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Sample records for pigmentos carotenoides sobre

  1. Carotenoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are lipophilic plant pigments with polyisoprenoid structures that occur naturally in plants and other photosynthetic organisms. There are over 600 known carotenoids with chemical structures characterized by a large (35-40 carbon atoms) conjugated polyene chain, sometimes terminated by ri...

  2. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  3. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  4. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  5. Carotenoids and Neurobiological Health.

    PubMed

    Guest, J; Grant, R

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of carotenoid phytonutrients, largely as part of plant tissue, has been associated with a number of health benefits. Epidemiological and other studies support a link between higher dietary intake and tissue concentrations of carotenoids and lower risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers. Evidence also suggests that increased levels of carotenoids can help maintain healthy cognitive function, especially into older age. Carotenoids mediate their beneficial effects via several mechanisms including cell growth regulation and modulation of gene expression and immune activity. However their primary protective mechanism is thought to be due to their potent antioxidant properties that effectively scavenge free radicals and reduce the risk of oxidative damage. This chapter discusses the impact of carotenoids on neurological health by first reviewing their chemical characteristics, dietary sources, and general mechanisms of action before examining in some detail the available evidence for a protective role for various carotenoids in neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27651255

  6. Encapsulation of Carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Henelyta S.; Schuchmann, Heike P.; Engel, Robert; Walz, Elke; Briviba, Karlis

    Carotenoids are natural pigments, which are synthesized by microorganisms and plants. More than 600 naturally occurring carotenoids have been found in the nature. The main sources of carotenoids are fruits, vegetables, leaves, peppers, and certain types of fishes, sea foods, and birds. Carotenoids may protect cells against photosensitization and work as light-absorbing pigments during photosynthesis. Some carotenoids may inhibit the destructive effect of reactive oxygen species. Due to the antioxidative properties of carotenoids, many investigations regarding their protective effects against cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancers, as well as other degenerative illnesses, have been carried out in the last years (Briviba et al. 2004; Krinsky et al. 2004; Kirsh et al. 2006). A diet rich in carotenoids may also contribute to photoprotection against UV radiation (Stahl et al. 2006). In vitro studies have shown that carotenoids such as β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene stimulate bone formation and mineralization. The results may be related to prevention of osteoporosis (Kim et al. 2003; Yamaguchi and Uchiyama 2003; 2004; Yamaguchi et al. 2005).

  7. Carotenoid metabolism in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. Th...

  8. Carotenoids of biotechnological importance.

    PubMed

    Sandmann, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are natural pigments with antioxidative functions that protect against oxidative stress. They are essential for humans and must be supplied through the diet. Carotenoids are the precursors for the visual pigment rhodopsin, and lutein and zeaxanthin must be accumulated in the yellow eye spot to protect the retina from excess light and ultraviolet damage. There is a global market for carotenoids as food colorants, animal feed, and nutraceuticals. Some carotenoids are chemically synthesized, whereas others are from natural sources. Microbial mass production systems of industrial interest for carotenoids are in use, and new ones are being developed by metabolic pathway engineering of bacteria, fungi, and plants. Several examples will be highlighted in this chapter.

  9. Functions of Intact Carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, George

    The traditional view that carotenoids are a class of plant pigments does not do justice to their versatility. This versatility will become clear from the overview of the biological roles of carotenoids, in animals and microorganisms as well as in plants, that is given in this Chapter. It has become customary and convenient to differentiate biological effects of carotenoids into functions, actions and associations [1]. `Functions' have been defined as effects or properties that are essential for the normal well-being of the organism. Biological responses that follow the administration of carotenoids in the diet or as supplements are considered as `actions'. When an effect is seen but a causal relationship to the carotenoid has not been demonstrated, this is described as an `association'. The line between these is often not clear, however.

  10. Carotenoids of biotechnological importance.

    PubMed

    Sandmann, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are natural pigments with antioxidative functions that protect against oxidative stress. They are essential for humans and must be supplied through the diet. Carotenoids are the precursors for the visual pigment rhodopsin, and lutein and zeaxanthin must be accumulated in the yellow eye spot to protect the retina from excess light and ultraviolet damage. There is a global market for carotenoids as food colorants, animal feed, and nutraceuticals. Some carotenoids are chemically synthesized, whereas others are from natural sources. Microbial mass production systems of industrial interest for carotenoids are in use, and new ones are being developed by metabolic pathway engineering of bacteria, fungi, and plants. Several examples will be highlighted in this chapter. PMID:25326165

  11. Carotenoids in Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Henríquez, Vitalia; Escobar, Carolina; Galarza, Janeth; Gimpel, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of isoprenoids synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms as well as by some non-photosynthetic bacteria and fungi with broad applications in food, feed and cosmetics, and also in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. Microalgae represent an important source of high-value products, which include carotenoids, among others. Carotenoids play key roles in light harvesting and energy transfer during photosynthesis and in the protection of the photosynthetic apparatus against photooxidative damage. Carotenoids are generally divided into carotenes and xanthophyls, but accumulation in microalgae can also be classified as primary (essential for survival) and secondary (by exposure to specific stimuli).In this chapter, we outline the high value carotenoids produced by commercially important microalgae, their production pathways, the improved production rates that can be achieved by genetic engineering as well as their biotechnological applications. PMID:27485224

  12. Carotenoids and Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Uragami, Chiasa; Cogdell, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are ubiquitous and essential pigments in photosynthesis. They absorb in the blue-green region of the solar spectrum and transfer the absorbed energy to (bacterio-)chlorophylls, and so expand the wavelength range of light that is able to drive photosynthesis. This is an example of singlet-singlet energy transfer, and so carotenoids serve to enhance the overall efficiency of photosynthetic light reactions. Carotenoids also act to protect photosynthetic organisms from the harmful effects of excess exposure to light. Triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophylls to carotenoids plays a key role in this photoprotective reaction. In the light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria and chlorophytes, carotenoids have an additional role of structural stabilization of those complexes. In this article we review what is currently known about how carotenoids discharge these functions. The molecular architecture of photosynthetic systems will be outlined first to provide a basis from which to describe carotenoid photochemistry, which underlies most of their important functions in photosynthesis. PMID:27485220

  13. Carotenoids and Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Uragami, Chiasa; Cogdell, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are ubiquitous and essential pigments in photosynthesis. They absorb in the blue-green region of the solar spectrum and transfer the absorbed energy to (bacterio-)chlorophylls, and so expand the wavelength range of light that is able to drive photosynthesis. This is an example of singlet-singlet energy transfer, and so carotenoids serve to enhance the overall efficiency of photosynthetic light reactions. Carotenoids also act to protect photosynthetic organisms from the harmful effects of excess exposure to light. Triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophylls to carotenoids plays a key role in this photoprotective reaction. In the light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria and chlorophytes, carotenoids have an additional role of structural stabilization of those complexes. In this article we review what is currently known about how carotenoids discharge these functions. The molecular architecture of photosynthetic systems will be outlined first to provide a basis from which to describe carotenoid photochemistry, which underlies most of their important functions in photosynthesis.

  14. BIOSYNTHESIS OF YEAST CAROTENOIDS

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Kenneth L.; Nakayama, T. O. M.; Chichester, C. O.

    1964-01-01

    Simpson, Kenneth L. (University of California, Davis), T. O. M. Nakayama, and C. O. Chichester. Biosynthesis of yeast carotenoids. J. Bacteriol. 88:1688–1694. 1964.—The biosynthesis of carotenoids was followed in Rhodotorula glutinis and in a new strain, 62-506. The treatment of the growing cultures by methylheptenone, or ionone, vapors permitted observations of the intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway. On the basis of concentration changes and accumulation in blocked pathways, the sequence of carotenoid formation is postulated as phytoene, phytofluene, ζ-carotene, neurosporene, β-zeacarotene, γ-carotene, torulin, a C40 aldehyde, and torularhodin. Torulin and torularhodin were established as the main carotenoids of 62-506. PMID:14240958

  15. Carotenoid Distribution in Nature.

    PubMed

    Alcaíno, Jennifer; Baeza, Marcelo; Cifuentes, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are naturally occurring red, orange and yellow pigments that are synthesized by plants and some microorganisms and fulfill many important physiological functions. This chapter describes the distribution of carotenoid in microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, microalgae, filamentous fungi and yeasts. We will also focus on their functional aspects and applications, such as their nutritional value, their benefits for human and animal health and their potential protection against free radicals. The central metabolic pathway leading to the synthesis of carotenoids is described as the three following principal steps: (i) the synthesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and the formation of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, (ii) the synthesis of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and (iii) the synthesis of carotenoids per se, highlighting the differences that have been found in several carotenogenic organisms and providing an evolutionary perspective. Finally, as an example, the synthesis of the xanthophyll astaxanthin is discussed. PMID:27485217

  16. Carotenoids and chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, S; Rao, A V

    2000-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases are the major causes of deaths in North America. Dietary intake of fruits and vegetables has been suggested to have protective effects against such chronic diseases. Carotenoids are important plant pigments which are thought to contribute towards the beneficial effects of fruit and vegetable consumption. This review focuses on the role of carotenoids and particularly lycopene in chronic diseases.

  17. Carotenoid Formation by Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Ray K.; White, David C.

    1970-01-01

    The carotenoid pigments of Staphylococcus aureus U-71 were identified as phytoene; ζ-carotene; δ-carotene; phytofluenol; a phytofluenol-like carotenoid, rubixanthin; and three rubixanthin-like carotenoids after extraction, saponification, chromatographic separation, and determination of their absorption spectra. There was no evidence of carotenoid esters or glycoside ethers in the extract before saponification. During the aerobic growth cycle the total carotenoids increased from 45 to 1,000 nmoles per g (dry weight), with the greatest increases in the polar, hydroxylated carotenoids. During the anaerobic growth cycle, the total carotenoids increased from 20 nmoles per g (dry weight) to 80 nmoles per g (dry weight), and only traces of the polar carotenoids were formed. Light had no effect on carotenoid synthesis. About 0.14% of the mevalonate-2-14C added to the culture was incorporated into the carotenoids during each bacterial doubling. The total carotenoids did not lose radioactivity when grown in the absence of 14C for 2.5 bacterial doublings. The total carotenoids did not lose radioactivity when grown in the absence of 14C for 2.5 bacterial doublings. The incorporation and turnover of 14C indicated the carotenes were sequentially desaturated and hydroxylated to form the polar carotenoids. PMID:5423369

  18. [Carotenoids as natural antioxidants].

    PubMed

    Igielska-Kalwat, Joanna; Gościańska, Joanna; Nowak, Izabela

    2015-04-07

    Human organisms have many defence mechanisms able to neutralise the harmful effects of the reactive species of oxygen. Antioxidants play an important role in reducing the oxidative damage to the human organism. Carotenoids are among the strongest antioxidants. They have 11 coupled double bonds, so they can be classified as polyisoprenoids, show low polarity and can occur in acyclic, monocyclic or bicyclic forms. The carotenoids of the strongest antioxidant properties are lycopene, lutein, astaxanthin and β-carotene. Carotenoids with strong antioxidant properties have found wide application in medical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. These compounds are highly active against both reactive oxygen species and free radicals. Comparing β-carotene, astaxanthin and lycopene with other antioxidants (e.g. vitamin C and E), it can be concluded that these compounds have higher antioxidant activity, e.g. against singlet oxygen. Astaxanthin is a stronger antioxidant compared to β-carotene, vitamin E and vitamin C, respectively 54, 14 and 65 times. Carotenoids have a salutary effect on our body, making it more resistant and strong to fight chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to review the literature concerning free radicals and their adverse effects on the human body and carotenoids, as strong, natural antioxidants.

  19. Carotenoid fluorescence in Dunaliella salina

    PubMed Central

    van Es, Marjon A.; Janssen, Marcel; Brandenburg, Willem A.; Wijffels, René H.

    2010-01-01

    Dunaliella salina is a halotolerant green alga that is well known for its carotenoid producing capacity. The produced carotenoids are mainly stored in lipid globules. For various research purposes, such as production and extraction kinetics, we would like to determine and/or localise the carotenoid globules in vivo. In this study, we show that the carotenoid-rich globules emit clear green fluorescence, which can be used in, for example, fluorescence microscopy (e.g. CLSM) to obtain pictures of the cells and their carotenoid content. PMID:20835349

  20. Carotenoid fluorescence in Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; van Es, Marjon A; Janssen, Marcel; Brandenburg, Willem A; Wijffels, René H

    2010-10-01

    Dunaliella salina is a halotolerant green alga that is well known for its carotenoid producing capacity. The produced carotenoids are mainly stored in lipid globules. For various research purposes, such as production and extraction kinetics, we would like to determine and/or localise the carotenoid globules in vivo. In this study, we show that the carotenoid-rich globules emit clear green fluorescence, which can be used in, for example, fluorescence microscopy (e.g. CLSM) to obtain pictures of the cells and their carotenoid content.

  1. Plastids and carotenoid accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plastids are ubiquitously in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids except proplastids can synth...

  2. Carotenoid-binding proteins; accessories to carotenoid function.

    PubMed

    Pilbrow, Jodi; Garama, Daniel; Carne, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the widespread biological importance of carotenoids is increasing. Accompanying this is the developing recognition that the interaction of carotenoids with other molecules, such as proteins, is also essential. Here the significance of carotenoid-protein interactions with respect to biological function is reviewed for three well characterised carotenoprotein complexes; crustacyanin, the orange carotenoid protein and glutathione-S-transferase P1. In addition a preliminary report is made on the recent partial purification of an echinenone-binding protein extracted from a New Zealand sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus. PMID:22428138

  3. Carotenoid-binding proteins; accessories to carotenoid function.

    PubMed

    Pilbrow, Jodi; Garama, Daniel; Carne, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the widespread biological importance of carotenoids is increasing. Accompanying this is the developing recognition that the interaction of carotenoids with other molecules, such as proteins, is also essential. Here the significance of carotenoid-protein interactions with respect to biological function is reviewed for three well characterised carotenoprotein complexes; crustacyanin, the orange carotenoid protein and glutathione-S-transferase P1. In addition a preliminary report is made on the recent partial purification of an echinenone-binding protein extracted from a New Zealand sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus.

  4. Carotenoids and lung cancer prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the molecular actions of carotenoids is critical for human studies involving carotenoids for prevention of lung cancer and cancers at other tissue sites. While the original hypothesis prompting the beta-carotene intervention trials was that beta-carotene exerts beneficial effects thro...

  5. Chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui

    2013-11-15

    Chromoplasts are special organelles that possess superior ability to synthesize and store massive amounts of carotenoids. They are responsible for the distinctive colors found in fruits, flowers, and roots. Chromoplasts exhibit various morphologies and are derived from either pre-existing chloroplasts or other non-photosynthetic plastids such as proplastids, leucoplasts or amyloplasts. While little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying chromoplast biogenesis, research progress along with proteomics study of chromoplast proteomes signifies various processes and factors important for chromoplast differentiation and development. Chromoplasts act as a metabolic sink that enables great biosynthesis and high storage capacity of carotenoids. The formation of chromoplasts enhances carotenoid metabolic sink strength and controls carotenoid accumulation in plants. The objective of this review is to provide an integrated view on our understanding of chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  6. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Daucus carota.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kevin; Cerda, Ariel; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is one of the most important vegetable cultivated worldwide and the main source of dietary provitamin A. Contrary to other plants, almost all carrot varieties accumulate massive amounts of carotenoids in the root, resulting in a wide variety of colors, including those with purple, yellow, white, red and orange roots. During the first weeks of development the root, grown in darkness, is thin and pale and devoid of carotenoids. At the second month, the thickening of the root and the accumulation of carotenoids begins, and it reaches its highest level at 3 months of development. This normal root thickening and carotenoid accumulation can be completely altered when roots are grown in light, in which chromoplasts differentiation is redirected to chloroplasts development in accordance with an altered carotenoid profile. Here we discuss the current evidence on the biosynthesis of carotenoid in carrot roots in response to environmental cues that has contributed to our understanding of the mechanism that regulates the accumulation of carotenoids, as well as the carotenogenic gene expression and root development in D. carota. PMID:27485223

  7. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Daucus carota.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kevin; Cerda, Ariel; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is one of the most important vegetable cultivated worldwide and the main source of dietary provitamin A. Contrary to other plants, almost all carrot varieties accumulate massive amounts of carotenoids in the root, resulting in a wide variety of colors, including those with purple, yellow, white, red and orange roots. During the first weeks of development the root, grown in darkness, is thin and pale and devoid of carotenoids. At the second month, the thickening of the root and the accumulation of carotenoids begins, and it reaches its highest level at 3 months of development. This normal root thickening and carotenoid accumulation can be completely altered when roots are grown in light, in which chromoplasts differentiation is redirected to chloroplasts development in accordance with an altered carotenoid profile. Here we discuss the current evidence on the biosynthesis of carotenoid in carrot roots in response to environmental cues that has contributed to our understanding of the mechanism that regulates the accumulation of carotenoids, as well as the carotenogenic gene expression and root development in D. carota.

  8. Food Predictors of Plasma Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Sara J.; Willett, Walter C.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Eliassen, A. Heather

    2013-01-01

    Empirical prediction models that weight food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) food items by their relation to nutrient biomarker concentrations may estimate nutrient exposure better than nutrient intakes derived from food composition databases. Carotenoids may especially benefit because contributing foods vary in bioavailability and assessment validity. Our objective was to develop empirical prediction models for the major plasma carotenoids and total carotenoids and evaluate their validity compared with dietary intakes calculated from standard food composition tables. 4180 nonsmoking women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) blood subcohort with previously measured plasma carotenoids were randomly divided into training (n = 2787) and testing (n = 1393) subsets. Empirical prediction models were developed in the training subset by stepwise selection from foods contributing ≥0.5% to intake of the relevant carotenoid. Spearman correlations between predicted and measured plasma concentrations were compared to Spearman correlations between dietary intake and measured plasma concentrations for each carotenoid. Three to 12 foods were selected for the α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, and total carotenoids prediction models. In the testing subset, Spearman correlations with measured plasma concentrations for the calculated dietary intakes and predicted plasma concentrations, respectively, were 0.31 and 0.37 for α-carotene, 0.29 and 0.31 for β-carotene, 0.36 and 0.41 for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.28 and 0.31 for lutein/zeaxanthin, 0.22 and 0.23 for lycopene, and 0.22 and 0.27 for total carotenoids. Empirical prediction models may modestly improve assessment of some carotenoids, particularly α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin. PMID:24152746

  9. [Carotenoids: 1. Metabolism and physiology].

    PubMed

    Faure, H; Fayol, V; Galabert, C; Grolier, P; Le Moël, G; Steghens, J P; Van Kappel, A; Nabet, F

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are a family of pigments with at least 600 members. They derive from lycopene after steps of cyclisation, dehydrogenation and oxidation. It is their chemical structure that determines their physiochemical properties and, in part, their biological activities. About 50 carotenoids can be found in human diet and about 20 of them have been found in plasma and tissues. There is no RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) for carotenoids. Quantities of carotenoids in diet are difficult to estimate, partly because methods used for the establishment of food composition tables were not specific and sensitive enough. Also, given values do not always take into account variations due to season and region of culture. Absorption of beta-carotene in humans has been the subject of numerous studies but only very little is known about other carotenoids. In general, absorption depends on bioavailability from the food matrix and solubility in micelles. After absorption through passive diffusion, carotenoids follow the chylomicrons metabolism. They are taken up by the liver and released in the blood stream in lipoproteins (VLDL). Carotenoids with no-substituted beta-ionone cycles (alpha and beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin) have provitamin A activity. Highest activity has been found for all-trans beta-carotene. Not all steps of vitamin A biosynthesis and metabolism of other carotenoids have been clarified yet. Besides their provitamin A activity, carotenoids have numerous biological functions. They are efficient scavengers of free radicals, particularly of 1O2. In vitro they have been shown to protect LDL. However, results in vivo are inconsistent. Other functions include enhancement of gap junctions, immunomodulation and regulation of enzyme activity involved in carcinogenesis. PMID:10210743

  10. Regulation of carotenoid metabolism in tomato.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihong; Shao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Min; Wang, Qiaomei

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids serve diverse functions in vastly different organisms that both produce and consume them. Enhanced carotenoid accumulation is of great importance in the visual and functional properties of fruits and vegetables. Significant progress has been achieved in recent years in our understanding of carotenoid biosynthesis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) using biochemical and genetics approaches. The carotenoid metabolic network is temporally and spatially controlled, and plants have evolved strategic tactics to regulate carotenoid metabolism in response to various developmental and environmental factors. In this review, we summarize the current status of studies on transcription factors and phytohormones that regulate carotenoid biosynthesis, catabolism, and storage capacity in plastids, as well as the responses of carotenoid metabolism to environmental cues in tomato fruits. Transcription factors function either in cooperation with or independently of phytohormone signaling to regulate carotenoid metabolism, providing novel approaches for metabolic engineering of carotenoid composition and content in tomato. PMID:25578270

  11. Marine carotenoids: biological functions and commercial applications.

    PubMed

    Vílchez, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Cuaresma, María; Bédmar, Francisco; Garbayo, Inés; Vega, José M

    2011-03-03

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon.

  12. Carotenoids' production from halophilic bacteria.

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Moreno, María; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; García, María Teresa; Mellado, Encarnación

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids have received considerable attention due to their interesting industrial applications and, more importantly, their potential beneficial effects on human health. Halophiles comprise a heterogeneous group of microorganisms that need salts for optimal growth. The pigments produced by these halophilic organisms comprise phytoene, β-carotene, lycopene, derivatives of bacterioruberin, and salinixanthin. Here, we describe the procedure to obtain salinixanthin from the extremely halophilic bacterium Salinibacter ruber. Additionally, we describe the expression of the β-carotene biosynthetic genes crtE, crtY, crtI, and crtB from Pantoea agglomerans in the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata obtaining a strain able to produce practically pure β-carotene. Thus, the use of these halophilic microorganisms as a source of carotenoids constitutes an important commercial alternative in the production of carotenoids from biological sources. PMID:22623305

  13. Chemistry of carotenoid neutral radicals.

    PubMed

    Ligia Focsan, A; Magyar, Adam; Kispert, Lowell D

    2015-04-15

    Proton loss from the carotenoid radical cations (Car(+)) to form neutral radicals (#Car) was investigated by numerous electrochemical, EPR, ENDOR and DFT studies described herein. The radical cation and neutral radicals were formed in solution electrochemically and stabilized on solid silica-alumina and MCM-41 matrices. Carotenoid neutral radicals were recently identified in Arabidopsis thaliana plant and photosystem II samples. Deprotonation at the terminal ends of a zeaxanthin radical cation could provide a secondary photoprotection pathway which involves quenching excited state chlorophyll by the long-lived zeaxanthin neutral radicals formed. PMID:25687648

  14. Carotenoid-dependent signals and the evolution of plasma carotenoid levels in birds.

    PubMed

    Simons, Mirre J P; Maia, Rafael; Leenknegt, Bas; Verhulst, Simon

    2014-12-01

    Sexual selection has resulted in a wide array of ornaments used in mate choice, and such indicator traits signal quality honestly when they bear costs, precluding cheating. Carotenoid-dependent coloration has attracted considerable attention in this context, because investing carotenoids in coloration has to be traded off against its physiological functions; carotenoids are antioxidants and increase immunocompetence. This trade-off is hypothesized to underlie the honesty of carotenoid-dependent coloration, signaling the "handicap" of allocating carotenoids away from somatic maintenance toward sexual display. Utilizing recent advances in modeling adaptive evolution, we used a comparative approach to investigate the evolution of plasma carotenoid levels using a species-level phylogeny of 178 bird species. We find that the evolutionary optimum for carotenoid levels is higher in lineages that evolved carotenoid-dependent coloration, with strong attraction toward this optimum. Hence, carotenoids do not appear to be limiting, given that higher carotenoid levels readily evolve in response to the evolution of carotenoid-dependent coloration. These findings challenge the assumption that carotenoids are a scarce resource and thus also challenge the hypothesis that physiological resource value of carotenoids underlies honesty of carotenoid-dependent traits. Therefore, the comparative evidence suggests that other factors, such as the acquisition and incorporation of carotenoids, are involved in maintaining signal honesty.

  15. Chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromoplasts are special organelles that possess superior ability to synthesize and store massive amounts of carotenoids. They are responsible for the distinctive colors found in fruits, flowers, and roots. Chromoplasts exhibit various morphologies and are derived from either pre-existing chloroplas...

  16. Carotenoid metabolism and regulation in horticultural crops.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hui; Zhang, Junxiang; Nageswaran, Divyashree; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature. The vivid yellow, orange, and red colors of many horticultural crops are attributed to the overaccumulation of carotenoids, which contribute to a critical agronomic trait for flowers and an important quality trait for fruits and vegetables. Not only do carotenoids give horticultural crops their visual appeal, they also enhance nutritional value and health benefits for humans. As a result, carotenoid research in horticultural crops has grown exponentially over the last decade. These investigations have advanced our fundamental understanding of carotenoid metabolism and regulation in plants. In this review, we provide an overview of carotenoid biosynthesis, degradation, and accumulation in horticultural crops and highlight recent achievements in our understanding of carotenoid metabolic regulation in vegetables, fruits, and flowers. PMID:26504578

  17. Carotenoid metabolism and regulation in horticultural crops

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hui; Zhang, Junxiang; Nageswaran, Divyashree; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature. The vivid yellow, orange, and red colors of many horticultural crops are attributed to the overaccumulation of carotenoids, which contribute to a critical agronomic trait for flowers and an important quality trait for fruits and vegetables. Not only do carotenoids give horticultural crops their visual appeal, they also enhance nutritional value and health benefits for humans. As a result, carotenoid research in horticultural crops has grown exponentially over the last decade. These investigations have advanced our fundamental understanding of carotenoid metabolism and regulation in plants. In this review, we provide an overview of carotenoid biosynthesis, degradation, and accumulation in horticultural crops and highlight recent achievements in our understanding of carotenoid metabolic regulation in vegetables, fruits, and flowers. PMID:26504578

  18. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition. PMID:27485231

  19. Carotenoid-based coloration in cichlid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Sefc, Kristina M.; Brown, Alexandria C.; Clotfelter, Ethan D.

    2014-01-01

    Animal colors play important roles in communication, ecological interactions and speciation. Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many yellow, orange and red hues in animals. Whereas extensive knowledge on the proximate mechanisms underlying carotenoid coloration in birds has led to testable hypotheses on avian color evolution and signaling, much less is known about the expression of carotenoid coloration in fishes. Here, we promote cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Cichlidae) as a system in which to study the physiological and evolutionary significance of carotenoids. Cichlids include some of the best examples of adaptive radiation and color pattern diversification in vertebrates. In this paper, we examine fitness correlates of carotenoid pigmentation in cichlids and review hypotheses regarding the signal content of carotenoid-based ornaments. Carotenoid-based coloration is influenced by diet and body condition and is positively related to mating success and social dominance. Gaps in our knowledge are discussed in the last part of this review, particularly in the understanding of carotenoid metabolism pathways and the genetics of carotenoid coloration. We suggest that carotenoid metabolism and transport are important proximate mechanisms responsible for individual and population-differences in cichlid coloration that may ultimately contribute to diversification and speciation. PMID:24667558

  20. Microalgae as Sources of Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Ana Catarina; Amaro, Helena M.; Malcata, Francisco Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Marine microalgae constitute a natural source of a variety of drugs for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic applications—which encompass carotenoids, among others. A growing body of experimental evidence has confirmed that these compounds can play important roles in prevention (and even treatment) of human diseases and health conditions, e.g., cancer, cardiovascular problems, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy, cataracts and some neurological disorders. The underlying features that may account for such favorable biological activities are their intrinsic antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumoral features. In this invited review, the most important issues regarding synthesis of carotenoids by microalgae are described and discussed—from both physiological and processing points of view. Current gaps of knowledge, as well as technological opportunities in the near future relating to this growing field of interest, are also put forward in a critical manner. PMID:21731554

  1. Carotenoid changes of intact watermelons after storage.

    PubMed

    Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Collins, Julie K

    2006-08-01

    Watermelon contains lycopene, a red carotenoid pigment that has strong antioxidant properties. The lycopene content of watermelon is substantial, contributing 8-20 mg per 180 g serving. There are no reports on carotenoid changes in whole watermelon during storage. Three types of watermelon, open-pollinated seeded, hybrid seeded, and seedless types, were stored at 5, 13, and 21 degrees C for 14 days and flesh color, composition, and carotenoid content were compared to those of fruit not stored. Watermelons stored at 21 degrees C had increased pH, chroma, and carotenoid content compared to fresh fruit. Compared to fresh fruit, watermelons stored at 21 degrees C gained 11-40% in lycopene and 50-139% in beta-carotene, whereas fruit held at 13 degrees C changed little in carotenoid content. These results indicate that carotenoid biosynthesis in watermelons can be affected by temperature and storage.

  2. Carotenoids in Aquaculture: Fish and Crustaceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerkeng, Bjorn

    This Chapter deals with selected topics on the use of carotenoids for colouration in aquaculture and incudes examples from ecological studies which support our understanding of functions and actions of carotenoids and colouration in fishes and crustaceans. Animal colours may be physical or structural in origin [1], e.g. Tyndall blues and iridescent diffraction colours, or they may be due to pigments, including carotenoids (Chapter 10).

  3. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis During Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Lado, Joanna; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Rodrigo, María Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are recognized as the main pigments in most fruit crops, providing colours that range from yellow and pink to deep orange and red. Moreover, the edible portion of widely consumed fruits or their derived products represent a major dietary source of carotenoids for animals and humans. Therefore, these pigments are crucial compounds contributing to fruit aesthetic and nutritional quality but may also have protecting and ecophysiological functions in coloured fruits. Among plant organs, fruits display one of the most heterogeneous carotenoids patterns in terms of diversity and abundance. In this chapter a comprehensive list of the carotenoid content and profile in the most commonly cultivated fleshy fruits is reported. The proposed fruit classification systems attending to carotenoid composition are revised and discussed. The regulation of carotenoids in fruits can be rather complex due to the dramatic changes in content and composition during ripening, which are also dependent on the fruit tissue and the developmental stage. In addition, carotenoid accumulation is a dynamic process, associated with the development of chromoplasts during ripening. As a general rule, carotenoid accumulation is highly controlled at the transcriptional level of the structural and accessory proteins of the biosynthetic and degradation pathways, but other mechanisms such as post-transcriptional modifications or the development of sink structures have been recently revealed as crucial factors in determining the levels and stability of these pigments. In this chapter common key metabolic reactions regulating carotenoid composition in fruit tissues are described in addition to others that are restricted to certain species and generate unique carotenoids patterns. The existence of fruit-specific isoforms for key steps such as the phytoene synthase, lycopene β-cyclases or catabolic carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases has allowed an independent regulation of the pathway in fruit tissues

  4. Software application for the calculation of dietary intake of individual carotenoids and of its contribution to vitamin A intake.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz; Cuadrado-Vives, Carmen; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Las aplicaciones informáticas utilizadas para valorar la ingesta dietética suelen centrarse en macro y micronutrientes, pero no en otros componentes de la dieta con potenciales efectos beneficiosos sobre la salud, entre los que están los carotenoides. El grado en que cada carotenoide ejerce diversas actividades biológicas es diferente y por tanto, interesa utilizar datos de su composición en alimentos de forma individualizada. Objetivo: Elaborar una aplicación informática con datos individualizados de carotenoides que permita el cálculo de su ingesta dietética y la consulta del contenido de estos compuestos en los alimentos. Material y métodos: Aplicación informática desarrollada con Java 7, que incluye una base de datos de carotenoides (luteína, zeaxantina, licopeno, ?-criptoxantina, ?- caroteno y ?-caroteno) en alimentos (incluyendo aquellos que son principales contribuyentes a la ingesta de carotenoides en Europa), generados por HPLC. Se incluyen las variables relativas a los alimentos, sujetos y dietas, que son necesarias para una correcta información del contenido de carotenoides en alimentos y para el cálculo de su ingesta. Resultados: La aplicación informática permite calcular la ingesta dietética individualizada de carotenoides, a partir de 128 alimentos (crudos y cocinados) y su contribución a la ingesta de vitamina A, en las dos formas utilizadas actualmente, equivalentes de retinol y equivalentes de actividad de retinol. Conclusiones: Con esta aplicación informática se facilita la consulta de concentraciones de carotenoides en alimentos y el cálculo de su ingesta de forma ágil, específica y precisa, aspectos imprescindibles en los estudios de investigación sobre dieta y salud.

  5. Carotenoid metabolism and regulation in horticultural crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature. The vivid yellow, orange, and red colors in many horticultural crops attribute to overaccumulation of carotenoids, which contribute to a critical agronomic trait for flowers and an important quality trait for fruits and vegeta...

  6. Carotenoids in algae: distributions, biosyntheses and functions.

    PubMed

    Takaichi, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    For photosynthesis, phototrophic organisms necessarily synthesize not only chlorophylls but also carotenoids. Many kinds of carotenoids are found in algae and, recently, taxonomic studies of algae have been developed. In this review, the relationship between the distribution of carotenoids and the phylogeny of oxygenic phototrophs in sea and fresh water, including cyanobacteria, red algae, brown algae and green algae, is summarized. These phototrophs contain division- or class-specific carotenoids, such as fucoxanthin, peridinin and siphonaxanthin. The distribution of α-carotene and its derivatives, such as lutein, loroxanthin and siphonaxanthin, are limited to divisions of Rhodophyta (macrophytic type), Cryptophyta, Euglenophyta, Chlorarachniophyta and Chlorophyta. In addition, carotenogenesis pathways are discussed based on the chemical structures of carotenoids and known characteristics of carotenogenesis enzymes in other organisms; genes and enzymes for carotenogenesis in algae are not yet known. Most carotenoids bind to membrane-bound pigment-protein complexes, such as reaction center, light-harvesting and cytochrome b(6)f complexes. Water-soluble peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein (PCP) and orange carotenoid protein (OCP) are also established. Some functions of carotenoids in photosynthesis are also briefly summarized.

  7. Method of producing purified carotenoid compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggink, Laura (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of producing a carotenoid in solid form includes culturing a strain of Chlorophyta algae cells in a minimal inorganic medium and separating the algae comprising a solid form of carotenoid. In one embodiment f the invention, the strain of Chlorophyta algae cells includes a strain f Chlamydomonas algae cells.

  8. Apocarotenoids: A New Carotenoid-Derived Pathway.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Juan Camilo Moreno; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are precursors of carotenoid derived molecules termed apocarotenoids, which include isoprenoids with important functions in plant-environment interactions such as the attraction of pollinators and the defense against pathogens and herbivores. Apocarotenoids also include volatile aromatic compounds that act as repellents, chemoattractants, growth simulators and inhibitors, as well as the phytohormones abscisic acid and strigolactones. In plants, apocarotenoids can be found in several types of plastids (etioplast, leucoplast and chromoplast) and among different plant tissues such as flowers and roots. The structural similarity of some flower and spice isoprenoid volatile organic compounds (β-ionone and safranal) to carotenoids has led to the recent discovery of carotenoid-specific cleavage oxygenases, including carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases and 9-cis-epoxydioxygenases, which tailor and transform carotenoids into apocarotenoids. The great diversity of apocarotenoids is a consequence of the huge amount of carotenoid precursors, the variations in specific cleavage sites and the modifications after cleavage. Lycopene, β-carotene and zeaxanthin are the precursors of the main apocarotenoids described to date, which include bixin, crocin, picrocrocin, abscisic acid, strigolactone and mycorradicin.The current chapter will give rise to an overview of the biosynthesis and function of the most important apocarotenoids in plants, as well as the current knowledge about the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase enzymes involved in these biosynthetic pathways. PMID:27485225

  9. Structures and Analysis of Carotenoid Molecules.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2016-01-01

    Modifications of the usual C40 linear and symmetrical carotenoid skeleton give rise to a wide array of structures of carotenes and xanthophylls in plant tissues. These include acyclic, monocyclic and dicyclic carotenoids, along with hydroxy and epoxy xanthophylls and apocarotenoids. Carotenols can be unesterified or esterified (monoester) in one or two (diester) hydroxyl groups with fatty acids. E-Z isomerization increases the array of possible plant carotenoids even further. Screening and especially quantitative analysis are being carried out worldwide. Visible absorption spectrometry and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy have been used for the initial estimation of the total carotenoid content or the principal carotenoid content when large numbers of samples needed to be analyzed within a short time, as would be the case in breeding programs. Although inherently difficult, quantitative analysis of the individual carotenoids is essential. Knowledge of the sources of errors and means to avoid them has led to a large body of reliable quantitative compositional data on carotenoids. Reverse-phase HPLC with a photodiode array detector has been the preferred analytical technique, but UHPLC is increasingly employed. HPLC-MS has been used mainly for identification and NMR has been useful in unequivocally identifying geometric isomers. PMID:27485219

  10. Carotenoids and health in older people.

    PubMed

    Woodside, Jayne V; McGrath, Alanna J; Lyner, Natalie; McKinley, Michelle C

    2015-01-01

    As the proportion of older people increases, so will chronic disease incidence and the proportion of the population living with disability. Therefore, new approaches to maintain health for as long as possible in this age group are required. Carotenoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds found predominantly in fruit and vegetables that have been proposed to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Such properties may impact on the risk diseases which predominate in older people, and also ageing-related physiological changes. Working out the effect of carotenoid intake versus fruit and vegetable intake is difficult, and the strong correlation between individual carotenoid intakes also complicates any attempt to examine individual carotenoid health effects. Similarly, research to determine whether carotenoids consumed as supplements have similar benefits to increased dietary intake through whole foods, is still required. However, reviewing the recent evidence suggests that carotenoid intake and status are relatively consistently associated with reduced CVD risk, although β-carotene supplementation does not reduce CVD risk and increases lung cancer risk. Increased lycopene intake may reduce prostate cancer progression, with a potential role for carotenoids at other cancer sites. Lutein and zeaxanthin have a plausible role in the maintenance of eye health, whilst an association between carotenoid intake and cognitive and physical health appears possible, although research is limited to date. Given this accruing evidence base to support a specific role for certain carotenoids and ageing, current dietary advice to consume a diet rich in fruit and vegetables would appear prudent, and efforts maintained to encourage increased intake.

  11. Carotenoid Photoprotection in Artificial Photosynthetic Antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Kloz, Miroslav; Pillai, Smitha; Kodis, Gerdenis; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; van Grondelle, Rienk; Kennis, John T. M.

    2011-04-14

    A series of phthalocyanine-carotenoid dyads in which a phenylamino group links a phthalocyanine to carotenoids having 8-11 backbone double bonds were examined by visible and near-infrared femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy combined with global fitting analysis. The series of molecules has permitted investigation of the role of carotenoids in the quenching of excited states of cyclic tetrapyrroles. The transient behavior varied dramatically with the length of the carotenoid and the solvent environment. Clear spectroscopic signatures of radical species revealed photoinduced electron transfer as the main quenching mechanism for all dyads dissolved in a polar solvent (THF), and the quenching rate was almost independent of carotenoid length. However, in a nonpolar solvent (toluene), quenching rates displayed a strong dependence on the conjugation length of the carotenoid and the mechanism did not include charge separation. The lack of any rise time components of a carotenoid S1 signature in all experiments in toluene suggests that an excitonic coupling between the carotenoid S1 state and phthalocyanine Q state, rather than a conventional energy transfer process, is the major mechanism of quenching. A pronounced inhomogeneity of the system was observed and attributed to the presence of a phenyl-amino linker between phthalocyanine and carotenoids. On the basis of accumulated work on various caroteno-phthalocyanine dyads and triads, we have now identified three mechanisms of tetrapyrrole singlet excited state quenching by carotenoids in artificial systems: (i) Car-Pc electron transfer and recombination; (ii)1Pc to Car S1 energy transfer and fast internal conversion to the Car ground state; (iii) excitonic coupling between 1Pc and Car S1 and ensuing internal conversion to the ground state of the carotenoid. The dominant mechanism depends upon the exact molecular architecture and solvent environment

  12. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  13. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while β-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of β-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice.

  14. Carotenoid maintenance handicap and the physiology of carotenoid-based signalisation of health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Despite a reasonable scientific interest in sexual selection, the general principles of health signalisation via ornamental traits remain still unresolved in many aspects. This is also true for the mechanism preserving honesty of carotenoid-based signals. Although it is widely accepted that this type of ornamentation reflects an allocation trade-off between the physiological utilisation of carotenoids (mainly in antioxidative processes) and their deposition in ornaments, some recent evidence suggests more complex interactions. Here, we further develop the models currently proposed to explain the honesty of carotenoid-based signalisation of heath status by adding the handicap principle concept regulated by testosterone. We propose that under certain circumstances carotenoids may be dangerous for the organism because they easily transform into toxic cleavage products. When reserves of other protective antioxidants are insufficient, physiological trade-offs may exist between maintenance of carotenoids for ornament expression and their removal from the body. Furthermore, we suggest that testosterone which enhances ornamentation by increasing carotenoid bioavailability may also promote oxidative stress and hence lower antioxidant reserves. The presence of high levels of carotenoids required for high-quality ornament expression may therefore represent a handicap and only individuals in prime health could afford to produce elaborate colourful ornaments. Although further testing is needed, this ‘carotenoid maintenance handicap’ hypothesis may offer a new insight into the physiological aspects of the relationship between carotenoid function, immunity and ornamentation.

  15. Dietary carotenoids predict plumage coloration in wild house finches.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Geoffrey E; Inouye, Caron Y; Montgomerie, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Carotenoid pigments are a widespread source of ornamental coloration in vertebrates and expression of carotenoid-based colour displays has been shown to serve as an important criterion in female mate choice in birds and fishes. Unlike other integumentary pigments, carotenoids cannot be synthesized; they must be ingested. Carotenoid-based coloration is condition-dependent and has been shown to be affected by both parasites and nutritional condition. A controversial hypothesis is that the expression of carotenoid-based coloration in wild vertebrates is also affected by the amount and types of carotenoid pigments that are ingested. We tested this carotenoid-limitation hypothesis by sampling the gut contents of moulting house finches and comparing the concentration of carotenoid pigments in their gut contents with the colour of growing feathers. We found a positive association: males that ingested food with a higher concentration of carotenoid pigments grew brighter ornamental plumage. We also compared the concentration of carotenoids in the gut contents of males from two subspecies of house finches with small and large patches of carotenoid-based coloration. Consistent with the hypothesis that carotenoid access drives the evolution of carotenoid-based colour displays, males from the population with limited ornamentation had much lower concentrations of carotenoids in their gut contents than males from the population with extensive ornamentation. These observations support the idea that carotenoid intake plays a part in determining the plumage brightness of male house finches. PMID:12061954

  16. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Photosynthetic Organs.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Briardo

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the dazzling diversity of colors displayed by living organisms throughout the tree of life is determined by the presence of carotenoids, which most often provide distinctive yellow, orange and red hues. These metabolites play fundamental roles in nature that extend far beyond their importance as pigments. In photosynthetic lineages, carotenoids are essential to sustain life, since they have been exploited to maximize light harvesting and protect the photosynthetic machinery from photooxidative stress. Consequently, photosynthetic organisms have evolved several mechanisms that adjust the carotenoid metabolism to efficiently cope with constantly fluctuating light environments. This chapter will focus on the current knowledge concerning the regulation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in leaves, which are the primary photosynthetic organs of most land plants. PMID:27485221

  17. Carotenoid Extraction and Quantification from Capsicum annuum

    PubMed Central

    Richins, Richard D.; Kilcrease, James; Rodgriguez-Uribe, Laura; O'Connell, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are ubiquitous pigments that play key roles in photosynthesis and also accumulate to high levels in fruit and flowers. Specific carotenoids play essential roles in human health as these compounds are precursors for Vitamin A; other specific carotenoids are important sources of macular pigments and all carotenoids are important anti-oxidants. Accurate determination of the composition and concentration of this complex set of natural products is therefore important in many different scientific areas. One of the richest sources of these compounds is the fruit of Capsicum; these red, yellow and orange fruit accumulate multiple carotenes and xanthophylls. This report describes the detailed method for the extraction and quantification of specific carotenes and xanthophylls. PMID:27570797

  18. Coprophagy: an unusual source of essential carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Negro, J J; Grande, J M; Tella, J L; Garrido, J; Hornero, D; Donázar, J A; Sanchez-Zapata, J A; BenItez, J R; Barcell, M

    2002-04-25

    The rare Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) stands out among the Old World vultures (Family Accipitridae) because of its brightly ornamented head, which is coloured yellow by carotenoid pigments, and its practice of feeding on faeces. Here we show that Egyptian vultures obtain these pigments from the excrement of ungulates. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that faeces can be used as a source of carotenoids by a vertebrate. PMID:11976670

  19. Evidence for compartmentalization of mammalian carotenoid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Palczewski, Grzegorz; Amengual, Jaume; Hoppel, Charles L.; von Lintig, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The critical role of retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives) for vision, reproduction, and survival has been well established. Vitamin A is produced from dietary carotenoids such as β-carotene by centric cleavage via the enzyme BCO1. The biochemical and molecular identification of a second structurally related β-carotene metabolizing enzyme, BCO2, has led to a prolonged debate about its relevance in vitamin A biology. While BCO1 cleaves provitamin A carotenoids, BCO2 is more promiscuous and also metabolizes nonprovitamin A carotenoids such as zeaxanthin into long-chain apo-carotenoids. Herein we demonstrate, in cell lines, that human BCO2 is associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane. Different human BCO2 isoforms possess cleavable N-terminal leader sequences critical for mitochondrial import. Subfractionation of murine hepatic mitochondria confirmed the localization of BCO2 to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Studies in BCO2-knockout mice revealed that zeaxanthin accumulates in the inner mitochondrial membrane; in contrast, β-carotene is retained predominantly in the cytoplasm. Thus, we provide evidence for a compartmentalization of carotenoid metabolism that prevents competition between BCO1 and BCO2 for the provitamin and the production of noncanonical β-carotene metabolites.—Palczewski, G., Amengual, J., Hoppel, C. L., von Lintig, J. Evidence for compartmentalization of mammalian carotenoid metabolism. PMID:25002123

  20. Diversity in the carotenoid profiles and the expression of genes related to carotenoid accumulation among citrus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Kato, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are not only important to the plants themselves but also are beneficial to human health. Since citrus fruit is a good source of carotenoids for the human diet, it is important to study carotenoid profiles and the accumulation mechanism in citrus fruit. Thus, in the present paper, we describe the diversity in the carotenoid profiles of fruit among citrus genotypes. In regard to carotenoids, such as β-cryptoxanthin, violaxanthin, lycopene, and β-citraurin, the relationship between the carotenoid profile and the expression of carotenoid-biosynthetic genes is discussed. Finally, recent results of quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses of carotenoid contents and expression levels of carotenoid-biosynthetic genes in citrus fruit are shown.

  1. Diversity in the carotenoid profiles and the expression of genes related to carotenoid accumulation among citrus genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Kato, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are not only important to the plants themselves but also are beneficial to human health. Since citrus fruit is a good source of carotenoids for the human diet, it is important to study carotenoid profiles and the accumulation mechanism in citrus fruit. Thus, in the present paper, we describe the diversity in the carotenoid profiles of fruit among citrus genotypes. In regard to carotenoids, such as β-cryptoxanthin, violaxanthin, lycopene, and β-citraurin, the relationship between the carotenoid profile and the expression of carotenoid-biosynthetic genes is discussed. Finally, recent results of quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses of carotenoid contents and expression levels of carotenoid-biosynthetic genes in citrus fruit are shown. PMID:27069398

  2. Carotenoid-based plumage colors and immune function: is there a trade-off for rare carotenoids?

    PubMed

    Fitze, Patrick S; Tschirren, Barbara; Gasparini, Julien; Richner, Heinz

    2007-01-01

    Theory suggests that carotenoid-based signals are used in animal communication because they contain specific information about parasite resistance or immunocompetence. This implies that honesty of carotenoid-based signals is maintained by a trade-off between pigmentation and immune function for carotenoids, assuming that the carotenoids used for coloration are also immunoenhancing. We tested this hypothesis by altering the diets of nestling great tits (Parus major) with supplementary beadlets containing the carotenoids that are naturally ingested with food or beadlets containing the carotenoids that are incorporated into the feathers; a control group received beadlets containing no carotenoids. We simultaneously immune challenged half of the nestlings of each supplementation group, using a two-factorial design. Activation of the immune system led to reduced color expression. However, only nestlings fed with the naturally ingested carotenoids and not with the carotenoids deposited in the feathers showed an increased cellular immune response. This shows that the carotenoids used for ornamentation do not promote the immune function, which conflicts with the trade-off hypothesis. Our results indicate that honesty of carotenoid-based signals is maintained by an individual's physiological limitation to absorb and/or transport carotenoids and by access to carotenoids, indicating that preferences for carotenoid-based traits in sexual selection or parent-offspring interactions select for competitive individuals, rather than specifically for immune function.

  3. Carotenoid Biosynthetic and Catabolic Pathways: Gene Expression and Carotenoid Content in Grains of Maize Landraces

    PubMed Central

    Messias, Rafael da Silva; Galli, Vanessa; Silva, Sérgio Delmar dos Anjos e; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor

    2014-01-01

    Plant carotenoids have been implicated in preventing several age-related diseases, and they also provide vitamin A precursors; therefore, increasing the content of carotenoids in maize grains is of great interest. It is not well understood, however, how the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated. Fortunately, the maize germplasm exhibits a high degree of genetic diversity that can be exploited for this purpose. Here, the accumulation of carotenoids and the expression of genes from carotenoid metabolic and catabolic pathways were investigated in several maize landraces. The carotenoid content in grains varied from 10.03, in the white variety MC5, to 61.50 μg·g−1, in the yellow-to-orange variety MC3, and the major carotenoids detected were lutein and zeaxanthin. PSY1 (phythoene synthase) expression showed a positive correlation with the total carotenoid content. Additionally, the PSY1 and HYD3 (ferredoxin-dependent di-iron monooxygenase) expression levels were positively correlated with β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, while CYP97C (cytochrome P450-type monooxygenase) expression did not correlate with any of the carotenoids. In contrast, ZmCCD1 (carotenoid dioxygenase) was more highly expressed at the beginning of grain development, as well as in the white variety, and its expression was inversely correlated with the accumulation of several carotenoids, suggesting that CCD1 is also an important enzyme to be considered when attempting to improve the carotenoid content in maize. The MC27 and MC1 varieties showed the highest HYD3/CYP97C ratios, suggesting that they are promising candidates for increasing the zeaxanthin content; in contrast, MC14 and MC7 showed low HYD3/CYP97C, suggesting that they may be useful in biofortification efforts aimed at promoting the accumulation of provitamin A. The results of this study demonstrate the use of maize germplasm to provide insight into the regulation of genes involved in the carotenoid pathway, which would thus better

  4. Adolescent Carotenoid Intake and Benign Breast Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tamimi, Rulla M.; Berkey, Catherine S.; Colditz, Graham A.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Malspeis, Susan; Willett, Walter C.; Frazier, A. Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carotenoids may reduce risk of benign breast disease (BBD), an independent risk factor for breast cancer, through antioxidative or antiproliferative mechanisms. Exposure to carotenoids may be most important during adolescence when breast tissue is still developing. We examined adolescent carotenoid intake in relation to BBD in young women. METHODS: In 6593 adolescent girls in the prospective Growing Up Today Study cohort, intakes of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene were assessed by using the means from food-frequency questionnaires in 1996, 1997, and 1998. Girls reported biopsy-confirmed BBD on questionnaires in 2005, 2007, and 2010 (n = 122). We conducted logistic regression of energy-adjusted carotenoid intakes in relation to BBD, adjusted for age, family history of breast cancer or BBD, age at menarche, nulliparity, alcohol intake, BMI, and physical activity. RESULTS: Mean (SD) age at baseline was 12.0 (1.6) years. β-Carotene intake was inversely associated with BBD; comparing the highest to lowest quartile, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio was 0.58 (95% confidence interval: 0.34–1.00; P-trend = .03). α-Carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin were also inversely associated with BBD, but the associations were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent carotenoid intake may be associated with lower BBD risk; these findings warrant further study. PMID:24709924

  5. Functions of Carotenoid Metabolites and Breakdown Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, George

    It is not only intact carotenoids but also fragments of carotenoid molecules that have important natural functions and actions. The electron-rich polyene chain of the carotenoids is very susceptible to oxidative breakdown, which may be enzymic or non-enzymic. Central cleavage gives C20 compounds, retinoids, as described in Chapter 16. Cleavage at other positions gives smaller fragments, notably C10, C13 and C15 compounds that retain the carotenoid end group. The formation of these is described in Chapter 17 and in Volume 3, Chapter 4. Oxidative breakdown can also take place during storage, processing and curing of plant material, and the products contribute to the desired aroma/flavour properties of, for example, tea, wine and tobacco. The importance of vitamin A (C20) in animals is well known. Vitamin A deficiency is still a major concern in many parts of the world. It can lead to blindness and serious ill-health or death, especially in young children. Volatile smaller carotenoid fragments (`norisoprenoids') are widespread scent/flavour compounds in plants.

  6. [Carotenoids: 2. Diseases and supplementation studies].

    PubMed

    Faure, H; Fayol, V; Galabert, C; Grolier, P; Moël, G L; Stephens, J; Nabet, F

    1999-05-01

    Inverse correlations have been found in most studies on the relationship between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of carotenoids on one side and degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases on the other side. Protective effects of carotenoids have been found for pathologies of the retina and the skin. Concentrations of these molecules in blood are lower in digestive pathologies and HIV. Short- and long-term toxicity of carotenoids was found to be low. In combination with the beneficial effects found for diets rich in carotenoids, this has initiated trials with relatively high doses of carotenoid supplements. In the study in Linxian (China) in a rural population with poor nutritional status, supplementation with beta-carotene, zinc, selenium and vitamin E lowered total mortality and mortality from stomach cancer. Other studies (ATBC, Caret.) on well-fed subjects did not show beneficial effects on mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. On the contrary, higher mortality and lung cancer incidence was found in supplemented subjects that were also exposed to asbestos and cigarette smoke. In these studies, doses of supplemental beta-carotene were high and varied from 20 to 50 mg/day. One still ongoing study, called Suvimax, doses subjects for eight years with a cocktail of vitamins and minerals including 6 mg per day of beta-carotene. This supplementation with physiologically seen more "normal" doses might give clarity on the question if beta-carotene is the protective factor in fruits and vegetables. PMID:10377477

  7. Molecular characterization of carotenoid biosynthetic genes and carotenoid accumulation in Lycium chinense.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shicheng; Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Woo Tae; Kim, Yeon Bok; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Yang, Jingli; Li, Cheng Hao; Park, Sang Un

    2014-01-01

    Lycium chinense is a shrub that has health benefits and is used as a source of medicines in Asia. In this study, a full-length cDNA clone encoding β-ring carotene hydroxylase (LcCHXB) and partial-length cDNA clones encoding phytoene synthase (LcPSY), phytoene desaturase (LcPDS), ξ-carotene desaturase (LcZDS), lycopene β-cyclase (LcLCYB), lycopene ε-cyclase (LcLCYE), ε-ring carotene hydroxylase (LcCHXE), zeaxanthin epoxidase (LcZEP), carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (LcCCD1), and 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (LcNCED) were identified in L. chinense. The transcripts were constitutively expressed at high levels in leaves, flowers and red fruits, where the carotenoids are mostly distributed. In contrast, most of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were weakly expressed in the roots and stems, which contained only small amounts of carotenoids. The level of LcLCYE transcripts was very high in leaves and correlated with the abundance of lutein in this plant tissue. During maturation, the levels of lutein and zeaxanthin in L. chinense fruits dramatically increased, concomitant with a rise in the level of β-cryptoxanthin. LcPSY, LcPDS, LcZDS, LcLCYB, and LcCHXE were highly expressed in red fruits, leading to their substantially higher total carotenoid content compared to that in green fruits. Total carotenoid content was high in both the leaves and red fruits of L. chinense. Our findings on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in L. chinense provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and may facilitate the optimization of carotenoid production in L. chinense. PMID:25090116

  8. Carotenoid diagenesis in a marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, C. D.; Maxwell, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The major carotenoids at three levels (3, 40, and 175 m below the sediment-water interface) in a core from a marine sediment (Cariaco Trench, off Venezuela) have been examined. Mass and electronic spectral data have provided evidence for the onset of a progressive reduction of carotenoids in the geological column. The time scale of the process appears to depend on the particular carotenoid. Reduction of up to two double bonds is observed for the diol, zeaxanthin, in the oldest sediment (about 340,000 years old) but no reduction is observed in the younger samples (about 5000 and 56,000 years old). The diketone, canthaxanthin, shows evidence of reduction of up to two double bonds in the 56,000-yr sample and up to five double bonds in the oldest sample. No reduction of beta-carotene was observed in any of the samples.

  9. Photodegradation of carotenoids in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, D.A.

    1987-04-01

    Photodegradation of vitamins in vitro is responsible for large losses of these nutrients in foods, beverages, and semisynthetic liquid formula diets. In vivo photodegradation of vitamins has been reported for riboflavin in jaundiced infants exposed to blue light and for folate in patients with chronic psoriasis given photochemotherapy. Two recent studies of normal subjects have also shown that photodegradation of carotenoids in plasma occurs with cumulative exposure of the skin to an artificial light source having maximal spectral emission in the UVA range. Females showed a larger effect of the UV light on their plasma carotenoid levels than males. These observations have identified a need for further investigation of the role of sunlight exposure as a determinant of plasma carotenoid levels and vitamin A status in human subjects.

  10. Carotenoids: more than just beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Gellenbeck, K W

    1998-12-01

    Fruits and vegetables of the human diet contain many of the over 600 carotenoid pigments that have been identified in plants. Led by work with beta-carotene, researchers have constantly been learning more about the metabolism of these compounds in the human body. Research work is now expanding beyond beta-carotene in an effort to understand what happens to all the pigments found in the human diet. This discussion briefly looks at research results on the carotenoids found in human serum as well as the effects of supplementation. Recent confusing results from large intervention trials with beta-carotene and lung cancer incidence are emphasized in relation to supplementation doses and beta-carotene source (synthetic vs. natural). The summation of results emphasizes the importance of the broad spectrum of carotenoids in the diet and relates to supplementation products currently being designed for the marketplace.

  11. Site-specific concentrations of carotenoids in adipose tissue: relations with dietary and serum carotenoid concentrations in healthy adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary carotenoids are related to decreased risk of certain diseases. Serum and adipose tissue carotenoid concentrations are used as biomarkers of intake. This study examined relationships among concentrations of carotenoids in diet, serum and adipose tissue. Twelve women and thirteen healthy men p...

  12. Carotenoid composition and in vitro pharmacological activity of rose hips.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Györgyi; Molnár, Péter; Radó-Turcsi, Erika; Deli, József; Kawase, Masami; Satoh, Kazue; Tanaka, Toru; Tani, Satoru; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Gyémánt, Nóra; Molnár, József

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare carotenoid extracts of Rose hips (Rosa canina L.) with regard to their phytochemical profiles and their in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), cytotoxic, multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal and radical scavenging activity. Carotenoid composition was investigated in the different fractionation of rose hips, using extraction methods. Six main carotenoids - epimers of neochrome, lutein, zeaxanthin, rubixanthin, lycopene, β,β-carotene - were identified from Rose hips by their chromatographic behavior and UV-visible spectra, which is in accordance with other studies on carotenoids in this plant material. The active principles in the carotenoid extract might differ, depending upon the extraction procedures.

  13. Accumulation of Paprika Carotenoids in Human Plasma and Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Azusa; Ichihara, Takashi; Takaha, Takeshi; Kuriki, Takashi; Nihei, Hideko; Kawamoto, Kazuhisa; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Maoka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation (incorporation) of paprika carotenoid in human plasma and erythrocytes was investigated. A paprika carotenoid supplement (14 mg/day) was ingested for 4 weeks by 5 young healthy volunteers (3 men and 2 women). After 2 weeks of carotenoid ingestion, the carotenoid levels in plasma and erythrocytes increased by 1.2-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively. Characteristic carotenoids found in paprika (capsanthin, cucurbitaxanthin A, and cryptocapsin) were detected in both plasma and erythrocytes. An oxidative metabolite of capsanthin (capsanthone) was also found in both plasma and erythrocytes.

  14. The carotenoid-continuum: carotenoid-based plumage ranges from conspicuous to cryptic and back again

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are frequently used by birds to colour their plumage with green, yellow, orange or red hues, and carotenoid-based colours are considered honest signals of quality, although they may have other functions, such as crypsis. It is usually assumed that red through yellow colours have a signalling function while green is cryptic. Here we challenge this notion using the yellow and green colouration of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), great tits (Parus major) and greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) as a model. Results The relationship between colouration (chroma, computed using visual sensitivities of conspecifics) and detectability (contrast against natural backgrounds as perceived by conspecifics and avian predators) followed a similar curvilinear pattern for yellow and green plumage with minimum detectability at intermediate levels of carotenoid deposition. Thus, for yellow and green plumage, colours at or close to the point of minimum detectability may aid in crypsis. This may be the case for blue and great tit green and yellow plumage, and greenfinch green plumage, all of which had comparably low levels of detectability, while greenfinch yellow plumage was more chromatic and detectable. As yellow and green blue tit colouration are strongly affected by carotenoid availability during moult, variation in pigment availability between habitats may affect the degree of background-matching or the costliness of producing cryptic plumage. Conclusions Increasing carotenoid-deposition in the integument does not always lead to more conspicuous colours. In some cases, such as in blue or great tits, carotenoid deposition may be selected through enhanced background-matching, which in turn suggests that producing cryptic plumage may entail costs. We stress however, that our data do not rule out a signalling function of carotenoid-based plumage in tits. Rather, it shows that alternative functions are plausible and that assuming a signalling function based solely on

  15. Continuous production of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Janssen, Marcel; Brandenburg, Willem A; Wijffels, René H

    2011-03-01

    During the in situ extraction of β-carotene from Dunaliella salina, the causal relationship between carotenoid extraction and cell death indicated that cell growth and cell death should be at equilibrium for a continuous in situ extraction process. In a flat-panel photobioreactor that was operated as a turbidostat cell numbers of stressed cells were kept constant while attaining a continuous well-defined light-stress. In this way it was possible to study the balance between cell growth and cell death and determine whether both could be increased to reach higher volumetric productivities of carotenoids. In the two-phase system a volumetric productivity of 8.3 mg β-carotene L(RV)(-1)d(-1) was obtained. In situ extraction contributed only partly to this productivity. The major part came from net production of carotenoid-rich biomass, due to a high growth rate of the cells and subsequent dilution of the reactor. To reach equilibrium between cell growth and cell death, sparging rates of dodecane could have been increased. However, already at the applied sparging rate of 286 L(dod)L(RV)(-1)min(-1) emulsion formation of the dodecane in the aqueous phase appeared. In a turbidostat without in situ extraction a volumetric productivity of 13.5 mg β-caroteneL(RV)(-1)d(-1) was reached, solely based on the continuous production of carotenoid-rich biomass. PMID:22112908

  16. Galloxanthin, a carotenoid from the chicken retina.

    PubMed

    WALD, G

    1948-05-20

    A new carotenoid has been isolated from the chicken retina for which the name galloxanthin is proposed. This substance has the properties of a hydroxy carotenoid or xanthophyll. It has not yet been crystallized. On a chromatogram of calcium carbonate it is adsorbed just below astaxanthin and above lutein. The absorption spectrum of galloxanthin lies in a region where natural carotenoids have not ordinarily been found. Its main, central absorption band falls at about 400 mmicro. The position of its spectrum suggests a conjugated system of eight double bonds. This relatively short polyene structure must be reconciled with very strong adsorption affinities. With antimony trichloride, galloxanthin yields a deep blue product, possessing a main absorption band at 785 to 795 mmicro, and a secondary maximum at about 710 mmicro which may not be due to galloxanthin itself. Galloxanthin appears to be one of the carotenoid filter pigments associated with cone vision in the chicken. It may act as an auxiliary to the other filter pigments in differentiating colors; or its primary function may be to exclude violet and near ultraviolet radiations for which the eye has a large chromatic aberration.

  17. Continuous production of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Janssen, Marcel; Brandenburg, Willem A; Wijffels, René H

    2011-03-01

    During the in situ extraction of β-carotene from Dunaliella salina, the causal relationship between carotenoid extraction and cell death indicated that cell growth and cell death should be at equilibrium for a continuous in situ extraction process. In a flat-panel photobioreactor that was operated as a turbidostat cell numbers of stressed cells were kept constant while attaining a continuous well-defined light-stress. In this way it was possible to study the balance between cell growth and cell death and determine whether both could be increased to reach higher volumetric productivities of carotenoids. In the two-phase system a volumetric productivity of 8.3 mg β-carotene L(RV)(-1)d(-1) was obtained. In situ extraction contributed only partly to this productivity. The major part came from net production of carotenoid-rich biomass, due to a high growth rate of the cells and subsequent dilution of the reactor. To reach equilibrium between cell growth and cell death, sparging rates of dodecane could have been increased. However, already at the applied sparging rate of 286 L(dod)L(RV)(-1)min(-1) emulsion formation of the dodecane in the aqueous phase appeared. In a turbidostat without in situ extraction a volumetric productivity of 13.5 mg β-caroteneL(RV)(-1)d(-1) was reached, solely based on the continuous production of carotenoid-rich biomass.

  18. Influence of Phenylalanine on Carotenoid Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, L.; Ni, X.; Luo, X.

    2015-01-01

    The carotenoids lutein and β-carotene form, in 1:1 ethanol-water mixtures H-aggregates, of different strengths. The effects of phenylalanine on these aggregates were recorded by UV-Vis absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and Raman spectra. The H-aggregate of lutein was characterized by a large 78 nm blue shift in the absorption spectra, confirming the strong coupling between hydroxyl groups of adjacent molecules. The 15 nm blue shift in the β-carotene mixture also indicates that it was assembled by weak coupling between polyenes. After adding phenylalanine, the reducing absorption strength of the aggregates of lutein and reappearance of vibrational substructure indicate that the hydroxyl and amino groups of phenylalanine may coordinate to lutein and disaggregate the H-aggregates. However, phenylalanine had no effect on aggregates of β-carotene. The Raman spectra show three bands of carotenoids whose intensities decreased with increasing phenylalanine concentration. The frequency of ν1 corresponding to the length of the conjugated region was more sensitive to the solution of lutein. This coordination of phenylalanine to lutein could increase the length of the conjugated region. In addition, phenylalanine significantly affected the excited electronic states of carotenoids, which were crucial in the energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophyll a in vivo.

  19. Carotenoids from Haloarchaea and Their Potential in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo-Baños, Montserrat; Garbayo, Inés; Vílchez, Carlos; Bonete, María José; Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María

    2015-01-01

    The production of pigments by halophilic archaea has been analysed during the last half a century. The main reasons that sustains this research are: (i) many haloarchaeal species possess high carotenoids production availability; (ii) downstream processes related to carotenoid isolation from haloarchaea is relatively quick, easy and cheap; (iii) carotenoids production by haloarchaea can be improved by genetic modification or even by modifying several cultivation aspects such as nutrition, growth pH, temperature, etc.; (iv) carotenoids are needed to support plant and animal life and human well-being; and (v) carotenoids are compounds highly demanded by pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food markets. Several studies about carotenoid production by haloarchaea have been reported so far, most of them focused on pigments isolation or carotenoids production under different culture conditions. However, the understanding of carotenoid metabolism, regulation, and roles of carotenoid derivatives in this group of extreme microorganisms remains mostly unrevealed. The uses of those haloarchaeal pigments have also been poorly explored. This work summarises what has been described so far about carotenoids production by haloarchaea and their potential uses in biotechnology and biomedicine. In particular, new scientific evidence of improved carotenoid production by one of the better known haloarchaeon (Haloferax mediterranei) is also discussed. PMID:26308012

  20. Carotenoids from Haloarchaea and Their Potential in Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo-Baños, Montserrat; Garbayo, Inés; Vílchez, Carlos; Bonete, María José; Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María

    2015-08-25

    The production of pigments by halophilic archaea has been analysed during the last half a century. The main reasons that sustains this research are: (i) many haloarchaeal species possess high carotenoids production availability; (ii) downstream processes related to carotenoid isolation from haloarchaea is relatively quick, easy and cheap; (iii) carotenoids production by haloarchaea can be improved by genetic modification or even by modifying several cultivation aspects such as nutrition, growth pH, temperature, etc.; (iv) carotenoids are needed to support plant and animal life and human well-being; and (v) carotenoids are compounds highly demanded by pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food markets. Several studies about carotenoid production by haloarchaea have been reported so far, most of them focused on pigments isolation or carotenoids production under different culture conditions. However, the understanding of carotenoid metabolism, regulation, and roles of carotenoid derivatives in this group of extreme microorganisms remains mostly unrevealed. The uses of those haloarchaeal pigments have also been poorly explored. This work summarises what has been described so far about carotenoids production by haloarchaea and their potential uses in biotechnology and biomedicine. In particular, new scientific evidence of improved carotenoid production by one of the better known haloarchaeon (Haloferax mediterranei) is also discussed.

  1. Carotenoid biosynthesis and overproduction in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium glutamicum contains the glycosylated C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin as yellow pigment. Starting from isopentenyl pyrophosphate, which is generated in the non-mevalonate pathway, decaprenoxanthin is synthesized via the intermediates farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, lycopene and flavuxanthin. Results Here, we showed that the genes of the carotenoid gene cluster crtE-cg0722-crtBIYeYfEb are co-transcribed and characterized defined gene deletion mutants. Gene deletion analysis revealed that crtI, crtEb, and crtYeYf, respectively, code for the only phytoene desaturase, lycopene elongase, and carotenoid C45/C50 ɛ-cyclase, respectively. However, the genome of C. glutamicum also encodes a second carotenoid gene cluster comprising crtB2I2-1/2 shown to be co-transcribed, as well. Ectopic expression of crtB2 could compensate for the lack of phytoene synthase CrtB in C. glutamicum ΔcrtB, thus, C. glutamicum possesses two functional phytoene synthases, namely CrtB and CrtB2. Genetic evidence for a crtI2-1/2 encoded phytoene desaturase could not be obtained since plasmid-borne expression of crtI2-1/2 did not compensate for the lack of phytoene desaturase CrtI in C. glutamicum ΔcrtI. The potential of C. glutamicum to overproduce carotenoids was estimated with lycopene as example. Deletion of the gene crtEb prevented conversion of lycopene to decaprenoxanthin and entailed accumulation of lycopene to 0.03 ± 0.01 mg/g cell dry weight (CDW). When the genes crtE, crtB and crtI for conversion of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to lycopene were overexpressed in C. glutamicum ΔcrtEb intensely red-pigmented cells and an 80 fold increased lycopene content of 2.4 ± 0.3 mg/g CDW were obtained. Conclusion C. glutamicum possesses a certain degree of redundancy in the biosynthesis of the C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin as it possesses two functional phytoene synthase genes. Already metabolic engineering of only the terminal reactions

  2. Oxidative stress does not influence carotenoid mobilization and plumage pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Isaksson, Caroline; Andersson, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    Summary Oxidative stress has been suggested to create a link between ‘good genes’ and carotenoid coloration via an allocation conflict between external pigmentation and internal antioxidant functions. However, although carotenoid displays have been extensively investigated, there are no experimental tests of the antioxidant efficiency of carotenoids in vivo. We induced oxidative stress in a small passerine (the great tit, Parus major) under both carotenoid deprivation and supplementation, and investigated the effect on carotenoid mobilization (i.e. plasma) and allocation (i.e. deposition in feather incorporation and liver storage). We found no effects of the stressor on either mobilization or allocation of carotenoids. These results reject the previously suggested superior role of carotenoid's function as antioxidant in vivo with important implications for signal content and honesty. PMID:18029305

  3. What are carotenoids signaling? Immunostimulatory effects of dietary vitamin E, but not of carotenoids, in Iberian green lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopena, Renata; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2014-12-01

    In spite that carotenoid-based sexual ornaments are one of the most popular research topics in sexual selection of animals, the antioxidant and immunostimulatory role of carotenoids, presumably signaled by these colorful ornaments, is still controversial. It has been suggested that the function of carotenoids might not be as an antioxidant per se, but that colorful carotenoids may indirectly reflect the levels of nonpigmentary antioxidants, such as melatonin or vitamin E. We experimentally fed male Iberian green lizards ( Lacerta schreiberi) additional carotenoids or vitamin E alone, or a combination of carotenoids and vitamin E dissolved in soybean oil, whereas a control group only received soybean oil. We examined the effects of the dietary supplementations on phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced skin-swelling immune response and body condition. Lizards that were supplemented with vitamin E alone or a combination of vitamin E and carotenoids had greater immune responses than control lizards, but animals supplemented with carotenoids alone had lower immune responses than lizards supplemented with vitamin E and did not differ from control lizards. These results support the hypothesis that carotenoids in green lizards are not effective as immunostimulants, but that they may be visually signaling the immunostimulatory effects of non-pigmentary vitamin E. In contrast, lizards supplemented with carotenoids alone have higher body condition gains than lizards in the other experimental groups, suggesting that carotenoids may be still important to improve condition.

  4. Mate choice for a male carotenoid-based ornament is linked to female dietary carotenoid intake and accumulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The coevolution of male traits and female mate preferences has led to the elaboration and diversification of sexually selected traits; however the mechanisms that mediate trait-preference coevolution are largely unknown. Carotenoid acquisition and accumulation are key determinants of the expression of male sexually selected carotenoid-based coloration and a primary mechanism maintaining the honest information content of these signals. Carotenoids also influence female health and reproduction in ways that may alter the costs and benefits of mate choice behaviours and thus provide a potential biochemical link between the expression of male traits and female preferences. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated the dietary carotenoid levels of captive female house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) and assessed their mate choice behavior in response to color-manipulated male finches. Results Females preferred to associate with red males, but carotenoid supplementation did not influence the direction or strength of this preference. Females receiving a low-carotenoid diet were less responsive to males in general, and discrimination among the colorful males was positively linked to female plasma carotenoid levels at the beginning of the study when the diet of all birds was carotenoid-limited. Conclusions Although female preference for red males was not influenced by carotenoid intake, changes in mating responsiveness and discrimination linked to female carotenoid status may alter how this preference is translated into choice. The reddest males, with the most carotenoid rich plumage, tend to pair early in the breeding season. If carotenoid-related variations in female choice behaviour shift the timing of pairing, then they have the potential to promote assortative mating by carotenoid status and drive the evolution of carotenoid-based male plumage coloration. PMID:22233462

  5. Regulation of carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in citrus juice sacs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Kato, Masaya; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Takagi, Toshihiko; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Nesumi, Hirohisa

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, to investigate the mechanisms regulating carotenoid accumulation in citrus, a culture system was set up in vitro with juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.). The juice sacs of all the three varieties enlarged gradually with carotenoid accumulation. The changing patterns of carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in juice sacs in vitro were similar to those ripening on trees in the three varieties. Using this system, the changes in the carotenoid content and the expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in response to environmental stimuli were investigated. The results showed that carotenoid accumulation was induced by blue light treatment, but was not affected by red light treatment in the three varieties. Different regulation of CitPSY expression, which was up-regulated by blue light while unaffected by red light, led to different changes in carotenoid content in response to these two treatments in Satsuma mandarin and Valencia orange. In all three varieties, increases in carotenoid content were observed with sucrose and mannitol treatments. However, the accumulation of carotenoid in the two treatments was regulated by distinct mechanisms at the transcriptional level. With abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, the expression of the genes investigated in this study was up-regulated in Satsuma mandarin and Lisbon lemon, indicating that ABA induced its own biosynthesis at the transcriptional level. This feedback regulation of ABA led to decreases in carotenoid content. With gibberellin (GA) treatment, carotenoid content was significantly decreased in the three varieties. Changes in the expression of genes related to carotenoid metabolism varied among the three varieties in response to GA treatment. These results provided insights into improving carotenoid content and composition in citrus during fruit

  6. Carotenoid Production by Halophilic Archaea Under Different Culture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Calegari-Santos, Rossana; Diogo, Ricardo Alexandre; Fontana, José Domingos; Bonfim, Tania Maria Bordin

    2016-05-01

    Carotenoids are pigments that may be used as colorants and antioxidants in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Since they also benefit human health, great efforts have been undertaken to search for natural sources of carotenoids, including microbial ones. The optimization of culture conditions to increase carotenoid yield is one of the strategies used to minimize the high cost of carotenoid production by microorganisms. Halophilic archaea are capable of producing carotenoids according to culture conditions. Their main carotenoid is bacterioruberin with 50 carbon atoms. In fact, the carotenoid has important biological functions since it acts as cell membrane reinforcement and it protects the microorganism against DNA damaging agents. Moreover, carotenoid extracts from halophilic archaea have shown high antioxidant capacity. Therefore, current review summarizes the effect of different culture conditions such as salt and carbon source concentrations in the medium, light incidence, and oxygen tension on carotenoid production by halophilic archaea and the strategies such as optimization methodology and two-stage cultivation already used to increase the carotenoid yield of these microorganisms. PMID:26750123

  7. Carotenoid Production by Halophilic Archaea Under Different Culture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Calegari-Santos, Rossana; Diogo, Ricardo Alexandre; Fontana, José Domingos; Bonfim, Tania Maria Bordin

    2016-05-01

    Carotenoids are pigments that may be used as colorants and antioxidants in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Since they also benefit human health, great efforts have been undertaken to search for natural sources of carotenoids, including microbial ones. The optimization of culture conditions to increase carotenoid yield is one of the strategies used to minimize the high cost of carotenoid production by microorganisms. Halophilic archaea are capable of producing carotenoids according to culture conditions. Their main carotenoid is bacterioruberin with 50 carbon atoms. In fact, the carotenoid has important biological functions since it acts as cell membrane reinforcement and it protects the microorganism against DNA damaging agents. Moreover, carotenoid extracts from halophilic archaea have shown high antioxidant capacity. Therefore, current review summarizes the effect of different culture conditions such as salt and carbon source concentrations in the medium, light incidence, and oxygen tension on carotenoid production by halophilic archaea and the strategies such as optimization methodology and two-stage cultivation already used to increase the carotenoid yield of these microorganisms.

  8. Molecular characterization of carotenoid biosynthetic genes and carotenoid accumulation in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Jae Kwang; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2014-01-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis has a wide range of biological activities and has been considered as an important traditional drug in Asia and North America for centuries. A partial-length cDNA clone encoding phytoene synthase (SbPSY) and full-length cDNA clonesencoding phytoene desaturase (SbPDS), ξ-carotene desaturase (SbZDS), β-ring carotene hydroxylase (SbCHXB), and zeaxanthin epoxidase (SbZEP)were identifiedin S. baicalensis. Sequence analyses revealed that these proteins share high identity and conserved domains with their orthologous genes. SbPSY, SbPDS, SbZDS, SbCHXB, and SbZEP were constitutively expressed in the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of S.baicalensis. SbPSY, SbPDS, and SbZDS were highly expressed in the stems, leaves, and flowers and showed low expression in the roots, where only trace amounts of carotenoids were detected. SbCHXB and SbZEP transcripts were expressed at relatively high levels in the roots, stems, and flowers and were expressed at low levels in the leaves, where carotenoids were mostly distributed. The predominant carotenoids in S.baicalensiswere lutein and β-carotene, with abundant amounts found in the leaves (517.19 and 228.37 μg g-1 dry weight, respectively). Our study on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in S. baicalensis will provide basic data for elucidating the contribution of carotenoids to the considerable medicinal properties of S. baicalensis. PMID:26417348

  9. Evidence of Epigenetic Mechanisms Affecting Carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Arango, Jacobo; Beltrán, Jesús; Nuñez, Jonathan; Chavarriaga, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are able to regulate plant development by generating non-Mendelian allelic interactions. An example of these are the responses to environmenal stimuli that result in phenotypic variability and transgression amongst important crop traits. The need to predict phenotypes from genotypes to understand the molecular basis of the genotype-by-environment interaction is a research priority. Today, with the recent discoveries in the field of epigenetics, this challenge goes beyond analyzing how DNA sequences change. Here we review examples of epigenetic regulation of genes involved in carotenoid synthesis and degradation, cases in which histone- and/or DNA-methylation, and RNA silencing at the posttranscriptional level affect carotenoids in plants. PMID:27485227

  10. Optical absorption spectra of dications of carotenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Jeevarajan, J.A.; Wei, C.C.; Jeevarajan, A.S.; Kispert, L.D.

    1996-04-04

    Quantitative optical absorption spectra of the cation radicals and the dications of canthaxanthin (I), {beta}carotene (II), 7`-cyano-7`-ethoxycarbonyl-7`-apo-{beta}-carotene (III), and 7`,7`-dimethyl-7`-apo-{beta}-carotene (IV) in dichloromethane solution are reported. Exclusive formation of dications occurs when the carotenoids are oxidized with ferric chloride. Addition of neutral carotenoid to the dications results in equilibrium formation of cation radicals. Oxidation with iodine in dichloromethane affords only cation radicals; electrochemical oxidation under suitable conditions yields both dications and cation radicals. Values of the optical parameters depend on the nature of the oxidative medium. The oscillator strengths calculated for gas phase cation radicals and dications of I-IV using the INDO/S method show the same trend as the experimental values. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Modification of carotenoid levels by abscission agents and expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in 'valencia' sweet orange.

    PubMed

    Alferez, Fernando; Pozo, Luis V; Rouseff, Russell R; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2013-03-27

    The effect of 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP) and ethephon on peel color, flavedo carotenoid gene expression, and carotenoid accumulation was investigated in mature 'Valencia' orange ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) fruit flavedo at three maturation stages. Abscission agent application altered peel color. CMNP was more effective than ethephon in promoting green-to-red (a) and blue-to-yellow (b) color at the middle and late maturation stages and total carotenoid changes at all maturation stages. Altered flow of carotenoid precursors during maturation due to abscission agents was suggested by changes in phytoene desaturase (Pds) and ζ-carotene desaturase (Zds) gene expression. However, each abscission agent affected downstream expression differentially. Ethephon application increased β-carotene hydroxilase (β-Chx) transcript accumulation 12-fold as maturation advanced from the early to middle and late stages. CMNP markedly increased β- and ε-lycopene cyclase (Lcy) transcript accumulation 45- and 15-fold, respectively, at midmaturation. Patterns of carotenoid accumulation in flavedo were supported in part by gene expression changes. CMNP caused greater accumulation of total flavedo carotenoids at all maturation stages when compared with ethephon or controls. In general, CMNP treatment increased total red carotenoids more than ethephon or the control but decreased total yellow carotenoids at each maturation stage. In control fruit flavedo, total red carotenoids increased and yellow carotenoids decreased as maturation progressed. Trends in total red carotenoids during maturation were consistent with measured a values. Changes in carotenoid accumulation and expression patterns in flavedo suggest that regulation of carotenoid accumulation is under transcriptional, translational, and post-translational control.

  12. Raman spectra of carotenoids in natural products.

    PubMed

    Withnall, Robert; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Silver, Jack; Edwards, Howell G M; de Oliveira, Luiz F C

    2003-08-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of naturally occurring carotenoids have been obtained from nautilus, periwinkle (Littorina littorea) and clam shells under 514.5 nm excitation and these spectra are compared with the resonance Raman spectra obtained in situ from tomatoes, carrots, red peppers and saffron. The tomatoes, carrots and red peppers gave rise to resonance Raman spectra exhibiting a nu1 band at ca. 1520 cm(-1), in keeping with its assignment to carotenoids with ca. nine conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds in their main chains, whereas the resonance Raman spectrum of saffron showed a nu1 band at 1537 cm(-1) which can be assigned to crocetin, having seven conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds. A correlation between nu1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length has been used to interpret the data obtained from the shells, and the wavenumber position (1522 cm(-1)) of the nu1 band of the carotenoid in the orange clam shell suggests that it contains nine conjugated double bonds in the main chain. However, the black periwinkle and nautilus shells exhibit nu1 bands at 1504 and 1496 cm(-1), respectively. On the basis of the correlation between nu1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length, this indicates that they contain carotenoids with longer conjugated chains, the former having ca. 11 double bonds and the latter ca. 13 or even more. Raman spectra of the nautilus, periwinkle and clam shells also exhibited a strong band at 1085 cm(-1) and a doublet with components at 701 and 705 cm(-1), which can be assigned to biogenic calcium carbonate in the aragonite crystallographic form. PMID:12909134

  13. Raman spectra of carotenoids in natural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withnall, Robert; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Silver, Jack; Edwards, Howell G. M.; de Oliveira, Luiz F. C.

    2003-08-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of naturally occurring carotenoids have been obtained from nautilus, periwinkle ( Littorina littorea) and clam shells under 514.5 nm excitation and these spectra are compared with the resonance Raman spectra obtained in situ from tomatoes, carrots, red peppers and saffron. The tomatoes, carrots and red peppers gave rise to resonance Raman spectra exhibiting a ν1 band at ca. 1520 cm -1, in keeping with its assignment to carotenoids with ca. nine conjugated carboncarbon double bonds in their main chains, whereas the resonance Raman spectrum of saffron showed a ν1 band at 1537 cm -1 which can be assigned to crocetin, having seven conjugated carboncarbon double bonds. A correlation between ν1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length has been used to interpret the data obtained from the shells, and the wavenumber position (1522 cm -1) of the ν1 band of the carotenoid in the orange clam shell suggests that it contains nine conjugated double bonds in the main chain. However, the black periwinkle and nautilus shells exhibit ν1 bands at 1504 and 1496 cm -1, respectively. On the basis of the correlation between ν1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length, this indicates that they contain carotenoids with longer conjugated chains, the former having ca. 11 double bonds and the latter ca. 13 or even more. Raman spectra of the nautilus, periwinkle and clam shells also exhibited a strong band at 1085 cm -1 and a doublet with components at 701 and 705 cm -1, which can be assigned to biogenic calcium carbonate in the aragonite crystallographic form.

  14. A Unified Picture of S* in Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In π-conjugated chain molecules such as carotenoids, coupling between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom is of central importance. It governs both dynamic and static properties, such as the time scales of excited state relaxation as well as absorption spectra. In this work, we treat vibronic dynamics in carotenoids on four electronic states (|S0⟩, |S1⟩, |S2⟩, and |Sn⟩) in a physically rigorous framework. This model explains all features previously associated with the intensely debated S* state. Besides successfully fitting transient absorption data of a zeaxanthin homologue, this model also accounts for previous results from global target analysis and chain length-dependent studies. Additionally, we are able to incorporate findings from pump-deplete-probe experiments, which were incompatible to any pre-existing model. Thus, we present the first comprehensive and unified interpretation of S*-related features, explaining them by vibronic transitions on either S1, S0, or both, depending on the chain length of the investigated carotenoid. PMID:27509302

  15. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments of prochloron (prochlorophyta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paerl, H. W.; Lewin, R. A.; Cheng, L.

    1983-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a gradient-elution technique was utilized to separate and quantify chlorophylls a and b as well as major carotenoid pigments present in freeze-dried preprations of prochloron-didemnid associations and in Prochloron cells separated from host colonies. Results confirm earlier spectrophotometric evidence for both chlorophylls a and b in this prokaryote. Chlorophyll a:b ratios range from 4.14 to 19.71; generally good agreement was found between ratios determined in isolated cell preprations and in symbiotic colonies (in hospite). These values are 1.5 to 5-fold higher than ratios determined in a variety of eukaryotic green plants. The carotenoids in Prochloron are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those found in various freshwater and marine blue-green algae (cyanopbytes) from high-light environments. However, Prochloron differs from cyanophytes by the absence of myxoxanthophyll and related glycosidic carotenoids. It pigment characteristics are considered sufficiently different from those of cyanophytes to justify its assignment to a separate algal division.

  16. A Unified Picture of S* in Carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Balevičius, Vytautas; Abramavicius, Darius; Polívka, Tomáš; Galestian Pour, Arpa; Hauer, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    In π-conjugated chain molecules such as carotenoids, coupling between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom is of central importance. It governs both dynamic and static properties, such as the time scales of excited state relaxation as well as absorption spectra. In this work, we treat vibronic dynamics in carotenoids on four electronic states (|S0⟩, |S1⟩, |S2⟩, and |Sn⟩) in a physically rigorous framework. This model explains all features previously associated with the intensely debated S* state. Besides successfully fitting transient absorption data of a zeaxanthin homologue, this model also accounts for previous results from global target analysis and chain length-dependent studies. Additionally, we are able to incorporate findings from pump-deplete-probe experiments, which were incompatible to any pre-existing model. Thus, we present the first comprehensive and unified interpretation of S*-related features, explaining them by vibronic transitions on either S1, S0, or both, depending on the chain length of the investigated carotenoid. PMID:27509302

  17. Bioaccessibility of carotenoids from Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Gille, Andrea; Trautmann, Andreas; Posten, Clemens; Briviba, Karlis

    2015-08-01

    Microalgae can contribute to a balanced diet because of their composition. Beside numerous essential nutrients, carotenoids are in the focus for food applications. The bioavailability of carotenoids from photoautotrophic-cultivated Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii) was compared. An in vitro digestion model was used to investigate carotenoid bioaccessibility. Furthermore, the effect of sonication on bioaccessibility was assessed. Lutein was the main carotenoid in both species. C. reinhardtii showed higher amounts of lutein and β-carotene than C. vulgaris. In contrast to C. reinhardtii, no β-carotene and only 7% of lutein were bioaccessible in nonsonicated C. vulgaris. Sonication increased the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from C. vulgaris to a level comparable with C. reinhardtii (β-carotene: ≥ 10%; lutein: ≥ 15%). Thus, C. reinhardtii represents a good carotenoid source for potential use in foods without processing, while the application of processing methods, like sonication, is necessary for C. vulgaris. PMID:27146695

  18. Biotechnological production of value-added carotenoids from microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Wichuk, Kristine; Brynjólfsson, Sigurður; Fu, Weiqi

    2014-01-01

    We recently evaluated the relationship between abiotic environmental stresses and lutein biosynthesis in the green microalga Dunaliella salina and suggested a rational design of stress-driven adaptive evolution experiments for carotenoids production in microalgae. Here, we summarize our recent findings regarding the biotechnological production of carotenoids from microalgae and outline emerging technology in this field. Carotenoid metabolic pathways are characterized in several representative algal species as they pave the way for biotechnology development. The adaptive evolution strategy is highlighted in connection with enhanced growth rate and carotenoid metabolism. In addition, available genetic modification tools are described, with emphasis on model species. A brief discussion on the role of lights as limiting factors in carotenoid production in microalgae is also included. Overall, our analysis suggests that light-driven metabolism and the photosynthetic efficiency of microalgae in photobioreactors are the main bottlenecks in enhancing biotechnological potential of carotenoid production from microalgae. PMID:24691165

  19. Development of a rapid, simple assay of plasma total carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasma total carotenoids can be used as an indicator of risk of chronic disease. Laboratory analysis of individual carotenoids by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is time consuming, expensive, and not amenable to use beyond a research laboratory. The aim of this research is to establish a rapid, simple, and inexpensive spectrophotometric assay of plasma total carotenoids that has a very strong correlation with HPLC carotenoid profile analysis. Results Plasma total carotenoids from 29 volunteers ranged in concentration from 1.2 to 7.4 μM, as analyzed by HPLC. A linear correlation was found between the absorbance at 448 nm of an alcohol / heptane extract of the plasma and plasma total carotenoids analyzed by HPLC, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.989. The average coefficient of variation for the spectrophotometric assay was 6.5% for the plasma samples. The limit of detection was about 0.3 μM and was linear up to about 34 μM without dilution. Correlations between the integrals of the absorption spectra in the range of carotenoid absorption and total plasma carotenoid concentration gave similar results to the absorbance correlation. Spectrophotometric assay results also agreed with the calculated expected absorbance based on published extinction coefficients for the individual carotenoids, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.988. Conclusion The spectrophotometric assay of total carotenoids strongly correlated with HPLC analysis of carotenoids of the same plasma samples and expected absorbance values based on extinction coefficients. This rapid, simple, inexpensive assay, when coupled with the carotenoid health index, may be useful for nutrition intervention studies, population cohort studies, and public health interventions. PMID:23006902

  20. A Carotenoid Health Index Based on Plasma Carotenoids and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    While there have been many studies on health outcomes that have included measurements of plasma carotenoids, this data has not been reviewed and assembled into a useful form. In this review sixty-two studies of plasma carotenoids and health outcomes, mostly prospective cohort studies or population-based case-control studies, are analyzed together to establish a carotenoid health index. Five cutoff points are established across the percentiles of carotenoid concentrations in populations, from the tenth to ninetieth percentile. The cutoff points (mean ± standard error of the mean) are 1.11 ± 0.08, 1.47 ± 0.08, 1.89 ± 0.08, 2.52 ± 0.13, and 3.07 ± 0.20 µM. For all cause mortality there seems to be a low threshold effect with protection above every cutoff point but the lowest. But for metabolic syndrome and cancer outcomes there tends to be significant positive health outcomes only above the higher cutoff points, perhaps as a triage effect. Based on this data a carotenoid health index is proposed with risk categories as follows: very high risk: <1 µM, high risk: 1-1.5 µM, moderate risk: 1.5-2.5 µM, low risk: 2.5-4 µM, and very low risk: >4 µM. Over 95 percent of the USA population falls into the moderate or high risk category of the carotenoid health index. PMID:22292108

  1. Structural and functional roles of carotenoids in chlorosomes.

    PubMed

    Pšencík, Jakub; Arellano, Juan B; Collins, Aaron M; Laurinmäki, Pasi; Torkkeli, Mika; Löflund, Benita; Serimaa, Ritva E; Blankenship, Robert E; Tuma, Roman; Butcher, Sarah J

    2013-04-01

    Chlorosomes are large light-harvesting complexes found in three phyla of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. Chlorosomes are primarily composed of self-assembling pigment aggregates. In addition to the main pigment, bacteriochlorophyll c, d, or e, chlorosomes also contain variable amounts of carotenoids. Here, we use X-ray scattering and electron cryomicroscopy, complemented with absorption spectroscopy and pigment analysis, to compare the morphologies, structures, and pigment compositions of chlorosomes from Chloroflexus aurantiacus grown under two different light conditions and Chlorobaculum tepidum. High-purity chlorosomes from C. aurantiacus contain about 20% more carotenoid per bacteriochlorophyll c molecule when grown under low light than when grown under high light. This accentuates the light-harvesting function of carotenoids, in addition to their photoprotective role. The low-light chlorosomes are thicker due to the overall greater content of pigments and contain domains of lamellar aggregates. Experiments where carotenoids were selectively extracted from intact chlorosomes using hexane proved that they are located in the interlamellar space, as observed previously for species belonging to the phylum Chlorobi. A fraction of the carotenoids are localized in the baseplate, where they are bound differently and cannot be removed by hexane. In C. tepidum, carotenoids cannot be extracted by hexane even from the chlorosome interior. The chemical structure of the pigments in C. tepidum may lead to π-π interactions between carotenoids and bacteriochlorophylls, preventing carotenoid extraction. The results provide information about the nature of interactions between bacteriochlorophylls and carotenoids in the protein-free environment of the chlorosome interior.

  2. Differences in carotenoid accumulation among three feeder-cricket species: implications for carotenoid delivery to captive insectivores.

    PubMed

    Ogilvy, Victoria; Fidgett, Andrea L; Preziosi, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    There are a limited number of feeder-invertebrates available to feed captive insectivores, and many are deficient in certain nutrients. Gut-loading is used to increase the diversity of nutrients present in the captive insectivore diet; however, little is known about delivery of carotenoids via gut-loading. Carotenoids may influence health and reproduction due to their roles in immune and antioxidant systems. We assessed interspecific variation in carotenoid accumulation and retention in three feeder-cricket species (Gryllus bimaculatus, Gryllodes sigillatus and Acheta domesticus) fed one of three diets (wheat-bran, fish-food based formulated diet, and fresh fruit and vegetables). Out of the three species of feeder-cricket in the fish-food-based dietary treatment group, G. bimaculatus had the greatest total carotenoid concentration. All cricket species fed the wheat-bran diet had very low carotenoid concentrations. Species on the fish-food-based diet had intermediate carotenoid concentrations, and those on the fruit and vegetable diet had the highest concentrations. Carotenoid retention was poor across all species. Overall, this study shows that, by providing captive insectivores with G. bimaculatus crickets recently fed a carotenoid-rich diet, the quantity of carotenoids in the diet can be increased.

  3. Carotenoids in Staple Cereals: Metabolism, Regulation, and Genetic Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Shengnan; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids play a critical role in animal and human health. Animals and humans are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, and therefore rely upon diet as sources of these compounds. However, major staple cereals often contain only small amounts of carotenoids in their grains. Consequently, there is considerable interest in genetic manipulation of carotenoid content in cereal grain. In this review, we focus on carotenoid metabolism and regulation in non-green plant tissues, as well as genetic manipulation in staple cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat. Significant progress has been made in three aspects: (1) seven carotenogenes play vital roles in carotenoid regulation in non-green plant tissues, including 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase influencing isoprenoid precursor supply, phytoene synthase, β-cyclase, and ε-cyclase controlling biosynthesis, 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases responsible for degradation, and orange gene conditioning sequestration sink; (2) provitamin A-biofortified crops, such as rice and maize, were developed by either metabolic engineering or marker-assisted breeding; (3) quantitative trait loci for carotenoid content on chromosomes 3B, 7A, and 7B were consistently identified, eight carotenogenes including 23 loci were detected, and 10 gene-specific markers for carotenoid accumulation were developed and applied in wheat improvement. A comprehensive and deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism in crops will be beneficial in improving our precision in improving carotenoid contents. Genomic selection and gene editing are emerging as transformative technologies for provitamin A biofortification. PMID:27559339

  4. Carotenoids in Staple Cereals: Metabolism, Regulation, and Genetic Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shengnan; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids play a critical role in animal and human health. Animals and humans are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, and therefore rely upon diet as sources of these compounds. However, major staple cereals often contain only small amounts of carotenoids in their grains. Consequently, there is considerable interest in genetic manipulation of carotenoid content in cereal grain. In this review, we focus on carotenoid metabolism and regulation in non-green plant tissues, as well as genetic manipulation in staple cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat. Significant progress has been made in three aspects: (1) seven carotenogenes play vital roles in carotenoid regulation in non-green plant tissues, including 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase influencing isoprenoid precursor supply, phytoene synthase, β-cyclase, and ε-cyclase controlling biosynthesis, 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases responsible for degradation, and orange gene conditioning sequestration sink; (2) provitamin A-biofortified crops, such as rice and maize, were developed by either metabolic engineering or marker-assisted breeding; (3) quantitative trait loci for carotenoid content on chromosomes 3B, 7A, and 7B were consistently identified, eight carotenogenes including 23 loci were detected, and 10 gene-specific markers for carotenoid accumulation were developed and applied in wheat improvement. A comprehensive and deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism in crops will be beneficial in improving our precision in improving carotenoid contents. Genomic selection and gene editing are emerging as transformative technologies for provitamin A biofortification. PMID:27559339

  5. Heterologous carotenoid-biosynthetic enzymes: functional complementation and effects on carotenoid profiles in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Song, Gyu Hyeon; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Choi, Bo Hyun; Han, Se Jong; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2013-01-01

    A limited number of carotenoid pathway genes from microbial sources have been studied for analyzing the pathway complementation in the heterologous host Escherichia coli. In order to systematically investigate the functionality of carotenoid pathway enzymes in E. coli, the pathway genes of carotenogenic microorganisms (Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, Rhodopirellula baltica, and Pantoea ananatis) were modified to form synthetic expression modules and then were complemented with Pantoea agglomerans pathway enzymes (CrtE, CrtB, CrtI, CrtY, and CrtZ). The carotenogenic pathway enzymes in the synthetic modules showed unusual activities when complemented with E. coli. For example, the expression of heterologous CrtEs of B. linens, C. glutamicum, and R. baltica influenced P. agglomerans CrtI to convert its substrate phytoene into a rare product-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene-along with lycopene, which was an expected product, indicating that CrtE, the first enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, can influence carotenoid profiles. In addition, CrtIs of R. sphaeroides and R. capsulatus converted phytoene into an unusual lycopene as well as into neurosporene. Thus, this study shows that the functional complementation of pathway enzymes from different sources is a useful methodology for diversifying biosynthesis as nature does. PMID:23144136

  6. The Effects of Dietary Carotenoid Supplementation and Retinal Carotenoid Accumulation on Vision-Mediated Foraging in the House Finch

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Matthew B.; McGraw, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Background For many bird species, vision is the primary sensory modality used to locate and assess food items. The health and spectral sensitivities of the avian visual system are influenced by diet-derived carotenoid pigments that accumulate in the retina. Among wild House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus), we have found that retinal carotenoid accumulation varies significantly among individuals and is related to dietary carotenoid intake. If diet-induced changes in retinal carotenoid accumulation alter spectral sensitivity, then they have the potential to affect visually mediated foraging performance. Methodology/Principal Findings In two experiments, we measured foraging performance of house finches with dietarily manipulated retinal carotenoid levels. We tested each bird's ability to extract visually contrasting food items from a matrix of inedible distracters under high-contrast (full) and dimmer low-contrast (red-filtered) lighting conditions. In experiment one, zeaxanthin-supplemented birds had significantly increased retinal carotenoid levels, but declined in foraging performance in the high-contrast condition relative to astaxanthin-supplemented birds that showed no change in retinal carotenoid accumulation. In experiments one and two combined, we found that retinal carotenoid concentrations predicted relative foraging performance in the low- vs. high-contrast light conditions in a curvilinear pattern. Performance was positively correlated with retinal carotenoid accumulation among birds with low to medium levels of accumulation (∼0.5–1.5 µg/retina), but declined among birds with very high levels (>2.0 µg/retina). Conclusion/Significance Our results suggest that carotenoid-mediated spectral filtering enhances color discrimination, but that this improvement is traded off against a reduction in sensitivity that can compromise visual discrimination. Thus, retinal carotenoid levels may be optimized to meet the visual demands of specific behavioral tasks and

  7. A molecular genetic analysis of carotenoid biosynthesis and the effects of carotenoid mutations on other photosynthetic genes in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.

    1989-04-01

    The nine known R. capsulatus carotenoid genes are contained within the 46 kilobase (kb) photosynthesis gene cluster. An 11 kb subcluster containing eight of these genes has been cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. A new gene, crtK, has been located in the middle of the subcluster. The carotenoid gene cluster contains sequences homologous to Escherichia coli ..omega../sup 70/ promoters, rho-independent transcription terminators, and prokaryotic transcriptional factor binding sites. The phenotypes and genotypes of ten transposon Tn5.7 insertion mutations within the carotenoid gene cluster have been analyzed, by characterization of the carotenoids accumulated and high resolution mapping of the Tn5.7 insertions. The enzymatic blockages in previously uncharacterized early carotenoid mutants have been determined using a new in vitro synthesis system, suggesting specific roles for the CrtB and CrtE gene products. The expression of six of the eight carotenoid genes in the cluster is induced upon the shift from dark chemoheterotrophic to anaerobic photosynthetic growth. The magnitude of the induction is equivalent to that of genes encoding structural photosynthesis polypeptides, although the carotenoid genes are induced earlier after the growth shift. Different means of regulating photosynthesis genes in R. capsulatus are discussed, and a rationale for the temporal pattern of expression of the carotenoid genes during photosynthetic adaptation is presented. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the two dehydrogenases of the R. capsulatus carotenoid biosynthesis pathway reveals two regions of strong similarity. The effect of carotenoid mutations on the photosynthetic phenotype has been studied by examining growth rates, pigments, pigment-protein complexes and gene expression for a complete set of carotenoid mutants. 161 refs.

  8. Manipulation of Carotenoid Content in Plants to Improve Human Health.

    PubMed

    Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, Maria Jesús; Zacarias, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are essential components for human nutrition and health, mainly due to their antioxidant and pro-vitamin A activity. Foods with enhanced carotenoid content and composition are essential to ensure carotenoid feasibility in malnourished population of many countries around the world, which is critical to alleviate vitamin A deficiency and other health-related disorders. The pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis is currently well understood, key steps of the pathways in different plant species have been characterized and the corresponding genes identified, as well as other regulatory elements. This enables the manipulation and improvement of carotenoid content and composition in order to control the nutritional value of a number of agronomical important staple crops. Biotechnological and genetic engineering-based strategies to manipulate carotenoid metabolism have been successfully implemented in many crops, with Golden rice as the most relevant example of β-carotene improvement in one of the more widely consumed foods. Conventional breeding strategies have been also adopted in the bio-fortification of carotenoid in staple foods that are highly consumed in developing countries, including maize, cassava and sweet potatoes, to alleviate nutrition-related problems. The objective of the chapter is to summarize major breakthroughs and advances in the enhancement of carotenoid content and composition in agronomical and nutritional important crops, with special emphasis to their potential impact and benefits in human nutrition and health. PMID:27485228

  9. Non-invasive in vivo measurement of macular carotenoids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A non-invasive in vivo method for assessing macular carotenoids includes performing Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) on a retina of a subject. A spatial representation of carotenoid levels in the macula based on data from the OCT of the retina can be generated.

  10. Regulatory control of carotenoid accumulation in winter squash during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest storage of fruits and vegetables is often required and frequently results in nutritional quality change. In this study, we investigated carotenoid storage plastids, carotenoid content, and its regulation during 3-month storage of winter squash butternut fruits. We showed that storage imp...

  11. Manipulation of Carotenoid Content in Plants to Improve Human Health.

    PubMed

    Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, Maria Jesús; Zacarias, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are essential components for human nutrition and health, mainly due to their antioxidant and pro-vitamin A activity. Foods with enhanced carotenoid content and composition are essential to ensure carotenoid feasibility in malnourished population of many countries around the world, which is critical to alleviate vitamin A deficiency and other health-related disorders. The pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis is currently well understood, key steps of the pathways in different plant species have been characterized and the corresponding genes identified, as well as other regulatory elements. This enables the manipulation and improvement of carotenoid content and composition in order to control the nutritional value of a number of agronomical important staple crops. Biotechnological and genetic engineering-based strategies to manipulate carotenoid metabolism have been successfully implemented in many crops, with Golden rice as the most relevant example of β-carotene improvement in one of the more widely consumed foods. Conventional breeding strategies have been also adopted in the bio-fortification of carotenoid in staple foods that are highly consumed in developing countries, including maize, cassava and sweet potatoes, to alleviate nutrition-related problems. The objective of the chapter is to summarize major breakthroughs and advances in the enhancement of carotenoid content and composition in agronomical and nutritional important crops, with special emphasis to their potential impact and benefits in human nutrition and health.

  12. Molecular Factors Controlling Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting by Carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    Polívka, Tomáš; Frank, Harry A.

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoids are naturally-occurring pigments that absorb light in the spectral region in which the sun irradiates maximally. These molecules transfer this energy to chlorophylls, initiating the primary photochemical events of photosynthesis. Carotenoids also regulate the flow of energy within the photosynthetic apparatus and protect it from photo-induced damage caused by excess light absorption. To carry out these functions in nature, carotenoids are bound in discrete pigment-protein complexes in close proximity to chlorophylls. A few 3D structures of these carotenoid complexes have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Thus, the stage is set for attempting to correlate the structural information with the spectroscopic properties of carotenoids to understand the molecular mechanism(s) of their function in photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we summarize current spectroscopic data describing the excited state energies and ultrafast dynamics of purified carotenoids in solution and bound in light-harvesting complexes from purple bacteria, marine algae, and green plants. Many of these complexes can be modified using mutagenesis or pigment exchange which facilitates making the correlations between structure and function. We describe the structural and electronic factors controlling the function of carotenoids as energy donors. We also discuss unresolved issues related to the nature of spectroscopically dark excited states, which could play a role in light-harvesting. To illustrate the interplay between structural determinations and spectroscopic investigations that exemplifies work in the field, we describe the spectroscopic properties of four light-harvesting complexes whose structures have been determined to atomic resolution. The first, the LH2 complex from the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, contains the carotenoid, rhodopin glucoside. The second is the LHCII trimeric complex from higher plants which uses the carotenoids, lutein, neoxanthin

  13. Stimulation of carotenoid metabolism in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots.

    PubMed

    Fester, Thomas; Schmidt, Diana; Lohse, Swanhild; Walter, Michael H; Giuliano, Giovanni; Bramley, Peter M; Fraser, Paul D; Hause, Bettina; Strack, Dieter

    2002-11-01

    Development of arbuscular mycorrhizal roots is correlated with accumulation of various isoprenoids, i.e. acyclic C(14) polyene 'mycorradicin' and C(13) cyclohexenone derivatives. We present data indicating a strong stimulation of carotenoid metabolism in such roots. Carotenoid profiling revealed mycorrhiza-specific accumulation of zeta-carotene in Zea mays and Medicago truncatula. Precursor accumulation after inhibition of phytoene desaturase (Pds) activity by norflurazon indicated an increased phytoene biosynthetic capacity in mycorrhizal roots of all species analyzed. Nicotiana tabacum plants transformed with a PDS promoter- GUS construct showed a cell-specific induction of PDS promoter activity in root cells containing arbuscules. Mycorradicin biosynthesis and, partially, mycorrhization were impaired in maize mutants deficient in carotenoid biosynthesis. These data indicate that (1) mycorradicin is probably synthesized via a C(40) precursor carotenoid, (2) carotenoid biosynthesis is induced in mycorrhizal roots, (3) induction occurs, at least partially, at the transcriptional level, and (4) that this may play a functional role during mycorrhization.

  14. Carotenoids Assist in Cyanobacterial Photosystem II Assembly and Function

    PubMed Central

    Zakar, Tomas; Laczko-Dobos, Hajnalka; Toth, Tunde N.; Gombos, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls) are ubiquitous constituents of living organisms. They are protective agents against oxidative stresses and serve as modulators of membrane microviscosity. As antioxidants they can protect photosynthetic organisms from free radicals like reactive oxygen species that originate from water splitting, the first step of photosynthesis. We summarize the structural and functional roles of carotenoids in connection with cyanobacterial Photosystem II. Although carotenoids are hydrophobic molecules, their complexes with proteins also allow cytoplasmic localization. In cyanobacterial cells such complexes are called orange carotenoid proteins, and they protect Photosystem II and Photosystem I by preventing their overexcitation through phycobilisomes (PBS). Recently it has been observed that carotenoids are not only required for the proper functioning, but also for the structural stability of PBSs. PMID:27014318

  15. Carotenoid production in Bacillus subtilis achieved by metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazuyuki; Ueda, Shunsaku; Maeda, Isamu

    2009-11-01

    The carotenoid synthetic genes, crtM and crtN, derived from Staphylococcus aureus, were introduced into B. subtilis, resulting in yellow pigmentation. Absorption maxima of pigments and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry demonstrated that the pigmented strain accumulated two C(30) carotenoids, 4,4'-diapolycopene and 4,4'-diaponeurosporene. A survival test using H(2)O(2) revealed that the pigmented strain was more resistant to oxidative stress than the strain harboring an empty-vector. These findings indicate that B. subtilis can produce carotenoids, and the strain accumulating the carotenoids, CarotenoBacillus, will become a basal host for production of C(30) carotenoids and evaluation of their antioxidative effects.

  16. Carotenoids Assist in Cyanobacterial Photosystem II Assembly and Function.

    PubMed

    Zakar, Tomas; Laczko-Dobos, Hajnalka; Toth, Tunde N; Gombos, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls) are ubiquitous constituents of living organisms. They are protective agents against oxidative stresses and serve as modulators of membrane microviscosity. As antioxidants they can protect photosynthetic organisms from free radicals like reactive oxygen species that originate from water splitting, the first step of photosynthesis. We summarize the structural and functional roles of carotenoids in connection with cyanobacterial Photosystem II. Although carotenoids are hydrophobic molecules, their complexes with proteins also allow cytoplasmic localization. In cyanobacterial cells such complexes are called orange carotenoid proteins, and they protect Photosystem II and Photosystem I by preventing their overexcitation through phycobilisomes (PBS). Recently it has been observed that carotenoids are not only required for the proper functioning, but also for the structural stability of PBSs. PMID:27014318

  17. Carotenoid incorporation into microsomes: yields, stability and membrane dynamics.

    PubMed

    Socaciu, C; Jessel, R; Diehl, H A

    2000-12-01

    The carotenoids beta-carotene (BC), lycopene (LYC), lutein (LUT), zeaxanthin (ZEA), canthaxanthin (CTX) and astaxanthin (ASTA) have been incorporated into pig liver microsomes. Effective incorporation concentrations in the range of about 1-6 nmol/mg microsomal protein were obtained. A stability test at room temperature revealed that after 3 h BC and LYC had decayed totally whereas, gradually, CTX (46%), LUT (21%), ASTA (17%) and ZEA (5%) decayed. Biophysical parameters of the microsomal membrane were changed hardly by the incorporation of carotenoids. A small rigidification may occur. Membrane anisotropy seems to offer only a small tolerance for incorporation of carotenoids and seems to limit the achievable incorporation concentrations of the carotenoids into microsomes. Microsomes instead of liposomes should be preferred as a membrane model to study mutual effects of carotenoids and membrane dynamics.

  18. Biosynthesis of Carotenoids in Plants: Enzymes and Color.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Saavedra, Carolina; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most important biocolor isoprenoids responsible for yellow, orange and red colors found in nature. In plants, they are synthesized in plastids of photosynthetic and sink organs and are essential molecules for photosynthesis, photo-oxidative damage protection and phytohormone synthesis. Carotenoids also play important roles in human health and nutrition acting as vitamin A precursors and antioxidants. Biochemical and biophysical approaches in different plants models have provided significant advances in understanding the structural and functional roles of carotenoids in plants as well as the key points of regulation in their biosynthesis. To date, different plant models have been used to characterize the key genes and their regulation, which has increased the knowledge of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in plants. In this chapter a description of each step in the carotenoid synthesis pathway is presented and discussed.

  19. Biosynthesis of Carotenoids in Plants: Enzymes and Color.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Saavedra, Carolina; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most important biocolor isoprenoids responsible for yellow, orange and red colors found in nature. In plants, they are synthesized in plastids of photosynthetic and sink organs and are essential molecules for photosynthesis, photo-oxidative damage protection and phytohormone synthesis. Carotenoids also play important roles in human health and nutrition acting as vitamin A precursors and antioxidants. Biochemical and biophysical approaches in different plants models have provided significant advances in understanding the structural and functional roles of carotenoids in plants as well as the key points of regulation in their biosynthesis. To date, different plant models have been used to characterize the key genes and their regulation, which has increased the knowledge of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in plants. In this chapter a description of each step in the carotenoid synthesis pathway is presented and discussed. PMID:27485218

  20. Carotenoids and their isomers: color pigments in fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hock-Eng; Prasad, K Nagendra; Kong, Kin-Weng; Jiang, Yueming; Ismail, Amin

    2011-02-18

    Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as 'functional food ingredients'. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids extensively studied in this regard include β-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Coloration of fruits and vegetables depends on their growth maturity, concentration of carotenoid isomers, and food processing methods. This article focuses more on several carotenoids and their isomers present in different fruits and vegetables along with their concentrations. Carotenoids and their geometric isomers also play an important role in protecting cells from oxidation and cellular damages.

  1. Differential expression of carotenoid-related genes determines diversified carotenoid coloration in floral tissues of Oncidium cultivars.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Chung-Yi; Pan, Hsin-An; Chuang, Yao-Nung; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2010-09-01

    Three cultivars of Oncidium orchid with varied coloration, such as Oncidium Gower Ramsey (yellow), Sunkist (orange), and White Jade (white), were analyzed for carotenoid metabolites and gene expression of carotenoid-biosynthetic genes. The HPLC analysis revealed that yellow Gower Ramsey accumulates violaxanthin, 9-cis-violaxanthin and neoxanthin, orange Sunkist accumulates an additional beta-carotene, and White Jade is devoid of carotenoid compounds. Molecular characterization indicated that the three Oncidium cultivars exhibited varied expression pattern and level in carotenoid-biosynthetic pathway. Among them, high expression level of beta-hydroxylase (OgHYB) and zeaxanthin epoxidase (OgZEP) was displayed in yellow Gower Ramsey, relative to the down-regulation of OgHYB and OgZEP exhibited in orange Sunkist, which results in the accumulation of beta-carotene and orange coloration in floral tissues. However, White Jade is caused by the up-regulation of OgCCD1 (Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase 1), which catabolizes carotenoid metabolites. Methylation assay of OgCCD1 promoter in White Jade and Gower Ramsey revealed that a high level of DNA methylation was present in OgCCD1 promoter region of Gower Ramsey. Transient expression of OgCCD1 in yellow lip tissues of Gower Ramsey by bombardment confirmed its function of disintegrating carotenoid compounds. Our results suggest an evolutionary significance that genetic variation of carotenoid-related genes in Oncidium generates the complexity of floral pigmentation and consequently provides the profound varieties in Oncidium population.

  2. A complex carotenoid palette tunes avian colour vision

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Matthew B.; Collins, Aaron M.; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M. Carter; Timlin, Jerilyn A.; Corbo, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    The brilliantly coloured cone oil droplets of the avian retina function as long-pass cut-off filters that tune the spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors and are hypothesized to enhance colour discrimination and improve colour constancy. Although it has long been known that these droplets are pigmented with carotenoids, their precise composition has remained uncertain owing to the technical challenges of measuring these very small, dense and highly refractile optical organelles. In this study, we integrated results from high-performance liquid chromatography, hyperspectral microscopy and microspectrophotometry to obtain a comprehensive understanding of oil droplet carotenoid pigmentation in the chicken (Gallus gallus). We find that each of the four carotenoid-containing droplet types consists of a complex mixture of carotenoids, with a single predominant carotenoid determining the wavelength of the spectral filtering cut-off. Consistent with previous reports, we find that the predominant carotenoid type in the oil droplets of long-wavelength-sensitive, medium-wavelength-sensitive and short-wavelength-sensitive type 2 cones are astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and galloxanthin, respectively. In addition, the oil droplet of the principal member of the double cone contains a mixture of galloxanthin and two hydroxycarotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). Short-wavelength-absorbing apocarotenoids are present in all of the droplet types, providing filtering of light in a region of the spectrum where filtering by hydroxy- and ketocarotenoids may be incomplete. Thus, birds rely on a complex palette of carotenoid pigments within their cone oil droplets to achieve finely tuned spectral filtering. PMID:26446559

  3. A complex carotenoid palette tunes avian colour vision.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Matthew B; Collins, Aaron M; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M Carter; Timlin, Jerilyn A; Corbo, Joseph C

    2015-10-01

    The brilliantly coloured cone oil droplets of the avian retina function as long-pass cut-off filters that tune the spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors and are hypothesized to enhance colour discrimination and improve colour constancy. Although it has long been known that these droplets are pigmented with carotenoids, their precise composition has remained uncertain owing to the technical challenges of measuring these very small, dense and highly refractile optical organelles. In this study, we integrated results from high-performance liquid chromatography, hyperspectral microscopy and microspectrophotometry to obtain a comprehensive understanding of oil droplet carotenoid pigmentation in the chicken (Gallus gallus). We find that each of the four carotenoid-containing droplet types consists of a complex mixture of carotenoids, with a single predominant carotenoid determining the wavelength of the spectral filtering cut-off. Consistent with previous reports, we find that the predominant carotenoid type in the oil droplets of long-wavelength-sensitive, medium-wavelength-sensitive and short-wavelength-sensitive type 2 cones are astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and galloxanthin, respectively. In addition, the oil droplet of the principal member of the double cone contains a mixture of galloxanthin and two hydroxycarotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). Short-wavelength-absorbing apocarotenoids are present in all of the droplet types, providing filtering of light in a region of the spectrum where filtering by hydroxy- and ketocarotenoids may be incomplete. Thus, birds rely on a complex palette of carotenoid pigments within their cone oil droplets to achieve finely tuned spectral filtering. PMID:26446559

  4. Biotechnological production of carotenoids by yeasts: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, carotenoids are valuable molecules in different industries such as chemical, pharmaceutical, poultry, food and cosmetics. These pigments not only can act as vitamin A precursors, but also they have coloring and antioxidant properties, which have attracted the attention of the industries and researchers. The carotenoid production through chemical synthesis or extraction from plants is limited by low yields that results in high production costs. This leads to research of microbial production of carotenoids, as an alternative that has shown better yields than other aforementioned. In addition, the microbial production of carotenoids could be a better option about costs, looking for alternatives like the use of low-cost substrates as agro-industrials wastes. Yeasts have demonstrated to be carotenoid producer showing an important growing capacity in several agro-industrial wastes producing high levels of carotenoids. Agro-industrial wastes provide carbon and nitrogen source necessary, and others elements to carry out the microbial metabolism diminishing the production costs and avoiding pollution from these agro-industrial wastes to the environmental. Herein, we discuss the general and applied concepts regarding yeasts carotenoid production and the factors influencing carotenogenesis using agro-industrial wastes as low-cost substrates. PMID:24443802

  5. Raman measurement of carotenoid composition in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner

    2004-07-01

    The carotenoids lycopene and beta-carotene are powerful antioxidants in skin and are thought to act as scavengers for free radicals and singlet oxygen. The role of carotenoid species in skin health is of strong current interest. We demonstrate the possibility to use Resonance Raman spectroscopy for fast, non-invasive, highly specific, and quantitative detection of beta-carotene and lycopene in human skin. Analyzing Raman signals originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of the carotenoid molecules under blue and green laser excitation, we were able to characterize quantitatively the relative concentrations of each carotenoid species in-vivo. In the selective detection, we take advantage of different Raman cross-section spectral profiles for beta-carotene and lycopene molecules, and obtain a quantitative assessment of individual long-chain carotenoid species in the skin rather than their cumulative levels. Preliminary dual-wavelength Raman measurements reveal significant differences in the carotenoid composition of different subjects. The technique holds promise for rapid screening of carotenoid compositions in human skin in large populations and may be suitable in clinical studies for assessing the risk for cutaneous diseases.

  6. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    PubMed

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale. PMID:27045759

  7. A complex carotenoid palette tunes avian colour vision.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Matthew B; Collins, Aaron M; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M Carter; Timlin, Jerilyn A; Corbo, Joseph C

    2015-10-01

    The brilliantly coloured cone oil droplets of the avian retina function as long-pass cut-off filters that tune the spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors and are hypothesized to enhance colour discrimination and improve colour constancy. Although it has long been known that these droplets are pigmented with carotenoids, their precise composition has remained uncertain owing to the technical challenges of measuring these very small, dense and highly refractile optical organelles. In this study, we integrated results from high-performance liquid chromatography, hyperspectral microscopy and microspectrophotometry to obtain a comprehensive understanding of oil droplet carotenoid pigmentation in the chicken (Gallus gallus). We find that each of the four carotenoid-containing droplet types consists of a complex mixture of carotenoids, with a single predominant carotenoid determining the wavelength of the spectral filtering cut-off. Consistent with previous reports, we find that the predominant carotenoid type in the oil droplets of long-wavelength-sensitive, medium-wavelength-sensitive and short-wavelength-sensitive type 2 cones are astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and galloxanthin, respectively. In addition, the oil droplet of the principal member of the double cone contains a mixture of galloxanthin and two hydroxycarotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). Short-wavelength-absorbing apocarotenoids are present in all of the droplet types, providing filtering of light in a region of the spectrum where filtering by hydroxy- and ketocarotenoids may be incomplete. Thus, birds rely on a complex palette of carotenoid pigments within their cone oil droplets to achieve finely tuned spectral filtering.

  8. Subchromoplast Sequestration of Carotenoids Affects Regulatory Mechanisms in Tomato Lines Expressing Different Carotenoid Gene Combinations[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Marilise; Mora, Leticia; Enfissi, Eugenia M.A.; Bramley, Peter M.; Fraser, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic engineering of the carotenoid pathway in recent years has successfully enhanced the carotenoid contents of crop plants. It is now clear that only increasing biosynthesis is restrictive, as mechanisms to sequestrate these increased levels in the cell or organelle should be exploited. In this study, biosynthetic pathway genes were overexpressed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines and the effects on carotenoid formation and sequestration revealed. The bacterial Crt carotenogenic genes, independently or in combination, and their zygosity affect the production of carotenoids. Transcription of the pathway genes was perturbed, whereby the tissue specificity of transcripts was altered. Changes in the steady state levels of metabolites in unrelated sectors of metabolism were found. Of particular interest was a concurrent increase of the plastid-localized lipid monogalactodiacylglycerol with carotenoids along with membranous subcellular structures. The carotenoids, proteins, and lipids in the subchromoplast fractions of the transgenic tomato fruit with increased carotenoid content suggest that cellular structures can adapt to facilitate the sequestration of the newly formed products. Moreover, phytoene, the precursor of the pathway, was identified in the plastoglobule, whereas the biosynthetic enzymes were in the membranes. The implications of these findings with respect to novel pathway regulation mechanisms are discussed. PMID:24249831

  9. Utilization of Dioxygen by Carotenoid Cleavage Oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xuewu; Golczak, Marcin; Zhang, Jianye; Kleinberg, Katie A; von Lintig, Johannes; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Kiser, Philip D

    2015-12-18

    Carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs) are non-heme, Fe(II)-dependent enzymes that participate in biologically important metabolic pathways involving carotenoids and apocarotenoids, including retinoids, stilbenes, and related compounds. CCOs typically catalyze the cleavage of non-aromatic double bonds by dioxygen (O2) to form aldehyde or ketone products. Expressed only in vertebrates, the RPE65 sub-group of CCOs catalyzes a non-canonical reaction consisting of concerted ester cleavage and trans-cis isomerization of all-trans-retinyl esters. It remains unclear whether the former group of CCOs functions as mono- or di-oxygenases. Additionally, a potential role for O2 in catalysis by the RPE65 group of CCOs has not been evaluated to date. Here, we investigated the pattern of oxygen incorporation into apocarotenoid products of Synechocystis apocarotenoid oxygenase. Reactions performed in the presence of (18)O-labeled water and (18)O2 revealed an unambiguous dioxygenase pattern of O2 incorporation into the reaction products. Substitution of Ala for Thr at position 136 of apocarotenoid oxygenase, a site predicted to govern the mono- versus dioxygenase tendency of CCOs, greatly reduced enzymatic activity without altering the dioxygenase labeling pattern. Reevaluation of the oxygen-labeling pattern of the resveratrol-cleaving CCO, NOV2, previously reported to be a monooxygenase, using a purified enzyme sample revealed that it too is a dioxygenase. We also demonstrated that bovine RPE65 is not dependent on O2 for its cleavage/isomerase activity. In conjunction with prior research, the results of this study resolve key issues regarding the utilization of O2 by CCOs and indicate that dioxygenase activity is a feature common among double bond-cleaving CCOs.

  10. Smoking, alcohol drinking and serum carotenoids levels.

    PubMed

    Aoki, K; Ito, Y; Sasaki, R; Ohtani, M; Hamajima, N; Asano, A

    1987-10-01

    Serum carotenoids concentrations in healthy inhabitants, aged 40-79 years, of a community were measured. The results are as follows. 1. The alpha- and beta-carotene and lycopene levels in serum were significantly higher in females than males. The alpha- and beta-carotene concentrations tended to increase with advancing age, this being especially marked for serum beta-carotene levels in males. However, beta-carotene levels were high in females throughout the age range of 50-69 years. There was no significant change in serum level of lycopene with age. 2. There was no significant difference in intake frequency of foods containing large amounts of carotenoids among the groups with or without smoking and drinking, as serum alpha- and beta-carotene levels were closely associated with intake frequency of green-yellow vegetables. 3. Regular alcohol drinkers or current smokers showed lower serum beta-carotene concentrations, and the effect of alcohol drinking on serum carotene level seemed to be larger than that of smoking. A synergistic lowering action of smoking and drinking on serum beta-carotene level was suggested. Among the alcohol drinkers, the more cigarettes consumed per day, the lower the serum beta-carotene level was, but this was not the case among the non-drinkers. Ex-smokers showed intermediate values between current smokers and non-smokers. The results suggest that alcohol drinking and smoking habit might be associated with lower serum beta-carotene level, which in turn may be related to excess incidence of cancer among smokers or drinkers.

  11. Enzymic Pathways for Formation of Carotenoid Cleavage Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischmann, Peter; Zorn, Holger

    Degraded carotenoids (apocarotenoids, norisoprenoids) have been a subject of intensive research for several decades. From the perspective of human physiology and nutrition, the retinoids, acting as vitamins, signalling molecules, and visual pigments, attracted the greatest attention (Chapters 15 and 16). Plant scientists, however, detected a wealth of different apocarotenoids, presumably derived by the excentric cleavage of carotenoids in various species, the plant hormone abscisic acid (1, Scheme 6) being the best-investigated example. With the onset of fruit ripening, flower opening or senescence of green tissues, carotenoids are degraded oxidatively to smaller, volatile compounds. The natural biological functions of the reaction products are outlined in Chapter 15. As many of these apocarotenoids act as potent flavour compounds, food chemists and flavourists worldwide have investigated meticulously their structural and sensory properties. Many aspects of carotenoid metabolites and breakdown products as aroma compounds are presented in a comprehensive book [1].

  12. Subcellular Localization of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Selstam, Eva; Norling, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    The biosynthesis pathway of carotenoids in cyanobacteria is partly described. However, the subcellular localization of individual steps is so far unknown. Carotenoid analysis of different membrane subfractions in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 shows that “light” plasma membranes have a high carotenoid/protein ratio, when compared to “heavier” plasma membranes or thylakoids. The localization of CrtQ and CrtO, two well-defined carotenoid synthesis pathway enzymes in Synechocystis, was studied by epitope tagging and western blots. Both enzymes are locally more abundant in plasma membranes than in thylakoids, implying that the plasma membrane has higher synthesis rates of β-carotene precursor molecules and echinenone. PMID:26083372

  13. Carotenoid biosynthesis in Rhodospirillum rubrum: effect of pteridine inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Nugent, N A; Fuller, R C

    1967-11-17

    A known inhibitor of pteridine utilization (4-phenoxy,2,6-diamino pyridine) blocks the synthesis of colored carotenoids in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. In many ways the effect is similar to the inhibition of the synthesis of colored carotenoids by diphenylamine. This inhibition is probably independent of other effects of pteridine on photosynthetic electron transport since it is not as readily reversible as the total inhibition of photosynthetic activity by pteridine analogs.

  14. Seeking carotenoid pigments in amber-preserved fossil feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Daniel B.; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Dove, Carla J.; Grimaldi, David A.; James, Helen F.

    2014-06-01

    Plumage colours bestowed by carotenoid pigments can be important for visual communication and likely have a long evolutionary history within Aves. Discovering plumage carotenoids in fossil feathers could provide insight into the ecology of ancient birds and non-avian dinosaurs. With reference to a modern feather, we sought chemical evidence of carotenoids in six feathers preserved in amber (Miocene to mid-Cretaceous) and in a feather preserved as a compression fossil (Eocene). Evidence of melanin pigmentation and microstructure preservation was evaluated with scanning electron and light microscopies. We observed fine microstructural details including evidence for melanin pigmentation in the amber and compression fossils, but Raman spectral bands did not confirm the presence of carotenoids in them. Carotenoids may have been originally absent from these feathers or the pigments may have degraded during burial; the preservation of microstructure may suggest the former. Significantly, we show that carotenoid plumage pigments can be detected without sample destruction through an amber matrix using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

  15. Effect of some viticultural parameters on the grape carotenoid profile.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carla; Ferreira, António César; Costa, Paulo; Guerra, Joaquim; Guedes De Pinho, Paula

    2004-06-30

    The effect of some viticultural parameters on the grape carotenoid profile was investigated. Grape cultivar, ripeness stage, sunlight and shade exposure, altitude, and vegetative height were studied. Differences between cultivars were observed in eight different black grape varieties: Touriga Brasileira (TBR), Tinta Barroca (TB), Tinta Amarela (TA), Souzão (S), Touriga Franca (TF), Touriga Nacional (TN), Tinta Roriz (TR), and Tinto Cão (TC), from the Douro region. TA and TBR clearly produced higher concentrations of carotenoids. Results showed that carotenoid content decreased during ripening. Decreases of lutein were observed until 66%, whereas beta-carotene slowly decreased, having a constant level until the harvest date. Carotenoid contents were consistently higher in grapes exposed to shade than in those exposed to direct sunlight in both studied white grape varieties, Maria Gomes (MG) and Loureiro (L). In the Douro Valley, high-elevation terraces, which presented a lower temperature and higher humidity during the maturation period, appeared to produce grapes with higher carotenoid values. Grapes grown with higher vegetative height seem to have higher carotenoid levels; furthermore, grapes grown with lower vegetative height had higher weight and sugar concentrations. PMID:15212466

  16. Raman detection of carotenoid pigments in the human retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellermann, Werner; Ermakov, Igor V.; McClane, Robert W.; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2000-04-01

    We have used resonance Raman scattering as a novel, non- invasive, in-vivo optical technique to measure the concentration of carotenoid pigment in the human retina. Using argon laser excitation we are able to measure two strong carotenoid resonance Raman signals at 1159 and 1525 wave numbers, respectively. The required laser power levels are within the limits given by safety standards for ocular exposure. Of the approximately ten carotenoid pigment found in normal human serum, the species lutein and zeaxanthin are concentrated in high amounts in the cells of the human macula, which is an approximately 5 mm diameter area of the retina in which the visual acuity is highest. These carotenoids give the macula a characteristic yellow coloration, and it is speculated that these molecules function as filter to attenuate photochemical damage and/or image degradation under bright UV/blue light exposures. In addition, they are thought to act as free-radical scavenging antioxidants. Studies have shown that there may be a link between macular degenerative diseases, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in the US, and the presence or absence of the carotenoids. We describe an instrument capable of measuring the macular carotenoids in human subjects in a non-invasive, rapid and quantitative way.

  17. Citrus flavanones enhance carotenoid uptake by intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Claudie, Dhuique-mayer; Alexandrine, During; Bertrand, Caporiccio; Franck, Tourniaire; Marie-Josephe, Amiot

    2013-11-01

    The health benefit of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables could be attributed to the presence of a large diversity of phytochemicals, including carotenoids. Bioactivities of carotenoids greatly depend on their bioavailability that could be modulated by the presence of other dietary constituents. Because citrus juices contain diverse antioxidant phytochemicals, the effects of flavonoids and ascorbic acid on intestinal carotenoid uptake were investigated. Experiments were conducted by using a Caco-2 cell monolayer exposed to micelles enriched in β-cryptoxanthin (b-CX, 5 μM) and β-carotene (b-C, 5 μM) in the presence of hesperetin (HES, 250 μM), hesperidin (HES-G, 250 μM), naringenin (NGN, 250 μM), acid ascorbic (AA, 50 μM) and iron. At 5 h or 24 h incubation, HES-G and HES significantly increased b-CX and b-C uptake by 1.7- and 1.6-fold, respectively (p < 0.05). Interestingly, AA was shown to eliminate the enhancing effect of HES-G by decreasing significantly the cellular uptake of carotenoids from 48.2 to 39.8% after 5 h incubation (p < 0.05). Iron decreased the carotenoid uptake, while HES-G in the presence of iron restored it, suggesting that the enhancing effect of HES-G on carotenoid uptake could be attributed to its iron-chelating activity.

  18. Seeking carotenoid pigments in amber-preserved fossil feathers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel B; Nascimbene, Paul C; Dove, Carla J; Grimaldi, David A; James, Helen F

    2014-01-01

    Plumage colours bestowed by carotenoid pigments can be important for visual communication and likely have a long evolutionary history within Aves. Discovering plumage carotenoids in fossil feathers could provide insight into the ecology of ancient birds and non-avian dinosaurs. With reference to a modern feather, we sought chemical evidence of carotenoids in six feathers preserved in amber (Miocene to mid-Cretaceous) and in a feather preserved as a compression fossil (Eocene). Evidence of melanin pigmentation and microstructure preservation was evaluated with scanning electron and light microscopies. We observed fine microstructural details including evidence for melanin pigmentation in the amber and compression fossils, but Raman spectral bands did not confirm the presence of carotenoids in them. Carotenoids may have been originally absent from these feathers or the pigments may have degraded during burial; the preservation of microstructure may suggest the former. Significantly, we show that carotenoid plumage pigments can be detected without sample destruction through an amber matrix using confocal Raman spectroscopy.

  19. Triplet excited state spectra and dynamics of carotenoids from the thermophilic purple photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum

    SciTech Connect

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Blankenship, R. E.

    2011-01-13

    Light-harvesting complex 2 from the anoxygenic phototrophic purple bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum was purified and studied by steady-state absorption, fluorescence and flash photolysis spectroscopy. Steady-state absorption and fluorescence measurements show that carotenoids play a negligible role as supportive energy donors and transfer excitation to bacteriochlorophyll-a with low energy transfer efficiency of ~30%. HPLC analysis determined that the dominant carotenoids in the complex are rhodopin and spirilloxanthin. Carotenoid excited triplet state formation upon direct (carotenoid) or indirect (bacteriochlorophyll-a Q{sub x} band) excitation shows that carotenoid triplets are mostly localized on spirilloxanthin. In addition, no triplet excitation transfer between carotenoids was observed. Such specific carotenoid composition and spectroscopic results strongly suggest that this organism optimized carotenoid composition in the light-harvesting complex 2 in order to maximize photoprotective capabilities of carotenoids but subsequently drastically suppressed their supporting role in light-harvesting process.

  20. Analysis of carotenoid accumulation and expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes in different organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jeongyeo; Park, Woo Tae; Kwon, Do Yeon; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Kim, Hye Ran; Park, Sang Un

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between carotenoid accumulation and expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes was investigated in the flowers, stems, young leaves, old leaves, and roots of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of BrPSY, BrPDS, BrZDS, BrLCYB, BrLCYE, BrCHXB, and BrZEP leading to the production of carotenoids were highest in the flowers or the leaves and lowest in the roots of Chinese cabbage. In contrast, the mRNA expression of BrNCED, a gene involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, was highest in the roots. High-performance liquid chromatography revealed that carotenoids, namely, lutein and β-carotene, were distributed predominantly in the flowers and leaves, with very little in the underground organ, the roots. Specifically, old leaves contained 120.3 μg/g lutein and 103.93 μg/g β-carotene, which is the most potent dietary precursor of vitamin A. Moreover, we found a relatively large amount of cis isomers of β-carotene, namely, 9-cis β-carotene and 13-cis β-carotene, in Chinese cabbage. These results provide insight into carotenoid biosynthetic mechanisms in Chinese cabbage and may be helpful in the metabolic engineering of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants.

  1. Evolution of carotenoid pigmentation in caciques and meadowlarks (Icteridae): repeated gains of red plumage coloration by carotenoid C4-oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Nicholas R; McGraw, Kevin J; Omland, Kevin E

    2014-03-01

    Many animals use carotenoid pigments to produce yellow, orange, and red coloration. In birds, at least 10 carotenoid compounds have been documented in red feathers; most of these are produced through metabolic modification of dietary precursor compounds. However, it is poorly understood how lineages have evolved the biochemical mechanisms for producing red coloration. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to identify the carotenoid compounds present in feathers from 15 species across two clades of blackbirds (the meadowlarks and allies, and the caciques and oropendolas; Icteridae), and mapped their presence or absence on a phylogeny. We found that the red plumage found in meadowlarks includes different carotenoid compounds than the red plumage found in caciques, indicating that these gains of red color are convergent. In contrast, we found that red coloration in two closely related lineages of caciques evolved twice by what appear to be similar biochemical mechanisms. The C4-oxygenation of dietary carotenoids was responsible for each observed transition from yellow to red plumage coloration, and has been commonly reported by other researchers. This suggests that the C4-oxygenation pathway may be a readily evolvable means to gain red coloration using carotenoids. PMID:24164419

  2. Validation model for Raman based skin carotenoid detection.

    PubMed

    Ermakov, Igor V; Gellermann, Werner

    2010-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy holds promise as a rapid objective non-invasive optical method for the detection of carotenoid compounds in human tissue in vivo. Carotenoids are of interest due to their functions as antioxidants and/or optical absorbers of phototoxic light at deep blue and near UV wavelengths. In the macular region of the human retina, carotenoids may prevent or delay the onset of age-related tissue degeneration. In human skin, they may help prevent premature skin aging, and are possibly involved in the prevention of certain skin cancers. Furthermore, since carotenoids exist in high concentrations in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, and are routinely taken up by the human body through the diet, skin carotenoid levels may serve as an objective biomarker for fruit and vegetable intake. Before the Raman method can be accepted as a widespread optical alternative for carotenoid measurements, direct validation studies are needed to compare it with the gold standard of high performance liquid chromatography. This is because the tissue Raman response is in general accompanied by a host of other optical processes which have to be taken into account. In skin, the most prominent is strongly diffusive, non-Raman scattering, leading to relatively shallow light penetration of the blue/green excitation light required for resonant Raman detection of carotenoids. Also, sizable light attenuation exists due to the combined absorption from collagen, porphyrin, hemoglobin, and melanin chromophores, and additional fluorescence is generated by collagen and porphyrins. In this study, we investigate for the first time the direct correlation of in vivo skin tissue carotenoid Raman measurements with subsequent chromatography derived carotenoid concentrations. As tissue site we use heel skin, in which the stratum corneum layer thickness exceeds the light penetration depth, which is free of optically confounding chromophores, which can be easily optically accessed for in vivo RRS

  3. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Carotenoid and Chlorophyll Harmonophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarz, Danielle Barbara

    Information regarding the structure and function of living tissues and cells is instrumental to the advancement of cell biology and biophysics. Nonlinear optical microscopy can provide such information, but only certain biological structures generate nonlinear optical signals. Therefore, structural specificity can be achieved by introducing labels for nonlinear optical microscopy. Few studies exist in the literature about labels that facilitate harmonic generation, coined "harmonophores". This thesis consists of the first major investigation of harmonophores for third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy. Carotenoids and chlorophylls were investigated as potential harmonophores. Their nonlinear optical properties were studied by the THG ratio technique. In addition, a tunable refractometer was built in order to determine their second hyperpolarizability (gamma). At 830 nm excitation wavelength, carotenoids and chlorophylls were found to have large negative gamma values however, at 1028 nm, the sign of gamma reversed for carotenoids and remained negative for chlorophylls. Consequently, at 1028 nm wavelength, THG signal is canceled with mixtures of carotenoids and chlorophylls. Furthermore, when such molecules are covalently bonded as dyads or interact within photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, it is found that additive effects with the gamma values still play a role, however, the overall gamma value is also influenced by the intra-pigment and inter-pigment interaction. The nonlinear optical properties of aggregates containing chlorophylls and carotenoids were the target of subsequent investigations. Carotenoid aggregates were imaged with polarization-dependent second harmonic generation and THG microscopy. Both techniques revealed crystallographic information pertaining to H and J aggregates and beta-carotene crystalline aggregates found in orange carrot. In order to demonstrate THG enhancement due to labeling, cultured cells were labeled with carotenoid

  4. [Recent knowledge about intestinal absorption and cleavage of carotenoids].

    PubMed

    Borel, P; Drai, J; Faure, H; Fayol, V; Galabert, C; Laromiguière, M; Le Moël, G

    2005-01-01

    Our knowledge about intestinal absorption and cleavage of carotenoids has rapidly grown during the last years. New facts about carotenoid absorption have emerged while some controversies about cleavage are close to end. The knowledge of the absorption and conversion processes is indispensable to understand and interpret the perturbations that can occur in the metabolism of carotenoids and vitamin A. Recently, it has been shown that the absorption of certain carotenoids is not passive - as believed for a long time - but is a facilitated process that requires, at least for lutein, the class B-type 1 scavenger receptor (SR-B1). Various epidemiological and clinical studies have shown wide variations in carotenoid absorption from one subject to another, such differences are now explained by the structure of the concerned carotenoid, by the nature of the food that is absorbed with the carotenoid, by diverse exogenous factors like the intake of medicines or interfering components, by diet factors, by genetic factors, and by the nutritional status of the subject. Recently, the precise mechanism of beta-carotene cleavage by betabeta-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase (EC 1.14.99.36) - formerly called beta-carotene 15,15' dioxygenase (ex EC 1.13.11.21) - has been discovered, and a second enzyme which cleaves asymmetrically the beta-carotene molecule has been found. beta-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase only acts on the 15,15' bond, thus forming two molecules of retinal from one molecule of beta-carotene by central cleavage. Even though the betabeta-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase is much more active on the beta-carotene molecule, a study has shown that it can act on all carotenoids. Searchers now agree that other enzymes that can catalyse an eccentric cleavage of carotenoids probably exist, but under physiological conditions the betabeta-carotene 15,15' monooxygenase is by far the most active, and it is mainly effective in the small bowel mucosa and in the liver. However the

  5. Validation model for Raman based skin carotenoid detection.

    PubMed

    Ermakov, Igor V; Gellermann, Werner

    2010-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy holds promise as a rapid objective non-invasive optical method for the detection of carotenoid compounds in human tissue in vivo. Carotenoids are of interest due to their functions as antioxidants and/or optical absorbers of phototoxic light at deep blue and near UV wavelengths. In the macular region of the human retina, carotenoids may prevent or delay the onset of age-related tissue degeneration. In human skin, they may help prevent premature skin aging, and are possibly involved in the prevention of certain skin cancers. Furthermore, since carotenoids exist in high concentrations in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, and are routinely taken up by the human body through the diet, skin carotenoid levels may serve as an objective biomarker for fruit and vegetable intake. Before the Raman method can be accepted as a widespread optical alternative for carotenoid measurements, direct validation studies are needed to compare it with the gold standard of high performance liquid chromatography. This is because the tissue Raman response is in general accompanied by a host of other optical processes which have to be taken into account. In skin, the most prominent is strongly diffusive, non-Raman scattering, leading to relatively shallow light penetration of the blue/green excitation light required for resonant Raman detection of carotenoids. Also, sizable light attenuation exists due to the combined absorption from collagen, porphyrin, hemoglobin, and melanin chromophores, and additional fluorescence is generated by collagen and porphyrins. In this study, we investigate for the first time the direct correlation of in vivo skin tissue carotenoid Raman measurements with subsequent chromatography derived carotenoid concentrations. As tissue site we use heel skin, in which the stratum corneum layer thickness exceeds the light penetration depth, which is free of optically confounding chromophores, which can be easily optically accessed for in vivo RRS

  6. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering for marine carotenoids: new opportunities and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-09-17

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations.

  7. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering for Marine Carotenoids: New Opportunities and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations. PMID:25233369

  8. Natural variation in expression of genes associated with carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several groups have reported on massive accumulation of total carotenoids in cassava storage root (CSR). Naturally occurring color variation associated with carotenoid accumulation was observed in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root of landraces from Amazon. Here carotenoid profiles from...

  9. The Signaling State of Orange Carotenoid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Maksimov, Eugene G.; Shirshin, Evgeny A.; Sluchanko, Nikolai N.; Zlenko, Dmitry V.; Parshina, Evgenia Y.; Tsoraev, Georgy V.; Klementiev, Konstantin E.; Budylin, Gleb S.; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Friedrich, Thomas; Fadeev, Victor V.; Paschenko, Vladimir Z.; Rubin, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    Orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is the photoactive protein that is responsible for high light tolerance in cyanobacteria. We studied the kinetics of the OCP photocycle by monitoring changes in its absorption spectrum, intrinsic fluorescence, and fluorescence of the Nile red dye bound to OCP. It was demonstrated that all of these three methods provide the same kinetic parameters of the photocycle, namely, the kinetics of OCP relaxation in darkness was biexponential with a ratio of two components equal to 2:1 independently of temperature. Whereas the changes of the absorption spectrum of OCP characterize the geometry and environment of its chromophore, the intrinsic fluorescence of OCP reveals changes in its tertiary structure, and the fluorescence properties of Nile red indicate the exposure of hydrophobic surface areas of OCP to the solvent following the photocycle. The results of molecular-dynamics studies indicated the presence of two metastable conformations of 3′-hydroxyechinenone, which is consistent with characteristic changes in the Raman spectra. We conclude that rotation of the β-ionylidene ring in the C-terminal domain of OCP could be one of the first conformational rearrangements that occur during photoactivation. The obtained results suggest that the photoactivated form of OCP represents a molten globule-like state that is characterized by increased mobility of tertiary structure elements and solvent accessibility. PMID:26244741

  10. A complex carotenoid palette tunes avian color vision.

    SciTech Connect

    Timlin, Jerilyn A.; Toomey, Matthew B.; Collins, Aaron M.; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M. Carter; Corbo, Joseph C.

    2015-10-07

    The brilliantly coloured cone oil droplets of the avian retina function as long-pass cut-off filters that tune the spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors and are hypothesized to enhance colour discrimination and improve colour constancy. Although it has long been known that these droplets are pigmented with carotenoids, their precise composition has remained uncertain owing to the technical challenges of measuring these very small, dense and highly refractile optical organelles. In this study, we integrated results from high-performance liquid chromatography, hyperspectral microscopy and microspectrophotometry to obtain a comprehensive understanding of oil droplet carotenoid pigmentation in the chicken (Gallus gallus). We find that each of the four carotenoid-containing droplet types consists of a complex mixture of carotenoids, with a single predominant carotenoid determining the wavelength of the spectral filtering cut-off. Consistent with previous reports, we find that the predominant carotenoid type in the oil droplets of long-wavelength-sensitive, medium-wavelength-sensitive and short-wavelength-sensitive type 2 cones are astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and galloxanthin, respectively. In addition, the oil droplet of the principal member of the double cone contains a mixture of galloxanthin and two hydroxycarotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). Short-wavelength-absorbing apocarotenoids are present in all of the droplet types, providing filtering of light in a region of the spectrum where filtering by hydroxy- and ketocarotenoids may be incomplete. Furthermore, birds rely on a complex palette of carotenoid pigments within their cone oil droplets to achieve finely tuned spectral filtering.

  11. A complex carotenoid palette tunes avian color vision.

    DOE PAGES

    Timlin, Jerilyn A.; Toomey, Matthew B.; Collins, Aaron M.; Frederiksen, Rikard; Cornwall, M. Carter; Corbo, Joseph C.

    2015-10-07

    The brilliantly coloured cone oil droplets of the avian retina function as long-pass cut-off filters that tune the spectral sensitivity of the photoreceptors and are hypothesized to enhance colour discrimination and improve colour constancy. Although it has long been known that these droplets are pigmented with carotenoids, their precise composition has remained uncertain owing to the technical challenges of measuring these very small, dense and highly refractile optical organelles. In this study, we integrated results from high-performance liquid chromatography, hyperspectral microscopy and microspectrophotometry to obtain a comprehensive understanding of oil droplet carotenoid pigmentation in the chicken (Gallus gallus). We findmore » that each of the four carotenoid-containing droplet types consists of a complex mixture of carotenoids, with a single predominant carotenoid determining the wavelength of the spectral filtering cut-off. Consistent with previous reports, we find that the predominant carotenoid type in the oil droplets of long-wavelength-sensitive, medium-wavelength-sensitive and short-wavelength-sensitive type 2 cones are astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and galloxanthin, respectively. In addition, the oil droplet of the principal member of the double cone contains a mixture of galloxanthin and two hydroxycarotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). Short-wavelength-absorbing apocarotenoids are present in all of the droplet types, providing filtering of light in a region of the spectrum where filtering by hydroxy- and ketocarotenoids may be incomplete. Furthermore, birds rely on a complex palette of carotenoid pigments within their cone oil droplets to achieve finely tuned spectral filtering.« less

  12. Improving Carotenoid Extraction from Tomato Waste by Pulsed Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Luengo, Elisa; Álvarez, Ignacio; Raso, Javier

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, the influence of the application of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) of different intensities (3–7 kV/cm and 0–300 μs) on the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel and pulp in a mixture of hexane:acetone:ethanol was studied with the aim of increasing extraction yield or reducing the percentage of the less green solvents in the extraction medium. According to the cellular disintegration index, the optimum treatment time for the permeabilization of tomato peel and pulp at different electric field strengths was 90 μs. The PEF permeabilization of tomato pulp did not significantly increase the carotenoid extraction. However, a PEF treatment at 5 kV/cm improved the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel by 39% as compared with the control in a mixture of hexane:ethanol:acetone (50:25:25). Further increments of electric field from 5 to 7 kV/cm did not increase significantly the extraction of carotenoids. The presence of acetone in the solvent mixture did not positively affect the carotenoid extraction when the tomato peels were PEF-treated. Response surface methodology was used to determine the potential of PEF for reducing the percentage of hexane in a hexane:ethanol mixture. The application of a PEF treatment allowed reducing the hexane percentage from 45 to 30% without affecting the carotenoid extraction yield. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts obtained from tomato peel was correlated with the carotenoid concentration and it was not affected by the PEF treatment. PMID:25988115

  13. Effects of white, blue, and red light-emitting diodes on carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression levels and carotenoid accumulation in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Sun-Ju; Lee, Sanghyun; Chung, Sun-Ok; Park, Sang Un

    2013-12-18

    In this study, the optimum wavelengths of light required for carotenoid biosynthesis were determined by investigating the expression levels of carotenoid biosynthetic genes and carotenoid accumulation in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) exposed to white, blue, and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Most carotenoid biosynthetic genes showed higher expression in sprouts irradiated with white light at 8 days after sowing than in those irradiated with blue and red lights. The dominant carotenoids in tartary buckwheat sprouts were lutein and β-carotene. The richest accumulation of total carotenoids was observed in sprouts grown under white light (1282.63 μg g(-1) dry weight), which was relatively higher than that in sprouts grown under blue and red lights (940.86 and 985.54 μg g(-1), respectively). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing the production of carotenoids and other important secondary metabolites in tartary buckwheat sprouts by using LED technology.

  14. Carotenoid scarcity, synthetic pteridine pigments and the evolution of sexual coloration in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Grether, G F; Hudon, J; Endler, J A

    2001-06-22

    Carotenoid-based sexual coloration is the classic example of an honest signal of mate quality. Animals cannot synthesize carotenoid pigments and ultimately depend on dietary sources. Thus, in carotenoid-poor environments, carotenoid coloration may be a direct indicator of foraging ability and an indirect indicator of health and vigour. Carotenoid coloration may also be affected, more directly, by parasites in some species. Carotenoids are not, however, the only conspicuous pigments available to animals. Pteridine pigments, with similar spectral properties, are displayed in the exoskeletons and wings of insects, the irides of birds and the skins of fishes, lizards and amphibians. Unlike carotenoids, pteridines are synthesized de novo by animals. We report that the orange spots that male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) display to females contain red pteridine pigments (drosopterins) in addition to carotenoids. We also examined the relationship between drosopterin production by males and carotenoid availability in the field. The results contrasted sharply with the hypothesis that males use drosopterins to compensate for carotenoid scarcity: males used more, not less, drosopterins in streams with higher carotenoid availability. The positive association between drosopterin use and carotenoid availability could reflect the costs of drosopterin synthesis or it could be a consequence of females preferring a particular pigment ratio or hue. Male guppies appear to use drosopterin pigments in a manner that dilutes, but does not eliminate, the indicator value of carotenoid coloration.

  15. Stability of bacterial carotenoids in the presence of iron in a model of the gastric compartment - comparison with dietary reference carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Sy, Charlotte; Dangles, Olivier; Borel, Patrick; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2015-04-15

    Recently isolated spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria, Bacillus indicus HU36 and Bacillus firmus GB1 are sources of carotenoids (∼fifteen distinct yellow and orange pigments and ∼thirteen distinct pink pigments, respectively). They are glycosides of oxygenated lycopene derivatives (apo-lycopenoids) and are assumed to be more heat- and gastric-stable than common carotenoids. In this study, the oxidation by O2 of the bacterial carotenoids was initiated by free iron (Fe(II) and Fe(III)) or by heme iron (metmyoglobin) in a mildly acidic aqueous solution mimicking the gastro-intestinal compartment and compared to the oxidation of the common dietary carotenoids β-carotene, lycopene and astaxanthin. Under these conditions, all bacterial carotenoids appear more stable in the presence of heme iron vs. free iron. Carotenoid autoxidation initiated by Fe(II) is relatively fast and likely involves reactive oxygen-iron species derived from Fe(II) and O2. By contrast, the corresponding reaction with Fe(III) is kinetically blocked by the slow preliminary reduction of Fe(III) into Fe(II) by the carotenoids. The stability of carotenoids toward autoxidation increases as follows: β-carotenecarotenoids react more quickly than reference carotenoids with Fe(III), but much more slowly than the reference carotenoids with Fe(II). This reaction is correlated with the structure of the carotenoids, which can have opposite effects in a micellar system: bacterial carotenoids with electro-attracting terminal groups have a lower reducing capacity than β-carotene and lycopene. However, their polar head favours their location close to the interface of micelles, in closer contact with oxidative species. Kinetic analyses of the iron-induced autoxidation of astaxanthin and HU36 carotenoids has been performed and gives insights in the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25595845

  16. Marine Carotenoids against Oxidative Stress: Effects on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Riccioni, Graziano; D’Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments that are produced in some plants, algae, fungi, and bacterial species, which accounts for their orange and yellow hues. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants thanks to their ability to quench singlet oxygen, to be oxidized, to be isomerized, and to scavenge free radicals, which plays a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases. Unusual marine environments are associated with a great chemical diversity, resulting in novel bioactive molecules. Thus, marine organisms may represent an important source of novel biologically active substances for the development of therapeutics. In this respect, various novel marine carotenoids have recently been isolated from marine organisms and displayed several utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Marine carotenoids (astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein but also the rare siphonaxanthin, sioxanthin, and myxol) have recently shown antioxidant properties in reducing oxidative stress markers. This review aims to describe the role of marine carotenoids against oxidative stress and their potential applications in preventing and treating inflammatory diseases. PMID:26437420

  17. Carotenoids as a Source of Antioxidants in the Diet.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Ana Augusta Odorissi; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids, widely distributed fat-soluble pigments, are responsible for the attractive colorations of several fruits and vegetables commonly present in our daily diet. They are particularly abundant in yellow-orange fruits (carrots, tomatoes, pumpkins, peppers, among others) and, although masked by chlorophylls, in dark green leafy vegetables. Several health benefits have been attributed to carotenoids or to foods rich in these pigments, by means of different mechanisms-of-action, including the role as provitamin A of almost 50 different carotenoids and the antioxidant activity that protects cells and tissues from damage of free radicals and singlet oxygen, providing enhancement of the immune function, protection from sunburn reactions and delaying the onset of certain types of cancer. Common food sources and the efficiency of the absorption of carotenoids, analytical approaches used for measurement of their antioxidant effect and an overview of some epidemiological studies that have been performed to assess the beneficial impact of carotenoids in human health are outlined in this chapter. PMID:27485230

  18. Effects of Molecular Symmetry on the Electronic Transitions in Carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Fiedor, Leszek; Heriyanto; Fiedor, Joanna; Pilch, Mariusz

    2016-05-19

    The aim of this work is the verification of symmetry effects on the electronic absorption spectra of carotenoids. The symmetry breaking in cis-β-carotenes and in carotenoids with nonlinear π-electron system is of virtually no effect on the dark transitions in these pigments, in spite of the loss of the inversion center and evident changes in their electronic structure. In the cis isomers, the S2 state couples with the higher excited states and the extent of this coupling depends on the position of the cis bend. A confrontation of symmetry properties of carotenoids with their electronic absorption and IR and Raman spectra shows that they belong to the C1 or C2 but not the C2h symmetry group, as commonly assumed. In these realistic symmetries all the electronic transitions are symmetry-allowed and the absence of some transitions, such as the dark S0 → S1 transition, must have another physical origin. Most likely it is a severe deformation of the carotenoid molecule in the S1 state, unachievable directly from the ground state, which means that the Franck-Condon factors for a vertical S0 → S1 transition are negligible because the final state is massively displaced along the vibrational coordinates. The implications of our findings have an impact on the understanding of the photophysics and functioning of carotenoids.

  19. Carotenoids in durian fruit pulp during growth and postharvest ripening.

    PubMed

    Wisutiamonkul, Apinya; Promdang, Somnuk; Ketsa, Saichol; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-08-01

    Durian (Durio zibethinus) cvs. Chanee and Monthong fruit were severed from the tree during 14 day intervals, from 10 weeks after anthesis until commercial maturity. We determined the pulp (i.e. aril; fruit flesh) carotenoid composition, together with pulp firmness, color and total soluble solids (TSS) and postharvest quality. In ripe cv. Chanee fruit the main carotenoids were β-carotene (about 80%), and α-carotene (20%), with minor levels of lutein and zeaxanthin. In ripe fruit total carotenoid concentration (expressed per gram FW) was about 9-fold higher in cv. Chanee than in cv. Monthong. Large differences between the cultivars were also found in β-carotene levels (about 11 times more in cv. Chanee), and even larger ones in those of α-carotene. Differences in lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations were small. Pulp color was deeper yellow in cv. Chanee than in cv. Monthong, which was correlated with α-carotene and β-carotene concentrations. Durian contains a high fat percentage, which is conducive to carotenoid uptake. It is concluded that it is advisable to consume cv. Chanee rather than cv. Monthong if intake of carotenoids is considered important.

  20. Carotenoids and menstrual cycle phase in young women.

    PubMed

    Rock, C L; Demitrack, M A; Rosenwald, E N; Brown, M B

    1995-01-01

    An association between serum carotenoid concentrations and risk for certain cancers has been observed in epidemiological studies. Determinants of serum carotenoid concentrations are known to include dietary intake, plasma lipid concentrations, and body mass. Menstrual cycle phase, which has not been adequately addressed in previous studies, has been suggested to be a possible additional factor to consider in the interpretation of these values in women. We evaluated hormonal status, serum carotenoids, cholesterol, and triglycerides in 48 healthy women at early follicular, mid-luteal, and late luteal phases of one menstrual cycle. Eating patterns were assessed with diet records at two 3-day intervals during the cycle. Analysis was focused on the 30 subjects who were determined to have ovulated during the menstrual cycle under observation. Serum cholesterol was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the late luteal phase of an ovulatory cycle. Lutein concentration was increased in the early follicular phase (P < 0.05) and alpha-carotene was increased in the mid-luteal phase (P < 0.05) only if uncorrected for total cholesterol. Other carotenoids did not vary across the menstrual cycle, whether corrected or uncorrected for total cholesterol concentration. In normal healthy ovulating women, serum carotenoids do not appear to vary with menstrual cycle phase when corrected for serum cholesterol concentrations.

  1. Enhancement of Rhodobacter sphaeroides growth and carotenoid production through biostimulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuli; Zhang, Guangming; Li, Xiangkun; Wu, Pan; Zhang, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis/cereus L2 was added as a biostimulant to enhance the biomass accumulation and carotenoid yield of Rhodobacter sphaeroides using wastewater as the culturing medium. Results showed that biostimulation could significantly enhance the R. sphaeroides biomass production and carotenoid yield. The optimal biostimulant proportion was 40 μL (about 6.4×10(5) CFU). Through the use of biostimulation, chemical oxygen demand removal, R. sphaeroides biomass production, carotenoid concentration, and carotenoid yield were improved by 178%, 67%, 214%, and 70%, respectively. Theoretical analysis revealed that there were two possible reasons for such increases. One was that biostimulation enhanced the R. sphaeroides wastewater treatment efficiency. The other was that biostimulation significantly decreased the peroxidase activity in R. sphaeroides. The results showed that the highest peroxidase activity dropped by 87% and the induction ratio of the RSP_3419 gene was 3.1 with the addition of biostimulant. The enhanced carotenoid yield in R. sphaeroides could thus be explained by a decrease in peroxidase activity.

  2. Vibronic coupling in the excited-states of carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Miki, Takeshi; Buckup, Tiago; Krause, Marie S; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Motzkus, Marcus

    2016-04-28

    The ultrafast femtochemistry of carotenoids is governed by the interaction between electronic excited states, which has been explained by the relaxation dynamics within a few hundred femtoseconds from the lowest optically allowed excited state S2 to the optically dark state S1. Extending this picture, some additional dark states (3A(g)(-) and 1B(u)(-)) and their interaction with the S2 state have also been suggested to play a major role in the ultrafast deactivation of carotenoids and their properties. Here, we investigate the interaction between such dark and bright electronic excited states of open chain carotenoids, particularly its dependence on the number of conjugated double bonds (N). We focus on the ultrafast wave packet motion on the excited potential surface, which is modified by the interaction between bright and dark electronic states. Such a coupling between electronic states leads to a shift of the vibrational frequency during the excited-state evolution. In this regard, pump-degenerate four-wave mixing (pump-DFWM) is applied to a series of carotenoids with different numbers of conjugated double bonds N = 9, 10, 11 and 13 (neurosporene, spheroidene, lycopene and spirilloxanthin, respectively). Moreover, we demonstrate in a closed-chain carotenoid (lutein) that the coupling strength and therefore the vibrational shift can be tailored by changing the energy degeneracy between the 1B(u)(+) and 1B(u)(-) states via solvent interaction.

  3. Carotenoids as a Source of Antioxidants in the Diet.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Ana Augusta Odorissi; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids, widely distributed fat-soluble pigments, are responsible for the attractive colorations of several fruits and vegetables commonly present in our daily diet. They are particularly abundant in yellow-orange fruits (carrots, tomatoes, pumpkins, peppers, among others) and, although masked by chlorophylls, in dark green leafy vegetables. Several health benefits have been attributed to carotenoids or to foods rich in these pigments, by means of different mechanisms-of-action, including the role as provitamin A of almost 50 different carotenoids and the antioxidant activity that protects cells and tissues from damage of free radicals and singlet oxygen, providing enhancement of the immune function, protection from sunburn reactions and delaying the onset of certain types of cancer. Common food sources and the efficiency of the absorption of carotenoids, analytical approaches used for measurement of their antioxidant effect and an overview of some epidemiological studies that have been performed to assess the beneficial impact of carotenoids in human health are outlined in this chapter.

  4. Carotenoids production in different culture conditions by Sporidiobolus pararoseus.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; He, Qian; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids produced by Sporidiobolus pararoseus were studied. It was found that biomass was connected with carbon source, temperature, and pH, but carotenoids proportion was seriously influenced by dissolved oxygen and nitrogen source. Different carotenoids could be obtained by using selected optimum conditions. In the end we established the strategies to produce β-carotene or torulene. Fed-batch fermentation in fermentor was used to prove the authenticity of our conclusions. The cell biomass, β-carotene content, and β-carotene proportion could reach 56.32 g/L, 18.92 mg/L and 60.43%, respectively, by using corn steep liquor at 0-5% of dissolved oxygen saturation. β-Carotene content was 271% higher than before this addition. The cell biomass, torulene content, and torulene proportion could reach 62.47 g/L, 31.74 mg/L, and 70.41%, respectively, by using yeast extract at 30-35% of dissolved oxygen saturation. Torulene content was 152% higher than before this addition. The strategy for enhancing specific carotenoid production by selected fermentation conditions may provide an alternative approach to enhance carotenoid production with other strains. PMID:22708808

  5. [Change of carotenoid composition in crabs during embryogenesis].

    PubMed

    Zadorozhnyĭ, P a; borisovets, E E; Iakush, E V; Davidiuk, T S

    2008-01-01

    Changes of the qualitative and quantitative compositions of carotenoids are studied at various development stages of the external egg, determined based on color differences, for the species C. opilio, P. camtschaticus, and P. platypus. It has been established that the main carotenoids of the new egg are astaxanthin and beta-carotene. Intermediate products of transformation of beta-carotene into astaxanthin are identified: echinenon, cantaxanthin, and phoenicoxanthin. The carotenoid content per embryo for the new egg of C. opilio (the orange egg) amounted to 22.7 ng, of P. camtschaticus and P. platypus (the violet egg)--to 49.2 and 23.3 ng, respectively. In the egg at the later development stage (the brown egg) the carotenoid content was decreased to 13.1 ng in C. opilio and to 20.1 ng in P. camtschaticus. Development of embryos is accompanied by accumulation of esterified carotenoids and a decrease of beta-carotene and astaxanthin concentrations in all studied species. PMID:18767554

  6. Tropical bat as mammalian model for skin carotenoid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Galván, Ismael; Garrido-Fernández, Juan; Ríos, José; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Negro, Juan José

    2016-09-27

    Animals cannot synthesize carotenoid pigments de novo, and must consume them in their diet. Most mammals, including humans, are indiscriminate accumulators of carotenoids but inefficiently distribute them to some tissues and organs, such as skin. This limits the potential capacity of these organisms to benefit from the antioxidant and immunostimulatory functions that carotenoids fulfill. Indeed, to date, no mammal has been known to have evolved physiological mechanisms to incorporate and deposit carotenoids in the skin or hair, and mammals have therefore been assumed to rely entirely on other pigments such as melanins to color their integument. Here we use high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF/MS) to show that the frugivorous Honduran white bat Ectophylla alba colors its skin bright yellow with the deposition of the xanthophyll lutein. The Honduran white bat is thus a mammalian model that may help developing strategies to improve the assimilation of lutein in humans to avoid macular degeneration. This represents a change of paradigm in animal physiology showing that some mammals actually have the capacity to accumulate dietary carotenoids in the integument. In addition, we have also discovered that the majority of the lutein in the skin of Honduran white bats is present in esterified form with fatty acids, thereby permitting longer-lasting coloration and suggesting bright color traits may have an overlooked role in the visual communication of bats. PMID:27621447

  7. Carotenoid composition of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Pelayo, Raúl; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso

    2016-05-15

    The carotenoid composition of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) fruits has been characterised in detail and quantified for the first time. According to the total carotenoid content (over 340 μg/g dw), mature strawberry tree berries can be classified as fruits with very high carotenoid content (>20 μg/g dw). (all-E)-Violaxanthin and 9Z-violaxanthin were found to be the major carotenoid pigments, accounting for more than 60%, responsible for the bright colour of the flesh of ripe fruits. In addition other 5,6-epoxide carotenoids, such as (all-E)-neoxanthin, (9'Z)-neoxanthin (all-E)-antheraxanthin and lutein 5,6-epoxide, together with (all-E)-lutein, (all-E)-zeaxanthin and (all-E)-β-carotene were found at high levels (>5-20 μg/g dw). The LC-MS (APCI+) analysis of the xanthophyll fraction in their native state (direct extract) revealed that most of them (>90%) were totally esterified with saturated fatty acids (capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic). Monoesters, homodiesters and heterodiesters of (all-E)-violaxanthin and 9Z-violaxanthin were the major pigments. PMID:26775958

  8. The Or gene enhances carotenoid accumulation and stability during post-harvest storage of potato tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Provitamin A carotenoids in staple crops are not very stable during storage and their loss compromises nutritional quality. To elucidate the fundamental mechanisms underlying carotenoid accumulation and stability, we investigated transgenic potato tubers that express the cauliflower Orange (Or) gene...

  9. Stability of carotenoids recovered from shrimp waste and their use as colorant in fish sausage.

    PubMed

    Sachindra, N M; Mahendrakar, N S

    2010-01-01

    The stability of carotenoids recovered from shrimp waste using organic solvents and vegetable oils as affected by antioxidants and pigment carriers was evaluated during storage under different conditions. Solvent extracted carotenoid incorporated into alginate and starch as carriers was stored in metallised polyester and polypropylene pouches. Oil extracted carotenoids were stored in transparent and amber bottles. Also the use of recovered pigments as colorants in fish sausage was evaluated. Antioxidants, packaging material and storage period had a significant effect (p≤0.001) on the reduction of carotenoid content, while type of carrier had marginal effect (p≥0.05) on solvent extracted carotenoids during storage. Carotenoid content in pigmented oil was significantly affected by antioxidants (p≤0.001), packaging material (p≤0.05) and storage period (p≤0.001). Addition of carotenoid to the sausage enhanced the sensory colour, flavour and overall quality score of sausage and the added carotenoid was stable during processing.

  10. Development of carotenoid-enriched vegetables with increased nutritional quality and visual appearance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are a class of red, orange and yellow pigments widely distributed in nature. Biotech approach has been proved to be effective in successfully engineering of carotenoid content in food crops with better health and visual appearance....

  11. Lipid Class, Carotenoid, and Toxin Dynamics of Karenia Brevis (Dinophyceae) During Diel Vertical Migration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Karenia brevis’ (Hansen and Moestrup) internal lipid, carotenoid, and toxin concentrations are influenced by its ability to use ambient light and nutrients for growth and reproduction. This project investigated changes of K. brevis toxicity, lipid class and carotenoid concentrat...

  12. Screening and Selection of High Carotenoid Producing in Vitro Tomato Cell Culture Lines for [13C]-Carotenoid Production

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Nancy J.; Campbell, Jessica K.; Rogers, Randy B.; Rupassara, S. Indumathie; Garlick, Peter J.; Lila, Mary Ann; Erdman, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Isotopically labeled tomato carotenoids, phytoene, phytofluene, and lycopene, are needed for mammalian bioavailability and metabolism research but are currently commercially unavailable. The goals of this work were to establish and screen multiple in vitro tomato cell lines for carotenoid production, test the best producers with or without the bleaching herbicides, norflurazon and 2-(4-chlorophenyl-thio)-triethylamine (CPTA), and to use the greatest carotenoid accumulator for in vitro 13C-labeling. Different Solanum lycopersicum allelic variants for high lycopene and varying herbicide treatments were compared for carotenoid accumulation in callus and suspension culture, and cell suspension cultures of the hp-1 line were chosen for isotopic labeling. When grown with [U]-13C-glucose and treated with CPTA, hp-1 suspensions yielded highly enriched 13C-lycopene with 45% of lycopene in the M+40 form and 88% in the M+35 to M+40 isotopomer range. To the authors’ knowledge this is the first report of highly enriched 13C-carotenoid production from in vitro plant cell culture. PMID:20731353

  13. Carotenoids and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Bahiddin; Sahin, Kazim; Bilen, Hande; Bahcecioglu, Ibrahim H.; Bilir, Birdal; Ashraf, Sara; Halazun, Karim J.

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing health problem around the world, especially in developed countries. NAFLD includes all cases of fatty liver disease from simple steatosis to cirrhosis, without excessive alcohol intake, use of steatogenic medication or hereditary disorders. Pathogenesis is associated with dietary high fat intake, decreased free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation, increased hepatic lipogenesis and lipolysis from the adipose tissue. These metabolic alterations contribute to the hepatic fat accumulation. Consequently, stimulated oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role in hepatocellular damage. Therefore, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents may have a role in the prevention of this disease. Carotenoids are potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory micronutrients, which have been investigated in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. The main sources of the carotenoids are fruits and vegetables. In this article we review the potential role and possible molecular mechanism of carotenoids in NAFLD. PMID:26151056

  14. [The effect of beta-ionine on biosynthesis of carotenes by Actinomyces chrysomallus var. carotenoides].

    PubMed

    Sverdlova, A N; Alekseeva, L N; Nefelova, M V

    1977-01-01

    Biosynthesis of carotenoids by a growing culture of Actinomyces chrysomallus var. carotenoides is totally inhibited by beta-ionone added at different concentrations, at various time of the cultural growth, and in various combinations with oil. The inhibition of carotenoid synthesis by beta-ionone is of a specific character since the biomass growth under the same conditions does not increase.

  15. Absorption and distribution kinetics of the 13C-labeled tomato carotenoid phytoene in healthy adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoene is a tomato carotenoid which may contribute to the apparent health benefits of tomato consumption. While phytoene is a less prominent tomato carotenoid than lycopene, it is a major carotenoid in various human tissues. Phytoene distribution to plasma lipoproteins and tissues differs from lyc...

  16. The metabolic and developmental roles of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase4 from potato.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Raymond; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Wayne L; Morris, Jenny A; Suttle, Jeffrey C; Ramsay, Gavin; Bryan, Glenn J; Hedley, Pete E; Taylor, Mark A

    2010-10-01

    The factors that regulate storage organ carotenoid content remain to be fully elucidated, despite the nutritional and economic importance of this class of compound. Recent findings suggest that carotenoid pool size is determined, at least in part, by the activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase4 (CCD4) activity affects potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber carotenoid content. Microarray analysis revealed elevated expression of the potato CCD4 gene in mature tubers from white-fleshed cultivars compared with higher carotenoid yellow-fleshed tubers. The expression level of the potato CCD4 gene was down-regulated using an RNA interference (RNAi) approach in stable transgenic lines. Down-regulation in tubers resulted in an increased carotenoid content, 2- to 5-fold higher than in control plants. The increase in carotenoid content was mainly due to elevated violaxanthin content, implying that this carotenoid may act as the in vivo substrate. Although transcript level was also reduced in plant organs other than tubers, such as leaves, stems, and roots , there was no change in carotenoid content in these organs. However, carotenoid levels were elevated in flower petals from RNAi lines. As well as changes in tuber carotenoid content, tubers from RNAi lines exhibited phenotypes such as heat sprouting, formation of chain tubers, and an elongated shape. These results suggest that the product of the CCD4 reaction may be an important factor in tuber heat responses. PMID:20688977

  17. Specific oxidative cleavage of carotenoids by VP14 of maize

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.H.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.; Gage, D.A.; Tan, Bao Cai

    1997-06-20

    The plant growth regulator abscisic acid (ABA) is formed by the oxidative cleavage of an epoxy-carotenoid. The synthesis of other apocarotenoids, such as vitamin A in animals, may occur by a similar mechanism. In ABA biosynthesis, oxidative cleavage is the first committed reaction and is believed to be the key regulatory step. A new ABA-deficient mutant of maize has been identified and the corresponding gene, Vp14, has been cloned. The recombinant VP14 protein catalyzes the cleavage of 9-cis-epoxy-carotenoids to form C{sub 25} apo-aldehydes and xanthoxin, a precursor of ABA in higher plants.

  18. ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE Activity Potentiates Carotenoid Degradation in Maturing Seed1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; Lipka, Alexander E.; Angelovici, Ruthie; DellaPenna, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway has enabled altering the composition and content of carotenoids in various plants, but to achieve desired nutritional impacts, the genetic components regulating carotenoid homeostasis in seed, the plant organ consumed in greatest abundance, must be elucidated. We used a combination of linkage mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and pathway-level analysis to identify nine loci that impact the natural variation of seed carotenoids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). ZEAXANTHIN EPOXIDASE (ZEP) was the major contributor to carotenoid composition, with mutants lacking ZEP activity showing a remarkable 6-fold increase in total seed carotenoids relative to the wild type. Natural variation in ZEP gene expression during seed development was identified as the underlying mechanism for fine-tuning carotenoid composition, stability, and ultimately content in Arabidopsis seed. We previously showed that two CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE enzymes, CCD1 and CCD4, are the primary mediators of seed carotenoid degradation, and here we demonstrate that ZEP acts as an upstream control point of carotenoid homeostasis, with ZEP-mediated epoxidation targeting carotenoids for degradation by CCD enzymes. Finally, four of the nine loci/enzymatic activities identified as underlying natural variation in Arabidopsis seed carotenoids also were identified in a recent GWAS of maize (Zea mays) kernel carotenoid variation. This first comparison of the natural variation in seed carotenoids in monocots and dicots suggests a surprising overlap in the genetic architecture of these traits between the two lineages and provides a list of likely candidates to target for selecting seed carotenoid variation in other species. PMID:27208224

  19. Pigments of Staphylococcus aureus, a series of triterpenoid carotenoids.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, J H; Wilmoth, G J

    1981-01-01

    The pigments of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated and purified, and their chemical structures were determined. All of the 17 compounds identified were triterpenoid carotenoids possessing a C30 chain instead of the C40 carotenoid structure found in most other organisms. The main pigment, staphyloxanthin, was shown to be alpha-D-glucopyranosyl 1-O-(4,4'-diaponeurosporen-4-oate) 6-O-(12-methyltetradecanoate), in which glucose is esterified with both a triterpenoid carotenoid carboxylic acid and a C15 fatty acid. It is accompanied by isomers containing other hexoses and homologs containing C17 fatty acids. The carotenes 4,4'-diapophytoene, 4,4'-diapophytofluene, 4-4'-diapophytofluene, 4-4'-diapo-zeta-carotene, 4,4'-diapo-7,8,11,12-tetrahydrolycopene, and 4,4'-diaponeurosporene and the xanthophylls 4,4'-diaponeurosporenal, 4,4'-diaponeurosporenoic acid, and glucosyl diaponeurosporenoate were also identified, together with some of their isomers or breakdown products. The symmetrical 4,4'-diapo- structure was adopted for these triterpenoid carotenoids, but an alternative unsymmetrical 8'-apo-structure could not be excluded. PMID:7275936

  20. Effects of mineral nutrition on carotenoid content in spinach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids from fruits and vegetables are known to be potent antioxidants with extensive health promoting activity. While numerous studies have shown the genetic and biochemical mechanisms of health promoting phytochemical accumulation in plants, few studies have investigated the effects of mineral...

  1. Characterization of Nutritionally Important Carotenoids in Welsh Onion Accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Allium genus are consumed for their culinary flavor attributes, but also contain antioxidant and anticarcinogenic phytochemicals. Welsh onions (Allium fistulosum L.) are commonly used in Asian cuisine, where both leaves and pseudostems are consumed. Carotenoids are an important clas...

  2. Beta-cryptoxanthin: A vitamin A-forming carotenoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta-cryptoxanthin is a common carotenoid. It is generally the fourth most abundant in human blood but can achieve high concentrations especially in Japanese and Spanish populations. Its richest food sources include mandarin oranges, persimmons, oranges, papayas, pumpkin, and red sweet peppers. Beta...

  3. Noninvasive measurements of carotenoids in bovine udder by reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Julia; Darvin, Maxim E.; Müller, Kerstin E.; Lademann, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    For a long time, the antioxidative status in cattle has been discussed as an indicator for stress conditions resulting from disease or exertion. Until now, invasive approaches have been necessary to obtain blood samples or biopsy materials and gain insights into the antioxidative status of cattle. Due to these efforts and the costs of the analyses, serial sampling is feasible in an experimental setting, but not for measurements on a routine basis. The present study focuses on the feasibility of an innovative, noninvasive spectroscopic technique that allows in vivo measurements of carotenoids in the skin by reflection spectroscopy. To this end, in a first trial, repeated measurements of the carotenoid concentration of the udder skin were performed on 25 healthy cattle from different breeds. Carotenoid concentrations showed highly significant differences between individual animals (P<0.001), although they were kept under the same environmental conditions and received the same diet. The carotenoid concentrations in "sensitive" and "robust" cows (evaluated by a temperament test) differed significantly (P<0.005), with higher concentrations observed in robust cows.

  4. Colour and carotenoid changes of pasteurised orange juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Scheling; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Tomic, Jovana; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Lemmens, Lien; Panozzo, Agnese; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2015-03-15

    The correlation of carotenoid changes with colour degradation of pasteurised single strength orange juice was investigated at 20, 28, 35 and 42°C for a total of 32 weeks of storage. Changes in colour were assessed using the CIELAB system and were kinetically described by a zero-order model. L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), ΔE(∗), Cab(∗) and hab were significantly changed during storage (p<0.05). Activation energies for all colour parameters were 64-73 kJ mol(-1). Several carotenoids showed important changes and appeared to have different susceptibilities to storage. A decrease of β-cryptoxanthin was observed at higher temperatures, whereas antheraxanthin started to decrease at lower temperatures. Depending on the time and temperature, changes in carotenoids could be due to isomerisation reactions, which may lead to a perceptible colour change. Although the contribution of carotenoids was recognised to some extent, other reactions seem of major importance for colour degradation of orange juice during storage.

  5. Mallow carotenoids determined by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mallow (corchorus olitorius) is a green vegetable, which is widely consumed either fresh or dry by Middle East population. This study was carried out to determine the contents of major carotenoids quantitatively in mallow, by using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a Bis...

  6. Quenching Capabilities of Long-Chain Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting-2 Complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides with an Engineered Carotenoid Synthesis Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dilbeck, Preston L; Tang, Qun; Mothersole, David J; Martin, Elizabeth C; Hunter, C Neil; Bocian, David F; Holten, Dewey; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M

    2016-06-23

    Six light-harvesting-2 complexes (LH2) from genetically modified strains of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides were studied using static and ultrafast optical methods and resonance Raman spectroscopy. These strains were engineered to incorporate carotenoids for which the number of conjugated groups (N = NC═C + NC═O) varies from 9 to 15. The Rb. sphaeroides strains incorporate their native carotenoids spheroidene (N = 10) and spheroidenone (N = 11), as well as longer-chain analogues including spirilloxanthin (N = 13) and diketospirilloxantion (N = 15) normally found in Rhodospirillum rubrum. Measurements of the properties of the carotenoid first singlet excited state (S1) in antennas from the Rb. sphaeroides set show that carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) interactions are similar to those in LH2 complexes from various other bacterial species and thus are not significantly impacted by differences in polypeptide composition. Instead, variations in carotenoid-to-BChl a energy transfer are primarily regulated by the N-determined energy of the carotenoid S1 excited state, which for long-chain (N ≥ 13) carotenoids is not involved in energy transfer. Furthermore, the role of the long-chain carotenoids switches from a light-harvesting supporter (via energy transfer to BChl a) to a quencher of the BChl a S1 excited state B850*. This quenching is manifested as a substantial (∼2-fold) reduction of the B850* lifetime and the B850* fluorescence quantum yield for LH2 housing the longest carotenoids. PMID:27285777

  7. Quenching Capabilities of Long-Chain Carotenoids in Light-Harvesting-2 Complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides with an Engineered Carotenoid Synthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Six light-harvesting-2 complexes (LH2) from genetically modified strains of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides were studied using static and ultrafast optical methods and resonance Raman spectroscopy. These strains were engineered to incorporate carotenoids for which the number of conjugated groups (N = NC=C + NC=O) varies from 9 to 15. The Rb. sphaeroides strains incorporate their native carotenoids spheroidene (N = 10) and spheroidenone (N = 11), as well as longer-chain analogues including spirilloxanthin (N = 13) and diketospirilloxantion (N = 15) normally found in Rhodospirillum rubrum. Measurements of the properties of the carotenoid first singlet excited state (S1) in antennas from the Rb. sphaeroides set show that carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) interactions are similar to those in LH2 complexes from various other bacterial species and thus are not significantly impacted by differences in polypeptide composition. Instead, variations in carotenoid-to-BChl a energy transfer are primarily regulated by the N-determined energy of the carotenoid S1 excited state, which for long-chain (N ≥ 13) carotenoids is not involved in energy transfer. Furthermore, the role of the long-chain carotenoids switches from a light-harvesting supporter (via energy transfer to BChl a) to a quencher of the BChl a S1 excited state B850*. This quenching is manifested as a substantial (∼2-fold) reduction of the B850* lifetime and the B850* fluorescence quantum yield for LH2 housing the longest carotenoids. PMID:27285777

  8. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Proton Loss from Carotenoid Radical Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Kispert, Lowell D; Focsan, A Ligia; Konovalova, Tatyana A; Lawrence, Jesse; Bowman, Michael K; Dixon, David A; Molnar, Peter; Deli, Jozsef

    2007-06-11

    Carotenoids, intrinsic components of reaction centers and pigment-protein complexes in photosynthetic membranes, play a photoprotective role and serve as a secondary electron donor. Before optimum use of carotenoids can be made in artificial photosynthetic systems, their robust nature in living materials requires extensive characterization of their electron transfer, radical trapping ability, stability, structure in and on various hosts, and photochemical behavior. Pulsed ENDOR and 2D-HYSCORE studies combined with DFT calculations reveal that photo-oxidation of natural zeaxanthin (I) and violaxanthin (II) on silica-alumina produces not only the carotenoid radical cations (Car•+) but also neutral radicals (#Car•) by proton loss from the methyl groups at positions 5 or 5', and possibly 9 or 9' and 13 or 13'. Notably, the proton loss favored in I at the 5 position by DFT calculations, is unfavorable in II due to the epoxide at the 5, 6 position. DFT calculations predict the isotropic methyl proton couplings of 8-10 MHz for Car•+ which agree with the ENDOR for carotenoid α-conjugated radical cations. Large α-proton hyperfine coupling constants (>10 MHz) determined from HYSCORE are assigned from the DFT calculations to neutral carotenoid radicals. Proton loss upon photolysis was also examined as a function of carotenoid polarity [Lycopene (III) versus 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al (IV)]; hydrogen bonding [Lutein (V) versus III]; host [silica-alumina versus MCM-41 molecular sieve]; and substituted metal in MCM-41. Loss of H+ from the 5(5'), 9(9') or 13(13') methyl positions has importance in photoprotection. Photoprotection involves nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in which 1Ch1* decays via energy transfer to the carotenoid which returns to the ground state by thermal dissipation; or via electron transfer to form a charge transfer state (I •+…Chl•-), lower in energy than 1Chl*. Formation of I •+ results in bond lengthening, a mechanism for nonradiative energy

  9. Novel targeted approach to better understand how natural structural barriers govern carotenoid in vitro bioaccessibility in vegetable-based systems.

    PubMed

    Palmero, Paola; Lemmens, Lien; Ribas-Agustí, Albert; Sosa, Carola; Met, Kristof; de Dieu Umutoni, Jean; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2013-12-01

    An experimental approach, allowing us to understand the effect of natural structural barriers (cell walls, chromoplast substructures) on carotenoid bioaccessibility, was developed. Different fractions with different levels of carotenoid bio-encapsulation (carotenoid-enriched oil, chromoplasts, small cell clusters, and large cell clusters) were isolated from different types of carrots and tomatoes. An in vitro method was used to determine carotenoid bioaccessibility. In the present work, a significant decrease in carotenoid in vitro bioaccessibility could be observed with an increasing level of bio-encapsulation. Differences in cell wall material and chromoplast substructure between matrices influenced carotenoid release and inclusion in micelles. For carrots, cell walls and chromoplast substructure were important barriers for carotenoid bioaccessibility while, in tomatoes, the chromoplast substructure represented the most important barrier governing bioaccessibility. The highest increase in carotenoid bioaccessibility, for all matrices, was obtained after transferring carotenoids into the oil phase, a system lacking cell walls and chromoplast substructures that could hamper carotenoid release.

  10. Low serum carotenoid concentrations and carotenoid interactions predict mortality in US adults: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    PubMed Central

    Shardell, Michelle D; Alley, Dawn E; Hicks, Gregory E; El-Kamary, Samer S; Miller, Ram R; Semba, Richard D; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Evidence regarding the health benefits of carotenoids is controversial. Effects of serum carotenoids and their interactions on mortality have not been examined in a representative sample of US adults. The objective was to examine whether serum carotenoid concentrations predict mortality among US adults. The study consisted of adults aged ≥20 years enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III, 1988–1994, with measured serum carotenoids and mortality follow-up through 2006 (N=13,293). Outcomes were all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, participants in the lowest total carotenoid quartile (<1.01µmol/L) had significantly higher all-cause mortality (mortality rate ratio=1.38; 95% confidence interval:1.15—1.65; P=0.005) than those in the highest total carotenoid quartile (>1.75µmol/L). For alpha-carotene, the highest quartile (>0.11µmol/L) had the lowest all-cause mortality rates (P<0.001). For lycopene, the middle two quartiles (0.29–0.58µmol/L) had the lowest all-cause mortality rates (P=0.047). Analyses with continuous carotenoids confirmed associations of serum total carotenoids, alpha-carotene, and lycopene with all-cause mortality (P<0.001). In a random survival forest analysis, very low lycopene was the carotenoid most strongly predictive of all-cause mortality, followed by very low total carotenoids. Alpha-carotene/beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene/lutein+zeaxanthin and lycopene/lutein+zeaxanthin interactions were significantly related to all-cause mortality (P<0.05). Low alpha-carotene was the only carotenoid associated with CVD mortality (P=0.002). No carotenoids were significantly associated with cancer mortality. Very low serum total carotenoid, alpha-carotene, and lycopene concentrations may be risk factors for mortality, but carotenoids show interaction effects on mortality. Interventions of balanced carotenoid combinations are needed for

  11. Study of 'Redhaven' peach and its white-fleshed mutant suggests a key role of CCD4 carotenoid dioxygenase in carotenoid and norisoprenoid volatile metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are plant metabolites which are not only essential in photosynthesis but also important quality factors in determining the pigmentation and aroma of flowers and fruits. To investigate the regulation of carotenoid metabolism, as related to norisoprenoids and other volatile compounds in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch.), and the role of carotenoid dioxygenases in determining differences in flesh color phenotype and volatile composition, the expression patterns of relevant carotenoid genes and metabolites were studied during fruit development along with volatile compound content. Two contrasted cultivars, the yellow-fleshed 'Redhaven' (RH) and its white-fleshed mutant 'Redhaven Bianca' (RHB) were examined. Results The two genotypes displayed marked differences in the accumulation of carotenoid pigments in mesocarp tissues. Lower carotenoid levels and higher levels of norisoprenoid volatiles were observed in RHB, which might be explained by differential activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) enzymes. In fact, the ccd4 transcript levels were dramatically higher at late ripening stages in RHB with respect to RH. The two genotypes also showed differences in the expression patterns of several carotenoid and isoprenoid transcripts, compatible with a feed-back regulation of these transcripts. Abamine SG - an inhibitor of CCD enzymes - decreased the levels of both isoprenoid and non-isoprenoid volatiles in RHB fruits, indicating a complex regulation of volatile production. Conclusions Differential expression of ccd4 is likely to be the major determinant in the accumulation of carotenoids and carotenoid-derived volatiles in peach fruit flesh. More in general, dioxygenases appear to be key factors controlling volatile composition in peach fruit, since abamine SG-treated 'Redhaven Bianca' fruits had strongly reduced levels of norisoprenoids and other volatile classes. Comparative functional studies of peach carotenoid cleavage enzymes are

  12. Determination of carotenoids in yellow maize, the effects of saponification and food preparations.

    PubMed

    Muzhingi, Tawanda; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Russell, Robert M; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Qin, Jian; Tang, Guangwen

    2008-05-01

    Maize is an important staple food consumed by millions of people in many countries. Yellow maize naturally contains carotenoids which not only provide provitamin A carotenoids but also xanthophylls, which are known to be important for eye health. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the effect of saponification during extraction of yellow maize carotenoids, 2) determining the major carotenoids in 36 genotypes of yellow maize by high-performance liquid chromatography with a C30 column, and 3) determining the effect of cooking on the carotenoid content of yellow maize. The major carotenoids in yellow maize were identified as all-trans lutein, cis-isomers of lutein, all-trans zeaxanthin, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, all-trans beta-carotene, 9-cis beta-carotene, and 13-cis beta-carotene. Our results indicated that carotenoid extraction without saponification showed a significantly higher yield than that obtained using saponification. Results of the current study indicate that yellow maize is a good source of provitamin A carotenoids and xanthophylls. Cooking by boiling yellow maize at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes increased the carotenoid concentration, while baking at 450 degrees F for 25 minutes decreased the carotenoid concentrations by almost 70% as compared to the uncooked yellow maize flour.

  13. Utilization of Microemulsions from Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz to Improve Carotenoid Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Ho, Nai-Hsing; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids have been known to reduce the risk of several diseases including cancer and cardiovascular. However, carotenoids are unstable and susceptible to degradation. Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz (R. nasutus), a Chinese medicinal herb rich in carotenoids, was reported to possess vital biological activities such as anti-cancer. This study intends to isolate carotenoids from R. nasutus by column chromatography, identify and quantify by HPLC-MS, and prepare carotenoid microemulsions for determination of absolute bioavailability in rats. Initially, carotenoid fraction was isolated using 250 mL ethyl acetate poured into an open-column packed with magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:3, w/w). Fourteen carotenoids including internal standard β-apo-8'-carotenal were resolved within 62 min by a YMC C30 column and gradient mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-water (82:14:4, v/v/v) and methylene chloride. Highly stable carotenoid microemulsions were prepared using a mixture of Capryol(TM)90, Transcutol®HP, Tween 80 and deionized water, with the mean particle being 10.4 nm for oral administration and 10.7 nm for intravenous injection. Pharmacokinetic study revealed that the absolute bioavailability of carotenoids in microemulsions and dispersion was 0.45% and 0.11%, respectively, while a much higher value of 6.25% and 1.57% were shown for lutein, demonstrating 4-fold enhancement in bioavailability upon incorporation of R. nasutus carotenoids into a microemulsion system. PMID:27150134

  14. Long-term effect of yolk carotenoid levels on testis size in a precocial bird.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Mathieu; Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Tschirren, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Conditions experienced during prenatal development can have long-lasting organizational effects on offspring. Maternal carotenoids deposited in the eggs of birds and other oviparous species play an important role during fast embryonic growth and chick development through their antioxidant properties. However, the long-term consequences of variation in maternal carotenoid transfer for the offspring have seldom been considered. Since plasma carotenoid levels at adulthood are known to influence testis size and yolk carotenoid levels influence the ability to extract carotenoids later in life, we hypothesized that maternally transmitted carotenoids might influence gonad size at adulthood. Here, we showed that male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) originating from a carotenoid-enriched egg had smaller testes than control individuals at adulthood. This result shows that yolk carotenoids have long-term organizational effects. In addition, given that carotenoid intake at sexual maturity increases sperm quality and that a decreased testis size is associated with a lower sperm production, we propose that carotenoid exposure during embryo development might influence a trade-off between ejaculate size and sperm quality. PMID:27122006

  15. Accumulation of carotenoids and expression of carotenogenic genes in peach fruit.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Liang, Minhua; Shi, Liyu; Shao, Jiarong; Song, Chunbo; Bian, Kun; Chen, Wei; Yang, Zhenfeng

    2017-01-01

    To understand better the regulatory mechanism of the carotenoid accumulation, the expression profile of relevant carotenoid genes and metabolites were compared between two peach cultivars with different colors during fruit development. Meanwhile, the change pattern of carotenoid content and expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in peaches after harvest in response to blue light were also investigated. As compared to the yellow fleshed-cultivar 'Jinli', lower carotenoid levels were observed in skin and pulp in white peach cultivar 'Hujing', which might be explained by differentially expression of PpCCD4 gene. With respect to 'Jinli', the carotenoid accumulation during fruit development in fruit skin was partially linked with the transcriptional regulation of PpFPPS, PpGGPS, PpLCYB and PpCHYB. However, in the pulp, the accumulation might be also associated with the increased transcriptions of PpPDS, along with the above four genes. Blue light treatment induced carotenoid accumulation in 'Jinli' peaches during storage. In addition, the treated-fruit displayed higher expression of all the eight genes analysed with a lesser extent on PpCCD4, which suggested that the much more increased carotenoid synthesis rate could result in the higher carotenoid content in blue light-treated fruit. The results presented herein contribute to further elucidating the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation in peach fruit. PMID:27507458

  16. Carotenoids and amphibians: effects on life history and susceptibility to the infectious pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    PubMed Central

    Cothran, Rickey D.; Gervasi, Stephanie S.; Murray, Cindy; French, Beverly J.; Bradley, Paul W.; Urbina, Jenny; Blaustein, Andrew R.; Relyea, Rick A.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are considered beneficial nutrients because they provide increased immune capacity. Although carotenoid research has been conducted in many vertebrates, little research has been done in amphibians, a group that is experiencing global population declines from numerous causes, including disease. We raised two amphibian species through metamorphosis on three carotenoid diets to quantify the effects on life-history traits and post-metamorphic susceptibility to a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Bd). Increased carotenoids had no effect on survival to metamorphosis in gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) but caused lower survival to metamorphosis in wood frogs [Lithobates sylvaticus (Rana sylvatica)]. Increased carotenoids caused both species to experience slower development and growth. When exposed to Bd after metamorphosis, wood frogs experienced high mortality, and the carotenoid diets had no mitigating effects. Gray treefrogs were less susceptible to Bd, which prevented an assessment of whether carotenoids could mitigate the effects of Bd. Moreover, carotenoids had no effect on pathogen load. As one of only a few studies examining the effects of carotenoids on amphibians and the first to examine potential interactions with Bd, our results suggest that carotenoids do not always serve amphibians in the many positive ways that have become the paradigm in other vertebrates. PMID:27293690

  17. Ancient origins and multiple appearances of carotenoid-pigmented feathers in birds.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniel B; McGraw, Kevin J; Butler, Michael W; Carrano, Matthew T; Madden, Odile; James, Helen F

    2014-08-01

    The broad palette of feather colours displayed by birds serves diverse biological functions, including communication and camouflage. Fossil feathers provide evidence that some avian colours, like black and brown melanins, have existed for at least 160 million years (Myr), but no traces of bright carotenoid pigments in ancient feathers have been reported. Insight into the evolutionary history of plumage carotenoids may instead be gained from living species. We visually surveyed modern birds for carotenoid-consistent plumage colours (present in 2956 of 9993 species). We then used high-performance liquid chromatography and Raman spectroscopy to chemically assess the family-level distribution of plumage carotenoids, confirming their presence in 95 of 236 extant bird families (only 36 family-level occurrences had been confirmed previously). Using our data for all modern birds, we modelled the evolutionary history of carotenoid-consistent plumage colours on recent supertrees. Results support multiple independent origins of carotenoid plumage pigmentation in 13 orders, including six orders without previous reports of plumage carotenoids. Based on time calibrations from the supertree, the number of avian families displaying plumage carotenoids increased throughout the Cenozoic, and most plumage carotenoid originations occurred after the Miocene Epoch (23 Myr). The earliest origination of plumage carotenoids was reconstructed within Passeriformes, during the Palaeocene Epoch (66-56 Myr), and not at the base of crown-lineage birds.

  18. Opposing effects of oxidative challenge and carotenoids on antioxidant status and condition-dependent sexual signalling

    PubMed Central

    Tomášek, Oldřich; Gabrielová, Barbora; Kačer, Petr; Maršík, Petr; Svobodová, Jana; Syslová, Kamila; Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Several recent hypotheses consider oxidative stress to be a primary constraint ensuring honesty of condition-dependent carotenoid-based signalling. The key testable difference between these hypotheses is the assumed importance of carotenoids for redox homeostasis, with carotenoids being either antioxidant, pro-oxidant or unimportant. We tested the role of carotenoids in redox balance and sexual signalling by exposing adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to oxidative challenge (diquat dibromide) and manipulating carotenoid intake. As the current controversy over the importance of carotenoids as antioxidants could stem from the hydrophilic basis of commonly-used antioxidant assays, we used the novel measure of in vivo lipophilic antioxidant capacity. Oxidative challenge reduced beak pigmentation but elicited an increase in antioxidant capacity suggesting resource reallocation from signalling to redox homeostasis. Carotenoids counteracted the effect of oxidative challenge on lipophilic (but not hydrophilic) antioxidant capacity, thereby supporting carotenoid antioxidant function in vivo. This is inconsistent with hypotheses proposing that signalling honesty is maintained through either ROS-induced carotenoid degradation or the pro-oxidant effect of high levels of carotenoid-cleavage products acting as a physiological handicap. Our data further suggest that assessment of lipophilic antioxidant capacity is necessary to fully understand the role of redox processes in ecology and evolution. PMID:27000655

  19. Ancient origins and multiple appearances of carotenoid-pigmented feathers in birds

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Daniel B.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Butler, Michael W.; Carrano, Matthew T.; Madden, Odile; James, Helen F.

    2014-01-01

    The broad palette of feather colours displayed by birds serves diverse biological functions, including communication and camouflage. Fossil feathers provide evidence that some avian colours, like black and brown melanins, have existed for at least 160 million years (Myr), but no traces of bright carotenoid pigments in ancient feathers have been reported. Insight into the evolutionary history of plumage carotenoids may instead be gained from living species. We visually surveyed modern birds for carotenoid-consistent plumage colours (present in 2956 of 9993 species). We then used high-performance liquid chromatography and Raman spectroscopy to chemically assess the family-level distribution of plumage carotenoids, confirming their presence in 95 of 236 extant bird families (only 36 family-level occurrences had been confirmed previously). Using our data for all modern birds, we modelled the evolutionary history of carotenoid-consistent plumage colours on recent supertrees. Results support multiple independent origins of carotenoid plumage pigmentation in 13 orders, including six orders without previous reports of plumage carotenoids. Based on time calibrations from the supertree, the number of avian families displaying plumage carotenoids increased throughout the Cenozoic, and most plumage carotenoid originations occurred after the Miocene Epoch (23 Myr). The earliest origination of plumage carotenoids was reconstructed within Passeriformes, during the Palaeocene Epoch (66–56 Myr), and not at the base of crown-lineage birds. PMID:24966316

  20. Carotenoids and amphibians: effects on life history and susceptibility to the infectious pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Cothran, Rickey D; Gervasi, Stephanie S; Murray, Cindy; French, Beverly J; Bradley, Paul W; Urbina, Jenny; Blaustein, Andrew R; Relyea, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are considered beneficial nutrients because they provide increased immune capacity. Although carotenoid research has been conducted in many vertebrates, little research has been done in amphibians, a group that is experiencing global population declines from numerous causes, including disease. We raised two amphibian species through metamorphosis on three carotenoid diets to quantify the effects on life-history traits and post-metamorphic susceptibility to a fungal pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Bd). Increased carotenoids had no effect on survival to metamorphosis in gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) but caused lower survival to metamorphosis in wood frogs [Lithobates sylvaticus (Rana sylvatica)]. Increased carotenoids caused both species to experience slower development and growth. When exposed to Bd after metamorphosis, wood frogs experienced high mortality, and the carotenoid diets had no mitigating effects. Gray treefrogs were less susceptible to Bd, which prevented an assessment of whether carotenoids could mitigate the effects of Bd. Moreover, carotenoids had no effect on pathogen load. As one of only a few studies examining the effects of carotenoids on amphibians and the first to examine potential interactions with Bd, our results suggest that carotenoids do not always serve amphibians in the many positive ways that have become the paradigm in other vertebrates.

  1. Effects of Experimental Brood Size Manipulation and Gender on Carotenoid Levels of Eurasian Kestrels Falco tinnunculus

    PubMed Central

    Laaksonen, Toni; Negro, Juan J.; Lyytinen, Sami; Valkama, Jari; Ots, Indrek; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2008-01-01

    Background Animals use carotenoid-pigments for coloration, as antioxidants and as enhancers of the immune system. Carotenoid-dependent colours can thus signal individual quality and carotenoids have also been suggested to mediate life-history trade-offs. Methodology To examine trade-offs in carotenoid allocation between parents and the young, or between skin coloration and plasma of the parents at different levels of brood demand, we manipulated brood sizes of Eurasian kestrels (Falco tinnunculus). Principal Findings Brood size manipulation had no overall effect on plasma carotenoid levels or skin hue of parents, but female parents had twice the plasma carotenoid levels of males. Males work physically harder than females and they might thus also use more carotenoids against oxidative stress than females. Alternatively, females could be gaining back the carotenoid stores they depleted during egg-laying by eating primarily carotenoid-rich food items during the early nestling stage. Fledglings in enlarged broods had higher plasma carotenoid concentrations than those in reduced broods. This difference was not explained by diet. In light of recent evidence from other species, we suggest it might instead be due to fledglings in enlarged broods having higher testosterone levels, which in turn increased plasma carotenoid levels. The partial cross-foster design of our experiment revealed evidence for origin effects (genetic or maternal) on carotenoid levels of fledglings, but no origin-environment interaction. Significance These results from wild birds differ from studies in captivity, and thus offer new insights into carotenoid physiology in relation to division of parental care and demands of the brood. PMID:18545646

  2. Cloning and comparative analysis of carotenoid β-hydroxylase genes provides new insights into carotenoid metabolism in tetraploid (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hexaploid (Triticum aestivum) wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaoqiong; Zhang, Wenjun; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Tian, Li

    2012-12-01

    Carotenoid β-hydroxylases attach hydroxyl groups to the β-ionone rings (β-rings) of carotenoid substrates, resulting in modified structures and functions of carotenoid molecules. We cloned and characterized two genes (each with three homeologs), HYD1 and HYD2, which encode β-hydroxylases in wheat. The results from bioinformatic and nested degenerate PCR analyses collectively suggest that HYD1 and HYD2 may represent the entire complement of non-heme di-iron β-hydroxylases in wheat. The homeologs of wheat HYDs exhibited major β-ring and minor ε-ring hydroxylation activities in carotenoid-accumulating E. coli strains. Distinct expression patterns were observed for different HYD genes and homeologs in vegetative tissues and developing grains of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, suggesting their functional divergence and differential regulatory control in tissue-, grain development-, and ploidy-specific manners. An intriguing observation was that the expression of HYD1, particularly HYD-B1, reached highest levels at the last stage of tetraploid and hexaploid grain development, suggesting that carotenoids (at least xanthophylls) were still actively synthesized in mature grains. This result challenges the common perception that carotenoids are simply being turned over during wheat grain development after their initial biosynthesis at the early grain development stages. Overall, this improved understanding of carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression and carotenoid metabolism in wheat grains will contribute to the improvement of the nutritional value of wheat grains for human consumption.

  3. Characterization of carotenoid-protein complexes and gene expression analysis associated with carotenoid sequestration in pigmented cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage root

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoid-protein complex separation by size exclusion chromatography, protein fractionation by SDS-PAGE, and shotgun PROTEOMICS technology were used to identify and characterize carotenoid associated proteins (CAPs) of chromoplast-enriched suspensions from cassava intense yellow storage root. A no...

  4. Cloning and comparative analysis of carotenoid β-hydroxylase genes provides new insights into carotenoid metabolism in tetraploid (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hexaploid (Triticum aestivum) wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaoqiong; Zhang, Wenjun; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Tian, Li

    2012-12-01

    Carotenoid β-hydroxylases attach hydroxyl groups to the β-ionone rings (β-rings) of carotenoid substrates, resulting in modified structures and functions of carotenoid molecules. We cloned and characterized two genes (each with three homeologs), HYD1 and HYD2, which encode β-hydroxylases in wheat. The results from bioinformatic and nested degenerate PCR analyses collectively suggest that HYD1 and HYD2 may represent the entire complement of non-heme di-iron β-hydroxylases in wheat. The homeologs of wheat HYDs exhibited major β-ring and minor ε-ring hydroxylation activities in carotenoid-accumulating E. coli strains. Distinct expression patterns were observed for different HYD genes and homeologs in vegetative tissues and developing grains of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, suggesting their functional divergence and differential regulatory control in tissue-, grain development-, and ploidy-specific manners. An intriguing observation was that the expression of HYD1, particularly HYD-B1, reached highest levels at the last stage of tetraploid and hexaploid grain development, suggesting that carotenoids (at least xanthophylls) were still actively synthesized in mature grains. This result challenges the common perception that carotenoids are simply being turned over during wheat grain development after their initial biosynthesis at the early grain development stages. Overall, this improved understanding of carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression and carotenoid metabolism in wheat grains will contribute to the improvement of the nutritional value of wheat grains for human consumption. PMID:23015203

  5. Strigolactones, a novel carotenoid-derived plant hormone.

    PubMed

    Al-Babili, Salim; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2015-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived plant hormones and signaling molecules. When released into the soil, SLs indicate the presence of a host to symbiotic fungi and root parasitic plants. In planta, they regulate several developmental processes that adapt plant architecture to nutrient availability. Highly branched/tillered mutants in Arabidopsis, pea, and rice have enabled the identification of four SL biosynthetic enzymes: a cis/trans-carotene isomerase, two carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, and a cytochrome P450 (MAX1). In vitro and in vivo enzyme assays and analysis of mutants have shown that the pathway involves a combination of new reactions leading to carlactone, which is converted by a rice MAX1 homolog into an SL parent molecule with a tricyclic lactone moiety. In this review, we focus on SL biosynthesis, describe the hormonal and environmental factors that determine this process, and discuss SL transport and downstream signaling as well as the role of SLs in regulating plant development.

  6. Antioxidant defense systems: the role of carotenoids, tocopherols, and thiols.

    PubMed

    Di Mascio, P; Murphy, M E; Sies, H

    1991-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species occur in tissues and can damage DNA, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. These potentially deleterious reactions are controlled by a system of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants which eliminate prooxidants and scavenge free radicals. The ability of the lipid-soluble carotenoids to quench singlet molecular oxygen may explain some anticancer properties of the carotenoids, independent of their provitamin A activity. Tocopherols are the most abundant and efficient scavengers of hydroperoxyl radicals in biological membranes. Water-soluble antioxidants include ascorbate and cellular thiols. Glutathione is an important substrate for enzymatic antioxidant functions and is capable of nonenzymatic radical scavenging. Thiols associated with membrane proteins may also be important to the antioxidant systems. Interactions between the thiols, tocopherols, and other compounds enhance the effectiveness of cellular antioxidant defense. PMID:1985387

  7. Resonant imaging of carotenoid pigments in the human retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellermann, Werner; Emakov, Igor V.; McClane, Robert W.

    2002-06-01

    We have generated high spatial resolution images showing the distribution of carotenoid macular pigments in the human retina using Raman spectroscopy. A low level of macular pigments is associated with an increased risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Using excised human eyecups and resonant excitation of the pigment molecules with narrow bandwidth blue light from a mercury arc lamp, we record Raman images originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of lutein and zeaxanthin, the carotenoids comprising human macular pigments. Our Raman images reveal significant differences among subjects, both in regard to absolute levels as well as spatial distribution within the macula. Since the light levels used to obtain these images are well below established safety limits, this technique holds promise for developing a rapid screening diagnostic in large populations at risk for vision loss from age-related macular degeneration.

  8. The very early events following photoexcitation of carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Yanagi, Kazuhiro; Yoshizawa, Masayuki; Polli, Dario; Cerullo, Giulio; Lanzani, Guglielmo; De Silvestri, Sandro; Gardiner, Alastair T; Cogdell, Richard J

    2004-10-01

    The recent availability of laser pulses with 10-20 fs duration, tunable throughout the visible and near infrared wavelengths, has facilitated the investigation, with unprecedented temporal resolution, into the very early events of energy relaxation in carotenoids [Science 298 (2002) 2395; Synth. Metals 139 (2003) 893]. This has enabled us to clearly demonstrate the existence of an additional intermediate state, Sx, lying between the S2 (1(1)Bu+) and S1 (2(1)Ag-) states. In addition, by applying time-resolved stimulated Raman spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution, it has also been shown that vibrational relaxation in electronic excited states plays an important role in these interconversions. In this mini-review, we describe briefly the current understanding of Sx and the other intermediate excited states that can be formed by relaxation from S2, mainly focusing attention on the above two topics. Emphasis is also placed on some of the major remaining unsolved issues in carotenoid photochemistry.

  9. Carotenoids and tocopherols in yellow and red raspberries.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Elisabete; Fraser, Paul D; Martens, Stefan

    2013-08-15

    The composition of carotenoids, chlorophyll derivatives and tocopherols in raspberries of different varieties, including yellow and red varieties, over different ripening stages has been studied. The profile of pigments in ripening raspberries changes drastically, with a dramatic decrease of β-carotene and chlorophyll derivatives, the xanthophyll lutein has also decreased but not to the same extent. In contrast esterified lutein increased and is present in ripe raspberries esterified with saturated fatty acids with C8-C16 chains. Ripe raspberries contain considerable amounts of free lutein, esterified lutein, and tocopherols (up to 20, 49 and 366 mg/kg dry weight, respectively). The different samples analysed show different contents of carotenoids and tocopherols. Whether the differences arise from the variety or other factors such as the environmental conditions needs to be ascertained but isoprenoids should not be neglected when considering raspberry antioxidant and nutraceutical composition.

  10. Squalestatin Is an Inhibitor of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Heloisa B.; Silva, Marcia F.; Kimura, Emília A.; Wunderlich, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The increasing resistance of malaria parasites to almost all available drugs calls for the characterization of novel targets and the identification of new compounds. Carotenoids are polyisoprenoids from plants, algae, and some bacteria, and they are biosynthesized by Plasmodium falciparum but not by mammalian cells. Biochemical and reverse genetics approaches were applied to demonstrate that phytoene synthase (PSY) is a key enzyme for carotenoid biosynthesis in P. falciparum and is essential for intraerythrocytic growth. The known PSY inhibitor squalestatin reduces biosynthesis of phytoene and kills parasites during the intraerythrocytic cycle. PSY-overexpressing parasites showed increased biosynthesis of phytoene and its derived product phytofluene and presented a squalestatin-resistant phenotype, suggesting that this enzyme is the primary target of action of this drug in the parasite. PMID:25779575

  11. Nutrient sources of provitamin A carotenoids in the American diet.

    PubMed

    Block, G

    1994-02-01

    The food sources of provitamin A carotenoids were estimated from data from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) carried out in 1976-1980. Carrots contribute over 30% of total population intake. Dark green leafy vegetables and sweet potatoes are also major contributors. However, several items often omitted from questionnaires to assess carotenoids are also major contributors, including salad, orange juice, beef stew, and milk. Conversely, many foods often included on such questionnaires are unimportant contributors, including papayas, plums, okra, and grapes. Recent changes in databases or food habits might change some rankings, but are unlikely to change the items in a list covering the top 90% of provitamin A intake. Questionnaires should include the important sources and exclude trivial sources, to minimize misclassification.

  12. Carotenoid-cleavage activities of crude enzymes from Pandanous amryllifolius.

    PubMed

    Ningrum, Andriati; Schreiner, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Carotenoid degradation products, known as norisoprenoids, are aroma-impact compounds in several plants. Pandan wangi is a common name of the shrub Pandanus amaryllifolius. The genus name 'Pandanus' is derived from the Indonesian name of the tree, pandan. In Indonesia, the leaves from the plant are used for several purposes, e.g., as natural colorants and flavor, and as traditional treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the cleavage of β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal by carotenoid-cleavage enzymes isolated from pandan leaves, to investigate dependencies of the enzymatic activities on temperature and pH, to determine the enzymatic reaction products by using Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrophotometry (HS-SPME GC/MS), and to investigate the influence of heat treatment and addition of crude enzyme on formation of norisoprenoids. Crude enzymes from pandan leaves showed higher activity against β-carotene than β-apo-8'-carotenal. The optimum temperature of crude enzymes was 70°, while the optimum pH value was 6. We identified β-ionone as the major volatile reaction product from the incubations of two different carotenoid substrates, β-carotene and β-apo-8'-carotenal. Several treatments, e.g., heat treatment and addition of crude enzymes in pandan leaves contributed to the norisoprenoid content. Our findings revealed that the crude enzymes from pandan leaves with carotenoid-cleavage activity might provide a potential application, especially for biocatalysis, in natural-flavor industry.

  13. The role of carotenoids on the risk of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Kenneth R

    2003-02-01

    Smoking prevention and cessation remain the primary methods of reducing the incidence of lung cancer. The limited success of efforts towards smoking cessation have led to increasing interest in the role of nutrition in lung cancer prevention. One class of nutrients that has attracted attention as potential chemopreventive agents is the carotenoids, especially beta-carotene, due to their antioxidant properties. In vitro, carotenoids exert antioxidant functions and inhibit carcinogen-induced neoplastic transformation, inhibit plasma membrane lipid oxidation, and cause upregulated expression of connexin 43. These in vitro results suggest that carotenoids have intrinsic cancer chemopreventive action in humans. Many cohort and case-control study data have shown an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer, although several more recent studies have cast doubt on these findings. Different effects of various dietary nutrients on lung cancer risk have been observed. Several prospective intervention trials were undertaken to examine the effect of supplementation on the risk of lung cancer. Some of these studies demonstrated an increased incidence and mortality from lung cancer in those receiving supplementation. Many hypotheses have emerged as to the reasons for these findings.

  14. Biotechnological conversion of spent coffee grounds into polyhydroxyalkanoates and carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Obruca, Stanislav; Benesova, Pavla; Kucera, Dan; Petrik, Sinisa; Marova, Ivana

    2015-12-25

    Coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages and has been growing steadily in commercial importance. Nowadays, coffee is the second largest traded commodity in the world, after petroleum. Hence, coffee industry is responsible for the generation of large amounts of waste, especially spent coffee grounds (SCG). Various attempts to valorize this waste stream of coffee industry were made. This article summarizes our research and publications aiming at the conversion of SCG into valuable products - polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and carotenoids. At first, oil extracted from SCG (approx. 15 wt% oil in SCG) can be efficiently (YP/S=0.82 g/g) converted into PHA employing Cupriavidus necator H16. Further, the solid residues after oil extraction can be hydrolyzed (by the combination of chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis) yielding fermentable sugars, which can be further used as a substrate for the production of PHAs employing Bacillus megaterium (YP/S=0.04 g/g) or Burkholderia cepacia (YP/S=0.24 g/g). Alternatively, SCG hydrolysate can be used as a substrate for biotechnological production of carotenoids by carotenogenic yeast Sporobolomyces roseus. Solid residues after either oil extraction or hydrolysis can be used as fuel in industrial boilers to generate heat and energy. Therefore, entire biomass of SCG can be used for sustainable production of PHAs and/or carotenoids employing bio-refinery approach.

  15. Mechanisms Underlying Carotenoid Absorption in Oxygenic Photosynthetic Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Mendes-Pinto, Maria M.; Galzerano, Denise; Telfer, Alison; Pascal, Andrew A.; Robert, Bruno; Ilioaia, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    The electronic properties of carotenoid molecules underlie their multiple functions throughout biology, and tuning of these properties by their in vivo locus is of vital importance in a number of cases. This is exemplified by photosynthetic carotenoids, which perform both light-harvesting and photoprotective roles essential to the photosynthetic process. However, despite a large number of scientific studies performed in this field, the mechanism(s) used to modulate the electronic properties of carotenoids remain elusive. We have chosen two specific cases, the two β-carotene molecules in photosystem II reaction centers and the two luteins in the major photosystem II light-harvesting complex, to investigate how such a tuning of their electronic structure may occur. Indeed, in each case, identical molecular species in the same protein are seen to exhibit different electronic properties (most notably, shifted absorption peaks). We assess which molecular parameters are responsible for this in vivo tuning process and attempt to assign it to specific molecular events imposed by their binding pockets. PMID:23720734

  16. Mechanisms underlying carotenoid absorption in oxygenic photosynthetic proteins.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Pinto, Maria M; Galzerano, Denise; Telfer, Alison; Pascal, Andrew A; Robert, Bruno; Ilioaia, Cristian

    2013-06-28

    The electronic properties of carotenoid molecules underlie their multiple functions throughout biology, and tuning of these properties by their in vivo locus is of vital importance in a number of cases. This is exemplified by photosynthetic carotenoids, which perform both light-harvesting and photoprotective roles essential to the photosynthetic process. However, despite a large number of scientific studies performed in this field, the mechanism(s) used to modulate the electronic properties of carotenoids remain elusive. We have chosen two specific cases, the two β-carotene molecules in photosystem II reaction centers and the two luteins in the major photosystem II light-harvesting complex, to investigate how such a tuning of their electronic structure may occur. Indeed, in each case, identical molecular species in the same protein are seen to exhibit different electronic properties (most notably, shifted absorption peaks). We assess which molecular parameters are responsible for this in vivo tuning process and attempt to assign it to specific molecular events imposed by their binding pockets.

  17. Biotechnological conversion of spent coffee grounds into polyhydroxyalkanoates and carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Obruca, Stanislav; Benesova, Pavla; Kucera, Dan; Petrik, Sinisa; Marova, Ivana

    2015-12-25

    Coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages and has been growing steadily in commercial importance. Nowadays, coffee is the second largest traded commodity in the world, after petroleum. Hence, coffee industry is responsible for the generation of large amounts of waste, especially spent coffee grounds (SCG). Various attempts to valorize this waste stream of coffee industry were made. This article summarizes our research and publications aiming at the conversion of SCG into valuable products - polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and carotenoids. At first, oil extracted from SCG (approx. 15 wt% oil in SCG) can be efficiently (YP/S=0.82 g/g) converted into PHA employing Cupriavidus necator H16. Further, the solid residues after oil extraction can be hydrolyzed (by the combination of chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis) yielding fermentable sugars, which can be further used as a substrate for the production of PHAs employing Bacillus megaterium (YP/S=0.04 g/g) or Burkholderia cepacia (YP/S=0.24 g/g). Alternatively, SCG hydrolysate can be used as a substrate for biotechnological production of carotenoids by carotenogenic yeast Sporobolomyces roseus. Solid residues after either oil extraction or hydrolysis can be used as fuel in industrial boilers to generate heat and energy. Therefore, entire biomass of SCG can be used for sustainable production of PHAs and/or carotenoids employing bio-refinery approach. PMID:25721970

  18. Fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry of carotenoids

    SciTech Connect

    van Breeman, R.B.; Schmitz, H.H.; Schwartz, S.J.

    1995-02-01

    Positive ion fast atom bombardment (FAB) tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) using a double-focusing mass spectrometer with linked scanning at constant B/E and high-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) was used to differentiate 17 different cartenoids, including {beta}-apo-8{prime}- carotenal, astaxanthin, {alpha}-carotene, {beta}-carotene, {gamma}-carotene, {zeta}-carotene, canthaxanthin, {beta}-cryptoxanthin, isozeaxanthin bis (pelargonate), neoxanthin, neurosporene, nonaprene, lutein, lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, and zeaxanthin. The carotenoids were either synthetic or isolated from plant tissues. The use of FAB ionization minimized degradation or rearrangement of the carotenoid structures due to the inherent thermal instability generally ascribed to these compounds. Instead of protonated molecules, both polar xanthophylls and nonpolar carotenes formed molecular ions, M{sup {center_dot}+}, during FAB ionization. Following collisionally activated dissociation, fragment ions of selected molecular ion precursors showed structural features indicative of the presence of hydroxyl groups, ring systems, ester groups, and aldehyde groups and the extent of aliphatic polyene conjugation. The fragmentation patterns observed in the mass spectra herein may be used as a reference for the structural determination of carotenoids isolated from plant and animal tissues. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Tomato waste: Carotenoids content, antioxidant and cell growth activities.

    PubMed

    Stajčić, Sladjana; Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Djilas, Sonja; Mandić, Anamarija; Četojević-Simin, Dragana

    2015-04-01

    The carotenoid content, antioxidant and cell growth activities of tomato waste extracts, obtained from five different tomato genotypes, was investigated. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify the main carotenoids present in tomato waste extracts. The antioxidant activity of tomato waste extracts was tested using spectrophotometric methods, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The highest DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.057 mg/ml) was obtained for Bačka extract. The Knjaz extract showed the best reducing power (IC50 = 2.12 mg/ml). Cell growth effects were determined in HeLa, MCF7 and MRC-5 cell lines by sulforhodamine B test. Anti-proliferative effects were observed in all cell lines at higher concentrations (⩾ 0.125 mg/ml). The carotenoid contents exhibited a strong correlation with antioxidant and anti-proliferation activity. The results obtained indicated that tomato waste should be regarded as potential nutraceutic resource and may be used as a functional food ingredient.

  20. Assessing the distribution of sedimentary C40 carotenoids through time.

    PubMed

    French, K L; Rocher, D; Zumberge, J E; Summons, R E

    2015-03-01

    A comprehensive marine biomarker record of green and purple sulfur bacteria (GSB and PSB, respectively) is required to test whether anoxygenic photosynthesis represented a greater fraction of marine primary productivity during the Precambrian than the Phanerozoic, as current models of ocean redox evolution suggest. For this purpose, we analyzed marine rock extracts and oils from the Proterozoic to the Paleogene for C40 diagenetic products of carotenoid pigments using new analytical methods. Gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry provides a new perspective on the temporal distributions of carotenoid biomarkers for phototrophic sulfur bacteria, specifically okenane, chlorobactane, and paleorenieratane. According to conventional paleoredox interpretations, this revised stratigraphic distribution of the GSB and PSB biomarkers implies that the shallow sunlit surface ocean (<24 m) became sulfidic more frequently in the geologic past than was previously thought. We reexamine whether there is evidence supporting a planktonic source of GSB and PSB pigments in marine systems or whether additional factors are required to explain the marine phototrophic sulfur bacteria record. To date, planktonic GSB and PSB and their pigments have been identified in restricted basins and lakes, but they have yet to be detected in the unrestricted, transiently sulfidic, marine systems. Based on modern observations, additional environmental factors, including basin restriction, microbial mats, or sediment transport, may be required to fully explain GSB and PSB carotenoids in the geologic record. PMID:25631735

  1. [Priorities of investigation in the field of carotenoids in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Chávez Pérez, J F

    1999-09-01

    The Venezuelan Food Composition Table (VFCT) is being revised for the publication of the ninth edition within the Venezuelan Food Project. The majority of the RE values for plant foods given in the VFCT were taken from previous editions (1964-1973) and with few exceptions, still remains the same in the latest edition of 1994. These values were calculated from the total carotenoid content of food, determined by an open column method with no separation of the various carotenoids that might be present in the food. Recently it has been suggested that the accepted factors to convert beta-carotene and other carotenoids to RE (1/6 and 1/12, respectively) do not reflect the reality and the apparent mean vitamin A activity of leafy vegetables and carrot would be around 23% and fruits about 50% of that assumed until now. Percentages of the Venezuelan RDAs for vitamin A were calculated from vitamin A intake supplied by food consumption surveys, using the conversion factors corrected according to the above mentioned criteria. Percentages of the Venezuelan RDAs were again calculated with the vitamin A availability given by the Food Balance Sheet (1997), using two levels of RE in carrots: 2,800 ER and 850 ER. Results in these approaches differ markedly and indicate that the vitamin A nutrition status may be overestimated. If confirmed, this situation could influence the criteria and decisions in regard to food fortification and other strategies for controlling vitamin A deficiency.

  2. Tomato waste: Carotenoids content, antioxidant and cell growth activities.

    PubMed

    Stajčić, Sladjana; Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Djilas, Sonja; Mandić, Anamarija; Četojević-Simin, Dragana

    2015-04-01

    The carotenoid content, antioxidant and cell growth activities of tomato waste extracts, obtained from five different tomato genotypes, was investigated. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify the main carotenoids present in tomato waste extracts. The antioxidant activity of tomato waste extracts was tested using spectrophotometric methods, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The highest DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.057 mg/ml) was obtained for Bačka extract. The Knjaz extract showed the best reducing power (IC50 = 2.12 mg/ml). Cell growth effects were determined in HeLa, MCF7 and MRC-5 cell lines by sulforhodamine B test. Anti-proliferative effects were observed in all cell lines at higher concentrations (⩾ 0.125 mg/ml). The carotenoid contents exhibited a strong correlation with antioxidant and anti-proliferation activity. The results obtained indicated that tomato waste should be regarded as potential nutraceutic resource and may be used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:25442547

  3. Biotechnological production of value-added carotenoids from microalgae: Emerging technology and prospects.

    PubMed

    Wichuk, Kristine; Brynjólfsson, Sigurður; Fu, Weiqi

    2014-01-01

    We recently evaluated the relationship between abiotic environmental stresses and lutein biosynthesis in the green microalga Dunaliella salina and suggested a rational design of stress-driven adaptive evolution experiments for carotenoids production in microalgae. Here, we summarize our recent findings regarding the biotechnological production of carotenoids from microalgae and outline emerging technology in this field. Carotenoid metabolic pathways are characterized in several representative algal species as they pave the way for biotechnology development. The adaptive evolution strategy is highlighted in connection with enhanced growth rate and carotenoid metabolism. In addition, available genetic modification tools are described, with emphasis on model species. A brief discussion on the role of lights as limiting factors in carotenoid production in microalgae is also included. Overall, our analysis suggests that light-driven metabolism and the photosynthetic efficiency of microalgae in photobioreactors are the main bottlenecks in enhancing biotechnological potential of carotenoid production from microalgae.

  4. Biomass and carotenoid production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: effects of light intensity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) to produce biomass and carotenoid while treating wastewater. The effects of light intensity on the biomass, carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll accumulation in together with pollutant removal were studied. Results showed that it was feasible to use PSB to treat wastewater as well as to produce biomass or carotenoid. 2000 lux was an optimal intensity for biomass production and COD removal, and the corresponding values were 2645 mg/L and 94.7%. 8000 lux was an optimal light intensity for carotenoid production (1.455 mg/L). Mechanism analysis displayed that the greater the bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid were secreted, the lower the light conversion efficiency turned out to be. The highest light conversion efficiency was achieved at 500 lux; the ATP production, biomass production, and COD removal were the highest at 2000 lux, but the bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid content were the lowest at 2000 lux. PMID:25218205

  5. Concurrent production of carotenoids and lipid by a filamentous microalga Trentepohlia arborum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Lanlan; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-08-01

    During the study of Trentepohlia arborum it became clear that its cells are rich in lipids and carotenoids. Thus, lipid content, composition and fatty acids profiles in individual lipid classes, as well as pigment profiles, responding to different culture conditions, were further investigated. The results showed that the predominant carotenoids and lipid fraction in total lipid in this study was β-carotene and TAG, respectively. The lipid content increased significantly under high light while nitrogen-replete conditions induced the highest carotenoids content. However, only with a double stress of high light and nitrogen-deficiency it was possible to maximize the productivities of both carotenoids and lipids. Carotenoids (mainly β-carotene) accounted for ca. 5% of the microalgal lipid under the double stress. Data herein show the potential of T. arborum for the production of both lipids and carotenoids, and hence provide an appropriate way to produce different products from T. arborum. PMID:27179952

  6. Absorption of Carotenoids and Mechanisms Involved in Their Health-Related Properties.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Paz, Braulio; Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids participate in the normal metabolism and function of the human body. They are involved in the prevention of several diseases, especially those related to the inflammation syndrome. Their main mechanisms of action are associated to their potent antioxidant activity and capacity to regulate the expression of specific genes and proteins. Recent findings suggest that carotenoid metabolites may explain several processes where the participation of their parent carotenoids was unclear. The health benefits of carotenoids strongly depend on their absorption and transformation during gastrointestinal digestion. The estimation of the 'bioaccessibility' of carotenoids through in vitro models have made possible the evaluation of the effect of a large number of factors on key stages of carotenoid digestion and intestinal absorption. The bioaccessibility of these compounds allows us to have a clear idea of their potential bioavailability, a term that implicitly involves the biological activity of these compounds. PMID:27485232

  7. In vivo Raman spectroscopy detects increased epidermal antioxidative potential with topically applied carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Caspers, P. J.; van der Pol, A.; Richter, H.; Patzelt, A.; Zastrow, L.; Darvin, M.; Sterry, W.; Fluhr, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of the carotenoids as a marker for the complete antioxidative potential in human skin was investigated before and after the topical application of carotenoids by in vivo Raman spectroscopy with an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. The carotenoid profile was assessed after a short term topical application in 4 healthy volunteers. In the untreated skin, the highest concentration of natural carotenoids was detected in different layers of the stratum corneum (SC) close to the skin surface. After topical application of carotenoids, an increase in the antioxidative potential in the skin could be observed. Topically applied carotenoids penetrate deep into the epidermis down to approximately 24 μm. This study supports the hypothesis that antioxidative substances are secreted via eccrine sweat glands and/or sebaceous glands to the skin surface. Subsequently they penetrate into the different layers of the SC.

  8. Biomass and carotenoid production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: effects of light intensity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) to produce biomass and carotenoid while treating wastewater. The effects of light intensity on the biomass, carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll accumulation in together with pollutant removal were studied. Results showed that it was feasible to use PSB to treat wastewater as well as to produce biomass or carotenoid. 2000 lux was an optimal intensity for biomass production and COD removal, and the corresponding values were 2645 mg/L and 94.7%. 8000 lux was an optimal light intensity for carotenoid production (1.455 mg/L). Mechanism analysis displayed that the greater the bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid were secreted, the lower the light conversion efficiency turned out to be. The highest light conversion efficiency was achieved at 500 lux; the ATP production, biomass production, and COD removal were the highest at 2000 lux, but the bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid content were the lowest at 2000 lux.

  9. An improved UHPLC-UV method for separation and quantification of carotenoids in vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Megan M; Mein, Jonathan R; Chaudhuri, Swapan K; Constant, Howard L

    2014-12-15

    Carotenoid identification and quantitation is critical for the development of improved nutrition plant varieties. Industrial analysis of carotenoids is typically carried out on multiple crops with potentially thousands of samples per crop, placing critical needs on speed and broad utility of the analytical methods. Current chromatographic methods for carotenoid analysis have had limited industrial application due to their low throughput, requiring up to 60 min for complete separation of all compounds. We have developed an improved UHPLC-UV method that resolves all major carotenoids found in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), carrot (Daucus carota), corn (Zea mays), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The chromatographic method is completed in 13.5 min allowing for the resolution of the 11 carotenoids of interest, including the structural isomers lutein/zeaxanthin and α-/β-carotene. Additional minor carotenoids have also been separated and identified with this method, demonstrating the utility of this method across major commercial food crops.

  10. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many fruits, including watermelon, are proficient in carotenoid accumulation during ripening. While most genes encoding steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been cloned, few transcriptional regulators of these genes have been defined to date. Here we describe the identification of a set of putative carotenoid-related transcription factors resulting from fresh watermelon carotenoid and transcriptome analysis during fruit development and ripening. Our goal is to both clarify the expression profiles of carotenoid pathway genes and to identify candidate regulators and molecular targets for crop improvement. Results Total carotenoids progressively increased during fruit ripening up to ~55 μg g-1 fw in red-ripe fruits. Trans-lycopene was the carotenoid that contributed most to this increase. Many of the genes related to carotenoid metabolism displayed changing expression levels during fruit ripening generating a metabolic flux toward carotenoid synthesis. Constitutive low expression of lycopene cyclase genes resulted in lycopene accumulation. RNA-seq expression profiling of watermelon fruit development yielded a set of transcription factors whose expression was correlated with ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Nineteen putative transcription factor genes from watermelon and homologous to tomato carotenoid-associated genes were identified. Among these, six were differentially expressed in the flesh of both species during fruit development and ripening. Conclusions Taken together the data suggest that, while the regulation of a common set of metabolic genes likely influences carotenoid synthesis and accumulation in watermelon and tomato fruits during development and ripening, specific and limiting regulators may differ between climacteric and non-climacteric fruits, possibly related to their differential susceptibility to and use of ethylene during ripening. PMID:24219562

  11. Specific carotenoid pigments in the diet and a bit of oxidative stress in the recipe for producing red carotenoid-based signals.

    PubMed

    García-de Blas, Esther; Mateo, Rafael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Colorful ornaments have been the focus of sexual selection studies since the work of Darwin. Yellow to red coloration is often produced by carotenoid pigments. Different hypotheses have been formulated to explain the evolution of these traits as signals of individual quality. Many of these hypotheses involve the existence of a signal production cost. The carotenoids necessary for signaling can only be obtained from food. In this line, carotenoid-based signals could reveal an individual's capacity to find sufficient dietary pigments. However, the ingested carotenoids are often yellow and became transformed by the organism to produce pigments of more intense color (red ketocarotenoids). Biotransformation should involve oxidation reactions, although the exact mechanism is poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that carotenoid biotransformation could be costly because a certain level of oxidative stress is required to correctly perform the conversion. The carotenoid-based signals could thus reveal the efficiency of the owner in successfully managing this challenge. In a bird with ketocarotenoid-based ornaments (the red-legged partridge; Alectoris rufa), the availability of different carotenoids in the diet (i.e. astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein) and oxidative stress were manipulated. The carotenoid composition was analyzed and quantified in the ornaments, blood, liver and fat. A number of oxidative stress biomarkers were also measured in the same tissues. First, we found that color and pigment levels in the ornaments depended on food levels of those carotenoids used as substrates in biotransformation. Second, we found that birds exposed to mild levels of a free radical generator (diquat) developed redder bills and deposited higher amounts of ketocarotenoids (astaxanthin) in ornaments. Moreover, the same diquat-exposed birds also showed a weaker resistance to hemolysis when their erythrocytes were exposed to free radicals, with females also enduring higher oxidative

  12. Specific carotenoid pigments in the diet and a bit of oxidative stress in the recipe for producing red carotenoid-based signals

    PubMed Central

    García-de Blas, Esther; Mateo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Colorful ornaments have been the focus of sexual selection studies since the work of Darwin. Yellow to red coloration is often produced by carotenoid pigments. Different hypotheses have been formulated to explain the evolution of these traits as signals of individual quality. Many of these hypotheses involve the existence of a signal production cost. The carotenoids necessary for signaling can only be obtained from food. In this line, carotenoid-based signals could reveal an individual’s capacity to find sufficient dietary pigments. However, the ingested carotenoids are often yellow and became transformed by the organism to produce pigments of more intense color (red ketocarotenoids). Biotransformation should involve oxidation reactions, although the exact mechanism is poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that carotenoid biotransformation could be costly because a certain level of oxidative stress is required to correctly perform the conversion. The carotenoid-based signals could thus reveal the efficiency of the owner in successfully managing this challenge. In a bird with ketocarotenoid-based ornaments (the red-legged partridge; Alectoris rufa), the availability of different carotenoids in the diet (i.e. astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein) and oxidative stress were manipulated. The carotenoid composition was analyzed and quantified in the ornaments, blood, liver and fat. A number of oxidative stress biomarkers were also measured in the same tissues. First, we found that color and pigment levels in the ornaments depended on food levels of those carotenoids used as substrates in biotransformation. Second, we found that birds exposed to mild levels of a free radical generator (diquat) developed redder bills and deposited higher amounts of ketocarotenoids (astaxanthin) in ornaments. Moreover, the same diquat-exposed birds also showed a weaker resistance to hemolysis when their erythrocytes were exposed to free radicals, with females also enduring higher oxidative

  13. Specific carotenoid pigments in the diet and a bit of oxidative stress in the recipe for producing red carotenoid-based signals

    PubMed Central

    García-de Blas, Esther; Mateo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Colorful ornaments have been the focus of sexual selection studies since the work of Darwin. Yellow to red coloration is often produced by carotenoid pigments. Different hypotheses have been formulated to explain the evolution of these traits as signals of individual quality. Many of these hypotheses involve the existence of a signal production cost. The carotenoids necessary for signaling can only be obtained from food. In this line, carotenoid-based signals could reveal an individual’s capacity to find sufficient dietary pigments. However, the ingested carotenoids are often yellow and became transformed by the organism to produce pigments of more intense color (red ketocarotenoids). Biotransformation should involve oxidation reactions, although the exact mechanism is poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that carotenoid biotransformation could be costly because a certain level of oxidative stress is required to correctly perform the conversion. The carotenoid-based signals could thus reveal the efficiency of the owner in successfully managing this challenge. In a bird with ketocarotenoid-based ornaments (the red-legged partridge; Alectoris rufa), the availability of different carotenoids in the diet (i.e. astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein) and oxidative stress were manipulated. The carotenoid composition was analyzed and quantified in the ornaments, blood, liver and fat. A number of oxidative stress biomarkers were also measured in the same tissues. First, we found that color and pigment levels in the ornaments depended on food levels of those carotenoids used as substrates in biotransformation. Second, we found that birds exposed to mild levels of a free radical generator (diquat) developed redder bills and deposited higher amounts of ketocarotenoids (astaxanthin) in ornaments. Moreover, the same diquat-exposed birds also showed a weaker resistance to hemolysis when their erythrocytes were exposed to free radicals, with females also enduring higher oxidative

  14. Distribution of retinal cone photoreceptor oil droplets, and identification of associated carotenoids in crow (Corvus macrorhynchos).

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Lutfur; Yoshida, Kazuyuki; Maeda, Isamu; Tanaka, Hideuki; Sugita, Shoei

    2010-06-01

    The topography of cone oil droplets and their carotenoids were investigated in the retina of jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos). Fresh retina was sampled for the study of retinal cone oil droplets, and extracted retinal carotenoids were saponified using methods adapted from a recent study, then identified with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To assess the effects of saponification conditions on carotenoid recovery from crow retina, we varied base concentration and total time of saponification across a wide range of conditions, and again used HPLC to compare carotenoid concentrations. Based on colors, at least four types of oil droplets were recognized, i.e., red, orange, green, and translucent, across the retina. With an average of 91,202 /mm(2), density gradually declines in an eccentric manner from optic disc. In retina, the density and size of droplets are inversely related. In the peripheral zone, oil droplets were significantly larger than those of the central area. The proportion of orange oil droplets (33%) was higher in the central area, whereas green was predominant in other areas. Three types of carotenoid (astaxanthin, galloxanthin and lutein), together with one unknown carotenoid, were recovered from the crow retina; astaxanthin was the dominant carotenoid among them. The recovery of carotenoids was affected by saponification conditions. Astaxanthin was well recovered in weak alkali (0.06 M KOH), in contrast, xanthophyllic carotenoids were best recovered in strong alkali (0.6 M KOH) after 12 h of saponification at freeze temperature.

  15. An R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulates carotenoid pigmentation in Mimulus lewisii flowers.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments that contribute to the beautiful colors and nutritive value of many flowers and fruits. The structural genes in the highly conserved carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been well characterized in multiple plant systems, but little is known about the transcription factors that control the expression of these structural genes. By analyzing a chemically induced mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments, we have identified an R2R3-MYB, Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), as the first transcription factor that positively regulates carotenoid biosynthesis during flower development. Loss-of-function mutations in RCP1 lead to down-regulation of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes and reduced carotenoid content in M. lewisii flowers, a phenotype recapitulated by RNA interference in the wild-type background. Overexpression of this gene in the rcp1 mutant background restores carotenoid production and, unexpectedly, results in simultaneous decrease of anthocyanin production in some transgenic lines by down-regulating the expression of an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Identification of transcriptional regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis provides the 'toolbox' genes for understanding the molecular basis of flower color diversification in nature and for potential enhancement of carotenoid production in crop plants via genetic engineering. PMID:26377817

  16. Biochemistry and molecular biology of carotenoid biosynthesis in chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, María del Rocío; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits' yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:24065101

  17. Carotenoids, oxidative stress and female mating preference for longer lived males

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Thomas W; Blount, Jonathan D; Bjerkeng, Bjørn; Lindström, Jan; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2007-01-01

    Some of the most spectacular exaggerated sexual ornaments are carotenoid dependent. It has been suggested that such ornaments have evolved because carotenoid pigments are limiting for both signal expression and in their role as antioxidants and immunostimulants. An implicit assumption of this hypothesis is that males which can afford to produce more elaborate carotenoid-dependent displays are signalling their enhanced ability to resist parasites, disease or oxidative stress and hence would be predicted to live longer. Therefore, in species with carotenoid-dependent ornaments where a parent's future longevity is crucial for determining offspring survival, there should be a mating preference for partners that present the lowest risk of mortality during the breeding attempt, as signalled by the ability to allocate carotenoids to sexual displays. In an experimental study using three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we show that when dietary carotenoid intake is limited, males attempt to maintain their sexual ornament at the expense of body carotenoids and hence suffer from reduced reproductive investment and a shorter lifespan. These males also suffer from an increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, suggesting that this may constitute the mechanism underlying the increased rate of ageing. Furthermore, in pairwise mate-choice trials, females preferred males that had a greater access to carotenoids and chance of surviving the breeding season, suggesting that females can make adaptive mate choice decisions based on a male's carotenoid status and potential future longevity. PMID:17439854

  18. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se H; Kim, Moon S; Lee, Bun Y; Lee, Pyung C

    2016-01-01

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored thus far. Here, we generated 13 novel structures of C30 carotenoids and one C35 carotenoid, including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures, through directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of various C30 carotenoid structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-α-tocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid 4,4'-diapotorulene on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results demonstrate that a series of structurally novel carotenoids possessing biologically beneficial properties can be synthesized in E. coli. PMID:26902326

  19. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.)

    PubMed Central

    del Rocío Gómez-García, María; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:24065101

  20. Biochemistry and molecular biology of carotenoid biosynthesis in chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, María del Rocío; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits' yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  1. Composition and spectra of copper-carotenoid sediments from a pyrite mine stream in Spain.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Furio, Marta; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Jurado, Valme; Correcher, Virgilio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2015-01-25

    Mine drainages of La Poderosa (El Campillo, Huelva, Spain), located in the Rio Tinto Basin (Iberian Pyrite Belt) generate carotenoid complexes mixed with copper sulfates presenting good natural models for the production of carotenoids from microorganisms. The environmental conditions of Rio Tinto Basin include important environmental stresses to force the microorganisms to accumulate carotenoids. Here we show as carotenoid compounds in sediments can be analyzed directly in the solid state by Raman and Luminescence spectroscopy techniques to identify solid carotenoid, avoiding dissolution and pre-concentration treatments, since the hydrous copper-salted paragenesis do not mask the Raman emission of carotenoids. Raman spectra recorded from one of these specimens' exhibit major features at approximately 1006, 1154, and 1520 cm(-1). The bands at 1520 cm(-1) and 1154 cm(-1) can be assigned to in-phase C=C (γ(-1)) and C-C stretching (γ(-2)) vibrations of the polyene chain in carotenoids. The in-plane rocking deformations of CH3 groups linked to this chain coupled with C-C bonds are observed in the 1006 cm(-1) region. X-irradiation pretreatments enhance the cathodoluminescence spectra emission of carotenoids enough to distinguish organic compounds including hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Carotenoids in copper-sulfates could be used as biomarkers and useful proxies for understanding remote mineral formations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to mine drainage contamination including biological activity and photo-oxidation processes. PMID:25064504

  2. De novo transcriptome sequencing of Momordica cochinchinensis to identify genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Rim, Yeonggil; Jang, Hui-Jeong; Kim, Cheol Hong; Park, Jongsun; Kumar, Ritesh; Lee, Sunghoon; Kim, Byung Chul; Bhak, Jong; Nguyen-Quoc, Binh; Kim, Seon-Won; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2012-07-01

    The ripe fruit of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng, known as gac, is featured by very high carotenoid content. Although this plant might be a good resource for carotenoid metabolic engineering, so far, the genes involved in the carotenoid metabolic pathways in gac were unidentified due to lack of genomic information in the public database. In order to expedite the process of gene discovery, we have undertaken Illumina deep sequencing of mRNA prepared from aril of gac fruit. From 51,446,670 high-quality reads, we obtained 81,404 assembled unigenes with average length of 388 base pairs. At the protein level, gac aril transcripts showed about 81.5% similarity with cucumber proteomes. In addition 17,104 unigenes have been assigned to specific metabolic pathways in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and all of known enzymes involved in terpenoid backbones biosynthetic and carotenoid biosynthetic pathways were also identified in our library. To analyze the relationship between putative carotenoid biosynthesis genes and alteration of carotenoid content during fruit ripening, digital gene expression analysis was performed on three different ripening stages of aril. This study has revealed putative phytoene synthase, 15-cis-phytone desaturase, zeta-carotene desaturase, carotenoid isomerase and lycopene epsilon cyclase might be key factors for controlling carotenoid contents during aril ripening. Taken together, this study has also made availability of a large gene database. This unique information for gac gene discovery would be helpful to facilitate functional studies for improving carotenoid quantities. PMID:22580955

  3. Generation of structurally novel short carotenoids and study of their biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se H.; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Bun Y.; Lee, Pyung C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research interest in phytochemicals has consistently driven the efforts in the metabolic engineering field toward microbial production of various carotenoids. In spite of systematic studies, the possibility of using C30 carotenoids as biologically functional compounds has not been explored thus far. Here, we generated 13 novel structures of C30 carotenoids and one C35 carotenoid, including acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic structures, through directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli. Measurement of radical scavenging activity of various C30 carotenoid structures revealed that acyclic C30 carotenoids showed higher radical scavenging activity than did DL-α-tocopherol. We could assume high potential biological activity of the novel structures of C30 carotenoids as well, based on the neuronal differentiation activity observed for the monocyclic C30 carotenoid 4,4′-diapotorulene on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results demonstrate that a series of structurally novel carotenoids possessing biologically beneficial properties can be synthesized in E. coli. PMID:26902326

  4. Tissue-Specific Apocarotenoid Glycosylation Contributes to Carotenoid Homeostasis in Arabidopsis Leaves1

    PubMed Central

    Lätari, Kira; Wüst, Florian; Hübner, Michaela; Schaub, Patrick; Beisel, Kim Gabriele; Matsubara, Shizue; Beyer, Peter; Welsch, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Attaining defined steady-state carotenoid levels requires balancing of the rates governing their synthesis and metabolism. Phytoene formation mediated by phytoene synthase (PSY) is rate limiting in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, whereas carotenoid catabolism involves a multitude of nonenzymatic and enzymatic processes. We investigated carotenoid and apocarotenoid formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in response to enhanced pathway flux upon PSY overexpression. This resulted in a dramatic accumulation of mainly β-carotene in roots and nongreen calli, whereas carotenoids remained unchanged in leaves. We show that, in chloroplasts, surplus PSY was partially soluble, localized in the stroma and, therefore, inactive, whereas the membrane-bound portion mediated a doubling of phytoene synthesis rates. Increased pathway flux was not compensated by enhanced generation of long-chain apocarotenals but resulted in higher levels of C13 apocarotenoid glycosides (AGs). Using mutant lines deficient in carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs), we identified CCD4 as being mainly responsible for the majority of AGs formed. Moreover, changed AG patterns in the carotene hydroxylase mutants lutein deficient1 (lut1) and lut5 exhibiting altered leaf carotenoids allowed us to define specific xanthophyll species as precursors for the apocarotenoid aglycons detected. In contrast to leaves, carotenoid hyperaccumulating roots contained higher levels of β-carotene-derived apocarotenals, whereas AGs were absent. These contrasting responses are associated with tissue-specific capacities to synthesize xanthophylls, which thus determine the modes of carotenoid accumulation and apocarotenoid formation. PMID:26134165

  5. Broadband 2D electronic spectroscopy reveals a carotenoid dark state in purple bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ostroumov, Evgeny E; Mulvaney, Rachel M; Cogdell, Richard J; Scholes, Gregory D

    2013-04-01

    Although the energy transfer processes in natural light-harvesting systems have been intensively studied for the past 60 years, certain details of the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. We performed broadband two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy measurements on light-harvesting proteins from purple bacteria and isolated carotenoids in order to characterize in more detail the excited-state manifold of carotenoids, which channel energy to bacteriochlorophyll molecules. The data revealed a well-resolved signal consistent with a previously postulated carotenoid dark state, the presence of which was confirmed by global kinetic analysis. The results point to this state's role in mediating energy flow from carotenoid to bacteriochlorophyll.

  6. Composition and spectra of copper-carotenoid sediments from a pyrite mine stream in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Furio, Marta; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Jurado, Valme; Correcher, Virgilio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2015-01-01

    Mine drainages of La Poderosa (El Campillo, Huelva, Spain), located in the Rio Tinto Basin (Iberian Pyrite Belt) generate carotenoid complexes mixed with copper sulfates presenting good natural models for the production of carotenoids from microorganisms. The environmental conditions of Rio Tinto Basin include important environmental stresses to force the microorganisms to accumulate carotenoids. Here we show as carotenoid compounds in sediments can be analyzed directly in the solid state by Raman and Luminescence spectroscopy techniques to identify solid carotenoid, avoiding dissolution and pre-concentration treatments, since the hydrous copper-salted paragenesis do not mask the Raman emission of carotenoids. Raman spectra recorded from one of these specimens' exhibit major features at approximately 1006, 1154, and 1520 cm-1. The bands at 1520 cm-1 and 1154 cm-1 can be assigned to in-phase Cdbnd C (γ-1) and Csbnd C stretching (γ-2) vibrations of the polyene chain in carotenoids. The in-plane rocking deformations of CH3 groups linked to this chain coupled with Csbnd C bonds are observed in the 1006 cm-1 region. X-irradiation pretreatments enhance the cathodoluminescence spectra emission of carotenoids enough to distinguish organic compounds including hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Carotenoids in copper-sulfates could be used as biomarkers and useful proxies for understanding remote mineral formations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to mine drainage contamination including biological activity and photo-oxidation processes.

  7. Pathway engineering strategies for production of beneficial carotenoids in microbial hosts.

    PubMed

    Ye, Victor M; Bhatia, Sujata K

    2012-08-01

    Carotenoids, such as lycopene, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin have many benefits for human health. In addition to the functional role of carotenoids as vitamin A precursors, adequate consumption of carotenoids prevents the development of a variety of serious diseases. Biosynthesis of carotenoids is a complex process and it starts with the common isoprene precursors. Condensation of these precursors and subsequent modifications, by introducing hydroxyl- and keto-groups, leads to the generation of diversified carotenoid structures. To improve carotenoid production, metabolic engineering has been explored in bacteria, yeast, and algae. The success of the pathway engineering effort depends on the host metabolism, specific enzymes used, the enzyme expression levels, and the strategies employed. Despite the difficulty of pathway engineering for carotenoid production, great progress has been made over the past decade. We review metabolic engineering approaches used in a variety of microbial hosts for carotenoid biosynthesis. These advances will greatly expedite our efforts to bring the health benefits of carotenoids and other nutritional compounds to our diet. PMID:22488437

  8. Resonant Raman detectors for noninvasive assessment of carotenoid antioxidants in human tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellermann, Werner; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakova, Maia R.; Ermakov, Igor V.; Bernstein, P. S.

    2003-07-01

    Carotenoid antioxidants form an important part of the human body's anti-oxidant system and are thought to play an important role in disease prevention. Studies have shown an inverse correlation between high dietary intake of carotenoids and risk of certain cancers, heart disease and degenerative diseases. For example, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, which are present in high concentrations in the human retina, are thought to prevent age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly in the Western world. We have developed various clinical prototype instruments, based on resonance Raman spectroscopy, that are able to measure carotenoid levels directly in the tissue of interest. At present we use the Raman technology to quantify carotenoid levels in the human retina, in skin, and in the oral cavity. We use resonant excitation of the π-conjugated molecules in the visible wavelength range and detect the molecules' carbon-carbon stretch frequencies. The spectral properties of the various carotenoids can be explored to selectively measure in some cases individual carotenoid species linked ot the prevention of cancer, in human skin. The instrumentation involves home-built, compact, high-throughput Raman systems capable of measuring physiological carotenoid concentrations in human subjects rapidly and quantitatively. The instruments have been demonstrated for field use and screening of tissue carotenoid status in large populations. In Epidemiology, the technology holds promise as a novel, noninvasive and objective biomarker of fruit and vegetable uptake.

  9. De novo transcriptome sequencing of Momordica cochinchinensis to identify genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Rim, Yeonggil; Jang, Hui-Jeong; Kim, Cheol Hong; Park, Jongsun; Kumar, Ritesh; Lee, Sunghoon; Kim, Byung Chul; Bhak, Jong; Nguyen-Quoc, Binh; Kim, Seon-Won; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2012-07-01

    The ripe fruit of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng, known as gac, is featured by very high carotenoid content. Although this plant might be a good resource for carotenoid metabolic engineering, so far, the genes involved in the carotenoid metabolic pathways in gac were unidentified due to lack of genomic information in the public database. In order to expedite the process of gene discovery, we have undertaken Illumina deep sequencing of mRNA prepared from aril of gac fruit. From 51,446,670 high-quality reads, we obtained 81,404 assembled unigenes with average length of 388 base pairs. At the protein level, gac aril transcripts showed about 81.5% similarity with cucumber proteomes. In addition 17,104 unigenes have been assigned to specific metabolic pathways in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and all of known enzymes involved in terpenoid backbones biosynthetic and carotenoid biosynthetic pathways were also identified in our library. To analyze the relationship between putative carotenoid biosynthesis genes and alteration of carotenoid content during fruit ripening, digital gene expression analysis was performed on three different ripening stages of aril. This study has revealed putative phytoene synthase, 15-cis-phytone desaturase, zeta-carotene desaturase, carotenoid isomerase and lycopene epsilon cyclase might be key factors for controlling carotenoid contents during aril ripening. Taken together, this study has also made availability of a large gene database. This unique information for gac gene discovery would be helpful to facilitate functional studies for improving carotenoid quantities.

  10. Distribution of retinal cone photoreceptor oil droplets, and identification of associated carotenoids in crow (Corvus macrorhynchos).

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Lutfur; Yoshida, Kazuyuki; Maeda, Isamu; Tanaka, Hideuki; Sugita, Shoei

    2010-06-01

    The topography of cone oil droplets and their carotenoids were investigated in the retina of jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos). Fresh retina was sampled for the study of retinal cone oil droplets, and extracted retinal carotenoids were saponified using methods adapted from a recent study, then identified with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To assess the effects of saponification conditions on carotenoid recovery from crow retina, we varied base concentration and total time of saponification across a wide range of conditions, and again used HPLC to compare carotenoid concentrations. Based on colors, at least four types of oil droplets were recognized, i.e., red, orange, green, and translucent, across the retina. With an average of 91,202 /mm(2), density gradually declines in an eccentric manner from optic disc. In retina, the density and size of droplets are inversely related. In the peripheral zone, oil droplets were significantly larger than those of the central area. The proportion of orange oil droplets (33%) was higher in the central area, whereas green was predominant in other areas. Three types of carotenoid (astaxanthin, galloxanthin and lutein), together with one unknown carotenoid, were recovered from the crow retina; astaxanthin was the dominant carotenoid among them. The recovery of carotenoids was affected by saponification conditions. Astaxanthin was well recovered in weak alkali (0.06 M KOH), in contrast, xanthophyllic carotenoids were best recovered in strong alkali (0.6 M KOH) after 12 h of saponification at freeze temperature. PMID:20528159

  11. Detrimental effects of carotenoid pigments: the dark side of bright coloration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, Kristal A.; Navara, Kristen J.; Mendonça, Mary T.; Hill, Geoffrey E.

    2010-07-01

    Carotenoid pigments produce yellow, orange, and red integumentary color displays that can serve as reliable signals of health and condition. In many birds and fish, individuals gain competitive or mating advantages by ingesting and utilizing large quantities of carotenoid pigments. Carotenoid pigments serve as antioxidants, performing important functions as free-radical scavengers. The beneficial effects of carotenoid pigments are well documented, but rarely have researchers considered potential detrimental effects of high-level accumulation of carotenoids. We maintained American goldfinches ( Carduelis tristis) on high- or low-carotenoid diets through molt and tested for damage to the liver and skeletal muscle. High intake of carotenoids had no measurable effect on liver enzymes but caused an increase in creatine kinase, an indicator of skeletal muscle breakdown, and a reduction in vertical flight performance, a measure of skeletal muscle integrity. The detrimental effects of high-level carotenoid accumulation were approximately equivalent to the negative effects of removing carotenoids from the diet. The adverse effects observed in this study have important implications for theories of the function and evolution of colorful plumage.

  12. Storage at low temperature differentially affects the colour and carotenoid composition of two cultivars of banana.

    PubMed

    Facundo, Heliofabia Virginia De Vasconcelos; Gurak, Poliana Deyse; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2015-03-01

    Different storage conditions can induce changes in the colour and carotenoid profiles and levels in some fruits. The goal of this work was to evaluate the influence of low temperature storage on the colour and carotenoid synthesis in two banana cultivars: Prata and Nanicão. For this purpose, the carotenoids from the banana pulp were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS, and the colour of the banana skin was determined by a colorimeter method. Ten carotenoids were identified, of which the major carotenoids were all-trans-lutein, all-trans-α-carotene and all-trans-β-carotene in both cultivars. The effect of the low temperatures was subjected to linear regression analysis. In cv. Prata, all-trans-α-carotene and all-trans-β-carotene were significantly affected by low temperature (p<0.01), with negative estimated values (β coefficients) indicating that during cold storage conditions, the concentrations of these carotenoids tended to decrease. In cv. Nanicão, no carotenoid was significantly affected by cold storage (p>0.05). The accumulation of carotenoids in this group may be because the metabolic pathways using these carotenoids were affected by storage at low temperatures. The colour of the fruits was not negatively affected by the low temperatures (p>0.05).

  13. Evaluation of antigenotoxic effects of carotenoids from green algae Chlorococcum humicola using human lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavathy, S; Sumathi, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the available phytochemicals and carotenoids in the selected green algae and evaluate the potential genotoxic/antigenotoxic effect using lymphocytes. Methods Organic solvent extracts of Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola) were used for the phytochemical analysis. The available carotenoids were assessed by HPLC, and LC-MS analysis. The genotoxicity was induced by the benzo(a)pyrene in the lymphocyte culture, the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of algal carotenoids with and without genotoxic inducer were evaluated by chromosomal aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus assay (MN). Results The results of the analysis showed that the algae were rich in carotenoids and fatty acids. In the total carotenoids lutein, β-carotene and α-carotene were found to be present in higher concentration. The frequency of CA and SCE increased by benzo(a)pyrene were significantly decreased by the carotenoids (P<0.05 for CA, P<0.001 for SCE). The MN frequencies of the cells were significantly decreased by the treatment with carotenoids when compared with the positive controls (P<0.05). Conclusions The findings of the present study demonstrate that, the green algae C. humicola is a rich source of bioactive compounds especially carotenoids which effectively fight against environmental genotoxic agents, the carotenoids itself is not a genotoxic substance and should be further considered for its beneficial effects. PMID:23569879

  14. Kinetics of carotenoid distribution in human skin in vivo after exogenous stress: disinfectant and wIRA-induced carotenoid depletion recovers from outside to inside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluhr, Joachim W.; Caspers, Peter; van der Pol, J. Andre; Richter, Heike; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen; Darvin, Maxim E.

    2011-03-01

    The human organism has developed a protection system against the destructive effect of free radicals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of exogenous stress factors such as disinfectant and IR-A radiation on the skin, and their influence on the kinetics of carotenoids distribution during the recovery process. Ten healthy volunteers were assessed with resonance spectroscopy using an Argon-laser at 488 nm to excite the carotenoids in vivo. Additionally, Raman-confocal-micro-spectroscopy measurements were performed using a model 3510 Skin Composition Analyzer with spatially resolved measurements down to 30 μm. The measurements were performed at a baseline of 20, 40, 60, and 120 min after an external stressor consisting either of water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) with 150 mW/cm2 or 1 ml/cm2 of an alcoholic disinfectant. Both Raman methods were capable to detect the infrared-induced depletion of carotenoids. Only Raman-microspectroscopy could reveal the carotenoids decrease after topical disinfectant application. The carotenoid-depletion started at the surface. After 60 min, recovery starts at the surface while deeper parts were still depleted. The disinfectant- and wIRA-induced carotenoid depletion in the epidermis recovers from outside to inside and probably delivered by sweat and sebaceous glands. We could show that the Raman microscopic spectroscopy is suited to analyze the carotenoid kinetic of stress effects and recovery.

  15. In vivo antioxidant activity of carotenoid powder from tomato byproduct and its use as a source of carotenoids for egg-laying hens.

    PubMed

    Xue, Feng; Li, Chen; Pan, Siyi

    2013-04-25

    Ultrasound treatment was used to extract carotenoids from tomato waste. Gelatin and gum arabic were applied as coating materials for the encapsulation of carotenoids. The first-order reaction was used to determine the degradation of carotenoids in the microcapsules. The result of controlled release studies showed that microcapsules would protect most of the carotenoids from being released in the stomach. We investigated the modifications induced by an oral administration of carotenoid powder on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and ion status in liver of rat. The 28 day treatment increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase and manganese superoxide dismutase and reduced malondialdehyde concentration in rat liver. The activity of catalase was not affected by treatment and greater iron concentration was found in liver from treatment groups. However, there was no dose-dependent change of antioxidant enzyme activity or malondialdehyde concentration with increasing carotenoid consumption. Furthermore, carotenoid powder was able to be used as forage material for egg-laying hens. The 28 day treatment did not affect the egg performance, but significantly increased yolk colour parameters and lycopene content. PMID:23385978

  16. Relationships of Body Mass Index with Serum Carotenoids, Tocopherols and Retinol at Steady-State and in Response to a Carotenoid-Rich Vegetable Diet Intervention in Filipino Schoolchildren

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In marginally nourished children, information is scarce regarding the circulating concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols, as well as physiologic factors influencing their circulating levels. We determined a) serum concentrations of carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol in Filipino school-aged ...

  17. Phylogenetic and Evolutionary Patterns in Microbial Carotenoid Biosynthesis Are Revealed by Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Klassen, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are multifunctional, taxonomically widespread and biotechnologically important pigments. Their biosynthesis serves as a model system for understanding the evolution of secondary metabolism. Microbial carotenoid diversity and evolution has hitherto been analyzed primarily from structural and biosynthetic perspectives, with the few phylogenetic analyses of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic proteins using either used limited datasets or lacking methodological rigor. Given the recent accumulation of microbial genome sequences, a reappraisal of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic diversity and evolution from the perspective of comparative genomics is warranted to validate and complement models of microbial carotenoid diversity and evolution based upon structural and biosynthetic data. Methodology/Principal Findings Comparative genomics were used to identify and analyze in silico microbial carotenoid biosynthetic pathways. Four major phylogenetic lineages of carotenoid biosynthesis are suggested composed of: (i) Proteobacteria; (ii) Firmicutes; (iii) Chlorobi, Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic eukaryotes; and (iv) Archaea, Bacteroidetes and two separate sub-lineages of Actinobacteria. Using this phylogenetic framework, specific evolutionary mechanisms are proposed for carotenoid desaturase CrtI-family enzymes and carotenoid cyclases. Several phylogenetic lineage-specific evolutionary mechanisms are also suggested, including: (i) horizontal gene transfer; (ii) gene acquisition followed by differential gene loss; (iii) co-evolution with other biochemical structures such as proteorhodopsins; and (iv) positive selection. Conclusions/Significance Comparative genomics analyses of microbial carotenoid biosynthetic proteins indicate a much greater taxonomic diversity then that identified based on structural and biosynthetic data, and divides microbial carotenoid biosynthesis into several, well-supported phylogenetic lineages not evident previously. This

  18. Interspecific variation in dietary carotenoid assimilation in birds: links to phylogeny and color ornamentation.

    PubMed

    McGraw, K J

    2005-10-01

    Many birds use carotenoid pigments to acquire rich red, orange, and yellow coloration in feathers and bare parts that is used as a signal of mate quality. Because carotenoids are derived from foods, much attention has been paid to the role of diet in generating color variation both within and among avian species. Less consideration has been given to physiological underpinnings of color variability, especially among species. Here, I surveyed published literature (e.g. captive feeding studies) on carotenoid assimilation in six bird species and completed additional controlled carotenoid-supplementation experiments in two others to consider the ability of different taxa to extract carotenoids from the diet in relation to phylogeny and coloration. I found that, for a given level of carotenoids in the diet, passerine birds (zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata; house finch, Carpodacus mexicanus; American goldfinch, Carduelis tristis; society finch, Lonchura domestica) exhibit higher levels of carotenoids in circulation than non-passerines like gamebirds (domestic chicken, Gallus domesticus; red junglefowl, Gallus gallus; Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix; red-legged partridge, Alectoris rufa). This difference in carotenoid accumulation is likely due to interspecific variation in micelle, chylomicron, or lipoprotein concentrations or affinities for xanthophyll carotenoids. Passerine birds more commonly develop carotenoid-based colors than do birds from ancient avian lineages such as Galliformes, and the physiological differences I uncover may explain why songbirds especially capitalize on carotenoid pigments for color production. Ultimately, because we can deconstruct color traits into component biochemical, physical, and physiological parts, avian color signals may serve as a valuable model for illuminating the proximate mechanisms behind interspecific variation in signal use in animals. PMID:16129640

  19. Age-Related Relationships between Innate Immunity and Plasma Carotenoids in an Obligate Avian Scavenger.

    PubMed

    López-Rull, Isabel; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Frías, Óscar; Blanco, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Variation in immunity is influenced by allocation trade-offs that are expected to change between age-classes as a result of the different environmental and physiological conditions that individuals encounter over their lifetime. One such trade-off occurs with carotenoids, which must be acquired with food and are involved in a variety of physiological functions. Nonetheless, relationships between immunity and carotenoids in species where these micronutrients are scarce due to diet are poorly studied. Among birds, vultures show the lowest concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to a diet based on carrion. Here, we investigated variations in the relationships between innate immunity (hemagglutination by natural antibodies and hemolysis by complement proteins), pathogen infection and plasma carotenoids in nestling and adult griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) in the wild. Nestlings showed lower hemolysis, higher total carotenoid concentration and higher pathogen infection than adults. Hemolysis was negatively related to carotenoid concentration only in nestlings. A differential carotenoid allocation to immunity due to the incomplete development of the immune system of nestlings compared with adults is suggested linked to, or regardless of, potential differences in parasite infection, which requires experimental testing. We also found that individuals with more severe pathogen infections showed lower hemagglutination than those with a lower intensity infection irrespective of their age and carotenoid level. These results are consistent with the idea that intraspecific relationships between innate immunity and carotenoids may change across ontogeny, even in species lacking carotenoid-based coloration. Thus, even low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to a scavenger diet can be essential to the development and activation of the immune system in growing birds. PMID:26544885

  20. Age-Related Relationships between Innate Immunity and Plasma Carotenoids in an Obligate Avian Scavenger

    PubMed Central

    López-Rull, Isabel; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Frías, Óscar; Blanco, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Variation in immunity is influenced by allocation trade-offs that are expected to change between age-classes as a result of the different environmental and physiological conditions that individuals encounter over their lifetime. One such trade-off occurs with carotenoids, which must be acquired with food and are involved in a variety of physiological functions. Nonetheless, relationships between immunity and carotenoids in species where these micronutrients are scarce due to diet are poorly studied. Among birds, vultures show the lowest concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to a diet based on carrion. Here, we investigated variations in the relationships between innate immunity (hemagglutination by natural antibodies and hemolysis by complement proteins), pathogen infection and plasma carotenoids in nestling and adult griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) in the wild. Nestlings showed lower hemolysis, higher total carotenoid concentration and higher pathogen infection than adults. Hemolysis was negatively related to carotenoid concentration only in nestlings. A differential carotenoid allocation to immunity due to the incomplete development of the immune system of nestlings compared with adults is suggested linked to, or regardless of, potential differences in parasite infection, which requires experimental testing. We also found that individuals with more severe pathogen infections showed lower hemagglutination than those with a lower intensity infection irrespective of their age and carotenoid level. These results are consistent with the idea that intraspecific relationships between innate immunity and carotenoids may change across ontogeny, even in species lacking carotenoid-based coloration. Thus, even low concentrations of plasma carotenoids due to a scavenger diet can be essential to the development and activation of the immune system in growing birds. PMID:26544885

  1. Understanding the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway through observation of four color variants of developing watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nanai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway regulatory mechanisms leading to lycopene accumulation are well defined in the model fruit, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). The regulatory mechanisms leading to accumulation of other carotenoids and flesh colors, however, are poorly understood. The variety ...

  2. Relationship between Carotenoids, Retinol, and Estradiol Levels in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Marcello; de Vita, Francesca; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Semba, Richard D.; Bartali, Benedetta; Cherubini, Antonio; Cappola, Anne R.; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background. In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2) in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. Methods. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998–2000) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T) levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA) and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2), as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1) and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2) were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. Results. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = −0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02) and β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007) were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01). After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2), the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = −1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01), β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.29 ± 0.08, p

  3. Orange carotenoid protein burrows into the phycobilisome to provide photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Harris, Dvir; Tal, Ofir; Jallet, Denis; Wilson, Adjélé; Kirilovsky, Diana; Adir, Noam

    2016-03-22

    In cyanobacteria, photoprotection from overexcitation of photochemical centers can be obtained by excitation energy dissipation at the level of the phycobilisome (PBS), the cyanobacterial antenna, induced by the orange carotenoid protein (OCP). A single photoactivated OCP bound to the core of the PBS affords almost total energy dissipation. The precise mechanism of OCP energy dissipation is yet to be fully determined, and one question is how the carotenoid can approach any core phycocyanobilin chromophore at a distance that can promote efficient energy quenching. We have performed intersubunit cross-linking using glutaraldehyde of the OCP and PBS followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) to identify cross-linked residues. The only residues of the OCP that cross-link with the PBS are situated in the linker region, between the N- and C-terminal domains and a single C-terminal residue. These links have enabled us to construct a model of the site of OCP binding that differs from previous models. We suggest that the N-terminal domain of the OCP burrows tightly into the PBS while leaving the OCP C-terminal domain on the exterior of the complex. Further analysis shows that the position of the small core linker protein ApcC is shifted within the cylinder cavity, serving to stabilize the interaction between the OCP and the PBS. This is confirmed by a ΔApcC mutant. Penetration of the N-terminal domain can bring the OCP carotenoid to within 5-10 Å of core chromophores; however, alteration of the core structure may be the actual source of energy dissipation. PMID:26957606

  4. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments in solar saltern microbial mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Joan; Grimalt, Joan O.; de Wit, Rutger; Keely, Brendan J.; Maxwell, James R.

    1994-11-01

    The distributions of carotenoids, chlorophylls, and their degradation products have been studied in two microbial mat systems developed in the calcite and calcite/gypsum evaporite domains of a solar saltern system. Phormidium valderianum and Microcoleus chthonoplastes are the dominant cyanobacterial species, respectively, and large amounts of Chloroflexus-like bacteria occur in the carbonate/gypsum mat. In both systems, the major pigments are chlorophyll a, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and myxoxanthophyll, which originate from these mat-building cyanobacteria. This common feature contrasts with differences in other pigments that are specific for each mat community. Thus, chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin, reflecting diatom inputs, are only found in the calcite mat, whereas the calcite/gypsum mat contains high concentrations of bacteriochlorophylls c produced by the multicellular green filamentous bacteria. In both cases, the depth concentration profiles (0-30 and 0-40 mm) show a relatively good preservation of the cyanobacterial carotenoids, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, myxoxanthophyll, and echinenone. This contrasts with the extensive biodegradation of cyanobacterial remains observed microscopically. Fucoxanthin in the calcite mat is also transformed at a faster rate than the cyanobacterial carotenoids. Chlorophyll a, the major pigment in both mats, exhibits different transformation pathways. In the calcite/gypsum mat, it is transformed via C-13 2 carbomethoxy defunctionalization prior to loss of the phytyl chain, leading to the formation of pyrophaeophytin a and, subsequently, pyrophaeophorbide a. On the other hand, the occurrence of the enzyme chlorophyllase, attributed to diatoms in the calcite mat, gives rise to extensive phytyl hydrolysis, with the formation of chlorophyllide a, pyrophaeophorbide a and, in minor proportion, phaeophorbide a. Studies of the sources of the photosynthetic pigments and of their transformation pathways in such simplified ecosystems provide a

  5. Dietary Carotenoids and the Risk of Invasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mignone, Laura I.; Giovannucci, Edward; Newcomb, Polly A.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Hampton, John M.; Willett, Walter C.; Egan, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Certain classes of vitamins and nutrients found in fruits and vegetables have been of particular interest in relation to cancer prevention, owing to their potential anti-carcinogenic properties. We examined the association between certain fruits, vegetables, carotenoids, and vitamin A and breast cancer risk in a large population based case-control study of women residing in the states of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin. The study was comprised of 5,707 women with incident invasive breast cancer (2,363 premenopausal women and 3,516 postmenopausal women) and 6,389 population controls (2,594 premenopausal women and 3,516 postmenopausal women). In an interview women were asked about their intake of carotenoid rich fruits and vegetables five years prior to a referent date. An inverse association was observed among premenopausal women was for high levels of vitamin A (OR: 0.82, 95%CI: 0.68–0.98, p for trend = 0.01), β-carotene (OR: 0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.98, p for trend = 0.009), α-carotene (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68–0.98, p for trend = 0.07), and lutein/zeaxanthin (OR: 0.83, 95% CI 0.68 – 0.99, p for trend = 0.02). An inverse association was not observed among postmenopausal women. Among premenopausal women who reported ever smoking, these results were stronger than among never smokers, although tests for interaction were not statistically significant. Results from this study are comparable to previous prospective studies and suggest that a high consumption of carotenoids may reduce the risk of pre but not post menopausal breast cancer, particularly among smokers. PMID:19330841

  6. Orange carotenoid protein burrows into the phycobilisome to provide photoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Dvir; Tal, Ofir; Jallet, Denis; Wilson, Adjélé; Kirilovsky, Diana; Adir, Noam

    2016-01-01

    In cyanobacteria, photoprotection from overexcitation of photochemical centers can be obtained by excitation energy dissipation at the level of the phycobilisome (PBS), the cyanobacterial antenna, induced by the orange carotenoid protein (OCP). A single photoactivated OCP bound to the core of the PBS affords almost total energy dissipation. The precise mechanism of OCP energy dissipation is yet to be fully determined, and one question is how the carotenoid can approach any core phycocyanobilin chromophore at a distance that can promote efficient energy quenching. We have performed intersubunit cross-linking using glutaraldehyde of the OCP and PBS followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) to identify cross-linked residues. The only residues of the OCP that cross-link with the PBS are situated in the linker region, between the N- and C-terminal domains and a single C-terminal residue. These links have enabled us to construct a model of the site of OCP binding that differs from previous models. We suggest that the N-terminal domain of the OCP burrows tightly into the PBS while leaving the OCP C-terminal domain on the exterior of the complex. Further analysis shows that the position of the small core linker protein ApcC is shifted within the cylinder cavity, serving to stabilize the interaction between the OCP and the PBS. This is confirmed by a ΔApcC mutant. Penetration of the N-terminal domain can bring the OCP carotenoid to within 5–10 Å of core chromophores; however, alteration of the core structure may be the actual source of energy dissipation. PMID:26957606

  7. Carotenoid pigments in GAC fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis SPRENG).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hiromitsu; Kieu, Nguyen Thi Minh; Kuze, Noriko; Tomisaka, Kazue; Van Chuyen, Nguyen

    2002-11-01

    The carotenoids in Gac fruit (Momordica Cochinchinensis spreng) were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the concentrations of beta-carotene, lycopene, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin were measured. Lycopene was found to be predominantly present in the Gac seed membrane at a concentration of up to 380 microg/g of seed membrane. The concentration of lycopene in the Gac seed membrane was about ten-fold higher than that in known lycopene-rich fruit and vegetables, indicating that Gac fruit could be a new and potentially valuable source of lycopene. PMID:12506992

  8. Carotenoid pigments in GAC fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis SPRENG).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hiromitsu; Kieu, Nguyen Thi Minh; Kuze, Noriko; Tomisaka, Kazue; Van Chuyen, Nguyen

    2002-11-01

    The carotenoids in Gac fruit (Momordica Cochinchinensis spreng) were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the concentrations of beta-carotene, lycopene, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin were measured. Lycopene was found to be predominantly present in the Gac seed membrane at a concentration of up to 380 microg/g of seed membrane. The concentration of lycopene in the Gac seed membrane was about ten-fold higher than that in known lycopene-rich fruit and vegetables, indicating that Gac fruit could be a new and potentially valuable source of lycopene.

  9. Analysis of carotenoid composition in petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Sanae; Maoka, Takashi; Sumitomo, Katsuhiko; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2005-11-01

    Nineteen carotenoids were identified in extracts of petals of orange- and yellow-flowered cultivars of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.). Ten carotenoids were unique to orange-flowered cultivars. The UV-vis absorption maxima of these ten carotenoids were at longer wavelengths than that of flavoxanthin, the main carotenoid of calendula petals, and it is clear that these carotenoids are responsible for the orange color of the petals. Six carotenoids had a cis structure at C-5 (C-5'), and it is conceivable that these (5Z)-carotenoids are enzymatically isomerized at C-5 in a pathway that diverges from the main carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. Among them, (5Z,9Z)-lycopene (1), (5Z,9Z,5'Z,9'Z)-lycopene (3), (5'Z)-gamma-carotene (4), and (5'Z,9'Z)-rubixanthin (5) has never before been identified. Additionally, (5Z,9Z,5'Z)-lycopene (2) has been reported only as a synthesized compound. PMID:16306694

  10. Analysis of Carotenoid Production by Halorubrum sp. TBZ126; an Extremely Halophilic Archeon from Urmia Lake

    PubMed Central

    Naziri, Davood; Hamidi, Masoud; Hassanzadeh, Salar; Tarhriz, Vahideh; Maleki Zanjani, Bahram; Nazemyieh, Hossein; Hejazi, Mohammd Amin; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Carotenoids are of great interest in many scientific disciplines because of their wide distribution, diverse functions and interesting properties. The present report describes a new natural source for carotenoid production. Methods: Halorubrum sp., TBZ126, an extremely halophilic archaeon, was isolated from Urmia Lack following culture of water sample on marine agar medium and incubation at 30 °C. Then single colonies were cultivated in broth media. After that the cells were collected and carotenoids were extracted with acetone-methanol (7:3 v/v). The identification of carotenoids was performed by UV-VIS spectroscopy and confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) in the presence of antimony pentachloride (SbCl5). The production profile was analyzed using liquid-chromatography mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) techniques. Phenotypic characteristics of the isolate were carried out and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: LC-MS analytical results revealed that produced carotenoids are bacterioruberin, lycopene and β-carotene. Bacterioruberin was found to be the predominant produced carotenoid. 16S rRNA analysis showed that TBZ126 has 100% similarity with Halorubrum chaoviator Halo-G*T (AM048786). Conclusion: Halorubrum sp. TBZ126, isolated from Urmia Lake has high capacity in the production of carotenoids. This extremely halophilic archaeon could be considered as a prokaryotic candidate for carotenoid production source for future studies. PMID:24409411

  11. Determination of carotenoids in yellow maize, the effects of saponification, and food preparations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is an important staple food consumed by millions of people in many countries. Yellow maize naturally contains carotenoids which not only provide provitamin A carotenoids but also xanthophylls which are known to be important for eye health. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the effect of sa...

  12. Fruit over sunbed: carotenoid skin colouration is found more attractive than melanin colouration.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Carmen E; Perrett, David I

    2015-01-01

    Skin colouration appears to play a pivotal part in facial attractiveness. Skin yellowness contributes to an attractive appearance and is influenced both by dietary carotenoids and by melanin. While both increased carotenoid colouration and increased melanin colouration enhance apparent health in Caucasian faces by increasing skin yellowness, it remains unclear, firstly, whether both pigments contribute to attractiveness judgements, secondly, whether one pigment is clearly preferred over the other, and thirdly, whether these effects depend on the sex of the face. Here, in three studies, we examine these questions using controlled facial stimuli transformed to be either high or low in (a) carotenoid colouration, or (b) melanin colouration. We show, firstly, that both increased carotenoid colouration and increased melanin colouration are found attractive compared to lower levels of these pigments. Secondly, we show that carotenoid colouration is consistently preferred over melanin colouration when levels of colouration are matched. In addition, we find an effect of the sex of stimuli with stronger preferences for carotenoids over melanin in female compared to male faces, irrespective of the sex of the observer. These results are interpreted as reflecting preferences for sex-typical skin colouration: men have darker skin than women and high melanization in male faces may further enhance this masculine trait, thus carotenoid colouration is not less desirable, but melanin colouration is relatively more desirable in males compared to females. Taken together, our findings provide further support for a carotenoid-linked health-signalling system that is highly important in mate choice.

  13. More than meets the eye: from carotenoid biosynthesis to new insights into apocarotenoid signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are a class of isoprenoid compounds synthesized almost exclusively in plants and are involved in a myriad of roles including the provision of flower and fruit pigmentation for the attraction of pollinators and seed dispersing organisms. While carotenoids are essential throughout plant de...

  14. Carotenoid pigments and the selectivity of psittacofulvin-based coloration systems in parrots.

    PubMed

    McGraw, K J; Nogare, M C

    2004-07-01

    Carotenoid pigments are commonly used as colorants of feathers and bare parts by birds. However, parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes) use a novel class of plumage pigments (called psittacofulvins) that, like carotenoids, are lipid-soluble and red, orange, or yellow in color. To begin to understand how and why parrots use these pigments and not carotenoids in their feathers, we must first describe the distribution of these two types of pigments in the diet, tissues, and fluids of these birds. Here, we studied the carotenoid content of blood in five species of parrots with red in their plumage to see if they show the physiological ability to accumulate carotenoids in the body. Although Scarlet (Ara macao) and Greenwing Macaws (Ara chloroptera) and Eclectus (Eclectus roratus), African Gray (Psittacus erithacus) and Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) Parrots all use psittacofulvins to color their feathers red, we found that they also circulated high concentrations of both dietary (lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin) and metabolically derived (anhydrolutein, dehydrolutein) carotenoids through blood at the time of feather growth, at levels comparable to those found in many other carotenoid-colored birds. These results suggest that parrots have the potential to use carotenoids for plumage pigmentation, but preferentially avoid depositing them in feathers, which is likely under the control of the maturing feather follicle. As there is no evidence of psittacofulvins in parrot blood at the tune of feather growth, we presume that these pigments are locally synthesized by growing feathers within the follicular tissue.

  15. Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Sun, Junde; Lian, Tiantian; Wang, Wenzhao; Dong, Cai-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Natural carotenoids have attracted great attention for their important beneficial effects on human health and food coloring function. Cordyceps militaris, a well-known edible and medicinal fungus, is a potential source of natural carotenoids. The present study aimed to optimize the process parameters for carotenoid extraction from this mushroom. The effects of different methods of breaking the fungal cell wall and organic solvents were studied by the one-factor-at-a-time method. Subsequently, the process parameters including the duration of the extraction time, the number of extractions, and the solvent to solid ratio were optimized by using the Box-Behnken design. The optimal extraction conditions included using an acid-heating method to break the cell wall and later extracting three times, each for a 1 h duration, with a 4:1 mixture of acetone: petroleum ether and a solvent: solid ratio of 24:1. The carotenoid content varied from 2122.50 to 3847.50 µg/g dry weights in different commercially obtained fruit bodies of C. militaris. The results demonstrated that the C. militaris contained more carotenoid content in its fruit bodies than other known mushrooms. Stability monitoring by HPLC demonstrated that the carotenoids could be stored at 4°C for 40 d. It is suggested that the carotenoid content should be considered as the quality standard of commercial products of this valued mushroom. These findings will facilitate the exploration of carotenoids from C. militaris. PMID:24941034

  16. Saffron and natural carotenoids: Biochemical activities and anti-tumor effects.

    PubMed

    Bolhassani, Azam; Khavari, Afshin; Bathaie, S Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Saffron, a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, is rich in carotenoids. Two main natural carotenoids of saffron, crocin and crocetin, are responsible for its color. Preclinical studies have shown that dietary intake of some carotenoids have potent anti-tumor effects both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting their potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles in several tissues. The reports represent that the use of carotenoids without the potential for conversion to vitamin A may provide further protection and avoid toxicity. The mechanisms underlying cancer chemo-preventive activities of carotenoids include modulation of carcinogen metabolism, regulation of cell growth and cell cycle progression, inhibition of cell proliferation, anti-oxidant activity, immune modulation, enhancement of cell differentiation, stimulation of cell-to-cell gap junction communication, apoptosis and retinoid-dependent signaling. Taken together, different hypotheses for the antitumor actions of saffron and its components have been proposed such as a) the inhibitory effect on cellular DNA and RNA synthesis, but not on protein synthesis; b) the inhibitory effect on free radical chain reactions; c) the metabolic conversion of naturally occurring carotenoids to retinoids; d) the interaction of carotenoids with topoisomerase II, an enzyme involved in cellular DNA-protein interaction. Furthermore, the immunomodulatory activity of saffron was studied on driving toward Th1 and Th2 limbs of the immune system. In this mini-review, we briefly describe biochemical and immunological activities and chemo-preventive properties of saffron and natural carotenoids as an anticancer drug.

  17. Carotenoid and protein supplementation have differential effects on pheasant ornamentation and immunity.

    PubMed

    Smith, H G; Råberg, L; Ohlsson, T; Granbom, M; Hasselquist, D

    2007-01-01

    A currently popular hypothesis states that the expression of carotenoid-dependent sexual ornaments and immune function may be correlated because both traits are positively affected by carotenoids. However, such a correlation may arise for another reason: it is well known that immune function is dependent on nutritional condition. A recent study has suggested that the expression of ornaments may too depend on nutritional condition, as males in good nutritional condition are better at assimilating and/or modulating carotenoids. Thus, carotenoid-dependent ornaments and immune function may be correlated because both are dependent on nutritional condition. To elucidate if, and how, ornamentation and immune function are linked, pheasant diets were supplemented with carotenoid and/or protein in a fully factorial experiment. Carotenoid treatment affected wattle coloration and tail growth, but not cellular or humoral immunity. Immunity was unrelated to males' initial ornamentation including wattle colour. Males in better body condition, measured as residual mass, increased their wattle coloration more when carotenoid supplemented. Protein positively affected humoral but not cellular immunity, but had no effect on ornaments. Cellular, but not humoral, immunity increased with male body condition. Thus, there was no evidence that an immune-stimulatory effect of carotenoids resulted in wattle coloration honestly signalling immune function, but wattle coloration may still signal male body condition.

  18. Optical detection of carotenoid antioxidants in human bone and surrounding tissue.

    PubMed

    Ermakov, Igor V; Ermakova, Maia R; Rosenberg, Thomas D; Gellermann, Werner

    2013-11-01

    Carotenoids are known to play an important role in health and disease state of living human tissue based on their antioxidant and optical filtering functions. In this study, we show that carotenoids exist in human bone and surrounding fatty tissue both in significant and individually variable concentrations. Measurements of biopsied tissue samples with molecule-specific Raman spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography reveal that all carotenoids that are known to exist in human skin are also present in human bone. This includes all carotenes, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. We propose quantitative reflection imaging as a noncontact optical method suitable for the measurement of composite carotenoid levels in bone and surrounding tissue exposed during open surgeries such as total knee arthroplasty, and as a proof of concept, demonstrate carotenoid measurements in biopsied bone samples. This will allow one to establish potential correlations between internal tissue carotenoid levels and levels in skin and to potentially use already existing optical skin carotenoid tests as surrogate marker for bone carotenoid status.

  19. Carotenoid profile and retention in yellow-, purple- and red-fleshed potatoes after thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Kotíková, Zora; Šulc, Miloslav; Lachman, Jaromír; Pivec, Vladimír; Orsák, Matyáš; Hamouz, Karel

    2016-04-15

    This research aimed to investigate the effect of thermal processing on carotenoid profile, quantity and stability in 22 colour-fleshed potato cultivars grown in the Czech Republic. The total of nine carotenoids was analysed by HPLC using a C30 column and PDA detection. The total carotenoid content for all cultivars ranged from 1.44 to 40.13 μg/g DM. Yellow cultivars showed a much higher average total carotenoid content (26.22 μg/g DM) when compared to red/purple-fleshed potatoes (5.69 μg/g DM). Yellow cultivars were dominated by antheraxanthin, whereas neoxanthin was the main carotenoid in red/purple cultivars. Thermal processing significantly impacted all potato cultivars. Boiling decreased the total carotenoids by 92% compared to baking (88%). Lutein was the most stable carotenoid against thermal processing (decreased by 24-43%) followed by β-carotene (decreased by 78-83%); other carotenoids were degraded nearly completely. Increased formation of (Z)-isomers by thermal processing has not been confirmed. PMID:26617045

  20. Saffron and natural carotenoids: Biochemical activities and anti-tumor effects.

    PubMed

    Bolhassani, Azam; Khavari, Afshin; Bathaie, S Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Saffron, a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, is rich in carotenoids. Two main natural carotenoids of saffron, crocin and crocetin, are responsible for its color. Preclinical studies have shown that dietary intake of some carotenoids have potent anti-tumor effects both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting their potential preventive and/or therapeutic roles in several tissues. The reports represent that the use of carotenoids without the potential for conversion to vitamin A may provide further protection and avoid toxicity. The mechanisms underlying cancer chemo-preventive activities of carotenoids include modulation of carcinogen metabolism, regulation of cell growth and cell cycle progression, inhibition of cell proliferation, anti-oxidant activity, immune modulation, enhancement of cell differentiation, stimulation of cell-to-cell gap junction communication, apoptosis and retinoid-dependent signaling. Taken together, different hypotheses for the antitumor actions of saffron and its components have been proposed such as a) the inhibitory effect on cellular DNA and RNA synthesis, but not on protein synthesis; b) the inhibitory effect on free radical chain reactions; c) the metabolic conversion of naturally occurring carotenoids to retinoids; d) the interaction of carotenoids with topoisomerase II, an enzyme involved in cellular DNA-protein interaction. Furthermore, the immunomodulatory activity of saffron was studied on driving toward Th1 and Th2 limbs of the immune system. In this mini-review, we briefly describe biochemical and immunological activities and chemo-preventive properties of saffron and natural carotenoids as an anticancer drug. PMID:24269582

  1. Separation of the Carotenoid Bixin from Annatto Seeds Using Thin-Layer and Column Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullagh, James V.; Ramos, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment the carotenoid bixin is isolated from annatto ("Bixa orellana") seeds using column chromatography. The experiment has several key advantages over previous pigment separation experiments. First, unlike other experiments significant quantities of the carotenoid (typically 20 to 25 mg) can be isolated from small quantities of plant…

  2. Interactions between Carotenoids from Marine Bacteria and Other Micronutrients: Impact on Stability and Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Sy, Charlotte; Dangles, Olivier; Borel, Patrick; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2015-11-19

    Recently isolated spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria Bacillus indicus HU36 are sources of oxygenated carotenoids with original structures (about fifteen distinct yellow and orange pigments with acylated d-glucosyl groups). In this study, we evaluated the stability (sensitivity to iron-induced autoxidation) and antioxidant activity (inhibition of iron-induced lipid peroxidation) of combinations of bacterial HU36 carotenoids with the bacterial vitamin menaquinone MQ-7 and with phenolic antioxidants (vitamin E, chlorogenic acid, rutin). Unexpectedly, MQ-7 strongly improves the ability of HU36 carotenoids to inhibit Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation, although MQ-7 was not consumed in the medium. We propose that their interaction modifies the carotenoid antioxidant mechanism(s), possibly by allowing carotenoids to scavenge the initiating radicals. For comparison, β-carotene and lycopene in combination were shown to exhibit a slightly higher stability toward iron-induced autoxidation, as well as an additive antioxidant activity as compared to the carotenoids, individually. HU36 carotenoids and phenolic antioxidants displayed synergistic activities in the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation induced by heme iron, but not by free iron. Synergism could arise from antioxidants interacting via electron transfer through the porphyrin nucleus of heme iron. Overall, combining antioxidants acting via complementary mechanisms could be the key for optimizing the activity of this bacterial carotenoid cocktail.

  3. Genetic modification in Bacillus subtilis for production of C30 carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Isamu

    2012-01-01

    C30 carotenoids, which have shorter backbones than C40 carotenoids, are known to be produced in the pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus that causes opportunistic infection. The first committed enzyme in the C30 carotenoid synthetic pathway is dehydrosqualene synthase CrtM. CrtM converts farnesyl pyrophosphate to dehydrosqualene. Dehydrosqualene desaturase CrtN then converts dehydrosqualene to the yellow C30 carotenoid, 4,4'-diaponeurosporene. This chapter describes a method to synthesize C30 carotenoids in Bacillus subtilis, which is generally recognized as a safe (GRAS) organism. Introduction of S. aureus crtM and crtN genes into B. subtilis results in yellow pigmentation. The B. subtilis transformant accumulates two C30 carotenoids, 4,4'-diapolycopene and 4,4'-diaponeurosporene. Furthermore, together with crtMN, introduction of S. aureus crtP and crtQ genes, which encode mixed function oxidase and glycosyltransferase, respectively, donates the ability to produce glycosylated C30 carotenoic acid. Thus, carotenoid biosynthesis genes of S. aureus is applicable to genetically modify B. subtilis in order to construct a safe organism producing C30 carotenoids.

  4. Production and glucosylation of C50 and C 40 carotenoids by metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Heider, Sabine A E; Peters-Wendisch, Petra; Netzer, Roman; Stafnes, Marit; Brautaset, Trygve; Wendisch, Volker F

    2014-02-01

    The yellow-pigmented soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032 is accumulating the cyclic C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin and its glucosides. Carotenoid pathway engineering was previously shown to allow for efficient lycopene production. Here, engineering of C. glutamicum for production of endogenous decaprenoxanthin as well as of the heterologous C50 carotenoids C.p.450 and sarcinaxanthin is described. Plasmid-borne overexpression of genes for lycopene cyclization and hydroxylation from C. glutamicum, Dietzia sp., and Micrococcus luteus, in a lycopene-producing platform strain constructed here, resulted in accumulation of these three C50 carotenoids to concentrations of about 3-4 mg/g CDW. Chromosomal deletion of a putative carotenoid glycosyltransferase gene cg0730/crtX in these strains entailed production of non-glucosylated derivatives of decaprenoxanthin, C.p.450, and sarcinaxanthin, respectively. Upon introduction of glucosyltransferase genes from M. luteus, C. glutamicum, and Pantoea ananatis, these hydroxylated C50 carotenoids were glucosylated. We here also demonstrate production of the C40 carotenoids β-carotene and zeaxanthin in recombinant C. glutamicum strains and co-expression of the P. ananatis crtX gene was used to obtain glucosylated zeaxanthin. Together, our results show that C. glutamicum is a potentially valuable host for production of a wide range of glucosylated C40 and C50 carotenoids. PMID:24270893

  5. Hepatoprotection by carotenoids in isoniazid-rifampicin induced hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Rana, S V; Pal, R; Vaiphei, K; Ola, R P; Singh, K

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluates the hepatoprotective effect of carotenoids against isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF). Thirty-six adult rats were divided into the following 4 groups: (1) control group treated with normal saline; (2) INH + RIF group treated with 50 mg·(kg body mass)-1·day-1 of INH and RIF each; (3) INH + RIF+ carotenoids group treated with 50 mg·(kg body mass)-1·day-1 of INH and RIF each and 10 mg·(kg body mass)-1·day-1 of carotenoids; and (4) carotenoids group treated with 10 mg·(kg body mass)-1·day-1 of carotenoids for 28 days intragastrically. Oxidative stress and antioxidant levels in liver and blood, liver histology and change in transaminases were measured in all the above-mentioned groups. There was an increase in lipid peroxidation with a reduction in thiols, catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the liver and blood of rats accompanied by an increase in transaminases, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase. Treatment with carotenoids along with INH + RIF partially reversed lipid peroxidation, thiols, catalase, and SOD in the liver and blood of rats. Elevated levels of the enzymes in serum were also reversed partially by this treatment. The degree of necrosis, portal triaditis, and inflammation were also lowered in the carotenoids group. In conclusion, carotenoids supplementation in INH + RIF treated rats showed partial protection.

  6. Tomato fruit carotenoid biosynthesis is adjusted to actual ripening progression by a light-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Briardo; D'Andrea, Lucio; Ruiz-Sola, M Aguila; Botterweg, Esther; Pulido, Pablo; Andilla, Jordi; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid compounds that are essential for plants to protect the photosynthetic apparatus against excess light. They also function as health-promoting natural pigments that provide colors to ripe fruit, promoting seed dispersal by animals. Work in Arabidopsis thaliana unveiled that transcription factors of the phytochrome-interacting factor (PIF) family regulate carotenoid gene expression in response to environmental signals (i.e. light and temperature), including those created when sunlight reflects from or passes though nearby vegetation or canopy (referred to as shade). Here we show that PIFs use a virtually identical mechanism to modulate carotenoid biosynthesis during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, instead of integrating environmental information, PIF-mediated signaling pathways appear to fulfill a completely new function in the fruit. As tomatoes ripen, they turn from green to red due to chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation. When sunlight passes through the flesh of green fruit, a self-shading effect within the tissue maintains high levels of PIFs that directly repress the master gene of the fruit carotenoid pathway, preventing undue production of carotenoids. This effect is attenuated as chlorophyll degrades, causing degradation of PIF proteins and boosting carotenoid biosynthesis as ripening progresses. Thus, shade signaling components may have been co-opted in tomato fruit to provide information on the actual stage of ripening (based on the pigment profile of the fruit at each moment) and thus finely coordinate fruit color change. We show how this mechanism may be manipulated to obtain carotenoid-enriched fruits.

  7. Carotenoid composition of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), determined by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    de Faria, A F; de Rosso, V V; Mercadante, A Z

    2009-06-01

    Carotenoids are pigments responsible for the yellow-reddish color of many foods and are related to important functions and physiological actions, preventing several chronic-degenerative diseases. The objective of this study was to confirm the carotenoid composition of jackfruit by high-performance liquid chromatography connected to photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS). The main carotenoids were all-trans-lutein (24-44%), all-trans-beta-carotene (24-30%), all-trans-neoxanthin (4-19%), 9-cis-neoxanthin (4-9%) and 9-cis-violaxanthin (4-10%). Either qualitative or quantitative differences, mainly related to the lutein proportion, were found among three batches of jackfruit. Since the fruits from batch A showed significantly lower contents for almost all carotenoids, it also had the lowest total carotenoid content (34.1 microg/100 g) and provitamin A value, whereas the total carotenoid ranged from 129.0 to 150.3 microg/100 g in the other batches. The provitamin A values from batches B and C were 3.3 and 4.3 microg RAE/100 g, respectively. The carotenoid composition of jackfruit was successfully determined, where 14 of the 18 identified carotenoids were reported for first time. Differences among batches may be due to genetic and/or agricultural factors.

  8. Interactions between Carotenoids from Marine Bacteria and Other Micronutrients: Impact on Stability and Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sy, Charlotte; Dangles, Olivier; Borel, Patrick; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Recently isolated spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria Bacillus indicus HU36 are sources of oxygenated carotenoids with original structures (about fifteen distinct yellow and orange pigments with acylated d-glucosyl groups). In this study, we evaluated the stability (sensitivity to iron-induced autoxidation) and antioxidant activity (inhibition of iron-induced lipid peroxidation) of combinations of bacterial HU36 carotenoids with the bacterial vitamin menaquinone MQ-7 and with phenolic antioxidants (vitamin E, chlorogenic acid, rutin). Unexpectedly, MQ-7 strongly improves the ability of HU36 carotenoids to inhibit FeII-induced lipid peroxidation, although MQ-7 was not consumed in the medium. We propose that their interaction modifies the carotenoid antioxidant mechanism(s), possibly by allowing carotenoids to scavenge the initiating radicals. For comparison, β-carotene and lycopene in combination were shown to exhibit a slightly higher stability toward iron-induced autoxidation, as well as an additive antioxidant activity as compared to the carotenoids, individually. HU36 carotenoids and phenolic antioxidants displayed synergistic activities in the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation induced by heme iron, but not by free iron. Synergism could arise from antioxidants interacting via electron transfer through the porphyrin nucleus of heme iron. Overall, combining antioxidants acting via complementary mechanisms could be the key for optimizing the activity of this bacterial carotenoid cocktail. PMID:26610529

  9. Photooxidative stress stimulates illegitimate recombination and mutability in carotenoid-less mutants of Rubrivivax gelatinosus.

    PubMed

    Ouchane, S; Picaud, M; Vernotte, C; Astier, C

    1997-08-01

    Carotenoids are essential to protection against photooxidative damage in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organisms. In a previous study, we reported the disruption of crtD and crtC carotenoid genes in the purple bacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus, resulting in mutants that synthesized carotenoid intermediates. Here, carotenoid-less mutants have been constructed by disruption of the crtB gene. To study the biological role of carotenoids in photoprotection, the wild-type and the three carotenoid mutants were grown under different conditions. When exposed to photooxidative stress, only the carotenoid-less strains (crtB-) gave rise with a high frequency to four classes of mutants. In the first class, carotenoid biosynthesis was partially restored. The second class corresponded to photosynthetic-deficient mutants. The third class corresponded to mutants in which the LHI antenna level was decreased. In the fourth class, synthesis of the photosynthetic apparatus was inhibited only in aerobiosis. Molecular analyses indicated that the oxidative stress induced mutations and illegitimate recombination. Illegitimate recombination events produced either functional or non-functional chimeric genes. The R. gelatinosus crtB- strain could be very useful for studies of the SOS response and of illegitimate recombination induced by oxidants in bacteria.

  10. History and mechanisms of carotenoid plumage evolution in the New World orioles (Icterus).

    PubMed

    Friedman, Nicholas R; McGraw, Kevin J; Omland, Kevin E

    2014-01-01

    While many recent studies focus on the functions of carotenoids in visual signaling, they seldom address the phylogenetic origins of plumage coloration and its mechanisms. Here, we used the New World orioles (Icterus) as a model clade to study the history of orange carotenoid-based coloration and pigmentation, sampling 47 museum specimens from 12 species. We examined the identity and concentration of carotenoids in oriole feathers using high-performance liquid chromatography, and used phylogenetic comparative methods to compare these observations to reflectance measurements of plumage. Each of the seven yellow oriole species we sampled used only lutein to color their feathers. Ancestral state reconstruction of this trait suggests that the oriole common ancestor had yellow feathers pigmented with lutein. We found keto-carotenoids in small concentrations in the plumage of each of the five species scored as orange. This correlation suggests that discrete gains and losses of keto-carotenoids are behind independent gains of orange coloration in orioles. In contrast, total carotenoid concentration was not associated with hue, and total concentration of keto-carotenoids poorly explained variation in hue among species where they were present. These findings suggest that orioles most likely evolved orange plumage coloration at least twice, each time by gaining the ability to metabolize dietary carotenoids by C4-oxygenation. Given that red coloration is generated by this same oxygenation process in a wide range of bird species, it raises the question of why, if orioles possess this metabolic capability, no red oriole species exist.

  11. Modulation of carotenoid accumulation in transgenic potato by inducing chromoplast formation with enhanced sink strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An increasing interest in carotenoids as nutritional sources of provitamin A and health-promoting compounds has prompted a significant effort in metabolic engineering of carotenoid content and composition in food crops. The strategy commonly used in plants is to increase the biosynthetic capacity by...

  12. Carotenoid profile and retention in yellow-, purple- and red-fleshed potatoes after thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Kotíková, Zora; Šulc, Miloslav; Lachman, Jaromír; Pivec, Vladimír; Orsák, Matyáš; Hamouz, Karel

    2016-04-15

    This research aimed to investigate the effect of thermal processing on carotenoid profile, quantity and stability in 22 colour-fleshed potato cultivars grown in the Czech Republic. The total of nine carotenoids was analysed by HPLC using a C30 column and PDA detection. The total carotenoid content for all cultivars ranged from 1.44 to 40.13 μg/g DM. Yellow cultivars showed a much higher average total carotenoid content (26.22 μg/g DM) when compared to red/purple-fleshed potatoes (5.69 μg/g DM). Yellow cultivars were dominated by antheraxanthin, whereas neoxanthin was the main carotenoid in red/purple cultivars. Thermal processing significantly impacted all potato cultivars. Boiling decreased the total carotenoids by 92% compared to baking (88%). Lutein was the most stable carotenoid against thermal processing (decreased by 24-43%) followed by β-carotene (decreased by 78-83%); other carotenoids were degraded nearly completely. Increased formation of (Z)-isomers by thermal processing has not been confirmed.

  13. A single amino acid substitution in an ORANGE protein promotes carotenoid overaccumulation in arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are crucial for plant growth and human health. The finding of ORANGE (OR) protein as a pivotal regulator of carotenogenesis offers a unique opportunity to comprehensively understand the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid accumulation and develop crops with enhanced nutritional quality. ...

  14. Enzymatic formation of apo-carotenoids from the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin and b-cryptoxanthin by ferret carotene-9, 10-monooxygenase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthophyll carotenoids, such as lutein, zeaxanthin and b-cryptoxanthin, may provide potential health benefits against chronic and degenerative diseases. Investigating pathways of xanthophyll metabolism are important to understanding their biological functions. Carotene-15,150-monooxygenase (CMO1) h...

  15. Arabidopsis OR proteins are the major post-transcriptional regulators of phytoene synthase in mediating carotenoid biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are indispensable natural pigments to plants and humans. Phytoene synthase (PSY), the rate-limiting enzyme in carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, and ORANGE (OR), a regulator of chromoplast differentiation and enhancer of carotenoid biosynthesis, represent two key proteins that control caro...

  16. The Quest for Golden Bananas: Investigating Carotenoid Regulation in a Fe'i Group Musa Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Buah, Stephen; Mlalazi, Bulukani; Khanna, Harjeet; Dale, James L; Mortimer, Cara L

    2016-04-27

    The regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in a high-carotenoid-accumulating Fe'i group Musa cultivar, "Asupina", has been examined and compared to that of a low-carotenoid-accumulating cultivar, "Cavendish", to understand the molecular basis underlying carotenogenesis during banana fruit development. Comparisons in the accumulation of carotenoid species, expression of isoprenoid genes, and product sequestration are reported. Key differences between the cultivars include greater carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) expression in "Cavendish" and the conversion of amyloplasts to chromoplasts during fruit ripening in "Asupina". Chromoplast development coincided with a reduction in dry matter content and fruit firmness. Chromoplasts were not observed in "Cavendish" fruits. Such information should provide important insights for future developments in the biofortification and breeding of banana. PMID:27041343

  17. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carotenoids Extracted from Dried Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ortega, Marcela; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids extracted from dried peppers were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Peppers had a substantial carotenoid content: guajillo 3406 ± 4 μg/g, pasilla 2933 ± 1 μg/g, and ancho 1437 ± 6 μg/g of sample in dry weight basis. A complex mixture of carotenoids was discovered in each pepper extract. The TLC analysis revealed the presence of chlorophylls in the pigment extract from pasilla and ancho peppers. Guajillo pepper carotenoid extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity and had the best scavenging capacity for the DPPH+ cation (24.2%). They also exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity at 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg and induced central analgesia at 80 mg/kg. The results suggest that the carotenoids in dried guajillo peppers have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits and could be useful for pain and inflammation relief. PMID:23091348

  18. Evaluation of carotenoid level in schizophrenic patients using non-invasive measurement.

    PubMed

    Chow, Tze Jen; Loh, Han Chern; Tee, Shiau Foon; Tang, Pek Yee

    2010-12-01

    Free radicals are produced as part of the body immune response triggered by exogenous oxidants. In excess, they impair antioxidant defence system and cause oxidative stress. Antioxidants are hypothesised as antidotes to counteract oxidative stress and improve immune function. Carotenoids serve as a reliable indicator of overall antioxidant level in humans. This study investigated the possible relationship of carotenoid antioxidant levels in schizophrenia. A total of 351 schizophrenic subjects from Hospital Bahagia Ulu Kinta, Malaysia and 247 healthy controls were recruited. Subjects' skin carotenoid levels were measured using a non-invasive technique, Raman spectroscopy. The results showed significant (P<0.01) reduction of carotenoid level in patient compared to healthy controls, suggesting higher levels of oxidative stress in schizophrenia. Comparison between gender, age, subtypes, antipsychotic drug treatments, and duration of illness was investigated, but none was significantly associated with carotenoid score. Antipsychotics were suggested to be the possible causes of reduced antioxidant level in schizophrenia.

  19. Extraction and analysis of carotenoids from the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus gonads.

    PubMed

    Garama, Daniel; Bremer, Phil; Carne, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Sea urchin gonad (roe) is a highly valued food in Japan and North America. Gonad price is strongly influenced by quality, with appearance, especially colour being a major determinant. Previous attempts to extract a carotenoid profile from the New Zealand sea urchin species Evechinus chloroticus have been challenging due to the large amount of lipid present in the gonad. A carotenoid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method was developed to reduce lipid contamination by incorporating a saponification and lipid cold precipitation in the extraction procedure. This method enabled greater carotenoid purity and enhanced analysis by HPLC. Echinenone was found to be the main carotenoid present in all E. chloroticus gonads. Dark coloured gonads contained higher levels of fucoxanthin/fucoxanthinol, β-carotene and xanthophylls such as astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. This information on the modification and deposition of carotenoids will help in the development of diets to enhance gonad colour.

  20. Orientational Ordering of Carotenoids in Myelin Membranes Resolved by Polarized Raman Microspectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kutuzov, Nikolay P.; Brazhe, Alexey R.; Maksimov, Georgy V.; Dracheva, Olga E.; Lyaskovskiy, Vladimir L.; Bulygin, Fedor V.; Rubin, Andrey B.

    2014-01-01

    We study orientational ordering of membrane compounds in the myelinated nerve fiber by means of polarized Raman microspectroscopy. The theory of orientational distribution functions was adapted to live-cell measurements. The obtained orientational distribution functions of carotenoids and lipid acyl chain clearly indicated a predominantly radial-like orientation in membranes of the myelin. Two-dimensional Raman images, made under optimal polarization of incident laser beam, corroborated the proposed carotenoid orientation within the bilayer. Experimental data suggested the tilted orientation of both carotenoid polyenic and lipid acyl chains. The values of maximum tilt angles were similar, with possible implication of carotenoid-induced ordering effect on lipid acyl chains, and hence change of myelin membrane properties. This study stages carotenoids of the nerve as possible mediators of excitation and leverages underlying activity-dependent membrane reordering. PMID:25140424

  1. The Quest for Golden Bananas: Investigating Carotenoid Regulation in a Fe'i Group Musa Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Buah, Stephen; Mlalazi, Bulukani; Khanna, Harjeet; Dale, James L; Mortimer, Cara L

    2016-04-27

    The regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in a high-carotenoid-accumulating Fe'i group Musa cultivar, "Asupina", has been examined and compared to that of a low-carotenoid-accumulating cultivar, "Cavendish", to understand the molecular basis underlying carotenogenesis during banana fruit development. Comparisons in the accumulation of carotenoid species, expression of isoprenoid genes, and product sequestration are reported. Key differences between the cultivars include greater carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) expression in "Cavendish" and the conversion of amyloplasts to chromoplasts during fruit ripening in "Asupina". Chromoplast development coincided with a reduction in dry matter content and fruit firmness. Chromoplasts were not observed in "Cavendish" fruits. Such information should provide important insights for future developments in the biofortification and breeding of banana.

  2. Assessment of carotenoid production by Dunaliella salina in different culture systems and operation regimes.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Ana; Pedro Cañavate, J; García-González, Mercedes

    2011-01-20

    The effect of operation regime and culture system on carotenoid productivity by the halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina has been analyzed. Operation strategies tested included batch and semi continuous regime, as well as a two-stage approach run simultaneously in both, open tanks and closed reactor. The best results were obtained with the closed tubular photobioreactor. The highest carotenoid production (328.8 mg carotenoid l⁻¹ culture per month) was achieved with this culture system operated following the two-stage strategy. Also, closed tubular photobioreactor provided the highest carotenoid contents (10% of dry weight) in Dunaliella biomass and β-carotene abundance (90% of total carotenoids) as well as the highest 9-cis to all-trans β-carotene isomer ratio (1.5 at sunrise).

  3. Role of structural barriers for carotenoid bioaccessibility upon high pressure homogenization.

    PubMed

    Palmero, Paola; Panozzo, Agnese; Colle, Ines; Chigwedere, Claire; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2016-05-15

    A specific approach to investigate the effect of high pressure homogenization on the carotenoid bioaccessibility in tomato-based products was developed. Six different tomato-based model systems were reconstituted in order to target the specific role of the natural structural barriers (chromoplast substructure/cell wall) and of the phases (soluble/insoluble) in determining the carotenoid bioaccessibility and viscosity changes upon high pressure homogenization. Results indicated that in the absence of natural structural barriers (carotenoid enriched oil), the soluble and insoluble phases determined the carotenoid bioaccessibility upon processing whereas, in their presence, these barriers governed the bioaccessibility. Furthermore, it was shown that the increment of the viscosity upon high pressure homogenization is determined by the presence of insoluble phase, however, this result was related to the initial ratio of the soluble:insoluble phases in the system. In addition, no relationship between the changes in viscosity and carotenoid bioaccessibility upon high pressure homogenization was found.

  4. Evaluation of analytical methods for carotenoid extraction from biofortified maize (Zea mays sp.).

    PubMed

    Howe, Julie A; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2006-10-18

    Biofortification of maize with beta-carotene has the potential to improve vitamin A status in vitamin A deficient populations where maize is a staple crop. Accurate assessment of provitamin A carotenoids in maize must be performed to direct breeding efforts. The objective was to evaluate carotenoid extraction methods and determine essential steps for use in countries growing biofortified maize. The most reproducible method based on coefficient of variation and extraction efficiency was a modification of Kurilich and Juvik (1999). Heat and saponification are required to release carotenoids from biofortified maize and remove oils interfering with chromatographic analysis. For maize samples with high oil content, additional base may be added to ensure complete saponification without compromising results. Degradation of internal standard before carotenoids were released from the maize matrix required the addition of internal standard after heating to prevent overestimation of carotenoids. This modified method works well for lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene. PMID:17032000

  5. Carotenogenic gene expression and carotenoid accumulation in three varieties of Cucurbita pepo during fruit development.

    PubMed

    Obrero, Ángeles; González-Verdejo, Clara I; Die, Jose V; Gómez, Pedro; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes; Román, Belén

    2013-07-01

    The control of gene expression is a crucial regulatory mechanism in carotenoid accumulation of fruits and flowers. We investigated the role of transcriptional regulation of nine genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in three varieties of Cucurbita pepo with evident differences in fruit color. The transcriptional levels of the key genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis were higher in flower-, leaf-, and fruit skin tissues than flesh tissues. This correlated with higher concentration of carotenoid content in these tissues. The differential expression among the colored and white cultivars detected for some genes, such as LCYe, in combination with other regulatory mechanisms, could explain the large differences found in terms of carotenoid content among the three varieties. These results are a first step to elucidate carotenogenesis in C. pepo and demonstrate that, in general, regulation of the pathway genes is a critical factor that determines the accumulation of these compounds.

  6. Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from shrimp waste with vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Sachindra, N M; Mahendrakar, N S

    2005-07-01

    Shrimp waste is an important source of natural carotenoid. Studies were carried out to determine the extraction yield of shrimp waste carotenoids in different vegetable oils. Highest yield was obtained by extraction using refined sunflower oil compared to groundnut oil, gingelly oil, mustard oil, soy oil, coconut oil and rice bran oil. The extraction yield of carotenoids in sunflower oil was significantly influenced by level of oil to waste (p < 0.05), time (p < 0.01) and temperature (p < 0.001) of heating waste with oil before centrifugation to separate pigmented oil. A regression equation was derived for carotenoid yield as a function of time of heating, temperature of heating and oil level to waste. The optimized conditions for extraction of shrimp waste carotenoids in sunflower oil were determined to be oil level to waste of 2, temperature of 70 degrees C and heating time of 150 min.

  7. Relation between particle size and carotenoid bioaccessibility in carrot- and tomato-derived suspensions.

    PubMed

    Moelants, Katlijn R N; Lemmens, Lien; Vandebroeck, Marijke; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2012-12-01

    To study the effect of particle size on the relative all-E-β-carotene and all-E-lycopene bioaccessibility in carrot- and tomato-derived suspensions, respectively, an in vitro digestion approach including oil was used. Adding olive oil (2%) during digestion, especially as an oil-in-water emulsion, resulted in a substantial increase in carotenoid uptake in the micellar phase. Carotenoid bioaccessibility decreased with average particle size. Only particles smaller than an individual cell resulted in high bioaccessibility values, pointing out the importance of the cell wall as the main barrier for carotenoid uptake. The relation obtained between particle size and bioaccessibility was used to predict the carotenoid bioaccessibility in carrot- and tomato-derived purées. These predictions indicated that carotenoid bioaccessibility in plant-based food suspensions is not only determined by the cell wall integrity (related with particle size) but is also affected by interactions between the structural compounds of the complex food matrix.

  8. Role of carotenoid type on the effect of thermal processing on bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Palmero, Paola; Lemmens, Lien; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2014-08-15

    Cell walls and chromoplast substructures constitute natural structural barriers governing carotenoid bioaccessibility. In order to enhance carotenoid bioaccessibility, thermal processes were applied to fractions surrounded by different levels of structural barriers. The matrices studied were orange carrots, red carrots, red tomatoes and atomic red carrots. In the case of carrots, no effect of thermal treatments on carotenoid bioaccessibility at the chromoplast level was obtained. However, in the case of tomatoes, lycopene bioaccessibility decreased upon thermal processing of chromoplasts. At the cell cluster level, low intensities of thermal processing resulted in a decrease of β-carotene and lycopene bioaccessibility. Nonetheless, at high intensities of thermal processing, only β-carotene bioaccessibility was increased. This observation was confirmed by the results obtained in the matrix rich in both types of carotenoids (atomic red carrots). It was therefore suggested, that the type of carotenoid constitutes an important factor determining the effect of thermal processing on their bioaccessibility.

  9. Recent advances in understanding carotenoid-derived signaling molecules in regulating plant growth and development

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids (C40) are synthesized in plastids and perform numerous important functions in these organelles. In addition, carotenoids can be processed into smaller signaling molecules that regulate various phases of the plant’s life cycle. Besides the relatively well-studied phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and strigolactones (SLs), additional carotenoid-derived signaling molecules have been discovered and shown to regulate plant growth and development. As a few excellent reviews summarized recent research on ABA and SLs, this mini review will focus on progress made on identification and characterization of the emerging carotenoid-derived signals. Overall, a better understanding of carotenoid-derived signaling molecules has immediate applications in improving plant biomass production which in turn will have far reaching impacts on providing food, feed, and fuel for the growing world population. PMID:26442092

  10. Changes in carotenoid profiles and in the expression pattern of the genes in carotenoid metabolisms during fruit development and ripening in four watermelon cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lv, Pin; Li, Na; Liu, Hui; Gu, Huihui; Zhao, Wen-En

    2015-05-01

    Changes in carotenoid profiles during fruit ripening were investigated in four watermelon cultivars: red-fleshed "CN66", pink-fleshed "CN62", yellow-fleshed "ZXG381" and white-fleshed "ZXG507". The expression pattern of twelve genes (GGPS, PSY, PSY-A, PDS, ZDS, CRTISO, LCYB, CHYB, ZEP, NCED1, NCED2 and NCED3) was analysed. In "CN66" and "CN62", lycopene appeared at 12 DAP and became a main carotenoid increased at the later stages. The transcript levels of carotenogenic genes in "CN66" sharply increased during 18-30 DAP, and concomitantly, fruit accumulated the massive amounts of carotenoids. In "ZXG381", violaxanthin and lutein contents were positively correlated, respectively, with CHYB and ZEP transcript levels during fruit ripening. The trace amounts of carotenoids in "ZXG507" were accompanied with the low transcript levels of most biosynthetic genes. The results suggest that differential transcriptional regulation of carotenoid metabolic genes is very important in determining the amount and type of specific carotenoids accumulated during fruit development and ripening.

  11. Reconstitution of Gloeobacter violaceus Rhodopsin with a Light-Harvesting Carotenoid Antenna†

    PubMed Central

    Imasheva, Eleonora S.; Balashov, Sergei P.; Choi, Ah Reum; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Lanyi, Janos K.

    2009-01-01

    We show that salinixanthin, the light-harvesting carotenoid antenna of xanthorhodopsin, can be reconstituted into the retinal protein from Gloeobacter violaceus expressed in E. coli. Reconstitution of gloeobacter rhodopsin with the carotenoid is accompanied by characteristic absorption changes and the appearance of CD bands similar to those observed for xanthorhodopsin that indicate immobilization and twist of the carotenoid in the binding site. As in xanthorhodopsin, the carotenoid functions as a light-harvesting antenna. The excitation spectrum for retinal fluorescence emission shows that ca. 36% of the energy absorbed by the carotenoid is transferred to the retinal. From excitation anisotropy, we calculate the angle between the two chromophores as ca. 50°, similar to that in xanthorhodopsin. The results indicate that gloeobacter rhodopsin binds salinixanthin in a similar way as xanthorhodopsin, and suggest that it might bind a carotenoid also in vivo. In the crystallographic structure of xanthorhodopsin, the conjugated chain of the carotenoid lies on the surface of helices E and F, and the 4-keto-ring is immersed in the protein at van der Waals distance from the ionone ring of the retinal. The 4-keto-ring is in the space occupied by a tryptophan in bacteriorhodopsin, which is replaced by the smaller glycine in xanthorhodopsin and gloeobacter rhodopsin. Specific binding of the carotenoid and its light-harvesting function are eliminated by a single mutation of the gloeobacter protein that replaces this glycine with a tryptophan. This indicates that the 4-keto-ring is critically involved in carotenoid binding, and suggests that a number of other recently identified retinal proteins, from a diverse group of organisms, could also contain carotenoid antenna since they carry the homologous glycine near the retinal. PMID:19842712

  12. Carotenoid Supplementation Positively Affects the Expression of a Non-Visual Sexual Signal

    PubMed Central

    Van Hout, Alain J.-M.; Eens, Marcel; Pinxten, Rianne

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are a class of pigments which are widely used by animals for the expression of yellow-to-red colour signals, such as bill or plumage colour. Since they also have been shown to promote immunocompetence and to function as antioxidants, many studies have investigated a potential allocation trade-off with respect to carotenoid-based signals within the context of sexual selection. Although an effect of carotenoids on non-visual (e.g. acoustic) signals involved in sexual selection has been hypothesized, this has to date not been investigated. First, we examined a potential effect of dietary carotenoid supplementation on overall song rate during the non-breeding season in captive male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). After only 3–7 days, we found a significant (body-mass independent) positive effect of carotenoid availability on overall song rate. Secondly, as a number of studies suggest that carotenoids could affect the modulation of sexual signals by plasma levels of the steroid hormone testosterone (T), we used the same birds to subsequently investigate whether carotenoid availability affects the increase in (nestbox-oriented) song rate induced by experimentally elevated plasma T levels. Our results suggest that carotenoids may enhance the positive effect of elevated plasma T levels on nestbox-oriented song rate. Moreover, while non-supplemented starlings responded to T-implantation with an increase in both overall song rate and nestbox-oriented song, carotenoid-supplemented starlings instead shifted song production towards (reproductively relevant) nestbox-oriented song, without increasing overall song rate. Given that song rate is an acoustic signal rather than a visual signal, our findings therefore indicate that the role of carotenoids in (sexual) signalling need not be dependent on their function as pigments. PMID:21283591

  13. An SCD gene from the Mollusca and its upregulation in carotenoid-enriched scallops.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Ning, Xianhui; Dou, Jinzhuang; Yu, Qian; Wang, Shuyue; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-06-10

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of red, orange, and yellow pigments that act as vitamin A precursors and antioxidants. Animals can only obtain carotenoids through their diets. Amongst the carotenoids identified in nature, over one third are of marine origin, but current research on carotenoid absorption in marine species is limited. Bivalves possess an adductor muscle, which is normally white in scallops. However, a new variety of Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis), the 'Haida golden scallop', can be distinguished by its adductor muscle's orange colour, which is caused by carotenoid accumulation. Studying the genes related to carotenoid accumulation in this scallop could benefit our understanding of the mechanisms underlying carotenoid absorption in marine organisms, and it could further improve scallop breeding for carotenoid content. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of monounsaturated fatty acids, which enhance carotenoid absorption. Here, the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of the SCD gene from the Yesso scallop (PySCD) were obtained. The PySCD gene consisted of four exons and three introns, and it contained a 990-bp open reading frame encoding 329 amino acids. It was ubiquitously expressed in adult tissues, embryos and larvae of both white Yesso scallops and 'Haida golden' scallops. Although the expression pattern of PySCD in both types of scallops was similar, significantly more PySCD transcripts were detected in the 'Haida golden' scallops than in the white scallops. Elevated PySCD expression was found in tissues including the adductor muscle, digestive gland, and gonad, as well as in veliger larvae. This study represents the first characterisation of an SCD gene from the Mollusca. Our data imply that PySCD functions in multiple biological processes, and it might be involved in carotenoid accumulation.

  14. Reconstitution of Gloeobacter violaceus rhodopsin with a light-harvesting carotenoid antenna.

    PubMed

    Imasheva, Eleonora S; Balashov, Sergei P; Choi, Ah Reum; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Lanyi, Janos K

    2009-11-24

    We show that salinixanthin, the light-harvesting carotenoid antenna of xanthorhodopsin, can be reconstituted into the retinal protein from Gloeobacter violaceus expressed in Escherichia coli. Reconstitution of gloeobacter rhodopsin with the carotenoid is accompanied by characteristic absorption changes and the appearance of CD bands similar to those observed for xanthorhodopsin that indicate immobilization and twist of the carotenoid in the binding site. As in xanthorhodopsin, the carotenoid functions as a light-harvesting antenna. The excitation spectrum for retinal fluorescence emission shows that ca. 36% of the energy absorbed by the carotenoid is transferred to the retinal. From excitation anisotropy, we calculate the angle between the two chromophores as being ca. 50 degrees , similar to that in xanthorhodopsin. The results indicate that gloeobacter rhodopsin binds salinixanthin in a manner similar to that of xanthorhodopsin and suggest that it might bind a carotenoid also in vivo. In the crystallographic structure of xanthorhodopsin, the conjugated chain of the carotenoid lies on the surface of helices E and F, and the 4-keto ring is immersed in the protein at van der Waals distance from the ionone ring of the retinal. The 4-keto ring is in the space occupied by a tryptophan in bacteriorhodopsin, which is replaced by the smaller glycine in xanthorhodopsin and gloeobacter rhodopsin. Specific binding of the carotenoid and its light-harvesting function are eliminated by a single mutation of the gloeobacter protein that replaces this glycine with a tryptophan. This indicates that the 4-keto ring is critically involved in carotenoid binding and suggests that a number of other recently identified retinal proteins, from a diverse group of organisms, could also contain carotenoid antenna since they carry the homologous glycine near the retinal.

  15. Assembly of functional photosystem complexes in Rhodobacter sphaeroides incorporating carotenoids from the spirilloxanthin pathway.

    PubMed

    Chi, Shuang C; Mothersole, David J; Dilbeck, Preston; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Zhang, Hao; Qian, Pu; Vasilev, Cvetelin; Grayson, Katie J; Jackson, Philip J; Martin, Elizabeth C; Li, Ying; Holten, Dewey; Neil Hunter, C

    2015-02-01

    Carotenoids protect the photosynthetic apparatus against harmful radicals arising from the presence of both light and oxygen. They also act as accessory pigments for harvesting solar energy, and are required for stable assembly of many light-harvesting complexes. In the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides phytoene desaturase (CrtI) catalyses three sequential desaturations of the colourless carotenoid phytoene, extending the number of conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds, N, from three to nine and producing the yellow carotenoid neurosporene; subsequent modifications produce the yellow/red carotenoids spheroidene/spheroidenone (N=10/11). Genomic crtI replacements were used to swap the native three-step Rba. sphaeroides CrtI for the four-step Pantoea agglomerans enzyme, which re-routed carotenoid biosynthesis and culminated in the production of 2,2'-diketo-spirilloxanthin under semi-aerobic conditions. The new carotenoid pathway was elucidated using a combination of HPLC and mass spectrometry. Premature termination of this new pathway by inactivating crtC or crtD produced strains with lycopene or rhodopin as major carotenoids. All of the spirilloxanthin series carotenoids are accepted by the assembly pathways for LH2 and RC-LH1-PufX complexes. The efficiency of carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer for 2,2'-diketo-spirilloxanthin (15 conjugated CC bonds; N=15) in LH2 complexes is low, at 35%. High energy transfer efficiencies were obtained for neurosporene (N=9; 94%), spheroidene (N=10; 96%) and spheroidenone (N=11; 95%), whereas intermediate values were measured for lycopene (N=11; 64%), rhodopin (N=11; 62%) and spirilloxanthin (N=13; 39%). The variety and stability of these novel Rba. sphaeroides antenna complexes make them useful experimental models for investigating the energy transfer dynamics of carotenoids in bacterial photosynthesis.

  16. Utilization of Microemulsions from Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz to Improve Carotenoid Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Nai-Hsing; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids have been known to reduce the risk of several diseases including cancer and cardiovascular. However, carotenoids are unstable and susceptible to degradation. Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz (R. nasutus), a Chinese medicinal herb rich in carotenoids, was reported to possess vital biological activities such as anti-cancer. This study intends to isolate carotenoids from R. nasutus by column chromatography, identify and quantify by HPLC-MS, and prepare carotenoid microemulsions for determination of absolute bioavailability in rats. Initially, carotenoid fraction was isolated using 250 mL ethyl acetate poured into an open-column packed with magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:3, w/w). Fourteen carotenoids including internal standard β-apo-8′-carotenal were resolved within 62 min by a YMC C30 column and gradient mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-water (82:14:4, v/v/v) and methylene chloride. Highly stable carotenoid microemulsions were prepared using a mixture of CapryolTM90, Transcutol®HP, Tween 80 and deionized water, with the mean particle being 10.4 nm for oral administration and 10.7 nm for intravenous injection. Pharmacokinetic study revealed that the absolute bioavailability of carotenoids in microemulsions and dispersion was 0.45% and 0.11%, respectively, while a much higher value of 6.25% and 1.57% were shown for lutein, demonstrating 4-fold enhancement in bioavailability upon incorporation of R. nasutus carotenoids into a microemulsion system. PMID:27150134

  17. The distribution of carotenoids in hens fed on biofortified maize is influenced by feed composition, absorption, resource allocation and storage

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Jose Antonio; Díaz-Gómez, Joana; Nogareda, Carmina; Angulo, Eduardo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Serrano, José C. E.; Twyman, Richard M.; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are important dietary nutrients with health-promoting effects. The biofortification of staple foods with carotenoids provides an efficient delivery strategy but little is known about the fate and distribution of carotenoids supplied in this manner. The chicken provides a good model of human carotenoid metabolism so we supplemented the diets of laying hens using two biofortified maize varieties with distinct carotenoid profiles and compared the fate of the different carotenoids in terms of distribution in the feed, the hen’s livers and the eggs. We found that after a period of depletion, pro-vitamin A (PVA) carotenoids were preferentially diverted to the liver and relatively depleted in the eggs, whereas other carotenoids were transported to the eggs even when the liver remained depleted. When retinol was included in the diet, it accumulated more in the eggs than the livers, whereas PVA carotenoids showed the opposite profile. Our data suggest that a transport nexus from the intestinal lumen to the eggs introduces bottlenecks that cause chemically-distinct classes of carotenoids to be partitioned in different ways. This nexus model will allow us to optimize animal feed and human diets to ensure that the health benefits of carotenoids are delivered in the most effective manner. PMID:27739479

  18. Carotenoid-based coloration, condition, and immune responsiveness in the nestlings of a sexually dimorphic bird of prey.

    PubMed

    Sternalski, Audrey; Mougeot, François; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    In many birds, nestlings exhibit brightly colored traits that are pigmented by carotenoids. Carotenoids are diet limited and also serve important health-related physiological functions. The proximate mechanisms behind the expression of these carotenoid-pigmented traits are still poorly known, especially in nestlings with sexual size dimorphism. In these nestlings, intrabrood competition levels and growth strategies likely differ between sexes, and this may in turn influence carotenoid allocation rules. We used dietary carotenoid supplementation to test whether wild marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus) nestlings were carotenoid limited and whether carotenoid allocation strategies varied between sexes, which differ in their size and growth strategies. When supplemented, nestlings used the supplemental carotenoids to increase their coloration independently of their sex. We showed that the condition dependence of the carotenoid level and the response to an immune challenge (phytohemagglutinin test) differed between sexes, possibly because sexual size dimorphism influences growth strategies and/or intrabrood competition levels and access to different types of food. In this species, which often feeds on mammals, a trade-off likely exists between food quantity (energy) and quality (carotenoid content). Finally, carotenoid-based coloration expressed in marsh harrier nestlings appeared to be indicative of immune responsiveness rather than condition, therefore potentially advertising to parents nestling quality or value rather than nutritional need.

  19. CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE4 Is a Negative Regulator of β-Carotene Content in Arabidopsis Seeds[W

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Jorge, Sabrina; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; Gilliland, Laura Ullrich; Zhou, Ailing; Lipka, Alexander E.; Nguyen, Yen-Nhu; Angelovici, Ruthie; Lin, Haining; Cepela, Jason; Little, Holly; Buell, C. Robin; Gore, Michael A.; DellaPenna, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Experimental approaches targeting carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes have successfully increased the seed β-carotene content of crops. However, linkage analysis of seed carotenoids in Arabidopsis thaliana recombinant inbred populations showed that only 21% of quantitative trait loci, including those for β-carotene, encode carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in their intervals. Thus, numerous loci remain uncharacterized and underutilized in biofortification approaches. Linkage mapping and genome-wide association studies of Arabidopsis seed carotenoids identified CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE4 (CCD4) as a major negative regulator of seed carotenoid content, especially β-carotene. Loss of CCD4 function did not affect carotenoid homeostasis during seed development but greatly reduced carotenoid degradation during seed desiccation, increasing β-carotene content 8.4-fold relative to the wild type. Allelic complementation of a ccd4 null mutant demonstrated that single-nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions and deletions at the locus affect dry seed carotenoid content, due at least partly to differences in CCD4 expression. CCD4 also plays a major role in carotenoid turnover during dark-induced leaf senescence, with β-carotene accumulation again most strongly affected in the ccd4 mutant. These results demonstrate that CCD4 plays a major role in β-carotene degradation in drying seeds and senescing leaves and suggest that CCD4 orthologs would be promising targets for stabilizing and increasing the level of provitamin A carotenoids in seeds of major food crops. PMID:24368792

  20. Molecular characterisation and the light-dark regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Thwe, Aye Aye; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Yeon Bok; Lee, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Un

    2013-12-15

    Seven partial-length cDNAs and 1 full-length cDNA that were involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and 2 partial-length cDNAs that encoded carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases were first isolated and characterised in 2 tartary buckwheat cultivars (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.), Hokkai T8 and Hokkai T10. They were constitutively expressed at high levels in the leaves and flowers, where carotenoids are mostly distributed. During the seed development of tartary buckwheat, an inverse correlation between transcription level of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase and carotenoid content was observed. The light-grown sprouts exhibited higher levels of expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in T10 and carotenoid content in both T8 and T10 compared to the dark-grown sprouts. The predominant carotenoids in tartary buckwheat were lutein and β-carotene, and very abundant amounts of these carotenoids were found in light-grown sprouts. This study might broaden our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and indicates targets for increasing the production of carotenoids in tartary buckwheat.

  1. Is oxidative status influenced by dietary carotenoid and physical activity after moult in the great tit (Parus major)?

    PubMed

    Vaugoyeau, Marie; Decencière, Beatriz; Perret, Samuel; Karadas, Filiz; Meylan, Sandrine; Biard, Clotilde

    2015-07-01

    In the context of sexual and natural selection, an allocation trade-off for carotenoid pigments may exist because of their obligate dietary origin and their role both in the antioxidant and immune systems and in the production of coloured signals in various taxa, particularly birds. When birds have expended large amounts of carotenoids to feather growth such as after autumn moult, bird health and oxidative status might be more constrained. We tested this hypothesis in a bird species with carotenoid-based plumage colour, by manipulating dietary carotenoids and physical activity, which can decrease antioxidant capacity and increase reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) concentration. Great tits were captured after moult and kept in aviaries, under three treatments: physical handicap and dietary supplementation with carotenoids, physical handicap and control diet, and no handicap and control diet. We measured plasma composition (antioxidant capacity, ROM concentration, and vitamin A, vitamin E and total carotenoid concentrations), immune system activation (blood sedimentation) and stress response (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio) and predicted that handicap treatment should influence these negatively and carotenoid supplementation positively. Coloration of yellow feathers was also measured. Carotenoid supplementation increased total plasma carotenoid concentration, decreased feather carotenoid chroma and marginally increased ROM concentration. Handicap increased blood sedimentation only in males but had no clear influence on oxidative stress, which contradicted previous studies. Further studies are needed to investigate how physical activity and carotenoid availability might interact and influence oxidative stress outside the moult period, and their combined potential influence on attractiveness and reproductive investment later during the breeding season.

  2. Correlations of carotenoid content and transcript abundances for fibrillin and carotenogenic enzymes in Capsicum annum fruit pericarp.

    PubMed

    Kilcrease, James; Rodriguez-Uribe, Laura; Richins, Richard D; Arcos, Juan Manuel Garcia; Victorino, Jesus; O'Connell, Mary A

    2015-03-01

    The fruits of Capsicum spp. are especially rich sites for carotenoid synthesis and accumulation, with cultivar-specific carotenoid accumulation profiles. Differences in chromoplast structure as well as carotenoid biosynthesis are correlated with distinct carotenoid accumulations and fruit color. In the present study, the inheritance of chromoplast shape, carotenoid accumulation profiles, and transcript levels of four genes were measured. Comparisons of these traits were conducted using fruit from contrasting variants, Costeño Amarillo versus Costeño Red, and from F1 hybrids; crosses between parental lines with novel versions of these traits. Intermediate chromoplast shapes were observed in the F1, but no association between specific carotenoid accumulation and chromoplast shape was detected. Increased total carotenoid content was associated with increased β-carotene and violaxanthin content. Transcript levels for phytoene synthase (Psy) and β-carotene hydroxylase (CrtZ-2) were positively correlated with increased levels of specific carotenoids. No correlation was detected between transcript levels of capsanthin/capsorubin synthase (Ccs) and carotenoid composition or chromoplast shape. Transcript levels of fibrillin, were differentially correlated with specific carotenoids, negatively correlated with accumulation of capsanthin, and positively correlated with violaxanthin. The regulation of carotenoid accumulation in chromoplasts in Capsicum fruit continues to be a complex process with multiple steps for control.

  3. Characterization of carotenoids in soil bacteria and investigation of their photodegradation by UVA radiation via resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kumar B N, Vinay; Kampe, Bernd; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    A soil habitat consists of an enormous number of pigmented bacteria with the pigments mainly composed of diverse carotenoids. Most of the pigmented bacteria in the top layer of the soil are photoprotected from exposure to huge amounts of UVA radiation on a daily basis by these carotenoids. The photostability of these carotenoids depends heavily on the presence of specific features like a carbonyl group or an ionone ring system on its overall structure. Resonance Raman spectroscopy is one of the most sensitive and powerful techniques to detect and characterize these carotenoids and also monitor processes associated with them in their native system at a single cell resolution. However, most of the resonance Raman profiles of carotenoids have very minute differences, thereby making it extremely difficult to confirm if these differences are attributed to the presence of different carotenoids or if it is a consequence of their interaction with other cellular components. In this study, we devised a method to overcome this problem by monitoring also the photodegradation of the carotenoids in question by UVA radiation wherein a differential photodegradation response will confirm the presence of different carotenoids irrespective of the proximities in their resonance Raman profiles. Using this method, the detection and characterization of carotenoids in pure cultures of five species of pigmented coccoid soil bacteria is achieved. We also shed light on the influence of the structure of the carotenoid on its photodegradation which can be exploited for use in the characterization of carotenoids via resonance Raman spectroscopy.

  4. Regular consumption of fresh orange juice increases human skin carotenoid content.

    PubMed

    Massenti, Roberto; Perrone, Anna; Livrea, Maria Antonietta; Lo Bianco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Dermal carotenoids are a good indicator of antioxidant status in the body. This study aimed to determine whether regular consumption of orange juice could increase dermal carotenoids. Two types of orange juice, obtained from regularly (CI) and partially (PRD) irrigated trees, were tested to reveal any possible association between juice and dermal carotenoids. Soluble solids, titratable acidity, and total carotenoids were quantified in the juice; skin carotenoid score (SCS) was assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Carotenoid content was 7.3% higher in PRD than in CI juice, inducing no difference in SCS. In a first trial with daily juice intakes for 25 days, SCS increased linearly (10%) in the individual with higher initial SCS, and exponentially (15%) in the individual with lower initial SCS. In a second trial, SCS showed a 6.5% increase after 18 days of drinking juice every other day, but returned to initial values three days after last intake. Skin carotenoids can be increased by regular consumption of fresh orange juice, while their persistence may depend on the accumulation level, environmental conditions or living habits.

  5. Effect of alcoholic fermentation on the carotenoid composition and provitamin A content of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, Isabel; Escudero-López, Blanca; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Martín, Francisco; Fernández-Pachón, María-Soledad

    2014-01-29

    Orange juice is considered a rich source of carotenoids, which are thought to have diverse biological functions. In recent years, a fermentation process has been carried out in fruits resulting in products that provide higher concentrations of bioactive compounds than their original substrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a controlled alcoholic fermentation process (15 days) on the carotenoid composition of orange juice. Twenty-two carotenoids were identified in samples. The carotenoid profile was not modified as result of the fermentation. Total carotenoid content and provitamin A value significantly increased from day 0 (5.37 mg/L and 75.32 RAEs/L, respectively) until day 15 (6.65 mg/L and 90.57 RAEs/L, respectively), probably due to a better extractability of the carotenoids from the food matrix as a result of processing. Therefore, the novel beverage produced could provide a rich source of carotenoids and exert healthy effects similar to those of orange juice.

  6. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2011-11-01

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids.

  7. Carotenoids Play a Positive Role in the Degradation of Heterocycles by Sphingobium yanoikuyae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaorui; Gai, Zhonghui; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Microbial oxidative degradation is a potential way of removing pollutants such as heterocycles from the environment. During this process, reactive oxygen species or other oxidants are inevitably produced, and may cause damage to DNA, proteins, and membranes, thereby decreasing the degradation rate. Carotenoids can serve as membrane-integrated antioxidants, protecting cells from oxidative stress. Findings Several genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway were cloned and characterized from a carbazole-degrading bacterium Sphingobium yanoikuyae XLDN2-5. In addition, a yellow-pigmented carotenoid synthesized by strain XLDN2-5 was identified as zeaxanthin that was synthesized from β-carotene through β-cryptoxanthin. The amounts of zeaxanthin and hydrogen peroxide produced were significantly and simultaneously enhanced during the biodegradation of heterocycles (carbazole < carbazole + benzothiophene < carbazole + dibenzothiophene). These higher production levels were consistent with the transcriptional increase of the gene encoding phytoene desaturase, one of the key enzymes for carotenoid biosynthesis. Conclusions/Significance Sphingobium yanoikuyae XLDN2-5 can enhance the synthesis of zeaxanthin, one of the carotenoids, which may modulate membrane fluidity and defense against intracellular oxidative stress. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the positive role of carotenoids in the biodegradation of heterocycles, while elucidating the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in the Sphingobium genus. PMID:22745775

  8. Sioxanthin, a novel glycosylated carotenoid reveals an unusual subclustered biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Taylor K.S.; Hughes, Chambers C.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Members of the marine actinomycete genus Salinispora constitutively produce a characteristic orange pigment during vegetative growth. Contrary to the understanding of widespread carotenoid biosynthesis pathways in bacteria, Salinispora carotenoid biosynthesis genes are not confined to a single cluster. Instead, bioinformatic and genetic investigations confirm that four regions of the S. tropica CNB-440 genome, consisting of two gene clusters and two independent genes, contribute to the in vivo production of a single carotenoid. This compound, namely (2’S)-1’-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3’,4’-didehydro-1’,2’-dihydro-φ,ψ-caroten-2’-ol, is novel and has been given the trivial name “sioxanthin”. Sioxanthin is a C40-carotenoid, glycosylated on one end of the molecule and containing an aryl moiety on the opposite end. Glycosylation is unusual amongst actinomycete carotenoids, and sioxanthin joins a rare group of carotenoids with polar and non-polar head groups. Gene sequence homology predicts that the sioxanthin biosynthetic pathway is present in all of the Salinispora as well as other members of the family Micromonosporaceae. Additionally, this study’s investigations of clustering of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in heterotrophic bacteria show that a non-clustered genome arrangement is more common than previously suggested, with nearly half of the investigated genomes showing a non-clustered architecture. PMID:25329237

  9. Red yeasts and carotenoid production: outlining a future for non-conventional yeasts of biotechnological interest.

    PubMed

    Mannazzu, Ilaria; Landolfo, Sara; Lopes da Silva, Teresa; Buzzini, Pietro

    2015-11-01

    Carotenoids are one of the most common classes of pigments that occur in nature. Due to their biological properties, they are widely used in phytomedicine and in the chemical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and feed industries. Accordingly, their global market is continuously growing, and it is expected to reach about US$1.4 billion in 2018. Carotenoids can be easily produced by chemical synthesis, although their biotechnological production is rapidly becoming an appealing alternative to the chemical route, partly due to consumer concerns against synthetic pigments. Among the yeasts, and apart from the pigmented species Phaffia rhodozyma (and its teleomorph Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous), a handful of species of the genera Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces and Sporidiobolus are well known carotenoid producers. These are known as 'red yeasts', and their ability to synthesize mixtures of carotenoids from low-cost carbon sources has been broadly studied recently. Here, in agreement with the renewed interest in microbial carotenoids, the recent literature is reviewed regarding the taxonomy of the genera Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces and Sporidiobolus, the stress factors that influence their carotenogenesis, and the most advanced analytical tools for evaluation of carotenoid production. Moreover, a synopsis of the molecular and "-omic" tools available for elucidation of the metabolic pathways of the microbial carotenoids is reported.

  10. Influence of dietary carotenoids on radical scavenging capacity of the skin and skin lipids.

    PubMed

    Meinke, M C; Friedrich, A; Tscherch, K; Haag, S F; Darvin, M E; Vollert, H; Groth, N; Lademann, J; Rohn, S

    2013-06-01

    Nutrition rich in carotenoids is well known to prevent cell damage, premature skin aging, and skin cancer. Cutaneous carotenoids can be enriched in the skin by nutrition and topically applied antioxidants have shown an increase in radical protection after VIS/NIR irradiation. In this paper, it was investigated whether orally administered carotenoids increase the radical scavenging activity and the radical protection of the skin using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and the skin lipid profile was investigated applying HPTLC on skin lipid extracts. Furthermore, in vivo Raman resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the cutaneous carotenoid concentration. A double blind placebo controlled clinical study was performed with 24 healthy volunteers, who have shown a slow but significant and effective increase in cutaneous carotenoids in the verum group. The enhancement in carotenoids increases the radical scavenging activity of the skin and provides a significant protection against stress induced radical formation. Furthermore, the skin lipids in the verum group increased compared to the placebo group but only significantly for ceramide [NS]. These results indicate that a supplementation with dietary products containing carotenoids in physiological concentrations can protect the skin against reactive oxygen species and could avoid premature skin aging and other radical associated skin diseases.

  11. Qualitative and quantitative differences in carotenoid composition among Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita maxima, and Cucurbita pepo.

    PubMed

    Azevedo-Meleiro, Cristiane H; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2007-05-16

    Squashes and pumpkins are important dietary sources of carotenoids worldwide. The carotenoid composition has been determined, but reported data have been highly variable, both qualitatively and quantitatively. In the present work, the carotenoid composition of squashes and pumpkins currently marketed in Campinas, Brazil, were determined by HPLC-DAD, complemented by HPLC-MS for identification. Cucurbita moschata 'Menina Brasileira' and C. moschata 'Goianinha' had similar profiles, with beta-carotene and alpha-carotene as the major carotenoids. The hybrid 'Tetsukabuto' resembled the Cucurbita pepo 'Mogango', lutein and beta-carotene being the principal carotenoids. Cucurbita maxima 'Exposição' had a different profile, with the predominance of violaxanthin, followed by beta-carotene and lutein. Combining data from the current study with those in the literature, profiles for the Cucurbita species could be observed. The principal carotenoids in C. moschata were beta-carotene and alpha-carotene, whlereas lutein and beta-carotene dominate in C. maxima and C. pepo. It appears that hydroxylation is a control point in carotenoid biosynthesis.

  12. [Effects of light on carotenoid biosynthesis and color formation of citrus fruit peel].

    PubMed

    Tao, Jun; Zhang, Shanglong; An, Xinmin; Zhao, Zhizhong

    2003-11-01

    The effects of shading fruit with opaque paper bag at the late stage of fruit enlargement on the contents of chlorophyll, carotenoid and in "Hongshigan" citrus (C. reticulata x C. sinensis) fruit peel and its color were examined. The results showed that after shading, the chlorophyll content in peel decreased quickly, which resulted in its earlier color shifting. In contrast, the contents of total carotenoids and each carotenoid component did not increase, but decreased significantly. At the stage of fruit riping, both chlorophyll in shaded and unshaded fruit disappeared, and the shaded fruit, owing to its lower level of carotenoids, had a lighter color than the unshaded fruit. The sugar content in peel of shaded fruit did not differ obviously from that of unshaded fruit at the earlier stage, but dropped markedly at the late stage of shading. Removing the enclosing paper bag from shaded fruit at the late stage of shading resulted in the increase of sugar, and correspondingly in the increase of carotenoid, especially of beta-cryptoxanthin accumulation with consequent darkening of fruit color. These results stressed the effect of light on stimulating carotenoid synthesis, especially the accumulation of beta-cryptoxanthin in citrus fruit peel. The light is the enviromental signal essential for carotenoid synthesis in citrus fruit during certain stage of fruit development. PMID:14997627

  13. Increase in β-ionone, a carotenoid-derived volatile in zeaxanthin-biofortified sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Gallon, Camilla Z; Fuller, Steven C; Fanning, Kent J; Smyth, Heather E; Pun, Sharon; Martin, Ian F; O'Hare, Timothy J

    2013-07-31

    Carotenoids are responsible for the yellow color of sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata), but are also potentially the source of flavor compounds from the cleavage of carotenoid molecules. The carotenoid-derived volatile, β-ionone, was identified in both standard yellow sweet corn ('Hybrix5') and a zeaxanthin-enhanced experimental variety ('HZ') designed for sufferers of macular degeneration. As β-ionone is highly perceivable at extremely low concentration by humans, it was important to confirm if alterations in carotenoid profile may also affect flavor volatiles. The concentration of β-ionone was most strongly correlated (R(2) > 0.94) with the β-arm carotenoids, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin, and to a lesser degree (R(2) = 0.90) with the α-arm carotenoid, zeinoxanthin. No correlation existed with either lutein (R(2) = 0.06) or antheraxanthin (R(2) = 0.10). Delaying harvest of cobs resulted in a significant increase of both carotenoid and β-ionone concentrations, producing a 6-fold increase of β-ionone in 'HZ' and a 2-fold increase in 'Hybrix5', reaching a maximum of 62 μg/kg FW and 24 μg/kg FW, respectively. PMID:23767984

  14. Identification of carotenoids with high antioxidant capacity produced by extremophile microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mandelli, Fernanda; Miranda, Viviane S; Rodrigues, Eliseu; Mercadante, Adriana Z

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the carotenoids produced by the extremophile microorganisms Halococcus morrhuae, Halobacterium salinarium and Thermus filiformis were separated and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography connected to a diode array detector and a tandem mass spectrometer. The in vitro scavenging capacity of the carotenoid extracts against radical and non-radical species was evaluated. In halophilic microorganisms, the following carotenoids were identified: bacterioruberin, bisanhydrobacterioruberin, trisanhydrobacterioruberin and their derivatives. In the thermophilic bacterium, the carotenoids all-trans-zeaxanthin, zeaxanthin monoglucoside, thermozeaxanthins and thermobiszeaxanthins were identified. The antioxidant capacities of the carotenoid extracts of H. morrhuae (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity = 5.07 and IC(50) = 0.85 μg mL(-1)) and H. salinarium (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity = 5.28 and IC(50) = 0.84 μg mL(-1)) were similar and higher than those of the bacterium T. filiformis (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity = 2.87 and IC(50) = 2.41 μg mL(-1)). This difference is related to the presence of acyclic carotenoids with both large numbers of conjugated double bounds and of hydroxyl groups in the major carotenoid of the halophilic microorganisms.

  15. Distribution of carotenoids in endosperm, germ, and aleurone fractions of cereal grain kernels.

    PubMed

    Ndolo, Victoria U; Beta, Trust

    2013-08-15

    To compare the distribution of carotenoids across the grain, non-corn and corn cereals were hand dissected into endosperm, germ and aleurone fractions. Total carotenoid content (TCC) and carotenoid composition were analysed using spectrophotometry and HPLC. Cereal carotenoid composition was similar; however, concentrations varied significantly (p<0.05). Endosperm fractions had TCC ranging from 0.88 to 2.27 and 14.17 to 31.35 mg/kg in non-corn cereals and corn, respectively. TCC, lutein and zeaxanthin in germ fractions were higher in non-corn cereals than in corn. Lutein and zeaxanthin contents were lower in non-corn cereal endosperms. The aleurone layer had zeaxanthin levels 2- to 5-fold higher than lutein among the cereals. Positive significant correlations (p<0.05) were found between TCC, carotenoids analysed by HPLC and DPPH results. This study is the first to report on carotenoid composition of the aleurone layer. Our findings suggest that the aleurone of wheat, oat, corn and germ of barley have significantly enhanced carotenoid levels.

  16. Carotenoid-based nestling colouration and parental favouritism in the great tit.

    PubMed

    Tschirren, Barbara; Fitze, Patrick S; Richner, Heinz

    2005-04-01

    While elaborate carotenoid-based traits in adult birds may have evolved as honest signals of individual quality in the context of sexual selection or other social interactions, the function of carotenoid-based colours in juveniles is less well understood. We investigated the hypothesis that carotenoid-based nestling colouration has evolved in response to parental preference of intensely coloured offspring during food provisioning. In a field experiment, we manipulated nestling plumage colouration by a carotenoid-supplementation and analysed the parental food provisioning behaviour before feather appearance and at the end of the nestling stage. Carotenoids per se did not influence the nestling's begging behaviour or parental feeding decisions and we found no evidence that carotenoid-based colouration in nestling great tits has a signalling function in parent-offspring interactions. Parents did not discriminate between intensely coloured and control offspring in their food provisioning and in accordance with this finding intensely coloured nestlings were not heavier or larger at the end of the nestling stage. Alternative explanations for the evolution of carotenoid-based colours in nestling birds are discussed. PMID:15678330

  17. Heterologous carotenoid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces the pleiotropic drug resistance stress response.

    PubMed

    Verwaal, René; Jiang, Yang; Wang, Jing; Daran, Jean-Marc; Sandmann, Gerhard; van den Berg, Johan A; van Ooyen, Albert J J

    2010-12-01

    To obtain insight into the genome-wide transcriptional response of heterologous carotenoid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcriptome of two different S. cerevisiae strains overexpressing carotenogenic genes from the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous grown in carbon-limited chemostat cultures was analysed. The strains exhibited different absolute carotenoid levels as well as different intermediate profiles. These discrepancies were further sustained by the difference of the transcriptional response exhibited by the two strains. Transcriptome analysis of the strain producing high carotenoid levels resulted in specific induction of genes involved in pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR). These genes encode ABC-type and major facilitator transporters which are reported to be involved in secretion of toxic compounds out of cells. β-Carotene was found to be secreted when sunflower oil was added to the medium of S. cerevisiae cells producing high levels of carotenoids, which was not observed when added to X. dendrorhous cells. Deletion of pdr10, one of the induced ABC transporters, decreased the transformation efficiency of a plasmid containing carotenogenic genes. The few transformants that were obtained had decreased growth rates and lower carotenoid production levels compared to a pdr5 deletion and a reference strain transformed with the same genes. Our results suggest that production of high amounts of carotenoids in S. cerevisiae leads to membrane stress, in which Pdr10 might play an important role, and a cellular response to secrete carotenoids out of the cell. PMID:20632327

  18. Arabidopsis cpSRP54 regulates carotenoid accumulation in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Margaret Y.; Hannoufa, Abdelali

    2012-01-01

    An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, cbd (carotenoid biosynthesis deficient), was recovered from a mutant population based on its yellow cotyledons, yellow-first true leaves, and stunted growth. Seven-day-old seedlings and mature seeds of this mutant had lower chlorophyll and total carotenoids than the wild type (WT). Genetic and molecular characterization revealed that cbd was a recessive mutant caused by a T-DNA insertion in the gene cpSRP54 encoding the 54kDa subunit of the chloroplast signal recognition particle. Transcript levels of most of the main carotenoid biosynthetic genes in cbd were unchanged relative to WT, but expression increased in carotenoid and abscisic acid catabolic genes. The chloroplasts of cbd also had developmental defects that contributed to decreased carotenoid and chlorophyll contents. Transcription of AtGLK1 (Golden 2-like 1), AtGLK2, and GUN4 appeared to be disrupted in the cbd mutant suggesting that the plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signal may be affected, regulating the changes in chloroplast functional and developmental states and carotenoid content flux. Transformation of A. thaliana and Brassica napus with a gDNA encoding the Arabidopsis cpSRP54 showed the utility of this gene in enhancing levels of seed carotenoids without affecting growth or seed yield. PMID:22791829

  19. Spectroscopic Studies of Carotenoid-to-Bacteriochlorophyll Energy Transfer in LHRC Photosynthetic Complex from Roseiflexus castenholzii

    SciTech Connect

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz; Collins, Aaron M.; LaFountain, Amy M.; Enriquez, Miriam M.; Frank, Harry A.; Blankenship, R. E.

    2010-06-14

    Carotenoids present in the photosynthetic light-harvesting reaction center (LHRC) complex from chlorosome lacking filamentous anoxygenic phototroph, Roseiflexus castenholzii were purified and characterized for their photochemical properties. The LHRC from anaerobically grown cells contains five different carotenoids, methoxy-keto-myxocoxanthin, γ-carotene, and its three derivatives, whereas the LHRC from aerobically grown cells contains only three carotenoid pigments with methoxy-keto-myxocoxanthin being the dominant one. The spectroscopic properties and dynamics of excited singlet states of the carotenoids were studied by steady-state absorption, fluorescence and ultrafast time-resolved optical spectroscopy in organic solvent and in the intact LHRC complex. Time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy performed in the near-infrared (NIR) on purified carotenoids combined with steady-state absorption spectroscopy led to the precise determination of values of the energies of the S1(21Ag-) excited state. Global and single wavelength fitting of the ultrafast spectral and temporal data sets of the carotenoids in solvents and in the LHRC revealed the pathways of de-excitation of the carotenoid excited states.

  20. Statistical optimisation of cell growth and carotenoid production by rhodotorula mucilaginosa

    PubMed Central

    Maldonade, Iriani R.; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B.; Scamparini, Adilma R. P.

    2012-01-01

    Sequential statistical methods were used to maximise carotenoid production by a strain of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, isolated from the Brazilian ecosystem. Initially, a factorial 25–1 experimental design was used, and the variables were pH and the levels of glucose, yeast extract, MgSO4.7H2O and KH2PO4. The nitrogen source (yeast extract) was the most important variable in enhancing carotenoid production; MgSO4.7H2O and KH2PO4 had a negative influence. The initial pH had no significant effect on carotenoid and cell productions. We further investigated the effects of glucose and yeast extract effects, using a second-order central composite design (CCD) to optimise carotenoid production, which was adequately approximated with a full quadratic equation obtained from a two-factor-2-level design. The analysis of quadratic surfaces showed that after 5 days of cultivation at 25 °C, the maximum carotenoid concentration (745 µg l-1) was obtained with 15 g l-1 of yeast extract and 20 g l-1 of glucose. The maximum carotenoid production (152 µg g-1) was obtained with 5 g l-1 yeast extract and 10 g l-1 glucose. Carotenoid formation was more sensitive to changes in yeast extract concentration than to changes in glucose concentration. Maximum cell production was achieved with 15–17 g l-1 of yeast extract and 15–20 g l-1 of glucose. PMID:24031809

  1. Carotenoids in Rhodoplanes species: variation of compositions and substrate specificity of predicted carotenogenesis enzymes.

    PubMed

    Takaichi, Shinichi; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V; Okamura, Keiko; Hiraishi, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Phototrophic bacteria necessarily contain carotenoids for photosynthesis, and accumulate unusual carotenoids in some cases. The carotenoids in all established species of Rhodoplanes (Rpl.), a representative of phototrophic genera, were identified using spectroscopic methods. The major carotenoid was spirilloxanthin in Rpl. roseus and Rpl. serenus, and rhodopin in "Rpl. cryptolactis". Rpl. elegans contained rhodopin, anhydrorhodovibrin, and spirilloxanthin. Rpl. pokkaliisoli contained not only rhodopin but also 1,1'-dihydroxylycopene and 3,4,3',4'-tetrahydrospirilloxanthin. These variations in carotenoid composition suggested that Rpl. roseus and Rpl. serenus had normal substrate specificity of the carotenogenesis enzymes of CrtC (acyclic carotene 1,2-hydratase), CrtD (acyclic carotenoid 3,4-desaturase), and CrtF (acyclic 1-hydroxycarotenoid methyltransferase). On the other hand, CrtC of Rpl. elegans, CrtD of "Rpl. cryptolactis", and CrtC, CrtD, and CrtF of Rpl. pokkaliisoli might have different characteristics from the usual activity of these normal enzymes in the normal spirilloxanthin pathway. These results suggest that the variation of carotenoids among the species of Rhodoplanes results from modified substrate specificity of the carotenogenesis enzymes involved.

  2. Influence of chromoplast morphology on carotenoid bioaccessibility of carrot, mango, papaya, and tomato.

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Mezger, Dominik; Schimpf, Franziska; Steingass, Christof B; Carle, Reinhold

    2012-12-15

    Based on the observation of outstanding dissimilarities of the morphology of pigment-containing chromoplasts in nutritionally important carotenoid sources, the bioaccessibility (BA) of carotenoids from edible portions of carrot, mango, papaya, and tomato was compared using an in vitro digestion model. While carrot and tomato contained large carotenoid crystals clearly visible by light microscopy, mango and papaya contained different types of carotenoid-bearing structures. Particularly, β-carotene is deposited in globular and tubular elements in papaya and mango chromoplasts, where carotenoids accumulate in a lipid-dissolved and liquid-crystalline form, respectively. The highest BA of β-carotene was found for mango (10.1%), followed by papaya (5.3%), tomato (3.1%), and carrot (0.5%). In our digestion model, differences between total lycopene BA from papaya and tomato were insignificant, possibly since both pigments occur in a solid crystalline deposition form in both fruits. Furthermore, the BA of lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-cryptoxanthin esters was shown to be superior to that of the carotenes from the respective food sources. The effect of lipid addition to the different food sources was studied. Although BA was enhanced for most carotenoids, the above-mentioned ranking of BAs of β-carotene remained unchanged after lipid addition. Consequently, the physical form of carotenoid deposition in plant chromoplasts is suggested to have major impact on their liberation efficiency from the food matrices.

  3. Comparative carotenoid compositions during maturation and their antioxidative capacities of three citrus varieties.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kyung-Mi; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated total carotenoid content, comparative carotenoid composition, vitamin C content, and total antioxidant capacity of three citrus varieties which are Yuza (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tabaka), Kjool (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and Dangyooja (Citrus grandis Osbeck). Seven carotenoids were identified, with β-cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin, and zeaxanthin being predominant in citrus varieties. Ripening increased the total carotenoid in three citrus varieties. Individual carotenoid of canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, and α-carotene in citrus varieties decreased with maturation, whereas the others increased with ripening. Yuza exhibited the highest total antioxidant capacity in 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, with VCEAC values of 582.9 mg/100 g and 451.5 mg/100g, respectively. The relative VCEAC values were vitamin C (1.00)>lycopene (0.375), α-carotene (0.304), β-carotene (0.289), β-cryptoxanthin (0.242), and zeaxanthin (0.099). These results indicate that Yuza contains higher amounts of total carotenoids, individual carotenoids, and vitamin C than other Korean citrus varieties.

  4. The effect of carotenoid supplementation on immune system development in juvenile male veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nutrient availability, assimilation, and allocation can have important and lasting effects on the immune system development of growing animals. Though carotenoid pigments have immunostimulatory properties in many animals, relatively little is known regarding how they influence the immune system during development. Moreover, studies linking carotenoids to health at any life stage have largely been restricted to birds and mammals. We investigated the effects of carotenoid supplementation on multiple aspects of immunity in juvenile veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus). We supplemented half of the chameleons with lutein (a xanthophyll carotenoid) for 14 weeks during development and serially measured multiple aspects of immune function, including: agglutination and lysis performance of plasma, wound healing, and plasma nitric oxide concentrations before and after wounding. Results Though lutein supplementation effectively elevated circulating carotenoid concentrations throughout the developmental period, we found no evidence that carotenoid repletion enhanced immune function at any point. However, agglutination and lysis scores increased, while baseline nitric oxide levels decreased, as chameleons aged. Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that body mass and age, but not carotenoid access, may play an important role in immune performance of growing chameleons. Hence, studying well-understood physiological processes in novel taxa can provide new perspectives on alternative physiological processes and nutrient function. PMID:24655326

  5. Serum Carotenoid Concentrations in Postmenopausal Women from the United States with and without Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhifang; Zhang, Zhumin; Penniston, Kristina L.; Binkley, Neil; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidant defenses may be compromised in osteoporotic women. Little is known about fruit and vegetable or carotenoid consumption among postmenopausal women. The primary carotenoids in human serum are α- and β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. This study investigated the interrelationships among serum carotenoid concentrations, fruit and vegetable intake, and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women (n = 59, 62.7 ± 8.8 y). Bone density was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and osteoporosis diagnosis was based upon T-scores. Serum samples (n = 53) and 3-day diet records (n = 49) were analyzed. Logistic regression analyzed differences between carotenoids after adjusting for serum retinol; supplement usage; milk, yogurt, fruit, and vegetable intake; and BMI. Pearson statistics correlated carotenoids with specific fruit or vegetable intake. Serum lycopene concentrations were lower in the osteoporosis group than controls (p = 0.03). β-Cryptoxanthin intake was higher in the osteoporosis group (p = 0.0046). Total fruit and vegetable intakes were correlated with serum lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin (p = 0.03, 0.006, respectively). Serum α-carotene concentration was associated with carrot intake, and zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin with lettuce intake. Carotenoids that may have beneficial skeletal effects are lower in women with osteoporosis. Research is needed to identify potential protective mechanisms or utilization of carotenoids during osteoporosis. PMID:19003732

  6. Condition dependence of nestling mouth colour and the effect of supplementing carotenoids on parental behaviour in the hihi (Notiomystis cincta).

    PubMed

    Ewen, John G; Thorogood, Rose; Karadas, Filiz; Cassey, Phillip

    2008-08-01

    Carotenoids are integument pigments that often reflect foraging efficiency, disease resistance and body condition. In contrast to the widespread attention this relationship has received in adult birds, the condition dependence of nestling colouration remains an understudied component of animal communication. Here we assess the condition dependence of carotenoid pigmentation in nestling hihi (Notiomystis cincta, an endangered New Zealand bird) and examine the influence of carotenoid supplementation on nestling quality and parental visitation rates. Our results show that carotenoids provided to breeding adult hihi were transferred to their offspring and resulted in an intensified orange-yellow flange colour. After accounting for carotenoid supplementation the parameter that most consistently explained variation in nestling flange colour was nestling tarsus length at 23 days, indicating condition dependence of this trait. We did not, however, detect direct effects of carotenoid supplementation on nestling mass or immune response (or any other fitness parameter measured). Carotenoid supplementation did, however, result in an increased paternal provisioning rate.

  7. What Does Carotenoid-Dependent Coloration Tell? Plasma Carotenoid Level Signals Immunocompetence and Oxidative Stress State in Birds–A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Mirre J. P.; Cohen, Alan A.; Verhulst, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Mechanisms maintaining honesty of sexual signals are far from resolved, limiting our understanding of sexual selection and potential important parts of physiology. Carotenoid pigmented visual signals are among the most extensively studied sexual displays, but evidence regarding hypotheses on how carotenoids ensure signal honesty is mixed. Using a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis of 357 effect sizes across 88 different species of birds, we tested two prominent hypotheses in the field: that carotenoid-dependent coloration signals i) immunocompetence and/or ii) oxidative stress state. Separate meta-analyses were performed for the relationships of trait coloration and circulating carotenoid level with different measures of immunocompetence and oxidative stress state. For immunocompetence we find that carotenoid levels (r = 0.20) and trait color intensity (r = 0.17) are significantly positively related to PHA response. Additionally we find that carotenoids are significantly positively related to antioxidant capacity (r = 0.10), but not significantly related to oxidative damage (r = −0.02). Thus our analyses provide support for both hypotheses, in that at least for some aspects of immunity and oxidative stress state the predicted correlations were found. Furthermore, we tested for differences in effect size between experimental and observational studies; a larger effect in observational studies would indicate that co-variation might not be causal. However, we detected no significant difference, suggesting that the relationships we found are causal. The overall effect sizes we report are modest and we discuss potential factors contributing to this, including differences between species. We suggest complementary mechanisms maintaining honesty rather than the involvement of carotenoids in immune function and oxidative stress and suggest experiments on how to test these. PMID:22905205

  8. Carotenoid limitation and mate preference evolution: a test of the indicator hypothesis in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Grether, G F

    2000-10-01

    Under the indicator models of mate choice, female preferences evolve to exploit the condition-dependence or "indicator value" of male traits, which in turn may cause these traits to evolve to elaborate extremes. If the indicator value of a male trait changes, the payoff function of the female preference for that trait should change and the preference should evolve to a new optimum. I tested this prediction in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a species in which the indicator value of a sexually selected male trait, carotenoid coloration, varies geographically. Carotenoid coloration is thought to be an indicator of foraging ability and health because animals must obtain carotenoid pigments from their diet. The primary dietary source of carotenoids for guppies is unicellular algae, the abundance of which varies among natural streams because of variation in forest canopy cover. Carotenoid availability limits male coloration to a greater extent in streams with greater forest canopy cover. Thus, the indicator value of male coloration covaries positively with canopy cover. To test the indicator model prediction, I measured genetic divergence in the strength of female preferences for carotenoid coloration between high- and low-carotenoid availability streams in each of three river drainages. Second-generation laboratory-born females were given a choice between full-sib males raised on three different dietary levels of carotenoids. For all six populations, male attractiveness (as determined from the responses of females to male courtship displays) increased with dietary carotenoid levels. However, the strength of female preferences differed between populations in the predicted direction in only one of three river drainages. These results fail to support a crucial prediction of the indicator model. More studies taking an interpopulation approach to studying mate preference evolution are needed before the explanatory value of the indicator models can be rigorously assessed.

  9. Novel methoxy-carotenoids from the burgundy-colored plumage of the Pompadour Cotinga Xipholena punicea

    PubMed Central

    LaFountain, Amy M.; Kaligotla, Shanti; Cawley, Shannon; Riedl, Ken M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Frank, Harry A.; Prum, Richard O.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the fields of chromatography, mass spectrometry, and chemical analysis have greatly improved the efficiency with which carotenoids can be extracted and analyzed from avian plumage. Prior to these technological developments, Brush (1968) [1] concluded that the burgundy-colored plumage of the male pompadour Cotinga Xipholena punicea is produced by a combination of blue structural color and red carotenoids, including astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, isozeaxanthin, and a fourth unidentified, polar carotenoid. However, X. punicea does not in fact exhibit any structural coloration. This work aims to elucidate the carotenoid pigments of the burgundy color of X. punicea plumage using advanced analytical methodology. Feathers were collected from two burgundy male specimens and from a third aberrant orange-colored specimen. Pigments were extracted using a previously published technique (McGraw et al. (2005) [2]), separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and analyzed by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, chemical analysis, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and comparison with direct synthetic products. Our investigation revealed the presence of eight ketocarotenoids, including astaxanthin and canthaxanthin as reported previously by Brush (1968) [1]. Six of the ketocarotenoids contained methoxyl groups, which is rare for naturally-occurring carotenoids and a novel finding in birds. Interestingly, the carotenoid composition was the same in both the burgundy and orange feathers, indicating that feather coloration in X. punicea is determined not only by the presence of carotenoids, but also by interactions between the bound carotenoid pigments and their protein environment in the barb rami and barbules. This paper presents the first evidence of metabolically-derived methoxy-carotenoids in birds. PMID:20709013

  10. Novel methoxy-carotenoids from the burgundy-colored plumage of the Pompadour Cotinga Xipholena punicea.

    PubMed

    LaFountain, Amy M; Kaligotla, Shanti; Cawley, Shannon; Riedl, Ken M; Schwartz, Steven J; Frank, Harry A; Prum, Richard O

    2010-12-01

    Recent advances in the fields of chromatography, mass spectrometry, and chemical analysis have greatly improved the efficiency with which carotenoids can be extracted and analyzed from avian plumage. Prior to these technological developments, Brush (1968) concluded that the burgundy-colored plumage of the male pompadour Cotinga Xipholena punicea is produced by a combination of blue structural color and red carotenoids, including astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, isozeaxanthin, and a fourth unidentified, polar carotenoid. However, X. punicea does not in fact exhibit any structural coloration. This work aims to elucidate the carotenoid pigments of the burgundy color of X. punicea plumage using advanced analytical methodology. Feathers were collected from two burgundy male specimens and from a third aberrant orange-colored specimen. Pigments were extracted using a previously published technique (McGraw et al. (2005)), separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and analyzed by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, chemical analysis, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and comparison with direct synthetic products. Our investigation revealed the presence of eight ketocarotenoids, including astaxanthin and canthaxanthin as reported previously by Brush (1968). Six of the ketocarotenoids contained methoxyl groups, which is rare for naturally-occurring carotenoids and a novel finding in birds. Interestingly, the carotenoid composition was the same in both the burgundy and orange feathers, indicating that feather coloration in X. punicea is determined not only by the presence of carotenoids, but also by interactions between the bound carotenoid pigments and their protein environment in the barb rami and barbules. This paper presents the first evidence of metabolically-derived methoxy-carotenoids in birds. PMID:20709013

  11. Analysis of native carotenoid composition of sweet bell peppers by serially coupled C30 columns.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, Daniele; Dugo, Paola; Dugo, Giacomo; Torre, Germana; Mondello, Luigi

    2011-12-01

    Serial coupled columns reversed-phase separations in high-performance liquid chromatography can be a useful tool for the analysis of complex real samples. The great difficulties found when analyzing complex carotenoid samples, due to the high natural variability of these compounds, as well as to the presence of carotenoid esters, are well documented. In the present contribution, the applicability of connecting two C30 columns to increase significantly the separation power, resolution and peak capacity for the analysis of carotenoids in a complex carotenoid sample, like sweet bell peppers, has been shown for the first time. By using LC coupled to PDA/APCI-MS detectors, 56 different carotenoids have been detected in red sweet bell peppers. By using two serial coupled C30 columns a peak capacity of 95.4 was obtained, compared with 73 achieved using a single column. Moreover, resolution greatly improved between different critical peaks when using two serial coupled C30 columns, compared with a single column. Interestingly, free carotenoids, mono-esters and diesters were quantitatively equally represented (around 33% for each different class) in red sweet bell pepper, showing, therefore, a value for the ratio of mono-esters/diesters of around 1, which could be considered a parameter of typicality. Free beta-carotene (12.6%), capsanthin-C14:0 (8.4%), and capsanthin-C12:0-C14:0 (8.9%) were the most abundant carotenoids in the three different classes of red sweet bell pepper. No carotenoid esters were detected in either yellow or green sweet bell peppers. The application of such methodology in the analysis of other complex carotenoid matrices could be a future objective of research.

  12. Longitudinal Survey of Carotenoids in Human Milk from Urban Cohorts in China, Mexico, and the USA

    PubMed Central

    Lipkie, Tristan E.; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Jouni, Zeina E.; McMahon, Robert J.; Ferruzzi, Mario G.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that carotenoids may have particular roles in infant nutrition and development, yet data on the profile and bioavailability of carotenoids from human milk remain sparse. Milk was longitudinally collected at 2, 4, 13, and 26 weeks postpartum from twenty mothers each in China, Mexico, and the USA in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study (n = 60 donors, n = 240 samples). Maternal and neonatal plasma was analyzed for carotenoids from the USA cohort at 4 weeks postpartum. Carotenoids were analyzed by HPLC and total lipids by Creamatocrit. Across all countries and lactation stages, the top four carotenoids were lutein (median 114.4 nmol/L), β-carotene (49.4 nmol/L), β-cryptoxanthin (33.8 nmol/L), and lycopene (33.7 nmol/L). Non-provitamin A carotenoids (nmol/L) and total lipids (g/L) decreased (p<0.05) with increasing lactation stage, except the provitamin A carotenoids α- and β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene did not significantly change (p>0.05) with lactation stage. Total carotenoid content and lutein content were greatest from China, yet lycopene was lowest from China (p<0.0001). Lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene, and lycopene concentrations in milk were significantly correlated to maternal plasma and neonatal plasma concentrations (p<0.05), with the exception that lycopene was not significantly associated between human milk and neonatal plasma (p>0.3). This enhanced understanding of neonatal exposure to carotenoids during development may help guide dietary recommendations and design of human milk mimetics. PMID:26061885

  13. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in an ORANGE Protein Promotes Carotenoid Overaccumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hui; Owsiany, Katherine; Sheeja, T E; Zhou, Xiangjun; Rodriguez, Caroline; Li, Yongxi; Welsch, Ralf; Chayut, Noam; Yang, Yong; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Parthasarathy, Mandayam V; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Fei, Zhangjun; Schaffer, Ari; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Joseph; Tadmor, Yaakov; Li, Li

    2015-09-01

    Carotenoids are crucial for plant growth and human health. The finding of ORANGE (OR) protein as a pivotal regulator of carotenogenesis offers a unique opportunity to comprehensively understand the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid accumulation and develop crops with enhanced nutritional quality. Here, we demonstrated that alteration of a single amino acid in a wild-type OR greatly enhanced its ability to promote carotenoid accumulation. Whereas overexpression of OR from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; AtOR) or from the agronomically important crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; SbOR) increased carotenoid levels up to 2-fold, expression of AtOR(His) (R90H) or SbOR(His) (R104H) variants dramatically enhanced carotenoid accumulation by up to 7-fold in the Arabidopsis calli. Moreover, we found that AtOR(Ala) (R90A) functioned similarly to AtOR(His) to promote carotenoid overproduction. Neither AtOR nor AtOR(His) greatly affected carotenogenic gene expression. AtOR(His) exhibited similar interactions with phytoene synthase (PSY) as AtOR in posttranscriptionally regulating PSY protein abundance. AtOR(His) triggered biogenesis of membranous chromoplasts in the Arabidopsis calli, which shared structures similar to chromoplasts found in the curd of the orange cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) mutant. By contrast, AtOR did not cause plastid-type changes in comparison with the controls, but produced plastids containing larger and electron-dense plastoglobuli. The unique ability of AtOR(His) in mediating chromoplast biogenesis is responsible for its induced carotenoid overproduction. Our study demonstrates OR(His/Ala) as powerful tools for carotenoid enrichment in plants, and provides insights into the mechanisms underlying OR(His)-regulated carotenoid accumulation.

  14. Carotenoids in nestling Montagu's harriers: variations according to age, sex, body condition and evidence for diet-related limitations.

    PubMed

    Sternalski, Audrey; Mougeot, François; Eraud, Cyril; Gangloff, Benoît; Villers, Alexandre; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoids are colored pigments forming the basis of many avian social traits. Before their utilization carotenoids must be acquired through diet and mobilized for specific uses. The relationships between carotenoid-based coloration, circulating carotenoids and body condition have been well studied in adult birds, but little is known in nestlings. Here, we investigated variations in carotenoid-based coloration in a raptor nestling, the Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), both in captivity and in natural conditions, and within a vole (poor-carotenoid source and cyclic prey) specialist population. We studied these variations according to nestling age and sex, and possible limitations in carotenoid availability by comparing years of contrasted prey abundance and using carotenoid supplementation experiments. Captive nestlings, fed only with mice, were strongly carotenoid limited. Wild nestlings were also carotenoid limited, especially in a year of high vole abundance. Nestlings were in better condition but less colored during a peak vole abundance year than during a low vole abundance year, when harriers targeted more alternative preys (birds, insects). Thus, variation in vole abundance resulted in a de-coupling of body condition and carotenoid-based coloration in this population. This suggested that the positive relation between the body condition and carotenoid-based traits, typically found in adult birds, could be restricted to adults or nestlings of species that feed on carotenoid-rich food. Our results should stimulate more work on the functions and mechanisms of carotenoid-based traits in nestlings, which deserve more attention and most likely differ from those of adult birds.

  15. Magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopic studies of carotenoids. Progress report, December 1, 1994--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kispert, L.D.

    1995-06-01

    The fundamental goals of this project are (1) to understand the role of a host matrix in the formation and decay mechanisms of carotenoid cation radical and dication and (2) to determine the special properties of carotenoids that enable them to serve as photoprotective agents in photosynthesis and as possible components in electron transfer processes. Results to date are discussed briefly. Work will continue as outlined in the original proposal with emphasis on using simultaneous electrochemistry EPR, and optical methods, variable temperature electrochemistry using microelectrodes and fast scans to examine the more unstable intermediates formed upon electrochemical oxidation of synthetically prepared carotenoids.

  16. Content of carotenoids in roots of seventeen cultivars of Daucus carota L.

    PubMed

    Mech-Nowak, Aleksandra; Swiderski, Adam; Kruczek, Michał; Luczak, Irena; Kostecka-Gugała, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the content of carotenoids in seventeen cultivars of carrots grown in Poland. Conventional orange cultivars with rarely grown were compared: white, yellow and purple with yellow core cultivars. To determine the content of carotenoids, extracts from lyophilized carrot roots were prepared and analyzed by spectrophotometric as well as HPLC methods with DAD detector. The highest content of carotenoids was found in cultivars: 'Korund F(1)' (48 mg/100g of fresh weight) and 'Salsa F(1)' (36 mg/100g of fresh weight). The antioxidant properties of selected cultivars were compared using the DPPH method.

  17. Noninvasive laser Raman detection of carotenoid antioxidants in living human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellermann, Werner; Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; McClane, Robert W.

    2001-05-01

    We have used resonance Raman scattering as a novel non- invasive optical technology to measure carotenoid antioxidants in human skin of healthy volunteers. Using blue-green laser excitation, clearly distinguishable carotenoid Raman spectra are obtained which are superimposed on a large skin autofluorescence background. The Raman spectra are obtained rapidly, i.e. within about 30 seconds, and the required laser light exposure levels are well within safety standards. Our technique can be used for rapid screening of carotenoid antioxidant levels in large populations and may have applications for assessing the risk for cutaneous diseases.

  18. [Substrate specificity of carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase from Deinococcus radiodurans].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zongtao; Tian, Bing; Shen, Shaochuan; Hu, Yuejin

    2010-10-01

    To examine the substrate specificity of carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase (DR2250) from Deinococcus radiodurans, we amplified the dr2250 gene by using PCR methods. The PCR products were digested by Hind III-BamH I and ligated into the vector pUC19, yielding recombinant vector pUC-CRTD. We analyzed the carotenoids of E. coli transformants containing pACCRT-EBI(Eu) and (or) pRK-CRTC and (or) pUC-CRTD. Our results demonstrated that DR2250 had substrate specificity on the carotenoids with hydroxyl group at C1 (1').

  19. Molecular characterization of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases and the effect of gibberellin, abscisic acid, and sodium chloride on the expression of genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and carotenoid accumulation in the callus of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Sanghyun; Chae, Soo Cheon; Park, Sang Un

    2013-06-12

    Three cDNAs encoding carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (SbCCD1, SbCCD4, and SbNCED) were isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis , an important traditional herb in Asia and North America. Amino acid sequence alignments showed that they share high identity and similarity to their orthologs in other plant species. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that SbCCD1 and SbCCD4 were most strongly expressed in flowers, whereas SbNCED was expressed at the highest level in roots. The expression levels of phytoene synthase (SbPSY), phytoene desaturase (SbPDS), ξ-carotene desaturase (SbZDS), β-ring carotene hydroxylase (SbCHXB), zeaxanthin epoxidase (SbZEP), SbCCD1, SbCCD4, and SbNCED in the callus of S. baicalensis varied under different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA). Under NaCl treatment, expression levels of all genes increased with increasing NaCl concentrations. Except for zeaxanthin, increasing GA3, ABA, and NaCl concentrations caused higher losses in the total carotenoid content. The total carotenoid content substantially decreased with increasing GA3, ABA, and NaCl concentrations, with the biggest reductions observed in the NaCl treatment. The isolation and characterization of SbCCD1, SbCCD4, and SbNCED together with the study on the effect of GA3, ABA, and NaCl on carotenoid biosynthesis will be helpful to elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis mechanism in S. baicalensis and may set new trends in metabolic engineering of carotenoids in plants. PMID:23683071

  20. The new carotenoid pigment moraxanthin is associated with toxic microalgae.

    PubMed

    Mangoni, Olga; Imperatore, Concetta; Tomas, Carmelo R; Costantino, Valeria; Saggiomo, Vincenzo; Mangoni, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    The new pigment "moraxanthin" was found in natural samples from a fish mortality site in the Inland Bays of Delaware, USA. Pure cultures of the species, tentatively named Chattonella cf. verruculosa, and natural samples contained this pigment as a dominant carotenoid. The pigment, obtained from a 10 L culture of C. cf. verruculosa, was isolated and harvested by HPLC and its structure determined from MS and 1D- and 2D-NMR. The data identified this pigment as a new acylated form of vaucheriaxanthin called moraxanthin after the berry like algal cell. Its presence in pure cultures and in natural bloom samples indicates that moraxanthin is specific to C. cf. verruculosa and can be used as a marker of its presence when HPLC is used to analyze natural blooms samples. PMID:21566797

  1. Anti-Obesity Activity of the Marine Carotenoid Fucoxanthin

    PubMed Central

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; D’Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the global tendency towards physical activity reduction and an augmented dietary intake of fats, sugars and calories is leading to a growing propagation of overweight, obesity and lifestyle-related diseases, such diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. In particular, obesity, characterized as a state of low-level inflammation, is a powerful determinant both in the development of insulin resistance and in the progression to type 2 diabetes. A few molecular targets offer hope for anti-obesity therapeutics. One of the keys to success could be the induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) and the regulation of cytokine secretions from both abdominal adipose cells and macrophage cells infiltrated into adipose tissue. Anti-obesity effects of fucoxanthin, a characteristic carotenoid, exactly belonging to xanthophylls, have been reported. Nutrigenomic studies reveal that fucoxanthin induces UCP1 in abdominal WAT mitochondria, leading to the oxidation of fatty acids and heat production in WAT. Fucoxanthin improves insulin resistance and decreases blood glucose levels through the regulation of cytokine secretions from WAT. The key structure of anti-obesity effect is suggested to be the carotenoid end of the polyene chromophore, which contains an allenic bond and two hydroxyl groups. Fucoxanthin, which can be isolated from edible brown seaweeds, recently displayed its many physiological functions and biological properties. We reviewed recent studies and this article aims to explain essential background of fucoxanthin, focusing on its promising potential anti-obesity effects. In this respect, fucoxanthin can be developed into promising marine drugs and nutritional products, in order to become a helpful functional food. PMID:25871295

  2. Distribution of colored carotenoids between light-harvesting complexes in the process of recovering carotenoid biosynthesis in Ectothiorhodospira haloalkaliphila cells.

    PubMed

    Ashikhmin, Aleksandr; Makhneva, Zoya; Bolshakov, Maksim; Moskalenko, Andrey

    2014-12-01

    The processes of recovering colored-carotenoid (Car) biosynthesis in Car-less cells of the purple sulfur bacterium Ectothiorhodospira haloalkaliphila grown with diphenylamine (DPA-cells) have been studied. It has been found that (1) the rate of recovering colored-Car biosynthesis in the lag-phase is far ahead of the growth rate of the cells themselves; (2) several Cars (ζ-carotene, neurosporene etc.) act as intermediates in Car biosynthesis; (3) because filling the "empty" Car pockets in the LH1-RC complexes is faster than in LH2, available spirilloxanthin is preferentially incorporated into the nascent LH1-RC core particles; (4) as a consequence of the resulting lack of spirilloxanthin availability, the biosynthetic intermediates (anhydrorhodovibrin, rhodopin and lycopene) fill the empty nascent LH2 Car pockets. In the present report, we further discuss the process of colored Car incorporation into LH complexes during the recovery of Car biosynthesis in the DPA-cells of Ect.haloalkaliphila.

  3. PLASMA AND LUNG MACROPHAGE CAROTENOID RESPONSIVENESS TO SUPPLEMENTATION AND OZONE EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    OBJECTIVE:: To examine the effect of ozone exposure and vegetable juice supplementation on plasma and lung macrophage concentrations of carotenoids. DESIGN:: A randomized trial. SETTING:: Subjects were exposed to ambient air prior to antioxidant supplementation and to ozone after...

  4. Bacterioruberin and salinixanthin carotenoids of extremely halophilic Archaea and Bacteria: A Raman spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehlička, J.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Oren, A.

    2013-04-01

    Laboratory cultures of a number of red extremely halophilic Archaea (Halobacterium salinarum strains NRC-1 and R1, Halorubrum sodomense, Haloarcula valismortis) and of Salinibacter ruber, a red extremely halophilic member of the Bacteria, have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy using 514.5 nm excitation to characterize their carotenoids. The 50-carbon carotenoid α-bacterioruberin was detected as the major carotenoid in all archaeal strains. Raman spectroscopy also detected bacterioruberin as the main pigment in a red pellet of cells collected from a saltern crystallizer pond. Salinibacter contains the C40-carotenoid acyl glycoside salinixanthin (all-E, 2'S)-2'-hydroxy-1'-[6-O-(methyltetradecanoyl)-β-D-glycopyranosyloxy]-3',4'-didehydro-1',2'-dihydro-β,ψ-carotene-4-one), for which the Raman bands assignments of are given here for the first time.

  5. [Carotenoids of the human eye in prenatal and early postnatal development].

    PubMed

    Panova, I G; Stroeva, O G; Ostrovskiĭ, M A

    2013-09-01

    The review deals with the role of carotenoids in the formation of the structural and functional differentiation of the macula--the area of the highest visual acuity of the human retina. The review also presents the data on detection of carotenoids (lutein) in the vitreous body of the human eye during its prenatal development and discusses their possible role in the development of the retina, particularly in relation to differentiation of the macular area. Macular dystrophy has been considered till recently as senile pathology. According to modern ophthalmologic observations, the number of cases of appearance of this pathology increases in young humans. Such a shift can be prevented by addition of carotenoids to the diet. This permits a conclusion that the permanent presence of carotenoids in the course of the whole human life is necessary for the formation and retention of structural and functional integrity of the macula.

  6. Carotenoid profiles and consumer sensory evaluation of specialty carrots (Daucus carota, L.) of various colors.

    PubMed

    Surles, Rebecca L; Weng, Ning; Simon, Philipp W; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2004-06-01

    Five different colored carrots were analyzed for their carotenoid profile and underwent sensory evaluation to determine consumer acceptance (n = 96). Four major carotenoids were identified and quantified by use of HPLC methods. High beta-carotene orange carrots were found to contain the greatest concentration of total carotenoids. Except for the white, all the carrots are a significant source of bioavailable carotenoids. Sensory evaluation showed the high beta-carotene orange and white carrots to be favored over the yellow, red, and purple carrots in both blind and nonblind treatments (P < 0.01). However, all the carrots were well accepted by the consumer panel. With this information, carrot growers should be encouraged to cultivate specialty carrots to provide sources of both vitamin A precursors and phytochemicals.

  7. Elaboration of microparticles of carotenoids from natural and synthetic sources for applications in food.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Josiane K; Borges, Caroline D; Zambiazi, Rui C; da Rosa, Cleonice G; da Silva, Médelin M

    2016-07-01

    Carotenoids are susceptible to isomerization and oxidation upon exposure to oxygen, light and heat, which can result in loss of color, antioxidant activity, and vitamin activity. Microencapsulation helps retain carotenoid stability and promotes their release under specific conditions. Thus, the aim of the study was to encapsulate palm oil and β-carotene with chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate or chitosan/carboxymethylcellulose and to assess the performance of these microparticles in food systems by analyzing their release profile under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. Encapsulation efficiency was greater than 95%, and the yield of microparticles coated with chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate was approximately 55%, while that of microparticles coated with chitosan/carboxymethylcellulose was 87%. Particles encapsulated with chitosan/carboxymethylcellulose exhibited ideal release behavior in water and gastric fluid, but showed low release in the intestinal fluid. However, when applied to food systems these particles showed enhanced carotenoid release but showed low release of carotenoids upon storage. PMID:26920301

  8. Multiple microscopic approaches demonstrate linkage between chromoplast architecture and carotenoid composition in diverse Capsicum annuum fruit.

    PubMed

    Kilcrease, James; Collins, Aaron M; Richins, Richard D; Timlin, Jerilyn A; O'Connell, Mary A

    2013-12-01

    Increased accumulation of specific carotenoids in plastids through plant breeding or genetic engineering requires an understanding of the limitations that storage sites for these compounds may impose on that accumulation. Here, using Capsicum annuum L. fruit, we demonstrate directly the unique sub-organellar accumulation sites of specific carotenoids using live cell hyperspectral confocal Raman microscopy. Further, we show that chromoplasts from specific cultivars vary in shape and size, and these structural variations are associated with carotenoid compositional differences. Live-cell imaging utilizing laser scanning confocal (LSCM) and confocal Raman microscopy, as well as fixed tissue imaging by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), all demonstrated morphological differences with high concordance for the measurements across the multiple imaging modalities. These results reveal additional opportunities for genetic controls on fruit color and carotenoid-based phenotypes.

  9. Increasing Carotenoid Bioaccessibility from Yellow Peppers Using Excipient Emulsions: Impact of Lipid Type and Thermal Processing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Bi, Jinfeng; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian

    2015-09-30

    Many phytochemicals from fruits and vegetables exert biological activities that may be beneficial to human health, but these benefits are not fully realized because of their poor oral bioavailability. The objective of this research was to establish the potential of excipient emulsions to increase carotenoid bioaccessibility from raw and cooked yellow peppers using a gastrointestinal model that included oral, gastric, and intestine phases. The influence of oil type (medium chain triglycerides, MCT; long chain triglycerides, LCT; and, indigestible orange oil, OO) on microstructural changes, particle properties, lipid digestibility, and carotenoid bioaccessibility was investigated. Oil type had a major impact, with carotenoid bioaccessibility decreasing in the following order: LCT > MCT > OO > control (no oil). Conversely, thermal treatment (raw versus boiled) had little influence on carotenoid bioaccessibility. These results will facilitate the rational design of excipient emulsions that boost the bioavailability of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables. PMID:26357977

  10. Ornaments or offspring? Female sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) trade off carotenoids between spines and eggs.

    PubMed

    Nordeide, J T; Rudolfsen, G; Egeland, E S

    2006-03-01

    Hypotheses and models to explain female ornaments often assume that the elaborated traits are condition dependent; nevertheless, few empirical studies have addressed this topic. We studied a population of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in which the females have conspicuous, carotenoid-based red coloration to their pelvic spines. The red coloration seems not to be condition dependent, as coloration is negatively associated with age and body length and not associated with condition. Furthermore, redder females did not have a lower density of leucocytes. We found a negative association between the females' red carotenoid-based coloration in the spines and the amount of carotenoids in the female's gonads. Males choosing red-coloured females will fertilize eggs with small amounts of carotenoids and appear not to gain any benefit from their mates' phenotypic quality that could result in offspring of improved quality. These results do not support the 'direct selection hypothesis' to explain the existence of the female ornaments. PMID:16599919

  11. Carotenoids from Marine Microalgae: A Valuable Natural Source for the Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Raposo, Maria Filomena de Jesus; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a relation between antioxidants and the prevention of several chronic diseases. Microalgae are a potential novel source of bioactive molecules, including a wide range of different carotenoids that can be used as nutraceuticals, food supplements and novel food products. The objective of this review is (i) to update the research that has been carried out on the most known carotenoids produced by marine microalgae, including reporting on their high potentialities to produce other less known important compounds; (ii) to compile the work that has been done in order to establish some relationship between carotenoids and oxidative protection and treatment; (iii) to summarize the association of oxidative stress and the various reactive species including free radicals with several human diseases; and (iv) to provide evidence of the potential of carotenoids from marine microalgae to be used as therapeutics to treat or prevent these oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26287216

  12. Egg-laying capacity is limited by carotenoid pigment availability in wild gulls Larus fuscus.

    PubMed Central

    Blount, Jonathan D; Houston, David C; Surai, Peter F; Møller, Anders Pape

    2004-01-01

    In birds, experimentally increased egg production can reduce maternal condition, parenting ability and survival, and the quality of the eggs themselves. Such costs probably reflect resource limitation, but the identity of the resource(s) in question remains unclear. Carotenoids are antioxidants and immunomodulants that birds can only obtain in their diet. Trade-offs in the allocation of limiting carotenoids between somatic maintenance and egg production could therefore be an important factor underlying reproductive costs. We show that in wild lesser black-backed gulls, Larus fuscus, dietary carotenoid availability (i) constrained the capacity to re-lay following clutch removal; and (ii) affected the relationship between yolk mass and egg mass. However, whether carotenoids are limiting for egg production directly, by stimulating the synthesis or antioxidant protection of yolk precursors, or indirectly via effects on maternal health, requires further study. PMID:15101425

  13. Response of carotenoids and tocols of durum wheat in relation to water stress and sulfur fertilization.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Alessandra; Giuzio, Luigia; Di Criscio, Tiziana; Zina, Flagella; Panfili, Gianfranco

    2013-03-20

    Lipophilic antioxidants are essential components of plant defense against stressful conditions. The response of carotenoids and tocols to water deficit and sulfur fertilization was investigated in durum wheat cultivars. The amounts of tocols and carotenoids were evaluated in both whole meal and semolina samples. Differences among cultivars were observed. Simeto cultivar showed a significant effect of water regime on whole meal and semolina carotenoids, with about 20% and 15% increase, respectively. Also tocols and tocotrienols of Simeto were positively affected by water stress (about 10% increase and 15% increase in whole meals and semolinas). Sulfur fertilization positively impacted mainly Ofanto whole-grain and semolina carotenoids, semolina tocols, and tocotrienols. In conclusion, water deficit occurring under a Mediterranean environment was responsible for an improvement of lipophilic antioxidant content in durum wheat; in contrast sulfur supplementation did not improve the response of the antioxidant pool under water deficit.

  14. Ornaments or offspring? Female sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) trade off carotenoids between spines and eggs.

    PubMed

    Nordeide, J T; Rudolfsen, G; Egeland, E S

    2006-03-01

    Hypotheses and models to explain female ornaments often assume that the elaborated traits are condition dependent; nevertheless, few empirical studies have addressed this topic. We studied a population of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in which the females have conspicuous, carotenoid-based red coloration to their pelvic spines. The red coloration seems not to be condition dependent, as coloration is negatively associated with age and body length and not associated with condition. Furthermore, redder females did not have a lower density of leucocytes. We found a negative association between the females' red carotenoid-based coloration in the spines and the amount of carotenoids in the female's gonads. Males choosing red-coloured females will fertilize eggs with small amounts of carotenoids and appear not to gain any benefit from their mates' phenotypic quality that could result in offspring of improved quality. These results do not support the 'direct selection hypothesis' to explain the existence of the female ornaments.

  15. Dominance and stress signalling of carotenoid pigmentation in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): lateralization effects?

    PubMed

    Backström, Tobias; Heynen, Martina; Brännäs, Eva; Nilsson, Jan; Magnhagen, Carin

    2015-01-01

    Social conflicts are usually solved by agonistic interactions where animals use cues to signal dominance or subordinance. Pigmentation change is a common cue used for signalling. In our study, the involvement of carotenoid-based pigmentation in signalling was investigated in juvenile Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Size-matched pairs were analysed for pigmentation both before and after being tested for competitive ability. We found that dominant individuals had fewer carotenoid-based spots on the right and left sides as well as lower plasma cortisol levels compared to subordinate individuals. Further, the number of spots on both sides was positively associated with plasma cortisol levels. These results indicate that carotenoid-based pigmentation in Arctic charr signals dominance and stress coping style. Further, it also appears as if carotenoid-based pigmentation is lateralized in Arctic charr, and that the right side signals aggression and dominance whereas the left side signals stress responsiveness.

  16. Increasing Carotenoid Bioaccessibility from Yellow Peppers Using Excipient Emulsions: Impact of Lipid Type and Thermal Processing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Bi, Jinfeng; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian

    2015-09-30

    Many phytochemicals from fruits and vegetables exert biological activities that may be beneficial to human health, but these benefits are not fully realized because of their poor oral bioavailability. The objective of this research was to establish the potential of excipient emulsions to increase carotenoid bioaccessibility from raw and cooked yellow peppers using a gastrointestinal model that included oral, gastric, and intestine phases. The influence of oil type (medium chain triglycerides, MCT; long chain triglycerides, LCT; and, indigestible orange oil, OO) on microstructural changes, particle properties, lipid digestibility, and carotenoid bioaccessibility was investigated. Oil type had a major impact, with carotenoid bioaccessibility decreasing in the following order: LCT > MCT > OO > control (no oil). Conversely, thermal treatment (raw versus boiled) had little influence on carotenoid bioaccessibility. These results will facilitate the rational design of excipient emulsions that boost the bioavailability of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables.

  17. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography versus high performance liquid chromatography: stationary phase selectivity for generic carotenoid screening.

    PubMed

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; D'Hondt, Els; Noten, Bart; Hermans, Nina; Apers, Sandra; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Aim of study was to find the most suitable LC column for generic carotenoid screening. To represent the diversity of carotenoids in nature and to optimize chromatographic separation, a set of carotenoid standards was carefully chosen to account for the various classes of carotenoids. The HPLC C30 column has since long been the 'golden standard' in the chromatographic separation of carotenoids. Since approximately one decade, new UHPLC technology has led to much shorter analysis times, smaller peak widths and higher chromatographic resolution. However, there are currently no UHPLC columns on the market containing the specific stationary phase chemistry of the HPLC C30 column. Therefore during this study, we investigated the separation of carotenoids on a set of UHPLC columns and compared it to their separation on the HPLC C30 column. Comparison of carotenoids separations on the different stationary phases with objective column comparison parameters clearly indicated that the HPLC C30 column is an overall better performer in the separation of carotenoids. This is due to the lack of UHPLC column chemistries that are adapted for carotenoid analysis. However, analysis time on the HPLC C30 column takes about four times longer compared to UHPLC analysis. Therefore, with the range of columns that are commercially available nowadays, a choice has to be made between very high selectivity (HPLC C30 column) and analysis times that are adapted to modern laboratory requirements (UHPLC technology). Therefore, carotenoid separations would be even more performing if an appropriate UHPLC C30 column would be available.

  18. Sex-specific effects of carotenoid intake on the immunological response to allografts in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Grether, Gregory F; Kasahara, Shinji; Kolluru, Gita R; Cooper, Edwin L

    2004-01-01

    Rarely are the evolutionary origins of mate preferences known, but, recently, the preference of female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) for males with carotenoid-based sexual coloration has been linked to a sensory bias that may have originally evolved for detecting carotenoid-rich fruits. If carotenoids enhance the immune systems of these fishes, as has been suggested for other species, this could explain the origin of the attraction to orange fruits as well as the maintenance of the female preference for orange males. We used the classic immunological technique of tissue grafting to assay a component of the immune response of guppies raised on two different dietary levels of carotenoids. Individual scales were transplanted between pairs of unrelated fishes, creating reciprocal allografts. Transplanted scales were scored on a six-point rejection scale every day for 10 days. Five days later, the same pairs of fishes received a second set of allografts and were scored again. Compared with low-carotenoid-diet males, high-carotenoid-diet males mounted a significantly stronger rejection response to the second allograft but not to the first allograft. High-carotenoid-diet females, however, showed no improvement in graft rejection compared with low-carotenoid-diet females. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence for sex-specific effects of carotenoid consumption on the immune system of a species with carotenoid-based sexual coloration. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the mate preference for carotenoid coloration is maintained by the benefits to females of choosing healthy mates, but they cast doubt on the idea that the benefits of carotenoid consumption, per se, could account for the origin of the preference. The sex-specificity of carotenoid effects on allograft rejection in guppies provides indirect support for the general hypothesis that males pay an immunological cost for sexual ornamentation.

  19. Efficient light-harvesting using non-carbonyl carotenoids: Energy transfer dynamics in the VCP complex from Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    PubMed

    Keşan, Gürkan; Litvín, Radek; Bína, David; Durchan, Milan; Šlouf, Václav; Polívka, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Violaxanthin-chlorophyll a protein (VCP) from Nannochloropsis oceanica is a Chl a-only member of the LHC family of light-harvesting proteins. VCP binds carotenoids violaxanthin (Vio), vaucheriaxanthin (Vau), and vaucheriaxanthin-ester (Vau-ester). Here we report on energy transfer pathways in the VCP complex. The overall carotenoid-to-Chla energy transfer has efficiency over 90%. Based on their energy transfer properties, the carotenoids in VCP can be divided into two groups; blue carotenoids with the lowest energy absorption band around 480nm and red carotenoids with absorption extended up to 530nm. Both carotenoid groups transfer energy efficiently from their S2 states, reaching efficiencies of ~70% (blue) and ~60% (red). The S1 pathway, however, is efficient only for the red carotenoid pool for which two S1 routes characterized by 0.33 and 2.4ps time constants were identified. For the blue carotenoids the S1-mediated pathway is represented only by a minor route likely involving a hot S1 state. The relaxed S1 state of blue carotenoids decays to the ground state within 21ps. Presence of a fraction of non-transferring red carotenoids with the S1 lifetime of 13ps indicates some specific carotenoid-protein interaction that must shorten the intrinsic S1 lifetime of Vio and/or Vau whose S1 lifetimes in methanol are 26 and 29ps, respectively. The VCP complex from N. oceanica is the first example of a light-harvesting complex binding only non-carbonyl carotenoids with carotenoid-to-chlorophyll energy transfer efficiency over 90%. PMID:26744091

  20. Efficient light-harvesting using non-carbonyl carotenoids: Energy transfer dynamics in the VCP complex from Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    PubMed

    Keşan, Gürkan; Litvín, Radek; Bína, David; Durchan, Milan; Šlouf, Václav; Polívka, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Violaxanthin-chlorophyll a protein (VCP) from Nannochloropsis oceanica is a Chl a-only member of the LHC family of light-harvesting proteins. VCP binds carotenoids violaxanthin (Vio), vaucheriaxanthin (Vau), and vaucheriaxanthin-ester (Vau-ester). Here we report on energy transfer pathways in the VCP complex. The overall carotenoid-to-Chla energy transfer has efficiency over 90%. Based on their energy transfer properties, the carotenoids in VCP can be divided into two groups; blue carotenoids with the lowest energy absorption band around 480nm and red carotenoids with absorption extended up to 530nm. Both carotenoid groups transfer energy efficiently from their S2 states, reaching efficiencies of ~70% (blue) and ~60% (red). The S1 pathway, however, is efficient only for the red carotenoid pool for which two S1 routes characterized by 0.33 and 2.4ps time constants were identified. For the blue carotenoids the S1-mediated pathway is represented only by a minor route likely involving a hot S1 state. The relaxed S1 state of blue carotenoids decays to the ground state within 21ps. Presence of a fraction of non-transferring red carotenoids with the S1 lifetime of 13ps indicates some specific carotenoid-protein interaction that must shorten the intrinsic S1 lifetime of Vio and/or Vau whose S1 lifetimes in methanol are 26 and 29ps, respectively. The VCP complex from N. oceanica is the first example of a light-harvesting complex binding only non-carbonyl carotenoids with carotenoid-to-chlorophyll energy transfer efficiency over 90%.

  1. Sex-specific effects of carotenoid intake on the immunological response to allografts in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed Central

    Grether, Gregory F.; Kasahara, Shinji; Kolluru, Gita R.; Cooper, Edwin L.

    2004-01-01

    Rarely are the evolutionary origins of mate preferences known, but, recently, the preference of female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) for males with carotenoid-based sexual coloration has been linked to a sensory bias that may have originally evolved for detecting carotenoid-rich fruits. If carotenoids enhance the immune systems of these fishes, as has been suggested for other species, this could explain the origin of the attraction to orange fruits as well as the maintenance of the female preference for orange males. We used the classic immunological technique of tissue grafting to assay a component of the immune response of guppies raised on two different dietary levels of carotenoids. Individual scales were transplanted between pairs of unrelated fishes, creating reciprocal allografts. Transplanted scales were scored on a six-point rejection scale every day for 10 days. Five days later, the same pairs of fishes received a second set of allografts and were scored again. Compared with low-carotenoid-diet males, high-carotenoid-diet males mounted a significantly stronger rejection response to the second allograft but not to the first allograft. High-carotenoid-diet females, however, showed no improvement in graft rejection compared with low-carotenoid-diet females. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence for sex-specific effects of carotenoid consumption on the immune system of a species with carotenoid-based sexual coloration. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the mate preference for carotenoid coloration is maintained by the benefits to females of choosing healthy mates, but they cast doubt on the idea that the benefits of carotenoid consumption, per se, could account for the origin of the preference. The sex-specificity of carotenoid effects on allograft rejection in guppies provides indirect support for the general hypothesis that males pay an immunological cost for sexual ornamentation. PMID:15002770

  2. Genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Maresca, Julia A; Yunker, Colleen E; Jones, A Daniel; Bryant, Donald A

    2004-08-01

    The green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum is a strict anaerobe and an obligate photoautotroph. On the basis of sequence similarity with known enzymes or sequence motifs, nine open reading frames encoding putative enzymes of carotenoid biosynthesis were identified in the genome sequence of C. tepidum, and all nine genes were inactivated. Analysis of the carotenoid composition in the resulting mutants allowed the genes encoding the following six enzymes to be identified: phytoene synthase (crtB/CT1386), phytoene desaturase (crtP/CT0807), zeta-carotene desaturase (crtQ/CT1414), gamma-carotene desaturase (crtU/CT0323), carotenoid 1',2'-hydratase (crtC/CT0301), and carotenoid cis-trans isomerase (crtH/CT0649). Three mutants (CT0180, CT1357, and CT1416 mutants) did not exhibit a discernible phenotype. The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in C. tepidum is similar to that in cyanobacteria and plants by converting phytoene into lycopene using two plant-like desaturases (CrtP and CrtQ) and a plant-like cis-trans isomerase (CrtH) and thus differs from the pathway known in all other bacteria. In contrast to the situation in cyanobacteria and plants, the construction of a crtB mutant completely lacking carotenoids demonstrates that carotenoids are not essential for photosynthetic growth of green sulfur bacteria. However, the bacteriochlorophyll a contents of mutants lacking colored carotenoids (crtB, crtP, and crtQ mutants) were decreased from that of the wild type, and these mutants exhibited a significant growth rate defect under all light intensities tested. Therefore, colored carotenoids may have both structural and photoprotection roles in green sulfur bacteria. The ability to manipulate the carotenoid composition so dramatically in C. tepidum offers excellent possibilities for studying the roles of carotenoids in the light-harvesting chlorosome antenna and iron-sulfur-type (photosystem I-like) reaction center. The phylogeny of carotenogenic enzymes in green sulfur

  3. The genes and enzymes of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are a heterogeneous group of plant isoprenoids primarily involved in photosynthesis. In plants the cleavage of carotenoids leads to the formation of the phytohormones abscisic acid and strigolactone, and C13-norisoprenoids involved in the characteristic flavour and aroma compounds in flowers and fruits and are of specific importance in the varietal character of grapes and wine. This work extends the previous reports of carotenoid gene expression and photosynthetic pigment analysis by providing an up-to-date pathway analysis and an important framework for the analysis of carotenoid metabolic pathways in grapevine. Results Comparative genomics was used to identify 42 genes putatively involved in carotenoid biosynthesis/catabolism in grapevine. The genes are distributed on 16 of the 19 chromosomes and have been localised to the physical map of the heterozygous ENTAV115 grapevine sequence. Nine of the genes occur as single copies whereas the rest of the carotenoid metabolic genes have more than one paralogue. The cDNA copies of eleven corresponding genes from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage were characterised, and four where shown to be functional. Microarrays provided expression profiles of 39 accessions in the metabolic pathway during three berry developmental stages in Sauvignon blanc, whereas an optimised HPLC analysis provided the concentrations of individual carotenoids. This provides evidence of the functioning of the lutein epoxide cycle and the respective genes in grapevine. Similarly, orthologues of genes leading to the formation of strigolactone involved in shoot branching inhibition were identified: CCD7, CCD8 and MAX1. Moreover, the isoforms typically have different expression patterns, confirming the complex regulation of the pathway. Of particular interest is the expression pattern of the three VvNCEDs: Our results support previous findings that VvNCED3 is likely the isoform linked to ABA content in berries. Conclusions The

  4. Greater serum carotenoid levels associated with lower prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yi; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jun; Liu, Zhao-min; Ling, Wen-hua; Chen, Yu-ming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that serum carotenoids may be inversely associated with liver injury, but limited data are available from population-based studies. We examined the relationship between serum carotenoid levels and the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese adults. A total of 2935 participants aged 40–75 years were involved in this community-based cross-sectional study. General information, lifestyle factors, serum levels of carotenoid and the presence and degree of NAFLD were determined. After adjusting for potential covariates, we observed a dose-dependent inverse association between NAFLD risk and each individual serum carotenoid and total carotenoids (all p-values < 0.001). The ORs of NAFLD for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.44 (95% CI 0.35, 0.56) for α-carotene, 0.32 (95% CI 0.25, 0.41) for β-carotene, 0.62 (95% CI 0.49, 0.79) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.54 (95% CI 0.42, 0.68) for lycopene, 0.56 (95% CI 0.44, 0.72) for lutein + zeaxanthin and 0.41 (95% CI 0.32, 0.53) for total carotenoids. Higher levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin and total carotenoids were significantly associated with a decrease in the degree of NAFLD (p-trend: < 0.001 to 0.003). Serum carotenoids are inversely associated with prevalence of NAFLD in middle aged and elderly Chinese. PMID:26256414

  5. Carotenoid diagenesis in recent marine sediments: II. Degradation of fucoxanthin to loliolide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repeta, Daniel J.

    1989-03-01

    The quantitative distributions of loliolide and the major phytoplankton carotenoids: fucoxanthin, diadinochrome, diatoxanthin, and β-carotene in two cores of anoxic marine sediment recovered from the Peru continental shelf are reported. Our results demonstrate that the rapid degradation of carotenoids in sediments is not a result of their high degree of unsaturation as has been previously suggested. Instead, carotenoids exhibit a wide range of degradation rates that are proportional to the ability of specific pigments to form unstable bicyclic furanoxides. Carotenoid furanoxides undergo subsequent fragmentation to loliolide, isololiolide, dihydroactinidiolide and other, as yet undetermined, low molecular weight products. This degradation pathway accounts for the relative rates of removal for specific carotenoids (fucoxanthin = fucoxanthinol > diadinoxanthin > diatoxanthin = carotene), the distribution of carotenoids reported by Wpatts and Maxwell (1977) and C ARDOSOet al. (1978) in ancient sediments, the occurrence of novel carotenoid transformation products in surface sediments reported by r pidout et al. (1984), and the distribution of loliolides in recent sediments recovered from the Namibian shelf reported by k plok et al. (1984a,b). We predict that loliolide and isololiolide will inherit a specific stereochemistry from their carotenoid precursors, but that dihydroactinidiolide will be racemic. For every μmole of fucoxanthin degraded in Peru sediments, 0.7-1.1 μmole of loliolide is produced. Summation of fucoxanthin and loliolide at each subsurface horizon yields an estimate of the total deposition of fucoxanthin at t = 0. Throughout the 0-20 cm depth of our samples, this parameter is remarkably constant to ±16%. Individual horizons exhibit excursions which may reflect changes in surface productivity. Extrapolation of our measurements to deeper sediments may therefore be of some value in deciphering questions on environmental conditions of deposition and

  6. Can carotenoids mediate the potentially harmful effects of ultraviolet light in Silurana (Xenopus) tropicalis larvae?

    PubMed

    Ogilvy, V; Preziosi, R F

    2012-08-01

    Amphibians have recently experienced unprecedented declines in the wild, the causes of which are often difficult to mitigate. This has increased the importance of ex situ conservation; however, long-term maintenance and breeding of amphibians in captivity often has limited success. In vertebrates, vitamin D is required for calcium homeostasis and is produced endogenously in skin exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light; however, UV light can be harmful to amphibians in some instances. Carotenoids are dietary pigments that may provide protection from UV light. The aim of this study was to assess the protective capability of carotenoids against the potentially harmful effects of UV light in Silurana (=Xenopus) tropicalis larvae raised in an enhanced or limited UV environment. Tadpole survival and the size and developmental stage reached by the end of the study period were measured. Carotenoids had a significantly positive effect on developmental rate in both UV-limited and UV-enhanced environments. Larvae in an enhanced UV environment were significantly larger than those raised under a limited UV environment, irrespective of diet. Carotenoid-fed larvae tended to have increased survival in relation to those raised without carotenoids, but only in a limited UV environment. Carotenoids appear to provide little protection against UV light in this case. The role of carotenoids in amphibian health has not previously been studied. We show that carotenoid availability significantly influences development and may increase survival in S. (X.) tropicalis larvae. This finding may have important implications for recommendations made on the nutrition of amphibians in captivity. PMID:21793941

  7. Geographical trends in the yolk carotenoid composition of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca).

    PubMed

    Eeva, Tapio; Ruuskanen, Suvi; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Belskii, Eugen; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krams, Indrikis; Moreno, Juan; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Siitari, Heli; Slater, Fred M; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Laaksonen, Toni

    2011-02-01

    Carotenoids in the egg yolks of birds are considered to be important antioxidants and immune stimulants during the rapid growth of embryos. Yolk carotenoid composition is strongly affected by the carotenoid composition of the female's diet at the time of egg formation. Spatial and temporal differences in carotenoid availability may thus be reflected in yolk concentrations. To assess whether yolk carotenoid concentrations or carotenoid profiles show any large-scale geographical trends or differences among habitats, we collected yolk samples from 16 European populations of the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca. We found that the concentrations and proportions of lutein and some other xanthophylls in the egg yolks decreased from Central Europe northwards. The most southern population (which is also the one found at the highest altitude) also showed relatively low carotenoid levels. Concentrations of β-carotene and zeaxanthin did not show any obvious geographical gradients. Egg yolks also contained proportionally more lutein and other xanthophylls in deciduous than in mixed or coniferous habitats. We suggest that latitudinal gradients in lutein and xanthophylls reflect the lower availability of lutein-rich food items in the northern F. hypoleuca populations and in montane southern populations, which start egg-laying earlier relative to tree phenology than the Central European populations. Similarly, among-habitat variation is likely to reflect the better availability of lutein-rich food in deciduous forests. Our study is the first to indicate that the concentration and profile of yolk carotenoids may show large-scale spatial variation among populations in different parts of the species' geographical range. Further studies are needed to test the fitness effects of this geographical variation.

  8. Arabidopsis carotenoid mutants demonstrate that lutein is not essential for photosynthesis in higher plants.

    PubMed Central

    Pogson, B; McDonald, K A; Truong, M; Britton, G; DellaPenna, D

    1996-01-01

    Lutein, a dihydroxy beta, epsilon-carotenoid, is the predominant carotenoid in photosynthetic plant tissue and plays a critical role in light-harvesting complex assembly and function. To further understand lutein synthesis and function, we isolated four lutein-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis that define two loci, lut1 and lut2 (for lutein deficient). These loci are required for lutein biosynthesis but not for the biosynthesis of beta, beta-carotenoids. The lut1 mutations are recessive, accumulate high levels of zeinoxanthin, which is the immediate precursor of lutein, and define lut1 as a disruption in epsilon ring hydroxylation. The lut2 mutations are semidominant, and their biochemical phenotype is consistent with a disruption of epsilon ring cyclization. The lut2 locus cosegregates with the recently isolated epsilon cyclase gene, thus, providing additional evidence that the lut2 alleles are mutations in the epsilon cyclase gene. It appears likely that the epsilon cyclase is a key step in regulating lutein levels and the ratio of lutein to beta,beta-carotenoids. Surprisingly, despite the absence of lutein, neither the lut1 nor lut2 mutation causes a visible deleterious phenotype or altered chlorophyll content, but both mutants have significantly higher levels of beta, beta-carotenoids. In particular, there is a stable increase in the xanthophyll cycle pigments (violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin) in both lut1 and lut2 mutants as well as an increase in zeinoxanthin in lut1 and beta-carotene in lut2. The accumulation of specific carotenoids is discussed as it pertains to the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis and incorporation into the photosynthetic apparatus. Presumably, particular beta, beta-carotenoids are able to compensate functionally and structurally for lutein in the photosystems of Arabidopsis. PMID:8837513

  9. Chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated protein appears to be important for enhanced accumulation of carotenoids in hp1 tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Kumar, Rakesh; Sharma, Rameshwar; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

    2013-04-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) high-pigment mutants with lesions in diverse loci such as DNA Damage-Binding Protein1 (high pigment1 [hp1]), Deetiolated1 (hp2), Zeaxanthin Epoxidase (hp3), and Intense pigment (Ip; gene product unknown) exhibit increased accumulation of fruit carotenoids coupled with an increase in chloroplast number and size. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms exaggerating the carotenoid accumulation and the chloroplast number in these mutants. A comparison of proteome profiles from the outer pericarp of hp1 mutant and wild-type (cv Ailsa Craig) fruits at different developmental stages revealed at least 72 differentially expressed proteins during ripening. Hierarchical clustering grouped these proteins into three clusters. We found an increased abundance of chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated protein (CHRC) in hp1 fruits at red-ripe stage that is also reflected in its transcript level. Western blotting using CHRC polyclonal antibody from bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) revealed a 2-fold increase in the abundance of CHRC protein in the red-ripe stage of hp1 fruits compared with the wild type. CHRC levels in hp2 were found to be similar to that of hp1, whereas hp3 and Ip showed intermediate levels to those in hp1, hp2, and wild-type fruits. Both CHRC and carotenoids were present in the isolated plastoglobules. Overall, our results suggest that loss of function of DDB1, DET1, Zeaxanthin Epoxidase, and Ip up-regulates CHRC levels. Increase in CHRC levels may contribute to the enhanced carotenoid content in these high-pigment fruits by assisting in the sequestration and stabilization of carotenoids.

  10. Chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated protein appears to be important for enhanced accumulation of carotenoids in hp1 tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Kumar, Rakesh; Sharma, Rameshwar; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

    2013-04-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) high-pigment mutants with lesions in diverse loci such as DNA Damage-Binding Protein1 (high pigment1 [hp1]), Deetiolated1 (hp2), Zeaxanthin Epoxidase (hp3), and Intense pigment (Ip; gene product unknown) exhibit increased accumulation of fruit carotenoids coupled with an increase in chloroplast number and size. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms exaggerating the carotenoid accumulation and the chloroplast number in these mutants. A comparison of proteome profiles from the outer pericarp of hp1 mutant and wild-type (cv Ailsa Craig) fruits at different developmental stages revealed at least 72 differentially expressed proteins during ripening. Hierarchical clustering grouped these proteins into three clusters. We found an increased abundance of chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated protein (CHRC) in hp1 fruits at red-ripe stage that is also reflected in its transcript level. Western blotting using CHRC polyclonal antibody from bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) revealed a 2-fold increase in the abundance of CHRC protein in the red-ripe stage of hp1 fruits compared with the wild type. CHRC levels in hp2 were found to be similar to that of hp1, whereas hp3 and Ip showed intermediate levels to those in hp1, hp2, and wild-type fruits. Both CHRC and carotenoids were present in the isolated plastoglobules. Overall, our results suggest that loss of function of DDB1, DET1, Zeaxanthin Epoxidase, and Ip up-regulates CHRC levels. Increase in CHRC levels may contribute to the enhanced carotenoid content in these high-pigment fruits by assisting in the sequestration and stabilization of carotenoids. PMID:23400702

  11. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Carotenoids from Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE), have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1) dehydration pre-treatments; (2) extraction parameters (temperature and pressure); the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix. PMID:24756094

  12. Maternally derived carotenoid pigments affect offspring survival, sex ratio, and sexual attractiveness in a colorful songbird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, K. J.; Adkins-Regan, E.; Parker, R. S.

    2005-08-01

    In egg-laying animals, mothers can influence the development of their offspring via the suite of biochemicals they incorporate into the nourishing yolk (e.g. lipids, hormones). However, the long-lasting fitness consequences of this early nutritional environment have often proved elusive. Here, we show that the colorful carotenoid pigments that female zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata) deposit into egg yolks influence embryonic and nestling survival, the sex ratio of fledged offspring, and the eventual ornamental coloration displayed by their offspring as adults. Mothers experimentally supplemented with dietary carotenoids prior to egg-laying incorporated more carotenoids into eggs, which, due to the antioxidant activity of carotenoids, rendered their embryos less susceptible to free-radical attack during development. These eggs were subsequently more likely to hatch, fledge offspring, produce more sons than daughters, and produce sons who exhibited more brightly colored carotenoid-based beak pigmentation. Provisioned mothers also acquired more colorful beaks, which directly predicted levels of carotenoids found in eggs, thus indicating that these pigments may function not only as physiological ‘damage-protectants’ in adults and offspring but also as morphological signals of maternal reproductive capabilities.

  13. Carotenoid and polyphenol bioaccessibility and cellular uptake from plum and cabbage varieties.

    PubMed

    Kaulmann, Anouk; André, Christelle M; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Hoffmann, Lucien; Bohn, Torsten

    2016-04-15

    Plum and cabbage are rich in carotenoids and polyphenols. However, their bioactivity depends on their release and intestinal uptake. Four varieties of Brassicaceae (Duchy, Scots Kale, Kale, Kalorama) and Prunus (Cherry Plum, Plum 620, Ersinger, Italian Plum) were studied; bioaccessibility following in vitro digestion, cellular uptake (Caco-2 vs. co-culture cell model: Caco-2:HT-29-MTX (90:10%) and colonic fermentation were determined for carotenoids/polyphenols; the influence of certain kitchen preparations was likewise studied. Carotenoids were non-significantly influenced by the latter, while for polyphenols, boiling and steaming significantly reduced total phenolics (p<0.05). Carotenoid bioaccessibility did not differ significantly between Prunus vs. Brassicaceae varieties, but xanthophyll was higher than carotene bioaccessibility (p<0.01). Polyphenol bioaccessibility was low (<10%), possibly compromised by the cream containing test meal. Total carotenoid cellular uptake varied between varieties (0.3-4.1%), being higher for carotenes (4.1%) than for xanthophylls (1.6%, p<0.01), and were higher for the co-culture cell model compared to Caco-2 cells (p<0.01). Total carotenoid recovery in the colonic fraction varied from 4% to 25%. Lower bioaccessibility of carotenes thus appeared to be somewhat counterbalanced by higher cellular uptake. The potential positive role of the mucus layer for cellular uptake and the fate of the colonic digesta deserve further attention in the future.

  14. Solubilization and stabilization of macular carotenoids by water soluble oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Apanasenko, Irina E; Selyutina, Olga Yu; Polyakov, Nikolay E; Suntsova, Lyubov P; Meteleva, Elizaveta S; Dushkin, Alexander V; Vachali, Preejith; Bernstein, Paul S

    2015-04-15

    Xanthophyll carotenoids zeaxanthin and lutein play a special role in the prevention and treatment of visual diseases. These carotenoids are not produced by the human body and must be consumed in the diet. On the other hand, extremely low water solubility of these carotenoids and their instability restrict their practical application as components of food or medicinal formulations. Preparation of supramolecular complexes of zeaxanthin and lutein with glycyrrhizic acid, its disodium salt and the natural polysaccharide arabinogalactan allows one to minimize the aforementioned disadvantages when carotenoids are used in food processing as well as for production of therapeutic formulations with enhanced solubility and stability. In the present study, the formation of supramolecular complexes was investigated by NMR relaxation, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and optical absorption techniques. The complexes increase carotenoid solubility more than 1000-fold. The kinetics of carotenoid decay in reactions with ozone molecules, hydroperoxyl radicals and metal ions were measured in water and organic solutions, and significant increases in oxidation stability of lutein and zeaxanthin in arabinogalactan and glycyrrhizin complexes were detected. PMID:25527162

  15. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  16. Carotenoid extraction from the gonad of the scallop Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia: Pectinidae).

    PubMed

    Suhnel, S; Lagreze, F; Ferreira, J F; Campestrini, L H; Maraschin, M

    2009-02-01

    In marine bivalve mollusks, unsaturated molecules called carotenoids are present in the natural diet and play an important role in different biological process, especially in reproduction. In order to gain more insights into these compounds in Nodipecten nodosus it was necessary to develop a suitable protocol for extraction of carotenoids from the gonads. Female gonads of cultured scallops (75 mm length) were lyophilized and macerated in liquid N2. To verify the effect of composition in organosolvents on the extracting solutions, two organic solvents were tested: acetone and hexane (Ac = O:Hex) at four ratios, 1:1, 1:3, 1:5, and 2:3, in four static extraction times: 0, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. Total carotenoids and astaxanthin contents were determined in the crude extracts by UV-visible spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Triplicate aliquots of 50 mg were used for each treatment. The results indicated that the best single extraction (0.312 +/- 0.016 microg carotenoids/mg) was attained with Ac = O: Hex 1:3, for 15 minutes. Through exhaustive extraction methodology (10x), a superior yield (0.41 +/- 0.001 microg carotenoids/mg) was obtained from a gonad sample in comparison to the highest value found for a single extraction. Astaxanthin content was reduced by 8.6% in carotenoid extract preservation assay, i.e., -18 degrees C, 26 days incubation, under N2 atmosphere.

  17. Carotenoid and polyphenol bioaccessibility and cellular uptake from plum and cabbage varieties.

    PubMed

    Kaulmann, Anouk; André, Christelle M; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Hoffmann, Lucien; Bohn, Torsten

    2016-04-15

    Plum and cabbage are rich in carotenoids and polyphenols. However, their bioactivity depends on their release and intestinal uptake. Four varieties of Brassicaceae (Duchy, Scots Kale, Kale, Kalorama) and Prunus (Cherry Plum, Plum 620, Ersinger, Italian Plum) were studied; bioaccessibility following in vitro digestion, cellular uptake (Caco-2 vs. co-culture cell model: Caco-2:HT-29-MTX (90:10%) and colonic fermentation were determined for carotenoids/polyphenols; the influence of certain kitchen preparations was likewise studied. Carotenoids were non-significantly influenced by the latter, while for polyphenols, boiling and steaming significantly reduced total phenolics (p<0.05). Carotenoid bioaccessibility did not differ significantly between Prunus vs. Brassicaceae varieties, but xanthophyll was higher than carotene bioaccessibility (p<0.01). Polyphenol bioaccessibility was low (<10%), possibly compromised by the cream containing test meal. Total carotenoid cellular uptake varied between varieties (0.3-4.1%), being higher for carotenes (4.1%) than for xanthophylls (1.6%, p<0.01), and were higher for the co-culture cell model compared to Caco-2 cells (p<0.01). Total carotenoid recovery in the colonic fraction varied from 4% to 25%. Lower bioaccessibility of carotenes thus appeared to be somewhat counterbalanced by higher cellular uptake. The potential positive role of the mucus layer for cellular uptake and the fate of the colonic digesta deserve further attention in the future. PMID:26616956

  18. Solubilization and Stabilization of Macular Carotenoids by Water Soluble Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Apanasenko, Irina E.; Selyutina, Olga Yu.; Polyakov, Nikolay E.; Suntsova, Lyubov P.; Meteleva, Elizaveta S.; Dushkin, Alexander V.; Vachali, Preejith; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Xanthophyll carotenoids zeaxanthin and lutein play a special role in the prevention and treatment of visual diseases. These carotenoids are not produced by the human body and must be consumed in the diet. On the other hand, extremely low water solubility of these carotenoids and their instability restrict their practical application as components of food or medicinal formulations. Preparation of supramolecular complexes of zeaxanthin and lutein with glycyrrhizic acid, its disodium salt and the natural polysaccharide arabinogalactan allows one to minimize the aforementioned disadvantages when carotenoids are used in food processing as well as for production of therapeutic formulations with enhanced solubility and stability. In the present study, the formation of supramolecular complexes was investigated by NMR relaxation, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and optical absorption techniques. The complexes increase carotenoid solubility more than 1000-fold. The kinetics of carotenoid decay in reactions with ozone molecules, hydroperoxyl radicals and metal ions were measured in water and organic solutions, and significant increases in oxidation stability of lutein and zeaxanthin in arabinogalactan and glycyrrhizin complexes were detected. PMID:25527162

  19. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carotenoids from pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.): a review.

    PubMed

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-04-21

    Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE), have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1) dehydration pre-treatments; (2) extraction parameters (temperature and pressure); the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix.

  20. Fasting plasma carotenoids concentrations in Crohn's and pancreatic cancer patients compared to control subjects.

    PubMed

    Drai, J; Borel, P; Faure, H; Galabert, C; Le Moël, G; Laromiguière, M; Fayol, V

    2009-03-01

    Carotenoids are colored molecules that are widespread in the plant kingdom, but animals cannot synthesize them. Carotenes are long, apolar molecules which require fully functioning digestive processes to be absorbed properly. Hence they could be interesting markers of intestinal absorption and digestion. Indeed, only few tests are available to assess these processes and only the D-xylose tolerance test is routinely used. However D-xylose is a sugar that tests only the absorption of water-soluble compounds and it only tests duodenal absorption. In this study, we have evaluated carotenoids as markers of digestion and absorption. We compared fasting plasma carotenoids concentrations in 21 control subjects, 20 patients with Crohn's disease, and 18 patients with pancreatic cancer. Crohn's disease alters intestinal absorption while pancreatic cancer decreases pancreatic enzyme secretion thus impairing digestion. Results show that all carotenoids are significantly lower in Crohn's and cancer patients as compared to control subjects and the multifactorial analysis shows that this decrease is mostly independent of dietary intake. Interestingly, maldigestion as seen in pancreatic cancer more strongly influences plasma lutein and lycopene concentrations while malabsorption in Crohn's disease acts on other carotenoids. Thus carotenoids could be interesting alternatives for testing and following patients that are suspected of having malabsorption or maldigestion syndromes. PMID:20108210

  1. Positive Carotenoid Balance Correlates with Greater Reproductive Performance in a Wild Bird

    PubMed Central

    Safran, Rebecca J.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Wilkins, Matthew R.; Hubbard, Joanna K.; Marling, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Background Carotenoids can confer somatic and reproductive benefits, but most evidence is from captive animal experimentation or single time-point sampling. Another perhaps more informative means by which to assess physiological contributions to animal performance is by tracking an individual's ability to increase or sustain carotenoids or other health-related molecules over time, as these are likely to be temporally variable. Methodology/Principal Findings In a field study of North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster), we analyzed within-individual changes in carotenoid concentrations by repeatedly sampling the carotenoid profiles of individuals over the course of the breeding season. Our results demonstrate that carotenoid concentrations of individuals are temporally dynamic and that season-long balance of these molecules, rather than single time-point samples, predict reproductive performance. This was true even when controlling for two important variables associated with reproductive outcomes: (1) timing of breeding and (2) sexually selected plumage coloration, which is itself positively correlated with and concomitantly changes with circulating carotenoid concentrations. Conclusions/Significance While reproduction itself is purported to impose health stress on organisms, these data suggest that free-ranging, high-quality individuals can mitigate such costs, by one or several genetic, environmental (diet), or physiological mechanisms. Moreover, the temporal variations in both health-linked physiological measures and morphological traits we uncover here merit further examination in other species, especially when goals include the estimation of signal information content or the costs of trait expression. PMID:20195540

  2. Tocochromanols and carotenoids in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.): diversity and stability to the heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Leandro de Morais; Pinheiro, Soraia Silva; da Silva, Letícia Linhares; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; de Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler; Tardin, Flávio Dessaune; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2015-04-01

    The content and stability (retention) to dry heat in a conventional oven (DHCO) and extrusion of tocochromanols and carotenoids in sorghum genotypes were evaluated. One hundred sorghum genotypes showed high variability in tocochromanol content (280.7-2962.4 μg/100g in wet basis) and 23% of the genotypes were classified as source of vitamin E. The total carotenoid varied from 2.12 to 85.46 μg/100g in one hundred sorghum genotypes. According to the genetic variability for carotenoids and tocochromanols, the 100 genotypes were grouped into 7 groups. The retention of the total tocochromanols and α-tocopherol equivalent decreased after extrusion (69.1-84.8% and 52.4-85.0%, respectively) but increased after DHCO (106.8-114.7% and 109.9-115.8%, respectively). Sorghum carotenoids were sensitive to extrusion (30.7-37.1%) and DHCO (58.6-79.2%). In conclusion, the tocochromanols profile in sorghum varied widely and the genotypes presented high genetic variability for carotenoids and tocochromanols. Sorghum was a source of tocochromanols, which increased after DHCO and decreased after extrusion. The carotenoid content in sorghum decreased after DHCO and extrusion.

  3. Self-Assembly of Carotenoids During Solution Casting of Solar Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwis, Dusantha; Ratnaweera, Dilru; Etampawala, Thusitha; Dadmun, Mark; Chandrika, Udumalagala; Jayaweera, Pradeep

    2015-03-01

    Self assembly of carotenoids is a common phenomenon in nature and seems to be closely related to the functions of these natural dyes in solar devices. The large absorption coefficients in the visible region of carotenoids make them a well suited natural resource for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The performance of carotenoid based solar devices mainly depends on the photo-electrochemical properties of the active material (carotenoids) and their self-assembled morphology within solar devises. These associations of molecules will affect the light absorption, emission and energy harvesting abilities of these solar devices. Two types of highly conjugated natural carotenoids having mono and dicarboxy terminal groups, namely bixin and norbixin, were extracted from annatto seeds. In the current study, small angle neutron scattering experiments were carried out to examine the modes of assemblies of bixin and norbixin during solution processing of DSSCs. Spherical shape aggregates with rough interfaces were observed in acetone medium, which is a good solvent for hydrocarbon chain. The shape of the aggregates slightly deviates from spherical to slightly elongated shape at high volume fractions of carotenoids. Bixin and norbixin show different association behaviors as a function of their concentration.

  4. Increasing solubility of red bell pepper carotenoids by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    de Lima Petito, Nicolly; da Silva Dias, Daiana; Costa, Valéria Gonçalves; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; de Lima Araujo, Kátia Gome

    2016-10-01

    Red bell pepper carotenoids were complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HPβCD) in different mass ratios (1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10) through ultrasonic homogenization in order to increase carotenoid solubility and their use as natural pigment in food. Inclusion complexes, red bell pepper extract and physical mixtures were analyzed by DSC, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and DLS. Solubility assay was performed to identify the effect of complexation on the solubility of carotenoids. From characterization assays, results showed that inclusion process occurred for all tested ratios. Results for water solubility assays demonstrated clear differences between solubility index of inclusion complexes (8.06±2.59-16.55±4.40mg/mL) and physical mixtures (3.53±1.44-7.3±1.88mg/mL), while carotenoid extract was no water soluble, as expected. These results indicated that molecular inclusion of carotenoids in 2-HPβCD was efficient to enhance their solubility in water, enabling application of red bell pepper carotenoid as natural pigment and/or bioactive substances in food.

  5. Comparison of carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression between Valencia and Rohde Red Valencia sweet oranges.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xu; Chen, Chunxian; Yu, Qibin; Gady, Antoine; Yu, Yuan; Liang, Guolu; Gmitter, Frederick G

    2014-10-01

    Carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression levels during fruit maturation were compared between ordinary Valencia (VAL) and its more deeply colored mutant Rohde Red Valencia orange (RRV). The two cultivars exhibited different carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms in flavedo and juice sacs, respectively. In flavedo, there was uncoordinated carotenoid accumulation and gene expression in RRV during green stages, which might be related to the expression of certain gene(s) in the MEP (methylerythritol phosphate) pathway. The carotenoid biosynthesis pathway shifting from α,β-xanthophylls to β,β-xanthophylls synthesis occurred in RRV earlier than VAL during orange stages. In juice sacs, the low carotenoid content in both cultivars coincided with low expression of LCYE-Contig03 and LCYE-Contig24 during green stages, suggesting LCYE might be a limiting step for carotenoid accumulation. VAL mainly accumulated violaxanthin, but RRV accumulated β-cryptoxanthin and violaxanthin during orange stages, which corresponded to differences in juice color. Several upstream genes (PDS-Contig17, LCYB-Contig19, and ZDS members) and a downstream gene (ZEP) were expressed at higher levels in RRV than VAL, which might be responsible for greater accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and violaxanthin in RRV, respectively.

  6. Prediagnostic circulating carotenoid levels and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the Multiethnic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ollberding, Nicholas J.; Conroy, Shannon M.; Morimoto, Yukiko; Franke, Adrian A.; Cooney, Robert V.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Le Marchand, Loïc; Goodman, Marc T.; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kolonel, Laurence N.

    2012-01-01

    This analysis examined the association of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with prediagnostic carotenoid levels, a marker for a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. We conducted a nested case-control study within the Multiethnic Cohort with 271 NHL cases and 538 controls matched on sex, ethnicity, location (Hawaii or Los Angeles), birth year, date and time of blood draw, and hours fasting before blood draw. Serum carotenoid levels were obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) according to tertiles of serum carotenoids and trend tests using continuous variables. Higher total serum carotenoids (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.66 [0.46-0.96]; Ptrend = .02), lycopene (OR = 0.54 [0.38-0.78]; Ptrend = .003), and α-cryptoxanthin (OR = 0.53 [0.36-0.78]; Ptrend = .003) were associated with a lower risk of NHL. For retinol (OR = 0.90 [0.61-1.33]; Ptrend = .04), a statistically significant inverse linear trend was detected. Risk estimates remained unchanged with adjustment for NHL risk factors and were similar in analyses stratified by sex and ethnicity; heterogeneity with NHL subtype was detected only for β-carotene. Other carotenoids, including α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin, showed no association with risk. These data provide support for a protective role of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables in the etiology of NHL. PMID:22550343

  7. BCDO2 acts as a carotenoid scavenger and gatekeeper for the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Glenn P.; Isken, Andrea; Hoff, Sylvia; Babino, Darwin; von Lintig, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids and their metabolites are widespread and exert key biological functions in living organisms. In vertebrates, the carotenoid oxygenase BCMO1 converts carotenoids such as β,β-carotene to retinoids, which are required for embryonic pattern formation and cell differentiation. Vertebrate genomes encode a structurally related protein named BCDO2 but its physiological function remains undefined. Here, we show that BCDO2 is expressed as an oxidative stress-regulated protein during zebrafish development. Targeted knockdown of this mitochondrial enzyme resulted in anemia at larval stages. Marker gene analysis and staining for hemoglobin revealed that erythropoiesis was not impaired but that erythrocytes underwent apoptosis in BCDO2-deficient larvae. To define the mechanism of this defect, we have analyzed the role of BCDO2 in human cell lines. We found that carotenoids caused oxidative stress in mitochondria that eventually led to cytochrome c release, proteolytic activation of caspase 3 and PARP1, and execution of the apoptotic pathway. Moreover, BCDO2 prevented this induction of the apoptotic pathway by carotenoids. Thus, our study identifying BCDO2 as a crucial protective component against oxidative stress establishes this enzyme as mitochondrial carotenoid scavenger and a gatekeeper of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. PMID:22764054

  8. Modern Breeding and Biotechnological Approaches to Enhance Carotenoid Accumulation in Seeds.

    PubMed

    Federico, M L; Schmidt, M A

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for carotenoids, which are fundamental components of the human diet, for example as precursors of vitamin A. Carotenoids are also potent antioxidants and their health benefits are becoming increasingly evident. Protective effects against prostate cancer and age-related macular degeneration have been proposed for lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, respectively. Additionally, β-carotene, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin are high-value carotenoids used by the food industry as feed supplements and colorants. The production and consumption of these carotenoids from natural sources, especially from seeds, constitutes an important step towards fortifying the diet of malnourished people in developing nations. Therefore, attempts to metabolically manipulate β-carotene production in plants have received global attention, especially after the generation of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa). The endosperms of Golden Rice seeds synthesize and accumulate large quantities of β-carotene (provitamin A), yielding a characteristic yellow color in the polished grains. Classical breeding efforts have also focused in the development of cultivars with elevated seed carotenoid content, with maize and other cereals leading the way. In this communication we will summarize transgenic efforts and modern breeding strategies to fortify various crop seeds with nutraceutical carotenoids. PMID:27485229

  9. Detection of carotenoids present in blood of various animal species using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaqat, Maryam; Younus, Ayesha; Saleem, Muhammad; Rashid, Imaad; Yaseen, Maria; Jabeen, Saher

    Raman spectroscopy is simple stable powerful diagnostic tool for body fluids, tissues and other biomolecules. Human blood possesses different kind of carotenoids that play a key role for protecting the cells from damaging by different viral and bacterial diseases. Carotenoids are antioxidative components which are capable to overcome the attack of different free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids are not prepared by human body, therefore it is recommended to eat carotenoids enrich vegetable foods. No standard data is available on the concentration of useful carotenoids component in non-vegetable consumed items. In present research work, Raman spectroscopy is used to compare various blood components like plasma, serum, carotenoids present in blood of different animal species like goat, sheep, cow and buffalo consumed by human. Especially beta carotene is investigated. The Raman shift ranges from 600-1700 cm-1 for samples. Different characteristic peaks of the blood components are found which are not characterized before in animal samples. Doctrate Student in Photonics Deparatment of Electrical Engineering.

  10. Production of carotenoids by Arthrobacter arilaitensis strains isolated from smear-ripened cheeses.

    PubMed

    Sutthiwong, Nuthathai; Dufossé, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    Arthrobacter arilaitensis is one of the major microorganisms responsible for the coloration of cheese surface, particularly in smear-ripened cheeses. This study investigated the occurrence of pigment synthesis among A. arilaitensis strains in several aspects covering (1) UV-Vis absorption spectra and HPLC chromatograms of pigment extracts, (2) diversity of pigment production among strains, (3) influence of light on the production of pigment, and (4) kinetic of pigment synthesis. Based on absorption spectra and HPLC analysis, the 14 A. arilaitensis strains studied could be divided into two groups depending on their ability to produce carotenoids, carotenoid-producing, and nonpigmented strains. The methanolic extracts prepared from eight carotenoid-producing strains contained at least four carotenoids represented mainly as polar molecules. The diversity of pigment concentrations among these strains was low, with carotenoids ranging from 0.40 to 0.76 mg L(-1) culture and specific productivities from 0.14 to 0.25 mg pigment per g dry biomass, under light condition. When cultivating these A. arilaitensis strains under darkness condition, carotenoid biosynthesis was lower within a 0.17-0.25 mg L(-1) range. The pigment production time curve of a representative colored A. arilaitensis strain displayed a sigmoid shape which paralleled cell growth, probably indicating a growth-associated pigmentation.

  11. Effect of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation in citrus juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of blue LED light intensity on carotenoid accumulation and expression of genes related to carotenoid biosynthesis were investigated in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) and Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) in vitro. The results showed that 100 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (100B) was effective for increasing carotenoid content, especially β-cryptoxanthin, in Satsuma mandarin after cultured in vitro for four weeks. In Valencia orange, in contrast, 50 μmol m(-2)s(-1) blue LED light (50B) treatment was effective for inducing carotenoid accumulation through increasing the contents of two major carotenoids, all-trans-violaxanthin and 9-cis-violaxanthin. In addition, gene expression results showed that the simultaneous increases in the expression of genes (CitPSY, CitPDS, CitZDS, CitLCYb2, and CitHYb) involved in producing β,β-xanthophylls were well consistent with the accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin in Satsuma mandarin under 100B, and violaxanthin in Valencia orange under 50B. The results presented herein contribute to further elucidating the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation by blue LED light.

  12. Carotenoid accumulation and function in seeds and non-green tissues.

    PubMed

    Howitt, Crispin A; Pogson, Barry J

    2006-03-01

    Carotenoids are plant pigments that function as antioxidants, hormone precursors, colourants and essential components of the photosynthetic apparatus. Carotenoids accumulate in nearly all types of plastids, not just the chloroplast, and are thus found in most plant organs and tissues, albeit at trace levels in some tissues. In this review we summarise the current knowledge of the carotenoid content of non-green plastids and discuss what is known about the regulation of their biosynthesis in roots, fruits, flowers, tubers and seeds. The emphasis is on food crops as carotenoids are essential components of human diets, primarily as some are precursors of vitamin A. The low carotenoid content of many staple foods, such as cereals, can exacerbate dietary deficiencies. The World Health Organisation has estimated that more than 100 million children are vitamin A-deficient and up to 500,000 of these children become blind each year. Many of these children die within 12 months of going blind. Thus, understanding the regulation of carotenoid accumulation in food crops, especially tubers and cereals, should facilitate improvements to nutritional value with potentially significant health benefits.

  13. Increasing solubility of red bell pepper carotenoids by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    de Lima Petito, Nicolly; da Silva Dias, Daiana; Costa, Valéria Gonçalves; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; de Lima Araujo, Kátia Gome

    2016-10-01

    Red bell pepper carotenoids were complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HPβCD) in different mass ratios (1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10) through ultrasonic homogenization in order to increase carotenoid solubility and their use as natural pigment in food. Inclusion complexes, red bell pepper extract and physical mixtures were analyzed by DSC, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and DLS. Solubility assay was performed to identify the effect of complexation on the solubility of carotenoids. From characterization assays, results showed that inclusion process occurred for all tested ratios. Results for water solubility assays demonstrated clear differences between solubility index of inclusion complexes (8.06±2.59-16.55±4.40mg/mL) and physical mixtures (3.53±1.44-7.3±1.88mg/mL), while carotenoid extract was no water soluble, as expected. These results indicated that molecular inclusion of carotenoids in 2-HPβCD was efficient to enhance their solubility in water, enabling application of red bell pepper carotenoid as natural pigment and/or bioactive substances in food. PMID:27132832

  14. Carotenoid intake does not mediate a relationship between reactive oxygen species and bright colouration: experimental test in a lizard.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Mats; Wilson, Mark; Isaksson, Caroline; Uller, Tobias; Mott, Beth

    2008-04-01

    We performed experiments on male Australian painted dragon lizards (Ctenophorus pictus) to test the hypothesis that carotenoids can scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), protecting the organism from oxidative stress, and that this capacity is reflected in skin colours involved in signalling. Subsequent to 4 weeks of carotenoid treatment we used flow cytometry to analyse unspecified ROS (H(2)O(2), singlet oxygen, superoxide and peroxynitrite level), hereafter termed ROS, and baseline superoxide specifically (bSO in peripheral blood cells). Mean background levels of ROS and bSO did not differ between carotenoid-treated and control males. bSO, which represents the superoxide level in un-manipulated blood, was negatively correlated with colour development in all males, regardless of carotenoid treatment. Thus, carotenoid intake does not reduce circulating levels of ROS or bSO, suggesting that carotenoids are inefficient antioxidants in vivo and, therefore, are unlikely to provide a direct link between oxidative stress and colouration. PMID:18375850

  15. Determination of free and esterified carotenoid composition in rose hip fruit by HPLC-DAD-APCI(+)-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lijie; Gustavsson, Karl-Erik; Oredsson, Stina; Głąb, Bartosz; Yilmaz, Jenny Lindberg; Olsson, Marie E

    2016-11-01

    Rose hip fruit, which contains high concentration of carotenoids is commonly used for different food products in Europe and it is considered to have medical properties. In this study, a simple, rapid and efficient HPLC-DAD-APCI(+)-MS method was developed and applied to identify and quantify the carotenoids in rose hip fruit of four rose species, including both unsaponified and saponified extract. In the unsaponified extract 23 carotenoid esters were detected, in which either rubixanthin ester or violaxanthin ester was the dominant component of the ester composition. In the saponified extract 21 carotenoids, including 11 xanthophylls and 10 carotenes were detected. This is the first time the total carotenoid composition, including the carotenoid esters in rose hip fruit were identified and quantified. This work reveals the potential of rose hip fruit to be utilized as a healthy dietary material and give chemical information for the possible future development in the pharmacology field.

  16. The effect of domestic processing on the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from chili peppers (Capsicum species).

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Alessandro; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; Galvin, Karen; Menichini, Francesco; O'Brien, Nora

    2013-12-01

    The content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from different chili peppers were analysed and the effects of typical domestic processing were investigated. Peppers were analysed before and after cooking by conventional boiling (10 min in 100 °C water) and also following a freezing period of four months in a domestic freezer (-20 °C). The content and bioaccessibility of the eight carotenoids quantified varied, depending on cultivar, species, colour and processing. Provitamin A carotenoids (β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin) and capsanthin were present at highest concentrations in the samples before and after processing. In general, yellow and orange peppers were the best sources of lutein, zeaxanthin and neoxanthin. Xanthophyll carotenoids were more efficiently transferred to the micelles and, therefore, were also more bioavailable. Processing decreased the carotenoid content in certain samples; however, the micellar content was generally not lower for processed peppers; therefore the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from processed peppers is enhanced relative to unprocessed peppers.

  17. Bioaccessibility and digestive stability of carotenoids in cooked eggs studied using a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model.

    PubMed

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Savard, Patricia; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2015-03-25

    Among dietary carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin are known to protect against age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the elderly. Egg yolk is rich in lutein and zeaxanthin, however, the effect of cooking and gastrointestinal digestion on yolk carotenoids is poorly understood. An in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM-1) was used to investigate the digestive stability and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from boiled, fried, and scrambled eggs. Bioaccessibility but not digestive stability was significantly affected by the method of cooking. The main egg carotenoids, all-E-lutein and all-E-zeaxanthin, were stable during the digestion with average recoveries of 90 and 88%, respectively. No trans-cis isomerization of carotenoids was observed during digestion. Both all-E-lutein and all-E-zeaxanthin from scrambled eggs showed significantly lower bioaccessibility compared to boiled eggs. The results indicate that the bioaccessibility of egg carotenoids can be affected by different food preparation methods.

  18. The effect of domestic processing on the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from chili peppers (Capsicum species).

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Alessandro; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; Galvin, Karen; Menichini, Francesco; O'Brien, Nora

    2013-12-01

    The content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from different chili peppers were analysed and the effects of typical domestic processing were investigated. Peppers were analysed before and after cooking by conventional boiling (10 min in 100 °C water) and also following a freezing period of four months in a domestic freezer (-20 °C). The content and bioaccessibility of the eight carotenoids quantified varied, depending on cultivar, species, colour and processing. Provitamin A carotenoids (β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin) and capsanthin were present at highest concentrations in the samples before and after processing. In general, yellow and orange peppers were the best sources of lutein, zeaxanthin and neoxanthin. Xanthophyll carotenoids were more efficiently transferred to the micelles and, therefore, were also more bioavailable. Processing decreased the carotenoid content in certain samples; however, the micellar content was generally not lower for processed peppers; therefore the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from processed peppers is enhanced relative to unprocessed peppers. PMID:23871001

  19. Postprandial plasma carotenoid responses following consumption of strawberries, red wine, vitamin C or spinach by elderly women.

    PubMed

    Paiva, S A; Yeum, K J; Cao, G; Prior, R L; Russell, R M

    1998-12-01

    This study investigated the postprandial plasma responses of carotenoids for 24 h after feeding five specific breakfast beverages; four of which had low or no carotenoid content. In seven fasting healthy elderly female subjects a blood sample (baseline) was obtained, after which they were given a breakfast beverage, containing one of the following: 1) strawberries (240 g); 2) ascorbic acid (1250 mg); 3) spinach (294 g); 4) red wine (300 mL); and 5) control (breakfast beverage only). Blood samples were collected at 0.5, 1, 4, 7, 11, 15 and 24 h. Plasma carotenoids were measured using HPLC. No significant differences were found in the levels of the plasma carotenoids measured among the various treatments at baseline. In the spinach treatment, plasma lutein, zeaxanthin and beta-carotene levels at 7, 11, 15 and 24 h were significantly higher than those at baseline, as expected. All of the carotenoids measured in the control and vitamin C treatments, at subsequent sampling times were not significantly different from those at baseline. However, for most carotenoids, strawberry and red wine feeding resulted in significantly lower carotenoids values from baseline at 11 and 15 h. Subjects who received a diet with low levels of carotenoids, but whose postprandial plasma levels of carotenoids remain steady, might be explained by a mechanism that promotes secretion of carotenoids into the circulation. Assuming that plasma carotenoids are being used over time, we hypothesize that strawberries and red wine contain some substances that interfere with the secretion of carotenoids into the circulation. PMID:9868186

  20. Evaluation of biomass production, carotenoid level and antioxidant capacity produced by Thermus filiformis Using fractional factorial design

    PubMed Central

    Mandelli, Fernanda; Yamashita, Fábio; Pereira, José L.; Mercadante, Adriana Z.

    2012-01-01

    A fractional factorial design 25–1 was used to evaluate the effect of temperature, pH, and concentrations of yeast extract, tryptone and Nitsch’s trace elements on the biomass, total carotenoids and protection against singlet oxygen by carotenoid extracts of the bacterium Thermus filiformis. In addition, the carotenoid composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography connected to a diode array and mass spectrometer detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). The production of biomass ranged from 0.113 to 0.658 g/L, the total carotenoid from 137.6 to 1,517.4 µg/g and the protection against singlet oxygen from 4.3 to 85.1 %. Results of the fractional factorial design showed that temperature had a negative effect on biomass production and a positive effect on carotenoid content and protection against singlet oxygen, besides, high levels of pH value, concentrations of yeast extract and tryptone had a positive effect on biomass production only at lower temperatures. The main carotenoids of T. filiformis were thermozeaxanthins. In the tested conditions, changes in the levels of the variables influenced the biomass, carotenoid production, and protection against singlet oxygen, although they did not influence the carotenoid profile. The results of this study provide a better understanding on the interactions among certain nutritional and cultivation conditions of a thermophile bacterium, Thermus filiformis, on biomass and carotenoid amounts, as well as on the antioxidant capacity. PMID:24031811

  1. Effect of ultrasound and blanching pretreatments on polyacetylene and carotenoid content of hot air and freeze dried carrot discs.

    PubMed

    Rawson, A; Tiwari, B K; Tuohy, M G; O'Donnell, C P; Brunton, N

    2011-09-01

    The effect of ultrasound and blanching pretreatments on polyacetylene (falcarinol, falcarindiol and falcarindiol-3-acetate) and carotenoid compounds of hot air and freeze dried carrot discs was investigated. Ultrasound pretreatment followed by hot air drying (UPHD) at the highest amplitude and treatment time investigated resulted in higher retention of polyacetylenes and carotenoids in dried carrot discs than blanching followed by hot air drying. Freeze dried samples had a higher retention of polyacetylene and carotenoid compounds compared to hot air dried samples. Color parameters were strongly correlated with carotenoids (p<0.05). This study shows that ultrasound pretreatment is a potential alternative to conventional blanching treatment in the drying of carrots.

  2. Carotenoids and egg quality in the lesser blackbacked gull Larus fuscus: a supplemental feeding study of maternal effects.

    PubMed

    Blount, Jonathan D; Surai, Peter F; Nager, Ruedi G; Houston, David C; Møller, Anders Pape; Trewby, Michael L; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2002-01-01

    Egg quality is a phenotype of, and can profoundly influence fitness in, both mother and offspring. However, the physiological mechanisms that underlie this maternal effect are poorly understood. Carotenoids are hypothesized to enhance antioxidant activity and immune function, and are responsible for the pigmentation of egg yolk. The proximate basis and consequences of this maternal investment, however, have not previously been studied in wild birds. In this supplemental feeding study of lesser black-backed gulls, Larus fuscus, carotenoid-fed females are shown to have increased integument pigmentation, higher plasma concentrations of carotenoids and antioxidant activity, and lower plasma concentrations of immunoglobulins (Igs) in comparison with controls. In turn, carotenoid-fed females produced eggs containing high carotenoid but low Ig concentrations (i.e. passive immunity), whereas control females produced eggs containing low carotenoid but high Ig concentrations. Within-clutch patterns of these resources varied over the laying sequence in a similar manner in both carotenoid-fed and control nests. Our results suggest that carotenoids could be one resource responsible for egg quality maternal effects in birds. We discuss the possible implications of carotenoid-mediated effects on phenotype for fitness in mothers and their offspring. PMID:11788033

  3. Carotenoid trade-off between parasitic resistance and sexual display: an experimental study in the blackbird (Turdus merula)

    PubMed Central

    Baeta, R; Faivre, B; Motreuil, S; Gaillard, M; Moreau, J

    2007-01-01

    Many parasites depress the expression of the carotenoid-based colour displays of their hosts, and it has been hypothesized that animals face a trade-off in carotenoid allocation between immune functions and ‘degree of ornamentation’. While numerous correlative studies suggest that parasite infection decreases the intensity of carotenoid-based colour displays, the existence of this trade-off has never been demonstrated experimentally in a host–parasite model. In this study, we used the blackbird (Turdus merula) and Isospora (an intestinal parasite) to assess whether this trade-off does indeed exist. Blackbirds were supplemented with carotenoids while simultaneously being exposed to parasites. Supplemented males circulated more carotenoids in the blood and developed more brightly coloured bills than unsupplemented males. In addition, supplementation slowed down the replication rate of parasites. Supplementation with carotenoids enabled infected birds to maintain their bill coloration, whereas birds that were infected but not supplemented showed reduced bill coloration. At the same time, infection slowed carotenoid assimilation in the blood. Overall, we demonstrated that bill colour reflects a bird's health, and that only males with a carotenoid-rich diet are capable of coping with costs associated with parasitic infection. Carotenoids are thus traded off between host physiological response to parasites and secondary sexual traits. Further investigations are required to determine the physiological mechanisms that govern this trade-off. PMID:18055388

  4. Reconstructing Carotenoid-Based and Structural Coloration in Fossil Skin.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Maria E; Orr, Patrick J; Kearns, Stuart L; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver, Enrique

    2016-04-25

    Evidence of original coloration in fossils provides insights into the visual communication strategies used by ancient animals and the functional evolution of coloration over time [1-7]. Hitherto, all reconstructions of the colors of reptile integument and the plumage of fossil birds and feathered dinosaurs have been of melanin-based coloration [1-6]. Extant animals also use other mechanisms for producing color [8], but these have not been identified in fossils. Here we report the first examples of carotenoid-based coloration in the fossil record, and of structural coloration in fossil integument. The fossil skin, from a 10 million-year-old colubrid snake from the Late Miocene Libros Lagerstätte (Teruel, Spain) [9, 10], preserves dermal pigment cells (chromatophores)-xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores-in calcium phosphate. Comparison with chromatophore abundance and position in extant reptiles [11-15] indicates that the fossil snake was pale-colored in ventral regions; dorsal and lateral regions were green with brown-black and yellow-green transverse blotches. Such coloration most likely functioned in substrate matching and intraspecific signaling. Skin replicated in authigenic minerals is not uncommon in exceptionally preserved fossils [16, 17], and dermal pigment cells generate coloration in numerous reptile, amphibian, and fish taxa today [18]. Our discovery thus represents a new means by which to reconstruct the original coloration of exceptionally preserved fossil vertebrates. PMID:27040775

  5. Fermented orange juice: source of higher carotenoid and flavanone contents.

    PubMed

    Escudero-López, Blanca; Cerrillo, Isabel; Herrero-Martín, Griselda; Hornero-Méndez, Damaso; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Medina, Sonia; Ferreres, Federico; Berná, Genoveva; Martín, Francisco; Fernández-Pachón, Maria-Soledad

    2013-09-18

    The intake of bioactive compounds and moderate alcohol decreases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. These effects could be joined in a beverage created by a controlled alcoholic fermentation of orange juice. The influence of controlled alcoholic fermentation on the bioactive compound profile of orange juice has not been previously evaluated, and this is the purpose of the present study. Total and individual flavanones and carotenoids significantly increased throughout the fermentation. The reason for this was an enhanced extraction of these compounds from the pulp. Besides, the potential bioavailability of flavanones increased due to a higher content of hesperetin-7-O-glucoside (2-fold higher at the end of the fermentation process). Ascorbic acid did not undergo a significant change, and only total phenolics decreased. Antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. TEAC and FRAP values remained constant throughout the process. However, ORAC and DPPH values significantly increased. Correlation analysis concluded that the increase in ORAC and DPPH values could be due to enhancement of flavanones.

  6. Study of carotenoids in cyanobacteria by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Vanessa End; Neves Miranda, Marcela A C; Soares, Maria Carolina Silva; Edwards, Howell G M; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have established dominant aquatic populations around the world, generally in aggressive environments and under severe stress conditions, e.g., intense solar radiation. Several marine strains make use of compounds such as the polyenic molecules for their damage protection justifying the range of colours observed for these species. The peridinin/chlorophyll-a/protein complex is an excellent example of essential structures used for self-prevention; their systems allow to them surviving under aggressive environments. In our simulations, few protective dyes are required to the initial specimen defense; this is an important data concern the synthetic priority in order to supply adequate damage protection. Raman measurements obtained with 1064 and 514.5 nm excitations for Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Microcystis aeruginosa strains shows bands assignable to the carotenoid peridinin. It was characterized by bands at 1940, 1650, 1515, 1449, 1185, 1155 and 1000 cm(-1) assigned to ν(C=C=C) (allenic vibration), ν(C=C/CO), ν(C=C), δ(C-H, C-18/19), δ(C-H), ν(C-C), and ρ(C-CH3), respectively. Recognition by Raman spectroscopy proved to be an important tool for preliminaries detections and characterization of polyene molecules in several algae, besides initiate an interesting discussion about their synthetic priority.

  7. Reconstructing Carotenoid-Based and Structural Coloration in Fossil Skin.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Maria E; Orr, Patrick J; Kearns, Stuart L; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver, Enrique

    2016-04-25

    Evidence of original coloration in fossils provides insights into the visual communication strategies used by ancient animals and the functional evolution of coloration over time [1-7]. Hitherto, all reconstructions of the colors of reptile integument and the plumage of fossil birds and feathered dinosaurs have been of melanin-based coloration [1-6]. Extant animals also use other mechanisms for producing color [8], but these have not been identified in fossils. Here we report the first examples of carotenoid-based coloration in the fossil record, and of structural coloration in fossil integument. The fossil skin, from a 10 million-year-old colubrid snake from the Late Miocene Libros Lagerstätte (Teruel, Spain) [9, 10], preserves dermal pigment cells (chromatophores)-xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores-in calcium phosphate. Comparison with chromatophore abundance and position in extant reptiles [11-15] indicates that the fossil snake was pale-colored in ventral regions; dorsal and lateral regions were green with brown-black and yellow-green transverse blotches. Such coloration most likely functioned in substrate matching and intraspecific signaling. Skin replicated in authigenic minerals is not uncommon in exceptionally preserved fossils [16, 17], and dermal pigment cells generate coloration in numerous reptile, amphibian, and fish taxa today [18]. Our discovery thus represents a new means by which to reconstruct the original coloration of exceptionally preserved fossil vertebrates.

  8. Enzymatic carotenoid cleavage in star fruit (Averrhoa carambola).

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Peter; Watanabe, Naoharu; Winterhalter, Peter

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents the first description of an enzyme fraction exhibiting carotenoid cleavage activity isolated from fruit skin of Averrhoa carambola. Partial purification of the enzyme could be achieved by acetone precipitation, ultrafiltration (300 kDa, 50 kDa), isoelectric focusing (pH 3-10) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (7.5%). In this way, an enzymatically active protein fraction was obtained, consisting of four proteins in the molecular weight range of between 12 and 90 kDa. Using beta-carotene as substrate, the enzyme activity was detected spectrophotometrically at 505 nm. The main reaction product, detected by GC analysis, was beta-ionone. This proves that the isolated enzymes are closely related to aroma metabolism and release of star fruit. The time constant of the reaction was 16.6 min, the Michaelis Constant K(m)=3.6 micromol 1(-1) and the maximum velocity V(max)=10.5 x 10(-3) micromol l(-1) s(-1) mg((Protein))(-1). The optimum temperature was 45 degrees C.

  9. Siphonaxanthin, a Green Algal Carotenoid, as a Novel Functional Compound

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Tatsuya; Ganesan, Ponesakki; Li, Zhuosi; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Siphonaxanthin is a specific keto-carotenoid in green algae whose bio-functional properties are yet to be identified. This review focuses on siphonaxanthin as a bioactive compound and outlines the evidence associated with functionality. Siphonaxanthin has been reported to potently inhibit the viability of human leukemia HL-60 cells via induction of apoptosis. In comparison with fucoxanthin, siphonaxanthin markedly reduced cell viability as early as 6 h after treatment. The cellular uptake of siphonaxanthin was 2-fold higher than fucoxanthin. It has been proposed that siphonaxanthin possesses significant anti-angiogenic activity in studies using human umbilical vein endothelial cells and rat aortic ring. The results of these studies suggested that the anti-angiogenic effect of siphonaxanthin is due to the down-regulation of signal transduction by fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 in vascular endothelial cells. Siphonaxanthin also exhibited inhibitory effects on antigen-induced degranulation of mast cells. These findings open up new avenues for future research on siphonaxanthin as a bioactive compound, and additional investigation, especially in vivo studies, are required to validate these findings. In addition, further studies are needed to determine its bioavailability and metabolic fate. PMID:24950294

  10. Antioxidant activity of carotenoid lutein in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Edakkadath R; Preethi, Korengath C; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2010-08-01

    Carotenoid lutein was evaluated for its antioxidant potential both in vitro and in vivo. Lutein was found to scavenge superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals and inhibited in vitro lipid peroxidation. Concentrations needed for 50% inhibition (IC50) were 21, 1.75 and 2.2 microg/mL respectively. It scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (IC50 35 microg/mL) and nitric oxide radicals (IC50 3.8 microg/mL) while 2,2-azobis-3-ethylbenzthiozoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals were inhibited at higher concentration. Ferric reducing power (50%) of lutein was found to be equal 0.3 micromols/mL of FeSO4.7H2O. Its oral administration inhibited superoxide generation in macrophages in vivo by 34.18, 64.32 and 70.22% at doses of 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight. The oral administration of lutein in mice for 1 month significantly increased the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione in blood and liver while the activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase were found to be increased in the liver tissue. Implication of these results in terms of its role in reducing degenerative diseases is discussed. PMID:21341544

  11. The nature of singlet exciton fission in carotenoid aggregates.

    PubMed

    Musser, Andrew J; Maiuri, Margherita; Brida, Daniele; Cerullo, Giulio; Friend, Richard H; Clark, Jenny

    2015-04-22

    Singlet exciton fission allows the fast and efficient generation of two spin triplet states from one photoexcited singlet. It has the potential to improve organic photovoltaics, enabling efficient coupling to the blue to ultraviolet region of the solar spectrum to capture the energy generally lost as waste heat. However, many questions remain about the underlying fission mechanism. The relation between intermolecular geometry and singlet fission rate and yield is poorly understood and remains one of the most significant barriers to the design of new singlet fission sensitizers. Here we explore the structure-property relationship and examine the mechanism of singlet fission in aggregates of astaxanthin, a small polyene. We isolate five distinct supramolecular structures of astaxanthin generated through self-assembly in solution. Each is capable of undergoing intermolecular singlet fission, with rates of triplet generation and annihilation that can be correlated with intermolecular coupling strength. In contrast with the conventional model of singlet fission in linear molecules, we demonstrate that no intermediate states are involved in the triplet formation: instead, singlet fission occurs directly from the initial 1B(u) photoexcited state on ultrafast time scales. This result demands a re-evaluation of current theories of polyene photophysics and highlights the robustness of carotenoid singlet fission. PMID:25825939

  12. Role of carotenoid β-cryptoxanthin in bone homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained through a balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. Aging induces bone loss due to decreased osteoblastic bone formation and increased osteoclastic bone resorption. Osteoporosis with its accompanying decrease in bone mass is widely recognized as a major public health problem. Nutritional factors may play a role in the prevention of bone loss with aging. Among various carotenoids (carotene and xanthophylls including beta (β)-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, β-carotene, astaxanthin, and rutin), β-cryptoxanthin, which is abundant in Satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshiu MARC.), has been found to have a stimulatory effect on bone calcification in vitro. β-cryptoxanthin has stimulatory effects on osteoblastic bone formation and inhibitory effects on osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro, thereby increasing bone mass. β-cryptoxanthin has an effect on the gene expression of various proteins that are related osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resororption in vitro. The intake of β-cryptoxanthin may have a preventive effect on bone loss in animal models for osteoporosis and in healthy human or postmenopausal women. Epidemiological studies suggest a potential role of β-cryptoxanthin as a sustainable nutritional approach to improving bone health of human subjects. β-Cryptoxanthin may be an osteogenic factor in preventing osteoporosis in human subjects. PMID:22471523

  13. Carotenoid inhibitors reduce strigolactone production and Striga hermonthica infection in rice.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Muhammad; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Verstappen, Francel; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2010-12-01

    The strigolactones are internal and rhizosphere signalling molecules in plants that are biosynthesised through carotenoid cleavage. They are secreted by host roots into the rhizosphere where they signal host-presence to the symbiotic arbuscular mycrorrhizal (AM) fungi and the parasitic plants of the Orobanche, Phelipanche and Striga genera. The seeds of these parasitic plants germinate after perceiving these signalling molecules. After attachment to the host root, the parasite negatively affects the host plant by withdrawing water, nutrients and assimilates through a direct connection with the host xylem. In many areas of the world these parasites are a threat to agriculture but so far very limited success has been achieved to minimize losses due to these parasitic weeds. Considering the carotenoid origin of the strigolactones, in the present study we investigated the possibilities to reduce strigolactone production in the roots of plants by blocking carotenoid biosynthesis using carotenoid inhibitors. Hereto the carotenoid inhibitors fluridone, norflurazon, clomazone and amitrole were applied to rice either through irrigation or through foliar spray. Irrigation application of all carotenoid inhibitors and spray application of amitrole significantly decreased strigolactone production, Striga hermonthica germination and Striga infection, also in concentrations too low to affect growth and development of the host plant. Hence, we demonstrate that the application of carotenoid inhibitors to plants can affect S. hermonthica germination and attachment indirectly by reducing the strigolactone concentration in the rhizosphere. This finding is useful for further studies on the relevance of the strigolactones in rhizosphere signalling. Since these inhibitors are available and accessible, they may represent an efficient technology for farmers, including poor subsistence farmers in the African continent, to control these harmful parasitic weeds.

  14. A genetic dissection of intestinal fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid absorption

    PubMed Central

    Widjaja-Adhi, M. Airanthi K.; Lobo, Glenn P.; Golczak, Marcin; Von Lintig, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are currently investigated regarding their potential to lower the risk of chronic disease and to combat vitamin A deficiency. Surprisingly, responses to dietary supplementation with these compounds are quite variable between individuals. Genome-wide studies have associated common genetic polymorphisms in the BCO1 gene with this variability. The BCO1 gene encodes an enzyme that is expressed in the intestine and converts provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A-aldehyde. However, it is not clear how this enzyme can impact the bioavailability and metabolism of other carotenoids such as xanthophyll. We here provide evidence that BCO1 is a key component of a regulatory network that controls the absorption of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins. In this process, conversion of β-carotene to vitamin A by BCO1 induces via retinoid signaling the expression of the intestinal homeobox transcription factor ISX. Subsequently, ISX binds to conserved DNA-binding motifs upstream of the BCO1 and SCARB1 genes. SCARB1 encodes a membrane protein that facilitates absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids. In keeping with its role as a transcriptional repressor, SCARB1 protein levels are significantly increased in the intestine of ISX-deficient mice. This increase results in augmented absorption and tissue accumulation of xanthophyll carotenoids and tocopherols. Our study shows that fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid absorption is controlled by a BCO1-dependent negative feedback regulation. Thus, our findings provide a molecular framework for the controversial relationship between genetics and fat-soluble vitamin status in the human population. PMID:25701869

  15. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis by Shade Relies on Specific Subsets of Antagonistic Transcription Factors and Cofactors.

    PubMed

    Bou-Torrent, Jordi; Toledo-Ortiz, Gabriela; Ortiz-Alcaide, Miriam; Cifuentes-Esquivel, Nicolas; Halliday, Karen J; Martinez-García, Jaime F; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Carotenoids are photosynthetic pigments essential for the protection against excess light. During deetiolation, their production is regulated by a dynamic repression-activation module formed by PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1) and LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5). These transcription factors directly and oppositely control the expression of the gene encoding PHYTOENE SYNTHASE (PSY), the first and main rate-determining enzyme of the carotenoid pathway. Antagonistic modules also regulate the responses of deetiolated plants to vegetation proximity and shade (i.e. to the perception of far-red light-enriched light filtered through or reflected from neighboring plants). These responses, aimed to adapt to eventual shading from plant competitors, include a reduced accumulation of carotenoids. Here, we show that PIF1 and related photolabile PIFs (but not photostable PIF7) promote the shade-triggered decrease in carotenoid accumulation. While HY5 does not appear to be required for this process, other known PIF antagonists were found to modulate the expression of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PSY gene and the biosynthesis of carotenoids early after exposure to shade. In particular, PHYTOCHROME-RAPIDLY REGULATED1, a transcriptional cofactor that prevents the binding of true transcription factors to their target promoters, was found to interact with PIF1 and hence directly induce PSY expression. By contrast, a change in the levels of the transcriptional cofactor LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR RED1, which also binds to PIF1 and other PIFs to regulate shade-related elongation responses, did not impact PSY expression or carotenoid accumulation. Our data suggest that the fine-regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in response to shade relies on specific modules of antagonistic transcriptional factors and cofactors.

  16. Comparison of three spectrophotometric methods for analysis of egg yolk carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Islam, K M S; Schweigert, F J

    2015-04-01

    Carotenoids accumulated in the egg yolk are of importance for two reasons. Firstly they are important pigments influencing customer acceptance and secondly they are essential components with positive health effects either as antioxidants or as precursor of vitamin A. Different analytical methods are available to quantitatively identify carotenoids from egg yolk such as spectrophotometric methods described by AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) and HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). Both methods have in common that they are time consuming, need a laboratory environment and well trained technical operators. Recently, a rapid lab-independent spectrophotometric method (iCheck, BioAnalyt GmbH, Germany) has been introduced that claims to be less time consuming and easy to operate. The aim of the current study was therefore to compare the novel method with the two standard methods. Yolks of 80 eggs were analysed as aliquots by the three methods in parallel. While both spectrometric methods are only able measure total carotenoids as total ß-carotene, HPLC enables the determination of individual carotenoids such lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, ß-carotene and β-apocarotenoic ester. In general, total carotenoids levels as obtained by AOAC were in average 27% higher than those obtained by HPLC. Carotenoid values obtained by the reference methods AOAC and HPLC are highly correlated with the iCheck method with r(2) of 0.99 and 0.94 for iCheck vs. AOAC and iCheck vs. HPLC, respectively (both p<0.001). Bland Altman analysis showed that the novel iCheck method is comparable to the reference methods. In conclusion, the novel rapid and portable iCheck method is a valid and effective tool to determine total carotenoid of egg yolk under laboratory-independent conditions with little trained personal.

  17. Changes of colour and carotenoids contents during high intensity pulsed electric field treatment in orange juices.

    PubMed

    Cortés, C; Esteve, M J; Rodrigo, D; Torregrosa, F; Frígola, A

    2006-11-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC) was the method chosen to evaluate the effects of high intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF), with different electric field intensities (25, 30, 35 and 40 kV/cm) and different treatment times (30-340 micros), on orange juice cis/trans carotenoid contents. In parallel, a conventional heat treatment (90 degrees C, 20 s) was applied to the orange juice in order to compare the effect on the carotenoid contents. HIPEF processing of orange juice is an alternative to the thermal treatment of pasteurization, provided that it is kept refrigerated, because, when the most extreme conditions of this kind of treatment are applied, the decrease in the concentration of carotenoids with vitamin A activity is very small, and also most of the carotenoids identified have a slightly increased concentration after application of the most intense treatments, although always less than in untreated fresh juice. In any case, pasteurization treatment causes a greater decrease in the concentration of most of the carotenoids identified and the carotenoids with vitamin A activity. The total carotenoid concentration decreased by 12.6% in pasteurized orange juice with respect to untreated fresh orange juice, as opposed to decreases of 9.6%, 6.3% or 7.8% when fields of 25, 30 or 40 kV/cm were applied. Orange juice treated with HIPEF shows a greater tendency towards the colour yellow and a lesser tendency towards red with respect to untreated orange juice, while the luminance of the juice remains practically invariable. This tendency is less than in pasteurized orange juice.

  18. Carotenoid isomerase is key determinant of petal color of Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Sanae; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2012-01-01

    Orange petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis) accumulate red carotenoids with the cis-configuration at the C-5 or C-5' position (5-cis-carotenoids). We speculated that the orange-flowered calendula is a carotenoid isomerase (crtiso) loss-of-function mutant that impairs the cis-to-trans conversion of 5-cis-carotenoids. We compared the sequences and enzyme activities of CRTISO from orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas. Four types of CRTISO were expressed in calendula petals. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of these genes (CoCRTISO1) was different between orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas, whereas the sequences of the other three CRTISOs were identical between these plants. Analysis of the enzymatic activities of the CoCRTISO homologs showed that CoCRTISO1-Y, which was expressed in yellow petals, converted carotenoids from the cis-to-trans-configuration, whereas both CoCRTISO1-ORa and 1-ORb, which were expressed in orange petals, showed no activity with any of the cis-carotenoids we tested. Moreover, the CoCRTISO1 genotypes of the F2 progeny obtained by crossing orange and yellow lines linked closely to petal color. These data indicate that CoCRTISO1 is a key regulator of the accumulation of 5-cis-carotenoids in calendula petals. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the deletion of Cys-His-His at positions 462-464 in CoCRTISO1-ORa and a Gly-to-Glu amino acid substitution at position 450 in CoCRTISO1-ORb abolished enzyme activity completely, indicating that these amino acid residues are important for the enzymatic activity of CRTISO.

  19. Mechanism of carotenoid coloration in the brightly colored plumages of broadbills (Eurylaimidae).

    PubMed

    Prum, Richard O; LaFountain, Amy M; Berg, Christopher J; Tauber, Michael J; Frank, Harry A

    2014-07-01

    The plumage carotenoids of six species from five genera of broadbills (Eurylaimidae) have been examined. These plumages are crimson, violet, purple-maroon, or yellow. Two genera also have brilliant green plumages that are produced by a combination of structural coloration and unknown carotenoids. Six different carotenoids from nine different plumage patches were identified, including two previously unknown molecules, using high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and MS/MS fragment analysis. The yellow pigment in Eurylaimus javanicus and Eurylaimus ochromalus is identified as the novel carotenoid, 7,8-dihydro-3'-dehydro-lutein. The yellow and green plumages of Psarisomus dalhousiae contain the unmodified dietary carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. The brilliant green feathers of Calyptomena viridis contain a mixture of lutein and two other xanthophylls that have previously been found only in woodpeckers (Picinae). The crimson and violet colors of Cymbirhynchus, Sarcophanops, and Eurylaimus are produced by a novel pigment, which is identified as 2,3-didehydro-papilioerythrinone. The molecular structure of this carotenoid was confirmed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, correlated two-dimensional spectroscopy, and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy. Resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopy carried out at room and low temperatures was used to probe the configuration and conformation of 2,3-didehydro-papilioerythrinone in situ within crimson C. macrorhynchos and purple-red E. javanicus feathers. The rR spectra reveal that the pigment is in an all-trans configuration and appears to be relatively planar in the feathers. The likely metabolic pathways for the production of broadbill carotenoids from dietary precursors are discussed.

  20. Enzymatic Formation of Apo-Carotenoids from the Xanthophyll Carotenoids Lutein, Zeaxanthin and β-Cryptoxanthin by Ferret Carotene-9’,10’-Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Mein, Jonathan R.; Dolnikowski, Gregory G.; Ernst, Hansgeorg; Russell, Robert M.; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2010-01-01

    Xanthophyll carotenoids, such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin, may provide potential health benefits against chronic and degenerative diseases. Investigating pathways of xanthophyll metabolism are important to understanding their biological functions. Carotene-15,15’-monooxygenase (CMO1) has been shown to be involved in vitamin A formation, while recent studies suggest that carotene-9’,10’-monooxygenase (CMO2) may have a broader substrate specificity than previously recognized. In this in vitro study, we investigated baculovirus-generated recombinant ferret CMO2 cleavage activity towards the carotenoid substrates zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Utilizing HPLC, LC-MS and GC-MS, we identified both volatile and non-volatile apocarotenoid products including 3-OH-β-ionone, 3-OH-α-ionone, β-ionone, 3-OH-α-apo-10’-carotenal, 3-OH-β-apo-10’-carotenal, and β-apo-10’-carotenal, indicating cleavage at both the 9,10 and 9’,10’ carbon-carbon double bond. Enzyme kinetic analysis indicated the xanthophylls zeaxanthin and lutein are preferentially cleaved over β-cryptoxanthin, indicating a key role of CMO2 in non-provitamin A carotenoid metabolism. Furthermore, incubation of 3-OH-β-apo-10’-carotenal with CMO2 lysate resulted in the formation of 3-OH-β-ionone. In the presence of NAD+, in vitro incubation of 3-OH-β-apo-10’-carotenal with ferret hepatic homogenates formed 3-OH-β-apo-10’-carotenoic acid. Since apo-carotenoids serve as important signaling molecules in a variety of biological processes, enzymatic cleavage of xanthophylls by mammalian CMO2 represents a new avenue of research regarding vertebrate carotenoid metabolism and biological function. PMID:21081106

  1. New target carotenoids for CCD4 enzymes are revealed with the characterization of a novel stress-induced carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase gene from Crocus sativus.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Rambla, José Luis; Fernández-de-Carmen, Asun; Trapero-Mozos, Almudena; Ahrazem, Oussama; Orzáez, Diego; Granell, Antonio; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2014-11-01

    Apocarotenoid compounds play diverse communication functions in plants, some of them being as hormones, pigments and volatiles. Apocarotenoids are the result of enzymatic cleavage of carotenoids catalyzed by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD). The CCD4 family is the largest family of plant CCDs, only present in flowering plants, suggesting a functional diversification associated to the adaptation for specific physiological capacities unique to them. In saffron, two CCD4 genes have been previously isolated from the stigma tissue and related with the generation of specific volatiles involved in the attraction of pollinators. The aim of this study was to identify additional CCD4 members associated with the generation of other carotenoid-derived volatiles during the development of the stigma. The expression of CsCCD4c appears to be restricted to the stigma tissue in saffron and other Crocus species and was correlated with the generation of megastigma-4,6,8-triene. Further, CsCCD4c was up-regulated by wounding, heat, and osmotic stress, suggesting an involvement of its apocarotenoid products in the adaptation of saffron to environmental stresses. The enzymatic activity of CsCCD4c was determined in vivo in Escherichia coli and subsequently in Nicotiana benthamiana by analyzing carotenoids by HPLC-DAD and the volatile products by GC/MS. β-Carotene was shown to be the preferred substrate, being cleaved at the 9,10 (9',10') bonds and generating β-ionone, although β-cyclocitral resulting from a 7,8 (7',8') cleavage activity was also detected at lower levels. Lutein, neoxanthin and violaxanthin levels in Nicotiana leaves were markedly reduced when CsCCD4c is over expressed, suggesting that CsCCD4c recognizes these carotenoids as substrates.

  2. Characterization of carotenoid high-producing Capsicum annuum cultivars selected for paprika production.

    PubMed

    Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Costa-García, Joaquín; Mínguez-Mosquera, Maria Isabel

    2002-09-25

    Twelve selected pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars, bred for mechanical harvesting (grouped ripeness) and adaptation to different cultivation cycles (short to long), have been characterized by their carotenoid pigment content and composition with the aim of producing high-quality paprika. A detailed analysis of the carotenogenesis was performed throughout the ripening process, but with special emphasis on the ripe stage, with the aim of selecting the best cultivar for paprika production. The MA1 cultivar (with grouped ripeness and very short cultivation cycle) showed the highest carotenoid content (12697.58 mg/kg dwt), followed by DN5 and RN2 cultivars with 11086.88 and 10393.29 mg/kg dwt, respectively. Most of the cultivars (MA3, RN1, LR2, LR7, DN3, DR6, Datler, and Mulato) showed a total carotenoid content in the range of 7000-9700 mg/kg dwt. In general, chlorophyll-retaining character was related to high carotenoid content (cultivars DN3, DN5, MA3, Mulato, RN1, and RN2). The general trend of the cultivation cycle was that the shorter the cycle, the higher the total carotenoid content (as exemplified by the cultivar MA1). The lowest total carotenoid content was found for the RR1 cultivar (4856.77 mg/kg dwt), which showed the longest cultivation cycle. Carotenogenic capacity of the cultivars has been discussed relative to total carotenoid content and the R/Y and Caps/Zeax ratios, the main quality traits for breeding cultivars for production of high-quality paprika. The cultivar MA1, with the highest total carotenoid content, high R/Y (2.11) ratio, and highest Caps/Zeax (9.85) ratio, was found to be the most suitable cultivar for paprika production in terms of carotenoid pigment biosynthesis capacity. Moreover, this cultivar has a short cultivation cycle and grouped ripeness, which are both important characteristics for a proper application of mechanical harvesting. The potential improvement of other varieties is also discussed.

  3. A Foundation for Provitamin A Biofortification of Maize: Genome-Wide Association and Genomic Prediction Models of Carotenoid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Brenda F.; Lipka, Alexander E.; Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; Tiede, Tyler; Diepenbrock, Christine H.; Kandianis, Catherine B.; Kim, Eunha; Cepela, Jason; Mateos-Hernandez, Maria; Buell, C. Robin; Buckler, Edward S.; DellaPenna, Dean; Gore, Michael A.; Rocheford, Torbert

    2014-01-01

    Efforts are underway for development of crops with improved levels of provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency. As a global staple crop with considerable variation in kernel carotenoid composition, maize (Zea mays L.) could have a widespread impact. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of quantified seed carotenoids across a panel of maize inbreds ranging from light yellow to dark orange in grain color to identify some of the key genes controlling maize grain carotenoid composition. Significant associations at the genome-wide level were detected within the coding regions of zep1 and lut1, carotenoid biosynthetic genes not previously shown to impact grain carotenoid composition in association studies, as well as within previously associated lcyE and crtRB1 genes. We leveraged existing biochemical and genomic information to identify 58 a priori candidate genes relevant to the biosynthesis and retention of carotenoids in maize to test in a pathway-level analysis. This revealed dxs2 and lut5, genes not previously associated with kernel carotenoids. In genomic prediction models, use of markers that targeted a small set of quantitative trait loci associated with carotenoid levels in prior linkage studies were as effective as genome-wide markers for predicting carotenoid traits. Based on GWAS, pathway-level analysis, and genomic prediction studies, we outline a flexible strategy involving use of a small number of genes that can be selected for rapid conversion of elite white grain germplasm, with minimal amounts of carotenoids, to orange grain versions containing high levels of provitamin A. PMID:25258377

  4. Is oxidative status influenced by dietary carotenoid and physical activity after moult in the great tit (Parus major)?

    PubMed

    Vaugoyeau, Marie; Decencière, Beatriz; Perret, Samuel; Karadas, Filiz; Meylan, Sandrine; Biard, Clotilde

    2015-07-01

    In the context of sexual and natural selection, an allocation trade-off for carotenoid pigments may exist because of their obligate dietary origin and their role both in the antioxidant and immune systems and in the production of coloured signals in various taxa, particularly birds. When birds have expended large amounts of carotenoids to feather growth such as after autumn moult, bird health and oxidative status might be more constrained. We tested this hypothesis in a bird species with carotenoid-based plumage colour, by manipulating dietary carotenoids and physical activity, which can decrease antioxidant capacity and increase reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) concentration. Great tits were captured after moult and kept in aviaries, under three treatments: physical handicap and dietary supplementation with carotenoids, physical handicap and control diet, and no handicap and control diet. We measured plasma composition (antioxidant capacity, ROM concentration, and vitamin A, vitamin E and total carotenoid concentrations), immune system activation (blood sedimentation) and stress response (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio) and predicted that handicap treatment should influence these negatively and carotenoid supplementation positively. Coloration of yellow feathers was also measured. Carotenoid supplementation increased total plasma carotenoid concentration, decreased feather carotenoid chroma and marginally increased ROM concentration. Handicap increased blood sedimentation only in males but had no clear influence on oxidative stress, which contradicted previous studies. Further studies are needed to investigate how physical activity and carotenoid availability might interact and influence oxidative stress outside the moult period, and their combined potential influence on attractiveness and reproductive investment later during the breeding season. PMID:25964421

  5. A foundation for provitamin A biofortification of maize: genome-wide association and genomic prediction models of carotenoid levels.

    PubMed

    Owens, Brenda F; Lipka, Alexander E; Magallanes-Lundback, Maria; Tiede, Tyler; Diepenbrock, Christine H; Kandianis, Catherine B; Kim, Eunha; Cepela, Jason; Mateos-Hernandez, Maria; Buell, C Robin; Buckler, Edward S; DellaPenna, Dean; Gore, Michael A; Rocheford, Torbert

    2014-12-01

    Efforts are underway for development of crops with improved levels of provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency. As a global staple crop with considerable variation in kernel carotenoid composition, maize (Zea mays L.) could have a widespread impact. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of quantified seed carotenoids across a panel of maize inbreds ranging from light yellow to dark orange in grain color to identify some of the key genes controlling maize grain carotenoid composition. Significant associations at the genome-wide level were detected within the coding regions of zep1 and lut1, carotenoid biosynthetic genes not previously shown to impact grain carotenoid composition in association studies, as well as within previously associated lcyE and crtRB1 genes. We leveraged existing biochemical and genomic information to identify 58 a priori candidate genes relevant to the biosynthesis and retention of carotenoids in maize to test in a pathway-level analysis. This revealed dxs2 and lut5, genes not previously associated with kernel carotenoids. In genomic prediction models, use of markers that targeted a small set of quantitative trait loci associated with carotenoid levels in prior linkage studies were as effective as genome-wide markers for predicting carotenoid traits. Based on GWAS, pathway-level analysis, and genomic prediction studies, we outline a flexible strategy involving use of a small number of genes that can be selected for rapid conversion of elite white grain germplasm, with minimal amounts of carotenoids, to orange grain versions containing high levels of provitamin A.

  6. Unravelling ionization and fragmentation pathways of carotenoids using orbitrap technology: a first step towards identification of unknowns.

    PubMed

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan K A; D'Hondt, Els; Hermans, Nina; Apers, Sandra; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    Vegetables are a major source of carotenoids and carotenoids are identified as potentially important natural antioxidants that may aid in the prevention of several human chronic degenerative diseases. Characterization of carotenoids in organic biological matrices is a crucial step in any research valorization trajectory. This study reports for the first time the use of high mass resolution and exact mass orbitrap technology for the elucidation of carotenoid fragmentation pathways. This contributes to the generation of new tools for identifying unknown carotenoids based on fragmentation patterns. Two different chromatographic methods making use of different mobile phases resulted in the generation of different ion species because of the large influence of the mobile phase solvent composition on ionization. It was shown that depending on the molecular ion species that are generated (protonated ions or radical molecular ions), different fragments are formed when applying higher energy collisional dissociation. Fragmentation and the abundance of fragments provide valuable structural information on the type of functional groups, the polyene backbone and the location of double bonds in ring structures of carotenoids. Furthermore, coherence between specific substructures in the molecules and characteristic fragmentation patterns was observed allowing the assignment of fragmentation patterns for carotenoid substructures that can theoretically be extrapolated to carotenoids with similar (sub)structures. Differentiation between isomeric carotenoids by compound specific fragments could however not be made for all the isomeric groups under study. As a wide variety of isomeric forms of carotenoids exist in nature, the combination of good chromatographic separation with high resolution mass spectrometry and other complementary qualitative structure elucidation techniques such as a photo diode array detector and/or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are indispensable for

  7. Development of carotenoid storage cells in Bixa orellana L. seed arils.

    PubMed

    Louro, Ricardo P; Santiago, Laura J M

    2016-01-01

    The arils of Bixa orellana L. seeds contain carotenoid storage cells (CSCs). The main compounds in these cells include bixin and norbixin, which are important pigments in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Although many studies have been conducted on these chemical constituents, the cellular events that occur during the development of the carotenoid-accumulating cells in the arils and their relationship with the final carotenoid accumulation in the vacuoles remain unknown. In this study, the development of the CSCs in B. orellana arils was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoids formed in specialized cells, whose number and size increased during aril development. At various stages of development, the cytoplasm of the CSCs contained chromoplasts that held an extensive network of tubules and plastoglobules. Next to the chromoplasts, lipid droplets may fuse one another to form osmiophilic bodies. In addition, vesicles were observed next to the tonoplast. At the final stages of development, both the osmiophilic bodies and vesicles, which became quadrangular or rectangular, were stored in the vacuoles of the CSCs. This study reported for the first time the occurrence of different storage unit types within the vacuole of carotenoid storage cells.

  8. Levels of Lycopene β-Cyclase 1 Modulate Carotenoid Gene Expression and Accumulation in Daucus carota

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of α-carotene and β-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of α-carotene and β-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and β-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots. PMID:23555569

  9. Effects of carotenoids on damage of biological lipids induced by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Takeshi; Fujii, Noriko

    2014-05-01

    Carotenoids are considered to be involved in the radioresistant mechanisms of radioresistant bacteria. In these bacterial cells, carotenoids are present in biological lipids, and therefore may be related to the radiation-induced damage of lipids. However, only limited data are available for the role of carotenoids in such damage. In this study, we irradiated an α-linolenic acid-benzene solution with gamma rays and analyzed the resulting oxidative degradation and peroxidation damage in the presence or absence of two typical carotenoids: β-carotene and astaxanthin. The analyses revealed that oxidative degradation and peroxidation of α-linolenic acid, as evaluated by the amount of malondialdehyde and conjugated diene formed, respectively, increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, 8.5×10-3 M β-carotene inhibited gamma radiation-induced oxidative degradation of α-linolenic acid, whereas 5.0×10-5 and 5.0×10-6 M β-carotene, and 5.0×10-7 and 5.0×10-8 M astaxanthin promoted degradation. In contrast, neither β-carotene nor astaxanthin affected peroxidation of α-linolenic acid. These results suggest that an optimum concentration of carotenoids in radioresistant bacteria protects biological lipid structures from radiation-induced damage.

  10. Maternal investment of female mallards is influenced by male carotenoid-based coloration

    PubMed Central

    Giraudeau, M.; Duval, C.; Czirják, G. Á.; Bretagnolle, V.; Eraud, C.; McGraw, K. J.; Heeb, P.

    2011-01-01

    The differential allocation hypothesis predicts that females modify their investment in a breeding attempt according to its reproductive value. One prediction of this hypothesis is that females will increase reproductive investment when mated to high-quality males. In birds, it was shown that females can modulate pre-hatch reproductive investment by manipulating egg and clutch sizes and/or the concentrations of egg internal compounds according to paternal attractiveness. However, the differential allocation of immune factors has seldom been considered, particularly with an experimental approach. The carotenoid-based ornaments can function as reliable signals of quality, indicating better immunity or ability to resist parasites. Thus, numerous studies show that females use the expression of carotenoid-based colour when choosing mates; but the influence of this paternal coloration on maternal investment decisions has seldom been considered and has only been experimentally studied with artificial manipulation of male coloration. Here, we used dietary carotenoid provisioning to manipulate male mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) bill coloration, a sexually selected trait, and followed female investment. We show that an increase of male bill coloration positively influenced egg mass and albumen lysozyme concentration. By contrast, yolk carotenoid concentration was not affected by paternal ornamentation. Maternal decisions highlighted in this study may influence chick survival and compel males to maintain carotenoid-based coloration from the mate-choice period until egg-laying has been finished. PMID:20843851

  11. Carotenoids from new apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) varieties and their relationship with flesh and skin color.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, David; Egea, José; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Gil, María I

    2005-08-10

    Thirty-seven apricot varieties, including four new releases (Rojo Pasión, Murciana, Selene, and Dorada) obtained from different crosses between apricot varieties and three traditional Spanish cultivars (Currot, Mauricio, and Búlida), were separated according to flesh color into four groups. The L*, a*, b*, hue angle, and chroma color measurements on the skin and flesh as well as other quality indices including flesh firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and pH were plotted against the total carotenoid content measured by HPLC. Among the 37 apricot varieties, the total carotenoid content ranged from 1,512 to 16,500 microg 100 g(-1) of edible portion, with beta-carotene as the main pigment followed by beta-cryptoxanthin and gamma-carotene. The wide range of variability in the provitamin A content in the apricot varieties encouraged these studies in order to select the breeding types with enhanced carotenoid levels as the varieties with a higher potential health benefit. The carotenoid content was correlated with the color measurements, and the hue angle in both flesh and peel was the parameter with the best correlation (R = 0.92 and 0.84, respectively). An estimation of the carotenoid content in apricots could be achieved by using a portable colorimeter, as a simple and easy method for field usage applications.

  12. Photosensitivity of respiration in Neurospora mitochondria. A protective role for carotenoid.

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan-Talib, Z; Prebble, J

    1978-01-01

    1. The effect of visible light on respiratory activity was studied in two strains of Neurospora crassa, one a wild-type strain able to synthesize carotenoid and the other an albino mutant lacking carotenogenic activity. Light had no effect on growth under the conditions studied, but inhibited respiration of hyphal suspensions. the degree of inhibition being dependent on the carotenoid content of the hyphae. 2. In studies of respiration of isolated mitochondria, three types of photosensitive site were detected. These were the flavo-protein dehydrogenases themselves, a site separate from the latter also associated with the dehydrogenase but re-activatable by treatment with a thiol reagent, and the respiratory quinone, ubiquinone. Cytochrome oxidase, previously reported as photosensitive from many sources, was not appreciably affected by light in these preparations. 3. The degree of inactivation of the respiratory quinone was dependent on the amount of carotenoid in the preparation, high concentrations of the pigment in the mitochondrial membranes providing substantial protection against the effect of light. 4. Separation of the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria showed that under conditions where carotenoid appears to protect quinone, significant amounts are found in the inner mitochondrial membrane, oterhwise carotenoid is restricted to the outer membrane. PMID:154887

  13. Levels of lycopene β-cyclase 1 modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in Daucus carota.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of α-carotene and β-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of α-carotene and β-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and β-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots.

  14. Increased carotenoid production in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous G276 using plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Jun-Hyeong; Lee, Chi-Ho; Yoon, Yoh-Chang

    2007-04-01

    The red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (previously named Phaffia rhodozyma) produces astaxanthin pigment among many carotenoids. The mutant X. dendrorhous G276 was isolated by chemical mutagenesis. The mutant produced about 2.0 mg of carotenoid per g of yeast cell dry weight and 8.0 mg/L of carotenoid after 5 days batch culture with YM media; in comparison, the parent strain produced 0.66 mg/g of yeast cell dry weight and a carotenoid concentration of 4.5 mg/L. We characterized the utilization of carbon sources by the mutant strain and screened various edible plant extracts to enhance the carotenoid production. The addition of Perilla frutescens (final concentration, 5%) or Allium fistulosum extracts (final concentration, 1%) enhanced the pigment production to about 32 mg/L. In a batch fermentor, addition of Perilla frutescens extract reduced the cultivation time by two days compared to control (no extract), which usually required five-day incubation to fully produce astaxanthin. The results suggest that plant extracts such as Perilla frutescens can effectively enhance astaxanthin production. PMID:17483797

  15. Potential and limits of Raman spectroscopy for carotenoid detection in microorganisms: implications for astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Jehlička, Jan; Edwards, Howell G M; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Novotná, Julie; Nedbalová, Linda; Kopecký, Jiří; Němec, Ivan; Oren, Aharon

    2014-12-13

    In this paper, it is demonstrated how Raman spectroscopy can be used to detect different carotenoids as possible biomarkers in various groups of microorganisms. The question which arose from previous studies concerns the level of unambiguity of discriminating carotenoids using common Raman microspectrometers. A series of laboratory-grown microorganisms of different taxonomic affiliation was investigated, such as halophilic heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, the anoxygenic phototrophs, the non-halophilic heterotrophs as well as eukaryotes (Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta). The data presented show that Raman spectroscopy is a suitable tool to assess the presence of carotenoids of these organisms in cultures. Comparison is made with the high-performance liquid chromatography approach of analysing pigments in extracts. Direct measurements on cultures provide fast and reliable identification of the pigments. Some of the carotenoids studied are proposed as tracers for halophiles, in contrast with others which can be considered as biomarkers of other genera. The limits of application of Raman spectroscopy are discussed for a few cases where the current Raman spectroscopic approach does not allow discriminating structurally very similar carotenoids. The database reported can be used for applications in geobiology and exobiology for the detection of pigment signals in natural settings.

  16. Increase in nutritionally important sweet corn kernel carotenoids following Mesotrione and atrazine applications.

    PubMed

    Kopsell, Dean A; Armel, Gregory R; Mueller, Thomas C; Sams, Carl E; Deyton, Dennis E; McElroy, J Scott; Kopsell, David E

    2009-07-22

    The herbicide mesotrione inhibits a critical enzyme, phytoene desaturase, in plant carotenoid biosynthesis. Mesotrione is currently labeled for selective weed control in sweet corn ( Zea mays var. rugosa). Mesotrione applied alone, or in mixtures with the photosystem II inhibitor atrazine, acted to increase concentrations of kernel antheraxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin carotenoids in several sweet corn genotypes. Kernel lutein and zeaxanthin levels significantly increased 15.6% after mesotrione + atrazine early postemergence applications, as compared to the control treatment. It appears that mesotrione applications resulted in greater pools of kernel carotenoids once the sweet corn genotypes expressing moderate injury overcame the initial herbicidal photo-oxidative stress. This is the first report of herbicides directly up-regulating the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in corn kernels, which is associated with the nutritional quality of sweet corn. Enhanced accumulation of lutein and zeaxanthin is important because dietary carotenoids function in suppressing aging eye diseases such as macular degeneration, now affecting 1.75 million older Americans. PMID:19537793

  17. Carotenoids in floral parts of a narcissus, a daffodil and a tulip

    PubMed Central

    Valadon, L. R. G.; Mummery, Rosemary S.

    1968-01-01

    1. The qualitative and quantitative distribution of carotenoids of the floral parts of three monocotyledons, the narcissus Scarlet Elegance, the daffodil King Alfred and the tulip Golden Harvest, were studied. β-Carotene, lutein or epoxy-β-carotenes were usually the main pigments, depending on the floral part and on the flower. When β-carotene was the major pigment there were only small amounts of, or sometimes no, epoxycarotenes. 2. Anthers, stigmas and styles of the three flowers did not possess any specific carotenoids but in some cases contained appreciable amounts of epoxycarotenoids. The possibility that these take part in reproduction is discussed. 3. The generalization that yellow flowers contained large amounts of xanthophylls and only traces of carotenes, whereas deep-orange flowers seemed to be characterized by the presence of large amounts of one carotene, was not always the correct one. It is suggested that the floral parts are yellow or orange depending on what carotenoids are present, which is the major one and the amount of total carotenoids, and also on the presence of other non-carotenoid pigments. 4. Two new probable isomers of 5,6:5′,6′-diepoxy-β-carotene were isolated and found together in various floral parts of the tulip Golden Harvest. PMID:5637355

  18. Carotenoids of aleurone, germ, and endosperm fractions of barley, corn and wheat differentially inhibit oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Masisi, Kabo; Diehl-Jones, William L; Gordon, Joseph; Chapman, Donald; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Beta, Trust

    2015-03-18

    The antioxidant potential of carotenoids from aleurone, germ, and endosperm fractions of barley, corn, and wheat has been evaluated. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids (nd-15139 μg/kg) in extracts of cereal grain fractions. The antioxidant properties using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays revealed significantly higher (P<0.001) antioxidant activity in the germ than in the aleurone and endosperm fractions. Using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 2,2'azobis (2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced cell loss was effectively reduced by preincubating Caco-2, HT-29, and FHs 74 Int cells with carotenoid extracts. Moreover, carotenoid extracts reduced (P<0.001) AAPH-induced intracellular oxidation in the cell lines, suggesting antioxidant activity. Of the 84 antioxidant pathway genes included in microarray array analysis (HT-29 cells), the expressions of 28 genes were enhanced (P<0.05). Our findings suggest that carotenoids of germ, aleurone, and endosperm fractions improved antioxidant capacity and thus have the potential to mitigate oxidative stress.

  19. Aerobic conditions increase isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway gene expression levels for carotenoid production in Enterococcus gilvus.

    PubMed

    Hagi, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru

    2015-06-01

    Some lactic acid bacteria that harbour carotenoid biosynthesis genes (crtNM) can produce carotenoids. Although aerobic conditions can increase carotenoid production and crtNM expression levels, their effects on the pathways that synthesize carotenoid precursors such as mevalonate and isoprene are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated whether aerobic conditions affected gene expression levels involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway that includes the mevalonate and isoprene biosynthesis pathways in Enterococcus gilvus using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. NADH oxidase (nox) and superoxide dismutase (sod) gene expression levels were investigated as controls for aerobic conditions. The expression levels of nox and sod under aerobic conditions were 7.2- and 8.0-fold higher, respectively, than those under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic conditions concomitantly increased the expression levels of crtNM carotenoid biosynthesis genes. HMG-CoA synthase gene expression levels in the mevalonate pathway were only slightly increased under aerobic conditions, whereas the expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase and five other genes in the isoprene biosynthesis pathways were 1.2-2.3-fold higher than those under anaerobic conditions. These results demonstrated that aerobic conditions could increase the expression levels of genes involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway via mevalonate in E. gilvus.

  20. Maternal investment of female mallards is influenced by male carotenoid-based coloration.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, M; Duval, C; Czirják, G A; Bretagnolle, V; Eraud, C; McGraw, K J; Heeb, P

    2011-03-01

    The differential allocation hypothesis predicts that females modify their investment in a breeding attempt according to its reproductive value. One prediction of this hypothesis is that females will increase reproductive investment when mated to high-quality males. In birds, it was shown that females can modulate pre-hatch reproductive investment by manipulating egg and clutch sizes and/or the concentrations of egg internal compounds according to paternal attractiveness. However, the differential allocation of immune factors has seldom been considered, particularly with an experimental approach. The carotenoid-based ornaments can function as reliable signals of quality, indicating better immunity or ability to resist parasites. Thus, numerous studies show that females use the expression of carotenoid-based colour when choosing mates; but the influence of this paternal coloration on maternal investment decisions has seldom been considered and has only been experimentally studied with artificial manipulation of male coloration. Here, we used dietary carotenoid provisioning to manipulate male mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) bill coloration, a sexually selected trait, and followed female investment. We show that an increase of male bill coloration positively influenced egg mass and albumen lysozyme concentration. By contrast, yolk carotenoid concentration was not affected by paternal ornamentation. Maternal decisions highlighted in this study may influence chick survival and compel males to maintain carotenoid-based coloration from the mate-choice period until egg-laying has been finished. PMID:20843851

  1. From crude glycerol to carotenoids by using a Rhodotorula glutinis mutant.

    PubMed

    Cutzu, Raffaela; Coi, Annalisa; Rosso, Fulvia; Bardi, Laura; Ciani, Maurizio; Budroni, Marilena; Zara, Giacomo; Zara, Severino; Mannazzu, Ilaria

    2013-06-01

    In this work eighteen red yeasts were screened for carotenoids production on glycerol containing medium. Strain C2.5t1 of Rhodotorula glutinis, that showed the highest productivity, was UV mutagenized. Mutant 400A15, that exhibited a 280 % increase in β-carotene production in respect to the parental strain, was selected. A central composite design was applied to 400A15 to optimize carotenoids and biomass productions. Regression analyses of the quadratic polynomial equations obtained (R(2) = 0.87 and 0.94, for carotenoids and biomass, respectively) suggest that the models are reliable and significant (P < 0.0001) in the prediction of carotenoids and biomass productions on the basis of the concentrations of crude glycerol, yeast extract and peptone. Accordingly, total carotenoids production achieved (14.07 ± 1.45 mg l(-1)) under optimized growth conditions was not statistically different from the maximal predicted (14.64 ± 1.57 mg l(-1)) (P < 0.05), and it was about 100 % higher than that obtained under un-optimized conditions. Therefore mutant 400A15 may represent a biocatalyst of choice for the bioconversion of crude glycerol into value-added metabolites, and a tool for the valorization of this by-product of the biodiesel industry. PMID:23355137

  2. Multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy for in vivo determination of carotenoids in human skin and blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvin, Maxim E.; Magnussen, Björn; Lademann, Juergen; Köcher, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive measurement of carotenoid antioxidants in human skin is one of the important tasks to investigate the skin physiology in vivo. Resonance Raman spectroscopy and reflection spectroscopy are the most frequently used non-invasive techniques in dermatology and skin physiology. In the present study, an improved method based on multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy (MSRRS) was introduced. The results obtained were compared with those obtained using the ‘gold standard’ resonance Raman spectroscopy method and showed strong correlations for the total carotenoid concentration (R  =  0.83) as well as for lycopene (R  =  0.80). The measurement stability was confirmed to be better than 10% within the total temperature range from 5 °C to  +  30 °C and pressure contact between the skin and the MSRRS sensor from 800 Pa to 18 000 Pa. In addition, blood samples taken from the subjects were analyzed for carotenoid concentrations. The MSRRS sensor was calibrated on the blood carotenoid concentrations resulting in being able to predict with a correlation of R  =  0.79. On the basis of blood carotenoids it could be demonstrated that the MSRRS cutaneous measurements are not influenced by Fitzpatrick skin types I-VI. The MSRRS sensor is commercially available under the brand name biozoom.

  3. Carotenoid Content in Organically Produced Wheat: Relevance for Human Nutritional Health on Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Olsson, Marie E.; Johansson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 33 spring and winter wheat genotypes were analyzed for carotenoid content and composition. Investigated genotypes were divided into four genotype groups i.e., spelt, landraces, old cultivars and primitive wheat. The results showed a high level of variation among the genotypes in amount of carotenoids in the grain with high values (around 4 mg/Kg) especially in one of the genotypes—Öland 8. Lutein was the most common carotenoid in all the investigated genotypes, contributing 70%–90% of the carotenoids in the grain. Variation in carotenoid content and composition was found not only among genotypes, but also between genotype groups and wheat type, although there is a need to analyze more genotypes to confirm the differences found between groups and types. This study showed that 40% of the daily requirements of lutein can be achieved from the genotypes with the highest lutein content (Öland 8) produced using organic farming through the average human consumption of 200 grams of wheat per day. Furthermore, this study showed, by the use of principal component analyses, an opportunity to select genotypes combining high values of certain nutritional compounds. By a further breeding and commercial production of such genotypes, the nutritional value of wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. PMID:26540066

  4. Development of carotenoid storage cells in Bixa orellana L. seed arils.

    PubMed

    Louro, Ricardo P; Santiago, Laura J M

    2016-01-01

    The arils of Bixa orellana L. seeds contain carotenoid storage cells (CSCs). The main compounds in these cells include bixin and norbixin, which are important pigments in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Although many studies have been conducted on these chemical constituents, the cellular events that occur during the development of the carotenoid-accumulating cells in the arils and their relationship with the final carotenoid accumulation in the vacuoles remain unknown. In this study, the development of the CSCs in B. orellana arils was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoids formed in specialized cells, whose number and size increased during aril development. At various stages of development, the cytoplasm of the CSCs contained chromoplasts that held an extensive network of tubules and plastoglobules. Next to the chromoplasts, lipid droplets may fuse one another to form osmiophilic bodies. In addition, vesicles were observed next to the tonoplast. At the final stages of development, both the osmiophilic bodies and vesicles, which became quadrangular or rectangular, were stored in the vacuoles of the CSCs. This study reported for the first time the occurrence of different storage unit types within the vacuole of carotenoid storage cells. PMID:25786349

  5. Light induced changes in Raman scattering of carotenoid molecules in Photosystem I particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Atanaska; Abarova, Silviya; Stoitchkova, Katerina; Velitchkova, Maya

    2007-03-01

    The photosynthetic antenna systems are able to regulate the light energy harvesting under different light conditions by dynamic changes in their protein structure protecting the reaction center complexes. The changes modulate the electronic structure of the main antenna pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) and distort the characteristic planar structure of carotenoids, allowing their forbidden out of plane vibrations. Electronic absorption and low-temperature resonance Raman spectroscopy were used to study the changes in composition and spectral properties of the major carotenoids in spinach Photosystem I particles due to high light treatment. The duration of the applied intensity of the white light (1800 μE m -2 s -1) was 30, 60 and 120 minutes. We used Raman scattering in an attempt to recognize the type and conformation of photobleached carotenoid molecules. The resonance Raman spectra were measured at 488 and 514.5 nm, coinciding with the absorption maximum positions of the carotenoids neoxanthin and lutein, correspondingly. The results revealed nearly a full photobleaching of the long wavelength lutein molecules, whereas the bleaching of neoxantin molecules is negligible. The involvement of these changes in the photoprotection and photoinactivation of the Photosystem I particles was discussed.

  6. Expression Profile of Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase Genes in Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    PubMed

    González-Verdejo, Clara I; Obrero, Ángeles; Román, Belén; Gómez, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    Carotenoids are important dietary components that can be found in vegetable crops. The accumulation of these compounds in fruit and vegetables is altered by the activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) enzymes that produce their degradation. The aim of this work was to study the possible implication of CCD genes in preventing carotenoid storage in the horticultural crop summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). The relationship between the presence of these compounds and gene expression for CCDs was studied in three varieties showing different peel and flesh colour. Expression analysis for the CCD genes CpNCED1, CpNCED2, CpNCED3, CpNCED9, CpCCD1, CpCCD4a, CpCCD4b and CpCCD8 was carried out on different organs and at several fruit developmental stages. The results showed that the CpCCD4a and CpCCD4b genes were highly expressed in the variety with lowest carotenoid content suggesting a putative role in carotenoid accumulation pattern in summer squash fruit.

  7. Potential and limits of Raman spectroscopy for carotenoid detection in microorganisms: implications for astrobiology

    PubMed Central

    Jehlička, Jan; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Novotná, Julie; Nedbalová, Linda; Kopecký, Jiří; Němec, Ivan; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated how Raman spectroscopy can be used to detect different carotenoids as possible biomarkers in various groups of microorganisms. The question which arose from previous studies concerns the level of unambiguity of discriminating carotenoids using common Raman microspectrometers. A series of laboratory-grown microorganisms of different taxonomic affiliation was investigated, such as halophilic heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, the anoxygenic phototrophs, the non-halophilic heterotrophs as well as eukaryotes (Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta). The data presented show that Raman spectroscopy is a suitable tool to assess the presence of carotenoids of these organisms in cultures. Comparison is made with the high-performance liquid chromatography approach of analysing pigments in extracts. Direct measurements on cultures provide fast and reliable identification of the pigments. Some of the carotenoids studied are proposed as tracers for halophiles, in contrast with others which can be considered as biomarkers of other genera. The limits of application of Raman spectroscopy are discussed for a few cases where the current Raman spectroscopic approach does not allow discriminating structurally very similar carotenoids. The database reported can be used for applications in geobiology and exobiology for the detection of pigment signals in natural settings. PMID:25368348

  8. Multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy for in vivo determination of carotenoids in human skin and blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvin, Maxim E.; Magnussen, Björn; Lademann, Juergen; Köcher, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive measurement of carotenoid antioxidants in human skin is one of the important tasks to investigate the skin physiology in vivo. Resonance Raman spectroscopy and reflection spectroscopy are the most frequently used non-invasive techniques in dermatology and skin physiology. In the present study, an improved method based on multiple spatially resolved reflection spectroscopy (MSRRS) was introduced. The results obtained were compared with those obtained using the ‘gold standard’ resonance Raman spectroscopy method and showed strong correlations for the total carotenoid concentration (R  =  0.83) as well as for lycopene (R  =  0.80). The measurement stability was confirmed to be better than 10% within the total temperature range from 5 °C to  +  30 °C and pressure contact between the skin and the MSRRS sensor from 800 Pa to 18 000 Pa. In addition, blood samples taken from the subjects were analyzed for carotenoid concentrations. The MSRRS sensor was calibrated on the blood carotenoid concentrations resulting in being able to predict with a correlation of R  =  0.79. On the basis of blood carotenoids it could be demonstrated that the MSRRS cutaneous measurements are not influenced by Fitzpatrick skin types I–VI. The MSRRS sensor is commercially available under the brand name biozoom.

  9. Carotenoid composition and its chemotaxonomic significance in leaves of ten species of the genus Ceratozamia (Cycads).

    PubMed

    Cardinif, Franco; Bonzi, Laura Morassi

    2005-05-01

    The qualitative composition and localization of carotenoids in leaflets of ten species of the genus Ceratozamia (Cycads) was investigated, and the distributions of 16 of these carotenoids, which were isolated and differently located in the chloroplast, are discussed. Eight classic carotenoids are located in the thylakoidal membranes of the chloroplasts of all ten of the species examined. In contrast, eight red keto-carotenoids are unusually located in several plastoglobules present in the stroma of nine species Ceratozamia mexicana Brongn. excluded. The characteristic red-brown transitory coloration shown by the newly formed leaflets during the first stages of development is due to this latter keto mixture. It is constituted of three very rare keto-carotenoids, which were, in our case, identified for the first time from the photosynthetic tissues (semi-beta-carotenone, triphasiaxanthin, and beta-carotenone). It is also constituted of four others, which are completely novel (ceratoxanthin, ceratozamiaxanthin, kuesteriaxanthin, and ceratoxanthone). Some hypotheses about their presence and function are presented.

  10. Novel chromatic and structural biomarkers of diet in carotenoid-bearing plumage.

    PubMed Central

    Bleiweiss, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Previous attempts to establish a link between carotenoid-based plumage reflectance and diet have focused on spectral features within the human visible range (400-700 nm), particularly on the longer wavelengths (550-700 nm) that make these plumages appear yellow, orange or red. However, carotenoid reflectance spectra are intrinsically bimodal, with a less prominent but highly variable secondary reflectance peak at near-ultraviolet (UV; 320-400 nm) wavelengths visible to most birds but not to normal humans. Analysis of physical reflectance spectra of carotenoid-bearing plumages among trophically diverse tanagers (Thraupini, Emberizinae, Passeriformes) indicated that both the absolute and relative (to long visible wavelengths) amounts of short waveband (including UV) reflectance were lower in more frugivorous species. Striking modifications to the branched structure of feathers increased with frugivory. These associations were independent of phylogenetic relatedness, or other physical (specimen age, number of carotenoid-bearing patches) or ecological (body size, elevation) variables. By comparison, reflectance at longer visible wavelengths ('redness') was not consistently associated with diet. The reflectance patterns that distinguished frugivores should be more apparent to UV-sensitive birds than to UV-blind humans, but humans can perceive the higher plumage gloss produced by modified gross feather structure. Basic aspects of carotenoid chemistry suggest that increases in pigment concentration and feather dimensions reduce short waveband reflectance by the plumages of frugivores. PMID:15556885

  11. Bioaccessibility, uptake, and transport of carotenoids from peppers (Capsicum spp.) using the coupled in vitro digestion and human intestinal Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Laurie; Jiwan, Marvin A; Daly, Trevor; O'Brien, Nora M; Aherne, S Aisling

    2010-05-12

    Spanish bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) and chili peppers sourced from Kenya and Turkey were analyzed for their carotenoid content, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability. The order of total carotenoid content in peppers and their respective micelles was red > green > yellow. In terms of cellular carotenoid transport as a percentage of original food and micelle content, the order was yellow peppers > green > red; however, the opposite trend was seen for the actual amount of total carotenoids transported by Caco-2 cells. Although lutein was generally the most abundant carotenoid in the micelles (496.3-1565.7 microg 100 g(-1)), cellular uptake and transport of beta-carotene were the highest, 8.3-31.6 and 16.8-42.7%, respectively. Hence, the actual amount of carotenoids present in the original food and respective micelles seems to reflect the amount transported by Caco-2 cells. Therefore, color influenced the carotenoid profile, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability of carotenoids rather than pepper type.

  12. Simple saponification method for the quantitative determination of carotenoids in green vegetables.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Erik; Christensen, Lars P

    2005-08-24

    A simple, reliable, and gentle saponification method for the quantitative determination of carotenoids in green vegetables was developed. The method involves an extraction procedure with acetone and the selective removal of the chlorophylls and esterified fatty acids from the organic phase using a strongly basic resin (Ambersep 900 OH). Extracts from common green vegetables (beans, broccoli, green bell pepper, chive, lettuce, parsley, peas, and spinach) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for their content of major carotenoids before and after action of Ambersep 900 OH. The mean recovery percentages for most carotenoids [(all-E)-violaxanthin, (all-E)-lutein epoxide, (all-E)-lutein, neolutein A, and (all-E)-beta-carotene] after saponification of the vegetable extracts with Ambersep 900 OH were close to 100% (99-104%), while the mean recovery percentages of (9'Z)-neoxanthin increased to 119% and that of (all-E)-neoxanthin and neolutein B decreased to 90% and 72%, respectively.

  13. PHOTOSYNTHESIS. A 12 Å carotenoid translocation in a photoswitch associated with cyanobacterial photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Leverenz, Ryan L; Sutter, Markus; Wilson, Adjélé; Gupta, Sayan; Thurotte, Adrien; Bourcier de Carbon, Céline; Petzold, Christopher J; Ralston, Corie; Perreau, François; Kirilovsky, Diana; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2015-06-26

    Pigment-protein and pigment-pigment interactions are of fundamental importance to the light-harvesting and photoprotective functions essential to oxygenic photosynthesis. The orange carotenoid protein (OCP) functions as both a sensor of light and effector of photoprotective energy dissipation in cyanobacteria. We report the atomic-resolution structure of an active form of the OCP consisting of the N-terminal domain and a single noncovalently bound carotenoid pigment. The crystal structure, combined with additional solution-state structural data, reveals that OCP photoactivation is accompanied by a 12 angstrom translocation of the pigment within the protein and a reconfiguration of carotenoid-protein interactions. Our results identify the origin of the photochromic changes in the OCP triggered by light and reveal the structural determinants required for interaction with the light-harvesting antenna during photoprotection.

  14. Composition of Carotenoids and Flavonoids in Narcissus Cultivars and their Relationship with Flower Color

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Lu, Min; Tang, Dongqin; Shi, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Narcissus is widely used for cut flowers and potted plants, and is one of the most important commercial bulbous flowers in the floricultural industry. In this study, ten carotenoid and eighteen flavonoid compounds from the perianths and coronas of fifteen narcissus cultivars were measured by HPLC–APCI-MS/MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Among these, six carotenoids, a total of seventeen flavonols and chlorogenic acid were identified in narcissus for the first time. A multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between flower color and pigment composition. We found that all-trans-violaxanthin and total carotenoid content were the main factors that affected flower color. These investigations could provide a global view of flower color formation and a theoretical basis for hybridization breeding in narcissus. PMID:26536625

  15. Structural Determinats Underlying Photoprotection in the Photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein of Cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Adjele; Kinney, James N.; Zwart, Petrus H.; Punginelli, Claire; D'Haene, Sandrine; Perreau, Francois; Klein, Michael G.; Kirilovsky, Diana; Kerfeld, Cheryl

    2010-04-01

    The photoprotective processes of photosynthetic organisms involve the dissipation of excess absorbed light energy as heat. Photoprotection in cyanobacteria is mechanistically distinct from that in plants; it involves the Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP), a water-soluble protein containing a single carotenoid. The OCP is a new member of the family of blue light photoactive proteins; blue-green light triggers the OCP-mediated photoprotective response. Here we report structural and functional characterization of the wildtype and two mutant forms of the OCP, from the model organism Synechocystis PCC6803. The structural analysis provides highresolution detail of the carotenoidprotein interactions that underlie the optical properties of the OCP, unique among carotenoid-proteins in binding a single pigment per polypeptide chain. Collectively, these data implicate several key amino acids in the function of the OCP and reveal that the photoconversion and photoprotective responses of the OCP to blue-green light can be decoupled.

  16. High carotenoid bioaccessibility through linseed oil nanoemulsions with enhanced physical and oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor-Gerding, Daniela; Oomah, B Dave; Acevedo, Francisca; Morales, Eduardo; Bustamante, Mariela; Shene, Carolina; Rubilar, Mónica

    2016-05-15

    Carotenoid (astaxanthin or lycopene) emulsions obtained by high pressure homogenization were investigated for their physical, oxidative and storage stability and biological fate on an in vitro digestion model of bioaccessibility. Emulsion stability evaluated at various processing environments (20-50°C, 2-10 pH, 0-500 mM NaCl, and 0-35 days storage at 25°C) depended on carotenoid and homogenization pressures (5, 10, 100 MPa). Trolox increased the oxidative stability of nanoemulsions (100 MPa) and acted synergistically with BHT in increasing the stability of lycopene nanoemulsion. Intestinal digestibility depended on homogenization pressures with the fastest release and lower amount of free fatty acids observed at 100 MPa. Carotenoid nanoemulsions (100 MPa) were partially (66%) digested and highly bioaccessible (>70%). Therefore, nanoemulsions provide an effective and stable system for efficient astaxanthin or lycopene delivery and bioavailability in foods, beverages, nutraceuticals and/or other agriproducts.

  17. Confocal laser scanning microscopy detection of chlorophylls and carotenoids in chloroplasts and chromoplasts of tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Lucio; Amenós, Montse; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells are unique among eukaryotic cells because of the presence of plastids, including chloroplasts and chromoplasts. Chloroplasts are found in green tissues and harbor the photosynthetic machinery (including chlorophyll molecules), while chromoplasts are present in non-photosynthetic tissues and accumulate large amounts of carotenoids. During tomato fruit development, chloroplasts are converted into chromoplasts that accumulate high levels of lycopene, a linear carotenoid responsible for the characteristic red color of ripe fruit. Here, we describe a simple and fast method to detect both types of fully differentiated plastids (chloroplasts and chromoplasts), as well as intermediate stages, in fresh tomato fruits. The method is based on the differential autofluorescence of chlorophylls and carotenoids (lycopene) detected by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy.

  18. Comparative X-ray studies on the interaction of carotenoids with a model phosphatidylcholine membrane.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, Mario; Hidalgo, Paulina; Strzalka, Kazimierz; Kostecka-Gugala, Anna

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of structurally different carotenoids with a membrane molecular model was examined by X-ray diffraction. The selected compounds were beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, and additionally carotane, a fully saturated derivative of beta-carotene. They present similarities and differences in their rigidity, the presence of terminal ionone rings and hydroxy and epoxy groups bound to the rings. The membrane models were multibilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), chosen for this investigation because the 3 nm thickness of the hydrophobic core of its bilayer coincides with the thickness of the hydrophobic core of thylakoid membranes and the length of the carotenoid molecules. Results indicate that the six compounds induced different types and degrees of structural perturbations to DPPC bilayers in aqueous media. They were interpreted in terms of the molecular characteristics of DPPC and the carotenoids. Lycopene and violaxanthin induced the highest structural damage to the acyl chain and polar headgroup regions of DPPC bilayers, respectively. PMID:11926524

  19. Applications of computational chemistry to the study of the antiradical activity of carotenoids: A review.

    PubMed

    Monego, Debora Luana; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero

    2017-02-15

    A summary of the various quantum chemical analyses that have been employed to evaluate the free radical scavenger capacity of carotenoid molecules are tabulated in this review and the most important observations are discussed. These molecules are able to interact with reactive oxygen species through singlet oxygen scavenging, electron transfer, hydrogen atom abstraction and radical adduct formation. Most studies employ density functional theory to compare the antiradical capacity of different carotenoids with the ones that are most explored theoretically, such as lycopene and β-carotene. A significant number of these applications have been directed towards understanding the electron transfer mechanism, and a useful tool called the FEDAM (full-electron donor-acceptor map) was developed to better evaluate this mechanism. Important aspects that may affect the radical scavenging capacity of carotenoids, such as synergistic effects and solubility, are sometimes overlooked, and a greater number of such compounds should be explored. PMID:27664605

  20. Determination of Other Related Carotenoids Substances in Astaxanthin Crystals Extracted from Adonis amurensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-hua; Peng, Yong-jian; Xu, Xin-de; Wang, Sheng-nan; Yu, Lei-ming; Hong, Yi-min; Ma, Jin-ping

    2015-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a kind of important carotenoids with powerful antioxidation capacity and other health functions. Extracting from Adonis amurensis is a promising way to obtain natural astaxanthin. However, how to ensure the high purity and to investigate related substances in astaxanthin crystals are necessary issues. In this study, to identify possible impurities, astaxanthin crystal was first extracted from Adonis amurensis, then purified by saponification and separation. The concentration of total carotenoids in purified astaxanthin crystals was as high as 97% by weight when analyzed by UV-visible absorption spectra. After identified with TLC, HPLC and MS, besides free astaxanthin as main ingredient in the crystals, there existed four other unknown related substances, which were further investigated by HPLC/ESI/MS with the positive ion mode combining with other auxiliary reference data obtained in stress tests, at last it was confirmed that four related carotenoids substances were three structural isomers of semi-astacene and adonirubin.

  1. High isoprenoid flux Escherichia coli as a host for carotenoids production.

    PubMed

    Suh, Wonchul

    2012-01-01

    A noncarotenogenic microbe E. coli was engineered for high production of carotenoids. To increase the isoprenoid flux, the chromosomal native promoters of the rate-controlling steps (dxs, idi and ispDispF) in the isoprenoid pathway were replaced with a strong bacteriophage T5 promoter (P(T5)) by using the λ-Red recombinase system in combination with the Flp/FRT site-specific recombination system for marker excision and P1 transduction for gene trait stacking. The resulting high isoprenoid flux E. coli can be used as a starting strain to produce various carotenoids by introducing heterologous carotenoid genes. In this study, the high isoprenoid flux E. coli was transformed with a plasmid carrying the β-carotene biosynthetic genes from Pantoea stewartii for β-carotene production. PMID:22144352

  2. Applications of computational chemistry to the study of the antiradical activity of carotenoids: A review.

    PubMed

    Monego, Debora Luana; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero

    2017-02-15

    A summary of the various quantum chemical analyses that have been employed to evaluate the free radical scavenger capacity of carotenoid molecules are tabulated in this review and the most important observations are discussed. These molecules are able to interact with reactive oxygen species through singlet oxygen scavenging, electron transfer, hydrogen atom abstraction and radical adduct formation. Most studies employ density functional theory to compare the antiradical capacity of different carotenoids with the ones that are most explored theoretically, such as lycopene and β-carotene. A significant number of these applications have been directed towards understanding the electron transfer mechanism, and a useful tool called the FEDAM (full-electron donor-acceptor map) was developed to better evaluate this mechanism. Important aspects that may affect the radical scavenging capacity of carotenoids, such as synergistic effects and solubility, are sometimes overlooked, and a greater number of such compounds should be explored.

  3. Composition of Carotenoids and Flavonoids in Narcissus Cultivars and their Relationship with Flower Color.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Lu, Min; Tang, Dongqin; Shi, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Narcissus is widely used for cut flowers and potted plants, and is one of the most important commercial bulbous flowers in the floricultural industry. In this study, ten carotenoid and eighteen flavonoid compounds from the perianths and coronas of fifteen narcissus cultivars were measured by HPLC-APCI-MS/MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Among these, six carotenoids, a total of seventeen flavonols and chlorogenic acid were identified in narcissus for the first time. A multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationship between flower color and pigment composition. We found that all-trans-violaxanthin and total carotenoid content were the main factors that affected flower color. These investigations could provide a global view of flower color formation and a theoretical basis for hybridization breeding in narcissus.

  4. Skin carotenoids as biomarker for vegetable and fruit intake: Validation of the reflection-spectroscopy based “Veggie Meter”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Skin is a relatively stable storage medium for carotenoids; non-invasive optical measurements of carotenoids in this tissue via Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) serve as a non-invasive biomarker for fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake. The RRS method has been validated with HPLC-based measurements of...

  5. Carotenoid micellarization varies greatly between individual and mixed vegetables with or without the addition of fat or fiber.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Orla; Ryan, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Laurie; Aherne-Bruce, S Aisling; O'Brien, Nora M

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoid bioavailability is influenced by a number of factors, including the type of food matrix and the presence of fat, fiber, and other carotenoids. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were: first, to assess the effects of mixing raw vegetables on the micellarization of beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein compared with individual vegetables; second, to investigate the effects of adding different oils on carotenoid transfer to the micelles; and third, and to a minor extent, to determine carotenoid micellarization following the addition of fiber. The two mixed vegetable meals were TRS (tomato, red pepper, and spinach) and CRS (courgette/zucchini, red pepper, and spinach). Similar trends in carotenoid micellarization were seen between individual vegetables and the TRS meal but not with the CRS meal. In general, the addition of olive, peanut, or rapeseed oil to the CRS meal significantly enhanced carotenoid micellarization but this effect was not concentration-dependent. In relation to the TRS meal, adding either vegetable oils or fiber (oat bran, wheat bran, and pectin) significantly decreased the micellarization of carotenoids to varying degrees. The results from this study indicate that changes to a combination of raw vegetables, with or without the addition of dietary fat or fiber, can have varying results on carotenoid bioavailability.

  6. Surrogate biochemistry: use of Escherichia coli to identify plant cDNAs that impact metabolic engineering of carotenoid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, C E; Cervantes-Cervantes, M; Wurtzel, E T

    2003-02-01

    Carotenoids synthesized in plants but not animals are essential for human nutrition. Therefore, ongoing efforts to metabolically engineer plants for improved carotenoid content benefit from the identification of genes that affect carotenoid accumulation, possibly highlighting potential challenges when pyramiding traits represented by multiple biosynthetic pathways. We employed a heterologous bacterial system to screen for maize cDNAs encoding products that alter carotenoid accumulation either positively or negatively. Genes encoding carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes from the bacterium Erwinia uredovora were introduced into Escherichia coli cells that were subsequently transfected with a maize endosperm cDNA expression library; and these doubly transformed cells were then screened for altered carotenoid accumulation. DNA sequencing and characterization of one cDNA class conferring increased carotenoid content led to the identification of maize cDNAs encoding isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase. A cDNA that caused a reduced carotenoid content in E. coli was also identified. Based on DNA sequence analysis, DNA hybridization, and further functional testing, this latter cDNA was found to encode the small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, a rate-controlling enzyme in starch biosynthesis that has been of interest for enhancing plant starch content.

  7. Carotenoid content and root color of cultivated carrot: a candidate-gene association study using an original broad unstructured population.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, Matthieu; Gagné, Séverine; Dubois-Laurent, Cécile; Maghraoui, Mohamed; Huet, Sébastien; Suel, Anita; Hamama, Latifa; Briard, Mathilde; Peltier, Didier; Geoffriau, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated in large amounts in carrot, carotenoids are an important product quality attribute and therefore a major breeding trait. However, the knowledge of carotenoid accumulation genetic control in this root vegetable is still limited. In order to identify the genetic variants linked to this character, we performed an association mapping study with a candidate gene approach. We developed an original unstructured population with a broad genetic basis to avoid the pitfall of false positive detection due to population stratification. We genotyped 109 SNPs located in 17 candidate genes – mostly carotenoid biosynthesis genes – on 380 individuals, and tested the association with carotenoid contents and color components. Total carotenoids and β-carotene contents were significantly associated with genes zeaxanthin epoxydase (ZEP), phytoene desaturase (PDS) and carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO) while α-carotene was associated with CRTISO and plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) genes. Color components were associated most significantly with ZEP. Our results suggest the involvement of the couple PDS/PTOX and ZEP in carotenoid accumulation, as the result of the metabolic and catabolic activities respectively. This study brings new insights in the understanding of the carotenoid pathway in non-photosynthetic organs. PMID:25614987

  8. Lack of Association of Carotenoid Intake with Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in Older Adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that carotenoids may inhibit bone resorption and stimulate bone formation. One study of BMD showed positive and negative associations for specific carotenoids, and a fracture study showed interaction by smoking. Thus, we evaluated intakes of total and individual ...

  9. Induced carotenoid accumulation in Dunaliella salina and Tetraselmis suecica by plant hormones and UV-C radiation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faruq; Fanning, Kent; Net