures.

  2. Carotenoids in bird testes: links to body carotenoid supplies, plumage coloration, body mass and testes mass in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus).

    PubMed

    Rowe, Melissah; Tourville, Elizabeth A; McGraw, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoid pigments can be allocated to different parts of the body to serve specific functions. In contrast to other body tissues, studies of carotenoid resources in the testes of animals are relatively scarce. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to determine the types and concentrations of carotenoids in the testes of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus). Additionally, we examined the relationships between testes carotenoid concentrations and carotenoid pools in other body tissues, as well as body mass, testes mass and plumage coloration. We detected low concentrations of several carotenoids - lutein (the predominant carotenoid), zeaxanthin, anhydrolutein, β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene and an unknown carotene - in the testes of wild house finches. We also found that testes lutein levels were significantly and positively associated with circulating lutein levels, while the concentration of zeaxanthin in testes was positively associated with zeaxanthin levels in liver, though in this instance the relationship was much weaker and only marginally significant. Furthermore, lutein levels in testes were significantly negatively associated with testes mass. Finally, plumage coloration was not associated with either the concentration of carotenoids in the testes or relative testes mass. These results suggest that testes carotenoids are reflective of the pool of circulating carotenoids in house finches, and that plumage coloration is unlikely to signal either the carotenoid content of testes tissue or a male's capacity for sperm production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of white, blue, and red light-emitting diodes on carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression levels and carotenoid accumulation in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Sun-Ju; Lee, Sanghyun; Chung, Sun-Ok; Park, Sang Un

    2013-12-18

    In this study, the optimum wavelengths of light required for carotenoid biosynthesis were determined by investigating the expression levels of carotenoid biosynthetic genes and carotenoid accumulation in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) exposed to white, blue, and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Most carotenoid biosynthetic genes showed higher expression in sprouts irradiated with white light at 8 days after sowing than in those irradiated with blue and red lights. The dominant carotenoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts were lutein and β-carotene. The richest accumulation of total carotenoids was observed in sprouts grown under white light (1282.63 μg g(-1) dry weight), which was relatively higher than that in sprouts grown under blue and red lights (940.86 and 985.54 μg g(-1), respectively). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing the production of carotenoids and other important secondary metabolites in tartary buckwheat sprouts by using LED technology.

  4. Improving Carotenoid Extraction from Tomato Waste by Pulsed Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Luengo, Elisa; Álvarez, Ignacio; Raso, Javier

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, the influence of the application of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) of different intensities (3–7 kV/cm and 0–300 μs) on the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel and pulp in a mixture of hexane:acetone:ethanol was studied with the aim of increasing extraction yield or reducing the percentage of the less green solvents in the extraction medium. According to the cellular disintegration index, the optimum treatment time for the permeabilization of tomato peel and pulp at different electric field strengths was 90 μs. The PEF permeabilization of tomato pulp did not significantly increase the carotenoid extraction. However, a PEF treatment at 5 kV/cm improved the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel by 39% as compared with the control in a mixture of hexane:ethanol:acetone (50:25:25). Further increments of electric field from 5 to 7 kV/cm did not increase significantly the extraction of carotenoids. The presence of acetone in the solvent mixture did not positively affect the carotenoid extraction when the tomato peels were PEF-treated. Response surface methodology was used to determine the potential of PEF for reducing the percentage of hexane in a hexane:ethanol mixture. The application of a PEF treatment allowed reducing the hexane percentage from 45 to 30% without affecting the carotenoid extraction yield. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts obtained from tomato peel was correlated with the carotenoid concentration and it was not affected by the PEF treatment. PMID:25988115

  5. A complex carotenoid palette tunes avian color vision.

    DOE PAGES

    Timlin, Jerilyn A.; Toomey, Matthew B.; Collins, Aaron M.; ...

    2015-10-07

    The brilliantly coloured cone oil droplets of the avian retina function as long-pass cut-off filters that tune the spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors and are hypothesized to enhance colour discrimination and improve colour constancy. Although it has long been known that these droplets are pigmented with carotenoids, their precise composition has remained uncertain owing to the technical challenges of measuring these very small, dense and highly refractile optical organelles. In this study, we integrated results from high-performance liquid chromatography, hyperspectral microscopy and microspectrophotometry to obtain a comprehensive understanding of oil droplet carotenoid pigmentation in the chicken (Gallus gallus). We findmore » that each of the four carotenoid-containing droplet types consists of a complex mixture of carotenoids, with a single predominant carotenoid determining the wavelength of the spectral filtering cut-off. Consistent with previous reports, we find that the predominant carotenoid type in the oil droplets of long-wavelength-sensitive, medium-wavelength-sensitive and short-wavelength-sensitive type 2 cones are astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and galloxanthin, respectively. In addition, the oil droplet of the principal member of the double cone contains a mixture of galloxanthin and two hydroxycarotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). Short-wavelength-absorbing apocarotenoids are present in all of the droplet types, providing filtering of light in a region of the spectrum where filtering by hydroxy- and ketocarotenoids may be incomplete. Furthermore, birds rely on a complex palette of carotenoid pigments within their cone oil droplets to achieve finely tuned spectral filtering.« less

  6. A complex carotenoid palette tunes avian color vision.

    SciTech Connect

    Timlin, Jerilyn A.; Toomey, Matthew B.; Collins, Aaron M.; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M. Carter; Corbo, Joseph C.

    2015-10-07

    The brilliantly coloured cone oil droplets of the avian retina function as long-pass cut-off filters that tune the spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors and are hypothesized to enhance colour discrimination and improve colour constancy. Although it has long been known that these droplets are pigmented with carotenoids, their precise composition has remained uncertain owing to the technical challenges of measuring these very small, dense and highly refractile optical organelles. In this study, we integrated results from high-performance liquid chromatography, hyperspectral microscopy and microspectrophotometry to obtain a comprehensive understanding of oil droplet carotenoid pigmentation in the chicken (Gallus gallus). We find that each of the four carotenoid-containing droplet types consists of a complex mixture of carotenoids, with a single predominant carotenoid determining the wavelength of the spectral filtering cut-off. Consistent with previous reports, we find that the predominant carotenoid type in the oil droplets of long-wavelength-sensitive, medium-wavelength-sensitive and short-wavelength-sensitive type 2 cones are astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and galloxanthin, respectively. In addition, the oil droplet of the principal member of the double cone contains a mixture of galloxanthin and two hydroxycarotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). Short-wavelength-absorbing apocarotenoids are present in all of the droplet types, providing filtering of light in a region of the spectrum where filtering by hydroxy- and ketocarotenoids may be incomplete. Furthermore, birds rely on a complex palette of carotenoid pigments within their cone oil droplets to achieve finely tuned spectral filtering.

  7. Carotenoids modulate cytokine production in Peyer's patch cells ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaya; Hasegawa, Isao; Yahagi, Nobuo; Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Takano, Fumihide; Ohta, Tomihisa

    2010-08-11

    This study investigated the effects of carotenoid and capsaicin constituents of Capsicum on intestinal immune responses in mice. Peyer's patch (PP) cells were isolated from mice orally administered with capsaicin, or one of three carotenoids (beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, or lycopene), at 5 mg/kg/day for 7 consecutive days. Collagenase-separated PP cells were then cultured in the presence or absence of concanavalin A (Con A). PP cells from mice treated with capsaicin, beta-carotene, or beta-cryptoxanthin all showed significantly enhanced interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma production when costimulated with 5 microg/mL Con A, with capsaicin having the greatest effect (approximately two times greater than in normal mice). No increase in the production of IL-2 or IL-4 was observed when PP cells from mice were cultured without Con A. We further tested the combined efficacy of carotenoids and capsaicin on intestinal T-cell cytokine production. Oral administration of capsaicin with beta-carotene, both at 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days, increased IFN-gamma and IL-2 production in cultured PP cells costimulated with Con A. In contrast, oral administration of beta-cryptoxanthin counteracted the stimulatory effect of capsaicin treatment on T-helper cytokine production. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the population of IFN-gamma(+) and IL-4(+) cells in PPs from mice administered capsaicin and/or carotenoids did not change, which suggested that the effects of carotenoids and capsaicin on cytokine production were not due to changes in the lymphoid population in PPs. These results indicate that carotenoids and capsaicin, which are common components of foods such as Capsicum, mutually modulate T-cell immune responses to exogenous or endogenous inducers such as antigens in PPs, without changing the lymphoid population. Carotenoids modulate the potentiality of cytokine production in T cells or indirectly activate T cells but have no triggering effect such as Con A.

  8. Carotenoids of Microalgae Used in Food Industry and Medicine.

    PubMed

    Gateau, Hélène; Solymosi, Katalin; Marchand, Justine; Schoefs, Benoît

    2017-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the consumption of processed food increased dramatically. During processing, food material loses many of its natural properties. The simple restoration of the original properties of the processed food as well as fortification require food supplementation with compounds prepared chemically or of natural origin. The observations that natural food additives are safer and better accepted by consumers than synthetic ones have strongly increased the demand for natural compounds. Because some of them have only a low abundance or are even rare, their market price can be very high. This is the case for most carotenoids of natural origin to which this review is dedicated. The increasing demand for food additives of natural origin contributes to an accelerated depletion of traditional natural resources already threatened by intensive agriculture and pollution. To overcome these difficulties and satisfy the demand, alternative sources for natural carotenoids have to be found. In this context, photosynthetic microalgae present a very high potential because they contain carotenoids and are able to produce particular carotenoids under stress. Their potential also resides in the fact that only ten thousands of microalgal strains have been described while hundred thousands of species are predicted to exist. Carotenoids have been known for ages for their antioxidant and coloring properties, and a large body of evidence has been accumulated about their health potential. This review summarizes both the medicinal and food industry applications of microalgae with emphasis on the former. In addition, traditional and alternative microalgal sources used for industrial carotenoid extraction, the chemical and physical properties, the biosynthesis and the localization of carotenoids in algae are also briefly discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. The Signaling State of Orange Carotenoid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Maksimov, Eugene G.; Shirshin, Evgeny A.; Sluchanko, Nikolai N.; Zlenko, Dmitry V.; Parshina, Evgenia Y.; Tsoraev, Georgy V.; Klementiev, Konstantin E.; Budylin, Gleb S.; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Friedrich, Thomas; Fadeev, Victor V.; Paschenko, Vladimir Z.; Rubin, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    Orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is the photoactive protein that is responsible for high light tolerance in cyanobacteria. We studied the kinetics of the OCP photocycle by monitoring changes in its absorption spectrum, intrinsic fluorescence, and fluorescence of the Nile red dye bound to OCP. It was demonstrated that all of these three methods provide the same kinetic parameters of the photocycle, namely, the kinetics of OCP relaxation in darkness was biexponential with a ratio of two components equal to 2:1 independently of temperature. Whereas the changes of the absorption spectrum of OCP characterize the geometry and environment of its chromophore, the intrinsic fluorescence of OCP reveals changes in its tertiary structure, and the fluorescence properties of Nile red indicate the exposure of hydrophobic surface areas of OCP to the solvent following the photocycle. The results of molecular-dynamics studies indicated the presence of two metastable conformations of 3′-hydroxyechinenone, which is consistent with characteristic changes in the Raman spectra. We conclude that rotation of the β-ionylidene ring in the C-terminal domain of OCP could be one of the first conformational rearrangements that occur during photoactivation. The obtained results suggest that the photoactivated form of OCP represents a molten globule-like state that is characterized by increased mobility of tertiary structure elements and solvent accessibility. PMID:26244741

  10. Carotenoid scarcity, synthetic pteridine pigments and the evolution of sexual coloration in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed Central

    Grether, G F; Hudon, J; Endler, J A

    2001-01-01

    Carotenoid-based sexual coloration is the classic example of an honest signal of mate quality. Animals cannot synthesize carotenoid pigments and ultimately depend on dietary sources. Thus, in carotenoid-poor environments, carotenoid coloration may be a direct indicator of foraging ability and an indirect indicator of health and vigour. Carotenoid coloration may also be affected, more directly, by parasites in some species. Carotenoids are not, however, the only conspicuous pigments available to animals. Pteridine pigments, with similar spectral properties, are displayed in the exoskeletons and wings of insects, the irides of birds and the skins of fishes, lizards and amphibians. Unlike carotenoids, pteridines are synthesized de novo by animals. We report that the orange spots that male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) display to females contain red pteridine pigments (drosopterins) in addition to carotenoids. We also examined the relationship between drosopterin production by males and carotenoid availability in the field. The results contrasted sharply with the hypothesis that males use drosopterins to compensate for carotenoid scarcity: males used more, not less, drosopterins in streams with higher carotenoid availability. The positive association between drosopterin use and carotenoid availability could reflect the costs of drosopterin synthesis or it could be a consequence of females preferring a particular pigment ratio or hue. Male guppies appear to use drosopterin pigments in a manner that dilutes, but does not eliminate, the indicator value of carotenoid coloration. PMID:11410150

  11. Stability of bacterial carotenoids in the presence of iron in a model of the gastric compartment - comparison with dietary reference carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Sy, Charlotte; Dangles, Olivier; Borel, Patrick; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2015-04-15

    Recently isolated spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria, Bacillus indicus HU36 and Bacillus firmus GB1 are sources of carotenoids (∼fifteen distinct yellow and orange pigments and ∼thirteen distinct pink pigments, respectively). They are glycosides of oxygenated lycopene derivatives (apo-lycopenoids) and are assumed to be more heat- and gastric-stable than common carotenoids. In this study, the oxidation by O2 of the bacterial carotenoids was initiated by free iron (Fe(II) and Fe(III)) or by heme iron (metmyoglobin) in a mildly acidic aqueous solution mimicking the gastro-intestinal compartment and compared to the oxidation of the common dietary carotenoids β-carotene, lycopene and astaxanthin. Under these conditions, all bacterial carotenoids appear more stable in the presence of heme iron vs. free iron. Carotenoid autoxidation initiated by Fe(II) is relatively fast and likely involves reactive oxygen-iron species derived from Fe(II) and O2. By contrast, the corresponding reaction with Fe(III) is kinetically blocked by the slow preliminary reduction of Fe(III) into Fe(II) by the carotenoids. The stability of carotenoids toward autoxidation increases as follows: β-carotenecarotenoids react more quickly than reference carotenoids with Fe(III), but much more slowly than the reference carotenoids with Fe(II). This reaction is correlated with the structure of the carotenoids, which can have opposite effects in a micellar system: bacterial carotenoids with electro-attracting terminal groups have a lower reducing capacity than β-carotene and lycopene. However, their polar head favours their location close to the interface of micelles, in closer contact with oxidative species. Kinetic analyses of the iron-induced autoxidation of astaxanthin and HU36 carotenoids has been performed and gives insights in the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Carotenoids in durian fruit pulp during growth and postharvest ripening.

    PubMed

    Wisutiamonkul, Apinya; Promdang, Somnuk; Ketsa, Saichol; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-08-01

    Durian (Durio zibethinus) cvs. Chanee and Monthong fruit were severed from the tree during 14 day intervals, from 10 weeks after anthesis until commercial maturity. We determined the pulp (i.e. aril; fruit flesh) carotenoid composition, together with pulp firmness, color and total soluble solids (TSS) and postharvest quality. In ripe cv. Chanee fruit the main carotenoids were β-carotene (about 80%), and α-carotene (20%), with minor levels of lutein and zeaxanthin. In ripe fruit total carotenoid concentration (expressed per gram FW) was about 9-fold higher in cv. Chanee than in cv. Monthong. Large differences between the cultivars were also found in β-carotene levels (about 11 times more in cv. Chanee), and even larger ones in those of α-carotene. Differences in lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations were small. Pulp color was deeper yellow in cv. Chanee than in cv. Monthong, which was correlated with α-carotene and β-carotene concentrations. Durian contains a high fat percentage, which is conducive to carotenoid uptake. It is concluded that it is advisable to consume cv. Chanee rather than cv. Monthong if intake of carotenoids is considered important. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Simultaneous detection of carotenoids and vitamin E in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Sommerburg, O; Zang, L Y; van Kuijk, F J

    1997-08-01

    A simplified method for analysis of the antioxidants carotenoids and vitamin E in human plasma is presented. The method is based on high-performance liquid chromatography with a single column, a flow-rate gradient, and detection at 450 and 290 nm with a diode array detector. It gives good separation of the vitamin E isomers and the major carotenoids in plasma, with a 25 min analysis time. It was found that hydrolysis of triglycerides and cholesterol esters is required to obtain good recovery of non-polar carotenoids such as lycopene, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene. Two methods were used for hydrolysis of the non-polar lipids, saponification with ethanolic KOH and digestion with an enzyme mixture of lipase and cholesterol esterase. It was found that the enzymatic digestion gave the best recoveries, better than 94% for all of the antioxidants, and preserved several carotenoids. A plasma pool is used for day to day calibration of the method, which eliminates the need for stock solutions of carotenoids that are stable for only a month due to oxidative breakdown and their tendency to crystallize when stored at -20 degrees C in organic solvents.

  14. Tropical bat as mammalian model for skin carotenoid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Galván, Ismael; Garrido-Fernández, Juan; Ríos, José; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal

    2016-01-01

    Animals cannot synthesize carotenoid pigments de novo, and must consume them in their diet. Most mammals, including humans, are indiscriminate accumulators of carotenoids but inefficiently distribute them to some tissues and organs, such as skin. This limits the potential capacity of these organisms to benefit from the antioxidant and immunostimulatory functions that carotenoids fulfill. Indeed, to date, no mammal has been known to have evolved physiological mechanisms to incorporate and deposit carotenoids in the skin or hair, and mammals have therefore been assumed to rely entirely on other pigments such as melanins to color their integument. Here we use high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF/MS) to show that the frugivorous Honduran white bat Ectophylla alba colors its skin bright yellow with the deposition of the xanthophyll lutein. The Honduran white bat is thus a mammalian model that may help developing strategies to improve the assimilation of lutein in humans to avoid macular degeneration. This represents a change of paradigm in animal physiology showing that some mammals actually have the capacity to accumulate dietary carotenoids in the integument. In addition, we have also discovered that the majority of the lutein in the skin of Honduran white bats is present in esterified form with fatty acids, thereby permitting longer-lasting coloration and suggesting bright color traits may have an overlooked role in the visual communication of bats. PMID:27621447

  15. Tropical bat as mammalian model for skin carotenoid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Galván, Ismael; Garrido-Fernández, Juan; Ríos, José; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Negro, Juan José

    2016-09-27

    Animals cannot synthesize carotenoid pigments de novo, and must consume them in their diet. Most mammals, including humans, are indiscriminate accumulators of carotenoids but inefficiently distribute them to some tissues and organs, such as skin. This limits the potential capacity of these organisms to benefit from the antioxidant and immunostimulatory functions that carotenoids fulfill. Indeed, to date, no mammal has been known to have evolved physiological mechanisms to incorporate and deposit carotenoids in the skin or hair, and mammals have therefore been assumed to rely entirely on other pigments such as melanins to color their integument. Here we use high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF/MS) to show that the frugivorous Honduran white bat Ectophylla alba colors its skin bright yellow with the deposition of the xanthophyll lutein. The Honduran white bat is thus a mammalian model that may help developing strategies to improve the assimilation of lutein in humans to avoid macular degeneration. This represents a change of paradigm in animal physiology showing that some mammals actually have the capacity to accumulate dietary carotenoids in the integument. In addition, we have also discovered that the majority of the lutein in the skin of Honduran white bats is present in esterified form with fatty acids, thereby permitting longer-lasting coloration and suggesting bright color traits may have an overlooked role in the visual communication of bats.

  16. Bioaccessibility of carotenoids from transgenic provitamin A biofortified sorghum.

    PubMed

    Lipkie, Tristan E; De Moura, Fabiana F; Zhao, Zuo-Yu; Albertsen, Marc C; Che, Ping; Glassman, Kimberly; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2013-06-19

    Biofortified sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) lines are being developed to target vitamin A deficiency in Sub-Saharan Africa, but the delivery of provitamin A carotenoids from such diverse germplasms has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to screen vectors and independent transgenic events for the bioaccessibility of provitamin A carotenoids using an in vitro digestion model. The germplasm background and transgenic sorghum contained 1.0-1.5 and 3.3-14.0 μg/g β-carotene equivalents on a dry weight basis (DW), respectively. Test porridges made from milled transgenic sorghum contained up to 250 μg of β-carotene equivalents per 100 g of porridge on a fresh weight basis (FW). Micellarization efficiency of all-trans-β-carotene was lower (p < 0.05) from transgenic sorghum (1-5%) than from null/nontransgenic sorghum (6-11%) but not different between vector constructs. Carotenoid bioaccessibility was significantly improved (p < 0.05) by increasing the amount of coformulated lipid in test porridges from 5% w/w to 10% w/w. Transgenic sorghum event Homo188-A contained the greatest bioaccessible β-carotene content, with a 4-8-fold increase from null/nontransgenic sorghum. While the bioavailability and bioconversion of provitamin A carotenoids from these grains must be confirmed in vivo, these data support the notion that biofortification of sorghum can enhance total and bioaccessible provitamin A carotenoid levels.

  17. Circulating carotenoids and subsequent risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Cui, Jing; Sparks, Jeffrey A; Malspeis, Susan; Costenbader, Karen H; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Lu, Bing

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between circulating carotenoids and future risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We conducted a nested case-control study consisting of 227 incident RA cases and 671 matched controls with prospectively measured plasma carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin) levels in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II). Each incident RA case was matched with 3 healthy controls. Serologic phenotype of RA was determined by rheumatoid factor or anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) obtained by chart review. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confident intervals (95% CI) for RA risk associated with each circulating carotenoid after adjusting for matching factors and other covariates. The median time from blood draw until RA diagnosis was 8.6 years. In the multivariable models, no significant associations were found between any plasma carotenoids and risk of RA. We further examined the associations for two subtypes of RA, and found associations of circulating α-carotene and β-carotene with reduced risk of seronegative RA. After correction for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method, the findings did not reach statistical significance. Circulating carotenoids levels are not associated with reduced risk of RA. Further investigations using large prospective cohorts are needed to confirm our findings.

  18. Carotenoids as a Source of Antioxidants in the Diet.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Ana Augusta Odorissi; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids, widely distributed fat-soluble pigments, are responsible for the attractive colorations of several fruits and vegetables commonly present in our daily diet. They are particularly abundant in yellow-orange fruits (carrots, tomatoes, pumpkins, peppers, among others) and, although masked by chlorophylls, in dark green leafy vegetables. Several health benefits have been attributed to carotenoids or to foods rich in these pigments, by means of different mechanisms-of-action, including the role as provitamin A of almost 50 different carotenoids and the antioxidant activity that protects cells and tissues from damage of free radicals and singlet oxygen, providing enhancement of the immune function, protection from sunburn reactions and delaying the onset of certain types of cancer. Common food sources and the efficiency of the absorption of carotenoids, analytical approaches used for measurement of their antioxidant effect and an overview of some epidemiological studies that have been performed to assess the beneficial impact of carotenoids in human health are outlined in this chapter.

  19. A comprehensive review on the colorless carotenoids phytoene and phytofluene.

    PubMed

    Meléndez-Martínez, Antonio J; Mapelli-Brahm, Paula; Benítez-González, Ana; Stinco, Carla M

    2015-04-15

    Carotenoids and their derivatives are versatile isoprenoids involved in many varied actions, hence their importance in the agri-food industry, nutrition, health and other fields. All carotenoids are derived from the colorless carotenes phytoene and phytofluene, which are oddities among carotenoids due to their distinct chemical structure. They occur together with lycopene in tomato and other lycopene-containing foods. Furthermore, they are also present in frequently consumed products like oranges and carrots, among others. The intake of phytoene plus phytofluene has been shown to be higher than that of lycopene and other carotenoids in Luxembourg. This is likely to be common in other countries. However, they are not included in food carotenoid databases, hence they have not been linked to health benefits in epidemiological studies. Interestingly, there are evidences in vitro, animal models and humans indicating that they may provide health benefits. In this sense, the study of these colorless carotenes in the context of food science, nutrition and health should be further encouraged. In this work, we review much of the existing knowledge concerning their chemical characteristics, physico-chemical properties, analysis, distribution in foods, bioavailability and likely biological activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Carotenoids production in different culture conditions by Sporidiobolus pararoseus.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; He, Qian; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids produced by Sporidiobolus pararoseus were studied. It was found that biomass was connected with carbon source, temperature, and pH, but carotenoids proportion was seriously influenced by dissolved oxygen and nitrogen source. Different carotenoids could be obtained by using selected optimum conditions. In the end we established the strategies to produce β-carotene or torulene. Fed-batch fermentation in fermentor was used to prove the authenticity of our conclusions. The cell biomass, β-carotene content, and β-carotene proportion could reach 56.32 g/L, 18.92 mg/L and 60.43%, respectively, by using corn steep liquor at 0-5% of dissolved oxygen saturation. β-Carotene content was 271% higher than before this addition. The cell biomass, torulene content, and torulene proportion could reach 62.47 g/L, 31.74 mg/L, and 70.41%, respectively, by using yeast extract at 30-35% of dissolved oxygen saturation. Torulene content was 152% higher than before this addition. The strategy for enhancing specific carotenoid production by selected fermentation conditions may provide an alternative approach to enhance carotenoid production with other strains.

  1. Marine Carotenoids against Oxidative Stress: Effects on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Riccioni, Graziano; D’Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments that are produced in some plants, algae, fungi, and bacterial species, which accounts for their orange and yellow hues. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants thanks to their ability to quench singlet oxygen, to be oxidized, to be isomerized, and to scavenge free radicals, which plays a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases. Unusual marine environments are associated with a great chemical diversity, resulting in novel bioactive molecules. Thus, marine organisms may represent an important source of novel biologically active substances for the development of therapeutics. In this respect, various novel marine carotenoids have recently been isolated from marine organisms and displayed several utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Marine carotenoids (astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein but also the rare siphonaxanthin, sioxanthin, and myxol) have recently shown antioxidant properties in reducing oxidative stress markers. This review aims to describe the role of marine carotenoids against oxidative stress and their potential applications in preventing and treating inflammatory diseases. PMID:26437420

  2. Improving carotenoids production in yeast via adaptive laboratory evolution.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Luis H; Gomez, Jose M; Kao, Katy C

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution is an important tool for the engineering of strains for industrially relevant phenotypes. Traditionally, adaptive laboratory evolution has been implemented to improve robustness of industrial strains under diverse operational conditions; however due to the required coupling between growth and survival, its application for increased production of secondary metabolites generally results in decreased production due to the metabolic burden imposed by, or toxicity of, the produced compound. In this study, adaptive laboratory evolution was successfully applied to improve carotenoids production in an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae producer strain by exploiting the antioxidant properties of carotenoids. Short-term evolution experiment using periodic hydrogen peroxide shocking schemes resulted in a 3-fold increase in carotenoids production (from 6 mg/g dry cell weight to up to 18 mg/g dry cell weight). Subsequent transcriptome analysis was used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms for increased carotenoids production. Upregulation of genes related with lipid biosynthesis and mevalonate biosynthesis pathways were commonly observed in the carotenoids hyper-producers analyzed. © 2013 Published by International Metabolic Engineering Society on behalf of International Metabolic Engineering Society.

  3. Yolk carotenoids increase fledging success in great tit nestlings.

    PubMed

    Marri, Viviana; Richner, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    Avian mothers can influence offspring phenotype through the deposition of different compounds into eggs, such as antibodies, hormones and antioxidants. The concentration of carotenoids in yolk is larger than in maternal plasma, suggesting an important role of these compounds for offspring development. Since carotenoids have to be acquired from the diet, they may be available in limiting amounts to the mothers. Here, we investigated the role of egg carotenoids for offspring growth by experimentally increasing the concentration of yolk lutein, the main carotenoid in great tit (Parus major) yolk. We subsequently measured body condition, oxidative stress, immune response, plumage colouration and fledging success. Lutein increased body mass soon after hatching and fledging success, but did not affect tarsus length, oxidative stress, immune response and plumage colouration. The higher content of yolk lutein could have increased body mass by reducing oxidative stress caused by high metabolic rates of rapidly growing embryos or by promoting cell differentiation and proliferation. The positive effect of lutein on fledging success seems to be mediated by its influence on body mass 3 days post-hatch, since these two traits were correlated. The finding that our treatment did not affect traits measured later in the nestling period, except for fledging success, suggests that yolk lutein has short-term effects that are essential to increase survival until fledging. Our study shows the positive effect of yolk lutein on offspring survival in the great tit, and therefore suggests an important role of carotenoid-mediated maternal effects.

  4. [Isolation and identification of a strain converting levoglucosan to carotenoid].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yixuan; Chen, Yuru; Sun, Huan; Liu, Junli; Wei, Min; Xia, Wenjing

    2014-07-04

    In order to use cellulosic biomass effectively, we screened a strain that can convert levoglucosan efficiently to carotenoids. Strain ZS1 was isolated from soil using levoglucosan of cellulosis pyrolysis products as sole carbon source. It was identified based on rDNA ITS sequence analysis and morphological characteristics. Phylogenetic tree was constructed to determine its taxonomic status. The conversion rate of levoglucosan was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Carotenoid in fermentation liquid was detected by spectrophotometry. The results show that ZS1 could ferment levoglucosan efficiently and the consumption rate of levoglucosan reached 67.0% after 4 days. Strain ZS1 was identified as Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae (CGMCC NO: 6365) based on the morphology features and ITS sequence analysis. After optimization of culture conditions, the conversion rate of levoglucosan reached 98.7% after 5 days. The content of carotenoid in cells was 427.1 microg/g (cell dry weight). After conversion, 460.4 microg/g (levoglucosan) of carotenoids could be produced with levoglucosan as carbon source. The strain capable fermenting levoglucosan was identified as R. kratochvilovae that could produce carotenoids with levoglucosan as carbon source.

  5. Lipid Class, Carotenoid, and Toxin Dynamics of Karenia Brevis (Dinophyceae) During Diel Vertical Migration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Karenia brevis’ (Hansen and Moestrup) internal lipid, carotenoid, and toxin concentrations are influenced by its ability to use ambient light and nutrients for growth and reproduction. This project investigated changes of K. brevis toxicity, lipid class and carotenoid concentrat...

  6. Stability of carotenoids recovered from shrimp waste and their use as colorant in fish sausage.

    PubMed

    Sachindra, N M; Mahendrakar, N S

    2010-01-01

    The stability of carotenoids recovered from shrimp waste using organic solvents and vegetable oils as affected by antioxidants and pigment carriers was evaluated during storage under different conditions. Solvent extracted carotenoid incorporated into alginate and starch as carriers was stored in metallised polyester and polypropylene pouches. Oil extracted carotenoids were stored in transparent and amber bottles. Also the use of recovered pigments as colorants in fish sausage was evaluated. Antioxidants, packaging material and storage period had a significant effect (p≤0.001) on the reduction of carotenoid content, while type of carrier had marginal effect (p≥0.05) on solvent extracted carotenoids during storage. Carotenoid content in pigmented oil was significantly affected by antioxidants (p≤0.001), packaging material (p≤0.05) and storage period (p≤0.001). Addition of carotenoid to the sausage enhanced the sensory colour, flavour and overall quality score of sausage and the added carotenoid was stable during processing.

  7. Development of carotenoid-enriched vegetables with increased nutritional quality and visual appearance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carotenoids are a class of red, orange and yellow pigments widely distributed in nature. Biotech approach has been proved to be effective in successfully engineering of carotenoid content in food crops with better health and visual appearance....

  8. Comparison of carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression between Valencia and Rohde Red Valencia sweet oranges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression levels during fruit maturation were compared between ordinary Valencia (VAL) and its more deeply colored mutant Rohde Red Valencia orange (RRV). The two cultivars exhibited different carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms in flavedo and...

  9. Dietary supplementation with carotenoids improves immunity without increasing its cost in a crustacean.

    PubMed

    Babin, Aurélie; Biard, Clotilde; Moret, Yannick

    2010-08-01

    Costs of immunity include self-harming autoreactivity through the production of cytotoxic chemicals. While carotenoids stimulate immunity and reduce oxidative stress during immune activity in vertebrates, their involvement in invertebrate immunity is unclear. Recently, a positive correlation between immune defenses and concentration of carotenoids in the hemolymph was demonstrated in the crustacean Gammarus pulex, suggesting an important role of carotenoids in invertebrate immunity. We tested the causality of this relationship by using a dietary supplementation with carotenoids and measuring several immune parameters. We found that dietary carotenoids had a broad immunostimulating effect, enhancing phenoloxidase activity and resistance to a bacterial infection. When immune challenged, gammarids fed with carotenoids did not pay an additional survival cost because of autoreactivity, despite their intensified immune activity. Therefore, dietary carotenoids improved gammarids' immunity without inducing additional self-harming. This underlines the importance of carotenoids in both the regulation and the evolution of immunity in G. pulex.

  10. The Or gene enhances carotenoid accumulation and stability during post-harvest storage of potato tubers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Provitamin A carotenoids in staple crops are not very stable during storage and their loss compromises nutritional quality. To elucidate the fundamental mechanisms underlying carotenoid accumulation and stability, we investigated transgenic potato tubers that express the cauliflower Orange (Or) gene...

  11. Lipid Class, Carotenoid, and Toxin Dynamics of Karenia Brevis (Dinophyceae) During Diel Vertical Migration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Karenia brevis’ (Hansen and Moestrup) internal lipid, carotenoid, and toxin concentrations are influenced by its ability to use ambient light and nutrients for growth and reproduction. This project investigated changes of K. brevis toxicity, lipid class and carotenoid concentrat...

  12. Three-dimensional Structures of Carotenoids by X-ray Crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helliwell, Madeleine

    The number of crystal structures of carotenoid molecules and carotenoid derivatives deposited in the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre [1] is still relatively small, but has increased compared with the previous survey [2]. The list is summarized in Table 1.

  13. Genetic architecture controlling variation in grain carotenoid composition and concentrations in two maize populations.

    PubMed

    Kandianis, Catherine B; Stevens, Robyn; Liu, Weiping; Palacios, Natalia; Montgomery, Kevin; Pixley, Kevin; White, Wendy S; Rocheford, Torbert

    2013-11-01

    Genetic control of maize grain carotenoid profiles is coordinated through several loci distributed throughout three secondary metabolic pathways, most of which exhibit additive, and more importantly, pleiotropic effects. The genetic basis for the variation in maize grain carotenoid concentrations was investigated in two F2:3 populations, DEexp × CI7 and A619 × SC55, derived from high total carotenoid and high β-carotene inbred lines. A comparison of grain carotenoid concentrations from population DEexp × CI7 grown in different environments revealed significantly higher concentrations and greater trait variation in samples harvested from a subtropical environment relative to those from a temperate environment. Genotype by environment interactions was significant for most carotenoid traits. Using phenotypic data in additive, environment-specific genetic models, quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for absolute and derived carotenoid traits in each population, including those specific to the isomerization of β-carotene. A multivariate approach for these correlated traits was taken, using carotenoid trait principal components (PCs) that jointly accounted for 97 % or more of trait variation. Component loadings for carotenoid PCs were interpreted in the context of known substrate-product relationships within the carotenoid pathway. Importantly, QTL for univariate and multivariate traits were found to cluster in close proximity to map locations of loci involved in methyl-erythritol, isoprenoid and carotenoid metabolism. Several of these genes, including lycopene epsilon cyclase, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase1 and beta-carotene hydroxylase, were mapped in the segregating populations. These loci exhibited pleiotropic effects on α-branch carotenoids, total carotenoid profile and β-branch carotenoids, respectively. Our results confirm that several QTL are involved in the modification of carotenoid profiles, and suggest genetic targets that could be

  14. Candidate genes for carotenoid coloration in vertebrates and their expression profiles in the carotenoid-containing plumage and bill of a wild bird.

    PubMed

    Walsh, N; Dale, J; McGraw, K J; Pointer, M A; Mundy, N I

    2012-01-07

    Carotenoid-based coloration has attracted much attention in evolutionary biology owing to its role in honest, condition-dependent signalling. Knowledge of the genetic pathways that regulate carotenoid coloration is crucial for an understanding of any trade-offs involved. We identified genes with potential roles in carotenoid coloration in vertebrates via (i) carotenoid uptake (SR-BI, CD36), (ii) binding and deposition (StAR1, MLN64, StAR4, StAR5, APOD, PLIN, GSTA2), and (iii) breakdown (BCO2, BCMO1). We examined the expression of these candidate loci in carotenoid-coloured tissues and several control tissues of the red-billed quelea (Quelea quelea), a species that exhibits a male breeding plumage colour polymorphism and sexually dimorphic variation in bill colour. All of the candidate genes except StAR1 were expressed in both the plumage and bill of queleas, indicating a potential role in carotenoid coloration in the quelea. However, no differences in the relative expression of any of the genes were found among the quelea carotenoid phenotypes, suggesting that other genes control the polymorphic and sexually dimorphic variation in carotenoid coloration observed in this species. Our identification of a number of potential carotenoid genes in different functional categories provides a critical starting point for future work on carotenoid colour regulation in vertebrate taxa.

  15. Candidate genes for carotenoid coloration in vertebrates and their expression profiles in the carotenoid-containing plumage and bill of a wild bird

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, N.; Dale, J.; McGraw, K. J.; Pointer, M. A.; Mundy, N. I.

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoid-based coloration has attracted much attention in evolutionary biology owing to its role in honest, condition-dependent signalling. Knowledge of the genetic pathways that regulate carotenoid coloration is crucial for an understanding of any trade-offs involved. We identified genes with potential roles in carotenoid coloration in vertebrates via (i) carotenoid uptake (SR-BI, CD36), (ii) binding and deposition (StAR1, MLN64, StAR4, StAR5, APOD, PLIN, GSTA2), and (iii) breakdown (BCO2, BCMO1). We examined the expression of these candidate loci in carotenoid-coloured tissues and several control tissues of the red-billed quelea (Quelea quelea), a species that exhibits a male breeding plumage colour polymorphism and sexually dimorphic variation in bill colour. All of the candidate genes except StAR1 were expressed in both the plumage and bill of queleas, indicating a potential role in carotenoid coloration in the quelea. However, no differences in the relative expression of any of the genes were found among the quelea carotenoid phenotypes, suggesting that other genes control the polymorphic and sexually dimorphic variation in carotenoid coloration observed in this species. Our identification of a number of potential carotenoid genes in different functional categories provides a critical starting point for future work on carotenoid colour regulation in vertebrate taxa. PMID:21593031

  16. Effect of Carotenoid Supplemented Formula on Carotenoid Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Infant Rhesus Macaques: A Pilot Study Focused on Lutein

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sookyoung; Neuringer, Martha; Johnson, Emily E.; Kuchan, Matthew J.; Pereira, Suzette L.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Erdman, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group). All samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Final serum lutein in the supplemented group was 5 times higher than in the unsupplemented group. All brain regions examined showed a selective increase in lutein deposition in the supplemented infants. Lutein differentially accumulated across brain regions, with highest amounts in occipital cortex in both groups. β-carotene accumulated, but zeaxanthin and lycopene were undetectable in any brain region. Supplemented infants had higher lutein concentrations in peripheral retina but not in macular retina. Among adipose sites, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited the highest lutein level and was 3-fold higher in the supplemented infants. The supplemented formula enhanced carotenoid deposition in several other tissues. In rhesus infants, increased intake of carotenoids from formula enhanced their deposition in serum and numerous tissues and selectively increased lutein in multiple brain regions. PMID:28075370

  17. New Insight into the Cleavage Reaction of Nostoc sp. Strain PCC 7120 Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase in Natural and Nonnatural Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jinsol; Kim, Se Hyeuk

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at a specific double bond to generate apocarotenoids. In this study, we investigated the activity and substrate preferences of NSC3, a CCD of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, in vivo and in vitro using natural and nonnatural carotenoid structures. NSC3 cleaved β-apo-8′-carotenal at 3 positions, C-13C-14, C-15C-15′, and C-13′C-14′, revealing a unique cleavage pattern. NSC3 cleaves the natural structure of carotenoids 4,4′-diaponeurosporene, 4,4′-diaponeurosporen-4′-al, 4,4′-diaponeurosporen-4′-oic acid, 4,4′-diapotorulene, and 4,4′-diapotorulen-4′-al to generate novel cleavage products (apo-14′-diaponeurosporenal, apo-13′-diaponeurosporenal, apo-10′-diaponeurosporenal, apo-14′-diapotorulenal, and apo-10′-diapotorulenal, respectively). The study of carotenoids with natural or nonnatural structures produced by using synthetic modules could provide information valuable for understanding the cleavage reactions or substrate preferences of other CCDs in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23524669

  18. Effect of Carotenoid Supplemented Formula on Carotenoid Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Infant Rhesus Macaques: A Pilot Study Focused on Lutein.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sookyoung; Neuringer, Martha; Johnson, Emily E; Kuchan, Matthew J; Pereira, Suzette L; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Erdman, John W

    2017-01-10

    Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group). All samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Final serum lutein in the supplemented group was 5 times higher than in the unsupplemented group. All brain regions examined showed a selective increase in lutein deposition in the supplemented infants. Lutein differentially accumulated across brain regions, with highest amounts in occipital cortex in both groups. β-carotene accumulated, but zeaxanthin and lycopene were undetectable in any brain region. Supplemented infants had higher lutein concentrations in peripheral retina but not in macular retina. Among adipose sites, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited the highest lutein level and was 3-fold higher in the supplemented infants. The supplemented formula enhanced carotenoid deposition in several other tissues. In rhesus infants, increased intake of carotenoids from formula enhanced their deposition in serum and numerous tissues and selectively increased lutein in multiple brain regions.

  19. New insight into the cleavage reaction of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase in natural and nonnatural carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinsol; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2013-06-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at a specific double bond to generate apocarotenoids. In this study, we investigated the activity and substrate preferences of NSC3, a CCD of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, in vivo and in vitro using natural and nonnatural carotenoid structures. NSC3 cleaved β-apo-8'-carotenal at 3 positions, C-13 C-14, C-15 C-15', and C-13' C-14', revealing a unique cleavage pattern. NSC3 cleaves the natural structure of carotenoids 4,4'-diaponeurosporene, 4,4'-diaponeurosporen-4'-al, 4,4'-diaponeurosporen-4'-oic acid, 4,4'-diapotorulene, and 4,4'-diapotorulen-4'-al to generate novel cleavage products (apo-14'-diaponeurosporenal, apo-13'-diaponeurosporenal, apo-10'-diaponeurosporenal, apo-14'-diapotorulenal, and apo-10'-diapotorulenal, respectively). The study of carotenoids with natural or nonnatural structures produced by using synthetic modules could provide information valuable for understanding the cleavage reactions or substrate preferences of other CCDs in vivo and in vitro.

  20. Carotenoid silk coloration is controlled by a carotenoid-binding protein, a product of the Yellow blood gene

    PubMed Central

    Sakudoh, Takashi; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakashima, Takeharu; Kobayashi, Isao; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Uchino, Keiro; Banno, Yutaka; Iwano, Hidetoshi; Maekawa, Hideaki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Tsuchida, Kozo

    2007-01-01

    Mechanisms for the uptake and transport of carotenoids, essential nutrients for humans, are not well understood in any animal system. The Y (Yellow blood) gene, a critical cocoon color determinant in the silkworm Bombyx mori, controls the uptake of carotenoids into the intestinal mucosa and the silk gland. Here we provide evidence that the Y gene corresponds to the intracellular carotenoid-binding protein (CBP) gene. In the Y recessive strain, the absence of an exon, likely due to an incorrect mRNA splicing caused by a transposon-associated genomic deletion, generates a nonfunctional CBP mRNA, resulting in colorless hemolymph and white cocoons. Enhancement of carotenoid uptake and coloration of the white cocoon was achieved by germ-line transformation with the CBP gene. This study demonstrates the existence of a genetically facilitated intracellular process beyond passive diffusion for carotenoid uptake in the animal phyla, and paves the way for modulating silk color and lipid content through genetic engineering. PMID:17496138

  1. Carotenoid and color changes in traditionally flaked and extruded products.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Mario; Farroni, Abel; Schoenlechner, Regine; Schleining, Gerhard; Buera, Pilar

    2017-08-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of process and formulation on individual carotenoid loss in traditionally prepared cornflakes and those prepared by extrusion. The first step in the traditional process (maize grits cooking) promoted a 60% lutein content reduction and 40% in zeaxanthin loss, showing lutein more susceptibility to isomerization and decomposition. After toasting, the last step, the total loss averaged 80% for both compounds. The extruded maize in a plain formulation showed a 35% lutein and zeaxanthin reduction. However, in samples containing quinoa the decrease reached 60%, and the major loss (80%) was found in chia-containing formulations. Correlations between the color coordinate b(∗), total and individual carotenoid content, were obtained. It is of a major importance that the efforts to increase carotenoid content in raw materials are complemented with attempts to reduce the losses during processing.

  2. Carotenoid cation radicals: electrochemical, optical, and EPR study

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, J.L.; Kramer, V.J.; Ding, R.; Kispert, L.D.

    1988-03-30

    The general aim of this investigation is to determine whether carotenoid cation radicals can be produced, and stabilized, electrochemically. Hence, the authors have undertaken a detailed study of the electrooxidation of various carotenoids (..beta..-carotene (I), ..beta..-apo-8'-carotenal (II), and canthaxanthin (III) using the techniques of cyclic voltammetry, controlled-potential electrolysis (cpe) in conjunction with optical spectroscopy, and EPR spectroscopy coupled with in situ electrolysis. They report the successful generation of carotenoid cation radicals via electrochemical oxidation and, furthermore, the stabilization of these radicals for several minutes in CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/Cl/sub 2/ solvents.

  3. The Metabolic and Developmental Roles of Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase4 from Potato1[W

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Raymond; Ducreux, Laurence J.M.; Morris, Wayne L.; Morris, Jenny A.; Suttle, Jeffrey C.; Ramsay, Gavin; Bryan, Glenn J.; Hedley, Pete E.; Taylor, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The factors that regulate storage organ carotenoid content remain to be fully elucidated, despite the nutritional and economic importance of this class of compound. Recent findings suggest that carotenoid pool size is determined, at least in part, by the activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase4 (CCD4) activity affects potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber carotenoid content. Microarray analysis revealed elevated expression of the potato CCD4 gene in mature tubers from white-fleshed cultivars compared with higher carotenoid yellow-fleshed tubers. The expression level of the potato CCD4 gene was down-regulated using an RNA interference (RNAi) approach in stable transgenic lines. Down-regulation in tubers resulted in an increased carotenoid content, 2- to 5-fold higher than in control plants. The increase in carotenoid content was mainly due to elevated violaxanthin content, implying that this carotenoid may act as the in vivo substrate. Although transcript level was also reduced in plant organs other than tubers, such as leaves, stems, and roots , there was no change in carotenoid content in these organs. However, carotenoid levels were elevated in flower petals from RNAi lines. As well as changes in tuber carotenoid content, tubers from RNAi lines exhibited phenotypes such as heat sprouting, formation of chain tubers, and an elongated shape. These results suggest that the product of the CCD4 reaction may be an important factor in tuber heat responses. PMID:20688977

  4. Absorption and distribution kinetics of the 13C-labeled tomato carotenoid phytoene in healthy adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytoene is a tomato carotenoid which may contribute to the apparent health benefits of tomato consumption. While phytoene is a less prominent tomato carotenoid than lycopene, it is a major carotenoid in various human tissues. Phytoene distribution to plasma lipoproteins and tissues differs from lyc...

  5. Novel expression patterns of carotenoid pathway-related gene in citrus leaves and maturing fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carotenoids are abundant in citrus fruits and vary among cultivars and species. In the present study, HPLC and real-time PCR were used to investigate the expression patterns of 23 carotenoid biosynthesis gene family members and their possible relation with carotenoid accumulation in flavedo, juice s...

  6. Effects of carotenoids, immune activation and immune suppression on the intensity of chronic coccidiosis in greenfinches.

    PubMed

    Sepp, Tuul; Karu, Ulvi; Sild, Elin; Männiste, Marju; Hõrak, Peeter

    2011-03-01

    Allocation trade-offs of carotenoids between their use in the immune system and production of integumentary colouration have been suggested as a proximate mechanism maintaining honesty of signal traits. We tested how dietary carotenoid supplementation, immune activation and immune suppression affect intensity of coccidian infection in captive greenfinches Carduelis chloris, a passerine with carotenoid-based plumage. Immune activation with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) decreased body mass among birds not supplemented with lutein, while among the carotenoid-fed birds, PHA had no effect on mass dynamics. Immune suppression with dexamethasone (DEX) induced loss of body mass and reduced the swelling response to PHA. DEX and PHA increased the concentration of circulating heterophils. Lutein supplementation increased plasma carotenoid levels but had no effect on the swelling response induced by PHA. PHA and DEX treatments did not affect plasma carotenoids. Immune stimulation by PHA suppressed the infection, but only among carotenoid-supplemented birds. Priming of the immune system can thus aid in suppressing chronic infection but only when sufficient amount of carotenoids is available. Our experiment shows the importance of carotenoids in immune response, but also the complicated nature of this impact, which could be the reason for inconsistent results in studies investigating the immunomodulatory effects of carotenoids. The findings about involvement of carotenoids in modulation of an immune response against coccidiosis suggest that carotenoid-based ornaments may honestly signal individuals' ability to manage chronic infections. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic Regulation of Carotenoid-Enriched Golden Rice Line

    PubMed Central

    Gayen, Dipak; Ghosh, Subhrajyoti; Paul, Soumitra; Sarkar, Sailendra N.; Datta, Swapan K.; Datta, Karabi

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is the leading cause of blindness among children and is associated with high risk of maternal mortality. In order to enhance the bioavailability of vitamin A, high carotenoid transgenic golden rice has been developed by manipulating enzymes, such as phytoene synthase (psy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI). In this study, proteome and metabolite analyses were carried out to comprehend metabolic regulation and adaptation of transgenic golden rice after the manipulation of endosperm specific carotenoid pathways. The main alteration was observed in carbohydrate metabolism pathways of the transgenic seeds. The 2D based proteomic studies demonstrated that carbohydrate metabolism-related enzymes, such as pullulanase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, and glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, were primarily up-regulated in transgenic rice seeds. In addition, the enzyme PPDK was also elevated in transgenic seeds thus enhancing pyruvate biosynthesis, which is the precursor in the carotenoids biosynthetic pathway. GC-MS based metabolite profiling demonstrated an increase in the levels of glyceric acid, fructo-furanose, and galactose, while decrease in galactonic acid and gentiobiose in the transgenic rice compared to WT. It is noteworthy to mention that the carotenoid content, especially β-carotene level in transgenic rice (4.3 μg/g) was significantly enhanced. The present study highlights the metabolic adaptation process of a transgenic golden rice line (homozygous T4 progeny of SKBR-244) after enhancing carotenoid biosynthesis. The presented information would be helpful in the development of crops enriched in carotenoids by expressing metabolic flux of pyruvate biosynthesis. PMID:27840631

  8. Metabolic Regulation of Carotenoid-Enriched Golden Rice Line.

    PubMed

    Gayen, Dipak; Ghosh, Subhrajyoti; Paul, Soumitra; Sarkar, Sailendra N; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is the leading cause of blindness among children and is associated with high risk of maternal mortality. In order to enhance the bioavailability of vitamin A, high carotenoid transgenic golden rice has been developed by manipulating enzymes, such as phytoene synthase (psy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI). In this study, proteome and metabolite analyses were carried out to comprehend metabolic regulation and adaptation of transgenic golden rice after the manipulation of endosperm specific carotenoid pathways. The main alteration was observed in carbohydrate metabolism pathways of the transgenic seeds. The 2D based proteomic studies demonstrated that carbohydrate metabolism-related enzymes, such as pullulanase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, and glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, were primarily up-regulated in transgenic rice seeds. In addition, the enzyme PPDK was also elevated in transgenic seeds thus enhancing pyruvate biosynthesis, which is the precursor in the carotenoids biosynthetic pathway. GC-MS based metabolite profiling demonstrated an increase in the levels of glyceric acid, fructo-furanose, and galactose, while decrease in galactonic acid and gentiobiose in the transgenic rice compared to WT. It is noteworthy to mention that the carotenoid content, especially β-carotene level in transgenic rice (4.3 μg/g) was significantly enhanced. The present study highlights the metabolic adaptation process of a transgenic golden rice line (homozygous T4 progeny of SKBR-244) after enhancing carotenoid biosynthesis. The presented information would be helpful in the development of crops enriched in carotenoids by expressing metabolic flux of pyruvate biosynthesis.

  9. Dietary intake of carotenoids and risk of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sluijs, I; Cadier, E; Beulens, J W J; van der A, D L; Spijkerman, A M W; van der Schouw, Y T

    2015-04-01

    Carotenoids may reduce diabetes risk, due to their antioxidant properties. However, the association between dietary carotenoids intake and type 2 diabetes risk is still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether higher dietary carotenoid intakes associate with reduced type 2 diabetes risk. Data from 37,846 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition- Netherlands study were analyzed. Dietary intakes of β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein & zeaxanthin and the sum of these carotenoids were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Incident type 2 diabetes was mainly self-reported, and verified against general practitioner information. Mean ±SD total carotenoid intake was 10 ± 4 mg/day. During a mean ±SD follow-up of 10 ± 2 years, 915 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were ascertained. After adjustment for age, sex, diabetes risk factors, dietary intake, waist circumference and BMI, higher β-carotene intakes associated inversely with diabetes risk [Hazard Ratio quartile 4 versus quartile 1 (HR(Q4)): 0.78 (95%CI:0.64,0.95), P-linear trend 0.01]. For α-carotene, a borderline significant reduced risk was observed, with a HR(Q4) of 0.85 (95%CI:0.70,1.03), and P-linear trend 0.05. β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein & zeaxanthin, and the sum of all carotenoids did not associate with diabetes risk. This study shows that diets high in β-carotene and α-carotene are associated with reduced type 2 diabetes in generally healthy men and women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Animal models in carotenoids research and lung cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jina; Kim, Yuri

    2011-10-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that individuals who eat more fruits and vegetables (which are rich in carotenoids) and who have higher serum β-carotene levels have a lower risk of cancer, especially lung cancer. However, two human intervention trials conducted in Finland and in the United States have reported contrasting results with high doses of β-carotene supplementation increasing the risk of lung cancer among smokers. The failure of these trials to demonstrate actual efficacy has resulted in the initiation of animal studies to reproduce the findings of these two studies and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the harmful or protective effects of carotenoids in lung carcinogenesis. Although these studies have been limited by a lack of animal models that appropriately represent human lung cancer induced by cigarette smoke, ferrets and A/J mice are currently the most widely used models for these types of studies. There are several proposed mechanisms for the protective effects of carotenoids on cigarette smoke-induced lung carcinogenesis, and these include antioxidant/prooxidant effects, modulation of retinoic acid signaling pathway and metabolism, induction of cytochrome P450, and molecular signaling involved in cell proliferation and/or apoptosis. The technical challenges associated with animal models include strain-specific and diet-specific effects, differences in the absorption and distribution of carotenoids, and differences in the interactions of carotenoids with other antioxidants. Despite the problems associated with extrapolating from animal models to humans, the understanding and development of various animal models may provide useful information regarding the protective effects of carotenoids against lung carcinogenesis.

  11. Carotenoid biosynthesis in the primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Francis X; Lee, Hansel; Gantt, Elisabeth

    2007-03-01

    Cyanidioschyzon merolae is considered to be one of the most primitive of eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms. To obtain insights into the origin and evolution of the pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic plants, the carotenoid content of C. merolae was ascertained, genes encoding enzymes of carotenoid biosynthesis in this unicellular red alga were identified, and the activities of two candidate pathway enzymes of particular interest, lycopene cyclase and beta-carotene hydroxylase, were examined. C. merolae contains perhaps the simplest assortment of chlorophylls and carotenoids found in any eukaryotic photosynthetic organism: chlorophyll a, beta-carotene, and zeaxanthin. Carotenoids with epsilon-rings (e.g., lutein), found in many other red algae and in green algae and land plants, were not detected, and the lycopene cyclase of C. merolae quite specifically produced only beta-ringed carotenoids when provided with lycopene as the substrate in Escherichia coli. Lycopene beta-ring cyclases from several bacteria, cyanobacteria, and land plants also proved to be high-fidelity enzymes, whereas the structurally related epsilon-ring cyclases from several plant species were found to be less specific, yielding products with beta-rings as well as epsilon-rings. C. merolae lacks orthologs of genes that encode the two types of beta-carotene hydroxylase found in land plants, one a nonheme diiron oxygenase and the other a cytochrome P450. A C. merolae chloroplast gene specifies a polypeptide similar to members of a third class of beta-carotene hydroxylases, common in cyanobacteria, but this gene did not produce an active enzyme when expressed in E. coli. The identity of the C. merolae beta-carotene hydroxylase therefore remains uncertain.

  12. Specific oxidative cleavage of carotenoids by VP14 of maize

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.H.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.; Gage, D.A.; Tan, Bao Cai

    1997-06-20

    The plant growth regulator abscisic acid (ABA) is formed by the oxidative cleavage of an epoxy-carotenoid. The synthesis of other apocarotenoids, such as vitamin A in animals, may occur by a similar mechanism. In ABA biosynthesis, oxidative cleavage is the first committed reaction and is believed to be the key regulatory step. A new ABA-deficient mutant of maize has been identified and the corresponding gene, Vp14, has been cloned. The recombinant VP14 protein catalyzes the cleavage of 9-cis-epoxy-carotenoids to form C{sub 25} apo-aldehydes and xanthoxin, a precursor of ABA in higher plants.

  13. Identification of carotenoids from the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula japonica

    PubMed Central

    Yatsunami, Rie; Ando, Ai; Yang, Ying; Takaichi, Shinichi; Kohno, Masahiro; Matsumura, Yuriko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Fukui, Toshiaki; Nakasone, Kaoru; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Sekine, Mitsuo; Takashina, Tomonori; Nakamura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The carotenoids produced by extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula japonica were extracted and identified by their chemical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic characteristics (UV-Vis and mass spectrometry). The composition (mol%) was 68.1% bacterioruberin, 22.5% monoanhydrobacterioruberin, 9.3% bisanhydrobacterioruberin, <0.1% isopentenyldehydrorhodopin, and trace amounts of lycopene and phytoene. The in vitro scavenging capacity of a carotenoid, bacterioruberin, extracted from Haloarcula japonica cells against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals was evaluated. The antioxidant capacity of bacterioruberin was much higher than that of β -carotene. PMID:24672517

  14. Specificity of the cyanobacterial orange carotenoid protein: influences of orange carotenoid protein and phycobilisome structures.

    PubMed

    Jallet, Denis; Thurotte, Adrien; Leverenz, Ryan L; Perreau, François; Kerfeld, Cheryl A; Kirilovsky, Diana

    2014-02-01

    Cyanobacteria have developed a photoprotective mechanism that decreases the energy arriving at the reaction centers by increasing thermal energy dissipation at the level of the phycobilisome (PB), the extramembranous light-harvesting antenna. This mechanism is triggered by the photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP), which acts both as the photosensor and the energy quencher. The OCP binds the core of the PB. The structure of this core differs in diverse cyanobacterial strains. Here, using two isolated OCPs and four classes of PBs, we demonstrated that differences exist between OCPs related to PB binding, photoactivity, and carotenoid binding. Synechocystis PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis) OCP, but not Arthrospira platensis PCC 7345 (hereafter Arthrospira) OCP, can attach echinenone in addition to hydroxyechinenone. Arthrospira OCP binds more strongly than Synechocystis OCP to all types of PBs. Synechocystis OCP can strongly bind only its own PB in 0.8 m potassium phosphate. However, if the Synechocystis OCP binds to the PB at very high phosphate concentrations (approximately 1.4 m), it is able to quench the fluorescence of any type of PB, even those isolated from strains that lack the OCP-mediated photoprotective mechanism. Thus, the determining step for the induction of photoprotection is the binding of the OCP to PBs. Our results also indicated that the structure of PBs, at least in vitro, significantly influences OCP binding and the stabilization of OCP-PB complexes. Finally, the fact that the OCP induced large fluorescence quenching even in the two-cylinder core of Synechococcus elongatus PBs strongly suggested that OCP binds to one of the basal allophycocyanin cylinders.

  15. ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE Activity Potentiates Carotenoid Degradation in Maturing Seed1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; Lipka, Alexander E.; Angelovici, Ruthie; DellaPenna, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway has enabled altering the composition and content of carotenoids in various plants, but to achieve desired nutritional impacts, the genetic components regulating carotenoid homeostasis in seed, the plant organ consumed in greatest abundance, must be elucidated. We used a combination of linkage mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and pathway-level analysis to identify nine loci that impact the natural variation of seed carotenoids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE (ZEP) was the major contributor to carotenoid composition, with mutants lacking ZEP activity showing a remarkable 6-fold increase in total seed carotenoids relative to the wild type. Natural variation in ZEP gene expression during seed development was identified as the underlying mechanism for fine-tuning carotenoid composition, stability, and ultimately content in Arabidopsis seed. We previously showed that two CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE enzymes, CCD1 and CCD4, are the primary mediators of seed carotenoid degradation, and here we demonstrate that ZEP acts as an upstream control point of carotenoid homeostasis, with ZEP-mediated epoxidation targeting carotenoids for degradation by CCD enzymes. Finally, four of the nine loci/enzymatic activities identified as underlying natural variation in Arabidopsis seed carotenoids also were identified in a recent GWAS of maize (Zea mays) kernel carotenoid variation. This first comparison of the natural variation in seed carotenoids in monocots and dicots suggests a surprising overlap in the genetic architecture of these traits between the two lineages and provides a list of likely candidates to target for selecting seed carotenoid variation in other species. PMID:27208224

  16. Comparative analysis of carotenoid accumulation in two goji (Lycium barbarum L. and L. ruthenicum Murr.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongliang; Zeng, Shaohua; Sun, Wei; Wu, Min; Hu, Weiming; Shen, Xiaofei; Wang, Ying

    2014-12-16

    The traditional Chinese medicinal plants Lycium barbarum L. and L. ruthenicum Murr. are valued for the abundance of bioactive carotenoids and anthocyanins in their fruits, respectively. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms contributing to their species-specific bioactive profiles remain poorly understood. In this study, the red fruit (RF) of L. barbarum was found to accumulate high levels of carotenoids (primarily zeaxanthin), while they were undetectable in the black fruit (BF) of L. ruthenicum. Cytological and gene transcriptional analyses revealed that the chromoplast differentiation that occurs in the chloroplast during fruit ripening only occurs in RF, indicating that the lack of chromoplast biogenesis in BF leads to no sink for carotenoid storage and the failure to synthesize carotenoids. Similar enzyme activities of phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1), chromoplast-specific lycopene β-cyclase (CYC-B) and β-carotene hydroxylase 2 (CRTR-B2) were observed in both L. ruthenicum and L. barbarum, suggesting that the undetectable carotenoid levels in BF were not due to the inactivation of carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes. The transcript levels of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes, particularly PSY1, phytoene desaturase (PDS), ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS), CYC-B and CRTR-B2, were greatly increased during RF ripening, indicating increased zeaxanthin biosynthesis. Additionally, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) was expressed at much higher levels in BF than in RF, suggesting continuous carotenoid degradation in BF. The failure of the chromoplast development in BF causes low carotenoid biosynthesis levels and continuous carotenoid degradation, which ultimately leads to undetectable carotenoid levels in ripe BF. In contrast, the successful chromoplast biogenesis in RF furnishes the sink necessary for carotenoid storage. Based on this observation, the abundant zeaxanthin accumulation in RF is primarily determined via both the large carotenoid biosynthesis levels

  17. Patterns of serum carotenoid accumulation and skin colour variation in kestrel nestlings in relation to breeding conditions and different terms of carotenoid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Stefania; Costantini, David; Fanfani, Alberto; Tagliavini, James; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2007-02-01

    Carotenoids are pigments synthesised by autotrophic organisms. For nestlings of raptorial species, which obtain carotenoids from the consumption of other heterotrophic species, the access to these pigments can be crucial. Carotenoids, indeed, have fundamental health maintenance functions, especially important in developing individuals as nestling kestrels. The aim of this study was to investigate how body carotenoid levels and skin pigmentation vary in kestrel nestlings (Falco tinnunculus) in relation to nesting parameters. Furthermore, we experimentally altered carotenoid availability (short- medium- and long-term) for nestlings and investigated skin and serum variance. The skin colour variance of 151 nestlings was explained by nest of origin, age and by the body condition (body mass corrected by age), older nestlings with higher body condition being redder. No difference in skin colour was detected between sexes. Differences in hue (skin "redness") between treatments did not emerge during the first week, but did occur 15 days after administration between long-term supplemented and control chicks. In contrast, the serum carotenoid concentration showed a treatment-dependent increase after 5 days from the first carotenoid administration and at least after two supplemented feedings. In general, hue but not serum carotenoids, was correlated with the body condition of nestlings. Based on the increased skin pigmentation of nestling kestrels in the long-term experimental group, we suggest carotenoid availability to be limited for colour expression. The small increase of serum carotenoids due to supplementation is consistent with the hypothesis that there is a physiological constraint on these pigments, as well as an environmental limitation. The presented results are useful for the understanding of carotenoid uptake and accumulation by a wild raptorial species, located at the top of the food web, highlighting that carotenoids are a limited resource for kestrel nestlings.

  18. Carotenoids of Gemmatimonas aurantiaca (Gemmatimonadetes): identification of a novel carotenoid, deoxyoscillol 2-rhamnoside, and proposed biosynthetic pathway of oscillol 2,2'-dirhamnoside.

    PubMed

    Takaichi, Shinichi; Maoka, Takashi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Hanada, Satoshi

    2010-03-01

    Gemmatimonas aurantiaca strain T-27(T) is an orange-coloured, Gram-negative, facultatively aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating bacterium belonging to a recently proposed phylum, Gemmatimonadetes. We purified its pigments and identified them as carotenoids and their glycoside derivatives using spectral data. The major carotenoid was (2S,2' S)-oscillol 2,2'-di-(alpha-l-rhamnoside), and the minor carotenoids were (2S)-deoxyoscillol 2-( alpha-l-rhamnoside) and didemethylspirilloxanthin. Deoxyoscillol 2-rhamnoside is a novel carotenoid. Oscillol 2,2'-diglycosides have hitherto only been reported in a limited number of cyanobacteria, and this is believed to be the first finding of such carotenoids in another bacterial phylum. Based on the identification of the carotenoids and the completion of the entire nucleotide sequence, we propose a biosynthetic pathway for the carotenoids and the corresponding genes and enzymes. We propose the involvement of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (CrtE), phytoene synthase (CrtB) and phytoene desaturase (CrtI) for lycopene synthesis; and of carotenoid 1,2-hydratase (CruF) and carotenoid 2-O-rhamnosyltransferase (CruG) for oscillol 2,2'-dirhamnoside synthesis. Further, isopentenyl pyrophosphate could be synthesized by a non-mevalonate pathway (DXP pathway).

  19. Quenching Capabilities of Long-Chain Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting-2 Complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides with an Engineered Carotenoid Synthesis Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dilbeck, Preston L; Tang, Qun; Mothersole, David J; Martin, Elizabeth C; Hunter, C Neil; Bocian, David F; Holten, Dewey; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M

    2016-06-23

    Six light-harvesting-2 complexes (LH2) from genetically modified strains of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides were studied using static and ultrafast optical methods and resonance Raman spectroscopy. These strains were engineered to incorporate carotenoids for which the number of conjugated groups (N = NC═C + NC═O) varies from 9 to 15. The Rb. sphaeroides strains incorporate their native carotenoids spheroidene (N = 10) and spheroidenone (N = 11), as well as longer-chain analogues including spirilloxanthin (N = 13) and diketospirilloxantion (N = 15) normally found in Rhodospirillum rubrum. Measurements of the properties of the carotenoid first singlet excited state (S1) in antennas from the Rb. sphaeroides set show that carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) interactions are similar to those in LH2 complexes from various other bacterial species and thus are not significantly impacted by differences in polypeptide composition. Instead, variations in carotenoid-to-BChl a energy transfer are primarily regulated by the N-determined energy of the carotenoid S1 excited state, which for long-chain (N ≥ 13) carotenoids is not involved in energy transfer. Furthermore, the role of the long-chain carotenoids switches from a light-harvesting supporter (via energy transfer to BChl a) to a quencher of the BChl a S1 excited state B850*. This quenching is manifested as a substantial (∼2-fold) reduction of the B850* lifetime and the B850* fluorescence quantum yield for LH2 housing the longest carotenoids.

  20. Quenching Capabilities of Long-Chain Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting-2 Complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides with an Engineered Carotenoid Synthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Six light-harvesting-2 complexes (LH2) from genetically modified strains of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides were studied using static and ultrafast optical methods and resonance Raman spectroscopy. These strains were engineered to incorporate carotenoids for which the number of conjugated groups (N = NC=C + NC=O) varies from 9 to 15. The Rb. sphaeroides strains incorporate their native carotenoids spheroidene (N = 10) and spheroidenone (N = 11), as well as longer-chain analogues including spirilloxanthin (N = 13) and diketospirilloxantion (N = 15) normally found in Rhodospirillum rubrum. Measurements of the properties of the carotenoid first singlet excited state (S1) in antennas from the Rb. sphaeroides set show that carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) interactions are similar to those in LH2 complexes from various other bacterial species and thus are not significantly impacted by differences in polypeptide composition. Instead, variations in carotenoid-to-BChl a energy transfer are primarily regulated by the N-determined energy of the carotenoid S1 excited state, which for long-chain (N ≥ 13) carotenoids is not involved in energy transfer. Furthermore, the role of the long-chain carotenoids switches from a light-harvesting supporter (via energy transfer to BChl a) to a quencher of the BChl a S1 excited state B850*. This quenching is manifested as a substantial (∼2-fold) reduction of the B850* lifetime and the B850* fluorescence quantum yield for LH2 housing the longest carotenoids. PMID:27285777

  1. Carotenoid coloration in greenfinches is individually consistent irrespective of foraging ability.

    PubMed

    Karu, Ulvi; Saks, Lauri; Hõrak, Peeter

    2007-01-01

    Carotenoid-based plumage coloration of birds has been hypothesized to honestly reflect individual quality, either because carotenoids are difficult to acquire via food or because of a trade-off in allocation of carotenoids between maintenance and signaling functions. We tested whether differential foraging ability is a necessary precondition for maintaining individual differences in carotenoid-based plumage coloration in male greenfinches (Carduelis chloris). Wild-caught birds were brought into captivity, where half of them were supplemented with carotenoids while the other half was maintained on a carotenoid-poor diet. Color of the yellow parts of tail feathers, grown under natural conditions, was compared with that of the replacement feathers, grown in captivity. Carotenoid supplementation increased feather chroma (saturation). Color of wild-grown feathers significantly correlated with the color of lab-grown feathers. This result demonstrates the existence of a significant component of variation in carotenoid coloration, which reflects physiological qualities or genetic differences among individuals independent of foraging ability. Among both experimental groups, plasma carotenoid concentration during feather growth strongly correlated with chroma of the feathers grown in captivity. This indicates that carotenoid-based plumage coloration can reveal circulating carotenoid levels over a very wide range of concentrations, suggesting the ample signaling potential of such a mechanism.

  2. Botryococcus as an alternative source of carotenoids and its possible applications - an overview.

    PubMed

    Ambati, Ranga Rao; Gogisetty, Deepika; Aswathnarayana Gokare, Ravishankar; Ravi, Sarada; Bikkina, Panduranga Narasimharao; Su, Yuepeng; Lei, Bo

    2017-09-22

    The enhanced interest in carotenoid research arises partly because of their application in the food and health industries and partly because of the necessity to find a commercially viable natural source for their mass production. The bottlenecks in finding a natural source of carotenoids which can compete with the synthetic products is the mass production of the organism that produces carotenoids, cell harvesting and extraction methods of carotenoids. The microalga Botryococcus braunii is an interesting organism for its commercial value as a rich source of carotenoids. It contains lutein as major carotenoid which is considered to be one of the beneficial carotenoids in human health applications. The current paper reviews the status of B. braunii as an alternative source of carotenoid production on the commercial scale addressing aspects like cultures of algae, factors that enhance the production and accumulation of carotenoids, cell harvesting methods, and carotenoid extraction. The paper also presents an overview of identification, characterization and structural elucidation of carotenoids from B. braunii and their bioactivity.

  3. Carotenoid accumulation affects redox status, starch metabolism, and flavonoid/anthocyanin accumulation in citrus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongbo; Wang, Jiangbo; Dong, Xintian; Han, Yan; Ma, Qiaoli; Ding, Yuduan; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Jiancheng; Chen, Haijiang; Xu, Qiang; Xu, Juan; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-02-03

    Carotenoids are indispensable plant secondary metabolites that are involved in photosynthesis, antioxidation, and phytohormone biosynthesis. Carotenoids are likely involved in other biological functions that have yet to be discovered. In this study, we integrated genomic, biochemical, and cellular studies to gain deep insight into carotenoid-related biological processes in citrus calli overexpressing CrtB (phytoene synthase from Pantoea agglomerans). Fortunella hindsii Swingle (a citrus relative) and Malus hupehensis (a wild apple) calli were also utilized as supporting systems to investigate the effect of altered carotenoid accumulation on carotenoid-related biological processes. Transcriptomic analysis provided deep insight into the carotenoid-related biological processes of redox status, starch metabolism, and flavonoid/anthocyanin accumulation. By applying biochemical and cytological analyses, we determined that the altered redox status was associated with variations in O2 (-) and H2O2 levels. We also ascertained a decline in starch accumulation in carotenoid-rich calli. Furthermore, via an extensive cellular investigation of the newly constructed CrtB overexpressing Fortunella hindsii Swingle, we demonstrated that starch level reducation occurred in parallel with significant carotenoid accumulation. Moreover, studying anthocyanin-rich Malus hupehensis calli showed a negative effect of carotenoids on anthocyanin accumulation. In citrus, altered carotenoid accumulation resulted in dramatic effects on metabolic processes involved in redox modification, starch degradation, and flavonoid/anthocyanin biosynthesis. These findings provided new perspectives to understand the biological importance of carotenogenesis and of the developmental processes associated with the nutritional and sensory qualities of agricultural products that accumulate carotenoids.

  4. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase4 is a negative regulator of β-carotene content in Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Jorge, Sabrina; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; Gilliland, Laura Ullrich; Zhou, Ailing; Lipka, Alexander E; Nguyen, Yen-Nhu; Angelovici, Ruthie; Lin, Haining; Cepela, Jason; Little, Holly; Buell, C Robin; Gore, Michael A; Dellapenna, Dean

    2013-12-01

    Experimental approaches targeting carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes have successfully increased the seed β-carotene content of crops. However, linkage analysis of seed carotenoids in Arabidopsis thaliana recombinant inbred populations showed that only 21% of quantitative trait loci, including those for β-carotene, encode carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in their intervals. Thus, numerous loci remain uncharacterized and underutilized in biofortification approaches. Linkage mapping and genome-wide association studies of Arabidopsis seed carotenoids identified CAROTENOID cleavage dioxygenase4 (CCD4) as a major negative regulator of seed carotenoid content, especially β-carotene. Loss of CCD4 function did not affect carotenoid homeostasis during seed development but greatly reduced carotenoid degradation during seed desiccation, increasing β-carotene content 8.4-fold relative to the wild type. Allelic complementation of a ccd4 null mutant demonstrated that single-nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions and deletions at the locus affect dry seed carotenoid content, due at least partly to differences in CCD4 expression. CCD4 also plays a major role in carotenoid turnover during dark-induced leaf senescence, with β-carotene accumulation again most strongly affected in the ccd4 mutant. These results demonstrate that CCD4 plays a major role in β-carotene degradation in drying seeds and senescing leaves and suggest that CCD4 orthologs would be promising targets for stabilizing and increasing the level of provitamin A carotenoids in seeds of major food crops.

  5. Diversity of Carotenoid Synthesis Gene Clusters from Environmental Enterobacteriaceae Strains

    PubMed Central

    Sedkova, Natalia; Tao, Luan; Rouvière, Pierre E.; Cheng, Qiong

    2005-01-01

    Eight Enterobacteriaceae strains that produce zeaxanthin and derivatives of this compound were isolated from a variety of environmental samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains grouped with different clusters of Erwinia type strains. Four strains representing the phylogenetic diversity were chosen for further characterization, which revealed their genetic diversity as well as their biochemical diversity. The carotenoid synthesis gene clusters cloned from the four strains had three different gene organizations. Two of the gene clusters, those from strains DC416 and DC260, had the classical organization crtEXYIBZ; the gene cluster from DC413 had the rare organization crtE-idi-XYIBZ; and the gene cluster from DC404 had the unique organization crtE-idi-YIBZ. Besides the diversity in genetic organization, these genes also exhibited considerable sequence diversity. On average, they exhibited 60 to 70% identity with each other, as well as with the corresponding genes of the Pantoea type strains. The four different clusters were individually expressed in Escherichia coli, and the two idi-containing clusters gave more than fivefold-higher carotenoid titers than the two clusters lacking idi. Expression of the crtEYIB genes with and without idi confirmed the effect of increasing carotenoid titer by the type II idi gene linked with the carotenoid synthesis gene clusters. PMID:16332796

  6. Chemical quenching of singlet oxygen by carotenoids in plants.

    PubMed

    Ramel, Fanny; Birtic, Simona; Cuiné, Stéphan; Triantaphylidès, Christian; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Havaux, Michel

    2012-03-01

    Carotenoids are considered to be the first line of defense of plants against singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) toxicity because of their capacity to quench (1)O(2) as well as triplet chlorophylls through a physical mechanism involving transfer of excitation energy followed by thermal deactivation. Here, we show that leaf carotenoids are also able to quench (1)O(2) by a chemical mechanism involving their oxidation. In vitro oxidation of β-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin by (1)O(2) generated various aldehydes and endoperoxides. A search for those molecules in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves revealed the presence of (1)O(2)-specific endoperoxides in low-light-grown plants, indicating chronic oxidation of carotenoids by (1)O(2). β-Carotene endoperoxide, but not xanthophyll endoperoxide, rapidly accumulated during high-light stress, and this accumulation was correlated with the extent of photosystem (PS) II photoinhibition and the expression of various (1)O(2) marker genes. The selective accumulation of β-carotene endoperoxide points at the PSII reaction centers, rather than the PSII chlorophyll antennae, as a major site of (1)O(2) accumulation in plants under high-light stress. β-Carotene endoperoxide was found to have a relatively fast turnover, decaying in the dark with a half time of about 6 h. This carotenoid metabolite provides an early index of (1)O(2) production in leaves, the occurrence of which precedes the accumulation of fatty acid oxidation products.

  7. Characterization of Nutritionally Important Carotenoids in Welsh Onion Accessions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Members of the Allium genus are consumed for their culinary flavor attributes, but also contain antioxidant and anticarcinogenic phytochemicals. Welsh onions (Allium fistulosum L.) are commonly used in Asian cuisine, where both leaves and pseudostems are consumed. Carotenoids are an important clas...

  8. Mallow carotenoids determined by high-performance liquid chromatography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mallow (corchorus olitorius) is a green vegetable, which is widely consumed either fresh or dry by Middle East population. This study was carried out to determine the contents of major carotenoids quantitatively in mallow, by using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a Bis...

  9. Excited Electronic States, Photochemistry and Photophysics of Carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Harry A.; Christensen, Ronald L.

    The most striking characteristic of carotenoids is their palette of colours. Absorption of light in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum by molecules such as β-carotene (3) and lycopene (31) not only readily accounts for their colours but also signals the ability of these long-chain polyenes to serve as antenna pigments in diverse photosynthetic systems [1-4].

  10. Vibronic coupling in the excited-states of carotenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, Takeshi; Buckup, Tiago; Krause, Marie S.; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J.; Motzkus, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    The ultrafast femtochemistry of carotenoids is governed by the interaction between electronic excited states, which has been explained by the relaxation dynamics within a few hundred femtoseconds from the lowest optically allowed excited state S2to the optically dark state S1.

  11. Rewiring carotenoid biosynthesis in plants using a viral vector

    PubMed Central

    Majer, Eszter; Llorente, Briardo; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel; Daròs, José-Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Plants can be engineered to sustainably produce compounds of nutritional, industrial or pharmaceutical relevance. This is, however, a challenging task as extensive regulation of biosynthetic pathways often hampers major metabolic changes. Here we describe the use of a viral vector derived from Tobacco etch virus to express a whole heterologous metabolic pathway that produces the health-promoting carotenoid lycopene in tobacco tissues. The pathway consisted in three enzymes from the soil bacteria Pantoea ananatis. Lycopene is present at undetectable levels in chloroplasts of non-infected leaves. In tissues infected with the viral vector, however, lycopene comprised approximately 10% of the total carotenoid content. Our research further showed that plant viruses that express P. ananatis phytoene synthase (crtB), one of the three enzymes of the heterologous pathway, trigger an accumulation of endogenous carotenoids, which together with a reduction in chlorophylls eventually result in a bright yellow pigmentation of infected tissues in various host-virus combinations. So, besides illustrating the potential of viral vectors for engineering complex metabolic pathways, we also show a yellow carotenoid-based reporter that can be used to visually track infection dynamics of plant viruses either alone or in combination with other visual markers. PMID:28139696

  12. Beta-cryptoxanthin: A vitamin A-forming carotenoid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beta-cryptoxanthin is a common carotenoid. It is generally the fourth most abundant in human blood but can achieve high concentrations especially in Japanese and Spanish populations. Its richest food sources include mandarin oranges, persimmons, oranges, papayas, pumpkin, and red sweet peppers. Beta...

  13. Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Poojary, Mahesha M; Barba, Francisco J; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Donsì, Francesco; Pataro, Gianpiero; Dias, Daniel A; Juliano, Pablo

    2016-11-22

    Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability.

  14. Biosynthesis of soluble carotenoid holoproteins in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    de Carbon, Céline Bourcier; Thurotte, Adrien; Wilson, Adjélé; Perreau, François; Kirilovsky, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are widely distributed natural pigments that are excellent antioxidants acting in photoprotection. They are typically solubilized in membranes or attached to proteins. In cyanobacteria, the photoactive soluble Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) is involved in photoprotective mechanisms as a highly active singlet oxygen and excitation energy quencher. Here we describe a method for producing large amounts of holo-OCP in E.coli. The six different genes involved in the synthesis of holo-OCP were introduced into E. coli using three different plasmids. The choice of promoters and the order of gene induction were important: the induction of genes involved in carotenoid synthesis must precede the induction of the ocp gene in order to obtain holo-OCPs. Active holo-OCPs with primary structures derived from several cyanobacterial strains and containing different carotenoids were isolated. This approach for rapid heterologous synthesis of large quantities of carotenoproteins is a fundamental advance in the production of antioxidants of great interest to the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. PMID:25765842

  15. Rewiring carotenoid biosynthesis in plants using a viral vector.

    PubMed

    Majer, Eszter; Llorente, Briardo; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel; Daròs, José-Antonio

    2017-01-31

    Plants can be engineered to sustainably produce compounds of nutritional, industrial or pharmaceutical relevance. This is, however, a challenging task as extensive regulation of biosynthetic pathways often hampers major metabolic changes. Here we describe the use of a viral vector derived from Tobacco etch virus to express a whole heterologous metabolic pathway that produces the health-promoting carotenoid lycopene in tobacco tissues. The pathway consisted in three enzymes from the soil bacteria Pantoea ananatis. Lycopene is present at undetectable levels in chloroplasts of non-infected leaves. In tissues infected with the viral vector, however, lycopene comprised approximately 10% of the total carotenoid content. Our research further showed that plant viruses that express P. ananatis phytoene synthase (crtB), one of the three enzymes of the heterologous pathway, trigger an accumulation of endogenous carotenoids, which together with a reduction in chlorophylls eventually result in a bright yellow pigmentation of infected tissues in various host-virus combinations. So, besides illustrating the potential of viral vectors for engineering complex metabolic pathways, we also show a yellow carotenoid-based reporter that can be used to visually track infection dynamics of plant viruses either alone or in combination with other visual markers.

  16. Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds

    PubMed Central

    Poojary, Mahesha M.; Barba, Francisco J.; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Donsì, Francesco; Pataro, Gianpiero; Dias, Daniel A.; Juliano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability. PMID:27879659

  17. Accurate Differentiation of Carotenoid Pigments Using Flight Representative Raman Spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Malherbe, Cedric; Hutchinson, Ian B; McHugh, Melissa; Ingley, Richard; Jehlička, Jan; Edwards, Howell G M

    2017-04-01

    Raman spectrometers will be utilized on two Mars rover missions, ExoMars and Mars 2020, in the near future, to search for evidence of life and habitable geological niches on Mars. Carotenoid pigments are recognized target biomarkers, and as they are highly active in Raman spectroscopy, they can be readily used to characterize the capabilities of space representative instrumentation. As part of the preparatory work being performed for the ExoMars mission, a gypsum crust colonized by microorganisms was interrogated with commercial portable Raman instruments and a flight representative Raman laser spectrometer. Four separate layers, each exhibiting different coloration resulting from specific halophilic microorganism activities within the gypsum crust, were studied by using two excitation wavelengths: 532 and 785 nm. Raman or fluorescence data were readily obtained during the present study. Gypsum, the main constituent of the crust, was detected with both excitation wavelengths, while the resonance Raman signal associated with carotenoid pigments was only detected with a 532 nm excitation wavelength. The fluorescence originating from bacteriochlorophyll a was found to overwhelm the Raman signal for the layer colonized by sulfur bacteria when interrogated with a 785 nm excitation wavelength. Finally, it was demonstrated that portable instruments and the prototype were capable of detecting a statistically significant difference in band positions of carotenoid signals between the sample layers. Key Words: Gypsum-Raman spectrometers-Carotenoids-ExoMars-Mars exploration-Band position shift. Astrobiology 17, 351-362.

  18. Noninvasive measurements of carotenoids in bovine udder by reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Julia; Darvin, Maxim E.; Müller, Kerstin E.; Lademann, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    For a long time, the antioxidative status in cattle has been discussed as an indicator for stress conditions resulting from disease or exertion. Until now, invasive approaches have been necessary to obtain blood samples or biopsy materials and gain insights into the antioxidative status of cattle. Due to these efforts and the costs of the analyses, serial sampling is feasible in an experimental setting, but not for measurements on a routine basis. The present study focuses on the feasibility of an innovative, noninvasive spectroscopic technique that allows in vivo measurements of carotenoids in the skin by reflection spectroscopy. To this end, in a first trial, repeated measurements of the carotenoid concentration of the udder skin were performed on 25 healthy cattle from different breeds. Carotenoid concentrations showed highly significant differences between individual animals (P<0.001), although they were kept under the same environmental conditions and received the same diet. The carotenoid concentrations in "sensitive" and "robust" cows (evaluated by a temperament test) differed significantly (P<0.005), with higher concentrations observed in robust cows.

  19. Colour and carotenoid changes of pasteurised orange juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Scheling; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Tomic, Jovana; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Lemmens, Lien; Panozzo, Agnese; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2015-03-15

    The correlation of carotenoid changes with colour degradation of pasteurised single strength orange juice was investigated at 20, 28, 35 and 42°C for a total of 32 weeks of storage. Changes in colour were assessed using the CIELAB system and were kinetically described by a zero-order model. L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), ΔE(∗), Cab(∗) and hab were significantly changed during storage (p<0.05). Activation energies for all colour parameters were 64-73 kJ mol(-1). Several carotenoids showed important changes and appeared to have different susceptibilities to storage. A decrease of β-cryptoxanthin was observed at higher temperatures, whereas antheraxanthin started to decrease at lower temperatures. Depending on the time and temperature, changes in carotenoids could be due to isomerisation reactions, which may lead to a perceptible colour change. Although the contribution of carotenoids was recognised to some extent, other reactions seem of major importance for colour degradation of orange juice during storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of mineral nutrition on carotenoid content in spinach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carotenoids from fruits and vegetables are known to be potent antioxidants with extensive health promoting activity. While numerous studies have shown the genetic and biochemical mechanisms of health promoting phytochemical accumulation in plants, few studies have investigated the effects of mineral...

  1. Carotenoid limitation of sexual coloration along an environmental gradient in guppies

    PubMed Central

    Grether, G. F.; Hudon, J.; Millie, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids produce most of the brilliant orange and yellow colours seen in animals, but animals cannot synthesize these pigments and must rely on dietary sources. The idea that carotenoids make good signals because they are a scarce limiting resource was proposed two decades ago and has become the leading hypothesis for the role of carotenoids in animal communication. To our knowledge, until now, however, there has been no direct evidence that carotenoids are a limiting resource in nature. We showed that carotenoid availability in the wild limits the expression of sexual coloration in guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a species in which females prefer males with brighter orange carotenoid-containing spots. Further, the degree of carotenoid limitation varies geographically along a replicated environmental gradient (rainforest canopy cover), which opens new avenues for testing signal evolution theory.

  2. Composition by LC-MS/MS of New Carotenoid Esters in Mango and Citrus.

    PubMed

    Petry, Fabiane C; Mercadante, Adriana Z

    2016-11-02

    Interest in the composition of carotenoid esters of fruits is growing because esterification may affect their bioavailability. Thus, the aim was to provide a detailed identification of carotenoid esters in citrus and mango. Orange cv. 'Valencia' and cv. 'Pera' presented 9 free carotenoids, 38 monoesters, and 60 diesters. Violaxanthin and luteoxanthin derivatives were the major ones, followed by antheraxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, and zeinoxanthin esters, many of them reported for the first time in orange pulp. The carotenoid ester composition of tangor cv. 'Murcott', reported for the first time, showed 8 free carotenoids, 34 monoesters, and 33 diesters, with β-cryptoxanthin esters as major compounds, followed by violaxanthin and zeaxanthin esters. In citrus, carotenoids were acylated mainly with capric, lauric, myristic, myristoleic, palmitic, palmitoleic, and oleic acids. In mango, 5 free carotenoids, 2 monoesters, and 19 diesters were identified, from which many violaxanthin and neoxanthin esters were reported for the first time.

  3. Carotenoids of Sea Angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the Perspective of the Food Chain

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi; Kuwahara, Takashi; Narita, Masanao

    2014-01-01

    Sea angels, Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis, are small, floating sea slugs belonging to Gastropoda, and their gonads are a bright orange-red color. Sea angels feed exclusively on a small herbivorous sea snail, Limacina helicina. Carotenoids in C. limacina, P. doliiformis, and L. helicina were investigated for comparative biochemical points of view. β-Carotene, zeaxanthin, and diatoxanthin were found to be major carotenoids in L. helicina. L. helicina accumulated dietary algal carotenoids without modification. On the other hand, keto-carotenoids, such as pectenolone, 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin, and adonixanthin were identified as major carotenoids in the sea angels C. limacina and P. doliiformis. Sea angels oxidatively metabolize dietary carotenoids and accumulate them in their gonads. Carotenoids in the gonads of sea angels might protect against oxidative stress and enhance reproduction. PMID:24633249

  4. Profiling of carotenoids and antioxidant capacity of microalgae from subtropical coastal and brackish waters.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faruq; Fanning, Kent; Netzel, Michael; Turner, Warwick; Li, Yan; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-12-15

    Carotenoids are associated with various health benefits, such as prevention of age-related macular degeneration, cataract, certain cancers, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cardiovascular problems. As microalgae contain considerable amounts of carotenoids, there is a need to find species with high carotenoid content. Out of hundreds of Australian isolates, 12 microalgal species were screened for carotenoid profiles, carotenoid productivity, and in vitro antioxidant capacity (total phenolic content (TPC) and ORAC). The top four carotenoid producers at 4.68-6.88 mg/g dry weight (DW) were Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis suecica, Isochrysis galbana, and Pavlova salina. TPC was low, with D. salina possessing the highest TPC (1.54 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/g DW) and ORAC (577 μmol Trolox Equivalents/g DW). Results indicate that T. suecica, D. salina, P. salina and I. galbana could be further developed for commercial carotenoid production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Carotenoids of sea angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the perspective of the food chain.

    PubMed

    Maoka, Takashi; Kuwahara, Takashi; Narita, Masanao

    2014-03-13

    Sea angels, Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis, are small, floating sea slugs belonging to Gastropoda, and their gonads are a bright orange-red color. Sea angels feed exclusively on a small herbivorous sea snail, Limacina helicina. Carotenoids in C. limacina, P. doliiformis, and L. helicina were investigated for comparative biochemical points of view. β-Carotene, zeaxanthin, and diatoxanthin were found to be major carotenoids in L. helicina. L. helicina accumulated dietary algal carotenoids without modification. On the other hand, keto-carotenoids, such as pectenolone, 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin, and adonixanthin were identified as major carotenoids in the sea angels C. limacina and P. doliiformis. Sea angels oxidatively metabolize dietary carotenoids and accumulate them in their gonads. Carotenoids in the gonads of sea angels might protect against oxidative stress and enhance reproduction.

  6. Novel targeted approach to better understand how natural structural barriers govern carotenoid in vitro bioaccessibility in vegetable-based systems.

    PubMed

    Palmero, Paola; Lemmens, Lien; Ribas-Agustí, Albert; Sosa, Carola; Met, Kristof; de Dieu Umutoni, Jean; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2013-12-01

    An experimental approach, allowing us to understand the effect of natural structural barriers (cell walls, chromoplast substructures) on carotenoid bioaccessibility, was developed. Different fractions with different levels of carotenoid bio-encapsulation (carotenoid-enriched oil, chromoplasts, small cell clusters, and large cell clusters) were isolated from different types of carrots and tomatoes. An in vitro method was used to determine carotenoid bioaccessibility. In the present work, a significant decrease in carotenoid in vitro bioaccessibility could be observed with an increasing level of bio-encapsulation. Differences in cell wall material and chromoplast substructure between matrices influenced carotenoid release and inclusion in micelles. For carrots, cell walls and chromoplast substructure were important barriers for carotenoid bioaccessibility while, in tomatoes, the chromoplast substructure represented the most important barrier governing bioaccessibility. The highest increase in carotenoid bioaccessibility, for all matrices, was obtained after transferring carotenoids into the oil phase, a system lacking cell walls and chromoplast substructures that could hamper carotenoid release.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Proton Loss from Carotenoid Radical Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Kispert, Lowell D; Focsan, A Ligia; Konovalova, Tatyana A; Lawrence, Jesse; Bowman, Michael K; Dixon, David A; Molnar, Peter; Deli, Jozsef

    2007-06-11

    Carotenoids, intrinsic components of reaction centers and pigment-protein complexes in photosynthetic membranes, play a photoprotective role and serve as a secondary electron donor. Before optimum use of carotenoids can be made in artificial photosynthetic systems, their robust nature in living materials requires extensive characterization of their electron transfer, radical trapping ability, stability, structure in and on various hosts, and photochemical behavior. Pulsed ENDOR and 2D-HYSCORE studies combined with DFT calculations reveal that photo-oxidation of natural zeaxanthin (I) and violaxanthin (II) on silica-alumina produces not only the carotenoid radical cations (Car•+) but also neutral radicals (#Car•) by proton loss from the methyl groups at positions 5 or 5', and possibly 9 or 9' and 13 or 13'. Notably, the proton loss favored in I at the 5 position by DFT calculations, is unfavorable in II due to the epoxide at the 5, 6 position. DFT calculations predict the isotropic methyl proton couplings of 8-10 MHz for Car•+ which agree with the ENDOR for carotenoid α-conjugated radical cations. Large α-proton hyperfine coupling constants (>10 MHz) determined from HYSCORE are assigned from the DFT calculations to neutral carotenoid radicals. Proton loss upon photolysis was also examined as a function of carotenoid polarity [Lycopene (III) versus 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al (IV)]; hydrogen bonding [Lutein (V) versus III]; host [silica-alumina versus MCM-41 molecular sieve]; and substituted metal in MCM-41. Loss of H+ from the 5(5'), 9(9') or 13(13') methyl positions has importance in photoprotection. Photoprotection involves nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in which 1Ch1* decays via energy transfer to the carotenoid which returns to the ground state by thermal dissipation; or via electron transfer to form a charge transfer state (I •+…Chl•-), lower in energy than 1Chl*. Formation of I •+ results in bond lengthening, a mechanism for nonradiative energy

  8. Testing the carotenoid trade-off hypothesis in the polychromatic Midas cichlid, Amphilophus citrinellus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Susan M; Nieves-Puigdoller, Katherine; Brown, Alexandria C; McGraw, Kevin J; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2010-01-01

    Many animals use carotenoid pigments derived from their diet for coloration and immunity. The carotenoid trade-off hypothesis predicts that, under conditions of carotenoid scarcity, individuals may be forced to allocate limited carotenoids to either coloration or immunity. In polychromatic species, the pattern of allocation may differ among individuals. We tested the carotenoid trade-off hypothesis in the Midas cichlid, Amphilophus citrinellus, a species with two ontogenetic color morphs, barred and gold, the latter of which is the result of carotenoid expression. We performed a diet-supplementation experiment in which cichlids of both color morphs were assigned to one of two diet treatments that differed only in carotenoid content (beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin). We measured integument color using spectrometry, quantified carotenoid concentrations in tissue and plasma, and assessed innate immunity using lysozyme activity and alternative complement pathway assays. In both color morphs, dietary carotenoid supplementation elevated plasma carotenoid circulation but failed to affect skin coloration. Consistent with observable differences in integument coloration, we found that gold fish sequestered more carotenoids in skin tissue than barred fish, but barred fish had higher concentrations of carotenoids in plasma than gold fish. Neither measure of innate immunity differed between gold and barred fish, or as a function of dietary carotenoid supplementation. Lysozyme activity, but not complement activity, was strongly affected by body condition. Our data show that a diet low in carotenoids is sufficient to maintain both coloration and innate immunity in Midas cichlids. Our data also suggest that the developmental transition from the barred to gold morph is not accompanied by a decrease in innate immunity in this species.

  9. Unusual enhancement of triplet carotenoid formation in pigmentprotein complexes as revealed by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruta, S.; Kosumi, D.; Horibe, T.; Fujii, R.; Sugisaki, M.; Cogdell, R. J.; Hashimoto, H.

    Ultrafast excited state dynamics of carotenoids in solution and bound to pigment-protein complexes have been investigated by means of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopic measurements. Ultrafast triplet formation of carotenoids bound to pigmentprotein complexes was observed upon excitation of both carotenoids and bacteriochlorophyll. The anomalous reaction of triplet formation of carotenoids bound to pigment-protein complexes is discussed in terms of ultrafast triplet-triplet excitation energy transfer between carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll.

  10. Low-serum carotenoid concentrations and carotenoid interactions predict mortality in US adults: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Shardell, Michelle D; Alley, Dawn E; Hicks, Gregory E; El-Kamary, Samer S; Miller, Ram R; Semba, Richard D; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-03-01

    Evidence regarding the health benefits of carotenoids is controversial. Effects of serum carotenoids and their interactions on mortality have not been examined in a representative sample of US adults. The objective was to examine whether serum carotenoid concentrations predict mortality among US adults. The study consisted of adults aged ≥20 years enrolled in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 to 1994, with measured serum carotenoids and mortality follow-up through 2006 (N = 13,293). Outcomes were all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, participants in the lowest total carotenoid quartile (<1.01 μmol/L) had significantly higher all-cause mortality (mortality rate ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.65; P = .005) than those in the highest total carotenoid quartile (>1.75 μmol/L). For α-carotene, the highest quartile (>0.11 μmol/L) had the lowest all-cause mortality rates (P < .001). For lycopene, the middle 2 quartiles (0.29-0.58 μmol/L) had the lowest all-cause mortality rates (P = .047). Analyses with continuous carotenoids confirmed associations of serum total carotenoids, α-carotene, and lycopene with all-cause mortality (P < .001). In a random survival forest analysis, very low lycopene was the carotenoid most strongly predictive of all-cause mortality, followed by very low total carotenoids. α-Carotene/β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene/lutein+zeaxanthin and lycopene/lutein+zeaxanthin interactions were significantly related to all-cause mortality (P < .05). Low α-carotene was the only carotenoid associated with cardiovascular disease mortality (P = .002). No carotenoids were significantly associated with cancer mortality. Very low serum total carotenoid, α-carotene, and lycopene concentrations may be risk factors for mortality, but carotenoids show interaction effects on mortality. Interventions of balanced carotenoid combinations are needed for

  11. Low serum carotenoid concentrations and carotenoid interactions predict mortality in US adults: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    PubMed Central

    Shardell, Michelle D; Alley, Dawn E; Hicks, Gregory E; El-Kamary, Samer S; Miller, Ram R; Semba, Richard D; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Evidence regarding the health benefits of carotenoids is controversial. Effects of serum carotenoids and their interactions on mortality have not been examined in a representative sample of US adults. The objective was to examine whether serum carotenoid concentrations predict mortality among US adults. The study consisted of adults aged ≥20 years enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III, 1988–1994, with measured serum carotenoids and mortality follow-up through 2006 (N=13,293). Outcomes were all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, participants in the lowest total carotenoid quartile (<1.01µmol/L) had significantly higher all-cause mortality (mortality rate ratio=1.38; 95% confidence interval:1.15—1.65; P=0.005) than those in the highest total carotenoid quartile (>1.75µmol/L). For alpha-carotene, the highest quartile (>0.11µmol/L) had the lowest all-cause mortality rates (P<0.001). For lycopene, the middle two quartiles (0.29–0.58µmol/L) had the lowest all-cause mortality rates (P=0.047). Analyses with continuous carotenoids confirmed associations of serum total carotenoids, alpha-carotene, and lycopene with all-cause mortality (P<0.001). In a random survival forest analysis, very low lycopene was the carotenoid most strongly predictive of all-cause mortality, followed by very low total carotenoids. Alpha-carotene/beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene/lutein+zeaxanthin and lycopene/lutein+zeaxanthin interactions were significantly related to all-cause mortality (P<0.05). Low alpha-carotene was the only carotenoid associated with CVD mortality (P=0.002). No carotenoids were significantly associated with cancer mortality. Very low serum total carotenoid, alpha-carotene, and lycopene concentrations may be risk factors for mortality, but carotenoids show interaction effects on mortality. Interventions of balanced carotenoid combinations are needed for

  12. Study of 'Redhaven' peach and its white-fleshed mutant suggests a key role of CCD4 carotenoid dioxygenase in carotenoid and norisoprenoid volatile metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are plant metabolites which are not only essential in photosynthesis but also important quality factors in determining the pigmentation and aroma of flowers and fruits. To investigate the regulation of carotenoid metabolism, as related to norisoprenoids and other volatile compounds in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch.), and the role of carotenoid dioxygenases in determining differences in flesh color phenotype and volatile composition, the expression patterns of relevant carotenoid genes and metabolites were studied during fruit development along with volatile compound content. Two contrasted cultivars, the yellow-fleshed 'Redhaven' (RH) and its white-fleshed mutant 'Redhaven Bianca' (RHB) were examined. Results The two genotypes displayed marked differences in the accumulation of carotenoid pigments in mesocarp tissues. Lower carotenoid levels and higher levels of norisoprenoid volatiles were observed in RHB, which might be explained by differential activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) enzymes. In fact, the ccd4 transcript levels were dramatically higher at late ripening stages in RHB with respect to RH. The two genotypes also showed differences in the expression patterns of several carotenoid and isoprenoid transcripts, compatible with a feed-back regulation of these transcripts. Abamine SG - an inhibitor of CCD enzymes - decreased the levels of both isoprenoid and non-isoprenoid volatiles in RHB fruits, indicating a complex regulation of volatile production. Conclusions Differential expression of ccd4 is likely to be the major determinant in the accumulation of carotenoids and carotenoid-derived volatiles in peach fruit flesh. More in general, dioxygenases appear to be key factors controlling volatile composition in peach fruit, since abamine SG-treated 'Redhaven Bianca' fruits had strongly reduced levels of norisoprenoids and other volatile classes. Comparative functional studies of peach carotenoid cleavage enzymes are

  13. Carotenoid accumulation in durian (Durio zibethinus) fruit is affected by ethylene via modulation of carotenoid pathway gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wisutiamonkul, Apinya; Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Allan, Andrew C; Ketsa, Saichol

    2017-06-01

    Carotenoid content in durian (Durio zibethinus) fruit is an important aspect of fruit quality, with different cultivars distinguished by differing pigmentation. We have studied the dependence of carotenogenesis on ethylene. Fruit of the cultivar 'Chanee' harvested at the mature stage were either left untreated (controls), treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 12 h, or treated with application of an aqueous ethephon solution to the stem end, or treated for 12 h with 1-MCP followed by ethephon application. Fruit were then stored for 9 d at 25 °C. Pulp color of durian became steadily yellowish as a result of accumulation of carotenoids, which were mainly beta-carotene, and alpha-carotene, with a minor amount of zeaxanthin and lutein. 1-MCP delayed the increase in the accumulation of beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and zeaxanthin, but not lutein. In contrast, ethephon had no significant effect on carotenoid accumulation. The expression of zeta-carotene desaturase (ZDS), lycopene beta-cyclase (LCYB), chromoplast specific lycopene beta-cyclase (CYCB) and beta-carotene hydroxylase (BCH) genes was highly correlated with carotenoid content and pulp color.1-MCP resulted in significant down-regulation of ZDS, LCYB, CYCB and BCH expression. The accumulation of beta-carotene and alpha-carotene appears to be controlled by the level of expression of LCYB gene, whose function was tested in bacteria to show conversion of lycopene and delta-carotene to beta-carotene and alpha-carotene, respectively. These results suggest that ripening-induced carotenoid accumulation is regulated by endogenous ethylene controlling the expression of key genes such as LCYB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Different Response of Carbonyl Carotenoids to Solvent Proticity Helps To Estimate Structure of the Unknown Carotenoid from Chromera velia.

    PubMed

    Keşan, Gürkan; Durchan, Milan; Tichý, Josef; Minofar, Babak; Kuznetsova, Valentyna; Fuciman, Marcel; Šlouf, Václav; Parlak, Cemal; Polívka, Tomáš

    2015-10-01

    In order to estimate the possible structure of the unknown carbonyl carotenoid related to isofucoxanthin from Chromera velia denoted as isofucoxanthin-like carotenoid (Ifx-l), we employed steady-state and ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopic techniques to investigate spectroscopic properties of Ifx-l in various solvents. The results were compared with those measured for related carotenoids with known structure: fucoxanthin (Fx) and isofucoxanthin (Ifx). The experimental data were complemented by quantum chemistry calculations and molecular modeling. The data show that Ifx-l must have longer effective conjugation length than Ifx. Yet, the magnitude of polarity-dependent changes in Ifx-l is larger than for Ifx, suggesting significant differences in structure of these two carotenoids. The most interesting spectroscopic feature of Ifx-l is its response to solvent proticity. The transient absorption data show that (1) the magnitude of the ICT-like band of Ifx-l in acetonitrile is larger than in methanol and (2) the S1/ICT lifetime of Ifx-l in acetonitrile, 4 ps, is markedly shorter than in methanol (10 ps). This is opposite behavior than for Fx and Ifx whose S1/ICT lifetimes are always shorter in protic solvent methanol (20 and 13 ps) than in aprotic acetonitrile (30 and 17 ps). Comparison with other carbonyl carotenoids reported earlier showed that proticity response of Ifx-l is consistent with presence of a conjugated lactone ring. Combining the experimental data and quantum chemistry calculations, we estimated a possible structure of Ifx-l.

  15. Carotenoid-based colours reflect the stress response in the common lizard.

    PubMed

    Fitze, Patrick S; Cote, Julien; San-Jose, Luis Martin; Meylan, Sandrine; Isaksson, Caroline; Andersson, Staffan; Rossi, Jean-Marc; Clobert, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Under chronic stress, carotenoid-based colouration has often been shown to fade. However, the ecological and physiological mechanisms that govern colouration still remain largely unknown. Colour changes may be directly induced by the stressor (for example through reduced carotenoid intake) or due to the activation of the physiological stress response (PSR, e.g. due to increased blood corticosterone concentrations). Here, we tested whether blood corticosterone concentration affected carotenoid-based colouration, and whether a trade-off between colouration and PSR existed. Using the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara), we correlatively and experimentally showed that elevated blood corticosterone levels are associated with increased redness of the lizard's belly. In this study, the effects of corticosterone did not depend on carotenoid ingestion, indicating the absence of a trade-off between colouration and PSR for carotenoids. While carotenoid ingestion increased blood carotenoid concentration, colouration was not modified. This suggests that carotenoid-based colouration of common lizards is not severely limited by dietary carotenoid intake. Together with earlier studies, these findings suggest that the common lizard's carotenoid-based colouration may be a composite trait, consisting of fixed (e.g. genetic) and environmentally elements, the latter reflecting the lizard's PSR.

  16. An alternative carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer pathway in photosynthetic light harvesting.

    PubMed

    Papagiannakis, Emmanouil; Kennis, John T M; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Cogdell, Richard J; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2002-04-30

    Blue and green sunlight become available for photosynthetic energy conversion through the light-harvesting (LH) function of carotenoids, which involves transfer of carotenoid singlet excited states to nearby (bacterio)chlorophylls (BChls). The excited-state manifold of carotenoids usually is described in terms of two singlet states, S(1) and S(2), of which only the latter can be populated from the ground state by the absorption of one photon. Both states are capable of energy transfer to (B)Chl. We recently showed that in the LH1 complex of the purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, which is rather inefficient in carotenoid-to-BChl energy transfer, a third additional carotenoid excited singlet state is formed. This state, which we termed S*, was found to be a precursor on an ultrafast fission reaction pathway to carotenoid triplet state formation. Here we present evidence that S* is formed with significant yield in the LH2 complex of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, which has a highly efficient carotenoid LH function. We demonstrate that S* is actively involved in the energy transfer process to BChl and thus have uncovered an alternative pathway of carotenoid-to-BChl energy transfer. In competition with energy transfer to BChl, fission occurs from S*, leading to ultrafast formation of carotenoid triplets. Analysis in terms of a kinetic model indicates that energy transfer through S* accounts for 10-15% of the total energy transfer to BChl, and that inclusion of this pathway is necessary to obtain a highly efficient LH function of carotenoids.

  17. Utilization of Microemulsions from Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz to Improve Carotenoid Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Ho, Nai-Hsing; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2016-05-06

    Carotenoids have been known to reduce the risk of several diseases including cancer and cardiovascular. However, carotenoids are unstable and susceptible to degradation. Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz (R. nasutus), a Chinese medicinal herb rich in carotenoids, was reported to possess vital biological activities such as anti-cancer. This study intends to isolate carotenoids from R. nasutus by column chromatography, identify and quantify by HPLC-MS, and prepare carotenoid microemulsions for determination of absolute bioavailability in rats. Initially, carotenoid fraction was isolated using 250 mL ethyl acetate poured into an open-column packed with magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:3, w/w). Fourteen carotenoids including internal standard β-apo-8'-carotenal were resolved within 62 min by a YMC C30 column and gradient mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-water (82:14:4, v/v/v) and methylene chloride. Highly stable carotenoid microemulsions were prepared using a mixture of Capryol(TM)90, Transcutol®HP, Tween 80 and deionized water, with the mean particle being 10.4 nm for oral administration and 10.7 nm for intravenous injection. Pharmacokinetic study revealed that the absolute bioavailability of carotenoids in microemulsions and dispersion was 0.45% and 0.11%, respectively, while a much higher value of 6.25% and 1.57% were shown for lutein, demonstrating 4-fold enhancement in bioavailability upon incorporation of R. nasutus carotenoids into a microemulsion system.

  18. Opposing effects of oxidative challenge and carotenoids on antioxidant status and condition-dependent sexual signalling

    PubMed Central

    Tomášek, Oldřich; Gabrielová, Barbora; Kačer, Petr; Maršík, Petr; Svobodová, Jana; Syslová, Kamila; Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Several recent hypotheses consider oxidative stress to be a primary constraint ensuring honesty of condition-dependent carotenoid-based signalling. The key testable difference between these hypotheses is the assumed importance of carotenoids for redox homeostasis, with carotenoids being either antioxidant, pro-oxidant or unimportant. We tested the role of carotenoids in redox balance and sexual signalling by exposing adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to oxidative challenge (diquat dibromide) and manipulating carotenoid intake. As the current controversy over the importance of carotenoids as antioxidants could stem from the hydrophilic basis of commonly-used antioxidant assays, we used the novel measure of in vivo lipophilic antioxidant capacity. Oxidative challenge reduced beak pigmentation but elicited an increase in antioxidant capacity suggesting resource reallocation from signalling to redox homeostasis. Carotenoids counteracted the effect of oxidative challenge on lipophilic (but not hydrophilic) antioxidant capacity, thereby supporting carotenoid antioxidant function in vivo. This is inconsistent with hypotheses proposing that signalling honesty is maintained through either ROS-induced carotenoid degradation or the pro-oxidant effect of high levels of carotenoid-cleavage products acting as a physiological handicap. Our data further suggest that assessment of lipophilic antioxidant capacity is necessary to fully understand the role of redox processes in ecology and evolution. PMID:27000655

  19. Determination of carotenoids in yellow maize, the effects of saponification and food preparations.

    PubMed

    Muzhingi, Tawanda; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Russell, Robert M; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Qin, Jian; Tang, Guangwen

    2008-05-01

    Maize is an important staple food consumed by millions of people in many countries. Yellow maize naturally contains carotenoids which not only provide provitamin A carotenoids but also xanthophylls, which are known to be important for eye health. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the effect of saponification during extraction of yellow maize carotenoids, 2) determining the major carotenoids in 36 genotypes of yellow maize by high-performance liquid chromatography with a C30 column, and 3) determining the effect of cooking on the carotenoid content of yellow maize. The major carotenoids in yellow maize were identified as all-trans lutein, cis-isomers of lutein, all-trans zeaxanthin, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, all-trans beta-carotene, 9-cis beta-carotene, and 13-cis beta-carotene. Our results indicated that carotenoid extraction without saponification showed a significantly higher yield than that obtained using saponification. Results of the current study indicate that yellow maize is a good source of provitamin A carotenoids and xanthophylls. Cooking by boiling yellow maize at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes increased the carotenoid concentration, while baking at 450 degrees F for 25 minutes decreased the carotenoid concentrations by almost 70% as compared to the uncooked yellow maize flour.

  20. Carotenoids extraction from Japanese persimmon (Hachiya-kaki) peels by supercritical CO(2) with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mayako; Watanabe, Hiromoto; Kikkawa, Junko; Ota, Masaki; Watanabe, Masaru; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Inomata, Hiroshi; Sato, Nobuyuki

    2006-11-01

    The extraction of carotenoids from Japanese persimmon peels by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), of which the solvent was CO(2), was performed. In order to enhance the yield and selectivity of the extraction, some portion of ethanol (5 - 20 mol%) was added as an entrainer. The extraction temperature ranged from 313 to 353 K and the pressure was 30 MPa. The effect of temperature on the extraction yield of carotenoids was investigated at 10 mol% of the ethanol concentration in the extraction solvent, and a suitable temperature was found to be 333 K among the temperatures studied with respect to the carotenoid yield. With increasing the entrainer amount from 0 to 10 mol% at a constant temperature (333 K), the carotenoid yield in the extraction was improved, whereas the selectivity of the extracted carotenoids was drastically depressed. We also conducted qualitative and quantitative analyses for the carotenoid components in the extract by HPLC, and analyzed the extraction behavior of each individual carotenoid (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin). The selectivity of each carotenoid changed with the elapsed time and its time evolution was dependent on the carotenoid component, indicating that the location profile and the content can be important factors to understand the SFE behavior of each carotenoid in persimmon peels.

  1. Evolutionary innovation and diversification of carotenoid-based pigmentation in finches.

    PubMed

    Ligon, Russell A; Simpson, Richard K; Mason, Nicholas A; Hill, Geoffrey E; McGraw, Kevin J

    2016-12-01

    The ornaments used by animals to mediate social interactions are diverse, and by reconstructing their evolutionary pathways we can gain new insights into the mechanisms underlying ornamental innovation and variability. Here, we examine variation in plumage carotenoids among the true finches (Aves: Fringillidae) using biochemical and comparative phylogenetic analyses to reconstruct the evolutionary history of carotenoid states and evaluate competing models of carotenoid evolution. Our comparative analyses reveal that the most likely ancestor of finches used dietary carotenoids as yellow plumage colorants, and that the ability to metabolically modify dietary carotenoids into more complex pigments arose secondarily once finches began to use modified carotenoids to create red plumage. Following the evolutionary "innovation" that enabled modified red carotenoid pigments to be deposited as plumage colorants, many finch species subsequently modified carotenoid biochemical pathways to create yellow plumage. However, no reversions to dietary carotenoids were observed. The finding that ornaments and their underlying mechanisms may be operating under different selection regimes-where ornamental trait colors undergo frequent reversions (e.g., between red and yellow plumage) while carotenoid metabolization mechanisms are more conserved-supports a growing empirical framework suggesting different evolutionary patterns for ornaments and the mechanistic innovations that facilitate their diversification.

  2. Ancient origins and multiple appearances of carotenoid-pigmented feathers in birds.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel B; McGraw, Kevin J; Butler, Michael W; Carrano, Matthew T; Madden, Odile; James, Helen F

    2014-08-07

    The broad palette of feather colours displayed by birds serves diverse biological functions, including communication and camouflage. Fossil feathers provide evidence that some avian colours, like black and brown melanins, have existed for at least 160 million years (Myr), but no traces of bright carotenoid pigments in ancient feathers have been reported. Insight into the evolutionary history of plumage carotenoids may instead be gained from living species. We visually surveyed modern birds for carotenoid-consistent plumage colours (present in 2956 of 9993 species). We then used high-performance liquid chromatography and Raman spectroscopy to chemically assess the family-level distribution of plumage carotenoids, confirming their presence in 95 of 236 extant bird families (only 36 family-level occurrences had been confirmed previously). Using our data for all modern birds, we modelled the evolutionary history of carotenoid-consistent plumage colours on recent supertrees. Results support multiple independent origins of carotenoid plumage pigmentation in 13 orders, including six orders without previous reports of plumage carotenoids. Based on time calibrations from the supertree, the number of avian families displaying plumage carotenoids increased throughout the Cenozoic, and most plumage carotenoid originations occurred after the Miocene Epoch (23 Myr). The earliest origination of plumage carotenoids was reconstructed within Passeriformes, during the Palaeocene Epoch (66-56 Myr), and not at the base of crown-lineage birds.

  3. Opposing effects of oxidative challenge and carotenoids on antioxidant status and condition-dependent sexual signalling.

    PubMed

    Tomášek, Oldřich; Gabrielová, Barbora; Kačer, Petr; Maršík, Petr; Svobodová, Jana; Syslová, Kamila; Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2016-03-22

    Several recent hypotheses consider oxidative stress to be a primary constraint ensuring honesty of condition-dependent carotenoid-based signalling. The key testable difference between these hypotheses is the assumed importance of carotenoids for redox homeostasis, with carotenoids being either antioxidant, pro-oxidant or unimportant. We tested the role of carotenoids in redox balance and sexual signalling by exposing adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to oxidative challenge (diquat dibromide) and manipulating carotenoid intake. As the current controversy over the importance of carotenoids as antioxidants could stem from the hydrophilic basis of commonly-used antioxidant assays, we used the novel measure of in vivo lipophilic antioxidant capacity. Oxidative challenge reduced beak pigmentation but elicited an increase in antioxidant capacity suggesting resource reallocation from signalling to redox homeostasis. Carotenoids counteracted the effect of oxidative challenge on lipophilic (but not hydrophilic) antioxidant capacity, thereby supporting carotenoid antioxidant function in vivo. This is inconsistent with hypotheses proposing that signalling honesty is maintained through either ROS-induced carotenoid degradation or the pro-oxidant effect of high levels of carotenoid-cleavage products acting as a physiological handicap. Our data further suggest that assessment of lipophilic antioxidant capacity is necessary to fully understand the role of redox processes in ecology and evolution.

  4. Accumulation of carotenoids and expression of carotenogenic genes in peach fruit.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Liang, Minhua; Shi, Liyu; Shao, Jiarong; Song, Chunbo; Bian, Kun; Chen, Wei; Yang, Zhenfeng

    2017-01-01

    To understand better the regulatory mechanism of the carotenoid accumulation, the expression profile of relevant carotenoid genes and metabolites were compared between two peach cultivars with different colors during fruit development. Meanwhile, the change pattern of carotenoid content and expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in peaches after harvest in response to blue light were also investigated. As compared to the yellow fleshed-cultivar 'Jinli', lower carotenoid levels were observed in skin and pulp in white peach cultivar 'Hujing', which might be explained by differentially expression of PpCCD4 gene. With respect to 'Jinli', the carotenoid accumulation during fruit development in fruit skin was partially linked with the transcriptional regulation of PpFPPS, PpGGPS, PpLCYB and PpCHYB. However, in the pulp, the accumulation might be also associated with the increased transcriptions of PpPDS, along with the above four genes. Blue light treatment induced carotenoid accumulation in 'Jinli' peaches during storage. In addition, the treated-fruit displayed higher expression of all the eight genes analysed with a lesser extent on PpCCD4, which suggested that the much more increased carotenoid synthesis rate could result in the higher carotenoid content in blue light-treated fruit. The results presented herein contribute to further elucidating the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation in peach fruit.

  5. Carotenoids, immune response and the expression of sexual ornaments in male greenfinches ( Carduelis chloris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Eduardo; Amat, Juan A.

    2007-11-01

    Allocation trade-offs of carotenoids between their use in the immune system and production of sexual ornaments have been suggested as a proximate mechanism maintaining honesty of sexual signals. To test this idea, we experimentally examined whether carotenoid availability in the diet was related to variation in antibody response to novel antigens in male greenfinches ( Carduelis chloris aurantiiventris), a species with extensive carotenoid-dependent plumage colouration. We also measured the cost of mounting a humoral response in terms of circulating carotenoids. Finally, we examined the relationship between plumage colour, immune response and circulating carotenoids. We found that males with carotenoid-supplemented diets showed stronger antibody response than non-supplemented birds. We also found that activation of the immune system significantly reduced circulating carotenoids (24.9% lower in immune-challenged birds than in control birds). Finally, intensity (chroma) of ventral plumage colouration of males, a character directly related to concentration of total carotenoids in feathers, was negatively correlated with the immune response and circulating carotenoids in winter. These results support the idea that carotenoids are a limiting resource and that males trade ornamental colouration against immune response.

  6. Carotenoids and amphibians: effects on life history and susceptibility to the infectious pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Cothran, Rickey D; Gervasi, Stephanie S; Murray, Cindy; French, Beverly J; Bradley, Paul W; Urbina, Jenny; Blaustein, Andrew R; Relyea, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are considered beneficial nutrients because they provide increased immune capacity. Although carotenoid research has been conducted in many vertebrates, little research has been done in amphibians, a group that is experiencing global population declines from numerous causes, including disease. We raised two amphibian species through metamorphosis on three carotenoid diets to quantify the effects on life-history traits and post-metamorphic susceptibility to a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Bd). Increased carotenoids had no effect on survival to metamorphosis in gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) but caused lower survival to metamorphosis in wood frogs [Lithobates sylvaticus (Rana sylvatica)]. Increased carotenoids caused both species to experience slower development and growth. When exposed to Bd after metamorphosis, wood frogs experienced high mortality, and the carotenoid diets had no mitigating effects. Gray treefrogs were less susceptible to Bd, which prevented an assessment of whether carotenoids could mitigate the effects of Bd. Moreover, carotenoids had no effect on pathogen load. As one of only a few studies examining the effects of carotenoids on amphibians and the first to examine potential interactions with Bd, our results suggest that carotenoids do not always serve amphibians in the many positive ways that have become the paradigm in other vertebrates.

  7. Disruption of a horizontally transferred phytoene desaturase abolishes carotenoid accumulation and diapause in Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Bryon, Astrid; Kurlovs, Andre H; Dermauw, Wannes; Greenhalgh, Robert; Riga, Maria; Grbić, Miodrag; Tirry, Luc; Osakabe, Masahiro; Vontas, John; Clark, Richard M; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2017-07-18

    Carotenoids underlie many of the vibrant yellow, orange, and red colors in animals, and are involved in processes ranging from vision to protection from stresses. Most animals acquire carotenoids from their diets because de novo synthesis of carotenoids is primarily limited to plants and some bacteria and fungi. Recently, sequencing projects in aphids and adelgids, spider mites, and gall midges identified genes with homology to fungal sequences encoding de novo carotenoid biosynthetic proteins like phytoene desaturase. The finding of horizontal gene transfers of carotenoid biosynthetic genes to three arthropod lineages was unprecedented; however, the relevance of the transfers for the arthropods that acquired them has remained largely speculative, which is especially true for spider mites that feed on plant cell contents, a known source of carotenoids. Pigmentation in spider mites results solely from carotenoids. Using a combination of genetic approaches, we show that mutations in a single horizontally transferred phytoene desaturase result in complete albinism in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, as well as in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri Further, we show that phytoene desaturase activity is essential for photoperiodic induction of diapause in an overwintering strain of T. urticae, consistent with a role for this enzyme in provisioning provitamin A carotenoids required for light perception. Carotenoid biosynthetic genes of fungal origin have therefore enabled some mites to forgo dietary carotenoids, with endogenous synthesis underlying their intense pigmentation and ability to enter diapause, a key to the global distribution of major spider mite pests of agriculture.

  8. Disruption of a horizontally transferred phytoene desaturase abolishes carotenoid accumulation and diapause in Tetranychus urticae

    PubMed Central

    Bryon, Astrid; Kurlovs, Andre H.; Greenhalgh, Robert; Riga, Maria; Grbić, Miodrag; Tirry, Luc; Osakabe, Masahiro; Vontas, John; Clark, Richard M.; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Carotenoids underlie many of the vibrant yellow, orange, and red colors in animals, and are involved in processes ranging from vision to protection from stresses. Most animals acquire carotenoids from their diets because de novo synthesis of carotenoids is primarily limited to plants and some bacteria and fungi. Recently, sequencing projects in aphids and adelgids, spider mites, and gall midges identified genes with homology to fungal sequences encoding de novo carotenoid biosynthetic proteins like phytoene desaturase. The finding of horizontal gene transfers of carotenoid biosynthetic genes to three arthropod lineages was unprecedented; however, the relevance of the transfers for the arthropods that acquired them has remained largely speculative, which is especially true for spider mites that feed on plant cell contents, a known source of carotenoids. Pigmentation in spider mites results solely from carotenoids. Using a combination of genetic approaches, we show that mutations in a single horizontally transferred phytoene desaturase result in complete albinism in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, as well as in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri. Further, we show that phytoene desaturase activity is essential for photoperiodic induction of diapause in an overwintering strain of T. urticae, consistent with a role for this enzyme in provisioning provitamin A carotenoids required for light perception. Carotenoid biosynthetic genes of fungal origin have therefore enabled some mites to forgo dietary carotenoids, with endogenous synthesis underlying their intense pigmentation and ability to enter diapause, a key to the global distribution of major spider mite pests of agriculture. PMID:28674017

  9. Ancient origins and multiple appearances of carotenoid-pigmented feathers in birds

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Daniel B.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Butler, Michael W.; Carrano, Matthew T.; Madden, Odile; James, Helen F.

    2014-01-01

    The broad palette of feather colours displayed by birds serves diverse biological functions, including communication and camouflage. Fossil feathers provide evidence that some avian colours, like black and brown melanins, have existed for at least 160 million years (Myr), but no traces of bright carotenoid pigments in ancient feathers have been reported. Insight into the evolutionary history of plumage carotenoids may instead be gained from living species. We visually surveyed modern birds for carotenoid-consistent plumage colours (present in 2956 of 9993 species). We then used high-performance liquid chromatography and Raman spectroscopy to chemically assess the family-level distribution of plumage carotenoids, confirming their presence in 95 of 236 extant bird families (only 36 family-level occurrences had been confirmed previously). Using our data for all modern birds, we modelled the evolutionary history of carotenoid-consistent plumage colours on recent supertrees. Results support multiple independent origins of carotenoid plumage pigmentation in 13 orders, including six orders without previous reports of plumage carotenoids. Based on time calibrations from the supertree, the number of avian families displaying plumage carotenoids increased throughout the Cenozoic, and most plumage carotenoid originations occurred after the Miocene Epoch (23 Myr). The earliest origination of plumage carotenoids was reconstructed within Passeriformes, during the Palaeocene Epoch (66–56 Myr), and not at the base of crown-lineage birds. PMID:24966316

  10. Carotenoid-Based Colours Reflect the Stress Response in the Common Lizard

    PubMed Central

    Fitze, Patrick S.; Cote, Julien; San-Jose, Luis Martin; Meylan, Sandrine; Isaksson, Caroline; Andersson, Staffan; Rossi, Jean-Marc; Clobert, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Under chronic stress, carotenoid-based colouration has often been shown to fade. However, the ecological and physiological mechanisms that govern colouration still remain largely unknown. Colour changes may be directly induced by the stressor (for example through reduced carotenoid intake) or due to the activation of the physiological stress response (PSR, e.g. due to increased blood corticosterone concentrations). Here, we tested whether blood corticosterone concentration affected carotenoid-based colouration, and whether a trade-off between colouration and PSR existed. Using the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara), we correlatively and experimentally showed that elevated blood corticosterone levels are associated with increased redness of the lizard's belly. In this study, the effects of corticosterone did not depend on carotenoid ingestion, indicating the absence of a trade-off between colouration and PSR for carotenoids. While carotenoid ingestion increased blood carotenoid concentration, colouration was not modified. This suggests that carotenoid-based colouration of common lizards is not severely limited by dietary carotenoid intake. Together with earlier studies, these findings suggest that the common lizard's carotenoid-based colouration may be a composite trait, consisting of fixed (e.g. genetic) and environmentally elements, the latter reflecting the lizard's PSR. PMID:19352507

  11. Carotenoids and amphibians: effects on life history and susceptibility to the infectious pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    PubMed Central

    Cothran, Rickey D.; Gervasi, Stephanie S.; Murray, Cindy; French, Beverly J.; Bradley, Paul W.; Urbina, Jenny; Blaustein, Andrew R.; Relyea, Rick A.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are considered beneficial nutrients because they provide increased immune capacity. Although carotenoid research has been conducted in many vertebrates, little research has been done in amphibians, a group that is experiencing global population declines from numerous causes, including disease. We raised two amphibian species through metamorphosis on three carotenoid diets to quantify the effects on life-history traits and post-metamorphic susceptibility to a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Bd). Increased carotenoids had no effect on survival to metamorphosis in gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) but caused lower survival to metamorphosis in wood frogs [Lithobates sylvaticus (Rana sylvatica)]. Increased carotenoids caused both species to experience slower development and growth. When exposed to Bd after metamorphosis, wood frogs experienced high mortality, and the carotenoid diets had no mitigating effects. Gray treefrogs were less susceptible to Bd, which prevented an assessment of whether carotenoids could mitigate the effects of Bd. Moreover, carotenoids had no effect on pathogen load. As one of only a few studies examining the effects of carotenoids on amphibians and the first to examine potential interactions with Bd, our results suggest that carotenoids do not always serve amphibians in the many positive ways that have become the paradigm in other vertebrates. PMID:27293690

  12. The Or gene enhances carotenoid accumulation and stability during post-harvest storage of potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yang, Yong; Xu, Qiang; Owsiany, Katherine; Welsch, Ralf; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Lu, Shan; Van Eck, Joyce; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Failla, Mark; Thannhauser, Theodore W

    2012-03-01

    Provitamin A carotenoids in staple crops are not very stable during storage and their loss compromises nutritional quality. To elucidate the fundamental mechanisms underlying carotenoid accumulation and stability, we investigated transgenic potato tubers that expressed the cauliflower Orange (Or) gene. We found that the Or transgene not only promoted retention of β-carotene level, but also continuously stimulated its accumulation during 5 months of cold storage. In contrast, no increased levels of carotenoids were observed in the tubers of vector-only controls or a yellow-flesh variety during the same period of storage. The increased carotenoid accumulation was found to be associated with the formation of lipoprotein-carotenoid sequestering structures, as well as with the enhanced abundance of phytoene synthase, a key enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, the provitamin A carotenoids stored were shown to be stable during simulated digestion and accessible for uptake by human intestinal absorptive cells. Proteomic analysis identified three major functional groups of proteins (i.e. heat shock proteins, glutathione-S-transferases, and carbohydrate metabolic proteins) that are potentially important in the Or-regulated carotenoid accumulation. Our results show that regulation of carotenoid sequestration capacity is an important mechanism by which carotenoid stability is regulated. Our findings suggest that induction of a proper sink structure formation in staple crops may provide the crops with a unique ability to promote and/or stabilize provitamin A accumulation during plant growth and post-harvest storage.

  13. Effects of experimental brood size manipulation and gender on carotenoid levels of Eurasian kestrels Falco tinnunculus.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Toni; Negro, Juan J; Lyytinen, Sami; Valkama, Jari; Ots, Indrek; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2008-06-11

    Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs. To examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus). Brood size manipulation had no overall effect on plasma carotenoid levels or skin hue of parents, but female parents had twice the plasma carotenoid levels of males. Males work physically harder than females and they might thus also use more carotenoids against oxidative stress than females. Alternatively, females could be gaining back the carotenoid stores they depleted during egg-laying by eating primarily carotenoid-rich food items during the early nestling stage. Fledglings in enlarged broods had higher plasma carotenoid concentrations than those in reduced broods. This difference was not explained by diet. In light of recent evidence from other species, we suggest it might instead be due to fledglings in enlarged broods having higher testosterone levels, which in turn increased plasma carotenoid levels. The partial cross-foster design of our experiment revealed evidence for origin effects (genetic or maternal) on carotenoid levels of fledglings, but no origin-environment interaction. These results from wild birds differ from studies in captivity, and thus offer new insights into carotenoid physiology in relation to division of parental care and demands of the brood.

  14. Effects of Experimental Brood Size Manipulation and Gender on Carotenoid Levels of Eurasian Kestrels Falco tinnunculus

    PubMed Central

    Laaksonen, Toni; Negro, Juan J.; Lyytinen, Sami; Valkama, Jari; Ots, Indrek; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2008-01-01

    Background Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs. Methodology To examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus). Principal Findings Brood size manipulation had no overall effect on plasma carotenoid levels or skin hue of parents, but female parents had twice the plasma carotenoid levels of males. Males work physically harder than females and they might thus also use more carotenoids against oxidative stress than females. Alternatively, females could be gaining back the carotenoid stores they depleted during egg-laying by eating primarily carotenoid-rich food items during the early nestling stage. Fledglings in enlarged broods had higher plasma carotenoid concentrations than those in reduced broods. This difference was not explained by diet. In light of recent evidence from other species, we suggest it might instead be due to fledglings in enlarged broods having higher testosterone levels, which in turn increased plasma carotenoid levels. The partial cross-foster design of our experiment revealed evidence for origin effects (genetic or maternal) on carotenoid levels of fledglings, but no origin-environment interaction. Significance These results from wild birds differ from studies in captivity, and thus offer new insights into carotenoid physiology in relation to division of parental care and demands of the brood. PMID:18545646

  15. Carotenoid intake does not affect immune-stimulated oxidative burst in greenfinches.

    PubMed

    Sild, Elin; Sepp, Tuul; Männiste, Marju; Hõrak, Peeter

    2011-10-15

    Carotenoid-based integument colouration is extremely widespread in the animal kingdom. It has been hypothesized that carotenoid colouration is used for communicating the health status of the bearers because carotenoids are efficient immunomodulators or antioxidants. However, the latter argument has been recently debated and the mechanisms by which carotenoids modulate immunity or oxidative balance are poorly known. We performed an experiment on wild-caught captive greenfinches, passerine birds with carotenoid-based plumage colouration, in order to test whether dietary carotenoid supplementation affects immune-stimulated oxidative burst of phagocytes in the whole blood and humoral immune response to a novel antigen, Brucella abortus (BA). Additionally, we tested whether immune stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affects blood carotenoid levels. We thus tested the effects of carotenoids on the oxidative burst of phagocytes under neutral conditions and during in vivo immune challenge. LPS injection depleted plasma carotenoids, indicating involvement of these phytochemicals in the immune response. However, we did not find any evidence that manipulation of carotenoid intake had modulated anti-BA antibody production, LPS-stimulated oxidative burst of phagocytes, or basal levels of circulating reactive oxygen species. This indicates that carotenoid intake does not affect endogenous production of reactive oxygen species by immune cells. This finding is consistent with the view that carotenoids are unlikely to provide a direct link between oxidative stress and colouration. However, it remains to be tested whether the oxidative burst of phagocytes induced in our experiment actually inflicts oxidative damage and whether carotenoids play a role in the attenuation of such potential damages.

  16. Characterization of carotenoid-protein complexes and gene expression analysis associated with carotenoid sequestration in pigmented cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carotenoid-protein complex separation by size exclusion chromatography, protein fractionation by SDS-PAGE, and shotgun PROTEOMICS technology were used to identify and characterize carotenoid associated proteins (CAPs) of chromoplast-enriched suspensions from cassava intense yellow storage root. A no...

  17. Differential effects of environment on potato phenylpropanoid and carotenoid expression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plant secondary metabolites, including phenylpropanoids and carotenoids, are stress inducible, have important roles in potato physiology and influence the nutritional value of potatoes. The type and magnitude of environmental effects on tuber phytonutrients is unclear, especially under modern agricultural management that minimizes stress. Understanding factors that influence tuber secondary metabolism could facilitate production of more nutritious crops. Metabolite pools of over forty tuber phenylpropanoids and carotenoids, along with the expression of twenty structural genes, were measured in high-phenylpropanoid purple potatoes grown in environmentally diverse locations in North America (Alaska, Texas and Florida). Results Phenylpropanoids, including chlorogenic acid (CGA), were higher in samples from the northern latitudes, as was the expression of phenylpropanoid genes including phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), which had over a ten-fold difference in relative abundance. Phenylpropanoid gene expression appeared coordinately regulated and was well correlated with metabolite pools, except for hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:quinatehydroxcinnamoyl transferase (HQT; r = -0.24). In silico promoter analysis identified two cis-acting elements in the HQT promoter not found in the other phenylpropanoid genes. Anthocyanins were more abundant in Alaskan samples and correlated with flavonoid genes including DFR (r = 0.91), UFGT (r = 0.94) and F3H (r = 0.77). The most abundant anthocyanin was petunidin-3-coum-rutinoside-5-glu, which ranged from 4.7 mg g-1 in Alaska to 2.3 mg g-1 in Texas. Positive correlations between tuber sucrose and anthocyanins (r = 0.85), suggested a stimulatory effect of sucrose. Smaller variation was observed in total carotenoids, but marked differences occurred in individual carotenoids, which had over a ten-fold range. Violaxanthin, lutein or zeaxanthin were the predominant carotenoids in tubers from Alaska, Texas and Florida respectively. Unlike

  18. [Quantification of carotenoids of spirilloxanthin series from anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria by substitute reference standard calibration function method].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chungui; Zhuo, Minquan; Yang, Suping

    2014-02-04

    In this study, we developed a strategy for accurate, rapid and simultaneous quantification of six carotenoids by substitute reference standard. We prepared six carotenoid standards of spirilloxanthin series from Rhodopesudomonnas palustris CQV97 by spectrophotometry, thin layer chromatography and HPLC. The simultaneous quantification method for six carotenoids was established by HPLC using tartrazine and lycopene as substitute reference standards. We established the HPLC fingerprinting of carotenoids of spirilloxanthin series. The quantitative calibration function relationships between two substitute reference standards and six carotenoids were explored. Based on the quantitative calibration function relationships, we quantitatively analyzed carotenoid contents of two samples of CQV97 and YL28 strains. The RSD and recovery of carotenoid contents determined by substitute reference standards method were consistent with quantitative analysis of carotenoid standards method. The substitute reference standards were capable of accurately transmitting the quantitative relationship of tested samples. The method could realize the simultaneous quantification of six carotenoids.

  19. Carotenoid profiling, in silico analysis and transcript profiling of miRNAs targeting carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes in different developmental tissues of tomato.

    PubMed

    Koul, Archana; Yogindran, Sneha; Sharma, Deepak; Kaul, Sanjana; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat; Dhar, Manoj K

    2016-11-01

    Carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is one of the highly significant and very well elucidated secondary metabolic pathways in plants. microRNAs are the potential regulators, widely known for playing a pivotal role in the regulation of various biological as well as metabolic processes. miRNAs may assist in the metabolic engineering of the secondary metabolites for the production of elite genotypes with increased biomass and content of various metabolites. miRNA mediated regulation of carotenoid biosynthetic genes has not been elucidated so far. To illustrate the potential regulatory role of miRNAs in carotenoid biosynthesis, transcript profiling of the known miRNAs and their possible target carotenoid genes was undertaken at eight different developmental stages of tomato, using stem-loop PCR approach combined with quantitative RT-PCR. The inter-relationship amongst carotenoid content, biosynthetic genes and miRNAs was studied in depth. Comparative expression profiles of miRNA and target genes showed variable expression in different tissues studied. The expression level of miRNAs and their target carotenoid genes displayed similar pattern in the vegetative tissues as compared to the reproductive ones, viz. fruit (different stages), indicating the possibility of regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis at various stages of fruit development. This was later confirmed by the HPLC analysis of the carotenoids. The present study has further enhanced the understanding of regulation of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in plants. The identified miRNAs can be employed to manipulate the biosynthesis of different carotenoids, through metabolic engineering for the production of lycopene rich tomatoes.

  20. Assessment of leaf carotenoids content with a new carotenoid index: Development and validation on experimental and model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xianfeng; Huang, Wenjiang; Kong, Weiping; Ye, Huichun; Dong, Yingying; Casa, Raffaele

    2017-05-01

    Leaf carotenoids content (LCar) is an important indicator of plant physiological status. Accurate estimation of LCar provides valuable insight into early detection of stress in vegetation. With spectroscopy techniques, a semi-empirical approach based on spectral indices was extensively used for carotenoids content estimation. However, established spectral indices for carotenoids that generally rely on limited measured data, might lack predictive accuracy for carotenoids estimation in various species and at different growth stages. In this study, we propose a new carotenoid index (CARI) for LCar assessment based on a large synthetic dataset simulated from the leaf radiative transfer model PROSPECT-5, and evaluate its capability with both simulated data from PROSPECT-5 and 4SAIL and extensive experimental datasets: the ANGERS dataset and experimental data acquired in field experiments in China in 2004. Results show that CARI was the index most linearly correlated with carotenoids content at the leaf level using a synthetic dataset (R2 = 0.943, RMSE = 1.196 μg/cm2), compared with published spectral indices. Cross-validation results with CARI using ANGERS data achieved quite an accurate estimation (R2 = 0.545, RMSE = 3.413 μg/cm2), though the RBRI performed as the best index (R2 = 0.727, RMSE = 2.640 μg/cm2). CARI also showed good accuracy (R2 = 0.639, RMSE = 1.520 μg/cm2) for LCar assessment with leaf level field survey data, though PRI performed better (R2 = 0.710, RMSE = 1.369 μg/cm2). Whereas RBRI, PRI and other assessed spectral indices showed a good performance for a given dataset, overall their estimation accuracy was not consistent across all datasets used in this study. Conversely CARI was more robust showing good results in all datasets. Further assessment of LCar with simulated and measured canopy reflectance data indicated that CARI might not be very sensitive to LCar changes at low leaf area index (LAI) value, and in these conditions soil moisture

  1. Fast regeneration of carotenoids from radical cations by isoflavonoid dianions: importance of the carotenoid keto group for electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Han, Rui-Min; Chen, Chang-Hui; Tian, Yu-Xi; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Skibsted, Leif H

    2010-01-14

    Electron transfer to radical cations of beta-carotene, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and astaxanthin from each of the three acid/base forms of the diphenolic isoflavonoid daidzein and its C-glycoside puerarin, as studied by laser flash photolysis in homogeneous methanol/chloroform (1/9) solution, was found to depend on carotenoid structures and more significantly on the deprotonation degree of the isoflavonoids. None of the carotenoid radical cations reacted with the neutral forms of the isoflavonoids while the monoanionic and dianionic forms of the isoflavonoids regenerated the oxidized carotenoid. Electron transfer to the beta-carotene radical cation from the puerarin dianion followed second order kinetics with the rate constant at 25 degrees C k(2) = 5.5 x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), zeaxanthin 8.5 x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), canthaxanthin 6.5 x 10(10) M(-1) s(-1), and astaxanthin 11.1 x 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) approaching the diffusion limit and establishing a linear free energy relationship between rate constants and driving force. Comparable results found for the daidzein dianion indicate that the steric hindrance from the glucoside is not important suggesting the more reducing but less acidic 4'-OH/4'-O(-) as electron donors. On the basis of the rate constants obtained from kinetic analyses, the keto group of carotenoids is concluded to facilitate electron transfer. The driving force was estimated from oxidation potentials, as determined by cyclic-voltametry for puerarin and daidzein in aqueous solutions at varying pH conditions, which led to the standard reduction potentials E degrees = 1.13 and 1.10 V versus NHE corresponding to the uncharged puerarin and daidzein. For pH > pK(a2), the apparent potentials of both puerarin and daidzein became constants and were E degrees = 0.69 and 0.65 V, respectively. Electron transfer from isoflavonoids to the carotenoid radical cation, as formed during oxidative stress, is faster for astaxanthin than for the other carotenoids, which may relate

  2. Solvent effects and vibrational dependence in electrochromic spectra of carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, StanisAw; Daniluk, Andrzej

    1995-04-01

    Electrochromic (Stark effect) spectra of three carotenoids, β-carotene, lutein and violaxanthin, were obtained in glassy matrices at low temperature. When analyzed in the framework of the theory of electrochromism they were found to contain a remarkable contribution from the second derivative of the absorption spectrum, equivalent to a substantial change in dipole moment (3-5 D) on electronic excitation, in addition to the usual polarizability term. These dipole moments only weakly depend on solvent polarity; this puts in doubt the induced dipole model. In the case of violaxanthin, a variability of the electro-optical parameters along the electrochromic spectrum was found, which is related to the type of vibration involved in the electronic transition. An analogous effect was also noted for tetradecaheptaene chromophore in amphotericin B. These observations strongly indicate an essential role of vibronic coupling in determining the electro-optical parameters of carotenoids.

  3. Resonant imaging of carotenoid pigments in the human retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellermann, Werner; Emakov, Igor V.; McClane, Robert W.

    2002-06-01

    We have generated high spatial resolution images showing the distribution of carotenoid macular pigments in the human retina using Raman spectroscopy. A low level of macular pigments is associated with an increased risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Using excised human eyecups and resonant excitation of the pigment molecules with narrow bandwidth blue light from a mercury arc lamp, we record Raman images originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of lutein and zeaxanthin, the carotenoids comprising human macular pigments. Our Raman images reveal significant differences among subjects, both in regard to absolute levels as well as spatial distribution within the macula. Since the light levels used to obtain these images are well below established safety limits, this technique holds promise for developing a rapid screening diagnostic in large populations at risk for vision loss from age-related macular degeneration.

  4. Behaviour, physiology and carotenoid pigmentation in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus.

    PubMed

    Backström, T; Brännäs, E; Nilsson, J; Magnhagen, C

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour during an exploration task and the response to a confinement stress of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus were evaluated. Behaviour of individuals during 90 min of exploration was classified into high and low activity. High-activity individuals had higher plasma cortisol levels following stress compared to low-activity individuals. This indicates that high- and low-activity individuals correspond to reactive and proactive stress-coping styles. Further, a pigmentation analysis showed that high-activity individuals had a higher number of carotenoid spots cm⁻² than low-activity individuals. Thus, carotenoid pigmentation, as melanin pigmentation in other salmonids, could be linked to stress-coping style in S. alpinus.

  5. [Epiphase carotenoids of the blue-green alga Anabaena variabilia].

    PubMed

    Pakhlavuni, I K; Vasil'eva, V E; Gusev, M V

    1977-01-01

    Epiphase carotenoids were studied in the cells of the obligate phototrophous blue-green alga Anabaena variabilis. Ten pigment zones were detected by column chromatography on alumina and by TLC on cellulose and Silufol UV-254 plates. TLC in the B layer and paper chromatography did not reveal all pigment zones obtained on a column. The data of TLC on cellulose and on Silufol plates confirmed the purity and individual character of the fractions obtained on a column. These data showed also that the pigments obtained upon the separation of the extract on a column were not the products of its interaction with an active adsorbent. Absorption spectra of the isolated pigments were determined in various solvents, and speculations were made concerning the structure of the carotenoids.

  6. Carotenoids as protection against sarcopenia in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Semba, Richard D.; Lauretani, Fulvio; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Sarcopenia, or loss of muscle mass and strength, plays a major role in the disablement process in older adults and increases the risk of impaired physical performance, falls, physical disability, frailty, and death. Oxidative stress is a major mechanism implicated in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia; aging muscle shows increased oxidative damage to DNA, protein, and lipids. Carotenoids quench free radicals, reduce damage from reactive oxygen species, and appear to modulate redox-sensitive transcription factors such as NF-κB that are involved in the upregulation of IL-6 and other proinflammatory cytokines. Recent epidemiological studies in community-dwelling older adults show that low serum/plasma carotenoids are independently associated with low skeletal muscle strength and the development of walking disability. These observations are consistent with a growing number of studies showing that a diet with high intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of inflammation, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. PMID:17196927

  7. Spectral broadening and its effect in Stark spectra of carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Stanisław; Olszówka, Dorota

    2001-04-01

    Electrooptical parameters of eight carotenoids with different molecular structures were determined from the absorption and electroabsorption (Stark) spectra in glassy solvents and in poly(methyl methacrylate) films at temperatures 108-115 K. The results point to a limited significance of solvent-induced dipole moments in carotenoids resulting from local electric fields generated by solvent molecules, and indicate that the features in Stark spectra related to apparent dipole moments display a correlation with the bandwidth of individual vibronic transitions in absorption spectra. Model calculations show that it is possible to describe the Stark spectra by assuming a close link between the molecular polarizability and the inhomogeneous spectral shift. It is postulated that the dipole-related features in Stark spectra and the inhomogeneous broadening have a common origin in the distortions of molecular geometry in the form of torsional deformations about the single C-C bonds.

  8. Strigolactones, a novel carotenoid-derived plant hormone.

    PubMed

    Al-Babili, Salim; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2015-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived plant hormones and signaling molecules. When released into the soil, SLs indicate the presence of a host to symbiotic fungi and root parasitic plants. In planta, they regulate several developmental processes that adapt plant architecture to nutrient availability. Highly branched/tillered mutants in Arabidopsis, pea, and rice have enabled the identification of four SL biosynthetic enzymes: a cis/trans-carotene isomerase, two carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, and a cytochrome P450 (MAX1). In vitro and in vivo enzyme assays and analysis of mutants have shown that the pathway involves a combination of new reactions leading to carlactone, which is converted by a rice MAX1 homolog into an SL parent molecule with a tricyclic lactone moiety. In this review, we focus on SL biosynthesis, describe the hormonal and environmental factors that determine this process, and discuss SL transport and downstream signaling as well as the role of SLs in regulating plant development.

  9. Carotenoid extraction from plants using a novel, environmentally friendly solvent.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Betty K; Chapman, Mary H

    2009-02-11

    Few environmentally friendly solvents are available to extract carotenoids for use in foods. The most effective known solvents are products of the petroleum industry and toxic for human consumption. Yet carotenoid extracts are desirable for use in dietary supplements and as additives to enhance the health benefits of processed foods. Ethyl lactate is an excellent solvent to extract both trans- and cis-lycopene isomers from dried tomato powder, the extraction efficiency of which is enhanced by the addition of the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and alpha-lipoic acid, both of which are known to benefit human health. It is also useful to extract lutein and beta-carotene from dried powders prepared from white corn and carrots. Because of its low flammability and its origin as a byproduct of the corn and soybean industries, it is more advantageous than ethyl acetate, which is a petroleum product.

  10. Constituents of the cotton bud: XII. The carotenoids in buds, seeds and other tissue.

    PubMed

    Thompson, A C; Henson, R D; Hedin, P A; Minyard, J P

    1968-11-01

    Eleven carotenoid pigments were found in the bud, leaf, flower petal, seedling and seed of the cotton plant; nine were identified and quantitated. The most abundant carotenoids in the green tissue of the cotton plant were beta-carotene and lutein. Carotene hydrocarbons comprised 12% of the total carotenoids in the seed, 15% in the 1-day-old flower petal, 51% in the bud and 57% in green leaves. Only 5,8-epoxy carotenoids were found in the flower petals and only 5,6-epoxides in the other tissue but both were present in the seed. The colorless phytoene precursors to the carotenoids comprised from 20% to 38% of the total carotenoid pigment in the growing tissue of the plant.

  11. Dietary carotenoids increase yellow nonpigment coloration of female convict cichlids (Amantitlania nigrofasciata).

    PubMed

    Brown, Alexandria C; McGraw, Kevin J; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2013-01-01

    The carotenoid trade-off hypothesis states that diet-derived carotenoids are traded off among competing physiological demands, but this statement is rarely tested in ornamented females. In this study, reverse sexually dimorphic convict cichlids (Amantitlania nigrofasciata) were fed diets containing carotenoid supplementation at three biologically relevant levels for 12 wk. This treatment was followed by spectral, microscopic, and chemical analysis to determine how females allocated the pigments to tissues and how those decisions affected their ventral patch coloration. Yellow coloration of the integument increased with carotenoids in the diet, as did carotenoids deposited in ovaries, but diet did not change carotenoid allocation to skin. The results of this study suggest that females have the ability to modulate their expression of yellow coloration via an alternative coloration strategy. Gonadosomatic index and tank environment were also related to ventral patch color, supporting previous behavioral work highlighting the importance of social selection in reinforcing signal honesty.

  12. Absorption of Carotenoids and Mechanisms Involved in Their Health-Related Properties.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Paz, Braulio; Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús

    Carotenoids participate in the normal metabolism and function of the human body. They are involved in the prevention of several diseases, especially those related to the inflammation syndrome. Their main mechanisms of action are associated to their potent antioxidant activity and capacity to regulate the expression of specific genes and proteins. Recent findings suggest that carotenoid metabolites may explain several processes where the participation of their parent carotenoids was unclear. The health benefits of carotenoids strongly depend on their absorption and transformation during gastrointestinal digestion. The estimation of the 'bioaccessibility' of carotenoids through in vitro models have made possible the evaluation of the effect of a large number of factors on key stages of carotenoid digestion and intestinal absorption. The bioaccessibility of these compounds allows us to have a clear idea of their potential bioavailability, a term that implicitly involves the biological activity of these compounds.

  13. Biotechnological production of value-added carotenoids from microalgae: Emerging technology and prospects.

    PubMed

    Wichuk, Kristine; Brynjólfsson, Sigurður; Fu, Weiqi

    2014-01-01

    We recently evaluated the relationship between abiotic environmental stresses and lutein biosynthesis in the green microalga Dunaliella salina and suggested a rational design of stress-driven adaptive evolution experiments for carotenoids production in microalgae. Here, we summarize our recent findings regarding the biotechnological production of carotenoids from microalgae and outline emerging technology in this field. Carotenoid metabolic pathways are characterized in several representative algal species as they pave the way for biotechnology development. The adaptive evolution strategy is highlighted in connection with enhanced growth rate and carotenoid metabolism. In addition, available genetic modification tools are described, with emphasis on model species. A brief discussion on the role of lights as limiting factors in carotenoid production in microalgae is also included. Overall, our analysis suggests that light-driven metabolism and the photosynthetic efficiency of microalgae in photobioreactors are the main bottlenecks in enhancing biotechnological potential of carotenoid production from microalgae.

  14. Concurrent production of carotenoids and lipid by a filamentous microalga Trentepohlia arborum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Lanlan; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-08-01

    During the study of Trentepohlia arborum it became clear that its cells are rich in lipids and carotenoids. Thus, lipid content, composition and fatty acids profiles in individual lipid classes, as well as pigment profiles, responding to different culture conditions, were further investigated. The results showed that the predominant carotenoids and lipid fraction in total lipid in this study was β-carotene and TAG, respectively. The lipid content increased significantly under high light while nitrogen-replete conditions induced the highest carotenoids content. However, only with a double stress of high light and nitrogen-deficiency it was possible to maximize the productivities of both carotenoids and lipids. Carotenoids (mainly β-carotene) accounted for ca. 5% of the microalgal lipid under the double stress. Data herein show the potential of T. arborum for the production of both lipids and carotenoids, and hence provide an appropriate way to produce different products from T. arborum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomass and carotenoid production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: effects of light intensity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) to produce biomass and carotenoid while treating wastewater. The effects of light intensity on the biomass, carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll accumulation in together with pollutant removal were studied. Results showed that it was feasible to use PSB to treat wastewater as well as to produce biomass or carotenoid. 2000 lux was an optimal intensity for biomass production and COD removal, and the corresponding values were 2645 mg/L and 94.7%. 8000 lux was an optimal light intensity for carotenoid production (1.455 mg/L). Mechanism analysis displayed that the greater the bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid were secreted, the lower the light conversion efficiency turned out to be. The highest light conversion efficiency was achieved at 500 lux; the ATP production, biomass production, and COD removal were the highest at 2000 lux, but the bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid content were the lowest at 2000 lux.

  16. In vivo Raman spectroscopy detects increased epidermal antioxidative potential with topically applied carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Caspers, P. J.; van der Pol, A.; Richter, H.; Patzelt, A.; Zastrow, L.; Darvin, M.; Sterry, W.; Fluhr, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of the carotenoids as a marker for the complete antioxidative potential in human skin was investigated before and after the topical application of carotenoids by in vivo Raman spectroscopy with an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. The carotenoid profile was assessed after a short term topical application in 4 healthy volunteers. In the untreated skin, the highest concentration of natural carotenoids was detected in different layers of the stratum corneum (SC) close to the skin surface. After topical application of carotenoids, an increase in the antioxidative potential in the skin could be observed. Topically applied carotenoids penetrate deep into the epidermis down to approximately 24 μm. This study supports the hypothesis that antioxidative substances are secreted via eccrine sweat glands and/or sebaceous glands to the skin surface. Subsequently they penetrate into the different layers of the SC.

  17. The role of cis-carotenoids in abscisic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Parry, A D; Babiano, M J; Horgan, R

    1990-08-01

    Evidence has been obtained which is consistent with 9'-cis-neoxanthin being a major precursor of abscisic acid (ABA) in higher plants. A mild, rapid procedure was developed for the extraction and analysis of carotenoids from a range of tissues. Once purified the carotenoids were identified from their light-absorbance properties, reactions with dilute acid, high-performance liquid chromatography Rts, mass spectra and the quasiequilibria resulting from iodine-catalysed or chlorophyllsensitised photoisomerisation. Two possible ABA precursors, 9'-cis-neoxanthin and 9-cis-violaxanthin, were identified in extracts of light-grown and etiolated leaves (of Lycopersicon esculentum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, Cicer arietinum, Zea mays, Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, Plantago lanceolata and Digitalis purpurea), and roots of light-grown and etiolated plants (Lycopersicon, Phaseolus and Zea). The 9,9'-di-cisisomer of violaxanthin was synthesised but its presence was not detected in any extracts. Levels of 9'-cis-neoxanthin and all-trans-violaxanthin were between 20- to 100-fold greater than those of ABA in light-grown leaves. The levels of 9-cis-violaxanthin were similar to those of ABA but unaffected by water stress. Etiolated Phaseolus leaves contained reduced amounts of carotenoids (15-20% compared with light-grown leaves) but retained the ability to synthesise large amounts of ABA. The amounts of ABA synthesised, measured as increases in ABA and its metabolites phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid, were closely matched by decreases in the levels of 9'-cis-neoxanthin and all-trans-violaxanthin. In etiolated seedlings grown on 50% D2O, deuterium incorporation into ABA was similar to that into the xanthophylls. Relative levels of carotenoids in roots and light-grown and etiolated leaves of the ABA-deficient mutants, notabilis, flacca and sitiens were the same as those found in wild-type tomato tissues.

  18. Carotenoid-cleavage activities of crude enzymes from Pandanous amryllifolius.

    PubMed

    Ningrum, Andriati; Schreiner, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Carotenoid degradation products, known as norisoprenoids, are aroma-impact compounds in several plants. Pandan wangi is a common name of the shrub Pandanus amaryllifolius. The genus name 'Pandanus' is derived from the Indonesian name of the tree, pandan. In Indonesia, the leaves from the plant are used for several purposes, e.g., as natural colorants and flavor, and as traditional treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the cleavage of β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal by carotenoid-cleavage enzymes isolated from pandan leaves, to investigate dependencies of the enzymatic activities on temperature and pH, to determine the enzymatic reaction products by using Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrophotometry (HS-SPME GC/MS), and to investigate the influence of heat treatment and addition of crude enzyme on formation of norisoprenoids. Crude enzymes from pandan leaves showed higher activity against β-carotene than β-apo-8'-carotenal. The optimum temperature of crude enzymes was 70°, while the optimum pH value was 6. We identified β-ionone as the major volatile reaction product from the incubations of two different carotenoid substrates, β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal. Several treatments, e.g., heat treatment and addition of crude enzymes in pandan leaves contributed to the norisoprenoid content. Our findings revealed that the crude enzymes from pandan leaves with carotenoid-cleavage activity might provide a potential application, especially for biocatalysis, in natural-flavor industry.

  19. Two-photon absorption spectra of carotenoids compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas, Marcelo Gonçalves; Silva, Daniel Luiz; Boni, Leonardo de; Zalesny, Robert; Bartkowiak, Wojciech; Mendonca, Cleber Renato

    2011-05-01

    Carotenoids are biosynthetic organic pigments that constitute an important class of one-dimensional π-conjugated organic molecules with enormous potential for application in biophotonic devices. In this context, we studied the degenerate two-photon absorption (2PA) cross-section spectra of two carotenoid compounds (β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal) employing the conventional and white-light-continuum Z-scan techniques and quantum chemistry calculations. Because carotenoids coexist at room temperature as a mixture of isomers, the 2PA spectra reported here are due to samples containing a distribution of isomers, presenting distinct conjugation length and conformation. We show that these compounds present a defined structure on the 2PA spectra, that peaks at 650 nm with an absorption cross-section of approximately 5000 GM, for both compounds. In addition, we observed a 2PA band at 990 nm for β-apo-8'-carotenal, which was attributed to a overlapping of 11Bu+-like and 21Ag--like states, which are strongly one- and two-photon allowed, respectively. Spectroscopic parameters of the electronic transitions to singlet-excited states, which are directly related to photophysical properties of these compounds, were obtained by fitting the 2PA spectra using the sum-over-states approach. The analysis and interpretations of the 2PA spectra of the investigated carotenoids were supported by theoretical predictions of one- and two-photon transitions carried out using the response functions formalism within the density functional theory framework, using the long-range corrected CAM-B3LYP functional.

  20. Blue light dosage affects carotenoids and tocopherols in microgreens.

    PubMed

    Samuolienė, Giedrė; Viršilė, Akvilė; Brazaitytė, Aušra; Jankauskienė, Julė; Sakalauskienė, Sandra; Vaštakaitė, Viktorija; Novičkovas, Algirdas; Viškelienė, Alina; Sasnauskas, Audrius; Duchovskis, Pavelas

    2017-08-01

    Mustard, beet and parsley were grown to harvest time under selected LEDs: 638+660+731+0% 445nm; 638+660+731+8% 445nm; 638+660+731+16% 445nm; 638+660+731+25% 445nm; 638+660+731+33% 445nm. From 1.2 to 4.3 times higher concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids, α- and β-carotenes, lutein, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin was found under blue 33% treatment in comparison to lower blue light dosages. Meanwhile, the accumulation of metabolites, which were not directly connected with light reactions, such as tocopherols, was more influenced by lower (16%) blue light dosage, increasing about 1.3 times. Thus, microgreen enrichment of carotenoid and xanthophyll pigments may be achieved using higher (16-33%) blue light intensities. Changes in metabolite quantities were not the result of changes of other carotenoid concentration, but were more influenced by light treatment and depended on the species. Significant quantitative changes in response to blue light percentage were obtained for both directly and not directly light-dependent metabolite groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Temperature dependence of resonance Raman spectra of carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, A.; Apostolova, I.; Velitchkova, M.

    2011-04-01

    To understand the mechanism of the photoprotective and antioxidative functions of carotenoids, it is essential to have a profound knowledge of their excited electronic and vibronic states. In the present study we investigate the most powerful antioxidants: β-carotene and lutein by means of resonance Raman spectroscopy. The aim was to study in detail their Raman spectra in solution at room temperature and their changes as a function of temperature. To measure the spectra in their natural environment pyridine has been used as a solvent. It has been chosen because of its polarizability ( n = 1.5092) which is close to that of membrane lipids and proteins. The temperature dependence of the most intensive ν1 band in the range from 77 K to 295 K at 514.5 nm excitation has been obtained. It was found that in pyridine the C dbnd C stretching frequency, its intensity, line shape, and line width are very sensitive to the temperature (the sensitivity being different for the two studied carotenoids). The observed linear temperature dependence of the C dbnd C stretching frequency is explained by a mechanism involving changes of the vibronic coupling and the extent of π-electron delocalization. The different behavior of the temperature-induced broadening of the ν1 band and its intensity for the two studied carotenoids can be associated with the different nature of their solid matrices: glassy for β-carotene and crystalline-like for lutein, owing to their different chemical structures.

  2. Physicochemical parameters that influence carotenoids bioaccessibility from a tomato juice.

    PubMed

    Degrou, Antoine; Georgé, Stéphane; Renard, Catherine M G C; Page, David

    2013-01-15

    In vitro digestion models have been developed to estimate carotenoid bioavailability but most do not consider that their diffusion from fruit matrix to the lipid phase of the bolus could be a limiting step. Therefore we designed a model in which tomato juice is mixed with oil or oil/water emulsions, and the carotenoids diffusing to oil are measured by spectrometry. Temperature, pH and tomato juice/peanut oil ratio were evaluated for their influence on carotenoid diffusion. When oil/tomato ratio was between 0.11 and 1, extraction of lycopene was limited by the saturation of the oil phase. With a large excess of oil, diffusion was also limited, as only 31 ± 1% of lycopene could be extracted from the juice. Diffusion did not vary significantly with pH but doubled when temperature rose from 10°C to 37°C. When the juice was mixed in an emulsion stabilised with bovine serum albumin or phospholipids the maximum extraction decreased to 14.5 ± 0.2% and 18.5 ± 1.5% respectively, indicating that in addition to the saturation of the oil phase at low oil/tomato ratio and in addition to intrinsic properties of the tomato juice in non-saturating conditions, lycopene diffusion was limited by the structure of the interface in emulsions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry of carotenoids

    SciTech Connect

    van Breeman, R.B.; Schmitz, H.H.; Schwartz, S.J.

    1995-02-01

    Positive ion fast atom bombardment (FAB) tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) using a double-focusing mass spectrometer with linked scanning at constant B/E and high-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) was used to differentiate 17 different cartenoids, including {beta}-apo-8{prime}- carotenal, astaxanthin, {alpha}-carotene, {beta}-carotene, {gamma}-carotene, {zeta}-carotene, canthaxanthin, {beta}-cryptoxanthin, isozeaxanthin bis (pelargonate), neoxanthin, neurosporene, nonaprene, lutein, lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, and zeaxanthin. The carotenoids were either synthetic or isolated from plant tissues. The use of FAB ionization minimized degradation or rearrangement of the carotenoid structures due to the inherent thermal instability generally ascribed to these compounds. Instead of protonated molecules, both polar xanthophylls and nonpolar carotenes formed molecular ions, M{sup {center_dot}+}, during FAB ionization. Following collisionally activated dissociation, fragment ions of selected molecular ion precursors showed structural features indicative of the presence of hydroxyl groups, ring systems, ester groups, and aldehyde groups and the extent of aliphatic polyene conjugation. The fragmentation patterns observed in the mass spectra herein may be used as a reference for the structural determination of carotenoids isolated from plant and animal tissues. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Accurate Differentiation of Carotenoid Pigments Using Flight Representative Raman Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malherbe, Cedric; Hutchinson, Ian B.; McHugh, Melissa; Ingley, Richard; Jehlička, Jan; Edwards, Howell G. M.

    2017-04-01

    Raman spectrometers will be utilized on two Mars rover missions, ExoMars and Mars 2020, in the near future, to search for evidence of life and habitable geological niches on Mars. Carotenoid pigments are recognized target biomarkers, and as they are highly active in Raman spectroscopy, they can be readily used to characterize the capabilities of space representative instrumentation. As part of the preparatory work being performed for the ExoMars mission, a gypsum crust colonized by microorganisms was interrogated with commercial portable Raman instruments and a flight representative Raman laser spectrometer. Four separate layers, each exhibiting different coloration resulting from specific halophilic microorganism activities within the gypsum crust, were studied by using two excitation wavelengths: 532 and 785 nm. Raman or fluorescence data were readily obtained during the present study. Gypsum, the main constituent of the crust, was detected with both excitation wavelengths, while the resonance Raman signal associated with carotenoid pigments was only detected with a 532 nm excitation wavelength. The fluorescence originating from bacteriochlorophyll a was found to overwhelm the Raman signal for the layer colonized by sulfur bacteria when interrogated with a 785 nm excitation wavelength. Finally, it was demonstrated that portable instruments and the prototype were capable of detecting a statistically significant difference in band positions of carotenoid signals between the sample layers.

  5. Biotechnological conversion of spent coffee grounds into polyhydroxyalkanoates and carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Obruca, Stanislav; Benesova, Pavla; Kucera, Dan; Petrik, Sinisa; Marova, Ivana

    2015-12-25

    Coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages and has been growing steadily in commercial importance. Nowadays, coffee is the second largest traded commodity in the world, after petroleum. Hence, coffee industry is responsible for the generation of large amounts of waste, especially spent coffee grounds (SCG). Various attempts to valorize this waste stream of coffee industry were made. This article summarizes our research and publications aiming at the conversion of SCG into valuable products - polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and carotenoids. At first, oil extracted from SCG (approx. 15 wt% oil in SCG) can be efficiently (YP/S=0.82 g/g) converted into PHA employing Cupriavidus necator H16. Further, the solid residues after oil extraction can be hydrolyzed (by the combination of chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis) yielding fermentable sugars, which can be further used as a substrate for the production of PHAs employing Bacillus megaterium (YP/S=0.04 g/g) or Burkholderia cepacia (YP/S=0.24 g/g). Alternatively, SCG hydrolysate can be used as a substrate for biotechnological production of carotenoids by carotenogenic yeast Sporobolomyces roseus. Solid residues after either oil extraction or hydrolysis can be used as fuel in industrial boilers to generate heat and energy. Therefore, entire biomass of SCG can be used for sustainable production of PHAs and/or carotenoids employing bio-refinery approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antheraxanthin, a light harvesting carotenoid found in a chromophyte alga.

    PubMed

    Alberte, R S; Andersen, R A

    1986-02-01

    The pigments of the chromophyte freshwater alga, Chrysophaera magna Belcher were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to reveal the presence of chlorophylls a and c, beta-carotene, fucoxanthin, and antheraxanthin. The presence of antheraxanthin was verified by comparison of TLC R(F) values, HPLC retention times, and absorption features to those of authentic, synthetic antheraxanthin. Antheraxanthin accounted for about 15% of the total carotenoid content of C. magna. The molar ratio of the major carotenoids was antheraxanthin:fucoxanthin:beta-carotene, 1:2.3:3.3. The whole-cell absorption spectrum revealed a broad band between 470 and 520 nanometers which was attributed to fucoxanthin and antheraxanthin in vivo. Upon extraction in hydrocarbon, this broad absorption region was lost. The in vivo fluorescence excitation spectrum for 680 nm emission revealed the energy transfer activities and light harvesting roles of chlorophylls a and c, and fucoxanthin. In addition, an excitation band was resolved at 487 nanometers which could be attributed only to antheraxanthin. Comparison of whole-cell fluorescence excitation spectra of C. magna with the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, which possesses fucoxanthin but not antheraxanthin, supports the assignment of the 487 nm band to antheraxanthin. This is the first report of a photosynthetic light harvesting function of the xanthophyll, antheraxanthin. This carotenoid broadens the absorption cross-section for photosynthesis in C. magna and extends light harvesting into the green portion of the spectrum.

  7. Mechanisms Underlying Carotenoid Absorption in Oxygenic Photosynthetic Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Mendes-Pinto, Maria M.; Galzerano, Denise; Telfer, Alison; Pascal, Andrew A.; Robert, Bruno; Ilioaia, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    The electronic properties of carotenoid molecules underlie their multiple functions throughout biology, and tuning of these properties by their in vivo locus is of vital importance in a number of cases. This is exemplified by photosynthetic carotenoids, which perform both light-harvesting and photoprotective roles essential to the photosynthetic process. However, despite a large number of scientific studies performed in this field, the mechanism(s) used to modulate the electronic properties of carotenoids remain elusive. We have chosen two specific cases, the two β-carotene molecules in photosystem II reaction centers and the two luteins in the major photosystem II light-harvesting complex, to investigate how such a tuning of their electronic structure may occur. Indeed, in each case, identical molecular species in the same protein are seen to exhibit different electronic properties (most notably, shifted absorption peaks). We assess which molecular parameters are responsible for this in vivo tuning process and attempt to assign it to specific molecular events imposed by their binding pockets. PMID:23720734

  8. Regulation of Orange Carotenoid Protein Activity in Cyanobacterial Photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Thurotte, Adrien; Lopez-Igual, Rocio; Wilson, Adjélé; Comolet, Léa; Bourcier de Carbon, Céline; Xiao, Fugui; Kirilovsky, Diana

    2015-09-01

    Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria have developed mechanisms to decrease the energy arriving at reaction centers to protect themselves from high irradiance. In cyanobacteria, the photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) and the Fluorescence Recovery Protein are essential elements in this mechanism. Absorption of strong blue-green light by the OCP induces carotenoid and protein conformational changes converting the orange (inactive) OCP into a red (active) OCP. Only the red orange carotenoid protein (OCP(r)) is able to bind to phycobilisomes, the cyanobacterial antenna, and to quench excess energy. In this work, we have constructed and characterized several OCP mutants and focused on the role of the OCP N-terminal arm in photoactivation and excitation energy dissipation. The N-terminal arm largely stabilizes the closed orange OCP structure by interacting with its C-terminal domain. This avoids photoactivation at low irradiance. In addition, it slows the OCP detachment from phycobilisomes by hindering fluorescence recovery protein interaction with bound OCP(r). This maintains thermal dissipation of excess energy for a longer time. Pro-22, at the beginning of the N-terminal arm, has a key role in the correct positioning of the arm in OCP(r), enabling strong OCP binding to phycobilisomes, but is not essential for photoactivation. Our results also show that the opening of the OCP during photoactivation is caused by the movement of the C-terminal domain with respect to the N-terminal domain and the N-terminal arm.

  9. Mechanisms underlying carotenoid absorption in oxygenic photosynthetic proteins.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Pinto, Maria M; Galzerano, Denise; Telfer, Alison; Pascal, Andrew A; Robert, Bruno; Ilioaia, Cristian

    2013-06-28

    The electronic properties of carotenoid molecules underlie their multiple functions throughout biology, and tuning of these properties by their in vivo locus is of vital importance in a number of cases. This is exemplified by photosynthetic carotenoids, which perform both light-harvesting and photoprotective roles essential to the photosynthetic process. However, despite a large number of scientific studies performed in this field, the mechanism(s) used to modulate the electronic properties of carotenoids remain elusive. We have chosen two specific cases, the two β-carotene molecules in photosystem II reaction centers and the two luteins in the major photosystem II light-harvesting complex, to investigate how such a tuning of their electronic structure may occur. Indeed, in each case, identical molecular species in the same protein are seen to exhibit different electronic properties (most notably, shifted absorption peaks). We assess which molecular parameters are responsible for this in vivo tuning process and attempt to assign it to specific molecular events imposed by their binding pockets.

  10. Assessing the distribution of sedimentary C40 carotenoids through time.

    PubMed

    French, K L; Rocher, D; Zumberge, J E; Summons, R E

    2015-03-01

    A comprehensive marine biomarker record of green and purple sulfur bacteria (GSB and PSB, respectively) is required to test whether anoxygenic photosynthesis represented a greater fraction of marine primary productivity during the Precambrian than the Phanerozoic, as current models of ocean redox evolution suggest. For this purpose, we analyzed marine rock extracts and oils from the Proterozoic to the Paleogene for C40 diagenetic products of carotenoid pigments using new analytical methods. Gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry provides a new perspective on the temporal distributions of carotenoid biomarkers for phototrophic sulfur bacteria, specifically okenane, chlorobactane, and paleorenieratane. According to conventional paleoredox interpretations, this revised stratigraphic distribution of the GSB and PSB biomarkers implies that the shallow sunlit surface ocean (<24 m) became sulfidic more frequently in the geologic past than was previously thought. We reexamine whether there is evidence supporting a planktonic source of GSB and PSB pigments in marine systems or whether additional factors are required to explain the marine phototrophic sulfur bacteria record. To date, planktonic GSB and PSB and their pigments have been identified in restricted basins and lakes, but they have yet to be detected in the unrestricted, transiently sulfidic, marine systems. Based on modern observations, additional environmental factors, including basin restriction, microbial mats, or sediment transport, may be required to fully explain GSB and PSB carotenoids in the geologic record.

  11. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many fruits, including watermelon, are proficient in carotenoid accumulation during ripening. While most genes encoding steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been cloned, few transcriptional regulators of these genes have been defined to date. Here we describe the identification of a set of putative carotenoid-related transcription factors resulting from fresh watermelon carotenoid and transcriptome analysis during fruit development and ripening. Our goal is to both clarify the expression profiles of carotenoid pathway genes and to identify candidate regulators and molecular targets for crop improvement. Results Total carotenoids progressively increased during fruit ripening up to ~55 μg g-1 fw in red-ripe fruits. Trans-lycopene was the carotenoid that contributed most to this increase. Many of the genes related to carotenoid metabolism displayed changing expression levels during fruit ripening generating a metabolic flux toward carotenoid synthesis. Constitutive low expression of lycopene cyclase genes resulted in lycopene accumulation. RNA-seq expression profiling of watermelon fruit development yielded a set of transcription factors whose expression was correlated with ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Nineteen putative transcription factor genes from watermelon and homologous to tomato carotenoid-associated genes were identified. Among these, six were differentially expressed in the flesh of both species during fruit development and ripening. Conclusions Taken together the data suggest that, while the regulation of a common set of metabolic genes likely influences carotenoid synthesis and accumulation in watermelon and tomato fruits during development and ripening, specific and limiting regulators may differ between climacteric and non-climacteric fruits, possibly related to their differential susceptibility to and use of ethylene during ripening. PMID:24219562

  12. Carotenoids of Red, Brown, and Black Specimens of Plectropomus leopardus, the Coral Trout (Suziara in Japanese).

    PubMed

    Maoka, Takashi; Sato, Wataru; Nagai, Hidetada; Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the carotenoids occurring in the integument of Plectropomus leopardus, the coral trout. For a red specimen, the major carotenoids included astaxanthin diester and monoester, as well as α-cryptoxanthin ester, tunaxanthin diester, adonixanthin diester, adonirubin ester, and adonirubin; for brown and black specimens, tunaxanthin diester was the main carotenoid. (1)H-NMR and MS spectral analyses showed that docosahexaenoic acid was the sole fatty acid esterified with xanthophylls in the coral trout.

  13. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Stefania; Piro, Gabriella; Lee, Je Min; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dalessandro, Giuseppe; Giovannoni, James J; Lenucci, Marcello S

    2013-11-12

    Many fruits, including watermelon, are proficient in carotenoid accumulation during ripening. While most genes encoding steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been cloned, few transcriptional regulators of these genes have been defined to date. Here we describe the identification of a set of putative carotenoid-related transcription factors resulting from fresh watermelon carotenoid and transcriptome analysis during fruit development and ripening. Our goal is to both clarify the expression profiles of carotenoid pathway genes and to identify candidate regulators and molecular targets for crop improvement. Total carotenoids progressively increased during fruit ripening up to ~55 μg g(-1) fw in red-ripe fruits. Trans-lycopene was the carotenoid that contributed most to this increase. Many of the genes related to carotenoid metabolism displayed changing expression levels during fruit ripening generating a metabolic flux toward carotenoid synthesis. Constitutive low expression of lycopene cyclase genes resulted in lycopene accumulation. RNA-seq expression profiling of watermelon fruit development yielded a set of transcription factors whose expression was correlated with ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Nineteen putative transcription factor genes from watermelon and homologous to tomato carotenoid-associated genes were identified. Among these, six were differentially expressed in the flesh of both species during fruit development and ripening. Taken together the data suggest that, while the regulation of a common set of metabolic genes likely influences carotenoid synthesis and accumulation in watermelon and tomato fruits during development and ripening, specific and limiting regulators may differ between climacteric and non-climacteric fruits, possibly related to their differential susceptibility to and use of ethylene during ripening.

  14. [Detection of carotenoids in the vitreous body of the human eye during prenatal development].

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, M A; Panova, I G; Fel'dman, T B; Zak, P P; Tatikolov, A S; Sukhikh, G T; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    2007-01-01

    Carotenoids were found for the first time in the vitreous body of human eye during the fetal period from week 15 until week 28. Their maximum content was timed to week 16-22. No carotenoids were found the vitreous body of 31-week fetuses, as well as adult humans, which corresponds to the published data. It was shown using HPLC that chromatographic characteristics of these carotenoids correspond to those of lutein and zeaxanthin, characteristic pigments of the retinal yellow macula.

  15. Specific carotenoid pigments in the diet and a bit of oxidative stress in the recipe for producing red carotenoid-based signals

    PubMed Central

    García-de Blas, Esther; Mateo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Colorful ornaments have been the focus of sexual selection studies since the work of Darwin. Yellow to red coloration is often produced by carotenoid pigments. Different hypotheses have been formulated to explain the evolution of these traits as signals of individual quality. Many of these hypotheses involve the existence of a signal production cost. The carotenoids necessary for signaling can only be obtained from food. In this line, carotenoid-based signals could reveal an individual’s capacity to find sufficient dietary pigments. However, the ingested carotenoids are often yellow and became transformed by the organism to produce pigments of more intense color (red ketocarotenoids). Biotransformation should involve oxidation reactions, although the exact mechanism is poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that carotenoid biotransformation could be costly because a certain level of oxidative stress is required to correctly perform the conversion. The carotenoid-based signals could thus reveal the efficiency of the owner in successfully managing this challenge. In a bird with ketocarotenoid-based ornaments (the red-legged partridge; Alectoris rufa), the availability of different carotenoids in the diet (i.e. astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein) and oxidative stress were manipulated. The carotenoid composition was analyzed and quantified in the ornaments, blood, liver and fat. A number of oxidative stress biomarkers were also measured in the same tissues. First, we found that color and pigment levels in the ornaments depended on food levels of those carotenoids used as substrates in biotransformation. Second, we found that birds exposed to mild levels of a free radical generator (diquat) developed redder bills and deposited higher amounts of ketocarotenoids (astaxanthin) in ornaments. Moreover, the same diquat-exposed birds also showed a weaker resistance to hemolysis when their erythrocytes were exposed to free radicals, with females also enduring higher oxidative

  16. Assessment of the coloring strength of brevibacterium linens strains: spectrocolorimetry versus total carotenoid extraction/quantification.

    PubMed

    Dufossé, L; Mabon, P; Binet, A

    2001-02-01

    Brevibacterium linens is a major component of red-smear cheese microflora and imparts color to the cheese rind. The present study was done to evaluate carotenoid contents in 29 strains of this bacterium and to relate the color of the strains to the carotenoids present. A spectrocolorimeter was used to determine the color, and the carotenoid contents were determined by spectrophotorimetric measurement at 450 nm. Regression analysis was carried out on the color values a*, b*, and C* to determine which color value could be used to express the contents of carotenoids in B. linens biomass. The C* color value appeared to be the best estimate for correlation.

  17. Storage at low temperature differentially affects the colour and carotenoid composition of two cultivars of banana.

    PubMed

    Facundo, Heliofabia Virginia De Vasconcelos; Gurak, Poliana Deyse; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2015-03-01

    Different storage conditions can induce changes in the colour and carotenoid profiles and levels in some fruits. The goal of this work was to evaluate the influence of low temperature storage on the colour and carotenoid synthesis in two banana cultivars: Prata and Nanicão. For this purpose, the carotenoids from the banana pulp were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS, and the colour of the banana skin was determined by a colorimeter method. Ten carotenoids were identified, of which the major carotenoids were all-trans-lutein, all-trans-α-carotene and all-trans-β-carotene in both cultivars. The effect of the low temperatures was subjected to linear regression analysis. In cv. Prata, all-trans-α-carotene and all-trans-β-carotene were significantly affected by low temperature (p<0.01), with negative estimated values (β coefficients) indicating that during cold storage conditions, the concentrations of these carotenoids tended to decrease. In cv. Nanicão, no carotenoid was significantly affected by cold storage (p>0.05). The accumulation of carotenoids in this group may be because the metabolic pathways using these carotenoids were affected by storage at low temperatures. The colour of the fruits was not negatively affected by the low temperatures (p>0.05). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Resonant Raman detectors for noninvasive assessment of carotenoid antioxidants in human tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellermann, Werner; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakova, Maia R.; Ermakov, Igor V.; Bernstein, P. S.

    2003-07-01

    Carotenoid antioxidants form an important part of the human body's anti-oxidant system and are thought to play an important role in disease prevention. Studies have shown an inverse correlation between high dietary intake of carotenoids and risk of certain cancers, heart disease and degenerative diseases. For example, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, which are present in high concentrations in the human retina, are thought to prevent age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in the Western world. We have developed various clinical prototype instruments, based on resonance Raman spectroscopy, that are able to measure carotenoid levels directly in the tissue of interest. At present we use the Raman technology to quantify carotenoid levels in the human retina, in skin, and in the oral cavity. We use resonant excitation of the π-conjugated molecules in the visible wavelength range and detect the molecules' carbon-carbon stretch frequencies. The spectral properties of the various carotenoids can be explored to selectively measure in some cases individual carotenoid species linked ot the prevention of cancer, in human skin. The instrumentation involves home-built, compact, high-throughput Raman systems capable of measuring physiological carotenoid concentrations in human subjects rapidly and quantitatively. The instruments have been demonstrated for field use and screening of tissue carotenoid status in large populations. In Epidemiology, the technology holds promise as a novel, noninvasive and objective biomarker of fruit and vegetable uptake.

  19. Distribution of retinal cone photoreceptor oil droplets, and identification of associated carotenoids in crow (Corvus macrorhynchos).

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Lutfur; Yoshida, Kazuyuki; Maeda, Isamu; Tanaka, Hideuki; Sugita, Shoei

    2010-06-01

    The topography of cone oil droplets and their carotenoids were investigated in the retina of jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos). Fresh retina was sampled for the study of retinal cone oil droplets, and extracted retinal carotenoids were saponified using methods adapted from a recent study, then identified with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To assess the effects of saponification conditions on carotenoid recovery from crow retina, we varied base concentration and total time of saponification across a wide range of conditions, and again used HPLC to compare carotenoid concentrations. Based on colors, at least four types of oil droplets were recognized, i.e., red, orange, green, and translucent, across the retina. With an average of 91,202 /mm(2), density gradually declines in an eccentric manner from optic disc. In retina, the density and size of droplets are inversely related. In the peripheral zone, oil droplets were significantly larger than those of the central area. The proportion of orange oil droplets (33%) was higher in the central area, whereas green was predominant in other areas. Three types of carotenoid (astaxanthin, galloxanthin and lutein), together with one unknown carotenoid, were recovered from the crow retina; astaxanthin was the dominant carotenoid among them. The recovery of carotenoids was affected by saponification conditions. Astaxanthin was well recovered in weak alkali (0.06 M KOH), in contrast, xanthophyllic carotenoids were best recovered in strong alkali (0.6 M KOH) after 12 h of saponification at freeze temperature.

  20. The vitamin A-redox hypothesis: a biochemical basis for honest signaling via carotenoid pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Hill, Geoffrey E; Johnson, James D

    2012-11-01

    Trade-offs in resource allocation have been widely stated as the means by which the honesty of ornamental traits is maintained, but an alternative to this resource trade-off hypothesis is that production of ornamentation is linked to the biochemical efficiency of vital cellular processes. Carotenoids are antioxidants, potentially tying carotenoid-based coloration to the oxidative state of an organism, and some carotenoids are also precursors for vitamin A, which regulates numerous cellular processes. We present a biochemical model for regulation of ornamental coloration based on interdependencies of carotenoid and retinoid biochemistry. We propose that vitamin A regulatory mechanisms, redox systems, and carotenoid pigmentation pathways link carotenoid coloration to oxidative state and to a host of important aspects of performance, such as immune function. The activity of β-carotene ketolase, which catalyzes the oxidation of yellow carotenoids into red carotenoids, is responsive to the states of vitamin A pools and redox systems such that coloration is a direct reflection of the physiological state of an animal. According to the vitamin A-redox hypothesis, feather coloration is associated with a range of performance measures because performance emerges from functionality of the same basic cellular processes that regulate pigmentation. We present the vitamin A-redox hypothesis as a testable alternative hypothesis to the resource trade-off hypothesis for the maintenance of honesty of carotenoid pigmentation.

  1. Detrimental effects of carotenoid pigments: the dark side of bright coloration.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Kristal A; Navara, Kristen J; Mendonça, Mary T; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2010-07-01

    Carotenoid pigments produce yellow, orange, and red integumentary color displays that can serve as reliable signals of health and condition. In many birds and fish, individuals gain competitive or mating advantages by ingesting and utilizing large quantities of carotenoid pigments. Carotenoid pigments serve as antioxidants, performing important functions as free-radical scavengers. The beneficial effects of carotenoid pigments are well documented, but rarely have researchers considered potential detrimental effects of high-level accumulation of carotenoids. We maintained American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis) on high- or low-carotenoid diets through molt and tested for damage to the liver and skeletal muscle. High intake of carotenoids had no measurable effect on liver enzymes but caused an increase in creatine kinase, an indicator of skeletal muscle breakdown, and a reduction in vertical flight performance, a measure of skeletal muscle integrity. The detrimental effects of high-level carotenoid accumulation were approximately equivalent to the negative effects of removing carotenoids from the diet. The adverse effects observed in this study have important implications for theories of the function and evolution of colorful plumage.

  2. An R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulates carotenoid pigmentation in Mimulus lewisii flowers.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments that contribute to the beautiful colors and nutritive value of many flowers and fruits. The structural genes in the highly conserved carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been well characterized in multiple plant systems, but little is known about the transcription factors that control the expression of these structural genes. By analyzing a chemically induced mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments, we have identified an R2R3-MYB, Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), as the first transcription factor that positively regulates carotenoid biosynthesis during flower development. Loss-of-function mutations in RCP1 lead to down-regulation of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes and reduced carotenoid content in M. lewisii flowers, a phenotype recapitulated by RNA interference in the wild-type background. Overexpression of this gene in the rcp1 mutant background restores carotenoid production and, unexpectedly, results in simultaneous decrease of anthocyanin production in some transgenic lines by down-regulating the expression of an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Identification of transcriptional regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis provides the 'toolbox' genes for understanding the molecular basis of flower color diversification in nature and for potential enhancement of carotenoid production in crop plants via genetic engineering.

  3. Composition and spectra of copper-carotenoid sediments from a pyrite mine stream in Spain.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Furio, Marta; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Jurado, Valme; Correcher, Virgilio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2015-01-25

    Mine drainages of La Poderosa (El Campillo, Huelva, Spain), located in the Rio Tinto Basin (Iberian Pyrite Belt) generate carotenoid complexes mixed with copper sulfates presenting good natural models for the production of carotenoids from microorganisms. The environmental conditions of Rio Tinto Basin include important environmental stresses to force the microorganisms to accumulate carotenoids. Here we show as carotenoid compounds in sediments can be analyzed directly in the solid state by Raman and Luminescence spectroscopy techniques to identify solid carotenoid, avoiding dissolution and pre-concentration treatments, since the hydrous copper-salted paragenesis do not mask the Raman emission of carotenoids. Raman spectra recorded from one of these specimens' exhibit major features at approximately 1006, 1154, and 1520 cm(-1). The bands at 1520 cm(-1) and 1154 cm(-1) can be assigned to in-phase C=C (γ(-1)) and C-C stretching (γ(-2)) vibrations of the polyene chain in carotenoids. The in-plane rocking deformations of CH3 groups linked to this chain coupled with C-C bonds are observed in the 1006 cm(-1) region. X-irradiation pretreatments enhance the cathodoluminescence spectra emission of carotenoids enough to distinguish organic compounds including hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Carotenoids in copper-sulfates could be used as biomarkers and useful proxies for understanding remote mineral formations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to mine drainage contamination including biological activity and photo-oxidation processes.

  4. Carotenoid metabolism is induced in rice bran during very high temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Belefant-Miller, Helen; Grunden, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Postharvest yellowing (PhY) causes yellowing in rice endosperm during conditions of high temperature and moisture. Rice bran was investigated as a model tissue for studying PhY and for determining the possibility of carotenoids as the source of the yellow color. A survey of different colored rice and wild (non-sativa) rice lines resulted in the identification of several purple bran lines having very low or no bran carotenoids. Transcription levels of phytoene synthase, the first committed step in carotenoid biosynthesis, were higher in carotenoid-containing bran, indicating that carotogenesis is an ongoing process in mature bran. Bran and endosperm subjected to PhY conditions had a similar temperature optimum and color responses, so bran was utilized to investigate carotenoid levels and transcription levels of genes for carotogenesis during PhY. During PhY, total carotenoid levels in bran increased while levels of the predominant xanthophyll carotenoid, lutein, decreased. This difference could be explained by carotenoids being metabolized into apocarotenoids, which have high antioxidant activities and can be highly colored. This mechanism is further supported by the long-term transcription during PhY of CCD1, which encodes an enzyme in apocarotenoid production. We propose that PhY is an active, metabolic response to a very high temperature stress and that the increase in total carotenoids in bran during PhY is a result of the production of colored apocarotenoids. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Carotenoid responses to environmental stimuli: integrating redox and carbon controls into a fruit model.

    PubMed

    Fanciullino, A L; Bidel, L P R; Urban, L

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids play an important role in plant adaptation to fluctuating environments as well as in the human diet by contributing to the prevention of chronic diseases. Insights have been gained recently into the way individual factors, genetic, environmental or developmental, control the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway at the molecular level. The identification of the rate-limiting steps of carotenogenesis has paved the way for programmes of breeding, and metabolic engineering, aimed at increasing the concentration of carotenoids in different crop species. However, the complexity that arises from the interactions between the different factors as well as from the coordination between organs remains poorly understood. This review focuses on recent advances in carotenoid responses to environmental stimuli and discusses how the interactions between the modulation factors and between organs affect carotenoid build-up. We develop the idea that reactive oxygen species/redox status and sugars/carbon status can be considered as integrated factors that account for most effects of the major environmental factors influencing carotenoid biosynthesis. The discussion highlights the concept of carotenoids or carotenoid-derivatives as stress signals that may be involved in feedback controls. We propose a conceptual model of the effects of environmental and developmental factors on carotenoid build-up in fruits.

  6. Pathway engineering strategies for production of beneficial carotenoids in microbial hosts.

    PubMed

    Ye, Victor M; Bhatia, Sujata K

    2012-08-01

    Carotenoids, such as lycopene, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin have many benefits for human health. In addition to the functional role of carotenoids as vitamin A precursors, adequate consumption of carotenoids prevents the development of a variety of serious diseases. Biosynthesis of carotenoids is a complex process and it starts with the common isoprene precursors. Condensation of these precursors and subsequent modifications, by introducing hydroxyl- and keto-groups, leads to the generation of diversified carotenoid structures. To improve carotenoid production, metabolic engineering has been explored in bacteria, yeast, and algae. The success of the pathway engineering effort depends on the host metabolism, specific enzymes used, the enzyme expression levels, and the strategies employed. Despite the difficulty of pathway engineering for carotenoid production, great progress has been made over the past decade. We review metabolic engineering approaches used in a variety of microbial hosts for carotenoid biosynthesis. These advances will greatly expedite our efforts to bring the health benefits of carotenoids and other nutritional compounds to our diet.

  7. Evaluation of antigenotoxic effects of carotenoids from green algae Chlorococcum humicola using human lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavathy, S; Sumathi, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the available phytochemicals and carotenoids in the selected green algae and evaluate the potential genotoxic/antigenotoxic effect using lymphocytes. Methods Organic solvent extracts of Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola) were used for the phytochemical analysis. The available carotenoids were assessed by HPLC, and LC-MS analysis. The genotoxicity was induced by the benzo(a)pyrene in the lymphocyte culture, the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of algal carotenoids with and without genotoxic inducer were evaluated by chromosomal aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus assay (MN). Results The results of the analysis showed that the algae were rich in carotenoids and fatty acids. In the total carotenoids lutein, β-carotene and α-carotene were found to be present in higher concentration. The frequency of CA and SCE increased by benzo(a)pyrene were significantly decreased by the carotenoids (P<0.05 for CA, P<0.001 for SCE). The MN frequencies of the cells were significantly decreased by the treatment with carotenoids when compared with the positive controls (P<0.05). Conclusions The findings of the present study demonstrate that, the green algae C. humicola is a rich source of bioactive compounds especially carotenoids which effectively fight against environmental genotoxic agents, the carotenoids itself is not a genotoxic substance and should be further considered for its beneficial effects. PMID:23569879

  8. Composition and spectra of copper-carotenoid sediments from a pyrite mine stream in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Furio, Marta; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Jurado, Valme; Correcher, Virgilio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2015-01-01

    Mine drainages of La Poderosa (El Campillo, Huelva, Spain), located in the Rio Tinto Basin (Iberian Pyrite Belt) generate carotenoid complexes mixed with copper sulfates presenting good natural models for the production of carotenoids from microorganisms. The environmental conditions of Rio Tinto Basin include important environmental stresses to force the microorganisms to accumulate carotenoids. Here we show as carotenoid compounds in sediments can be analyzed directly in the solid state by Raman and Luminescence spectroscopy techniques to identify solid carotenoid, avoiding dissolution and pre-concentration treatments, since the hydrous copper-salted paragenesis do not mask the Raman emission of carotenoids. Raman spectra recorded from one of these specimens' exhibit major features at approximately 1006, 1154, and 1520 cm-1. The bands at 1520 cm-1 and 1154 cm-1 can be assigned to in-phase Cdbnd C (γ-1) and Csbnd C stretching (γ-2) vibrations of the polyene chain in carotenoids. The in-plane rocking deformations of CH3 groups linked to this chain coupled with Csbnd C bonds are observed in the 1006 cm-1 region. X-irradiation pretreatments enhance the cathodoluminescence spectra emission of carotenoids enough to distinguish organic compounds including hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Carotenoids in copper-sulfates could be used as biomarkers and useful proxies for understanding remote mineral formations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to mine drainage contamination including biological activity and photo-oxidation processes.

  9. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.)

    PubMed Central

    del Rocío Gómez-García, María; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:24065101

  10. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se H.; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Bun Y.; Lee, Pyung C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored thus far. Here, we generated 13 novel structures of C30 carotenoids and one C35 carotenoid, including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures, through directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of various C30 carotenoid structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-α-tocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid 4,4′-diapotorulene on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results demonstrate that a series of structurally novel carotenoids possessing biologically beneficial properties can be synthesized in E. coli. PMID:26902326

  11. Detrimental effects of carotenoid pigments: the dark side of bright coloration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, Kristal A.; Navara, Kristen J.; Mendonça, Mary T.; Hill, Geoffrey E.

    2010-07-01

    Carotenoid pigments produce yellow, orange, and red integumentary color displays that can serve as reliable signals of health and condition. In many birds and fish, individuals gain competitive or mating advantages by ingesting and utilizing large quantities of carotenoid pigments. Carotenoid pigments serve as antioxidants, performing important functions as free-radical scavengers. The beneficial effects of carotenoid pigments are well documented, but rarely have researchers considered potential detrimental effects of high-level accumulation of carotenoids. We maintained American goldfinches ( Carduelis tristis) on high- or low-carotenoid diets through molt and tested for damage to the liver and skeletal muscle. High intake of carotenoids had no measurable effect on liver enzymes but caused an increase in creatine kinase, an indicator of skeletal muscle breakdown, and a reduction in vertical flight performance, a measure of skeletal muscle integrity. The detrimental effects of high-level carotenoid accumulation were approximately equivalent to the negative effects of removing carotenoids from the diet. The adverse effects observed in this study have important implications for theories of the function and evolution of colorful plumage.

  12. Testosterone increases bioavailability of carotenoids: Insights into the honesty of sexual signaling

    PubMed Central

    Blas, J.; Pérez-Rodríguez, L.; Bortolotti, G. R.; Viñuela, J.; Marchant, T. A.

    2006-01-01

    Androgens and carotenoids play a fundamental role in the expression of secondary sex traits in animals that communicate information on individual quality. In birds, androgens regulate song, aggression, and a variety of sexual ornaments and displays, whereas carotenoids are responsible for the red, yellow, and orange colors of the integument. Parallel, but independent, research lines suggest that the evolutionary stability of each signaling system stems from tradeoffs with immune function: androgens can be immunosuppressive, and carotenoids diverted to coloration prevent their use as immunostimulants. Despite strong similarities in the patterns of sex, age and seasonal variation, social function, and proximate control, there has been little success at integrating potential links between the two signaling systems. These parallel patterns led us to hypothesize that testosterone increases the bioavailability of circulating carotenoids. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated testosterone levels of red-legged partridges Alectoris rufa while monitoring carotenoids, color, and immune function. Testosterone treatment increased the concentration of carotenoids in plasma and liver by >20%. Plasma carotenoids were in turn responsible for individual differences in coloration and immune response. Our results provide experimental evidence for a link between testosterone levels and immunoenhancing carotenoids that (i) reconciles conflicting evidence for the immunosuppressive nature of androgens, (ii) provides physiological grounds for a connection between two of the main signaling systems in animals, (iii) explains how these signaling systems can be evolutionary stable and honest, and (iv) may explain the high prevalence of sexual dimorphism in carotenoid-based coloration in animals. PMID:17121984

  13. De novo transcriptome sequencing of Momordica cochinchinensis to identify genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Rim, Yeonggil; Jang, Hui-Jeong; Kim, Cheol Hong; Park, Jongsun; Kumar, Ritesh; Lee, Sunghoon; Kim, Byung Chul; Bhak, Jong; Nguyen-Quoc, Binh; Kim, Seon-Won; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2012-07-01

    The ripe fruit of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng, known as gac, is featured by very high carotenoid content. Although this plant might be a good resource for carotenoid metabolic engineering, so far, the genes involved in the carotenoid metabolic pathways in gac were unidentified due to lack of genomic information in the public database. In order to expedite the process of gene discovery, we have undertaken Illumina deep sequencing of mRNA prepared from aril of gac fruit. From 51,446,670 high-quality reads, we obtained 81,404 assembled unigenes with average length of 388 base pairs. At the protein level, gac aril transcripts showed about 81.5% similarity with cucumber proteomes. In addition 17,104 unigenes have been assigned to specific metabolic pathways in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and all of known enzymes involved in terpenoid backbones biosynthetic and carotenoid biosynthetic pathways were also identified in our library. To analyze the relationship between putative carotenoid biosynthesis genes and alteration of carotenoid content during fruit ripening, digital gene expression analysis was performed on three different ripening stages of aril. This study has revealed putative phytoene synthase, 15-cis-phytone desaturase, zeta-carotene desaturase, carotenoid isomerase and lycopene epsilon cyclase might be key factors for controlling carotenoid contents during aril ripening. Taken together, this study has also made availability of a large gene database. This unique information for gac gene discovery would be helpful to facilitate functional studies for improving carotenoid quantities.

  14. Biochemistry and molecular biology of carotenoid biosynthesis in chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, María del Rocío; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-09-16

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits' yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  15. Diet explains interpopulation variation of plasma carotenoids and skin pigmentation in nestling white storks.

    PubMed

    Negro, J J; Tella, J L; Blanco, G; Forero, M G; Garrido-Fernández, J

    2000-01-01

    Carotenoids have a dietary origin in birds, but mechanisms by which they are absorbed in the gut, transported in the blood, metabolized at various sites, and deposited in the integument remain poorly understood. Variation in both plasma carotenoid levels and external color may reflect different access to dietary carotenoids or individual physiological differences in the uptake and deposition of carotenoids. We compared total plasma carotenoid concentration in nestling white storks (Ciconia ciconia) from 11 Spanish colonies in two consecutive years. The main food item in one of the colonies was the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), a recently introduced species. Storks in the remaining colonies ate a variety of foods but no crayfish. Total plasma carotenoid levels in the colony where crayfish were consumed were about five times higher than in any other colony. These differences were maintained after controlling for the significant interyear variability, as well as for sex, age, and body mass of birds. Skin pigmentation also differed, being intensely orange in storks that consumed crayfish but white (unpigmented) in the remaining individuals. With thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and electronic absorption spectroscopy, astaxanthin was confirmed as the major carotenoid in crayfish as well as in the plasma, skin, and body fat of crayfish-eating storks, whereas lutein was the main carotenoid in plasma samples from the other colonies. These results indicate that a newly available carotenoid in the environment, astaxanthin, can be absorbed in large quantities from the gut and be transported in the blood before deposition in different tissues.

  16. Evaluation of antigenotoxic effects of carotenoids from green algae Chlorococcum humicola using human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bhagavathy, S; Sumathi, P

    2012-02-01

    To identify the available phytochemicals and carotenoids in the selected green algae and evaluate the potential genotoxic/antigenotoxic effect using lymphocytes. Organic solvent extracts of Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola) were used for the phytochemical analysis. The available carotenoids were assessed by HPLC, and LC-MS analysis. The genotoxicity was induced by the benzo(a)pyrene in the lymphocyte culture, the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of algal carotenoids with and without genotoxic inducer were evaluated by chromosomal aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus assay (MN). The results of the analysis showed that the algae were rich in carotenoids and fatty acids. In the total carotenoids lutein, β-carotene and α-carotene were found to be present in higher concentration. The frequency of CA and SCE increased by benzo(a)pyrene were significantly decreased by the carotenoids (P<0.05 for CA, P<0.001 for SCE). The MN frequencies of the cells were significantly decreased by the treatment with carotenoids when compared with the positive controls (P<0.05). The findings of the present study demonstrate that, the green algae C. humicola is a rich source of bioactive compounds especially carotenoids which effectively fight against environmental genotoxic agents, the carotenoids itself is not a genotoxic substance and should be further considered for its beneficial effects.

  17. Costly carotenoids: a trade-off between predation and infection risk?

    PubMed

    van Der Veen, I T

    2005-07-01

    Carotenoid reserves in copepods seem costly in terms of predation risk because they make individuals conspicuous. However, carotenoids also seem to play an important role in immune defence as free radical scavengers. To test whether predation risk influences carotenoid levels and whether changes in carotenoid levels are related to changes in immune defence, I examined individual changes in large carotenoid and other lipid droplets upon exposure to predation risk and subsequent exposure to parasites in the copepod Macrocyclops albidus. Copepods reduced carotenoid reserves upon exposure to predators, through which they potentially avoided the costs of being conspicuous under predation risk. Thus, the size of carotenoid reserves is a plastic trait. Such a decrease in carotenoid reserves may also have a negative impact on the copepods' immune system as individuals that decreased their reserves suffered higher parasite prevalence upon exposure to the cestode Schistocephalus solidus. These results suggest that carotenoid reserves may be individually optimized to trade-off each individual's unique costs (predation risk) and benefits (immune defence) of having these reserves.

  18. Broadband 2D electronic spectroscopy reveals a carotenoid dark state in purple bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ostroumov, Evgeny E; Mulvaney, Rachel M; Cogdell, Richard J; Scholes, Gregory D

    2013-04-05

    Although the energy transfer processes in natural light-harvesting systems have been intensively studied for the past 60 years, certain details of the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. We performed broadband two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy measurements on light-harvesting proteins from purple bacteria and isolated carotenoids in order to characterize in more detail the excited-state manifold of carotenoids, which channel energy to bacteriochlorophyll molecules. The data revealed a well-resolved signal consistent with a previously postulated carotenoid dark state, the presence of which was confirmed by global kinetic analysis. The results point to this state's role in mediating energy flow from carotenoid to bacteriochlorophyll.

  19. Maize provitamin a carotenoids, current resources, and future metabolic engineering challenges.

    PubMed

    Wurtzel, Eleanore T; Cuttriss, Abby; Vallabhaneni, Ratnakar

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a serious global health problem that can be alleviated by improved nutrition. Development of cereal crops with increased provitamin A carotenoids can provide a sustainable solution to eliminating vitamin A deficiency worldwide. Maize is a model for cereals and a major staple carbohydrate source. Here, we discuss maize carotenogenesis with regard to pathway regulation, available resources, and current knowledge for improving carotenoid content and levels of provitamin A carotenoids in edible maize endosperm. This knowledge will be applied to improve the nutritional composition of related Poaceae crops. We discuss opportunities and challenges for optimizing provitamin A carotenoid biofortification of cereal food crops.

  20. Enhancing the carotenoid content of Brassica napus seeds by downregulating lycopene epsilon cyclase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bianyun; Lydiate, Derek J; Young, Lester W; Schäfer, Ulrike A; Hannoufa, Abdelali

    2008-08-01

    The accumulation of carotenoids in higher plants is regulated by the environment, tissue type and developmental stage. In Brassica napus leaves, beta-carotene and lutein were the main carotenoids present while petals primarily accumulated lutein and violaxanthin. Carotenoid accumulation in seeds was developmentally regulated with the highest levels detected at 35-40 days post anthesis. The carotenoid biosynthesis pathway branches after the formation of lycopene. One branch forms carotenoids with two beta rings such as beta-carotene, zeaxanthin and violaxanthin, while the other introduces both beta- and epsilon-rings in lycopene to form alpha-carotene and lutein. By reducing the expression of lycopene epsilon-cyclase (epsilon-CYC) using RNAi, we investigated altering carotenoid accumulation in seeds of B. napus. Transgenic seeds expressing this construct had increased levels of beta-carotene, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and, unexpectedly, lutein. The higher total carotenoid content resulting from reduction of epsilon-CYC expression in seeds suggests that this gene is a rate-limiting step in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. epsilon-CYC activity and carotenoid production may also be related to fatty acid biosynthesis in seeds as transgenic seeds showed an overall decrease in total fatty acid content and minor changes in the proportions of various fatty acids.

  1. Tissue-Specific Apocarotenoid Glycosylation Contributes to Carotenoid Homeostasis in Arabidopsis Leaves1

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Michaela; Matsubara, Shizue; Beyer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Attaining defined steady-state carotenoid levels requires balancing of the rates governing their synthesis and metabolism. Phytoene formation mediated by phytoene synthase (PSY) is rate limiting in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, whereas carotenoid catabolism involves a multitude of nonenzymatic and enzymatic processes. We investigated carotenoid and apocarotenoid formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in response to enhanced pathway flux upon PSY overexpression. This resulted in a dramatic accumulation of mainly β-carotene in roots and nongreen calli, whereas carotenoids remained unchanged in leaves. We show that, in chloroplasts, surplus PSY was partially soluble, localized in the stroma and, therefore, inactive, whereas the membrane-bound portion mediated a doubling of phytoene synthesis rates. Increased pathway flux was not compensated by enhanced generation of long-chain apocarotenals but resulted in higher levels of C13 apocarotenoid glycosides (AGs). Using mutant lines deficient in carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs), we identified CCD4 as being mainly responsible for the majority of AGs formed. Moreover, changed AG patterns in the carotene hydroxylase mutants lutein deficient1 (lut1) and lut5 exhibiting altered leaf carotenoids allowed us to define specific xanthophyll species as precursors for the apocarotenoid aglycons detected. In contrast to leaves, carotenoid hyperaccumulating roots contained higher levels of β-carotene-derived apocarotenals, whereas AGs were absent. These contrasting responses are associated with tissue-specific capacities to synthesize xanthophylls, which thus determine the modes of carotenoid accumulation and apocarotenoid formation. PMID:26134165

  2. Tissue-Specific Apocarotenoid Glycosylation Contributes to Carotenoid Homeostasis in Arabidopsis Leaves.

    PubMed

    Lätari, Kira; Wüst, Florian; Hübner, Michaela; Schaub, Patrick; Beisel, Kim Gabriele; Matsubara, Shizue; Beyer, Peter; Welsch, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Attaining defined steady-state carotenoid levels requires balancing of the rates governing their synthesis and metabolism. Phytoene formation mediated by phytoene synthase (PSY) is rate limiting in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, whereas carotenoid catabolism involves a multitude of nonenzymatic and enzymatic processes. We investigated carotenoid and apocarotenoid formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in response to enhanced pathway flux upon PSY overexpression. This resulted in a dramatic accumulation of mainly β-carotene in roots and nongreen calli, whereas carotenoids remained unchanged in leaves. We show that, in chloroplasts, surplus PSY was partially soluble, localized in the stroma and, therefore, inactive, whereas the membrane-bound portion mediated a doubling of phytoene synthesis rates. Increased pathway flux was not compensated by enhanced generation of long-chain apocarotenals but resulted in higher levels of C13 apocarotenoid glycosides (AGs). Using mutant lines deficient in carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs), we identified CCD4 as being mainly responsible for the majority of AGs formed. Moreover, changed AG patterns in the carotene hydroxylase mutants lutein deficient1 (lut1) and lut5 exhibiting altered leaf carotenoids allowed us to define specific xanthophyll species as precursors for the apocarotenoid aglycons detected. In contrast to leaves, carotenoid hyperaccumulating roots contained higher levels of β-carotene-derived apocarotenals, whereas AGs were absent. These contrasting responses are associated with tissue-specific capacities to synthesize xanthophylls, which thus determine the modes of carotenoid accumulation and apocarotenoid formation. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. In vivo antioxidant activity of carotenoid powder from tomato byproduct and its use as a source of carotenoids for egg-laying hens.

    PubMed

    Xue, Feng; Li, Chen; Pan, Siyi

    2013-04-25

    Ultrasound treatment was used to extract carotenoids from tomato waste. Gelatin and gum arabic were applied as coating materials for the encapsulation of carotenoids. The first-order reaction was used to determine the degradation of carotenoids in the microcapsules. The result of controlled release studies showed that microcapsules would protect most of the carotenoids from being released in the stomach. We investigated the modifications induced by an oral administration of carotenoid powder on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and ion status in liver of rat. The 28 day treatment increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase and manganese superoxide dismutase and reduced malondialdehyde concentration in rat liver. The activity of catalase was not affected by treatment and greater iron concentration was found in liver from treatment groups. However, there was no dose-dependent change of antioxidant enzyme activity or malondialdehyde concentration with increasing carotenoid consumption. Furthermore, carotenoid powder was able to be used as forage material for egg-laying hens. The 28 day treatment did not affect the egg performance, but significantly increased yolk colour parameters and lycopene content.

  4. Kinetics of carotenoid distribution in human skin in vivo after exogenous stress: disinfectant and wIRA-induced carotenoid depletion recovers from outside to inside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluhr, Joachim W.; Caspers, Peter; van der Pol, J. Andre; Richter, Heike; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen; Darvin, Maxim E.

    2011-03-01

    The human organism has developed a protection system against the destructive effect of free radicals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of exogenous stress factors such as disinfectant and IR-A radiation on the skin, and their influence on the kinetics of carotenoids distribution during the recovery process. Ten healthy volunteers were assessed with resonance spectroscopy using an Argon-laser at 488 nm to excite the carotenoids in vivo. Additionally, Raman-confocal-micro-spectroscopy measurements were performed using a model 3510 Skin Composition Analyzer with spatially resolved measurements down to 30 μm. The measurements were performed at a baseline of 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after an external stressor consisting either of water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) with 150 mW/cm2 or 1 ml/cm2 of an alcoholic disinfectant. Both Raman methods were capable to detect the infrared-induced depletion of carotenoids. Only Raman-microspectroscopy could reveal the carotenoids decrease after topical disinfectant application. The carotenoid-depletion started at the surface. After 60 min, recovery starts at the surface while deeper parts were still depleted. The disinfectant- and wIRA-induced carotenoid depletion in the epidermis recovers from outside to inside and probably delivered by sweat and sebaceous glands. We could show that the Raman microscopic spectroscopy is suited to analyze the carotenoid kinetic of stress effects and recovery.

  5. A healthy diet rich in carotenoids is effective in maintaining normal blood carotenoid levels during the daily use of plant sterol-enriched spreads.

    PubMed

    Ntanios, Fady Y; Duchateau, Guus S M J E

    2002-01-01

    Blood cholesterol levels are affected by diet and in particular by the type and amount of fat intake. In recent years, vegetable oil spreads containing plant sterols/stanols (as their fatty acid esters) have been developed. Numerous clinical trials on spreads with added plant sterols/stanols have shown that they have much greater cholesterol-lowering properties than conventional vegetable oil spreads. Plant sterols decrease both dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption in the small intestine, with a consequential increase in excretion of cholesterol. It is also recognized that plant sterol/stanol-enriched, cholesterol-lowering spreads, if consumed regularly, may induce a 10-20% decrease in plasma carotenoids, adjusted for changes in plasma lipids. A 10-20% decrease in plasma carotenoids falls well within the seasonal variation observed in individuals. Our current understanding of the physiological functions of carotenoids does not indicate any health risk associated with the slight decrease in their blood levels due to the intake of plant sterol/stanol. The questions that have been raised, though, are how plant sterols/stanols affect plasma carotenoid levels, and in addition, what quantity of fruits and vegetables (the richest dietary sources of carotenoids) would have to be consumed to improve plasma carotenoid levels? The current mini-review covers the cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols, their mechanisms of action and effect on blood carotenoids, and concludes with the potential heath benefits of daily intake of plant sterol-enriched spreads.

  6. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of incubating American kestrels (Falco sparverius) show annual, seasonal, and individual variation and explain reproductive outcome

    PubMed Central

    Sassani, Elizabeth C.; Sevy, Christeena; Strasser, Erin H.; Anderson, Alexandra M.; Heath, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    In wild birds, the proximate and ultimate factors that affect circulating carotenoid concentrations remain poorly understood. We studied variation in plasma carotenoid concentrations across several scales: annual, seasonal, pair, territory and individual, and evaluated whether carotenoid levels explained reproductive outcome of wild American kestrels (Falco sparverius). We sampled plasma carotenoid concentrations of 99 female and 80 male incubating kestrels from April-June in 2008–2012. Plasma carotenoid concentrations were explained by an interaction between year and sex, date, and random effects for pair and individual identity. In general, plasma carotenoid concentrations of males were significantly higher than females, but this depended on year. Within a breeding season, earlier nesting kestrels had higher carotenoid concentrations than later nesting kestrels, a pattern that is coincident with seasonal trends in local fitness. Pair and individual identity explained variation in carotenoid concentrations suggesting that carotenoid concentrations of mated birds were correlated, and some individuals consistently maintained higher carotenoid levels than others. Male carotenoid concentrations were positively associated with number of young fledged per pair. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that higher quality individuals have higher carotenoid levels compared to lower quality individuals, despite annual variations in carotenoid availability. PMID:27041770

  7. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of incubating American kestrels (Falco sparverius) show annual, seasonal, and individual variation and explain reproductive outcome.

    PubMed

    Sassani, Elizabeth C; Sevy, Christeena; Strasser, Erin H; Anderson, Alexandra M; Heath, Julie A

    2016-03-01

    In wild birds, the proximate and ultimate factors that affect circulating carotenoid concentrations remain poorly understood. We studied variation in plasma carotenoid concentrations across several scales: annual, seasonal, pair, territory and individual, and evaluated whether carotenoid levels explained reproductive outcome of wild American kestrels (Falco sparverius). We sampled plasma carotenoid concentrations of 99 female and 80 male incubating kestrels from April-June in 2008-2012. Plasma carotenoid concentrations were explained by an interaction between year and sex, date, and random effects for pair and individual identity. In general, plasma carotenoid concentrations of males were significantly higher than females, but this depended on year. Within a breeding season, earlier nesting kestrels had higher carotenoid concentrations than later nesting kestrels, a pattern that is coincident with seasonal trends in local fitness. Pair and individual identity explained variation in carotenoid concentrations suggesting that carotenoid concentrations of mated birds were correlated, and some individuals consistently maintained higher carotenoid levels than others. Male carotenoid concentrations were positively associated with number of young fledged per pair. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that higher quality individuals have higher carotenoid levels compared to lower quality individuals, despite annual variations in carotenoid availability.

  8. Quenching capabilities of long-chain carotenoids in light-harvesting-2 complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides with an engineered carotenoid synthesis pathway

    DOE PAGES

    Dilbeck, Preston L.; Tang, Qun; Mothersole, David J.; ...

    2016-06-10

    Here, six light-harvesting-2 complexes (LH2) from genetically modified strains of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides were studied using static and ultrafast optical methods and resonance Raman spectroscopy. These strains were engineered to incorporate carotenoids for which the number of conjugated groups (N = NC=C + NC=O) varies from 9 to 15. The Rb. sphaeroides strains incorporate their native carotenoids spheroidene (N = 10) and spheroidenone (N = 11), as well as longer-chain analogues including spirilloxanthin (N = 13) and diketospirilloxantion (N = 15) normally found in Rhodospirillum rubrum. Measurements of the properties of the carotenoid first singlet excitedmore » state (S1) in antennas from the Rb. sphaeroides set show that carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) interactions are similar to those in LH2 complexes from various other bacterial species and thus are not significantly impacted by differences in polypeptide composition. Instead, variations in carotenoid-to-BChl a energy transfer are primarily regulated by the N-determined energy of the carotenoid S1 excited state, which for long-chain (N ≥ 13) carotenoids is not involved in energy transfer. Furthermore, the role of the long-chain carotenoids switches from a lightharvesting supporter (via energy transfer to BChl a) to a quencher of the BChl a S1 excited state B850*. This quenching is manifested as a substantial (~2-fold) reduction of the B850* lifetime and the B850* fluorescence quantum yield for LH2 housing the longest carotenoids« less

  9. Carotenoids in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus: occurrence of 9'-cis-echinenone as the dominant carotenoid in gonad colour determination.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Rachael C; Kelly, Maeve S; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Young, Andrew J

    2007-12-01

    Regular sampling of wild Paracentrotus lividus was carried out over a 12-month period to examine seasonal effects on the pigment profile and content of the gonads, especially in comparison to gonad colour. The major pigments detected in the gut wall were breakdown products of fucoxanthin, namely fucoxanthinol and amarouciaxanthin A. Lower levels of other dietary carotenoids (lutein and beta-carotene) together with some carotenoids not found in the diet, namely isozeaxanthin and echinenone ( approximately 20% total carotenoid) were also detected in the gut wall. The presence of echinenone in the gut wall demonstrates that this organ acts as a major site of carotenoid metabolism. Echinenone is the dominant carotenoid in the gonads, accounting for approx. 50-60% of the total pigment. Both all-trans and 9'-cis forms of echinenone were detected in both the gut wall and in the gonad, with levels of the 9'-cis form typically 10-fold greater than the all-trans form in the gonad. The detection of large levels of 9'-cis-echinenone in wild sea urchins is unexpected due to the absence of 9- or 9'-cis forms of carotenoids in the natural, algal, diet. Whilst echinenone clearly contributes towards gonad pigmentation, levels of this carotenoid, cannot be directly linked to a qualitative assessment of gonad colour in terms of market acceptability. Indeed, unacceptable gonad colouration can be seen with both very low and high levels of echinenone and total carotenoid. The presence of 9'-cis-echinenone as the major carotenoid contributing to the pigmentation/colour of the gonad is an important observation in terms of developing artificial diets for urchin cultivation.

  10. Relationships of Body Mass Index with Serum Carotenoids, Tocopherols and Retinol at Steady-State and in Response to a Carotenoid-Rich Vegetable Diet Intervention in Filipino Schoolchildren

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In marginally nourished children, information is scarce regarding the circulating concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols, as well as physiologic factors influencing their circulating levels. We determined a) serum concentrations of carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol in Filipino school-aged ...

  11. Response of lamb plasma carotenoid concentration to a shift from a low to a high dietary carotenoid level.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, L; Carvalho, P C F; Prache, S

    2012-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the pattern of plasma carotenoid concentration (PCC) in lambs switching from a low to a high dietary carotenoid level. A total of 12 Romane lambs were individually penned indoors and fed a low dietary carotenoid level for 23 days (period 1) and then a high dietary carotenoid level for 15 days (period 2). At the beginning of period 2, the lambs were 15 weeks old and weighed 29.9 kg (s.d. 2.7) on average. Lambs were fed daily (dry matter) 0.558 kg alfalfa pellets, 0.181 kg straw and 0.181 kg barley. Plasma content of total carotenoids was measured daily in period 2 by spectrophotometry. PCC (μg/l) varied with the animal (P < 0.001) and with time elapsed since the beginning of alfalfa distribution (P < 0.001). Mean PCC was 8 μg/l (s.d. 3.3) at the beginning of period 2, then increased curvilinearly with the time elapsed since the beginning of alfalfa distribution. As early as 24 h on the alfalfa diet, PCC was already higher than before the switch (P < 0.001). Mean PCC continued to increase until day 6 on average and reached a plateau thereafter. We propose a monomolecular function to model this pattern, the equation obtained on the mean data being: PCC = 97 (s.e. 2.2) × (1-exp(-0.3378 (s.e. 0.0282)×d)), where r2 = 0.997, r.s.d. = 4.47, n = 15 and d = day. The percentage of variance explained by the model ranged between 95.9% and 99.2%, depending on the animal. The parameters of the monomolecular function varied among animals, confirming the interindividual variability in animal response. Plateau for PCC was reached slightly earlier for the six lambs with the lowest values of the asymptote than for the six lambs with the highest values of the asymptote.

  12. Carotenoid cation radicals produced by the interaction of carotenoids with iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, R.; Grant, J.L.; Metzger, R.M.; Kispert, L.D.

    1988-08-11

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption spectra of 1,2-dichloroethane and dichloromethane solutions of ..beta..-carotene (C/sub 40/H/sub 56/) and iodine have been studied. EPR studies showed that ..beta..-carotene cation radicals are formed. These radicals form complexes at 77 K, in highly concentrated (0.1 M) iodine solutions, with higher order polyiodide anions, I/sub 5//sup -/, I/sub 7//sup -/, I/sub 9//sup -/ (as evidenced by g value shifts and line-width increases), while at room temperature and in dilute (10/sup -4/-10/sup -5/ M) solutions of iodine only I/sub 3//sup -/ counterions are involved. In dilute solutions (total molar concentratino = 2 x 10/sup -4/ M), a Job plot showed the stoichiometry to be 2:3, indicating the reaction 2C/sub 40/H/sub 56/ + 31/sub 2/ /r equilibrium/ 2C/sub 40/H/sub 56//sup .+/ + 2I/sub 3//sup -/. The radical fraction (EPR) is /approximately/ 2% at 77 K and 0.4% at 300 K (for a 2 mM ..beta..-carotene/0.1 M I/sub 2/ solution); it increases at lower ..beta..-carotene concentrations. Dimers and trimers of ..beta..-carotene cation radicals are formed in dilute solution (I/sub 2/ < 10/sup -4/ M) if (I/sub 2/)/(..beta..-carotene) < 1, and an intense absorption band occurs at lambda/sub max/ /approximately/ 1030 nm. Canthaxanthin and ..beta..-apo-8'-carotenal with I/sub 2/ produce new absorption bands with lambda/sub max/ < 1000 nm; the g values are independent of iodine concentration, suggesting a poorer ability to form complexes with the polyiodide anions. All three carotenoids react with other electron acceptors (7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranil), and Br/sub 2/) according to the electron affinity of the acceptor used.

  13. Phylogenetic and Evolutionary Patterns in Microbial Carotenoid Biosynthesis Are Revealed by Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Klassen, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are multifunctional, taxonomically widespread and biotechnologically important pigments. Their biosynthesis serves as a model system for understanding the evolution of secondary metabolism. Microbial carotenoid diversity and evolution has hitherto been analyzed primarily from structural and biosynthetic perspectives, with the few phylogenetic analyses of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic proteins using either used limited datasets or lacking methodological rigor. Given the recent accumulation of microbial genome sequences, a reappraisal of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic diversity and evolution from the perspective of comparative genomics is warranted to validate and complement models of microbial carotenoid diversity and evolution based upon structural and biosynthetic data. Methodology/Principal Findings Comparative genomics were used to identify and analyze in silico microbial carotenoid biosynthetic pathways. Four major phylogenetic lineages of carotenoid biosynthesis are suggested composed of: (i) Proteobacteria; (ii) Firmicutes; (iii) Chlorobi, Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic eukaryotes; and (iv) Archaea, Bacteroidetes and two separate sub-lineages of Actinobacteria. Using this phylogenetic framework, specific evolutionary mechanisms are proposed for carotenoid desaturase CrtI-family enzymes and carotenoid cyclases. Several phylogenetic lineage-specific evolutionary mechanisms are also suggested, including: (i) horizontal gene transfer; (ii) gene acquisition followed by differential gene loss; (iii) co-evolution with other biochemical structures such as proteorhodopsins; and (iv) positive selection. Conclusions/Significance Comparative genomics analyses of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic proteins indicate a much greater taxonomic diversity then that identified based on structural and biosynthetic data, and divides microbial carotenoid biosynthesis into several, well-supported phylogenetic lineages not evident previously. This

  14. Identification and Expression Analysis of Candidate Genes Involved in Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chickpea Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Mohammad K.; Deokar, Amit; Tar'an, Bunyamin

    2016-01-01

    Plant carotenoids have a key role in preventing various diseases in human because of their antioxidant and provitamin A properties. Chickpea is a good source of carotenoid among legumes and its diverse germplasm and genome accessibility makes it a good model for carotenogenesis studies. The structure, location, and copy numbers of genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis were retrieved from the chickpea genome. The majority of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) within these genes across five diverse chickpea cultivars was synonymous mutation. We examined the expression of the carotenogenesis genes and their association with carotenoid concentration at different seed development stages of five chickpea cultivars. Total carotenoid concentration ranged from 22 μg g−1 in yellow cotyledon kabuli to 44 μg g−1 in green cotyledon desi at 32 days post anthesis (DPA). The majority of carotenoids in chickpea seeds consists of lutein and zeaxanthin. The expression of the selected 19 genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis pathway showed common pattern across five cultivars with higher expression at 8 and/or 16 DPA then dropped considerably at 24 and 32 DPA. Almost all genes were up-regulated in CDC Jade cultivar. Correlation analysis between gene expression and carotenoid concentration showed that the genes involved in the primary step of carotenoid biosynthesis pathway including carotenoid desaturase and isomerase positively correlated with various carotenoid components in chickpea seeds. A negative correlation was found between hydroxylation activity and provitamin A concentration in the seeds. The highest provitamin A concentration including β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin were found in green cotyledon chickpea cultivars. PMID:28018400

  15. Age-Related Relationships between Innate Immunity and Plasma Carotenoids in an Obligate Avian Scavenger.

    PubMed

    López-Rull, Isabel; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Frías, Óscar; Blanco, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Variation in immunity is influenced by allocation trade-offs that are expected to change between age-classes as a result of the different environmental and physiological conditions that individuals encounter over their lifetime. One such trade-off occurs with carotenoids, which must be acquired with food and are involved in a variety of physiological functions. Nonetheless, relationships between immunity and carotenoids in species where these micronutrients are scarce due to diet are poorly studied. Among birds, vultures show the lowest concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to a diet based on carrion. Here, we investigated variations in the relationships between innate immunity (hemagglutination by natural antibodies and hemolysis by complement proteins), pathogen infection and plasma carotenoids in nestling and adult griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) in the wild. Nestlings showed lower hemolysis, higher total carotenoid concentration and higher pathogen infection than adults. Hemolysis was negatively related to carotenoid concentration only in nestlings. A differential carotenoid allocation to immunity due to the incomplete development of the immune system of nestlings compared with adults is suggested linked to, or regardless of, potential differences in parasite infection, which requires experimental testing. We also found that individuals with more severe pathogen infections showed lower hemagglutination than those with a lower intensity infection irrespective of their age and carotenoid level. These results are consistent with the idea that intraspecific relationships between innate immunity and carotenoids may change across ontogeny, even in species lacking carotenoid-based coloration. Thus, even low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to a scavenger diet can be essential to the development and activation of the immune system in growing birds.

  16. Age-Related Relationships between Innate Immunity and Plasma Carotenoids in an Obligate Avian Scavenger

    PubMed Central

    López-Rull, Isabel; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Frías, Óscar; Blanco, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Variation in immunity is influenced by allocation trade-offs that are expected to change between age-classes as a result of the different environmental and physiological conditions that individuals encounter over their lifetime. One such trade-off occurs with carotenoids, which must be acquired with food and are involved in a variety of physiological functions. Nonetheless, relationships between immunity and carotenoids in species where these micronutrients are scarce due to diet are poorly studied. Among birds, vultures show the lowest concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to a diet based on carrion. Here, we investigated variations in the relationships between innate immunity (hemagglutination by natural antibodies and hemolysis by complement proteins), pathogen infection and plasma carotenoids in nestling and adult griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) in the wild. Nestlings showed lower hemolysis, higher total carotenoid concentration and higher pathogen infection than adults. Hemolysis was negatively related to carotenoid concentration only in nestlings. A differential carotenoid allocation to immunity due to the incomplete development of the immune system of nestlings compared with adults is suggested linked to, or regardless of, potential differences in parasite infection, which requires experimental testing. We also found that individuals with more severe pathogen infections showed lower hemagglutination than those with a lower intensity infection irrespective of their age and carotenoid level. These results are consistent with the idea that intraspecific relationships between innate immunity and carotenoids may change across ontogeny, even in species lacking carotenoid-based coloration. Thus, even low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to a scavenger diet can be essential to the development and activation of the immune system in growing birds. PMID:26544885

  17. Noninvasive assessment of dermal carotenoids as a biomarker of fruit and vegetable intake123

    PubMed Central

    Cartmel, Brenda; Scarmo, Stephanie; Lin, Haiqun; Leffell, David J; Welch, Erin; Ermakov, Igor; Bhosale, Prakash; Bernstein, Paul S; Gellermann, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Background: Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) has been suggested as a feasible method for noninvasive carotenoid measurement of human skin. However, before RRS measures of dermal carotenoids can be used as a biomarker, data on intra- and intersubject variability and validity are needed. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of RRS measures of dermal total carotenoids and lycopene in humans. Design: In study 1, 74 men and women with diverse skin pigmentation were recruited. RRS measures of the palm, inner arm, and outer arm were obtained at baseline, 1 wk, 2 wk, 1 mo, 3 mo, and 6 mo (to maximize seasonal variation). The RRS device used visible light at 488 nm to estimate total carotenoids and at 514 nm to estimate lycopene. Reproducibility was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). In study 2, we recruited 28 subjects and assessed dietary carotenoid intake, obtained blood for HPLC analyses, performed RRS measures of dermal carotenoid status, and performed dermal biopsies (3-mm punch biopsy) with dermal carotenoids assessed by HPLC. Results: ICCs for total carotenoids across time were 0.97 (palm), 0.95 (inner arm), and 0.93 (outer arm). Total dermal carotenoids assessed by RRS were significantly correlated with total dermal carotenoids assessed by HPLC of dermal biopsies (r = 0.66, P = 0.0001). Similarly, lycopene assessed by RRS was significantly correlated with lycopene assessed by HPLC of dermal biopsies (r = 0.74, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: RRS is a feasible and valid method for noninvasively assessing dermal carotenoids as a biomarker for studies of nutrition and health. PMID:20685953

  18. Understanding the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway through observation of four color variants of developing watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nanai)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway regulatory mechanisms leading to lycopene accumulation are well defined in the model fruit, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). The regulatory mechanisms leading to accumulation of other carotenoids and flesh colors, however, are poorly understood. The variety ...

  19. Identification of carotenoids in the freshwater shellfish Unio douglasiae nipponensis, Anodonta lauta, Cipangopaludina chinensis laeta, and Semisulcospira libertina.

    PubMed

    Maoka, Takashi; Ochi, Junko; Mori, Miho; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    The biochemical properties of carotenoids from 2 species of freshwater bivalve, namely, Unio douglasiae nipponensis and Anodonta lauta, and 2 species of freshwater snail, namely, Cipangopaludina chinensis laeta and Semisulcospira libertina, were investigated. Diatoxanthin and fucoxanthin were identified as major carotenoids in both bivalves. In contrast, lutein and zeaxanthin were found to be the major carotenoids in C. chinensis laeta. In addition, a series of keto carotenoids was also identified in S. libertina.

  20. Relationship between Carotenoids, Retinol, and Estradiol Levels in Older Women.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; de Vita, Francesca; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Semba, Richard D; Bartali, Benedetta; Cherubini, Antonio; Cappola, Anne R; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-08-05

    In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2) in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998-2000) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T) levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA) and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2), as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1) and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2) were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = -0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02) and β-carotene (β ± SE = -0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007) were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01). After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2), the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = -1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01), β-carotene (β ± SE = -0.29 ± 0.08, p = 0.0009), and E2 persisted whereas the

  1. Relationship between Carotenoids, Retinol, and Estradiol Levels in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Marcello; de Vita, Francesca; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Semba, Richard D.; Bartali, Benedetta; Cherubini, Antonio; Cappola, Anne R.; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background. In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2) in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. Methods. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998–2000) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T) levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA) and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2), as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1) and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2) were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. Results. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = −0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02) and β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007) were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01). After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2), the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = −1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01), β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.29 ± 0.08, p

  2. Analysis of Carotenoid Production by Halorubrum sp. TBZ126; an Extremely Halophilic Archeon from Urmia Lake

    PubMed Central

    Naziri, Davood; Hamidi, Masoud; Hassanzadeh, Salar; Tarhriz, Vahideh; Maleki Zanjani, Bahram; Nazemyieh, Hossein; Hejazi, Mohammd Amin; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Carotenoids are of great interest in many scientific disciplines because of their wide distribution, diverse functions and interesting properties. The present report describes a new natural source for carotenoid production. Methods: Halorubrum sp., TBZ126, an extremely halophilic archaeon, was isolated from Urmia Lack following culture of water sample on marine agar medium and incubation at 30 °C. Then single colonies were cultivated in broth media. After that the cells were collected and carotenoids were extracted with acetone-methanol (7:3 v/v). The identification of carotenoids was performed by UV-VIS spectroscopy and confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) in the presence of antimony pentachloride (SbCl5). The production profile was analyzed using liquid-chromatography mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) techniques. Phenotypic characteristics of the isolate were carried out and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: LC-MS analytical results revealed that produced carotenoids are bacterioruberin, lycopene and β-carotene. Bacterioruberin was found to be the predominant produced carotenoid. 16S rRNA analysis showed that TBZ126 has 100% similarity with Halorubrum chaoviator Halo-G*T (AM048786). Conclusion: Halorubrum sp. TBZ126, isolated from Urmia Lake has high capacity in the production of carotenoids. This extremely halophilic archaeon could be considered as a prokaryotic candidate for carotenoid production source for future studies. PMID:24409411

  3. Carotenoid pigments and the selectivity of psittacofulvin-based coloration systems in parrots.

    PubMed

    McGraw, K J; Nogare, M C

    2004-07-01

    Carotenoid pigments are commonly used as colorants of feathers and bare parts by birds. However, parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes) use a novel class of plumage pigments (called psittacofulvins) that, like carotenoids, are lipid-soluble and red, orange, or yellow in color. To begin to understand how and why parrots use these pigments and not carotenoids in their feathers, we must first describe the distribution of these two types of pigments in the diet, tissues, and fluids of these birds. Here, we studied the carotenoid content of blood in five species of parrots with red in their plumage to see if they show the physiological ability to accumulate carotenoids in the body. Although Scarlet (Ara macao) and Greenwing Macaws (Ara chloroptera) and Eclectus (Eclectus roratus), African Gray (Psittacus erithacus) and Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) Parrots all use psittacofulvins to color their feathers red, we found that they also circulated high concentrations of both dietary (lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin) and metabolically derived (anhydrolutein, dehydrolutein) carotenoids through blood at the time of feather growth, at levels comparable to those found in many other carotenoid-colored birds. These results suggest that parrots have the potential to use carotenoids for plumage pigmentation, but preferentially avoid depositing them in feathers, which is likely under the control of the maturing feather follicle. As there is no evidence of psittacofulvins in parrot blood at the tune of feather growth, we presume that these pigments are locally synthesized by growing feathers within the follicular tissue.

  4. Carotenoid profiling of leaves of selected eggplant accessions subjected to drought stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study focused on the quantification of carotenoids of the leaves of African eggplants commonly consumed as leafy and fruit vegetables. The results gave comparative profiles of carotenoids at different growth and developmental stages and under drought stress. Stress was achieved by limiting irri...

  5. Analysis of polyphenols, anthocyanins and carotenoids in tubers from Solanum tuberosum group Phureja, Stenotomum and Andigena

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sixty-five Solanum tuberosum group Andigena, Phureja and Stenotomum genotypes from an initial population of 1500 were analyzed for phenylpropanoids, carotenoids, and antioxidant capacity. Total phenolic content ranged from 3 to 49 mg/g DW, total carotenoids from 4.1 to 154 µg/g DW, anthocyanins fro...

  6. [Conformity of cancerous diagnosis of serum-fluorimetry under the influence of carotenoid fluorescence].

    PubMed

    Meng, J; Zhang, Y; Ren, X; Ma, H; Ren, W; Xu, X; Cao, B; Li, W

    2000-08-01

    We observed that carotenoid had sensitization for fluorescence of porphyrin as cancerous diagnostic technology was applied in clinic by serum-fluorimetry. The Forster theory was used in order to analyse sensitized fluorescence between carotenoid and porphyrin in this paper. Transfer characteristic between energy donor and energy acceptor was calculated and discussed its influence on cancerous diagnosis.

  7. Carotenoid-rich bananas: a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Englberger, Lois; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Coyne, Terry; Fitzgerald, Maureen H; Marks, Geoffrey C

    2003-12-01

    This review article points out that bananas are an important food for many people in the world. Thus, banana cultivars rich in provitamin A carotenoids may offer a potential food source for alleviating vitamin A deficiency, particularly in developing countries. Many factors are associated with the presently known food sources of vitamin A that limit their effectiveness in improving vitamin A status. Acceptable carotenoid-rich banana cultivars have been identified in Micronesia, and some carotenoid-rich bananas have been identified elsewhere. Bananas are an ideal food for young children and families for many regions of the world, because of their sweetness, texture, portion size, familiarity, availability, convenience, versatility, and cost. Foods containing high levels of carotenoids have been shown to protect against chronic disease, including certain cancers, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Because the coloration of the edible flesh of the banana appears to be a good indicator of likely carotenoid content, it may be possible to develop a simple method for selecting carotenoid-rich banana cultivars in the community. Research is needed on the identification of carotenoid-rich cultivars, targeting those areas of the world where bananas are a major staple food; investigating factors affecting production, consumption, and acceptability; and determining the impact that carotenoid-rich bananas may have on improving vitamin A status. Based on these results, interventions should be undertaken for initiating or increasing homestead and commercial production.

  8. Separation of the Carotenoid Bixin from Annatto Seeds Using Thin-Layer and Column Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullagh, James V.; Ramos, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment the carotenoid bixin is isolated from annatto ("Bixa orellana") seeds using column chromatography. The experiment has several key advantages over previous pigment separation experiments. First, unlike other experiments significant quantities of the carotenoid (typically 20 to 25 mg) can be isolated from small quantities of plant…

  9. Macular pigment carotenoids in the retina and occipital cortex are related in humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives: Lutein and zeaxanthin are dietary carotenoids that preferentially accumulate in the macular region of the retina. Together with mesozeaxanthin, a conversion product of lutein in the macula, they form the macular pigment. Lutein is also the predominant carotenoid in human brain tissue and...

  10. Exploratory behavior is associated with plasma carotenoid accumulation in two congeneric species of waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Melissah; Pierson, Kasey L; McGraw, Kevin J

    2015-06-01

    Recently, carotenoid pigments have received considerable attention as modulators of animal health and performance. While studies show that elevated carotenoid intake and accumulation can influence activities like parental care and escape-flight performance, little is known of how carotenoid status influences the expression of animal personality traits, which can be energy-demanding and entail survival costs but also rewarding in the context of foraging and mating. We experimentally investigated the effects of carotenoid availability on exploratory behavior and activity level, using adult males and females of two species of waterfowl: mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (Anas acuta). We assessed behavior using a novel-environment test designed to measure an individual's response to novel objects and a potential predator threat (fox urine scent). We found that carotenoid availability was positively associated with some aspects of exploratory behavior: birds with higher concentrations of circulating carotenoids entered the test arena sooner and approached and entered predator-scented bedding material more frequently than birds with low carotenoid concentrations. These results suggest that the availability of carotenoid resources can influence personality traits in waterfowl, and we discuss putative physiological mechanisms underlying this effect.

  11. Determination of carotenoids in yellow maize, the effects of saponification, and food preparations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize is an important staple food consumed by millions of people in many countries. Yellow maize naturally contains carotenoids which not only provide provitamin A carotenoids but also xanthophylls which are known to be important for eye health. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the effect of sa...

  12. Fruit over sunbed: carotenoid skin colouration is found more attractive than melanin colouration.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Carmen E; Perrett, David I

    2015-01-01

    Skin colouration appears to play a pivotal part in facial attractiveness. Skin yellowness contributes to an attractive appearance and is influenced both by dietary carotenoids and by melanin. While both increased carotenoid colouration and increased melanin colouration enhance apparent health in Caucasian faces by increasing skin yellowness, it remains unclear, firstly, whether both pigments contribute to attractiveness judgements, secondly, whether one pigment is clearly preferred over the other, and thirdly, whether these effects depend on the sex of the face. Here, in three studies, we examine these questions using controlled facial stimuli transformed to be either high or low in (a) carotenoid colouration, or (b) melanin colouration. We show, firstly, that both increased carotenoid colouration and increased melanin colouration are found attractive compared to lower levels of these pigments. Secondly, we show that carotenoid colouration is consistently preferred over melanin colouration when levels of colouration are matched. In addition, we find an effect of the sex of stimuli with stronger preferences for carotenoids over melanin in female compared to male faces, irrespective of the sex of the observer. These results are interpreted as reflecting preferences for sex-typical skin colouration: men have darker skin than women and high melanization in male faces may further enhance this masculine trait, thus carotenoid colouration is not less desirable, but melanin colouration is relatively more desirable in males compared to females. Taken together, our findings provide further support for a carotenoid-linked health-signalling system that is highly important in mate choice.

  13. Tomato fruit carotenoid biosynthesis is adjusted to actual ripening progression by a light-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Briardo; D'Andrea, Lucio; Ruiz-Sola, M Aguila; Botterweg, Esther; Pulido, Pablo; Andilla, Jordi; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Rodriguez-Concepcion