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Sample records for pigs experimentally infected

  1. Experimental evidence of hepatitis A virus infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, Young-Jo; Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Kwak, Sang-Woo; Kim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide, with HAV infection being restricted to humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, HAV infection status was serologically determined in domestic pigs and experimental infections of HAV were attempted to verify HAV infectivity in pigs. Antibodies specific to HAV or HAV-like agents were detected in 3.5% of serum samples collected from pigs in swine farms. When the pigs were infected intravenously with 2 × 10(5) 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 ) of HAV, shedding of the virus in feces, viremia, and seroconversion were detected. In pigs orally infected with the same quantity of HAV, viral shedding was detected only in feces. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver and bile of intravenously infected pigs, but only in the bile of orally infected pigs. In further experiments, pigs were intravenously infected with 6 × 10(5) TCID50 of HAV. Shedding of HAV in feces, along with viremia and seroconversion, were confirmed in infected pigs but not in sentinel pigs. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver, bile, spleen, lymph node, and kidney of the infected pigs. HAV antigenomic RNA was detected in the spleen of one HAV-infected pig, suggesting HAV replication in splenic cells. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the livers of infected pigs but not in controls. This is the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that human HAV strains can infect pigs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Japanese encephalitis virus tropism in experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Ricklin, Meret E; Garcìa-Nicolàs, Obdulio; Brechbühl, Daniel; Python, Sylvie; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Posthaus, Horst; Oevermann, Anna; Summerfield, Artur

    2016-02-24

    Pigs are considered to be the main amplifying host for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and their infection can correlate with human cases of disease. Despite their importance in the ecology of the virus as it relates to human cases of encephalitis, the pathogenesis of JEV in pigs remains obscure. In the present study, the localization and kinetics of virus replication were investigated in various tissues after experimental intravenous infection of pigs. The data demonstrate a rapid and broad spreading of the virus to the central nervous system (CNS) and various other organs. A particular tropism of JEV in pigs not only to the CNS but also for secondary lymphoid tissue, in particular the tonsils with the overall highest viral loads, was observed. In this organ, even 11 days post infection, the latest time point of the experiment, no apparent decrease in viral RNA loads and live virus was found despite the presence of a neutralizing antibody response. This was also well beyond the clinical and viremic phase. These results are of significance for the pathogenesis of JEV, and call for further experimental studies focusing on the cellular source and duration of virus replication in pigs.

  4. Experimental Salmonella Enterica Infection in Market-weight Pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Market pigs infected with Salmonella pose a significant food safety risk by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in market-weight pigs (220-240 lbs.). Pigs (n=24) were individually inoculated (intranasally; 108 cfu/mL) with Salm...

  5. Respiratory disease in growing pigs after Porcine rubulavirus experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the pathogenicity and distribution of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) in the respiratory tract of experimentally infected pigs. Nine 6-week-old pigs were infected with PorPV and examined clinically. Blood, nasal swab, and tissue samples were collected on different days post-infection (DPI). The humoral immune responses and viral loads were evaluated. The infected pigs exhibited an increase in the respiratory clinical signs. In addition, the excretion of PorPV was extended to 23 DPI in the nasal fluid. The distribution of PorPV in the respiratory tract tissues was extended until the end of the experiment; soft palate tonsil and lymph nodes exhibited high viral loads. The major microscopic lesions observed in the lungs corresponded to interstitial pneumonia and hyperplasia of the associated lymphoid tissue. In conclusion, PorPV infection causes a pneumonic disease characterized by a prolonged virus excretion and high viral load in the lymphoid tissues.

  6. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in pigs infected experimentally with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Andrada, M; Quesada-Canales, O; Suárez-Bonnet, A; Paz-Sánchez, Y; Espinosa de Los Monteros, A; Rodríguez, F

    2014-01-01

    Porcine enzootic pneumonia, primarily caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh), is a contagious disease characterized by catarrhal bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Previous studies have evaluated immunohistochemically the distribution of Mh, different cellular populations and cytokines during Mh-induced pneumonia. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is overexpressed during inflammatory responses by different cell types in the lung. The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible role of COX-2 in the pathogenesis of porcine enzootic pneumonia. COX-2 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded lung tissues from 10 pigs infected experimentally with Mh. Ten pigs were inoculated intranasally with Mh and killed in pairs weekly from 1 to 5 weeks post inoculation. Three Mh-free pigs were taken as controls. Bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells, bronchial submucosal glands and a small number of macrophages in the bronchoalveolar exudate expressed COX-2. COX-2 protein was always associated with areas of pneumonia and expression was minimal in lungs from control pigs. These results suggest that COX-2 plays a role in the pathogenesis of Mh-infection.

  7. Experimental infection of Bama miniature pigs with a highly virulent classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Jiang, Qian; Tian, Da-Yong; Lin, Huan; Li, Hong; Han, Qiu-Ying; Han, Wen; Si, Chang-De; Hu, Shou-Ping; Zhang, Zhuo; Qu, Lian-Dong; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2011-09-25

    Currently, larger domestic pigs are only animals widely used in vaccine evaluation and pathogenicity study of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). This study was aimed to create an alternative animal experimental infection model of CSFV. Twenty specific-pathogen-free Bama miniature pigs were randomly divided into two groups and rooms, infected and non-infected, and the pigs in the infected group were inoculated intramuscularly with 104, 105 or 106 TCID50 (median tissue culture infective dose) CSFV Shimen strain (n = 5 × 3) or left uninoculated to serve as in-contact pigs (n = 3). The uninfected control pigs (n = 2) were housed in a separate room. Clinical signs, body temperature, viraemia, tissue antigen distribution, pathological changes and seroconversion were monitored. Clinical signs were observed as early as 2 days post-inoculation (dpi) in all infected pigs (though mild in contact pigs), but not non-infected control pigs. All inoculated pigs showed viraemia by 6 dpi. The in-contact pigs showed lower levels of viraemia. At 10 dpi, seroconversion was noted in five of the 15 inoculated pigs. All inoculated or one in-contact pigs died by 15 dpi. These results show that Bama miniature pigs support productive CSFV infection and display clinical signs and pathological changes consistent with CSFV infections observed in larger domestic pigs.

  8. PSITTACOSIS : III. EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED INFECTIONS IN RABBITS AND GUINEA PIGS.

    PubMed

    Rivers, T M; Berry, G P

    1931-06-30

    1. Rabbits and guinea pigs are susceptible to psittacosis virus introduced intracerebrally. By means of brain to brain passages in these animals the active agent is capable of propagation indefinitely. 2. Serial passages of the virus through rabbits and guinea pigs do not cause the active agent to lose its pathogenicity for parrots and mice. 3. The chief clinical evidences of infection in rabbits and guinea pigs following intracranial inoculation of the virus are fever and loss of weight. The pathological changes are characterized by a mild meningo-encephalitis, and fatty degeneration, focal necrosis, and infarction of the liver. 4. Rabbits upon recovery from an attack of psittacosis are actively immune. 5. Two strains of virus, human and parrot, were found to be immunologically similar. 6. No evidence was obtained to show that human convalescent serum possesses an appreciable amount of neutralizing substances.

  9. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A

    DOE PAGES

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; ...

    2016-07-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. Here we report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions.

  10. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. We report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions. PMID:27315363

  11. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A

    SciTech Connect

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lager, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. Here we report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions.

  12. Effects of atmospheric ammonia on young pigs experimentally infected with Ascaris suum

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, J.G.; Curtis, S.E.; Simon, J.; Norton, H.W.

    1981-06-01

    Effects of atmospheric ammonia at 69.4 mg/m3 (100 ppm) on productive performance and respiratory tract health of young pigs (starting body weight averaged 7.5 kg) experimentally infected with Ascaris suum (50,000 embryonated ova administered by gavage when pigs were 5 weeks of age) were studied in 5 trials of 4 weeks each (when pigs were 5 to 9 weeks of age). Effects of atmospheric-ammonia exposure and ascarid infection on growth were additive. Compared with controls, percentage reductions in average daily gain were 32%, 28%, and 61% for ammonia-exposed, ascarid-infected, and combined ammonia plus ascarid groups, respectively. Ammonia exposure or ascarid infection alone depressed feed disappearance by 18%. Effects of the 2 factors were additive, resulting in a 35% reduction in feed disappearance. Pigs exposed to the combined factors had an average gain/feed ratio of 0.518, which was less than that of control pigs (0.546), but was greater than that of pigs exposed to atmospheric ammonia (0.489) or pigs infected with ascarids (0.501) alone. Liver scarring, due to larval migration, was not affected by ammonia exposure. Larval migration through the respiratory tract was not confirmed histopathologically in pigs killed 4 weeks after inoculation. A supplementary experiment was conducted which demonstrated that residual evidence of previous pulmonary larval migration was present 2 weeks after inoculation.

  13. The influence of dietary carbohydrates on experimental infection with Trichuris suis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, L E; Petkevicius, S; Bach Knudsen, K E; Roepstorff, A

    2005-12-01

    Two experiments (Exps 1 and 2) were carried out to study the effect of dietary carbohydrates on the establishment of Trichuris suis in pigs. Two experimental diets based on barley flour were used; Diet 1 was supplemented with non-fermentable carbohydrates from oat hull meal, while Diet 2 was supplemented with fermentable carbohydrates from sugar beet fibre and inulin. In Exp. 1, thirty-two pigs were allocated randomly into 4 groups. Two groups were fed Diet 1 and 2 groups were fed Diet 2. Pigs from one of each diet group were inoculated with 2000 infective T. suis eggs each and the other two groups were uninfected controls. All pigs were slaughtered 8 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.). In Exp. 2, twenty-four pigs were allocated randomly into 2 groups and fed Diet 1 or Diet 2, respectively. All the pigs were inoculated with 2000 infective T. suis eggs. Six pigs from each group were slaughtered 8 weeks p.i. and the remaining 6 pigs from each group were slaughtered 12 weeks p.i. Infections were followed by faecal egg counts and worm burdens were assessed at necropsy. Pigs fed Diet 2 had lower egg counts in both experiments; in Exp. 2 the difference was significant (P<0.05). No differences were found in worm burdens 8 weeks p.i. in both experiments, however, worms from pigs on Diet 2 were significantly shorter (P<0.0001). Pigs fed Diet 2 and slaughtered 12 weeks p.i. had significantly lower worm counts (P<0.01) compared to pigs fed Diet 1. The results indicate that fermentable carbohydrates do not affect the establishment of T. suis in naïve pigs, but result in earlier expulsion and reduced growth of the established worms. Thus, diets with highly fermentable carbohydrates may be used in the control of T. suis.

  14. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Lisbeth E; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jensen, Tim K; Christensen, Anja S; Møller, Kristian; Roepstorff, Allan

    2007-01-31

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown ingredients were composed. Both diets were based on triticale and barley and supplemented with either rape seed cake (Diet 1) or dried chicory root and sweet lupins (Diet 2). The study had a three-factorial design, with eight groups of pigs receiving Diet 1 or Diet 2, +/-B. hyodysenteriae, and +/-T. suis. Pigs fed Diet 2 and challenged with B. hyodysenteriae did not develop swine dysentery and B. hyodysenteriae was not demonstrated in any of the pigs during the study. In contrast, 94% of the B. hyodysenteriae challenged pigs fed Diet 1 showed clinical symptoms of swine dysentery and all the pigs were shedding B. hyodysenteriae in faeces at some points in time during the experiment. The number of T. suis was lower in pigs fed Diet 2 compared to pigs fed Diet 1, but the differences were not significant. Pigs on Diet 1 and challenged with both pathogens showed clinical symptoms of SD for a longer period than pigs inoculated with B. hyodysenteriae only. The study showed that diets supplemented with highly fermentable carbohydrates from dried chicory roots and sweet lupins can protect pigs against developing swine dysentery, but do not have any significant influence on T. suis.

  15. Experimental infection with Treponema hyodysenteriae in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Joens, L A; Songer, J G; Harris, D L; Glock, R D

    1978-01-01

    Outbred and inbred (Hartley strain) guinea pigs (GP) were inoculated intragastrically with pathogenic and nonpathogenic Treponema hyodysenteriae. GP 3 to 16 weeks old received T. hyodysenteriae after a fasting period of 36 to 72 h. Infected GP with pathogenic T. hyodysenteriae developed a diarrheal and/or depressive condition, with mucus but not blood in the feces. Of 88 GP, 40 had gross lesions resembling those of swine dysentery. Lesions were limited mainly to the large intestine. TP used as controls or inoculated with nonpathogenic T. hyodysenteriae did not develop these lesions in the large intestine. These studies suggest that the GP may be used as an animal model for swine dysentery. PMID:730345

  16. Monitoring of behavior using a video-recording system for recognition of Salmonella infection in experimentally infected growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S T; Mun, H-S; Yoe, H; Yang, C-J

    2015-01-01

    Behavior is one of the most commonly used indicators of illness; however, few studies have investigated how different common diseases affect animal behavior. This experiment was conducted to investigate behavioral and clinical alterations in growing pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella spp. during a 4-week post-infection period. A total of 48 growing pigs were divided into one of the three treatment groups (1) control, (2) infection with Salmonella Typhimurium or (3) infection with Salmonella Enteritidis. Individual pigs' behavior was recorded daily (0900 to 1100 and 1600 to 1800 h) using a video-recording system. Pigs in both infected groups had lower weight gain and feed intake during week 0 to 2 and 0 to 4 experimental period. Bacteriological data revealed that pigs in both infected groups persistently shed bacteria throughout the period of study. Oral infection of growing pigs with S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis significantly reduced the frequency of morning large (except week 1) and small movement throughout the study period. In the evening, significantly lowest frequency of movements were observed in the S. Enteritidis-infected group compared with the control. The standing and sitting frequency were significantly lower in both infected groups only at the morning of week 4. Infection with Salmonella spp. led to a significant reduction in the frequency and duration of morning eating and drinking throughout the experimental period, with the exception of 4th week drinking duration. The lowest frequency of evening eating during week 1 and 4 was recorded in both infected groups; whereas, the duration differed only at week 1. The evening drinking frequency only tended to decrease in response to S. Typhimurium infection at week 1. This study shows that, pigs infected with Salmonella spp. had poor performance, shedding high levels of Salmonella with their feces and reduced feeding and drinking activity, which are adaptive responses to infection and may help

  17. Experimental Infection of Domestic Pigs with African Swine Fever Virus Lithuania 2014 Genotype II Field Isolate.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, C; Soler, A; Nieto, R; Cano, C; Pelayo, V; Sánchez, M A; Pridotkas, G; Fernandez-Pinero, J; Briones, V; Arias, M

    2017-02-01

    An experimental infection was conducted to evaluate horizontal transmission, clinical, virological and humoral response induced in domestic pigs infected with African swine fever (ASF) genotype II virus circulating in 2014 into the European Union (EU). Ten naive pigs were placed in contact with eight pigs experimentally inoculated with the Lithuanian LT14/1490 ASF virus (ASFV) responsible for the first ASF case detected in wild boar in Lithuania in January 2014. Clinical examination and rectal temperature were recorded each day. Blood sampling from every animal was carried out twice weekly. Blood samples were examined for presence of ASF virus-specific antibodies and for determining the ASFV viral load. From the obtained results, it was concluded that the Lithuanian ASFV induced an acute disease which resulted in 94, 5% mortality. The disease was easily detected by real-time PCR prior to the onset of clinical signs and 33% of the animals seroconverted. All findings were in accordance with observations previously made in domestic pigs and wild boar when infected with ASF genotype II viruses characterized by a high virulence. One in-contact pig remained asymptomatic and survived the infection. The role of such animals in virus transmission would need further investigation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Studies on vertical transmission of Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Riva, Eliana; Fiel, Cesar; Bernat, Gisele; Muchiut, Sebastián; Steffan, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    An experimental study to enhance knowledge on the capability of Trichenella spiralis to pass from guinea pigs to progeny at different periods of pregnancy or lactation was performed. For this purpose, 18 female adult guinea pigs were inoculated with 100 or 1000 T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) during early, late gestation and during lactation period. The presence of T. spiralis (ML) in mothers and newborns was studied through enzymatic digestion from muscle samples. ML were observed in 9 of 42 newborn guinea pigs and levels of infection were significantly higher when infections of mothers were done during late gestation (p = 0.0046) with the high infective dose (p = 0.0043). T. spiralis ML were not recovered from any of the newborns from mothers infected in the lactation period. Ten out of 18 infected mothers presented larvae 1 in their mammary glands. Muscle samples from the tongue and the masseter showed the highest larval burdens. These observations confirm previous reports on that ML of T. spiralis are capable to pass through placental tissues to reach and encyst in striated muscle groups of newborn guinea pigs. This study may also reinforce the importance of preventive programs to control trichinellosis in those endemic areas where pregnant women would have high risk of infection.

  19. Immunological, physiological and behavioral effects of Salmonella enterica carriage and shedding in experimentally infected finishing pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. This study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and associated immunological, physiological, and behavioral alterations, by longitudinally ...

  20. Influence of diet on the experimental infection of pigs with Brachyspira pilosicoli.

    PubMed

    Lindecrona, R H; Jensen, T K; Møller, K

    2004-02-28

    The effects of five different diets on the experimental infection of pigs with a Danish field isolate of Brachyspira pilosicoli were investigated. The diets tested were a pelleted and a non-pelleted standard diet based on wheat and barley, the standard diet supplemented with 2 per cent lactic acid, a fermented liquid feed and a diet based on cooked rice. Two trials were conducted, each with six groups of six pigs; in each, two of the groups were fed the standard diet. One of these groups and the other four groups were challenged after two weeks on the diets and euthanased four weeks later. The clinical signs of B pilosicoli infection varied from loose stools to watery, mucoid diarrhoea. The group fed the rice diet excreted B pilosicoli in their faeces for a significantly shorter period than the group fed the standard diet (P < 0.01), and fewer of them excreted the organism (P < 0.05). All the pigs fed the pelleted diet excreted B pilosicoli in their faeces, and significantly more of them showed clinical signs of disease than the pigs fed the standard diet (P < 0.05). The fermented liquid feed and the diet containing lactic acid had no significant effect on the excretion of B pilosicoli or on the numbers of pigs showing clinical signs of disease.

  1. Enhancement of immunohistochemical detection of Salmonella in tissues of experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Rieger, J; Janczyk, P; Hünigen, H; Plendl, J

    2015-07-09

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main pathogens compromising porcine and human health as well as food safety, because it is a prevailing source of foodborne infections due to contaminated pork. A prominent problem in the management of this bacteriosis is the number of subclinically infected carrier pigs. As very little is known concerning the mechanisms allowing Salmonella to persist in pigs, the objective of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical approach for the detection of salmonellae in tissue of pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Samples were obtained from a challenge trial in which piglets of the German Landrace were intragastrically infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (1.4-2.1x1010 CFU). Piglets were sacrificed on days 2 and 28 post infection. Tissue samples of jejunum, ileum, colon, ileocecal mesenteric lymph nodes (Lnn. ileocolici), and tonsils (Tonsilla veli palatini) were fixed in Zamboni's fixative and paraffin-embedded. Different immunohistochemical staining protocols were evaluated. Salmonella was detected in varying amounts in the tissues. Brown iron-containing pigments in the lymph nodes interfered with the identification of Salmonella if DAB was used as a staining reagent. Detergents like Triton X-100 or Saponin enhanced the sensitivity. It seems advisable not to use a detection system with brown staining for bacteria in an experimental setup involving intestinal damage including haemorrhage. The use of detergents appears to result in a higher sensitivity in the immunohistochemical detection of salmonellae.

  2. Experimental infection of pigs with the porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV): measure of viral excretion.

    PubMed

    Bourgueil, E; Hutet, E; Cariolet, R; Vannier, P

    1992-04-01

    Twelve pigs were experimentally infected with a porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) by the oronasal route. Viral excretion was measured daily by two means-deep nasal swabs and air samples obtained in a cyclone sampler. Clinical signs were very slight on infected pigs. Airborne virus could be recovered from day 1 to day 6 post-infection in the cyclone sampler as well as in petri dishes placed in the same loose-box. Viral titres obtained from nasal swabs were significantly correlated with those obtained from air samples. Different collection media were compared. The most efficient media for the collection of infectious viral particles contained a protective agent such as foetal calf serum.

  3. Effects of atmospheric ammonia on young pigs experimentally infected with Bordetella bronchiseptica

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, J.G.; Curtis, S.E.; Meyer, R.C.; Simon, J.; Norton, H.W.

    1981-06-01

    Effects of atmospheric ammonia on performance and respiratory tract health of young pigs experimentally infected with Bordetella bronchiseptica were studied. Treatments were: (1) control, (2) Bordetella inoculation (approx 10(9) bacteria/naris) alone, (3) Bordetella inoculation plus exposure to atmospheric ammonia at 34.7 mg/m3 (50 ppm), and (4) Bordetella inoculation plus exposure to atmospheric ammonia at 69.4 mg/m3 (100 ppm). Pigs weighted 8.01 kg (av) at start of treatment. Body weight and feed disappearance were measured weekly. After 4 weeks, all pigs were killed and examined grossly, and appropriate specimens were obtained for histopathologic examination. Regression models were fitted to growth, feed disappearance, and gain-to-feed data. The growth model indicated that Bordetella-inoculated pigs gained 26% less body weight than did controls, regardless of atmospheric ammonia concentration. Bordetella inoculation, regardless of ammonia exposure, reduced feed disappearance 12% below the control rate. Treatment difference was not noted in gain/feed data. Shrunken turbinates were observed in Bordetella-inoculated pigs. Shrinkage also appeared to be related directly to ammonia concentration. Rhinitis was confirmed histopathologically, and its severity was related with atmospheric ammonia concentration, but no difference was seen in the osseous core of the turbinates.

  4. [Study on hepatocyte apoptosis of domestic pigs experimentally infected with Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata].

    PubMed

    Mou, Rong; Bao, Huai-En; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Jia-Hong; Lang, Shu-Yuan

    2012-10-30

    To investigate apoptosis in liver tissue of the domestic pigs infected with eggs of Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata. The adult worms of T. asiatica and T. saginata were collected and identified from the taeniasis patients in Dunyun and Congjiang districts, Guizhou province. Eggs were collected from gravid proglottids and prepared by washing and centrifugation. Nineteen 20-day hybrid domestic pigs (Duroc-Yorkshire-Landrace strain) were randomly divided into T. asiatica group (6 pigs), T. saginata group (8 pigs) and control group (5 pigs). Each animal of experimental groups was infected with 1.5 x 10(5) eggs by stomach injection. On day 15, 32, 46 and 74 after infection, animals were sacrificed and liver samples were collected for further experiments. The liver tissues were sliced for glass slides and prepared for ultrathin sections. The apoptosis of hepatocytes was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick and labeling. The morphological features of liver tissue were observed under transmission electron microscope. The infection rate of two experiment groups reached 100%. Better developed cysticerci were found in liver of T. asiatica group than that of T. saginata group, but the liver pathological changes caused by cysticerci were similar. On day 15 and 32 after infection, hydropic degeneration, obvious vacuolization and some balloon-like degeneration were found in hepatocytes, and focal hepatic necrosis was observed. On day 46, spotty necrosis occurred in some local liver tissues. On day 74, main damages were granulomatous reactions surrounding cysticercus and focal liver fibrosis. On day 46, apoptosis index in T. asiatica group [(15.07 +/- 3.42)6%] and T. saginata group [(17.13 +/- 1.62)5%] was considerably higher than that in the control [(9.53 +/- 1.06)%] (P < 0.05). On day 74, apoptosis index in T. asiatica group [(27.33 +/- 0.92)5%] and T. saginata group [(34.20 +/- 0.73)%] was higher than that in the control [(13.60 +/- 2

  5. Lack of effect of feeding citrus by-products in reducing Salmonella in experimentally infected weanling pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the current research was to determine if feeding citrus by-products D’Limonene (DL) and citrus molasses (MOL) would reduce the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella in weanling pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Twenty crossbred weanling pigs (avg. BW = ...

  6. Evaluation of hemostaseological status of pigs experimentally infected with African swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Karalova, Elena; Voskanyan, Henrik; Ter-Pogossyan, Zarine; Nersisyan, Narek; Hakobyan, Astghik; Saroyan, David; Karalyan, Zaven

    2014-11-07

    African swine fever is a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease of pigs caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). Hemorrhages are the most frequently reported lesions in acute and subacute forms of ASF. Hemorrhagic lesions are accompanied by impaired hemostasis, which includes thrombocytopenia and changes in the coagulation system. In the present study, experimental infection was conducted to elucidate whether a highly virulent ASFV genotype II circulating in the Trans-Caucasus and Eastern Europe affects the hemostasis of infected pigs. Platelet count changes and platelet size, as well as coagulation parameters were evaluated upon experimental infection. In contrast to other ASFV strains, ASFV genotype II showed a significant decrease in the number of platelets from 3rd dpi onwards. Furthermore, a decrease in platelet size was observed throughout the entire period of experiment. A significant increase in the number of platelet aggregates was observed from the beginning of infection. Unlike other ASFV strains, ASFV genotype II induced a slight shortening of an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) throughout the experiment. Thrombin time (TT) was prolonged from day 5 onwards, whereas no changes in prothrombin time (PT) were found upon infection. The level of d-dimers was permanently higher than in control with a peak on day 3 post-infection. ASFV induced a significant decrease in the level of fibrinogen from day 5 till the end of experiment. Thus, it can be concluded that ASFV genotype II isolated in Armenia affects the hemostasis of infected pigs and causes changes that differ from that of other ASFV strains described previously.

  7. Scanning electron microscopy of experimental Trichophyton mentagrophytes infections in guinea pig skin.

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, R D; Kerbs, S; Yee, K

    1978-01-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes invasion of guinea pig skin was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Biopsies were obtained daily for 12 days from experimental infection sites. Dermatophyte invasion, examined in detail by scanning electron microscopy of cross-sectioned, prefixed skin was evidenced by: the appearance of hyphae within the stratum corneum; follicular invasion by hyphae, which remained initially within the follicle wall; emergence of the hyphae from the wall into the follicular canal; proliferation of the fungus down the follicle, with furrowing of the follicle wall and hair shaft cuticle; penetration of hyphae into the hair shaft by subcuticular and transcuticular routes; and massive peripilar hyphal proliferation with arthrosporogenesis. A three-dimensional perception of the invasion sequence of a dermatophyte in guinea pig skin was obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Images PMID:711318

  8. Shigella infection as observed in the experimentally inoculated domestic pig, Sus scrofa domestica.

    PubMed

    Maurelli, A T; Routh, P R; Dillman, R C; Ficken, M D; Weinstock, D M; Almond, G W; Orndorff, P E

    1998-10-01

    The domestic pig, Sus scrofa domestica, was investigated as a potential animal model for shigellosis. We examined the effects of pig age, pig breed and antibiotic pretreatment upon Shigella infection. Shigella dysenteriae, and Shigella flexneri (both virulent and avirulent strains) were utilized. Our results indicated that young (4-week-old), conventionally re ared, domestic pigs were routinely, but briefly, colonized (average=3.5+/-2.5 days) following oral or gavage administration ofS. flexneri, as determined by direct rectal cultures. The duration of S. dysenteriae colonization was significantly shorter. Inoculation of younger (2 days) or older (9 weeks) pigs with S. flexneri had no significant effect on infection duration. Similarly, infection of 4-week-old pigs with virulent and avirulent strains of S. flexneri had no effect upon the duration of infection, nor did the use of a swine-passaged S. flexneri isolate. Marked clinical, histopathological (gross and microscopic) and immunoIhistopathological signs of disease were absent in all infections. However, in instances where microscopic histopathological evidence was used to correctly identify infected pigs, tonsillar lesions were the consistently noted criteria. The tonsils are believed to be an important portal of entry for Salmonella choleraesuis, another member of the Enterobacteriaceae and a prevalent pig pathogen. Taken altogether, our results indicate that the domestic pig is unsuitable as a model for shigellosis. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  9. Dietary aluminosilicate supplement enhances immune activity in mice and reinforces clearance of porcine circovirus type 2 in experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Toan, Nguyen Tat; Cho, Sun-Ju; Ko, Jae-hyung; Jung, Yeon-Kwon; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2010-07-14

    Aluminosilicate is the major component of clay minerals such as zeolite, bentonite and clinoptilolite. The minerals possess a number of beneficial activities, especially in regulating the immune system. The aims of the present study were to evaluate immune enhancing effects of dietary aluminosilicate supplement (DAS) in mice, and to demonstrate clearance effects of DAS against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in experimentally infected pigs as an initial step towards the development of an antibiotic substitute for use in pigs. Relative messenger RNA expression levels of interferon-gamma, interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, phagocytic activities of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, serum antibody production level and spleen B cell ratio were significantly increased in the DAS groups of mice compared with the control group (each feeding group had three replications with 5 mice each). The results indicated that general immune activity including cellular and humoral immunity could be enhanced by DAS in mice. In experimentally PCV2-infected pigs, the load of viral genome in nasal swab, serum and lung of the DAS group of pigs was significantly decreased compared with the control group at 28 days post-infection (each group three pigs). Corresponding histopathological analyses demonstrated that pigs in the DAS group displayed mild and less severe abnormal changes compared with the control group, indicating that DAS reinforces clearance of PCV2 in experimentally infected pigs. This may relate to general immune enhancing effects of DAS in mice. Therefore DAS will help the health of animal, especially in swine.

  10. Experimental infection with Toxocara cati in pigs: migratory pattern and pathological response in early phase.

    PubMed

    Sommerfelt, Irma Estela; Duchene, Adriana; Daprato, Betina; Lopez, Clara María; Cardillo, Natalia; Franco, Aníbal Juan

    2014-01-01

    Experimental inoculations of approximately 100,000 infective Toxocara cati larval eggs were done in twelve pigs. The T. cati eggs used for inoculation were collected from cat's feces. Another group of three pigs served as an uninfected control. Groups of infected pigs were euthanized at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi). Tissue samples were taken for digestion and histopathology changes in early phase. The number of larvae recovered from the lungs peaked at seven and 14 dpi and were also present at 21, and 28 dpi. Larvae of T. cati were present in the lymph nodes of the small and large intestine at seven, 14, and 28 dpi and at seven, 14, 21, and 28 dpi respectively. In other studied tissues, no larvae or less than one larva per gram was detected. The pathological response observed in the liver and lungs at seven and 14 dpi, showed white spots on the liver surface and areas of consolidation were observed in the lungs. The lungs showed an inflammatory reaction with larvae in center at 28 dpi. In the liver we observed periportal and perilobular hepatitis. The lymph nodes of the intestines displayed eosinophil lymphadenitis with reactive centers containing parasitic forms in some of them. The granulomatous reaction was not observed in any tissues. The role of the other examined tissues had less significance. The relevance of this parasite as an etiological agent that leads to disease in paratenic hosts is evident.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH Toxocara cati IN PIGS: MIGRATORY PATTERN AND PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN EARLY PHASE

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfelt, Irma Estela; Duchene, Adriana; Daprato, Betina; Lopez, Clara María; Cardillo, Natalia; Franco, Aníbal Juan

    2014-01-01

    Experimental inoculations of approximately 100,000 infective Toxocara cati larval eggs were done in twelve pigs. The T. cati eggs used for inoculation were collected from cat's feces. Another group of three pigs served as an uninfected control. Groups of infected pigs were euthanized at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi). Tissue samples were taken for digestion and histopathology changes in early phase. The number of larvae recovered from the lungs peaked at seven and 14 dpi and were also present at 21, and 28 dpi. Larvae of T. cati were present in the lymph nodes of the small and large intestine at seven, 14, and 28 dpi and at seven, 14, 21, and 28 dpi respectively. In other studied tissues, no larvae or less than one larva per gram was detected. The pathological response observed in the liver and lungs at seven and 14 dpi, showed white spots on the liver surface and areas of consolidation were observed in the lungs. The lungs showed an inflammatory reaction with larvae in center at 28 dpi. In the liver we observed periportal and perilobular hepatitis. The lymph nodes of the intestines displayed eosinophil lymphadenitis with reactive centers containing parasitic forms in some of them. The granulomatous reaction was not observed in any tissues. The role of the other examined tissues had less significance. The relevance of this parasite as an etiological agent that leads to disease in paratenic hosts is evident. PMID:25076437

  12. Efficacy of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination before and at weaning against experimental challenge infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Arsenakis, Ioannis; Panzavolta, Luca; Michiels, Annelies; Del Pozo Sacristán, Rubén; Boyen, Filip; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek

    2016-03-29

    Commercial bacterins are widely used at weaning to control Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs. However, it is not known whether the efficacy of vaccinating against M. hyopneumoniae can be influenced by the weaning process when vaccination is applied at the day of weaning. The present study assessed the efficacy of a single M. hyopneumoniae vaccination (Ingelvac MycoFLEX®) three days before weaning (V1) or at weaning (V2) against experimental challenge infection. Four weeks after vaccination, groups V1 and V2 (n = 20 pigs each) and a non-vaccinated, positive control group (PCG) (n = 20) were endotracheally inoculated with a virulent M. hyopneumoniae field strain. Five pigs were used as a negative control group. All pigs were euthanized 5 weeks after challenge. The main parameters investigated included macroscopic and histopathological lung lesions at necropsy, immunofluorescence (IF) staining and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) on broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid for quantifying M. hyopneumoniae. The average macroscopic lung lesion scores in groups V1, V2 and PCG were 0.54, 0.88 and 1.04, respectively (P > 0.05). The average lymphohistiocytic infiltration scores in groups V1, V2 and PCG were 2.95, 3.16 and 3.61, respectively (P < 0.05). The average IF scores were: V1 = 1.13, V2 = 1.19 and PCG = 1.25 (P > 0.05), the qPCR values were: V1 = 10(2.94), V2 = 10(2.76) and PCG = 10(3.23) (P > 0.05). All pigs of the negative control group remained negative throughout the study. Both vaccinated groups had lower numbers of macroscopic and histopathological lung lesions, and lower numbers of M. hyopneumoniae organisms in the BAL fluid compared to the PCG. However, no firm conclusions could be made on whether weaning negatively influences the efficacy of M. hyopneumoniae vaccination, since significant differences between the treatment groups were only obtained for the histopathological lung lesions. This could be attributed to the fact that milder macroscopic lung

  13. Lack of viable parasites in cured 'Parma Ham' (PDO), following experimental Toxoplasma gondii infection of pigs.

    PubMed

    Genchi, Marco; Vismarra, Alice; Mangia, Carlo; Faccini, Silvia; Vicari, Nadia; Rigamonti, Sara; Prati, Paola; Marino, Anna Maria; Kramer, Laura; Fabbi, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    Twelve Large White pigs were experimentally infected with 1000 Toxoplasma gondii oocysts/each. Serology was carried out at different time points post infection (p.i.) and animals were slaughtered at four months p.i. One of two thighs was examined for T. gondii infection status by PCR and bioassay in mice. The other thigh was processed for Parma ham production. Four thighs were examined after twelve months of curing, four after fourteen months and four were examined after sixteen months. Cured hams were analyzed by PCR, bioassay and in-vitro cultivation on Vero cells followed by real-time PCR. Pigs seroconverted from day 21 p.i. Bioassays were positive for all fresh thighs, but negative for cured hams. PCR was positive for parasite DNA from most thighs both at slaughter and post curing, but parasite growth was not observed following in vitro cultivation and real-time PCR. Results indicate that the curing process of Parma Ham (PDO), when carried out according to the Parma Ham consortium regulations, can inactivate T. gondii tissue cysts. Results would suggest that food-borne transmission of T. gondii to consumers from Parma ham can be excluded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and Pig-Major acute phase protein profiles of pigs infected experimentally by different isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Saco, Y; Martínez-Lobo, F; Cortey, M; Pato, R; Peña, R; Segalés, J; Prieto, C; Bassols, A

    2016-02-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) is the etiologic agent of PRRS, one of the most important diseases in swine worldwide. In the present work, the effects of different PRRSV strains were tested on a piglet experimental model to study the induced acute phase response. For this purpose, pigs (n=15 for each group) were intranasally inoculated with one of five PRRSV strains (isolates EU10, 12, 17, 18 from genotype 1 and isolate JA-142 from genotype 2). The acute phase response was monitored by measuring acute phase proteins (APPs). Specifically, the serum concentration of haptoglobin (Hp), C-reactive protein (CRP) and Pig-Major Acute Protein (Pig-MAP) was determined at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days p.i. Clinical signs and growth performance were also monitored during the experiment. All animals became viremic after inoculation during the study period. The APP response was heterogeneous and dependent on the strain, being strains EU10, EU 18 and JA-142 those that induced the highest response and the strongest clinical signs. In general, Hp was the most sensitive biomarker for PRRSV infection, CRP behaved as moderate and Pig-MAP was the less responsive during the course of PRRSV experimental infection. Hp and CRP were significantly discriminatory between infected and control pigs, but not Pig-MAP.

  15. Parasitological and histopathological effects of immunosuppression in guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus) experimentally infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

    PubMed

    Okeke, O C; Ubachukwu, P O; Okafor, F C; Shoyinka, S V O

    2012-12-01

    The parasitological and histopathological effects of immunosuppression in guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus) experimentally infected with Schistosoma haematobium were studied. A total of 16 guinea-pigs were divided into four groups (four per group): non-immunosuppressed, non-infected group (NN); immunosuppressed, non-infected group (IN); immunosuppressed, infected group (II); non-immunosuppressed, infected group (NI). The IN and II groups were immunosuppressed with 5 mg/kg prednisolone while the II and NI animals were infected with 200-300 S. haematobium cercariae. Excretion of eggs in urine/faeces, worm burden and histopathology of some vital organs of the guinea-pigs were studied. Eggs of S. haematobium were observed in the urine of the NI and II groups from 9 weeks post-infection and in faeces from 10 and 13 weeks post-infection for the NI and II groups, respectively. However, II animals excreted more viable eggs in urine and faeces than those of the NI group. Worm recovery at 14 weeks post-infection showed that NI and II guinea-pigs had more female worms than male worms and a greater proportion of worm recovery for NI animals was of immature worms. Significant differences (P < 0.05) existed between female, male and immature worm burden of the two groups but not in their total worm burden (P>0.05). Histological changes, which were notably reactions to adult S. haematobium worms, were observed in the organs of the NI and II groups but these changes were seen more in the organs of the immunosuppressed, infected (II) than in the non-immunosuppressed, infected (NI) guinea-pigs. The results suggest that immunosuppression before infection increased worm survival and had a moderate effect on liver and bladder histology of S. haematobium infected guinea-pigs.

  16. Detection of Classical swine fever virus infection by individual oral fluid of pigs following experimental inoculation.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Stefano; Pierini, Ilaria; Giammarioli, Monica; Feliziani, Francesco; De Mia, Gian Mario

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the use of oral fluid as an alternative to serum samples for Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) detection. Individual oral fluid and serum samples were collected at different times post-infection from pigs that were experimentally inoculated with CSFV Alfort 187 strain. We found no evidence of CSFV neutralizing antibodies in swine oral fluid samples under our experimental conditions. In contrast, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction could detect CSFV nucleic acid from the oral fluid as early as 8 d postinfection, which also coincided with the time of initial detection in blood samples. The probability of CSFV detection in oral fluid was identical or even higher than in the corresponding blood sample. Our results support the feasibility of using this sampling method for CSFV genome detection, which may represent an additional cost-effective tool for CSF control.

  17. Reduction of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 infection in experimentally challenged weaned pigs fed a lactobacillus-fermented feed.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fugui; Farzan, Abdolvahab; Wang, Qi Chuck; Yu, Hai; Yin, Yulong; Hou, Yongqing; Friendship, Robert; Gong, Joshua

    2014-08-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is a foodborne pathogen and commonly present on pig farms. Probiotics have shown potential as a means of reducing Salmonella shedding in pigs. Three experimental challenge trials were conducted to investigate the potential application of newly isolated Lactobacillus isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in pigs. In each trial, 16 Yorkshire piglets (28-d old) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: (1) basal diet (BD), (2) naturally fermented (NF) feed, (3) Lactobacillus zeae-fermented (LZ-F) feed, and 4) Lactobacillus casei-fermented (LC-F) feed. All pigs consumed their assigned diets for 3 d prior to the challenge of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (approximately 6 log colony-forming units/pig) through gavage. Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. zeae, and L. casei were most abundant in NF, LZ-F, and LC-F feed, respectively. After the challenge, pigs on fermented feed had lower rectal temperature, diarrhea scores, serum haptoglobin concentrations, and intestinal Salmonella counts than the control group (BD) (p ≤ 0.01). Salmonella spp. were detected in both ileocecal lymph nodes (ICLN) and spleens from all pigs on BD, NF, and LC-F, but only 50% of spleens from pigs on LZ-F. Pigs had a dynamic spatial and temporal immune response to Salmonella infection and dietary treatments, as indicated by up- and downregulation in gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor) in the ileum, ICLN, and spleen. The alternation in cytokine expression by fermented feed, particularly LZ-F, appeared to benefit pigs in combating Salmonella infection.

  18. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Farlen José Bebber; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; Oliveira, Fábio Conceição de; Melo, João Cardoso de; Mariano, Carlos Magno Anselmo; Albernaz, Antonio Peixoto; Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiróz de; Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de; Souza, Wanderley de; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2015-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis.

  19. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Farlen José Bebber; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; Oliveira, Fábio Conceição de; Melo, João Cardoso de; Mariano, Carlos Magno Anselmo; Albernaz, Antonio Peixoto; Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiróz de; Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de; Souza, Wanderley de; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2015-02-03

    Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis.

  20. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Farlen José Bebber; de Souza, Diogo Benchimol; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; de Oliveira, Fábio Conceição; de Melo, João Cardoso; Mariano, Carlos Magno Anselmo; Albernaz, Antonio Peixoto; de Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiróz; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; de Souza, Wanderley; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis. PMID:25742268

  1. Treatment of pigs experimentally infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae with various antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Stipkovits, L; Miller, D; Glavits, R; Fodor, L; Burch, D

    2001-01-01

    The authors have performed a comparative study of the efficacy of various in-feed medications for the treatment of 5- to 6-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) piglets experimentally infected on day 1 with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, on day 8 with Pasteurella multocida (serotype A), and on day 15 with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (serotype 2). The treatment started on day 9 and continued for 12 consecutive days, then the piglets were euthanized for examination of macroscopic, histologic, and pathologic lesions and for the presence of mycoplasmas and bacteria in the lungs. Based on the results of clinical observations (respiratory signs, rectal temperature, body weight gain, and feed conversion efficiency), macroscopic and histologic lesions of the lungs, and microbiologic findings, the best results were obtained by treatment of pigs with Econor + chlortetracycline, followed by Tetramutin, Pulmotil, Cyfac, and lincomycin + chlortetracycline. PMID:11768127

  2. Transcriptional profiling of hilar nodes from pigs after experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shumin; Zuo, Zhicai; Cui, Hengmin; Li, Mingzhou; Peng, Xi; Zhu, Ling; Zhang, Ming; Li, Xuewei; Xu, Zhiwen; Gan, Meng; Deng, Junliang; Fang, Jing; Ma, Jideng; Su, Shengqun; Wang, Ya; Shen, Liuhong; Ma, Xiaoping; Ren, Zhihua; Wu, Bangyuan; Hu, Yanchun

    2013-11-29

    The gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) is an inhabitant of the porcine upper respiratory tract and the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia (PP). In recent years, knowledge about the proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression that occurs in lung and lymph node of the APP-infected swine has been advanced. However, systematic gene expression profiles on hilar nodes from pigs after infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae have not yet been reported. The transcriptional responses were studied in hilar nodes (HN) from swine experimentally infected with APP and the control groupusing Agilent Porcine Genechip, including 43,603 probe sets. 9,517 transcripts were identified as differentially expressed (DE) at the p ≤ 0.01 level by comparing the log2 (normalized signal) of the two groups named treatment group (TG) and controls (CG). Eight hundred and fifteen of these DE transcripts were annotated as pig genes in the GenBank database (DB). Two hundred and seventy-two biological process categories (BP), 75 cellular components and 171 molecular functions were substantially altered in the TG compared to CG. Many BP were involved in host immune responses (i.e., signaling, signal transmission, signal transduction, response to stimulus, oxidation reduction, response to stress, immune system process, signaling pathway, immune response, cell surface receptor linked signaling pathway). Seven DE gene pathways (VEGF signaling pathway, Long-term potentiation, Ribosome, Asthma, Allograft rejection, Type I diabetes mellitus and Cardiac muscle contraction) and statistically significant associations with host responses were affected. Many cytokines (including NRAS, PI3K, MAPK14, CaM, HSP27, protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit and alpha isoform), mediating the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and promoting survival and vascular permeability, were activated in TG, whilst many immunomodulatory cytokines were suppressed

  3. Effect of vaccination of pigs against experimental infection with high and low virulence Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, I; Maes, D; Vranckx, K; Calus, D; Pasmans, F; Haesebrouck, F

    2011-02-17

    This study investigated the infection pattern and lung lesion development in pigs caused by a low and highly virulent Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain at 4 and 8 weeks (w) post infection (PI). It also determined the efficacy of a commercial inactivated whole-cell vaccine against infection with each one of these M. hyopneumoniae strains. Ninety piglets free of M. hyopneumoniae were selected, and 40 of them were randomly vaccinated during their first week of life. At weaning, all piglets were allocated to 10 different groups and housed in pens with absolute filters. At 4 weeks of age, pigs were inoculated intratracheally with either a highly virulent M. hyopneumoniae strain, a low virulent strain or with sterile culture medium. Half of all animals were euthanized at 4 w PI, while the remaining half was euthanized at 8 w PI. Coughing was assessed daily, and lung lesions, immunofluorescence (IF), bacteriological analysis and nested PCR were assessed after necropsy. It was demonstrated that contrary to the highly virulent strain, the low virulent strain required more than 4 weeks PI (commonly accepted as the standard infection model) to reach maximum clinical symptoms. Vaccination significantly reduced clinical symptoms, macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions in pigs infected with the highly virulent strain. This effect was more pronounced at 4 than at 8 weeks PI. Protective efficacy was also observed in pigs infected with the low virulent strain, but the effect was less pronounced than on the highly virulent strain.

  4. Growth performance and whole-body composition of pigs experimentally infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Escobar, J; Van Alstine, W G; Baker, D H; Johnson, R W

    2002-02-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) is the primary infectious pathogen responsible for enzootic pneumonia in pigs. Although Mh is thought to impair growth performance, whole-body composition, and fat and protein accretion in pigs with pneumonia have not been reported and the mechanism through which Mh reduces growth is unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of Mh on growth performance, whole-body composition, and protein and fat accretion in nursery pigs and to determine whether Mh infection increases the expression of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Sixty-four 2-wk-old Mh-free pigs were used (two trials) in a randomized complete block design. In each trial, two pigs were housed in each of 16 disease-containment chambers. At 4 wk of age, pigs were inoculated intratracheally with 3 mL of Mh broth (P5722-3, 10(7) cfu/mL) or sterile Friis culture medium. Clinical signs of disease and feed intake were monitored daily and body weight was determined weekly for 4 wk. Whole-body composition was determined from pigs killed 0, 14, and 28 d after inoculation, and the comparative slaughter technique was used to estimate protein and fat accretion. At death, gross lung lesions were quantified, and lung tissue was collected to verify the presence or absence of Mh, and to determine cytokine mRNA levels. Control pigs displayed no overt signs of infection and were Mh-negative and free of pulmonary lesions. Pigs inoculated with Mh showed pneumonic coughing (P < 0.005), were Mh-positive, and had pulmonary lesions that affected 4.5% (P < 0.01) and 14.1% (P < 0.001) of total lung surface area at 14 and 28 d, respectively, after inoculation. Ribonuclease protection assays revealed increased IL-1beta (P < 0.04) and TNF-alpha (P < 0.06) mRNA in lung tissue collected from a lesion site compared with tissue collected 10 cm from a lesion site or from control pigs. Interestingly, Mh did not depress weight gain or feed efficiency

  5. Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa) as an Animal Model for Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yauri, Verónica; Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E.; Verastegui, Manuela; Angulo, Noelia; Recuenco, Fernando; Cabello, Ines; Malaga, Edith; Bern, Caryn; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs were infected with a Bolivian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (genotype I) and evaluated up to 150 days postinoculation (dpi) to determine the use of pigs as an animal model of Chagas disease. Parasitemia was observed in the infected pigs during the acute phase (15–40 dpi). Anti-T.cruzi immunoglobulin M was detected during 15–75 dpi; high levels of anti-T.cruzi immunoglobulin G were detected in all infected pigs from 75 to 150 dpi. Parasitic DNA was observed by western blot (58%, 28/48) and polymerase chain reaction (27%, 13/48) in urine samples, and in the brain (75%, 3/4), spleen (50%, 2/4), and duodenum (25%, 1/4), but no parasitic DNA was found in the heart, colon, and kidney. Parasites were not observed microscopically in tissues samples, but mild inflammation, vasculitis, and congestion was observed in heart, brain, kidney, and spleen. This pig model was useful for the standardization of the urine test because of the higher volume that can be obtained as compared with other small animal models. However, further experiments are required to observe pathological changes characteristic of Chagas disease in humans. PMID:26928841

  6. Efficacy of florphenicol premix in weanling pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Arriaga, J M; Gutierrez-Pabello, J A; Chavez-Gris, G; Hernandez-Castro, R

    2000-01-01

    The efficacy of a florfenicol premix was studied in weaning pigs experimentally inoculated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Twenty five clinically healthy pigs were distributed into 3 groups; group A non-medicated, groups B and C orally medicated with 20 and 40 ppm of florfenicol respectively. The pigs were fed during 12 consecutive days and on day 5 all the groups were challenged with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. All the animals in Group A developed clinical signs. Most of the pigs in the medicated groups maintained a good health status. Postmortem examination revealed severe pleuropneumonia in pigs from the control group and pneumonic lesions in 40% of the animals treated with 20 ppm of florfenicol. Development of pleuropneumonia was prevented in all the pigs medicated with 40 ppm of florfenicol. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was recovered from the lungs of all control animals and from one pig of each of the medicated groups, however, the avidin biotin peroxidase (ABC-P) method detected the presence of the microorganism in all the animals. We demonstrated that medication with feed containing 40 ppm of florfenicol blocked efficiently the signs and lesions caused by A. pleuropneumoniae and increased the daily body weight gain.

  7. [Evaluation of the protection efficiency of secretory antibodies in experimental Yersinia infection in guinea-pigs immunized with polyvalent vaccine against this infection].

    PubMed

    Pogorel'skiĭ, I P; Drobkov, V I

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of experiments to elucidate the protection efficiency of secretory antibodies via parenteral and oral inoculation with pathogenic Yersinia in guinea pigs immunized with a polyvalent yersiniasis vaccine designed on the basis of the pseudotuberculosis microbial strain that synthesizes the F1 antigen of a plague microbe. Immunization of guinea pigs with the polyvalent yersiniasis vaccine protects experimental animals against pseudotuberculosis, intestinal yersiniasis, and plague infections.

  8. Antiviral effect of dietary germanium biotite supplementation in pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A

    2013-01-01

    Germanium biotite (GB) is an aluminosilicate mineral containing 36 ppm germanium. The present study was conducted to better understand the effects of GB on immune responses in a mouse model, and to demonstrate the clearance effects of this mineral against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in experimentally infected pigs as an initial step towards the development of a feed supplement that would promote immune activity and help prevent diseases. In the mouse model, dietary supplementation with GB enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced lymphocyte proliferation and increased the percentage of CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes. In pigs experimentally infected with PRRSV, viral titers in lungs and lymphoid tissues from the GB-fed group were significantly decreased compared to those of the control group 12 days post-infection. Corresponding histopathological analyses demonstrated that GB-fed pigs displayed less severe pathological changes associated with PRRSV infection compared to the control group, indicating that GB promotes PRRSV clearance. These antiviral effects in pigs may be related to the ability of GB to increase CD3+CD8+ T lymphocyte production observed in the mice. Hence, this mineral may be an effective feed supplement for increasing immune activity and preventing disease. PMID:23814470

  9. Antiviral effect of dietary germanium biotite supplementation in pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2013-01-01

    Germanium biotite (GB) is an aluminosilicate mineral containing 36 ppm germanium. The present study was conducted to better understand the effects of GB on immune responses in a mouse model, and to demonstrate the clearance effects of this mineral against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in experimentally infected pigs as an initial step towards the development of a feed supplement that would promote immune activity and help prevent diseases. In the mouse model, dietary supplementation with GB enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced lymphocyte proliferation and increased the percentage of CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes. In pigs experimentally infected with PRRSV, viral titers in lungs and lymphoid tissues from the GB-fed group were significantly decreased compared to those of the control group 12 days post-infection. Corresponding histopathological analyses demonstrated that GB-fed pigs displayed less severe pathological changes associated with PRRSV infection compared to the control group, indicating that GB promotes PRRSV clearance. These antiviral effects in pigs may be related to the ability of GB to increase CD3+CD8+ T lymphocyte production observed in the mice. Hence, this mineral may be an effective feed supplement for increasing immune activity and preventing disease.

  10. Detection of airborne influenza a virus in experimentally infected pigs with maternally derived antibodies.

    PubMed

    Corzo, C A; Allerson, M; Gramer, M; Morrison, R B; Torremorell, M

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed whether recently weaned piglets with maternally derived antibodies were able to generate infectious influenza aerosols. Three groups of piglets were assembled based on the vaccination status of the dam. Sows were either non-vaccinated (CTRL) or vaccinated with the same (VAC-HOM) strain or a different (VAC-HET) strain to the one used for challenge. Piglets acquired the maternally derived antibodies by directly suckling colostrum from their respective dams. At weaning, pigs were challenged with influenza virus by direct contact with an infected pig (seeder pig) and clinical signs evaluated. Air samples, collected using a liquid cyclonic air collector, and individual nasal swabs were collected daily for 10 days from each group and tested by matrix real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) assay. Virus isolation and titration were attempted for air samples on Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. All individual pigs from both VAC-HET and CTRL groups tested positive during the study but only one pig in the VAC-HOM group was positive by nasal swab RRT-PCR. Influenza virus could not be detected or isolated from air samples from the VAC-HOM group. Influenza A virus was isolated from 3.2% and 6.4% air samples from both the VAC-HET and CTRL groups, respectively. Positive RRT-PCR air samples were only detected in VAC-HET and CTRL groups on day 7 post-exposure. Overall, this study provides evidence that recently weaned pigs with maternally derived immunity without obvious clinical signs of influenza infection can generate influenza infectious aerosols which is relevant to the transmission and the ecology of influenza virus in pigs.

  11. Dietary plant extracts improve immune responses and growth efficiency of pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Che, T M; Song, M; Lee, J J; Almeida, J A S; Bravo, D; Van Alstine, W G; Pettigrew, J E

    2013-12-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of 3 different plant extracts on growth performance and immune responses of weaned pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). A total of 64 weaned pigs (7.8 ± 0.3 kg BW), free of PRRSV, were randomly allotted to 1 of 8 treatments in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with a randomized complete block design. Pigs were blocked by initial BW. Sex and ancestry were equalized across treatments. The first factor was with or without PRRSV challenge (intranasal dose; 10(5) 50% tissue culture infective dose). The second factor was represented by 4 diets: a nursery basal diet (CON), 10 mg/kg capsicum oleoresin (CAP), garlic botanical (GAR), or turmeric oleoresin (TUR). Pigs were housed in disease containment chambers for 28 d [14 d before and after the inoculation (d 0)]. Blood was collected on d 0, 7, and 14 to measure the total and differential white blood cells (WBC), and serum was collected to measure viral load by quantitative PCR, PRRSV antibody titer, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β, C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin (Hp) by ELISA. In the unchallenged group, all piglets were PRRSV negative during the overall period postinoculation. All data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. The PRRSV challenge decreased (P < 0.01) ADG, ADFI, and G:F from d 0 to 14. Feeding TUR improved G:F of the PRRSV-infected pigs from d 0 to 14. The numbers of WBC and neutrophils were decreased (P < 0.05) by PRRSV on d 7 but increased (P < 0.05) by PRRSV on d 14, indicating the PRRSV-infected pigs undergo a stage of weak immune responses. Feeding GAR increased (P < 0.05) B cells and CD8+ T cells of PRRSV-infected pigs compared with the CON. Furthermore, the PRRSV challenge increased (P < 0.05) serum viral load, TNF-α, and IL-1β on d 7 and serum viral load, CRP, and Hp on d 14, but feeding plant extracts to PRRSV-infected pigs reversed (P < 0.05) this increase. Infection with PRRSV

  12. Effects of ketoprofen and flunixin in pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Swinkels, J M; Pijpers, A; Vernooy, J C; Van Nes, A; Verheijden, J H

    1994-08-01

    The antipyretic effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ketoprofen (3 mg/kg) and flunixin (2 mg/kg) were studied in pigs. The drugs were administered intramuscularly at 8 and 32 h following endobronchial challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Infected (non-medicated) and non-infected (non-medicated) controls were used. Endobronchial challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae induced laboured breathing, coughing, fever, reduced food and water consumption and increased white blood cell counts. At autopsy, pleuropneumonia was evident. Ketoprofen showed a highly significant antipyretic effect but flunixin did not. The decrease in food consumption of ketoprofen-treated pigs was significantly less than that of the infected (non-medicated) controls. Blood parameters were not significantly influenced by either NSAID and, at necropsy, gastric and renal side-effects were not observed for either drug.

  13. Experimental Infection of the Pig with Mycobacterium ulcerans: A Novel Model for Studying the Pathogenesis of Buruli Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bolz, Miriam; Ruggli, Nicolas; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Ricklin, Meret E.; Zimmer, Gert; Pluschke, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a slowly progressing, necrotising disease of the skin caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans. Non-ulcerative manifestations are nodules, plaques and oedema, which may progress to ulceration of large parts of the skin. Histopathologically, BU is characterized by coagulative necrosis, fat cell ghosts, epidermal hyperplasia, clusters of extracellular acid fast bacilli (AFB) in the subcutaneous tissue and lack of major inflammatory infiltration. The mode of transmission of BU is not clear and there is only limited information on the early pathogenesis of the disease available. Methodology/Principal Findings For evaluating the potential of the pig as experimental infection model for BU, we infected pigs subcutaneously with different doses of M. ulcerans. The infected skin sites were excised 2.5 or 6.5 weeks after infection and processed for histopathological analysis. With doses of 2×107 and 2×106 colony forming units (CFU) we observed the development of nodular lesions that subsequently progressed to ulcerative or plaque-like lesions. At lower inoculation doses signs of infection found after 2.5 weeks had spontaneously resolved at 6.5 weeks. The observed macroscopic and histopathological changes closely resembled those found in M. ulcerans disease in humans. Conclusion/Significance Our results demonstrate that the pig can be infected with M. ulcerans. Productive infection leads to the development of lesions that closely resemble human BU lesions. The pig infection model therefore has great potential for studying the early pathogenesis of BU and for the development of new therapeutic and prophylactic interventions. PMID:25010421

  14. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A virus of avian and swine origin in experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars E; Viuff, Birgitte M

    2011-09-08

    Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SA-alpha-2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources. This study investigated the receptor distribution in the entire respiratory tract of pigs using specific lectins Maackia Amurensis (MAA) I, and II, and Sambucus Nigra (SNA). Furthermore, the predilection sites of swine influenza virus (SIV) subtypes H1N1 and H1N2 as well as avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H4N6 were investigated in the respiratory tract of experimentally infected pigs using immunohistochemical methods. SIV antigen was widely distributed in bronchi, but was also present in epithelial cells of the nose, trachea, bronchioles, and alveolar type I and II epithelial cells in severely affected animals. AIV was found in the lower respiratory tract, especially in alveolar type II epithelial cells and occasionally in bronchiolar epithelial cells. SA-alpha-2,6 was the predominant receptor in all areas of the respiratory tract with an average of 80-100% lining at the epithelial cells. On the contrary, the SA-alpha-2,3 was not present (0%) at epithelial cells of nose, trachea, and most bronchi, but was found in small amounts in bronchioles, and in alveoli reaching an average of 20-40% at the epithelial cells. Interestingly, the receptor expression of both SA-alpha-2,3 and 2,6 was markedly diminished in influenza infected areas compared to non-infected areas. A difference in predilection sites between SIV and AIV virus was found, and this difference was in accordance with the distribution of the SA-alpha-2,6 and SA-alpha-2,3 receptor, respectively. The results indicated that the distribution of influenza A virus receptors in pigs

  15. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs. PMID:21314912

  16. Pathological features of experimental gonococcal infection in mice and guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, F W; Kraus, S J; Watts, J C

    1976-01-01

    The histopathological and immunofluorescent findings in tissues within and surrounding artificially created subcutaneous tissue cavities infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae for 1 to 30 days were studied in mice and guinea pigs. Findings in the tissue cavities of the animal models were similar to the findings of disseminated gonococcal infection in humans. These similarities included an intense persistent polymorphonuclear leukocytic response with tissue necrosis, hemorrhage into the early lesion, a perivascular leukocytic response in adjacent tissue, difficulty in detecting large numbers of discrete morphologically typical gonococci by the tissue Gram stain and direct fluorescent antibody techniques, a decrease in the number of identifiable gonococci with duration of the infection, and moderate amounts of extracellular and intracellular immunofluorescent gonococcal debris. Studies into the pathogenesis of the animal infections may enhance our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism (s) associated with gonococcal infection in humans. Images PMID:818019

  17. Effect of oral enrofloxacin and florfenicol on pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1.

    PubMed

    Herradora, L M A; Martínez-Gamba, R

    2003-06-01

    This study was carried out to compare the efficacy of two oral anti-microbials as metaphylactic medication to pigs inoculated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. Forty-two pigs with an average weight of 22.64 kg were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: group F was given doses of 40 ppm of florfenicol, group E received 150 ppm of enrofloxacin and group C received no medication. Groups F and E received medicated feed 12 h before being inoculated and for 7 days after inoculation. All the pigs were inoculated by aerosol, with 2 x 10(7) CFU/ml of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 each. The average body temperature was higher in group C than in groups E and F, between 12 and 96 h after inoculation (P < 0.05). No differences were found between groups F and E in respiration pattern, nasal secretion and general condition (P > 0.05): however, differences were found in group C for respiration pattern and general condition (P < 0.05), 12 h after inoculation. There was no mortality in groups F and E, whereas a 50% mortality was recorded in group C during the first 48 h after inoculation (P < 0.05). Necropsies and bacterial cultures were performed 12 days after inoculation. Lesions were observed in five pigs of group F (35.71%) with an average damage of 1.16%; in four pigs of group E (28.57%) with 1.24%; and in 13 animals in group C (92.85%) with 34.5% of affected lung tissue (P < 0.05). The infective agent was cultured from various organs of animals in groups F and C, but not from those in group E.

  18. Experimental dual infection of pigs with an H1N1 swine influenza virus (A/Sw/Hok/2/81) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Shigeto; Okada, Munenori; Ono, Masaaki; Fujii, Seiichi; Okuda, Yo; Shibata, Isao; Kida, Hiroshi

    2004-03-05

    Dual infection of pigs with swine influenza virus (SIV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae was carried out to compare the clinical and pathological effects of dual infection in caesarian derived and colostrums deprived (CDCD) pigs, with that of a single infection with M. hyopneumoniae. In Experiment 1, 40-day-old CDCD pigs were inoculated only with SIV (A/Sw/Hok/2/81, H1N1). The virus was isolated from nasal swabs for 5-6 days. None of these pigs showed clinical signs of infection throughout the experimental period. These results suggested that this strain can infect pigs but is only slightly pathogenic when it is inoculated singly to a CDCD pig. In Experiment 2, 60-day-old CDCD pigs were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae and then were inoculated with SIV (A/Sw/Hok/2/81) at 1 week (MHYO-7d-SIV-7d group) or 3 weeks (MHYO-21d-SIV-7d group) after M. hyopneumoniae inoculation. Macroscopically, dark red-to-purple lung lesions were observed in all of pigs at 14 or 28 days post-inoculation. Percentages of dark red-to-purple lung lesions in dual infection groups (MHYO-7d-SIV-7d group: 18.7 +/- 4.2%, MHYO-21d-SIV-7d group: 23.0 +/- 8.0%) were significantly (P < 0.05) increased compared to those of each control group in which pigs were inoculated only with M. hyopneumoniae (MHYO-14d group: 4.7 +/- 2.9%, MHYO-28 group: 3.3 +/- 2.4%). Microscopically, bronchial epithelial lesions (epithelial disruption, degeneration, hyperplasia and formation of microabscess) were frequently observed in dark red-to-purple lung lesions of only the dual infection groups. These results demonstrate that the lung lesion of pigs inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae and SIV is more severe than that of pigs inoculated only with M. hyopneumoniae.

  19. Experimental infection of pigs with the human 1918 pandemic influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Weingartl, Hana M; Albrecht, Randy A; Lager, Kelly M; Babiuk, Shawn; Marszal, Peter; Neufeld, James; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Lekcharoensuk, Porntippa; Tumpey, Terrence M; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Richt, Jürgen A

    2009-05-01

    Swine influenza was first recognized as a disease entity during the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic. The aim of this work was to determine the virulence of a plasmid-derived human 1918 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (reconstructed 1918, or 1918/rec, virus) in swine using a plasmid-derived A/swine/Iowa/15/1930 H1N1 virus (1930/rec virus), representing the first isolated influenza virus, as a reference. Four-week-old piglets were inoculated intratracheally with either the 1930/rec or the 1918/rec virus or intranasally with the 1918/rec virus. A transient increase in temperature and mild respiratory signs developed postinoculation in all virus-inoculated groups. In contrast to other mammalian hosts (mice, ferrets, and macaques) where infection with the 1918/rec virus was lethal, the pigs did not develop severe respiratory distress or become moribund. Virus titers in the lower respiratory tract as well as macro- and microscopic lesions at 3 and 5 days postinfection (dpi) were comparable between the 1930/rec and 1918/rec virus-inoculated animals. In contrast to the 1930/rec virus-infected animals, at 7 dpi prominent lung lesions were present in only the 1918/rec virus-infected animals, and all the piglets developed antibodies at 7 dpi. Presented data support the hypothesis that the 1918 pandemic influenza virus was able to infect and replicate in swine, causing a respiratory disease, and that the virus was likely introduced into the pig population during the 1918 pandemic, resulting in the current lineage of the classical H1N1 swine influenza viruses.

  20. Induction of mycoplasmal pneumonia in experimentally infected pigs by means of different inoculation routes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Morante, Beatriz; Segalés, Joaquim; López-Soria, Sergio; de Rozas, Ana Pérez; Maiti, Henrike; Coll, Teresa; Sibila, Marina

    2016-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of three different inoculation routes into mycoplasmal pneumonia (MP) in pigs challenged with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae). Thirty six-week-old M. hyopneumoniae seronegative piglets were randomly assigned to four groups: three challenged groups with experimentally inoculated pigs by either the endotracheal (ET; n = 8), intranasal (IN; n = 8) or aerosol (AE; n = 8) routes and one uninfected group (Control; n = 6). Blood samples were collected 1 day before challenge and at necropsy, 28 days post-inoculation (dpi), to assess seroconversion. Laryngeal swabs were collected at -1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 dpi in order to evaluate colonization. At necropsy, lung lesions were scored and lung tissue was collected for histopathological studies and M. hyopneumoniae DNA detection. Broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was also obtained to detect M. hyopneumoniae DNA, specific IgA antibodies and cytokines. MP was observed in all inoculated groups, but the ET group displayed a significantly higher number of animals affected by MP as well as a higher mean lung lesion score. These results were paralleled with an earlier seroconversion and upper respiratory tract colonization of M. hyopneumoniae. Additionally, in the ET group, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and specific IgA antibodies in BALF were found. Under the conditions of the present study, MP was reproduced by the three evaluated inoculation routes. Obtained results suggest that the ET route is the most effective in order to induce MP in pigs experimentally challenged with M. hyopneumoniae.

  1. Dietary plant extracts alleviate diarrhea and alter immune responses of weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Che, T M; Almeida, J A S; Lee, J J; Bravo, D; Maddox, C W; Pettigrew, J E

    2013-11-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of 3 different plant extracts on diarrhea, immune response, intestinal morphology, and growth performance of weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic F-18 Escherichia coli (E. coli). Sixty-four weaned pigs (6.3±0.2 kg BW, and 21 d old) were housed in individual pens in disease containment chambers for 15 d: 4 d before and 11 d after the first inoculation (d 0). Treatments were in a 2×4 factorial arrangement: with or without an F-18 E. coli challenge (toxins: heat-labile toxin, heat-stable toxin b, and Shiga-like toxin 2; 10(10) cfu/3 mL oral dose; daily for 3 d from d 0) and 4 diets [a nursery basal diet (CON) or 10 ppm of capsicum oleoresin, garlic botanical, or turmeric oleoresin]. The growth performance was measured on d 0 to 5, 5 to 11, and 0 to 11. Diarrhea score (1, normal, to 5, watery diarrhea) was recorded for each pig daily. Frequency of diarrhea was the percentage of pig days with a diarrhea score of 3 or greater. Blood was collected on d 0, 5, and 11 to measure total and differential white blood cell counts and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, C-reactive protein, and haptoglobin. On d 5 and 11, half of the pigs were euthanized to measure villi height and crypt depth of the small intestine and macrophage and neutrophil number in the ileum. The E. coli infection increased (P<0.05) diarrhea score, frequency of diarrhea, white blood cell counts, serum TNF-α and haptoglobin, and ileal macrophages and neutrophils but reduced (P<0.05) villi height and the ratio of villi height to crypt depth of the small intestine on d 5. In the challenged group, feeding plant extracts reduced (P<0.05) average diarrhea score from d 0 to 2 and d 6 to 11 and frequency of diarrhea and decreased (P<0.05) TNF-α and haptoglobin on d 5, white blood cell counts and neutrophils on d 11, and ileal macrophages and neutrophils on d 5. Feeding plant extracts increased (P<0

  2. [Therapeutic efficacies of neticonazole (SS717) cream and solution in experimental cutaneous Candida albicans infection of guinea pigs].

    PubMed

    Maebashi, K; Itoyama, T; Uchida, K; Yamaguchi, H; Asaoka, T; Iwasa, A

    1993-10-01

    The therapeutic efficacies of 1% neticonazole (SS717) cream and solution on experimental cutaneous Candida albicans infection produced in prednisolone-treated guinea pigs were compared with those of 1% bifonazole (BFZ). Active preparations or blank vehicles were applied once daily for 3 consecutive days starting 5 days postinfection. Therapeutic effects were assessed on the basis of viable counts recovered from the infected loci 9 days postinfection. In animals treated with SS 717 or BFZ cream, a significant mycological improvement was observed when compared to untreated controls. A significant therapeutic efficacy of a SS717 cream compared to cream vehicle was also noted, while there was no significant difference in the recovery of Candida between the untreated control group and the cream vehicle-treated groups. The mycological result of the SS717 solution treated group was significantly superior to those of the untreated control group, the solution vehicle-treated group and the BFZ solution-treated group. The treatment with a solution vehicle or a BFZ solution appeared to lower, though not to a significant level, viable counts at the infected loci. These results led us to the conclusion that both SS717 cream and solution preparations exhibited significantly superior activity to that of BFZ in experimental cutaneous candidasis of guinea pigs.

  3. Development of in-situ hybridization for the detection of Mycoplasma haemosuis (Eperythrozoon suis) in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissues from experimentally infected splenectomized pigs.

    PubMed

    Ha, S-K; Jung, K; Choi, C; Ha, Y; Song, H-C; Lim, J-H; Kim, S-H; Chae, C

    2005-11-01

    Mycoplasma haemosuis DNA was detected in experimentally infected splenectomized pigs by in-situ hybridization (ISH) with a nonradioactive digoxigenin-labelled DNA probe. An 839 base pair DNA probe targeting a 16S rRNA gene was generated by the polymerase chain reaction. Eight 6-week-old pigs were inoculated intraperitoneally with 6 ml of M. haemosuis-infected pig blood and eight negative control pigs were inoculated intraperitoneally with 6 ml of M. haemosuis-free blood. Two pigs from each group were killed for examination at 3, 7, 15 and 30 days post-inoculation (dpi). Red blood cells infected with M. haemosuis were first detected by light microscopy at 3 to 7 dpi. No M. haemosuis was observed in negative control pigs. Hybridization signals were evident in blood from the infected pigs at 3 dpi. The ISH method developed in this study was useful for the detection of M. haemosuis DNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissues and may be valuable for studying the pathogenesis of M. haemosuis infection.

  4. The response of pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei to isometamidium chloride therapy and the relation to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Otesile, E B; Fagbemi, B O; Makinde, M O; Akinboade, O A

    1992-01-01

    Growing pigs were placed on feeds with high (Group A), medium (B) and low (C) dietary energy and were infected with a virulent stock of T. brucei. Eight weeks later, the infected pigs were treated with isometamidium chloride at 1 mg/kg live weight and all pigs were subsequently placed on a high energy diet to investigate their response to therapy. Clearance of T. brucei from blood was completed 72h after treatment. There was no evidence of relapsed infection up to eight weeks after treatment. Red blood cell parameters returned to normal four to six weeks after treatment with responses being fastest in Group A, B and C had gained about two-thirds of the live weight gains of their non-infected pair-fed controls. It appears that the retarded weight gain as a result of the infection persisted after therapy since drug-treated pigs did not gain as much weight as their non-infected controls.

  5. Immune responses of a chimaeric protein vaccine containing Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens and LTB against experimental M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, Silvana B; Sácristan, Rubén Del Pozo; Michiels, Annelies; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Conceição, Fabricio R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Maes, Dominiek

    2014-08-06

    A recombinant chimaeric protein containing three Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens (C-terminal portion of P97, heat shock protein P42, and NrdF) fused to an adjuvant, the B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTB), was used to immunize pigs against enzootic pneumonia. The systemic and local immune responses, as well as the efficacy of the chimaeric protein in inducing protection against experimental M. hyopneumoniae infection were evaluated. In total, 60 male piglets, purchased from a M. hyopneumoniae-free herd, at 4 weeks of age were randomly allocated to six different experimental groups of 10 animals each: recombinant chimaeric protein by intramuscular (IM) (1) or intranasal (IN) (2) administration, commercial bacterin by IM administration (3), and the adjuvant LTB by IM (4, control group A) or IN (5, control group B) administration. All groups were immunized at 24 and 38 days of age and challenged at 52 days of age. The sixth group that was not challenged was used as the negative control (IN [n=5] or IM [n=5] administration of the LTB adjuvant). Compared with the non-challenged group, administration of the chimaeric protein induced significant (P<0.05) IgG and IgA responses against all individual antigens present in the chimaera, but it could not confer a significant protection against M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs. This lack of effectiveness points towards the need for further studies to improve the efficacy of this subunit-based vaccine approach.

  6. Effect of experimental zinc deficiency on immunological responses in Salmonella-infected guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R P; Verma, P C; Garg, S R

    2000-07-01

    Cellular and humoral immune responses to Salmonella dublin infection were studied in guinea-pigs given zinc-deficient (ZnD) or zinc-adequate (ZnA) diet, containing 1.03 or 52.4 mg Zn/kg, respectively. On day 30, each animal of each dietary group was inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(6)viable cells of S. dublin strain 493. On the 15th day after infection, the immune responses were assessed by skin hypersensitivity (SH) tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serum antibody with Salmonella -extract antigen. ZnD animals had significantly decreased ability to produce Salmonella -specific immediate and delayed type SH responses. These results were further substantiated by histological examination of skin sections. The ELISA indicated significantly lower Salmonella -specific serum antibody titres in ZnD animals than in ZnA animals. Mean viable counts of S. dublin in the liver and spleen of ZnD animals were significantly higher than those in ZnA animals. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  7. Experimental infection of conventional nursing pigs and their dams with Porcine deltacoronavirus.

    PubMed

    Vitosh-Sillman, Sarah; Loy, John Dustin; Brodersen, Bruce; Kelling, Clayton; Doster, Alan; Topliff, Christina; Nelson, Eric; Bai, Jianfa; Schirtzinger, Erin; Poulsen, Elizabeth; Meadors, Barbara; Anderson, Joseph; Hause, Benjamin; Anderson, Gary; Hesse, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly identified virus that has been detected in swine herds of North America associated with enteric disease. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the pathogenicity, course of infection, virus kinetics, and aerosol transmission of PDCoV using 87 conventional piglets and their 9 dams, including aerosol and contact controls to emulate field conditions. Piglets 2-4 days of age and their dams were administered an oronasal PDCoV inoculum with a quantitative real-time reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR quantification cycle (Cq) value of 22 that was generated from a field sample having 100% nucleotide identity to USA/Illinois121/2014 determined by metagenomic sequencing and testing negative for other enteric disease agents using standard assays. Serial samples of blood, serum, oral fluids, nasal and fecal swabs, and tissues from sequential autopsy, conducted daily on days 1-8 and regular intervals thereafter, were collected throughout the 42-day study for qRT-PCR, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. Diarrhea developed in all inoculated and contact control pigs, including dams, by 2 days post-inoculation (dpi) and in aerosol control pigs and dams by 3-4 dpi, with resolution occurring by 12 dpi. Mild to severe atrophic enteritis with PDCoV antigen staining was observed in the small intestine of affected piglets from 2 to 8 dpi. Mesenteric lymph node and small intestine were the primary sites of antigen detection by immunohistochemistry, and virus RNA was detected in these tissues to the end of the study. Virus RNA was detectable in piglet fecal swabs to 21 dpi, and dams to 14-35 dpi.

  8. Experimental infection of SPF pigs with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 alone or in association with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Marois, Corinne; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Morvan, Hervé; Fablet, Christelle; Madec, François; Kobisch, Marylène

    2009-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare in SPF pigs, the pathogenicity of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 strain 21 (isolated from the palatine tonsils of a healthy gilt on a French nucleus pig farm, with no clinical signs or lung lesions but a highly positive reaction to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 antibodies) with a pathogenic A. pleuropneumoniae strain 4915 serotype 9 (isolated in France from an outbreak of porcine pleuropneumonia). The pathogenicity of one Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain alone or associated with A. pleuropneumoniae strain 21 was also compared. Eight groups of 7 pigs were infected (at 6 or 10 weeks of age) and a control group was kept non-infected. Results showed that sensitivity to A. pleuropneumoniae was related to the age of the pig (6 weeks vs 10 weeks) whatever the strain. Surviving pigs infected at 6 weeks of age developed severe clinical signs, lung lesions typical of A. pleuropneumoniae and they seroconverted. In contrast, symptoms and lung lesions were almost non-existent in pigs infected with strain 21 at 10 weeks of age, but a seroconversion was observed with very high ELISA titres. These results were in accordance with those observed in the nucleus pig farm. Infection with M. hyopneumoniae alone induced typical mycoplasmal symptoms, pneumonia and seroconversion. Symptoms and lung lesions were the most noticeable in pigs infected with M. hyopneumoniae at 6 weeks of age and with A. pleuropneumoniae 4 weeks later. Our results show that the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 9 in a pig herd may be clinically unnoticed and that M. hyopneumoniae may potentiate A. pleuropneumoniae infection.

  9. Cysteine proteinases from papaya (Carica papaya) in the treatment of experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigs: two randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) possess anthelmintic properties against human soil-transmitted helminths (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm), but there is a lack of supportive and up-to-date efficacy data. We therefore conducted two randomized controlled trials in pigs to assess the efficacy of papaya CPs against experimental infections with T. suis. Methods First, we assessed efficacy by means of egg (ERR) and adult worm reduction rate (WRR) of a single-oral dose of 450 μmol active CPs (CP450) against low (inoculum of 300 eggs) and high (inoculum of 3,000 eggs) intensity T. suis infections and compared the efficacy with those obtained after a single-oral dose of 400 mg albendazole (ALB). In the second trial, we determined and compared the efficacy of a series of CP doses (45 [CP45], 115 [CP115], 225 [CP225], and 450 [CP450] μmol) against high intensity infections. Results CP450 was highly efficacious against both levels of infection intensity, resulting in ERR and WRR of more than 97%. For both levels of infection intensity, CP450 was significantly more efficacious compared to ALB by means of WRR (low infection intensity: 99.0% vs. 39.0%; high infection intensity; 97.4% vs. 23.2%). When the efficacy was assessed by ERR, a significant difference was only observed for high intensity infections, CP450 being more efficacious than ALB (98.9% vs. 59.0%). For low infection intensities, there was no significant difference in ERR between CP450 (98.3%) and ALB (64.4%). The efficacy of CPs increased as a function of increasing dose. When determined by ERR, the efficacy ranged from 2.1% for CP45 to 99.2% for CP450. For WRR the results varied from -14.0% to 99.0%, respectively. Pairwise comparison revealed a significant difference in ERR and WRR only between CP45 and CP450, the latter being more efficacious. Conclusions A single dose of 450 μmol CPs provided greater efficacy against T. suis infections in pigs

  10. Cysteine proteinases from papaya (Carica papaya) in the treatment of experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigs: two randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Levecke, Bruno; Buttle, David J; Behnke, Jerzy M; Duce, Ian R; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2014-05-30

    Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) possess anthelmintic properties against human soil-transmitted helminths (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm), but there is a lack of supportive and up-to-date efficacy data. We therefore conducted two randomized controlled trials in pigs to assess the efficacy of papaya CPs against experimental infections with T. suis. First, we assessed efficacy by means of egg (ERR) and adult worm reduction rate (WRR) of a single-oral dose of 450 μmol active CPs (CP450) against low (inoculum of 300 eggs) and high (inoculum of 3,000 eggs) intensity T. suis infections and compared the efficacy with those obtained after a single-oral dose of 400 mg albendazole (ALB). In the second trial, we determined and compared the efficacy of a series of CP doses (45 [CP45], 115 [CP115], 225 [CP225], and 450 [CP450] μmol) against high intensity infections. CP450 was highly efficacious against both levels of infection intensity, resulting in ERR and WRR of more than 97%. For both levels of infection intensity, CP450 was significantly more efficacious compared to ALB by means of WRR (low infection intensity: 99.0% vs. 39.0%; high infection intensity; 97.4% vs. 23.2%). When the efficacy was assessed by ERR, a significant difference was only observed for high intensity infections, CP450 being more efficacious than ALB (98.9% vs. 59.0%). For low infection intensities, there was no significant difference in ERR between CP450 (98.3%) and ALB (64.4%). The efficacy of CPs increased as a function of increasing dose. When determined by ERR, the efficacy ranged from 2.1% for CP45 to 99.2% for CP450. For WRR the results varied from -14.0% to 99.0%, respectively. Pairwise comparison revealed a significant difference in ERR and WRR only between CP45 and CP450, the latter being more efficacious. A single dose of 450 μmol CPs provided greater efficacy against T. suis infections in pigs than a single-oral dose of 400 mg ALB

  11. Experimental reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs by dual infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus type 2.

    PubMed

    Opriessnig, T; Thacker, E L; Yu, S; Fenaux, M; Meng, X-J; Halbur, P G

    2004-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the interactions between Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and to establish a model for studying the pathogenesis of and testing intervention strategies for the control of PCV2-associated porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Sixty-seven pigs were randomly assigned to four groups. Group 1 (n=17) pigs served as controls, group 2 (n=17) pigs were inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae, group 3 (n=17) pigs were dual infected with M. hyopneumoniae and PCV2, and group 4 (n=16) pigs were inoculated with PCV2. Pigs were inoculated intratracheally with M. hyopneumoniae at 4 weeks of age followed by intranasal inoculation with PCV2 at 6 weeks of age. Dual-infected pigs had moderate dyspnea, lethargy, and reduced weight gain. The overall severity of macroscopic lung lesions, PCV2-associated microscopic lesions in lung and lymphoid tissues, and the amount of PCV2-antigen associated with these lesions were significantly (P <0.05) higher in dual-infected pigs compared with all other groups. Four of 17 (23.5%) dual-infected pigs had decreased growth rate and severe lymphoid depletion and granulomatous lymphadenitis associated with high amounts of PCV2-antigen consistent with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). PCV2-antigen in lung tissue was most often associated with M. hyopneumoniae-induced peribronchial lymphoid hyperplasia, suggesting that this is an important site for PCV2 replication in the lung. This study indicates that M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of PCV2-associated lung and lymphoid lesions, increases the amount and prolongs the presence of PCV2-antigen, and increases the incidence of PMWS in pigs.

  12. Experimental infection of pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) with Campylobacter cinaedi and Campylobacter fennelliae.

    PubMed Central

    Flores, B M; Fennell, C L; Kuller, L; Bronsdon, M A; Morton, W R; Stamm, W E

    1990-01-01

    Campylobacter cinaedi and C. fennelliae have been associated with proctocolitis, bacteremia, and asymptomatic rectal infection, primarily in homosexual men. To more directly assess the pathogenic role of these organisms, we studied their disease-producing potential in 12- to 25-day-old pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Four infant monkeys were challenged with 10(8) to 10(9) C. cinaedi, three were challenged with C. fennelliae, two were challenged with C. jejuni, and one received no microorganisms. Watery or loose stools without associated fever or fecal leukocytes developed 3 to 7 days postinoculation in all of the animals given C. cinaedi, C. fennelliae, and C. jejuni, but not in the control animal. Stool cultures were simultaneously positive and remained so in the animals challenged with C. cinaedi or C. fennelliae for 3 weeks after inoculation despite the resolution of clinical illness. All of the animals challenged with C. cinaedi and C. fennelliae became bacteremic, and three had clinical evidence of septicemia. Histopathologic evaluation of rectal biopsies (five animals) and necropsy (one animal) showed no evidence of mucosal disruption. Specific immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibody responses occurred in all of the animals challenged with C. cinaedi and C. fennelliae, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting. We conclude that C. cinaedi and C. fennelliae consistently produce a diarrheal illness accompanied by bacteremia and followed by prolonged gastrointestinal colonization in M. nemestrina. Images PMID:2254021

  13. Immunization of pigs against experimental Ascaris suum infection by feeding ultraviolet-attenuated eggs.

    PubMed

    Tromba, F G

    1978-08-01

    Pigs fed Ascaris suum eggs attenuated by short-wave ultraviolet radiation developed a resistance to challenge infections that varied according to the protocols used. Two doses of eggs irradiated at total exposures (ET) of 150 muW-min/cm2 resulted in a reduction of adult worm burden in 3 groups challenged with 50, 100, or 500 eggs by 45, 35, and 49%, respectively. However, these results were not statistically significant (P greater than 0.05). Three other groups were fed eggs as follows: Group 1, 3 doses irridated at ET's of 150, 150 and 150; Group 2, 3 doses irradiated at ET's of 150, 150, 100; and Group 3, 3 doses irradiated at ET's of 150, 100, and 75. All of these regimens provided significant protection: Group 1 (P less than 0.02), Group 2 (P less than 0.05), Group 3 (P less than 0.001). An analysis of the lengths of worms recovered showed that in controls fed varying doses of eggs, worm sizes were inversely related to the number of eggs in the challenge dose. Measurements of worms from vaccinated animals showed that 23 of 116 adult worms recovered were probably survivors of one or more of the vaccinating doses. A ratio of 18 female to 5 male worms indicated that males are more susceptible to ultraviolet radiation than females.

  14. 13C-urea breath test for diagnosis of experimental Helicobacter pylori infection in barrier born pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Rosberg, K; Gustavsson, S

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies with Helicobacter pylori infected barrier born pigs indicate that the infection has a patchy distribution, resulting in false negative culture results on endoscopic biopsy specimens. This study aimed to adapt the 13C-urea breath test as used in humans to diagnose H pylori infection in barrier born pigs. The breath test was also performed after bismuth as a single treatment and after triple therapy (bismuth, ampicillin, metronidazole). In control pigs the median excess of 13CO2 in expired air was 2.2 (range 0-12 n = 22) ppm. The infected pigs (n = 4) showed consistently high values (median 23 range 14-43) when examined on four occasions (n = 16) four to 10 weeks after inoculation. Biopsy specimens for culture had lower sensitivity than the breath test. No reduction in excess 13CO2 was seen after three days' single bismuth treatment, but after two weeks' triple therapy the breath test results had returned to normal. This suppression was temporary only, however, as the breath test was positive again four weeks after stopping treatment. In conclusion, the 13C-urea breath test is a simple and reliable test for determining H pylori infection and monitoring treatment effects in barrier born pigs. Because the test can be performed in awake pigs anaesthesia and gastroscopy are unnecessary. Images Figure 1 PMID:8504957

  15. 13C-urea breath test for diagnosis of experimental Helicobacter pylori infection in barrier born pigs.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Rosberg, K; Gustavsson, S

    1993-05-01

    Previous studies with Helicobacter pylori infected barrier born pigs indicate that the infection has a patchy distribution, resulting in false negative culture results on endoscopic biopsy specimens. This study aimed to adapt the 13C-urea breath test as used in humans to diagnose H pylori infection in barrier born pigs. The breath test was also performed after bismuth as a single treatment and after triple therapy (bismuth, ampicillin, metronidazole). In control pigs the median excess of 13CO2 in expired air was 2.2 (range 0-12 n = 22) ppm. The infected pigs (n = 4) showed consistently high values (median 23 range 14-43) when examined on four occasions (n = 16) four to 10 weeks after inoculation. Biopsy specimens for culture had lower sensitivity than the breath test. No reduction in excess 13CO2 was seen after three days' single bismuth treatment, but after two weeks' triple therapy the breath test results had returned to normal. This suppression was temporary only, however, as the breath test was positive again four weeks after stopping treatment. In conclusion, the 13C-urea breath test is a simple and reliable test for determining H pylori infection and monitoring treatment effects in barrier born pigs. Because the test can be performed in awake pigs anaesthesia and gastroscopy are unnecessary.

  16. Experimental infection of cattle, sheep and pigs with 'Hobi'-like pestivirus.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Lucente, Maria Stella; Sciarretta, Rossana; Moreno, Ana; Armenise, Carlo; Losurdo, Michele; Camero, Michele; Lorusso, Eleonora; Cordioli, Paolo; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-03-23

    To date, limited information is available on the ability of 'Hobi'-like pestiviruses (putative bovine viral diarrhoea 3) to infect and cause disease in animal species traditionally affected by pestiviruses. In order to obtain new insights into host range and pathogenic potential of this atypical pestivirus, BVDV-seronegative calves (n=5), lambs (n=5) and piglets (n=5) were experimentally infected with the European 'Hobi'-like strain Italy-1/10-1, whereas two animals per species served as uninfected controls. Appearance of clinical signs, leukopenia, viremia, viral shedding and seroconversion were monitored for 28 days post-infection. Calves and lambs were successfully infected, displaying respiratory signs (nasal discharge), moderate hyperthermia and leukopenia, viremia and viral shedding through the nasal and faecal routes. Antibody responses were observed in both animal species by ELISA and virus neutralisation assays. In contrast, inoculated piglets did not display any clinical signs nor leukopenia and viral RNA was not detected in any biological samples. Nevertheless, the presence of detectable antibodies by virus neutralisation accounted for a successful, albeit limited infection of these animals.

  17. Commercial PCV2a-based vaccines are effective in protecting naturally PCV2b-infected finisher pigs against experimental challenge with a 2012 mutant PCV2.

    PubMed

    Opriessnig, Tanja; Gerber, Priscilla F; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Halbur, Patrick G; Matzinger, Shannon R; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2014-07-23

    Current commercial PCV2 vaccines are all based on PCV2a and have been shown to be effective in reducing PCV2a and PCV2b viremia and PCV2-associated lesions and disease. The recent emergence of novel mutant PCV2 (mPCV2) strains and linkage of mPCV2 with cases of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in vaccinated herds have raised concerns over emergence of vaccine-escape mutants and reduced efficacy of PCV2a-based vaccines. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of three commercial PCV2a-based vaccines administered in the presence of an ongoing PCV2b infection and passively-acquired anti-PCV2 antibodies to protect conventional pigs against experimental challenge with mPCV2 at 11 weeks of age. Fifty naturally PCV2b-infected 2-week-old pigs were divided into five treatment groups with 10 pigs each. Pigs were unvaccinated (positive and negative controls) or vaccinated at 3 (VAC-A, VAC-B, VAC-C) and at 5 weeks of age (VAC-C). At 11 weeks of age, all pigs except the negative controls were challenged with a 2012 U.S. strain of mPCV2. The experiment was terminated 21 days after challenge. Under the conditions of this study, vaccinated pigs were protected against PCV2 viremia and lesions whereas non-vaccinated pigs were not. Moreover, concurrent PCV2b and mPCV2 infection was demonstrated in all positive controls and 3/10 had microscopic lesions consistent with PCVAD while negative controls infected with PCV2b alone did not develop PCVAD. The results indicate that concurrent PCV2b/mPCV2 infection can trigger PCVAD development and that commercial vaccines are effective in protecting conventional pigs against emerging mPCV2 strains.

  18. Lack of effect of feeding citrus by-products in reducing salmonella in experimentally infected weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Farrow, R L; Edrington, T S; Krueger, N A; Genovese, K J; Callaway, T R; Anderson, R C; Nisbet, D J

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the current research was to determine if feeding the citrus by-products(D) -limonene (DL) and citrus molasses would reduce the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella in weanling pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Twenty crossbred weanling pigs (average body weight [BW], 19.9 kg) were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: control, low-dose DL (1.5 ml/kg of BW per day), high-dose DL (3.0 ml/kg of BW per day), and citrus molasses (0.05 kg/kg of BW per day). Treatments were administered in the feed (twice daily) for 7 days, with one-half of the dose administered at each feeding. Fecal samples were collected twice daily (prior to administration of treatment) and cultured for quantitative and qualitative determination of the challenge strain of Salmonella. Upon termination of the study, pigs were euthanized and tissues from the stomach, ileum, cecum, spiral colon, and rectum, as well as luminal contents, were collected. In addition, the popliteal and ileocecal lymph nodes and liver, spleen, and tonsil tissue were collected for qualitative Salmonella culture. No significant treatment differences (P > 0.05) were observed among treatments for fecal concentration or prevalence of Salmonella throughout the 7-day collection period. Likewise, no treatment differences (P > 0.05) were observed for any of the tissue or luminal content samples collected. Salmonella was not cultured from the muscle-bound popliteal lymph node but was cultured from the mesenteric ileocecal lymph nodes. While there were no effects in the current experiment, future research may examine the effect of a lower challenge dose and/or different administration (dose or duration) of the citrus by-products.

  19. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves.

    PubMed

    Bauermann, F V; Falkenberg, S M; Decaro, N; Flores, E F; Ridpath, J F

    2015-12-31

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In this study, seronegative calves, goats and pigs, and sheep harboring pestivirus antibodies (probably due to previous exposure to BVDV) were exposed to HoBi-like viruses either by direct inoculation (GIn) or by contact with calves persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses (GEx). Both GIn and GEx groups were monitored for clinical signs, lymphocyte count, virus in buffy coats and nasal swabs up to day 18 post-inoculation (pi). Evidence of transmission of HoBi-like virus by PI calves was observed in all studied species. No difference in clinical presentation was observed between animals in the GIn or GEx groups. Evidence of infection, depending on the species included lymphocyte depletion, fever, viral RNA detection, and/or seroconversion. Depletion of lymphocytes was observed in calves and goats (35% and 50%, respectively) but not in pigs. Seroconversion was observed in at least one animal of each group and for all exposed species. The rate of seroconversion was higher in animals in the GIn experimental groups. In sheep, pre-existing moderate to high neutralizing titers against BVDV did not prevent viral replication and shed. The study demonstrated that naive cattle, goats and pigs, in addition to antibody positive sheep, can be infected by HoBi-like virus via persistently infected calf and potentially transmit the virus. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The response of colostrum-deprived, specific pathogen-free pigs to experimental infection with Teschen disease virus.

    PubMed

    Dardiri, A H; Seibold, H R; DeLay, P D

    1966-03-01

    The clinical response to Teschen disease and the excretion and rate of virus distribution in tissues of colostrum-deprived, specific pathogenfree pigs was determined. Severe, mild, and clinically inapparent responses to the disease were noticed following simultaneous intracranial and intranasal infections. Fourteen-day-old pigs reacted more severely to infection than 21-day-old pigs. The virus was detected in feces 2-3 days following infection but not in stools of surviving pigs 30 days after infection. The highest concentration of virus occurred during the incubation period and before onset of paralysis; the lowest concentrations were found during terminal disease stages. In tissues collected before or immediately after death of pigs, Teschen disease virus was found in several visceral organs but not in blood, urine or urinary bladder tissue. Virus yield was highest in brain and spinal cord tissues. Highest virus concentration was found in the cervical thoracic portions of the spinal cord, thalamus and cerebellum. Other aspects of the clinical disease are discussed.

  1. The Response of Colostrum-Deprived, Specific Pathögen-Free Pigs to Experimental Infection with Teschen Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dardiri, A. H.; Seibold, H. R.; DeLay, P. D.

    1966-01-01

    The clinical response to Teschen disease and the excretion and rate of virus distribution in tissues of colostrum-deprived, specific pathogenfree pigs was determined. Severe, mild, and clinically inapparent responses to the disease were noticed following simultaneous intracranial and intranasal infections. Fourteen-day-old pigs reacted more severely to infection than 21-day-old pigs. The virus was detected in feces 2-3 days following infection but not in stools of surviving pigs 30 days after infection. The highest concentration of virus occurred during the incubation period and before onset of paralysis; the lowest concentrations were found during terminal disease stages. In tissues collected before or immediately after death of pigs, Teschen disease virus was found in several visceral organs but not in blood, urine or urinary bladder tissue. Virus yield was highest in brain and spinal cord tissues. Highest virus concentration was found in the cervical thoracic portions of the spinal cord, thalamus and cerebellum. Other aspects of the clinical disease are discussed. ImagesFig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:4288041

  2. Vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs experimentally infected with Senecavirus A

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Senecavirus A (SVA), a picornavirus, has been infrequently associated with cases of idiopathic vesicular disease (IVD) in pigs in the US and Canada since 1988. In 2014 and 2015 there was surge of IVD cases in Brazil and US, respectively. SVA was identified in serum, vesicular fluid, an...

  3. Experimental in utero infection of fetal pigs with a porcine parvovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, P A; Sheffy, B E; Vauhan, J T

    1975-01-01

    In utero infection of fetuses of six specific-pathogen-free large white sows at 35, 48, 55, 72, 99, and 105 days was studied. The fetuses were infected by direct inoculation of porcine parvovirus into the amniotic sac. The inoculation consisted of 0.25 ml of tissue culture fluid containing 10(5.5) mean tissue culture infective doses per ml of porcine parvovirus strain G10/1. Fetuses of one uterus horn were infected, whereas fetuses in the opposite horn were given 0.25 ml of noninfected cell culture material. No clinical signs of infection were observed; however, all sows developed antibodies 7 to 9 days postinfection. A total of 24 virus-inoculated fetuses and 20 control fetuses were studied. Fetuses infected at 35, 48, and 55 days of gestation died between about 5 and 22 days after infection. Virus was isolated from their organs and fetal blood. Virus spread to control fetuses but did not cause death and mummification or stimulate antibody production. Fetuses from sows infected at 72, 99, and 105 days of gestation survived. They developed high antibody titer in utero. Control piglets remained antibody free. PMID:1165118

  4. Dogs are more permissive than cats or guinea pigs to experimental infection with a human isolate of Bartonella rochalimae.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Henn, Jennifer B; Kasten, Rickie W; Nieto, Nathan C; Foley, Janet; Papageorgiou, Sophia; Allen, Claire; Koehler, Jane E

    2009-01-01

    Bartonella rochalimae was first isolated from the blood of a human who traveled to Peru and was exposed to multiple insect bites. Foxes and dogs are likely natural reservoirs for this bacterium. We report the results of experimental inoculation of two dogs, five cats and six guinea pigs with the only human isolate of this new Bartonella species. Both dogs became bacteremic for 5-7 weeks, with a peak of 10(3)-10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/mL blood. Three cats had low bacteremia levels (< 200 CFU/mL) of 6-8 weeks' duration. One cat that remained seronegative had two bacterial colonies isolated at a single culture time point. A fifth cat never became bacteremic, but seroconverted. None of the guinea pigs became bacteremic, but five seroconverted. These results suggest that dogs could be a reservoir of this strain of B. rochalimae, in contrast to cats and guinea pigs.

  5. Updating the proteome of the uncultivable hemotrophic Mycoplasma suis in experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Stefanie; Lassek, Christian; Mack, Sarah-Lena; Ritzmann, Mathias; Stadler, Julia; Becher, Dörte; Hoelzle, Katharina; Riedel, Katharina; Hoelzle, Ludwig E

    2016-02-01

    Mycoplasma suis belongs to the hemotrophic mycoplasmas that are associated with acute and chronic anemia in a wide range of livestock and wild animals. The inability to culture M. suis in vitro has hindered its characterization at the molecular level. Since the publication of M. suis genome sequences in 2011 only one proteome study has been published. Aim of the presented study was to significantly extend the proteome coverage of M. suis strain KI_3806 during acute infection by applying three different protein extraction methods followed by 1D SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. A total of 404 of 795 M. suis KI_3806 proteins (50.8%) were identified. Data analysis revealed the expression of 83.7% of the predicted ORFs with assigned functions but also highlights the expression of 179 of 523 (34.2%) hypothetical proteins with unknown functions. Computational analyses identified expressed membrane-associated hypothetical proteins that might be involved in adhesion or host-pathogen interaction. Furthermore, analyses of the expressed proteins indicated the existence of a hexose-6-phosphate-transporter and an ECF transporter. In conclusion, our proteome study provides a further step toward the elucidation of the unique life cycle of M. suis and the establishment of an in vitro culture. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002294 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002294).

  6. Persistence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in experimentally infected pigs after marbofloxacin treatment and detection of mutations in the parC gene.

    PubMed

    Le Carrou, J; Laurentie, M; Kobisch, M; Gautier-Bouchardon, A V

    2006-06-01

    The ability of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to persist despite fluoroquinolone treatments was investigated with pigs. Groups of specific-pathogen-free pigs were experimentally infected with M. hyopneumoniae strain 116 and treated with marbofloxacin at the therapeutic dose (TD) or half of the therapeutic dose (TD/2) for 3 days. Results showed that, despite tissue penetration of marbofloxacin, particularly in the trachea and the tracheal secretions, the treatments did not have any influence on M. hyopneumoniae recovery from tracheal swabs. Mycoplasmas were also isolated from inner organs and tissues such as liver, spleen, kidneys, and bronchial lymph nodes. Recontamination of pigs via environment could not explain mycoplasma persistence after medication, as decontamination of pigs and allocation to a new disinfected environment did not have any significant effect on the phenomenon. A significant decrease in the susceptibility level to marbofloxacin of 12 mycoplasma clones reisolated after the treatments (TD/2 and TD) was observed. Two point mutations were found in the ParC quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of DNA topoisomerase IV (Ser80-->Phe and Asp84-->Asn), and one point mutation was observed just behind the QRDR of ParC (Ala116-->Glu). This is the first time that mutations in a gene coding for topoisomerase IV have been described for M. hyopneumoniae after in vivo marbofloxacin treatments in experimentally infected pigs. However, development of resistance is not sufficient to explain M. hyopneumoniae persistence in vivo since (i) marbofloxacin concentrations were above the marbofloxacin MIC of the wild-type strain and (ii) mycoplasmas reisolated after a single injection of marbofloxacin did not display an increased marbofloxacin MIC.

  7. Persistence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Experimentally Infected Pigs after Marbofloxacin Treatment and Detection of Mutations in the parC Gene

    PubMed Central

    Le Carrou, J.; Laurentie, M.; Kobisch, M.; Gautier-Bouchardon, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to persist despite fluoroquinolone treatments was investigated with pigs. Groups of specific-pathogen-free pigs were experimentally infected with M. hyopneumoniae strain 116 and treated with marbofloxacin at the therapeutic dose (TD) or half of the therapeutic dose (TD/2) for 3 days. Results showed that, despite tissue penetration of marbofloxacin, particularly in the trachea and the tracheal secretions, the treatments did not have any influence on M. hyopneumoniae recovery from tracheal swabs. Mycoplasmas were also isolated from inner organs and tissues such as liver, spleen, kidneys, and bronchial lymph nodes. Recontamination of pigs via environment could not explain mycoplasma persistence after medication, as decontamination of pigs and allocation to a new disinfected environment did not have any significant effect on the phenomenon. A significant decrease in the susceptibility level to marbofloxacin of 12 mycoplasma clones reisolated after the treatments (TD/2 and TD) was observed. Two point mutations were found in the ParC quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of DNA topoisomerase IV (Ser80→Phe and Asp84→Asn), and one point mutation was observed just behind the QRDR of ParC (Ala116→Glu). This is the first time that mutations in a gene coding for topoisomerase IV have been described for M. hyopneumoniae after in vivo marbofloxacin treatments in experimentally infected pigs. However, development of resistance is not sufficient to explain M. hyopneumoniae persistence in vivo since (i) marbofloxacin concentrations were above the marbofloxacin MIC of the wild-type strain and (ii) mycoplasmas reisolated after a single injection of marbofloxacin did not display an increased marbofloxacin MIC. PMID:16723552

  8. Experimental infection with H1N1 European swine influenza virus protects pigs from an infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 human influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Busquets, Núria; Segalés, Joaquim; Córdoba, Lorena; Mussá, Tufaria; Crisci, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard E; Simon-Grifé, Meritxell; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Pérez-Maíllo, Monica; Núñez, Jose I; Abad, Francesc X; Fraile, Lorenzo; Pina, Sonia; Majó, Natalia; Bensaid, Albert; Domingo, Mariano; Montoya, María

    2010-01-01

    The recent pandemic caused by human influenza virus A(H1N1) 2009 contains ancestral gene segments from North American and Eurasian swine lineages as well as from avian and human influenza lineages. The emergence of this A(H1N1) 2009 poses a potential global threat for human health and the fact that it can infect other species, like pigs, favours a possible encounter with other influenza viruses circulating in swine herds. In Europe, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes of swine influenza virus currently have a high prevalence in commercial farms. To better assess the risk posed by the A(H1N1) 2009 in the actual situation of swine farms, we sought to analyze whether a previous infection with a circulating European avian-like swine A/Swine/Spain/53207/2004 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as SwH1N1) generated or not cross-protective immunity against a subsequent infection with the new human pandemic A/Catalonia/63/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as pH1N1) 21 days apart. Pigs infected only with pH1N1 had mild to moderate pathological findings, consisting on broncho-interstitial pneumonia. However, pigs inoculated with SwH1N1 virus and subsequently infected with pH1N1 had very mild lung lesions, apparently attributed to the remaining lesions caused by SwH1N1 infection. These later pigs also exhibited boosted levels of specific antibodies. Finally, animals firstly infected with SwH1N1 virus and latter infected with pH1N1 exhibited undetectable viral RNA load in nasal swabs and lungs after challenge with pH1N1, indicating a cross-protective effect between both strains.

  9. Experimental infection with H1N1 European swine influenza virus protects pigs from an infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 human influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Busquets, Núria; Segalés, Joaquim; Córdoba, Lorena; Mussá, Tufaria; Crisci, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard E.; Simon-Grifé, Meritxell; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Pérez-Maíllo, Monica; Núñez, Jose I.; Abad, Francesc X.; Fraile, Lorenzo; Pina, Sonia; Majó, Natalia; Bensaid, Albert; Domingo, Mariano; Montoya, María

    2010-01-01

    The recent pandemic caused by human influenza virus A(H1N1) 2009 contains ancestral gene segments from North American and Eurasian swine lineages as well as from avian and human influenza lineages. The emergence of this A(H1N1) 2009 poses a potential global threat for human health and the fact that it can infect other species, like pigs, favours a possible encounter with other influenza viruses circulating in swine herds. In Europe, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes of swine influenza virus currently have a high prevalence in commercial farms. To better assess the risk posed by the A(H1N1) 2009 in the actual situation of swine farms, we sought to analyze whether a previous infection with a circulating European avian-like swine A/Swine/Spain/53207/2004 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as SwH1N1) generated or not cross-protective immunity against a subsequent infection with the new human pandemic A/Catalonia/63/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as pH1N1) 21 days apart. Pigs infected only with pH1N1 had mild to moderate pathological findings, consisting on broncho-interstitial pneumonia. However, pigs inoculated with SwH1N1 virus and subsequently infected with pH1N1 had very mild lung lesions, apparently attributed to the remaining lesions caused by SwH1N1 infection. These later pigs also exhibited boosted levels of specific antibodies. Finally, animals firstly infected with SwH1N1 virus and latter infected with pH1N1 exhibited undetectable viral RNA load in nasal swabs and lungs after challenge with pH1N1, indicating a cross-protective effect between both strains. PMID:20663475

  10. Naturally-farrowed, artificially-reared pigs as an alternative model for experimental infection by Haemophilus parasuis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Simone; Galina, Lucina; Blanco, Isabel; Canals, Ana; Pijoan, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The use of naturally-farrowed, artificially-reared piglets as an alternative model to study Haemophilus parasuis infections was evaluated. Two trials were performed in order to evaluate the proposed model. In trial 1, animals were vaccinated and challenged with H. parasuis. Results showed that the proposed model was effectively used to evaluate protective immunity against this organism. In trial 2, animals were challenged with different doses of H. parasuis. Results showed that the severity of clinical signs and lesions tended to increase with higher doses. The reproduction of clinical signs and lesions characteristic of H. parasuis systemic infection was successful in both trials, proving that this model is a viable alternative to specific-pathogen free and cesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs. PMID:12760482

  11. Survival of African Swine Fever Virus in Excretions from Pigs Experimentally Infected with the Georgia 2007/1 Isolate.

    PubMed

    Davies, K; Goatley, L C; Guinat, C; Netherton, C L; Gubbins, S; Dixon, L K; Reis, A L

    2017-04-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a lethal haemorrhagic disease of swine which can be transmitted through direct contact with infected animals and their excretions or indirect contact with contaminated fomites. The shedding of ASFV by infected pigs and the stability of ASFV in the environment will determine the extent of environmental contamination. The recent outbreaks of ASF in Europe make it essential to develop disease transmission models in order to design effective control strategies to prevent further spread of ASF. In this study, we assessed the shedding and stability of ASFV in faeces, urine and oral fluid from pigs infected with the Georgia 2007/1 ASFV isolate. The half-life of infectious ASFV in faeces was found to range from 0.65 days when stored at 4°C to 0.29 days when stored at 37°C, while in urine it was found to range from 2.19 days (4°C) to 0.41 days (37°C). Based on these half-lives and the estimated dose required for infection, faeces and urine would be estimated to remain infectious for 8.48 and 15.33 days at 4°C and 3.71 and 2.88 days at 37°C, respectively. The half-life of ASFV DNA was 8 to 9 days in faeces and 2 to 3 days in oral fluid at all temperatures. In urine, the half-life of ASFV DNA was found to be 32.54 days at 4°C decreasing to 19.48 days at 37°C. These results indicate that ASFV in excretions may be an important route of ASFV transmission.

  12. Domestic Pigs Are Susceptible to Infection with Influenza B Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Zhiguang; Shen, Huigang; Lang, Yuekun; Kolb, Elizabeth A.; Turan, Nuri; Zhu, Laihua; Ma, Jingjiao; Bawa, Bhupinder; Liu, Qinfang; Liu, Haixia; Quast, Megan; Sexton, Gabriel; Krammer, Florian; Hause, Ben M.; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Nelson, Eric A.; Richt, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza B virus (IBV) causes seasonal epidemics in humans. Although IBV has been isolated from seals, humans are considered the primary host and reservoir of this important pathogen. It is unclear whether other animal species can support the replication of IBV and serve as a reservoir. Swine are naturally infected with both influenza A and C viruses. To determine the susceptibility of pigs to IBV infection, we conducted a serological survey for U.S. Midwest domestic swine herds from 2010 to 2012. Results of this study showed that antibodies to IBVs were detected in 38.5% (20/52) of sampled farms, and 7.3% (41/560) of tested swine serum samples were positive for IBV antibodies. Furthermore, swine herds infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) showed a higher prevalence of IBV antibodies in our 2014 survey. In addition, IBV was detected in 3 nasal swabs collected from PRRSV-seropositive pigs by real-time RT-PCR and sequencing. Finally, an experimental infection in pigs, via intranasal and intratracheal routes, was performed using one representative virus from each of the two genetically and antigenically distinct lineages of IBVs: B/Brisbane/60/2008 (Victoria lineage) and B/Yamagata/16/1988 (Yamagata lineage). Pigs developed influenza-like symptoms and lung lesions, and they seroconverted after virus inoculation. Pigs infected with B/Brisbane/60/2008 virus successfully transmitted the virus to sentinel animals. Taken together, our data demonstrate that pigs are susceptible to IBV infection; therefore, they warrant further surveillance and investigation of swine as a potential host for human IBV. IMPORTANCE IBV is an important human pathogen, but its ability to infect other species, for example, pigs, is not well understood. We showed serological evidence that antibodies to two genetically and antigenically distinct lineages of IBVs were present among domestic pigs, especially in swine herds previously infected with PRRSV

  13. Weaned pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella display sexually dimorphic innate immune responses without affecting pathogen colonization patterns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sexually dimorphic innate immune responses have been observed in several species, but have not been studied in response to a live pathogen challenge in pigs. This study aimed to elucidate sexually dimorphic innate immune responses along with Salmonella translocation patterns in newly weaned pigs ora...

  14. Toxoplasma gondii: comparison of a rhoptry-ELISA with IFAT and MAT for antibody detection in sera of experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, João Luis; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Vidotto, Odilon; Gennari, Solange Maria; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; da Luz Pereira, Ademir Benedito; Sinhorini, Idercio Luiz

    2006-06-01

    Indirect ELISA and IFAT have been reported to be more sensitive and specific than agglutination tests. However, MAT is cheaper, easier than the others and does not need special equipment. The purpose of this study was to compare an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using crude rhoptries of Toxoplasma gondii as coating wells (r-ELISA) with indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and modified agglutination test (MAT) to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies in sera of experimentally infected pigs. Ten mixed breed pigs between 6.5 and 7.5 weeks old were used. All pigs were negative for the presence of T. gondii antibodies by IFAT (titre < 16), r-ELISA (OD < 0.295) and MAT (titre < 16). Animals received 7x10(7) viable tachyzoites of the RH strain by intramuscular (IM) route at day 0. Serum samples were collected at days -6, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 50, and 57. IFAT detected anti-T. gondii antibodies earlier than r-ELISA and MAT. The average of antibody levels was higher at day 35 in IFAT (Log10=2.9) and in MAT (Log10 = 3.5), and at day 42 in r-ELISA (OD = 0.797). The antibody levels remained high through the 57th day after inoculation in MAT, and there was a decrease tendency in r-ELISA and IFAT. IFAT was used as "gold standard" and r-ELISA demonstrated a higher prevalence (73.3%), sensitivity (94.3%), negative predictive value (83.3%), and accuracy (95.6%) than MAT. Kappa agreements among tests were calculated, and the best results were shown by r-ELISAxIFAT (kappa = 0.88, p < 0.001). Cross-reaction with Sarcocystis miescheriana was investigated in r-ELISA and OD mean was 0.163 +/- 0.035 (n = 65). Additionally, none of the animals inoculated with Sarcocystis reacted positively in r-ELISA. Our results indicate that r-ELISA could be a good method for serological detection of T. gondii infection in pigs.

  15. Experimental Toxoplasma gondii infections in pigs: Humoral immune response, estimation of specific IgG avidity and the challenges of reproducing vertical transmission in sows.

    PubMed

    Basso, Walter; Grimm, Felix; Ruetten, Maja; Djokic, Vitomir; Blaga, Radu; Sidler, Xaver; Deplazes, Peter

    2017-03-15

    Ten pregnant sows were experimentally inoculated per os with T. gondii in order to investigate vertical and galactogenic transmission of the parasite and the evolution and maturation of the specific IgG humoral response in the sows and piglets. Five seronegative sows received 10(4)T. gondii (CZ isolate clone H3) sporulated oocysts during late-pregnancy (Exp. 1), three sows received 10(4) oocysts during mid-pregnancy (Exp. 2) and three sows from Exp. 1 (and two seronegative sows) were re-inoculated with 10(5) oocysts during a further pregnancy (late-pregnancy) (Exp. 3). Besides, six 4.5 week-old piglets inoculated per os with 5×10(3) oocysts were also included in the serological investigations. All animals seroconverted (PrioCHECK Toxoplasma Ab porcine ELISA, Prionics, Switzerland) by 2-3 weeks post inoculation (wpi) and remained seropositive for at least 38 weeks or until euthanasia. Four chronically infected sows from Exp. 1 and 2 were serologically monitored during a further pregnancy and no reactivation, but a decrease of the antibody levels was observed at farrowing (Exp. 4). In all experiments, the specific IgG-avidity was initially low, increased during the course of infection and after re-inoculations. An avidity index (AI) ≥40% could be used to rule out recent infections (<8 weeks) in most (15 of 16) animals. In some piglets (18.6% of 70) delivered by inoculated sows (Exp. 1 and 2), maternal antibodies were still detectable at 2 months (but not by 3 months) of age, with constant high avidity values, comparable to those of the dams at farrowing. In all experiments, the sows remained asymptomatic and delivered non-infected offspring at term. A total of 208 normal and 5 stillborn piglets delivered by the inoculated sows (Exp. 1-4) tested serologically negative before colostrum uptake. Placentas (n=88) from all sows and tissues (brain, liver, lung, heart, and masseter muscle) from 56 delivered piglets were analysed histopathologically and by real-time PCR

  16. Experimental infection of slaughter pigs with classical swine fever virus: transmission of the virus, course of the disease and antibody response.

    PubMed

    Laevens, H; Koenen, F; Deluyker, H; de Kruif, A

    1999-08-28

    The spread of classical swine fever virus was investigated in an isolation unit containing four pens, each containing six slaughter pigs. One pig in the middle pen of three adjacent pens was inoculated intramuscularly and intranasally with the virus. The fourth pen was located in a separate compartment. The pens were visited in a strict order to study, first, the effect of indirect contact via contaminated clothing and footwear on the spread of the virus to adjacent pens and, secondly, the airborne transmission of the virus between compartments. The pigs were examined and blood samples were taken every other day for 62 days for virological and serological analyses. The virus was highly contagious for the five pigs that were in direct contact with the inoculated pig, but spread to the other pens only after all the pigs in the originally infected pen had become viraemic. The spread of the virus was promoted by contaminated clothing and footwear, but airborne transmission contributed considerably to the spread of the virus within the pighouse. The first clinical signs observed after the virus was introduced into a pen were decreased feed intake, increased mean rectal temperature and apathy. Neither the clinical course of the infection, nor the pattern of seroconversion observed over time, was affected by the differences in the intensity of contact with the virus between the pigs in the different pens.

  17. Mimotope peptides selected from phage display combinatorial library by serum antibodies of pigs experimentally infected with Taenia solium as leads to developing diagnostic antigens for human neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Gazarian, Karlen; Rowlay, Merril; Gazarian, Tatiana; Vazquez Buchelli, Jorge Enrique; Hernández Gonzáles, Marisela

    2012-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by penetration of the tapeworm Taenia solium larvae into the central nervous system resulting in a diverse range of neurologic complications including epilepsy in endemic areas that globalization spreads worldwide. Sensitive and specific immunodiagnosis is needed for the early detection and elimination of the parasite, but the lack of standardized, readily obtainable antigens is a challenge. Here, we used the phage display for resolving the problem. The rationale of the strategy rests on the concept that the screening of combinatorial libraries with polyclonal serum to pathogens reveals families of peptides mimicking the pathogen most immunodominant epitopes indispensable for the successful diagnosis. The screening of a 7mer library with serum IgG of four pigs experimentally infected with parasite followed by computer aided segregation of the selected sequences resulted in the discovery of four clusters of homologous sequences of which one presented a family of ten mimotopes selected by three infected pig serum IgGs; the common motif sequence LSPF carried by the family was considered to be the core of an immunodominant epitope of the parasite critical for the binding with the antibody that selected the mimotopes. The immunoassay testing permitted to select a mimotope whose synthetic peptide free of the phage with the amino acid sequence Leu-Ser-Fen-Pro-Ser-Val-Val that distinguished well a panel of 21 cerebrospinal fluids of neurocysticercosis patients from the fluids of individuals with neurological complications of other etiology. This peptide is proposed as a lead for developing a novel molecularly defined diagnostic antigen(s) for the neurocysticercosis.

  18. Experimental reproduction of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-associated enteritis in pigs infected with PCV2 alone or concurrently with Lawsonia intracellularis or Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Opriessnig, T; Madson, D M; Roof, M; Layton, S M; Ramamoorthy, S; Meng, X J; Halbur, P G

    2011-01-01

    Porcine circovirus (PCV)-associated disease (PCVAD) has emerged to become one of the most economically important pig diseases globally. One of the less commonly recognized clinical manifestations of PCVAD is PCV2 type 2 (PCV2)-associated enteritis in growing pigs; however, experimental confirmation of the ability of PCV2 alone or PCV2 coinfection with other agent(s) to induce enteritis is lacking. In this study, 120 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) pigs were divided randomly into six groups: controls (negative control pigs), PCV2 (inoculated with PCV2), LAW (inoculated with Lawsonia intracellularis), SALM (inoculated with Salmonella typhimurium), PCV2-LAW (concurrently inoculated with PCV2 and Lawsonia intracellularis) and PCV2-SALM (concurrently inoculated with PCV2 and Salmonella typhimurium). One half of the pigs in each group were subject to necropsy examination 14 days postinoculation (dpi) and the remaining pigs were examined at 28 dpi. The average daily weight gain was not different (P>0.05) between groups. Individual pigs inoculated orally with PCV2 regardless of coinfection status (2/10 PCV2, 1/10 PCV2-LAW, 3/10 PCV2-SALM) developed PCVAD with diarrhoea and reduced weight gain or weight loss between 14 and 28 dpi. Those pigs had characteristic microscopic lesions in lymphoid and enteric tissues associated with abundant PCV2 antigen. Enteric lesions were characterized by necrosuppurative and proliferative enteritis with crypt elongation and epithelial hyperplasia in LAW and PCV2-LAW pigs by 14 dpi, ulcerative and necrosuppurative colitis in SALM and PCV2-SALM pigs by 14 dpi, and lymphohistiocytic enteritis with depletion of Peyer's patches in PCV2, PCV2-SALM and PCV2-LAW pigs by 28 dpi. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report documenting that under experimental conditions, PCV2 can induce enteritis independently from other enteric pathogens and that oral challenge is a potentially important route and perhaps the natural route of PCV2 transmission in

  19. Bakteriologisch-Serologische Untersuchungen an Experimentell mit S. Typhil Infizierten Meerschweinchen (Typhusbakterienausscheider) (Bacteriological and Seriological Investigations on Guinea Pigs, Experimentally Infected with S. Typhi (Bacterial Excretors),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Investigations were carried out on 151 guinea pigs previously infected with Salmonella typhi through the gallbladder. The animals were examined for...their excreting of Salmonella typhi as well as for their agglutination titers. Depending on the duration of the observation period excretion of... Salmonella typhi was demonstrated in the individual groups as long as 103, 114, 208, 302, 315, and 351 days following infection. In a great number of

  20. Detection of leptospiral antigen (L. interrogans serovar copenhageni serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae) by immunoelectron microscopy in the liver and kidney of experimentally infected guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    De Brito, T.; Prado, M. J.; Negreiros, V. A.; Nicastri, A. L.; Sakata, E. E.; Yasuda, P. H.; Santos, R. T.; Alves, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    Guinea-pigs were experimentally infected with L. interrogans serovar copenhageni serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae and their liver and kidney were studied by immunoelectron microscopy using the post embedding indirect immunogold labelling technique. Primary antibody was a purified rabbit anti-serum produced against the same leptospiral strain used in the inoculum. Gold-labelled leptospiral antigen (LAg) was found close to cell membranes of hepatocytes, kidney tubular cells and endothelial cells of the interstitial capillaries of the kidney. Afterwards it was internalized by hepatic and tubular cells, and eventually found in lysosomes. Phagolysosomes of Kupffer cells were also found to contain remnants of degraded leptospires and gold-labelled LAg. Gold-labelled intact leptospires were detected at the enlarged intercellular spaces between hepatocytes at the areas of hepatic cell plate disarray, showing the potential for leptospiral migration during the septicaemic phase of the disease potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of the lesions. The affinity of leptospiral antigenic material for cell membranes suggests an initial interaction with cell surface proteins followed by its internalization and cell damage. The nature of antigenic material detected, however, remains undefined; it may be a toxin, an enzyme or any other factor/s involved in leptospiral virulence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1419779

  1. Experimental aerosol transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Jobert, J L; Savoye, C; Cariolet, R; Kobisch, M; Madec, F

    2000-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possible role of aerosol in the transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an experiment including 18 specific pathogen-free (SPF), 10-week-old piglets, randomly distributed into 2 adjacent units, was carried out. In these facilities, air was forced through absolute filters to prevent any contact with infectious agents. During the first 6 d post inoculation, the 2 units were connected by a rectangular opening and the air circulation was forced by the ventilation system from unit A (inoculated pigs) to unit B (non-inoculated pigs). The A. pleuropneumoniae strain (biovar 1 serovar 9) was isolated in France from an outbreak of porcine pleuropneumonia. Two different infecting doses, 10(7) cfu/animal and 10(8) cfu/animal, were inoculated by intranasal route in 6 pigs of unit A. The infection spread quickly from the inoculated pigs to the non-inoculated pigs. Clinical signs were acute during the 4 d post inoculation: hyperthermia, respiratory distress and, sometimes, death (6 pigs of the unit A and 2 pigs of the unit B). All pigs seroconverted against A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 9 within 2 weeks. Lung lesions were severe: fibrinous pleurisy and lung hemorrhages in the acute stage, pleural adherences and focal pulmonary necrosis in the chronic stage. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was isolated from the tonsils and/or lungs in 16 animals. It could be also isolated from the air of the experimental unit. This study showed that A. pleuropneumoniae was readily transmitted through aerosol over a distance of at least 2.5 m. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10680652

  2. Sarcosporidian infection in pigs in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Freyre, A; Chifflet, L; Mendez, J

    1992-02-01

    Examination of enzymatic digests of samples of the crux diaphragm obtained at abbatoirs in Montevideo, Uruguay, indicated that 57.2% of 269 pigs weighing 90-140 kg were infected with Sarcocystis sp. The morphology of sarcocystis in H & E stained sections indicated that they were Sarcocystis miescheriana.

  3. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in pigs.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jie; Liao, Jinhu; Wang, Yin; Zhang, Xinjun; Wang, Jianye; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2013-08-30

    Cattle are the natural hosts of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), which causes mucosal disease, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections, and reproductive problems in cattle. However, BVDV can also infect goats, sheep, deer, and pigs. The prevalence of BVDV infection in pig herds has substantially increased in the last several years, causing increased economic losses to the global pig breeding industry. This article is a summary of BVDV infections in pigs, including a historical overview, clinical signs, pathology, source of infection, genetic characteristics, impacts of porcine BVDV infection for diagnosis of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), differentiation of infection with CSFV and BVDV, and future prospects of porcine BVDV infection.

  4. Penetration of guinea pig skin by acyclovir in different vehicles and correlation with the efficacy of topical therapy of experimental cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Spruance, S L; McKeough, M B; Cardinal, J R

    1984-01-01

    Inadequate penetration of antiviral agents through the stratum corneum of the skin may be one of the limiting factors in the topical therapy of recurrent cutaneous herpes simplex virus infections in humans. In vitro studies of the penetration of the nucleoside analog acyclovir (ACV) through guinea pig skin demonstrated a marked increase in drug flux when ACV was formulated in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), compared with water or polyethylene glycol (PEG) as the vehicle. To examine whether the increased transcutaneous flux of ACV effected by DMSO was meaningful in vivo, topical 5% ACV in DMSO was evaluated for the treatment of cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection in guinea pigs and compared with topical 5% ACV in PEG. When compared with infection sites treated with the vehicle alone, ACV in DMSO produced a greater percent reduction than did ACV in PEG in median lesion number (8 versus 58%; P less than 0.001), median lesion area (35 versus 73%; P = 0.001), and median lesion virus titer (21 versus 84%; P = 0.08). We conclude that DMSO is a highly effective vehicle for topical administration of ACV and is superior to PEG in our model. Careful choice of vehicle and consideration of transcutaneous penetration may be important for realization of the full potential of topical antiviral therapy in humans.

  5. Comparative efficacy of commercial Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) vaccines in pigs experimentally infected with M. hyopneumoniae and PCV2.

    PubMed

    Kim, D; Kim, C H; Han, K; Seo, H W; Oh, Y; Park, C; Kang, I; Chae, C

    2011-04-12

    The efficacies of two commercial Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterins and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) vaccines were compared in conventional pigs immunized at different ages based on humoral response, pathological observation, and growth performance from birth to finishing (175 days of age) using a M. hyopneumoniae and PCV2 co-infection challenge model. One-week-old pigs (n=110) were randomly assigned to five groups: three vaccinated and challenged (VC), and one each of non-vaccinated and challenged (NVC) and negative control. A significant difference was found in the number of genomic copies of M. hyopneumoniae in nasal swabs and PCV2 in serum samples, the average daily weight gain (gram/pig/day) between 63 and 133 dpi, gross and histopathological lung lesion scores, histopathological lymph node lesion scores, and the immunohistochemical analysis of PCV2 among the three VC groups. The single dose schedule for M. hyopneumoniae bacterins and PCV2 vaccines have the advantages of (i) improving daily weight gain (122.4%) and slaughter weight (120.5%), and (ii) reducing the incidence of clinical signs and lung and lymph node lesions.

  6. In vivo therapeutic efficacy and pharmacokinetics of colistin sulfate in an experimental model of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Rhouma, Mohamed; Beaudry, Francis; Thériault, William; Bergeron, Nadia; Beauchamp, Guy; Laurent-Lewandowski, Sylvette; Fairbrother, John Morris; Letellier, Ann

    2016-05-27

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC: F4) associated with post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs has developed resistance against several antimicrobial families, leading to increased use of colistin sulfate (CS) for the treatment of this disease. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of oral CS treatment in experimental PWD due to ETEC: F4 challenge and determine the effect of this challenge on CS intestinal absorption. In this study, 96 pigs were divided into two trials based on CS dose (100 000 or 50 000 IU/kg). Fecal shedding of ETEC: F4, total E. coli, and CS-resistant E. coli, diarrhea scores, and weight changes were evaluated. Colistin sulfate plasma concentrations were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. Regardless of the dose, CS treatment resulted in a reduction of fecal ETEC: F4 and total E. coli shedding, and in diarrhea scores but only during the treatment period. However, CS treatment resulted in a slight increase in fecal shedding of CS resistant E. coli and did not prevent weight loss in challenged pigs. In addition, challenge with ETEC: F4 resulted in an increase of CS intestinal absorption. Our study is among the first to demonstrate that under controlled conditions, CS was effective in reducing fecal shedding of ETEC: F4 and total E. coli in experimental PWD. However, CS treatment was associated with a slight selection pressure on E. coli and did not prevent pig weight loss. Further studies are needed in field conditions, to better characterize CS therapeutic regimen efficacy and bacterial resistance dissemination.

  7. Salmonella infection and immune response in finishing pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and the immunological alterations that occur in Salmonella-carrier pigs, by longitudinally com...

  8. Experimental and field studies with thiophanate in pigs.

    PubMed

    Baines, D M; Dalton, S E; Eichler, D A

    1976-08-14

    Thiophanate, administered at a dosage of 50 mg per kg to artifically infected pigs, removed 96 to 99 per cent of adult Oesophagostomum spp, Hyostrongylus rubidus and Trichuris suis. Activity was also high against larval stages of these nematodes, except for 26-day-old T suis. Thiophanate also showed ovicidal and larvicidal activity against H rubidus and Oesophagostomum spp. At 50 mg per kg thiophanate administered alone was inactive against Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus apri, the former species also being refractory at 200 mg per kg. Field trials confirmed these efficacy results in naturally infected animals. Pellet formulations providing mean dosages of 63 mg thiophanate per kg for adult pigs and 75 mg thiophanate per kg with 83 mg piperazine base per kg for growing pigs were highly effective in reducing the faecal output of Oesophagostomum spp, H rubidus and T suis eggs. In growing pigs, A suum was controlled by the thiophanate/piperazine product. No palatability or tolerance problems were observed when thiophanate or thiophanate/piperazine mixtures were administered at recommended dosage or multiples thereof in experimental or field studies.

  9. Control of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs.

    PubMed

    Maes, D; Segales, J; Meyns, T; Sibila, M; Pieters, M; Haesebrouck, F

    2008-01-25

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the primary pathogen of enzootic pneumonia, occurs worldwide and causes major economic losses to the pig industry. The organism adheres to and damages the ciliated epithelium of the respiratory tract. Affected pigs show chronic coughing, are more susceptible to other respiratory infections and have a reduced performance. Control of the disease can be accomplished in a number of ways. First, management practices and housing conditions in the herd should be optimized. These include all-in/all-out production, limiting factors that may destabilize herd immunity, maintaining optimal stocking densities, prevention of other respiratory diseases, and optimal housing and climatic conditions. Strategic medication with antimicrobials active against M. hyopneumoniae and, preferably, also against major secondary bacteria may be useful during periods when the pigs are at risk for respiratory disease. Finally, commercial bacterins are widely used to control M. hyopneumoniae infections. The main effects of vaccination include less clinical symptoms, lung lesions and medication use, and improved performance. However, bacterins provide only partial protection and do not prevent colonization of the organism. Different vaccination strategies (timing of vaccination, vaccination of sows, vaccination combined with antimicrobial medication) can be used, depending on the type of herd, the production system and management practices, the infection pattern and the preferences of the pig producer. Research on new vaccines is actively occurring, including aerosol and feed-based vaccines as well as subunit and DNA vaccines. Eradication of the infection at herd level based on age-segregation and medication is possible, but there is a permanent risk for re-infections.

  10. The influence of diet on Lawsonia intracellularis colonization in pigs upon experimental challenge.

    PubMed

    Boesen, Henriette T; Jensen, Tim K; Schmidt, Anja S; Jensen, Bent B; Jensen, Søren M; Møller, Kristian

    2004-10-05

    The objective of this investigation was to study if different feeding strategies influence experimental infections of pigs with Lawsonia intracellularis, the causative agent of proliferative enteropathy. In three sequential trials, a total of 144 weaned pigs were fed five different diets all made from a standard diet based on wheat and barley as carbohydrate source and soybean as protein source. The five diets were: a standard diet (fine ground and pelleted), the standard diet fed as fermented liquid feed, the standard diet added 1.8% formic acid, the standard diet added 2.4% lactic acid and a diet similar to the standard diet (made from the same ingredients), but fed coarse ground. Twenty-four pigs on each diet were orally inoculated with L. intracellularis and growth performance and faecal excretion of bacteria were monitored. Twenty-four pigs fed the standard diet were included as not experimentally infected controls. Pigs in the first two trials were sacrificed 4 weeks post-inoculation, whereas animals in the third trial were sacrificed after 5 weeks. Pigs in all experimentally infected groups excreted L. intracellularis. The fermented liquid diet delayed the excretion of L. intracellularis and furthermore, pigs fed the standard diet supplemented with lactic acid had limited pathological lesions when the intestines were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The growth performance was reduced in pigs experimentally challenged with L. intracellularis, however the prevalence and severity of diarrhea was limited.

  11. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus experimental transmission using a pig model.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Alert, J; Raj, V S; Muñoz, M; Abad, F X; Cordón, I; Haagmans, B L; Bensaid, A; Segalés, J

    2017-10-01

    Dromedary camels are the main reservoir of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but other livestock species (i.e., alpacas, llamas, and pigs) are also susceptible to infection with MERS-CoV. Animal-to-animal transmission in alpacas was reported, but evidence for transmission in other species has not been proved. This study explored pig-to-pig MERS-CoV transmission experimentally. Virus was present in nasal swabs of infected animals, and limited amounts of viral RNA, but no infectious virus were detected in the direct contact pigs. No virus was detected in the indirect contact group. Furthermore, direct and indirect contact pigs did not develop specific antibodies against MERS-CoV. Therefore, the role of pigs as reservoir is probably negligible, although it deserves further confirmation. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Relationship between airborne detection of influenza A virus and the number of infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Cesar A; Romagosa, Anna; Dee, Scott A; Gramer, Marie R; Morrison, Robert B; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-05-01

    Influenza A virus infects a wide range of species including both birds and mammals (including humans). One of the key routes by which the virus can infect populations of animals is by aerosol transmission. This study explored the relationship between number of infected pigs and the probability of detecting influenza virus RNA in bioaerosols through the course of an acute infection. Bioaerosols were collected using a cyclonic collector in two groups of 7 week-old pigs that were experimentally infected by exposure with a contact infected pig (seeder pig). After contact exposure, individual pig nasal swab samples were collected daily and air samples were collected three times per day for 8 days. All samples were tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase (RRT)-PCR targeting the influenza virus matrix gene. All pigs' nasal swabs became influenza virus RRT-PCR positive upon exposure to the infected seeder pig. Airborne influenza was detected in 28/43 (65%) air samples. The temporal dynamics of influenza virus detection in air samples was in close agreement with the nasal shedding pattern in the infected pigs. First detection of positive bioaerosols happened at 1 day post contact (DPC). Positive bioaerosols were consistently detected between 3 and 6 DPC, a time when most pigs were also shedding virus in nasal secretions. Overall, the odds of detecting a positive air sample increased 2.2 times for every additional nasal swab positive pig in the group. In summary, there was a strong relationship between the number of pigs shedding influenza virus in nasal secretions and the generation of bioaerosols during the course of an acute infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between airborne detection of influenza A virus and the number of infected pigs

    PubMed Central

    Corzo, Cesar A.; Romagosa, Anna; Dee, Scott; Gramer, Marie; Morrison, Robert B; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A virus infects a wide range of species including both birds and mammals (including humans). One of the key routes by which the virus can infect populations of animals is by aerosol transmission. This study explored the relationship between number of infected pigs and the probability of detecting influenza virus RNA in bioaerosols through the course of an acute infection. Bioaerosols were collected using a cyclonic collector in two groups of 7 week-old pigs that were experimentally infected by exposure with a contact infected pig (seeder pig). After contact exposure, individual pig nasal swab samples were collected daily and air samples were collected three times per day for 8 days. All samples were tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase (RRT)-PCR targeting the influenza virus matrix gene. All pigs' nasal swabs became influenza virus RRT-PCR positive upon exposure to the infected seeder pig. Airborne influenza was detected in 28/43 (65%) air samples. The temporal dynamics of influenza virus detection in air samples was in close agreement with the nasal shedding pattern in the infected pigs. First detection of positive bioaerosols happened at 1 day post contact (DPC). Positive bioaerosols were consistently detected between 3 and 6 DPC, a time when most pigs were also shedding virus in nasal secretions. Overall, the odds of detecting a positive air sample increased 2.2 times for every additional nasal swab positive pig in the group. In summary, there was a strong relationship between the number of pigs shedding influenza virus in nasal secretions and the generation of bioaerosols during the course of an acute infection. PMID:23164957

  14. Association between transmission rate and disease severity for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Tijs J; Bouma, Annemarie; Daemen, Angeline J J M; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Stegeman, Arjan; Klinkenberg, Don

    2013-01-11

    A better understanding of the variation in infectivity and its relation with clinical signs may help to improve measures to control and prevent (clinical) outbreaks of diseases. Here we investigated the role of disease severity on infectivity and transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, a bacterium causing respiratory problems in pig farms. We carried out transmission experiments with 10 pairs of caesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs. In each pair, one pig was inoculated intranasally with 5×10(6) CFUs of A. pleuropneumoniae strain 1536 and housed together with a contact pig. Clinical signs were scored and the course of infection was observed by bacterial examination and qPCR analysis of tonsillar brush and nasal swab samples. In 6 out of 10 pairs transmission to contact pigs was observed, but disease scores in contact infected pigs were low compared to the score in inoculated pigs. Whereas disease score was positively associated with bacterial load in inoculated pigs and bacterial load with the transmission rate, the disease score had a negative association with transmission. These findings indicate that in pigs with equal bacterial load, those with higher clinical scores transmit A. pleuropneumoniae less efficiently. Finally, the correlation between disease score in inoculated pigs and in positive contact pigs was low. Although translation of experimental work towards farm level has limitations, our results suggest that clinical outbreaks of A. pleuropneumoniae are unlikely to be caused only by spread of the pathogen by clinically diseased pigs, but may rather be the result of development of clinical signs in already infected pigs.

  15. Influenza virus infection in guinea pigs raised as livestock, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Grado, Victor H; Mubareka, Samira; Krammer, Florian; Cárdenas, Washington B; Palese, Peter

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether guinea pigs are infected with influenza virus in nature, we conducted a serologic study in domestic guinea pigs in Ecuador. Detection of antibodies against influenza A and B raises the question about the role of guinea pigs in the ecology and epidemiology of influenza virus in the region.

  16. Ascariasis in Japan: is pig-derived Ascaris infecting humans?

    PubMed

    Arizono, Naoki; Yoshimura, Yuta; Tohzaka, Naoki; Yamada, Minoru; Tegoshi, Tatsuya; Onishi, Kotaro; Uchikawa, Ryuichi

    2010-11-01

    Human ascariasis is caused by infection with the common roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, although the pig roundworm Ascaris suum has also been reported to infect humans and develop into the adult stage. To elucidate whether pig-derived Ascaris infects humans in Japan, 9 Ascaris isolates obtained from Japanese patients and a further 9 Ascaris isolates of pig origin were analyzed to determine their internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences. Six of the 9 clinical isolates showed the Ascaris genotype which predominantly infects humans in endemic countries, while the other 3 clinical isolates and 9 pig-derived isolates showed the genotype predominant in pigs worldwide. These results suggest that at least some cases of human ascariasis in Japan are a result of infection with pig-derived Ascaris.

  17. Taenia solium oncosphere antigens induce immunity in pigs against experimental cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Verastegui, Manuela; Gilman, Robert H; Gonzales, Armando; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gavidia, Cesar; Falcon, Nestor; Bernal, Teresa; Arana, Yanina; Tsang, Victor C W

    2002-08-30

    Immunity to Taenia solium infection was investigated using an experimental intramuscular oncosphere infection assay (IMOA) model in pigs. Three naturally infected pigs with cysticercosis were treated with oxfendazole (OFZ), a drug demonstrated to kill cysts in porcine muscle. These animals were then challenged with oncospheres but did not develop any cysts while three uninfected pigs that were similarly challenged, did develop intramuscular cysts. In another study, two groups of three pigs each were immunized with crude T. solium oncosphere and metacestode antigens, respectively, and tested with the IMOA. Immunization with crude oncosphere antigens (OAs) induced 100% protection, while metacestode antigens provided only partial protection. Immunoblots showed that pigs with complete immune protection to oncosphere intramuscular challenge had antibodies to two OAs at 31.3 and 22.5 kDa, respectively. Antibody to these two antigens was absent in pigs immunized with metacestodes or in uninfected control pigs. This study demonstrated the presence of two antigens that are unique to the oncosphere. Although, antibody to these two antigens is consistently present in pigs that are protected from an oncosphere intramuscular challenge their role in preventing infection by T. solium larval cysts is still hypothetical.

  18. Clinical and haematological characterisation of Mycoplasma suis infections in splenectomised and non-splenectomised pigs.

    PubMed

    Stadler, J; Jannasch, C; Mack, S L; Dietz, S; Zöls, S; Ritzmann, M; Hoelzle, K; Hoelzle, L E

    2014-08-06

    Mycoplasma suis causes infectious anaemia in pigs (IAP), which can manifest in various degrees of severity depending on the virulence and the host's susceptibility. As M. suis cannot be cultured in vitro experimental infections of splenectomised animals play an essential role for pathogenesis research. The aim of the present study was to characterise the course of experimental infection using the highly virulent and red blood cell (RBC-) invasive M. suis strain KI3806, to compare the experimental course in splenectomised and non-splenectomised pigs and to correlate clinical and haematological parameters with M. suis blood loads. All infected splenectomised pigs (n=7) were PCR-positive 2 days post infection (DPI) with maximum mean bacterial loads of 1.61 × 10(10)M. suis/mL on 8 DPI. They developed severe anaemia and massive hypoglycaemia by 8 DPI and had to be euthanised preterm (until 8 DPI) without seroconversion. The non-splenectomised pigs (n=7) became PCR-positive within 23 DPI and reached a maximum mean M. suis load of 1.64 × 10(5)M. suis/mL on 8 DPI. They developed mild anaemia, massive skin alterations with petechiae and haemorrhagic diathesis and seroconverted within 35 DPI. The study demonstrated that experimental infection of splenectomised pigs with the highly virulent M. suis strain KI3806 induces a fulminant course of infection. In contrast, M. suis strain KI3806 induces a mild course of disease in non-splenectomised pigs, which resembles the situation in naturally infected pigs. Therefore, these infection models are valuable for future pathogenesis studies on acute and chronic M. suis infections.

  19. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Infections Associated with Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Young, Andrea; Levine, Seth J.; Garvin, Joseph P.; Brown, Susan; Turner, Lauren; Fritzinger, Angela; Gertz, Robert E.; Murphy, Julia M.; Vogt, Marshall; Beall, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is a known zoonotic pathogen. In this public health investigation conducted in Virginia, USA, in 2013, we identified a probable family cluster of S. zooepidemicus cases linked epidemiologically and genetically to infected guinea pigs. S. zooepidemicus infections should be considered in patients who have severe clinical illness and report guinea pig exposure. PMID:25531424

  20. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Pathogenesis of a Chinese strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Yan, Hao; Ma, Lei; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-12-01

    Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) is considered one of the most important respiratory tract agents of cattle and is widespread among cattle around the world. A BAV-3 strain was isolated from a bovine nasal swab for the first time in China in 2009 and named HLJ0955. Subsequently, BAV-3 has frequently been isolated from calves with respiratory diseases in China. To date, only limited study on the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in cotton rats has been conducted, and the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in guinea pigs has not been reported. Therefore, sixteen albino guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with HLJ0955. All of the infected guinea pigs had apparently elevated rectal temperatures (39.2 °C-39.9 °C) at 2-7 days post-inoculation (PI). Consolidation and petechial hemorrhage were also observed in guinea pigs experimentally infected with HLJ0955. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration and by immunohistochemistry in the lungs of guinea pigs as early as 24 h PI. Viral DNA was detectable in the lungs of infected guinea pigs during 11 days of observation by real-time PCR. Virus-neutralizing antibodies against BAV-3 were detectable from 11 days PI and reached a peak titer at 15 days PI. Histopathological changes mainly occurred in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and were characterized by thickening of alveolar septa, mononuclear cell infiltration, hemorrhage and alveolar epithelial necrosis. These results indicate that HLJ0955 can replicate in the lungs of guinea pigs and cause fever and gross and histological lesions. The guinea pig infection model of BAV-3 would serve as a useful system for monitoring the infection process and pathogenesis of the Chinese BAV-3 strain HLJ0955, as well as immune responses to BAV-3 vaccines.

  2. Detection of total and PRRSV-specific antibodies in oral fluids collected with different rope types from PRRSV-vaccinated and experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Decorte, Inge; Van Breedam, Wander; Van der Stede, Yves; Nauwynck, Hans J; De Regge, Nick; Cay, Ann Brigitte

    2014-06-17

    Oral fluid collected by means of ropes has the potential to replace serum for monitoring and surveillance of important swine pathogens. Until now, the most commonly used method to collect oral fluid is by hanging a cotton rope in a pen. However, concerns about the influence of rope material on subsequent immunological assays have been raised. In this study, we evaluated six different rope materials for the collection of oral fluid and the subsequent detection of total and PRRSV-specific antibodies of different isotypes in oral fluid collected from PRRSV-vaccinated and infected pigs. An initial experiment showed that IgA is the predominant antibody isotype in porcine saliva. Moreover, it was found that synthetic ropes may yield higher amounts of IgA, whereas all rope types seemed to be equally suitable for IgG collection. Although IgA is the predominant antibody isotype in porcine oral fluid, the PRRSV-specific IgA-based IPMA and ELISA tests were clearly not ideal for sensitive detection of PRRSV-specific IgA antibodies. In contrast, PRRSV-specific IgG in oral fluids was readily detected in PRRSV-specific IgG-based IPMA and ELISA tests, indicating that IgG is a more reliable isotype for monitoring PRRSV-specific antibody immunity in vaccinated/infected animals via oral fluids with the currently available tests. Since PRRSV-specific IgG detection seems more reliable than PRRSV-specific IgA detection for monitoring PRRSV-specific antibody immunity via oral fluids, and since all rope types yield equal amounts of IgG, it seems that the currently used cotton ropes are an appropriate choice for sample collection in PRRSV monitoring.

  3. Iatrogenic Horner's syndrome in an experimental pig.

    PubMed

    Lembo, T M; Wright, K C; Cromeens, D M; Price, R E

    2001-01-01

    An adult domestic female pig (Sus scrofa) exhibited clinical signs of right-sided Horner's syndrome after experimental placement of a woven aortic stent followed by aortic catheterization. The clinical signs included a miotic pupil, ptosis of the upper eyelid, prolapse of the nictitating membrane, and enophthalmos. Necropsy revealed a large mass in the right midcervical region that encased or was in contact with the carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve. Closer evaluation of the mass revealed that it was a small piece of surgical suture material that was embedded within the lumen of the carotid artery. This extrinsic material served as a nidus for an inflammatory reaction involving the vagus nerve.

  4. Rapid infection of pigs following exposure to environments contaminated with different levels of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Boughton, Claire; Egan, John; Kelly, Gabrielle; Markey, Bryan; Leonard, Nola

    2007-01-01

    Pigs reared in an environment free of Salmonella species or on farms with low levels of infection may acquire infection during transport to the abattoir or while held in lairage. We designed a study to determine if pigs could become infected with S. Typhimurium when placed in a contaminated environment similar to that observed in commercial lairage. In addition, quantitative examination of salmonellae in all environmental and animal samples was undertaken. In order to simulate a naturally contaminated environment, animals experimentally infected with a challenge strain of S. Typhimurium (PT12) were used to seed the trial pen environment with salmonellae. In trial 1, pigs were exposed to a highly contaminated environment (5.4 log(10) CFU/100 cm(2)) for 2, 3, or 24 hours. Following these exposure periods, pigs were euthanized and samples including gastrointestinal and associated lymphoid tissue were analyzed for the challenge strain. S. Typhimuirum PT12 was detected in at least one sample type analyzed from each pig after exposure for > or =2 hours. The most frequently contaminated samples were tonsils (100% positive), followed by segments of the ileocecal junction (94.4% positive) and cecal contents (89% positive). Quantitative analysis conducted on cecal contents and ilocaecal junction segments revealed that similar numbers of organisms (1.1-2 log (10) /g) were isolated at all timepoints. In trial 2, pigs were exposed to a less contaminated environment (2.65 log (10) CFU/100 cm(2)) for periods of 1, 3, 6, or 24 hours. S. Typhimuirum PT12 was not detected in any sample from pigs euthanized after exposure of 1 hour. The challenge strain was recovered from the cecal contents of pigs after exposures of 3, 6, and 24 hours, and from the tonsil of one pig after exposure for 6 hours. These results highlight the need to reduce the environmental load of Salmonella spp. in lairage holding pens in order to reduce the numbers of infected pigs entering the slaughter process.

  5. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  6. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy.

  7. Experimental induction of malignant catarrhal fever in pigs with ovine herpesvirus 2 by intranasal nebulization.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Brooking, Angela; Cunha, Cristina W; Highland, Margaret A; O'Toole, Donal; Knowles, Donald P; Taus, Naomi S

    2012-10-12

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a frequently fatal herpesviral disease primarily of ruminant species, has been sporadically reported in pigs. All cases of naturally occurring porcine MCF reported to date have been linked to ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Macavirus carried by sheep. Experimental induction of MCF by aerosolization of the virus in nasal secretions collected from infected sheep has been successful in bison, cattle and rabbits. The goals of this study were to determine the susceptibility of pigs to MCF following experimental intranasal inoculation of OvHV-2, and to characterize the disease. Twelve pigs in four groups were nebulized with 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), or 10(8) DNA copies of OvHV-2 from sheep nasal secretions. Three control pigs were nebulized with nasal secretions from uninfected sheep. Three additional pigs were inoculated intravenously with 10(7) DNA copies of OvHV-2 to evaluate this route of infection with cell-free virus. Seven of twelve intranasally challenged pigs became infected with OvHV-2. Five of these seven, all in higher dose groups, developed MCF. Lesions resembled those reported in natural cases of porcine MCF. The most striking and consistent histological lesions were in trachea, lung, kidney and brain. These comprised mucopurulent tracheitis, interstitial pneumonia, necrotizing arteritis-periarteritis, and nonpurulent meningoencephalitis. No infection was established in the intravenously challenged or control groups. The study showed that MCF can be experimentally induced in pigs by aerosol challenge using sheep nasal secretions containing OvHV-2. Domestic pigs are a natural clinically susceptible host for sheep-associated MCF. They represent a useful, cost-effective model for MCF research. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Pathogenesis of Lassa Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    INFECTION AND IMMUNITY. Aug. 1982. p. 771-778 Vol. 37. No. 2 0019-9567/82/080771-08$02.00/0 Pathogenesis of Lassa Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs... virus strain Josiah. In contrast, no more than 30% of the Hartley guinea pigs died regardless of the virus rdose. In lethally infected strain 13 guinea...pigs, peak titers of virus (107 to 10 PFU) occurred in the spleen and lymph nodes at 8 to 9 days, in the salivary glands at 11 days, and in the lung at

  9. Enterobacter cloacae inhibits human norovirus infectivity in gnotobiotic pigs.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shaohua; Samuel, Helen; Twitchell, Erica; Bui, Tammy; Ramesh, Ashwin; Wen, Ke; Weiss, Mariah; Li, Guohua; Yang, Xingdong; Jiang, Xi; Yuan, Lijuan

    2016-04-26

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. Study of HuNoV biology has been hampered by the lack of an efficient cell culture system. Recently, enteric commensal bacteria Enterobacter cloacae has been recognized as a helper in HuNoV infection of B cells in vitro. To test the influences of E. cloacae on HuNoV infectivity and to determine whether HuNoV infects B cells in vivo, we colonized gnotobiotic pigs with E. cloacae and inoculated pigs with 2.74 × 10(4) genome copies of HuNoV. Compared to control pigs, reduced HuNoV shedding was observed in E. cloacae colonized pigs, characterized by significantly shorter duration of shedding in post-inoculation day 10 subgroup and lower cumulative shedding and peak shedding in individual pigs. Colonization of E. cloacae also reduced HuNoV titers in intestinal tissues and in blood. In both control and E. cloacae colonized pigs, HuNoV infection of enterocytes was confirmed, however infection of B cells was not observed in ileum, and the entire lamina propria in sections of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were HuNoV-negative. In summary, E. cloacae inhibited HuNoV infectivity, and B cells were not a target cell type for HuNoV in gnotobiotic pigs, with or without E. cloacae colonization.

  10. Enterobacter cloacae inhibits human norovirus infectivity in gnotobiotic pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shaohua; Samuel, Helen; Twitchell, Erica; Bui, Tammy; Ramesh, Ashwin; Wen, Ke; Weiss, Mariah; Li, Guohua; Yang, Xingdong; Jiang, Xi; Yuan, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. Study of HuNoV biology has been hampered by the lack of an efficient cell culture system. Recently, enteric commensal bacteria Enterobacter cloacae has been recognized as a helper in HuNoV infection of B cells in vitro. To test the influences of E. cloacae on HuNoV infectivity and to determine whether HuNoV infects B cells in vivo, we colonized gnotobiotic pigs with E. cloacae and inoculated pigs with 2.74 × 104 genome copies of HuNoV. Compared to control pigs, reduced HuNoV shedding was observed in E. cloacae colonized pigs, characterized by significantly shorter duration of shedding in post-inoculation day 10 subgroup and lower cumulative shedding and peak shedding in individual pigs. Colonization of E. cloacae also reduced HuNoV titers in intestinal tissues and in blood. In both control and E. cloacae colonized pigs, HuNoV infection of enterocytes was confirmed, however infection of B cells was not observed in ileum, and the entire lamina propria in sections of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were HuNoV-negative. In summary, E. cloacae inhibited HuNoV infectivity, and B cells were not a target cell type for HuNoV in gnotobiotic pigs, with or without E. cloacae colonization. PMID:27113278

  11. [Effect of the Stellamune Mycoplasma vaccine on growth, energy conversion, death, and medication use in fattening pigs on a pig farm chronically infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Bouwkamp, F T; Elbers, A R; Hunneman, W A; Klaassen, C H

    2000-07-15

    The effect of Stellamune Mycoplasma vaccine, administered to piglets aged 2-15 days and then 13-15 days later, on daily weight gain, energy conversion, and use of medication was examined in fattening pigs on a chronically Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infected pig farm. Half of the piglets were vaccinated and the other half acted as controls. In the study design, half of the pens in the fattening unit were allocated to vaccinated pigs; the other half to non-vaccinated pigs, pen was the experimental unit. In the fattening pens sows and castrated boars were separated. The study consisted of a total of 37 pens with vaccinated, and 37 pens with non-vaccinated pigs in 12 different compartments within the pig herd. In the finishing period, mean growth performance and mean energy conversion (EV/kg) of vaccinated animals was 65 grams/day higher and 0.07 EV/kg lower than in control pigs. Furthermore, the incidence of individual curative medication against respiratory problems was more than 4 times higher in control pigs than in vaccinated pigs. There was a tendency for a higher number of group medications against respiratory problems in control pigs than in vaccinated pigs. It is concluded that, in this herd, vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae was successful from an economic point of view.

  12. Education and research using experimental pigs in a medical school.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hozumi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2006-01-01

    Medium-sized animals such as miniature pigs are considered to be important for education and training in medical schools to master the skills required in surgical treatment. Much still remains to be done to establish total management for animal experiments using pigs. Improvement of the effective utilization of pigs is also required from the economical and ethical points of view. We have been providing a support system at a facility for experimental animals in a medical school for 3 years, and herein we introduce our personal experiments as an instructional lecture. Before starting surgical training using live pigs, sufficient education concerning animal ethics and dry laboratory training was completed. Four kinds of miniature pigs have been used as experimental animals; porcine rearing pens have been improved and a postoperative care system has been implemented. Moreover, staff at the center offer a preoperative service of anesthesia for surgical education, training, and research. Chronic experiments have increased to represent 35% and 48% of experiments using pigs in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Experimental pigs have undergone secondary use after being killed to reduce the number of animals used in experiments. Sharing and reuse have allowed effective use of miniature pig tissues and cells for research, and have reduced the number of animals used. We recommend that researchers consider use of our total systems because they can improve the quality of medical education and research and facilitate effective use of tissues and cells by sharing and reuse among different departments.

  13. Detection of antibodies against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus GDVII strain in experimental guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Häger, C; Glage, S; Held, N; Bleich, E M; Burghard, A; Mähler, M; Bleich, André

    2016-10-01

    A disease affecting guinea pigs called 'guinea pig lameness' characterized by clinical signs of depression, lameness of limbs, flaccid paralysis, weight loss and death within a few weeks was first described by Römer in 1911. After a research group in our facility kept laboratory guinea pigs from two different origins together in one room, lameness was observed in two animals. Further investigations revealed a serological immune response against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV; GDVII strain) in these animals. Histopathology of the lumbar spinal cord of these animals showed mononuclear cell infiltration and necrotic neurons in the anterior horn. Therefore, all guinea pigs from this contaminated animal unit, from other units in our facility, as well as from different European institutions and breeding centres were screened for antibodies directed against GDVII. Our investigations showed that approximately 80% of all guinea pigs from the contaminated animal unit were seropositive for GDVII, whereas animals from other separate units were completely negative. In addition, 43% of tested sera from the different European institutions and breeding centres contained antibodies against GDVII. The present data confirm that an unknown viral infection causes an immune response in experimental guinea pigs leading to seroconversion against GDVII and that guinea pigs from a commercial breeder are the source of the infection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Infectivity and Transmissibility of Avian H9N2 Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Maocai; Hong, Wenshan; Fan, Xiaohui; Chen, Rirong; Zheng, Zuoyi; Zeng, Yu; Huang, Ren; Zhang, Yu; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Smith, David K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The H9N2 influenza viruses that are enzootic in terrestrial poultry in China pose a persistent pandemic threat to humans. To investigate whether the continuous circulation and adaptation of these viruses in terrestrial poultry increased their infectivity to pigs, we conducted a serological survey in pig herds with H9N2 viruses selected from the aquatic avian gene pool (Y439 lineage) and the enzootic terrestrial poultry viruses (G1 and Y280 lineages). We also compared the infectivity and transmissibility of these viruses in pigs. It was found that more than 15% of the pigs sampled from 2010 to 2012 in southern China were seropositive to either G1 or Y280 lineage viruses, but none of the sera were positive to the H9 viruses from the Y439 lineage. Viruses of the G1 and Y280 lineages were able to infect experimental pigs, with detectable nasal shedding of the viruses and seroconversion, whereas viruses of the Y439 lineage did not cause a productive infection in pigs. Thus, adaptation and prevalence in terrestrial poultry could lead to interspecies transmission of H9N2 viruses from birds to pigs. Although H9N2 viruses do not appear to be continuously transmissible among pigs, repeated introductions of H9 viruses to pigs naturally increase the risk of generating mammalian-adapted or reassorted variants that are potentially infectious to humans. This study highlights the importance of monitoring the activity of H9N2 viruses in terrestrial poultry and pigs. IMPORTANCE H9N2 subtype of influenza viruses has repeatedly been introduced into mammalian hosts, including humans and pigs, so awareness of their activity and evolution is important for influenza pandemic preparedness. However, since H9N2 viruses usually cause mild or even asymptomatic infections in mammalian hosts, they may be overlooked in influenza surveillance. Here, we found that the H9N2 viruses established in terrestrial poultry had higher infectivity in pigs than those from aquatic birds, which

  15. Emerging Trichinella britovi infections in free ranging pigs of Greece.

    PubMed

    Boutsini, S; Papatsiros, V G; Stougiou, D; Marucci, G; Liandris, E; Athanasiou, L V; Papadoudis, A; Karagiozopoulos, E; Bisias, A; Pozio, E

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella infections in humans and pigs have been documented in Greece since 1945 and a high prevalence of infection in pigs occurred in the 1950s. Up to 1984 only sporadic infections in humans were documented, and this zoonosis was not considered as a public health problem until 2009 when a human outbreak caused by the consumption of pork from an organic pig farm occurred. In the present study, we describe the re-emergence of Trichinella spp. infections in free-ranging pigs from organic farms of 3 counties (Dramas, Evros and Kavala) in Northern-Eastern Greece during the period 2009-2012. Totally 37 out of 12,717 (0.29%) free-ranging pigs which were tested during the period in question, were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae. The etiological agent was identified as Trichinella britovi. The average larval burden was 13.7 in the masseter, 6.2 in the foreleg muscles and 7.5 in the diaphragm. The 37 positive animals originated from seven free range pig farms. The practice of organic pig production systems in Greece has grown in popularity over the last years due to the increasing interest of consumers for products considered as traditional. However, this type of pig production increases the risk for Trichinella spp. infections, since animals can acquire the infection by feeding on carcasses or the offal of hunted or dead wild animals. The awareness and education of hunters and farmers is extremely important to reduce the transmission among free ranging pigs and the risk for humans.

  16. Absence of clinical disease and contact transmission of North American clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX HPAI in experimentally infected pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the fall of 2014, clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8 were introduced into North America by migrating waterfowl from Asia where, through reassortment, novel HPAI H5N2 and H5N1 viruses emerged. We sought to assess the susceptibility of pigs to North American HPAI cl...

  17. Oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in pigs and increases immune responses of pigs during Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2012-12-01

    It has been considered that drinking oxygenated water improves oxygen availability, which may increase vitality and improve immune functions. The present study evaluated the effects of oxygenated drinking water on immune function in pigs. Continuous drinking of oxygenated water markedly increased peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation, interleukin-1β expression level and the CD4(+):CD8(+) cell ratio in pigs. During Salmonella Typhimurium infection, total leukocytes and relative cytokines expression levels were significantly increased in pigs consuming oxygenated water compared with pigs consuming tap water. These findings suggest that oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in pigs and increases immune responses of pigs during S. Typhimurium Infection.

  18. Epidermal cell proliferation in guinea pigs with experimental dermatophytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tagami, H.

    1985-08-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the self-healing process of experimental dermatophytosis produced in guinea pigs by an occlusive method with Trichophyton mentagrophytes, epidermal proliferative activity was evaluated by the in vivo tritiated thymidine-labeling technique performed at various intervals after the first and second infections. Determination of labeling indices disclosed that an increased epidermal proliferation correlated well with the severity of inflammatory changes, i.e., a peak activity was noted after 10 days in primary infection and at 2 days in reinfection, respectively, and was followed by subsequent spontaneous lesion clearance after 10 days. Application of a heat-killed spore suspension produced inflammatory changes with enhanced epidermopoiesis, similar to those induced by reinoculation of living spores, only in immune animals. The present results indicate that the dermatitic changes occurring in experimental dermatophytosis increase epidermopoiesis which facilitates elimination of the fungus from the stratum corneum and that host immune activity, particularly contact sensitivity to fungal antigen, exerts a crucial role to induce these changes.

  19. Temporal Progression of Lesions in Guinea Pigs Infected With Lassa Virus.

    PubMed

    Bell, T M; Shaia, C I; Bearss, J J; Mattix, M E; Koistinen, K A; Honnold, S P; Zeng, X; Blancett, C D; Donnelly, G C; Shamblin, J D; Wilkinson, E R; Cashman, K A

    2017-05-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) infection causes an acute, multisystemic viral hemorrhagic fever that annually infects an estimated 100 000 to 300 000 persons in West Africa. This pathogenesis study evaluated the temporal progression of disease in guinea pigs following aerosol and subcutaneous inoculation of the Josiah strain of LASV as well as the usefulness of Strain 13 guinea pigs as an animal model for Lassa fever. After experimental infection, guinea pigs ( Cavia porcellus; n = 67) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and serum chemistry and hematologic changes. Guinea pigs developed viremia on day 5 to 6 postexposure (PE), with clinical signs appearing by day 7 to 8 PE. Complete blood counts revealed lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Gross pathologic findings included skin lesions and congested lungs. Histologic lesions consisted of cortical lymphoid depletion by day 6 to 7 PE with lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia at 7 to 8 days PE. Scattered hepatocellular degeneration and cell death were also noted in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in other tissues including the haired skin, lung, heart, adrenal gland, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen. The first cell types to demonstrate staining for viral antigen were fibroblastic reticular cells and macrophages/dendritic cells in the lymph nodes on day 5 to 6 PE. This study demonstrates similarities between Lassa viral disease in human infections and experimental guinea pig infection. These shared pathologic characteristics support the utility of guinea pigs as an additional animal model for vaccine and therapeutic development under the Food and Drug Administration's Animal Rule.

  20. [Immunosuppression in dogs and pigs infected with canine distemper virus].

    PubMed

    Sereda, A D; Nogina, I V

    2011-01-01

    Immunosuppression manifesting itself as leukopenia and a considerably lower lymphocyte proliferative response to T- and B-cell mitogens develops in pigs and dogs within 2-3 weeks after intramuscular or oral infection with canine distemper virus (CDV). CDV antigens are detectable in the oral secretions of the animals within 2-2.5 week after infection.

  1. Salmonella infection in a remote, isolated wild pig population.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P; Cowled, Brendan D; Galea, Francesca; Garner, M Graeme; Laffan, Shawn W; Marsh, Ian; Negus, Katherine; Sarre, Stephen D; Woolnough, Andrew P

    2013-03-23

    Although wild pig populations are known to sometimes be infected by Salmonella, the situation in Australia has received little attention and few population-based, planned studies have been conducted. Understanding the distribution of Salmonella infections within wild pig populations allows the potential hazard posed to co-grazing livestock to be assessed. We sampled a remote and isolated wild pig population in northwestern Australia. Faecal and mesenteric lymph node samples were collected from 651 wild pigs at 93 locations and cultured for Salmonella. The population sampled was typical of wild pig populations in tropical areas of Australia, and sampling occurred approximately halfway through the population's breeding season (38% of the 229 adult females were pregnant and 35% were lactating). Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella infection based on culture of 546 freshly collected faecal samples was 36.3% (95% CI 32.1-40.7%), and based on culture of mesenteric lymph nodes was 11.9% (95% CI, 9.4-15.0%). A total of 39 serovars (139 isolates) were identified--29 in faecal samples and 24 in lymph node samples--however neither Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium nor Salmonella Cholerasuis were isolated. There was a significant (p<0.0001) disagreement between faecal and lymph node samples with respect to Salmonella isolation, with isolation more likely from faecal samples. Prevalence differed between age classes, with piglets being less likely to be faecal-positive but more likely to be lymph node positive than adults. The distribution of faecal-positive pigs was spatially structured, with spatial clusters being identified. Study results suggest that this population of wild pigs is highly endemic for Salmonella, and that Salmonella is transmitted from older to younger pigs, perhaps associated with landscape features such as water features. This might have implications for infection of co-grazing livestock within this environment.

  2. A guinea pig model of Zika virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Krause, Keeton K; Azouz, Francine; Nakano, Eileen; Nerurkar, Vivek R

    2017-04-11

    Animal models are critical to understand disease and to develop countermeasures for the ongoing epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV). Here we report that immunocompetent guinea pigs are susceptible to infection by a contemporary American strain of ZIKV. Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were inoculated with 10(6) plaque-forming units of ZIKV via subcutaneous route and clinical signs were observed. Viremia, viral load in the tissues, anti-ZIKV neutralizing antibody titer, and protein levels of multiple cytokine and chemokines were analyzed using qRT-PCR, plaque assay, plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and multiplex immunoassay. Upon subcutaneous inoculation with PRVABC59 strain of ZIKV, guinea pigs demonstrated clinical signs of infection characterized by fever, lethargy, hunched back, ruffled fur, and decrease in mobility. ZIKV was detected in the whole blood and serum using qRT-PCR and plaque assay. Anti-ZIKV neutralizing antibody was detected in the infected animals using PRNT. ZIKV infection resulted in a dramatic increase in protein levels of multiple cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in the serum. ZIKV replication was observed in spleen and brain, with the highest viral load in the brain. This data demonstrate that after subcutaneous inoculation, the contemporary ZIKV strain is neurotropic in guinea pigs. The guinea pig model described here recapitulates various clinical features and viral kinetics observed in ZIKV-infected patients, and therefore may serve as a model to study ZIKV pathogenesis, including pregnancy outcomes and for evaluation of vaccines and therapeutics.

  3. [Experimental study of infectious hepatitis in guinea pigs].

    PubMed

    Asharafova, R A; Tuliaganov, P D; Kasymkhodzhaev, E S

    1976-04-01

    The authors carried out a comparative study of morphological changes in the liver of guinea-pigs in various times following intraperitoneal administration of the serum taken from a patient with infectious hepatitis (1st group), administration of the serum in combination with the urine (2nd group), administration of the serum in combination with the patient's duodenal juice (3rd group), and administration of the serum in combination with a hepatic antigen prepared of the liver of a healthy guinea-pig (4th group). Observations over the behaviour of the animals and morphological investigations showed a high sensitivity of guinea-pigs to virus-containing materials. The reaction was particularly pronounced in animals which were given the serum taken from a patient with infectious hepatitis in combination with a hepatic antigen, and the microscopic picture of the liver almost similar to that of the patient with Botkin's disease. Moreover, in the course of the study it was found possible to re-inoculate the virus obtained from the guinea-pigs subjected to a combined exposure to the serum from a patient with infectious hepatits and hepatic antigen. Comparing the results of the study on guinea-pigs with those obtained previously in the experimental study of viral hepatitis on white rats (1970), the authors have come to the conclusion that guinea-pigs may be used for modelling and experimental investigation of Botkin's disease.

  4. Chronically infected wild boar can transmit genotype 3 hepatitis E virus to domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Josephine; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Groschup, Martin H; Eiden, Martin

    2015-10-22

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialized nations. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with the consumption of raw and undercooked products from domestic pig and wild boar. As shown recently, naturally acquired HEV gt3 replicates efficiently in experimentally infected wild boar and is transmissible from a wild boar to domestic pigs. Generally, following an acute infection swine suffer from a transient febrile illness and viremia in connection with fecal virus shedding. However, little is known about sub-acute or chronic HEV infections in swine, and how and where HEV survives the immune response. In this paper, we describe the incidental finding of a chronic HEVgt3 infection in two naturally infected European wild boar which were raised and housed at FLI over years. The wild boar displayed fecal HEV RNA excretion and viremia over nearly the whole observation period of more than five months. The animal had mounted a substantial antibody response, yet without initial clearance of the virus by the immune system. Further analysis indicated a subclinical course of HEV with no evidence of chronic hepatitis. Additionally, we could demonstrate that this chronic wild boar infection was still transmissible to domestic pigs, which were housed together with this animal. Sentinel pigs developed fecal virus shedding accompanied by seroconversion. Wild boar should therefore be considered as an important reservoir for transmission of HEV gt3 in Europe.

  5. Does meatiness of pigs depend on the level of gastro-intestinal parasites infection?

    PubMed

    Knecht, Damian; Popiołek, Marcin; Zaleśny, Grzegorz

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present paper was to determine an influence of the presence and a level of intestine parasites infection on the quality of pork carcass expressed by the content of meat in carcass (meatiness) in pigs. The experimental part of the study was conducted on pigs farm produced in a closed cycle. The population in the study included 120 fattening pigs maintained in two keeping systems: group I--60 individuals kept on slatted floor, and group II--60 individuals kept on deep litter. All the experimental animals were treated in the same manner. The analysed fatteners were slaughtered in Meat Processing Plant when their body mass reached 110 kg, and the post-slaughter assessment was conducted according to the EUROP classification of pigs carcass using the Ultra-Fom 300 device. The study concerning the internal parasites were conducted basing on coproscopic quantitative McMaster method. As a results, the eggs of three nematode taxa were isolated and identified: Oesophagostomum spp., Ascaris suum and Strongyloides ransomi. Overall prevalence of infection of fatteners kept on litter was lower (25%±11.2) as compared to those kept on slatted floor (38.3%±12.6), however the differences were not statistically significant (χ(2)=2.465; df=1; P=0.116). The mean value of meatiness for pigs free from parasites was 53.68, while in the case of infected pigs the meatiness was statistically lower and was 52.12 (t=2.35; P=0.02). The analysed pigs were classified into three categories and conducted analysis of an influence of parasites on meatiness demonstrate the relationship that is statistically significant. The analysis of correlation between meatiness and an average number of helminth eggs also demonstrated the negative, statistically significant, relationship (F=5.52; P=0.020), i.e. in fatteners with higher EPG value the meatiness was lower.

  6. The lapinized Chinese strain of hog cholera virus (HCV) previously adapted in minipig kidney (MPK) cell line cultures, would also protect pigs to experimental infection with virulent HCV [corrected].

    PubMed

    Rivero, V B; Gualandi, G L; Ferrari, M; Boldini, M; Buonavoglia, C; Mortarino, P

    1990-07-01

    Two-month old piglets previously inoculated with different dilutions of the Lapinized Chinese (LC) strain of Hog Cholera Virus (HCV), adapted in a minipig kidney (MPK) cell line, resisted challenge infection with virulent HCV. All the animals remained healthy and the challenge virus was never recovered from any of them. In contrast, the pigs which served as controls for the challenging virus underwent the clinically lethal form of the disease and HCV was consistently recovered from their tissues.

  7. Parasite population dynamics in pigs infected with Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Andreasen, Annette; Kringel, Helene; Roepstorff, Allan; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2014-01-17

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the population dynamics and potential interactions between Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum in experimentally co-infected pigs, by quantification of parasite parameters such as egg excretion, worm recovery and worm location. Forty-eight helminth naïve pigs were allocated into four groups. Group O was inoculated with 20 O. dentatum L3/kg/day and Group T with 10 T. suis eggs/kg/day. Group OT was inoculated with both 20 O. dentatum L3/kg/day and 10 T. suis eggs/kg/day, while Group C was kept as an uninfected control group. All inoculations were trickle infections administered twice weekly and were continued until slaughter. Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of all pigs at day 0, and twice weekly from 2 to 9 weeks post first infection (wpi). Six pigs from each group were necropsied 5 wpi and the remaining 6 pigs from each group were necropsied 10 wpi. The faecal egg counts (FEC) and total worm burdens of O. dentatum were dramatically influenced by the presence of T. suis, with significantly lower mean FECs and worm burdens at 5 and 10 wpi compared to single infected pigs. Furthermore, in the presence of T. suis we found that O. dentatum was located more posteriorly in the gut. The changes in the Trichuris population were less prominent, but faecal egg counts, worm counts 5 wpi (57% recovered vs. 39%) and the proportion of infected animals at 10 wpi were higher in Group OT compared to Group T. The location of T. suis was unaffected by the presence of O. dentatum. These results indicate an antagonistic interaction between T. suis and O. dentatum which is dominated by T. suis.

  8. Effect of increasing the dietary tryptophan to lysine ratio on plasma levels of tryptophan, kynurenine and urea and on production traits in weaner pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Capozzalo, Meeka M; Kim, Jae Cheol; Htoo, John K; de Lange, Cornelius F M; Mullan, Bruce P; Hansen, Christian Fink; Resink, Jan-Willem; Stumbles, Phillip A; Hampson, David J; Pluske, John R

    2015-01-01

    This experiment examined if immune system stimulation of weaner pigs, initiated by inoculation an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli (ETEC), increased the requirement for dietary tryptophan (Trp), modulated the inflammatory response, altered plasma levels of Trp and its metabolite kynurenine (Kyn) and effected post-weaning diarrhoea. Individually housed pigs (n = 72) weaned at 21 d of age were allocated to one of six treatments (n = 12) according to a two by three factorial arrangement of (1) with or without ETEC infection and (2) three dietary ratios of standardised ileal digestible (SID) Trp to lysine (Lys) (SID Trp:Lys) of 0.16, 0.20 or 0.24, in a completely randomised block design. Pigs had ad libitum access to diets (per kg 14.13 MJ ME, 12.4 g SID Lys, 195 g crude protein) for 3 weeks after weaning. Pigs were infected with ETEC (O149:K98:K88) at 72, 96 and 120 h after weaning and then bled on day 3, 11 and 19. An increased dietary Trp:Lys ratio increased plasma Trp and Kyn (p < 0.001) without effect of infection. On day 3, pigs fed 0.24 SID Trp:Lys had lower levels of plasma urea than at 0.20 Trp:Lys (p = 0.047) and on day 11, plasma urea was lower at 0.20 than at 0.16 SID Trp:Lys (p = 0.007). Infection increased (p = 0.039) the diarrhoea index and deteriorated faecal consistency from day 4-10 (p < 0.05). Treatments did not affect haptoglobin and acid soluble glycoprotein levels or daily gain and feed intake. However, 0.24 SID Trp:Lys improved (p = 0.021) feed efficiency without an effect of infection. In conclusion, in the absence of dietary antibiotic growth promotants, increasing the dietary SID Trp:Lys ratio to 0.24 improved feed conversion ratio after weaning and increased plasma levels of Trp and Kyn regardless of infection with E. coli.

  9. Porcine rubulavirus LPMV RNA persists in the central nervous system of pigs after recovery from acute infection.

    PubMed

    Wiman, A C; Hjertner, B; Linné, T; Herron, B; Allan, G; McNeilly, F; Adair, B; Moreno-López, J; Berg, M

    1998-10-01

    In order to study persistence of the porcine rubulavirus LPMV, we examined tissue samples collected from pigs 53 days after experimental infection. These pigs survived the initial infection and could clinically be considered to have recovered from the infection. Two of the pigs used in this study were chemically immunosuppressed during the last 4 days before necropsy. No infectious virus or viral antigen could be detected in any tissue using standard methods for virus isolation and detection. However, the presence of viral genomic RNA and mRNA could be demonstrated in the mid brain of the convalescent pig using an optimised RT-nested PCR. Mid brain, forebrain and lung were all shown to contain LPMV RNA in the immunosuppressed convalescent pigs. In addition we examined the P-gene editing in the recovered pigs and conclude that the viral genome is transcriptionally active in these pigs. The relevance of the persistence of LPMV for maintenance and spread within and/or between pig populations is discussed.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in Durango State, Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little is known concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 1,077 domestic pigs in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Two groups (A, B) of pigs were sampled: Group A pigs (n=555) were raised in 3 geo...

  11. Impact of test sensitivity and specificity on pig producer incentives to control Mycobacterium avium infections in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    van Wagenberg, Coen P A; Backus, Gé B C; Wisselink, Henk J; van der Vorst, Jack G A J; Urlings, Bert A P

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the impact of the sensitivity and specificity of a Mycobacterium avium (Ma) test on pig producer incentives to control Ma in finishing pigs. A possible Ma control system which includes a serodiagnostic test and a penalty on finishing pigs in herds detected with Ma infection was modelled. Using a dynamic optimization model and a grid search of deliveries of herds from pig producers to slaughterhouse, optimal control measures for pig producers and optimal penalty values for deliveries with increased Ma risk were identified for different sensitivity and specificity values. Results showed that higher sensitivity and lower specificity induced use of more intense control measures and resulted in higher pig producer costs and lower Ma seroprevalence. The minimal penalty value needed to comply with a threshold for Ma seroprevalence in finishing pigs at slaughter was lower at higher sensitivity and lower specificity. With imperfect specificity a larger sample size decreased pig producer incentives to control Ma seroprevalence, because the higher number of false positives resulted in an increased probability of rejecting a batch of finishing pigs irrespective of whether the pig producer applied control measures. We conclude that test sensitivity and specificity must be considered in incentive system design to induce pig producers to control Ma in finishing pigs with minimum negative effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantification of classical swine fever virus in aerosols originating from pigs infected with strains of high, moderate or low virulence.

    PubMed

    Weesendorp, Eefke; Stegeman, Arjan; Loeffen, Willie L A

    2009-03-30

    During epidemics of classical swine fever (CSF), the route of virus introduction into a farm is often unclear. One of the suggested routes is via the air. Under experimental conditions, airborne transmission over a short distance seems possible, but analysis of outbreak data is still inconclusive. For a better understanding of the role of airborne transmission, quantitative information is needed on concentrations of virus emitted by infected pigs. This was studied in four groups of 10 pigs in which three pigs were inoculated with either a low virulent strain (Zoelen), a low or high dose of a moderately virulent strain (Paderborn), or a highly virulent strain (Brescia). The other seven pigs in each group served as contact pigs. At several moments after infection, air samples were obtained using gelatine filters. Infectious virus and viral RNA were detected in the air of rooms housing the pigs infected with the moderately and highly virulent strains with titres of 10(1.2) to 10(3.0)TCID(50)/m(3) of infectious virus, and 10(1.6) to 10(3.8)TCID(50)equiv./m(3) of viral RNA. It was observed that the higher the dose or virulence of the virus strain used for inoculation of the pigs, the sooner virus could be detected in the air samples. This is the first study describing the quantification of (infectious) CSFV in air samples of rooms housing infected pigs, enabling to quantify the contribution of individual infected pigs to virus concentrations in aerosols. This can be used as input for quantitative models of airborne spread over large distances.

  13. Cytokine Expression in the Tracheobronchial Lymph Nodes of Pigs Infected with Pseudorabies Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that produces fatal encephalitis in newborn pigs, respiratory disorders in fattening pigs and reproductive failure in sows. Infection of the respiratory tract by PRV, involves mononuclear cells in draining tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN)...

  14. Influenza infection in humans and pigs in southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, N; He, S; Zhang, T; Zou, W; Shu, L; Sharp, G B; Webster, R G

    1996-01-01

    The three last pandemic strains of influenza A virus-Asian/57, Hong Kong/68 and Russian/77-are believed to have originated in China. The strains responsible for the 1957 and 1968 human pandemics were reassortants incorporating both human and avian influenza viruses, which may have arisen in pigs. We therefore undertook a population-based study in the Nanchang region of Central China to establish the prevalence, types and seasonal pattern of human influenza infection and to screen serum samples from animals and humans for evidence of interspecies transmission of influenza viruses. Two definite influenza seasons were demonstrated, one extending from November to March and the other July to September. The profile of antibodies to commonly circulating human influenza viruses was no different in Nanchang and neighboring rural communities than in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. In particular, Chinese women who raised pigs in their homes were no more likely to have been exposed to influenza virus than were subjects who seldom or never had contact with pigs. However, we did obtain evidence using isolated H7 protein in an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay for infection of pig farmers by an avian H7 influenza virus suggesting that influenza. A viruses may have been transmitted directly from ducks to humans. The results of the serological survey also indicated that pigs in or near Nanchang were infected by human H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses, but not with typical swine viruses. We found no serological evidence for H2 influenza viruses in humans after 1968.

  15. Differences in susceptibility to Haemophilus parasuis infection in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Isabel; Canals, Ana; Evans, Gary; Mellencamp, Martha A.; Cia, Carmen; Deeb, Nader; Wang, Lizhen; Galina-Pantoja, Lucina

    2008-01-01

    In animal breeding programs, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) markers can be used to identify sires that are less susceptible to disease. These DNA markers are typically discovered in populations that display differences in susceptibility. To find those differences, it was hypothesized that sires influence their offspring responses to infection with H. parasuis. To identify differences in susceptibility, colostrum-deprived pigs derived from 6 sires were inoculated with a virulent strain of H. parasuis serovar 5. Pigs were infected at 21-d of age and euthanized 1, 2, or 3 days post-infection. Rectal temperatures, bacterial detection, clinical signs, and lesions were measured by comparing disease susceptibility in the offspring from each sire. The effect of the sire on the severity of disease in the offspring was statistically analyzed using to a 2-way ANOVA with sire and test day as fixed effects. Significant differences among sires were found for lesions, rectal temperatures from days 0–1 and 0–2 (P < 0.05) and marginal effects for clinical signs (P = 0.08). On average, the offspring of sire H94 was the most susceptible to challenge. Responses to infection were categorized to determine the clinical responses and analyzed by Chi square. Overall, 10% of all pigs infected were fully resistant to H. parasuis infection. Boar H94 didn’t produce any fully resistant offspring. Differences in susceptibility to H. parasuis were observed, and the results support the hypothesis that sires influence their offspring’s response to infection. Tissues from this population could be used to identify DNA markers for genetic selection of sires that produce offspring more resistant to H. parasuis infection. PMID:18505185

  16. Experimental infection of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks with the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, using experimentally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Piranda, Eliane M; Faccini, João Luiz H; Pinter, Adriano; Pacheco, Richard C; Cançado, Paulo H D; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated if Rickettsia rickettsii-experimentally infected dogs could serve as amplifier hosts for hipicephalus sanguineus ticks. In addition, we checked if Rh. sanguineus ticks that acquired Ri. rickettsii from dogs could transmit the bacterium to susceptible hosts (vector competence), and if these ticks could maintain the bacterium by transstadial and transovarial transmissions. Uninfected larvae, nymphs, and adults of Rh. sanguineus were allowed to feed upon three groups of dogs: groups 1 (G1) and 2 (G2) composed of Ri. rickettsii-infected dogs, infected intraperitoneally and via tick bites, respectively, and group 3 composed of uninfected dogs. After larval and nymphal feeding on rickettsemic dogs, 7.1-15.2% and 35.8-37.9% of the molted nymphs and adults, respectively, were shown by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to be infected by Ri. rickettsii, confirming that both G1 and G2 dogs were efficient sources of rickettsial infection (amplifier host), resulting in transstadial transmission of the agent. These infected nymphs and adults successfully transmitted Ri. rickettsii to guinea pigs, confirming vector competence after acquisition of the infection from rickettsemic dogs. Transovarial transmission of Ri. rickettsii was observed in engorged females that had been infected as nymphs by feeding on both G1 and G2 dogs, but not in engorged females that acquired the infection during adult feeding on these same dogs. In the first case, filial infection rates were generally <50%. No tick exposed to G3 dogs was infected by rickettsiae in this study. No substantial mortality difference was observed between Ri. rickettsii-infected tick groups (G1 and G2) and uninfected tick group (G3). Our results indicate that dogs can be amplifier hosts of Ri. rickettsii for Rh. sanguineus, although only a minority of immature ticks (<45%) should become infected. It appears that Rh. sanguineus, in the absence of horizontal transmission, would not maintain Ri. rickettsii through

  17. Experimental reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs in Sweden and Denmark with a Swedish isolate of porcine circovirus type 2.

    PubMed

    Hasslung, F; Wallgren, P; Ladekjaer-Hansen, A-S; Bøtner, A; Nielsen, J; Wattrang, E; Allan, G M; McNeilly, F; Ellis, J; Timmusk, S; Belák, K; Segall, T; Melin, L; Berg, M; Fossum, C

    2005-03-20

    An experimental model using 3-day-old snatch-farrowed colostrum-deprived piglets co-infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) is at present one of the best methods to study factors affecting development of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). A Swedish isolate of PCV2 (S-PCV2) retrieved in 1993 from a healthy pig has been used in this model to reproduce PMWS in pigs from Northern Ireland. This virus has been present in the Swedish pig population for at least a decade without causing any known PMWS disease problems, despite its potential pathogenicity. The reasons for this are unknown, but could be related to genetics, absence of triggers for PCV2 upregulation (infectious agent and/or management forms) within Swedish pig husbandry. In order to confirm the pathogenicity of S-PCV2, Swedish and Danish pigs were experimentally infected with this isolate according to the established model. Swedish pigs were also infected with a reference isolate of PCV2 (PCV2-1010) to compare the severity of disease caused by the two isolates in Swedish pigs. Both Danish and Swedish pigs developed PMWS after the experimental infection with S-PCV2. Antibodies to PCV2 developed later and reached lower levels in serum from pigs infected with S-PCV2 than in pigs inoculated with PCV2-1010. In general, pigs infected with S-PCV2 showed more severe clinical signs of disease than pigs infected with PCV2-1010, but pigs from all PCV2-inoculated groups displayed gross and histological lesions consistent with PMWS. All pigs inoculated with PPV, alone or in combination with PCV2, displayed interleukin-10 responses in serum while only pigs infected with PPV in combination with PCV2 showed interferon-alpha in serum on repeated occasions. Thus, the pathogenicity of S-PCV2 was confirmed and a role for cytokines in the etiology of PMWS was indicated.

  18. Experimental Aujeszky's disease in pigs: excretion, survival and transmission of the virus.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, A I; Wardley, R C; Martin, S; Ferris, N P

    1983-11-19

    Airborne Aujeszky's disease virus was recovered from looseboxes containing groups of pigs infected with virus strains from England, Northern Ireland and Denmark from days 1 to 7 after infection. Pigs sampled individually excreted most airborne virus on days 2 and 3 after infection. On a 24 hour basis the maximum amount of airborne virus excreted per pig was log10 5.3 TCID50. Subclinical infection was transmitted from a clinically affected group of pigs to a seronegative group held in separate looseboxes when air was drawn through ducting connecting one box with the other. Tissues taken from pigs killed at varying times after infection showed that the main sites of virus replication were in the head and neck region. Aujeszky's disease virus was detected for up to 40 days in a range of tissues taken from pigs at the acute stage of disease and stored at -20 degrees C.

  19. Evaluation of the presence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pig meat and experimental transmission following oral exposure

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    ingestion of meat samples, including meat samples containing vaccine-like virus, as judged by the demonstration of PRRSV antibodies and/or PRRSV nucleic acid in the serum. In summary, the present study indicated that low residual quantities of PRRSV may be found in a small percentage of pig meat collected at slaugtherhouses. Furthermore, when this meat was fed raw to pigs in the experimental setting designed, pigs could be infected by PRRSV. PMID:15581220

  20. Evaluation of the presence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pig meat and experimental transmission following oral exposure.

    PubMed

    Magar, Ronald; Larochelle, Renée

    2004-10-01

    meat samples, including meat samples containing vaccine-like virus, as judged by the demonstration of PRRSV antibodies and/or PRRSV nucleic acid in the serum. In summary, the present study indicated that low residual quantities of PRRSV may be found in a small percentage of pig meat collected at slaugtherhouses. Furthermore, when this meat was fed raw to pigs in the experimental setting designed, pigs could be infected by PRRSV.

  1. Immune characterization of long pentraxin 3 in pigs infected with influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Crisci, Elisa; Fraile, Lorenzo; Valentino, Sonia; Martínez-Guinó, Laura; Bottazzi, Barbara; Mantovani, Alberto; Montoya, Maria

    2014-01-10

    Long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a conserved pattern-recognition secreted protein and a host-defence-related component of the humoral innate immune system. The aim of the present study was to characterize swine PTX3 (SwPTX3) protein expression in influenza virus infected pigs. First, we performed in silico studies to evaluate the cross-reactivity of PTX3 human antibodies against SwPTX3. Secondly, we used in vitro analysis to detect SwPTX3 presence in swine bone marrow dendritic cells (SwBMDC) upon stimulation with different agents by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Finally, the levels of SwPTX3 were assessed in experimental infection of pigs with different strains of influenza virus. This is a novel study where the expression of SwPTX3 was evaluated in the context of a pathogen infection. The initial characterization of SwPTX3 in influenza virus infected pigs contributes to understand the role of PTX proteins in the immune response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytokine gene expression in skin of susceptible guinea-pig infected with Treponema pallidum.

    PubMed Central

    Wicher, V; Scarozza, A M; Ramsingh, A I; Wicher, K

    1998-01-01

    Using a semi-quantitative multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay, we examined cytokine mRNA expression for interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-2, IL-10, IL-12p40, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in skin samples obtained from C4-deficient (C4D) guinea-pigs inoculated intradermally with virulent Treponema pallidum (VTP). Controls included unmanipulated animals, guinea-pigs injected with T. pallidum-free rabbit inflammatory testicular fluid (ITF) alone, or mixed with heat-killed organisms (HKTP). The expression of IL-1alpha, IL-12p40, and TNF-alpha mRNA [T helper type 1 (Th1)] remained within the normal range in both infected and control animals throughout the experimental period. However, a significant increase (P<0.05) in IL-10 mRNA (Th2) was found exclusively in the VTP-inoculated animals from 3 to 30 days post-infection. Another unique characteristic of the inflammatory response in infected guinea-pigs was the appearance, between 11 and 30 days post-inoculation, of a substantial number of eosinophils in addition to infiltrating mononuclear cells. The results showed a local Th2 response which is consistent with an inadequate immune response. This is reflected by the lengthy and incomplete clearance of the pathogen from the local site of entry and the chronic infection of distant organs. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:9824482

  3. Experimental Bacterial and Viral Diarrhea (Experimental Viral Diarrhea in Pigs).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    sucrose, thehalose, isomaltose, and cellubiose as substrate All enzymes were greatly reduced at 24 and 48 hrs. after oral infection. Lactase activity...greatly reduced at 24 and 48 hrs. after oral infection. Lactase activity was reduced to less than 25,percent of control levels. Jejunum was the region of...than from the controls (Fig. 1). Lactase activity was sharply reduced at 24 hrs. Maltase was moderately reduced at 24 hrs., but the effect was very

  4. Pathway analysis in blood cells of pigs infected with classical swine fever virus: comparison of pigs that develop a chronic form of infection or recover.

    PubMed

    Hulst, Marcel; Loeffen, Willie; Weesendorp, Eefke

    2013-02-01

    Infection of pigs with CSFV can lead to either acute disease, resulting in death or recovery, or chronic disease. The mechanisms by which CSFV manipulates the pig's first line of defence to establish a chronic infection are poorly understood. Therefore, pigs were infected with moderately virulent CSFV, and whole blood was collected on a regular basis during a period of 18 days. Using whole-genome microarrays, time-dependent changes in gene expression were recorded in blood cells of chronically diseased pigs and pigs that recovered. Bioinformatics analysis of regulated genes indicated that different immunological pathways were regulated in chronically diseased pigs compared to recovered pigs. In recovered pigs, antiviral defence mechanisms were rapidly activated, whereas in chronically diseased pigs, several genes with the potential to inhibit NF-κB- and IRF3/7-mediated transcription of type I interferons were up-regulated. Compared to recovered pigs, chronically diseased pigs failed to activate NK or cytotoxic T-cell pathways, and they showed decreased gene activity in antigen-presenting monocytes/macrophages. Remarkably, in chronically diseased pigs, genes related to the human autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were up-regulated during the whole period of 18 days. CSFV pathology in kidney and skin resembles that of SLE. Furthermore, enzymes involved in the degradation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and of tryptophan to kynurenines were expressed at different levels in chronically diseased and recovered pigs. Both of these chemical processes may affect the functions of T helper/regulatory cells that are crucial for tempering the inflammatory response after a viral infection.

  5. Pathogenesis of highly virulent African swine fever virus in domestic pigs exposed via intraoropharyngeal, intranasopharyngeal, and intramuscular inoculation, and by direct contact with infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Howey, Erin B; O'Donnell, Vivian; de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena C; Borca, Manuel V; Arzt, Jonathan

    2013-12-26

    To investigate the pathogenesis of African swine fever virus (ASFV), domestic pigs (n=18) were challenged with a range (10(2)-10(6) 50% hemadsorbing doses (HAD50)) of the highly virulent ASFV-Malawi strain by inoculation via the intraoropharyngeal (IOP), intranasopharyngeal (INP), or intramuscular (IM) routes. A subsequent contact challenge experiment was performed in which six IOP-inoculated donor pigs were allowed to have direct contact (DC) with six naïve pigs for exposure times that varied from 24 to 72 h. All challenge routes resulted in clinical progression and postmortem lesions similar to those previously described in experimental and natural infection. The onset of clinical signs occurred between 1 and 7 days post inoculation (dpi) and included pyrexia with variable progression to obtundation, hematochezia, melena, moribundity and death with a duration of 4-11 days. Viremia was first detected between 4 and 5 dpi in all inoculation groups whereas ASFV shedding from the nasal cavity and tonsil was first detected at 3-9 dpi. IM and DC were the most consistent modes of infection, with 12/12 (100%) of pigs challenged by these routes becoming infected. Several clinical and virological parameters were significantly different between IM and DC groups indicating dissimilarity between these modes of infection. Amongst the simulated natural routes, INP inoculation resulted in the most consistent progression of disease across the widest range of doses whilst preserving simulation of natural exposure and therefore may provide a superior system for pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy investigation.

  6. Experimental Transmission of African Swine Fever (ASF) Low Virulent Isolate NH/P68 by Surviving Pigs.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, C; Soler, A; Nieto, R; Sánchez, M A; Martins, C; Pelayo, V; Carrascosa, A; Revilla, Y; Simón, A; Briones, V; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Arias, M

    2015-12-01

    African swine fever (ASF) has persisted in Eastern Europe since 2007, and two endemic zones have been identified in the central and southern parts of the Russian Federation. Moderate- to low-virulent ASF virus isolates are known to circulate in endemic ASF-affected regions. To improve our knowledge of virus transmission in animals recovered from ASF virus infection, an experimental in vivo study was carried out. Four domestic pigs were inoculated with the NH/P68 ASF virus, previously characterized to develop a chronic form of ASF. Two additional in-contact pigs were introduced at 72 days post-inoculation (dpi) in the same box for virus exposure. The inoculated pigs developed a mild form of the disease, and the virus was isolated from tissues in the inoculated pigs up to 99 dpi (pigs were euthanized at 36, 65, 99 and 134 dpi). In-contact pigs showed mild or no clinical signs, but did become seropositive, and a transient viraemia was detected at 28 days post-exposure (dpe), thereby confirming late virus transmission from the inoculated pigs. Virus transmission to in-contact pigs occurred at four weeks post-exposure, over three months after the primary infection. These results highlight the potential role of survivor pigs in disease maintenance and dissemination in areas where moderate- to low-virulent viruses may be circulating undetected. This study will help design better and more effective control programmes to fight against this disease.

  7. An experimental model to evaluate Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae transmission from asymptomatic carriers to unvaccinated and vaccinated sentinel pigs.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Maria; Fano, Eduardo; Pijoan, Carlos; Dee, Scott

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vaccinating susceptible animals on the transmission of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from experimentally infected pigs during the chronic phase of infection. Thirty-six seeder pigs were experimentally infected with M. hyopneumoniae. Eighty and 200 d post-infection (dpi) 18 seeder pigs were placed in direct contact with 15 vaccinated and 15 unvaccinated age-matched naïve animals. Direct animal contact occurred over 14 d. Pigs were euthanized at the end of the contact period and bronchial swabs were collected and lung tissue examined. At 94 dpi, 15 out of 15 unvaccinated sentinels and 14 out of 15 vaccinated sentinels tested positive for M. hyopneumoniae by nested polymerase chain reaction (N-PCR). At 214 dpi, M. hyopneumoniae DNA was detected by PCR in 8 out of 15 unvaccinated and 6 out of 15 vaccinated sentinels. Vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae did not prevent colonization of sentinels in contact with infected animals. Transmission of M. hyopneumoniae from asymptomatic carriers to unvaccinated and vaccinated sentinels was not different.

  8. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in Veracruz State, Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs has epidemiological concern for its contributing role in human infections. We determined seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 402 domestic pigs raised in backyards in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25); 182...

  9. Seroprevalence of Rotavirus infection in pig population of Arunachal Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Garam, G. B.; Bora, D. P.; Borah, B.; Bora, M.; Das, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to find out the seroprevalence of Rotavirus(RV) infection among the pig population of Arunachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Serums samples were collected from piglets of age ranging from 1 week to 6 months and the sows associated with the piglets that were reared under organized and unorganized system of management in six different districts of Arunachal Pradesh. The prevalence of RV specific antibodies was detected using a polyclonal antibody-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). Results: The study revealed that out of 394 serum samples, 255 (64.72%) samples were found to be positive for RV-specific antibody in i-ELISA. Considering the samples from different districts, Papumpare district of Arunachal Pradesh showed highest numbers of seropositive animals (68.75%) followed by upper Subansiri (64.91%) while West Siang district showed lowest positivity rate (61.22%). Conclusion: As considerable seropositivity was recorded among pig population of Arunachal Pradesh in this study, there is urgent need to establish high-impact and cost-effective public health intervention tools, key among them being the introduction of strict hygiene practice and RV vaccination program, to greatly reduce the number of deaths due to diarrheal diseases. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on the prevalence of RV infection from pigs of Arunachal Pradesh. PMID:27956785

  10. Experimental pathogenicity and complete genome characterization of a pig origin Pasteurella multocida serogroup F isolate HN07.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhong; Liang, Wan; Wang, Yuanguo; Liu, Wenjing; Zhang, Hongfeng; Yu, Teng; Zhang, Anding; Chen, Huanchun; Wu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida serotype F isolates are predominately prevalent in avian hosts, but rarely seen in pigs. However, we isolated several strains of P. multocida serotype F from clinical samples of pigs in China. To understand the pathogenicity of these strains, one of the serotype F isolates designated HN07, was used to challenge experimental chickens, as P. multocida of this serotype is predominately prevalent in avian hosts. However, strain HN07 could not resulted in significant clinical signs in experimental chickens even at an infective dose of ∼10(9) CFU, suggesting the isolate was avirulent to chickens and therefore raising the possibility that the porcine serotype F isolate is not transmitted by chickens. We then used HN07 to challenge experimental pigs, as this strain was isolated from pigs. As expected, the strain led to the clinical signs and the pathological lesions in experimental pigs that are similar to the pasteurellosis disease. We then determined the complete genome sequence of the pig origin serogroup F isolate HN07 for the first time. Genome comparison between HN07 and the avian serotype F P. multocida Pm70 identified a novel integrative conjugative element (ICE) ICEpmcn07 which was likely to harbor a series of genes responsible for a putative type IV secretion system (T4SS) in HN07. This is the first time that we determined an ICE carrying a T4SS in P. multocida. Besides, comparative analysis also defined a number of virulence-associated genes in HN07 but absent in Pm70 which may have a contribution to the pathogenicity of the strain. This is the first report of the pathogenicity and genome characterization of a pig origin Pasteurella multocida serogroup F isolate. The pathogenic and genomic definition of the pig origin P. multocida serogroup F in our study would have significance on the pathogenesis and genetic diversity and virulence variability of P. multocida.

  11. Case report: Helicobacter suis infection in a pig veterinarian.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Myrthe; Flahou, Bram; Meyns, Tom; Smet, Annemieke; Arts, Joris; De Cooman, Lien; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2013-10-01

    This study describes a non-Helicobacter (H.) pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) infection in a pig veterinarian. The patient suffered from reflux esophagitis and general dyspeptic symptoms and was referred to the hospital for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Histologic examination of corpus and antrum biopsies revealed a chronic gastritis. Large spiral-shaped non-H. pylori helicobacters could be visualized and were identified as H. suis by PCR. The patient was treated with a triple therapy, consisting of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and pantoprazole for 10 days. Successful eradication was confirmed after a follow-up gastrointestinal endoscopy and PCR 10 weeks after treatment. A mild chronic gastritis was, however, still observed at this point in time. This case report associates porcine H. suis strains with gastric disease in humans, thus emphasizing the zoonotic importance of H. suis bacteria from pigs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi: effect of immunization on the risk of vector-delivered infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Basombrío, M A; Nasser, J R; Segura, M A; Gomez, L E

    1997-12-01

    The protective effect of experimental immunization was studied in guinea pigs exposed to vectorial infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. Immunized animals received an inoculum of live-attenuated T. cruzi epimastigotes into a granuloma previously induced by Freund's complete adjuvant in the hind footpad. Seven days later, a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction was triggered by reinjection of the parasites in the front footpad. The animals were then placed in Triatoma infestans-colonized corrals and exposed to vectorial T. cruzi transmission of the parasite for up to 200 days. The effectiveness of this immunizing protocol was controlled in terms of the number of bites necessary for infection (NBNI) in immunized as compared with control animals. Periodic entomological census allowed for the determination of vector biting and infection rates and the calculation of NBNI. Although this measurement was quite variable between yards, an overall average of 4,973 bites was enough to infect a control guinea pig in 4 separate experiments. The corresponding figure for the experimental group was 21,307 bites, implying that immunized animals could resist a 4.28-fold increase (range: 1.99-8.32) in the number of vector bites before becoming infected.

  13. Efficacy of oral vaccination against swine erysipelas in growing-finishing pigs in a clinically infected Slovakian pig herd.

    PubMed

    Friendship, C R; Bilkei, G

    2007-01-01

    In a large Slovakian growing-finishing pig production unit, the effects of oral vaccination against swine erysipelas (SE) were investigated in three groups of pigs of 10 weeks of age. In group 1, the pigs were vaccinated intramuscularly at 1 and 3 weeks after arrival in the growing-finishing barn using an Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae bacterin. Group 2 pigs were vaccinated at the same time as group 1 using an oral avirulent live SE vaccine administered through drinking water; the pigs in the third group were placebo treated. Clinical signs of acute SE, arthritic changes, average daily weight gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio, and mortality were evaluated. None of the pigs in groups 1 and 2 but 31.7% of the control animals (group 3) showed typical clinical signs of acute SE. More (P<0.01) non-vaccinated pigs had chronic arthritic changes compared with groups 1 and 2. No significant differences in mortality were recorded between the groups. Groups 1 and 2 had higher (P<0.05) ADG and lower feed conversion ratios compared with group 3 pigs. The results demonstrated that the oral avirulent live culture was efficacious in significantly reducing the clinical symptoms caused by E. rhusiopathiae infection, so enhancing the pigs' performance.

  14. Age at vaccination and timing of infection do not alter vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease in influenza A virus infected pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines are widely used in the swine industry to reduce clinical disease against homologous influenza A virus (IAV) infection. In pigs experimentally challenged with antigenically distinct heterologous IAV of the same hemagglutinin subtype, WIV vaccinates have been sho...

  15. Predominant involvement of the cerebellum in guinea pigs infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).

    PubMed

    Furuoka, H; Horiuchi, M; Yamakawa, Y; Sata, T

    2011-05-01

    This study reports the experimental transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to guinea pigs and describes the cerebellar lesions in these animals. Guinea pigs were inoculated intracerebrally with 10% brain homogenates from BSE-affected cattle. These animals were designated as the first passage. Second and third passages were subsequently performed. All guinea pigs developed infection at each passage. The mean incubation period of the first passage was 370 days post-infection (dpi) and this decreased to 307 dpi and 309 dpi for the second and third passages, respectively. Mild to severe spongiform degeneration and gliosis were observed in the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. In addition, the affected animals had marked pathological changes in the cerebellum characterized by severe cortical atrophy associated with Bergmann radial gliosis of the molecular layer and reduction in the width of the granular cell layer. Immunohistochemically, intense PrP(Sc) deposition and scattered plaque-like deposits were observed in the molecular and granular cell layers. Cerebellar lesions associated with severe atrophy of the cortex have not been reported in animal prion diseases, including in the experimental transmission of PrP(Sc) to small rodents. These lesions were similar to the lesions of human kuru or the VV2 variant of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, although typical kuru plaques or florid plaques were not observed in the affected animals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial therapy of experimental Legionella micdadei pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Pasculle, A W; Dowling, J N; Frola, F N; McDevitt, D A; Levi, M A

    1985-01-01

    Several antimicrobial agents were evaluated for activity against experimental Legionella micdadei pneumonia in guinea pigs. Erythromycin, rifampin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim produced significant reductions in mortality. Penicillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin were not efficacious even though, at the doses administered, the peak concentrations of these agents in serum substantially exceeded their MICs for the test strain. It is suggested that the poor performance of the latter group of agents resulted from poor penetration into cells in which L. micdadei was multiplying. PMID:3878688

  17. Pathogenesis of a genotype C strain of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Dong, Xiu-Mei; Cai, Hong; Ma, Lei; Wang, Shu; Yan, Hao; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-08-08

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is one of the most important of the known viral respiratory tract agents of both young and adult cattle and widespread among cattle around the world. Up to present, three genotypes A, B and C of BPIV3 have been described on the basis of genetic and phylogenetic analysis and only limited studies on the pathogenesis of the genotype A of BPIV3 infection in calves and laboratory animals have been performed. The report about experimental infections of the genotypes B and C of BPIV3 in laboratory animals and calves was scant. Therefore, an experimental infection of guinea pigs with the Chinese BPIV3 strain SD0835 of the genotype C was performed. Sixteen guinea pigs were intranasally inoculated with the suspension of SD0835, while eight control guinea pigs were also intranasally inoculated with the same volume of supernatant from uninfected MDBK cells. The virus-inoculated guinea pigs displayed a few observable clinical signs that were related to the respiratory tract disease and two of the sixteen experimentally infected guinea pigs died at 2 and 3 days post inoculation (PI), respectively, and apparent gross pneumonic lesions were observed at necropsy. The gross pneumonic lesions in guinea pigs inoculated with SD0835 consisted of dark red, slightly depressed, irregular areas of consolidation in the lung lobes from the second to 9th day of infection at necropsy, and almost complete consolidation and atelectasis of the lung lobes were seen at 7 days PI. Histopathological changes including alveoli septa thickening and focal cellulose pneumonia were also observed in the lungs of guinea pigs experimentally infected with SD0835. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in the respiratory tissues of guinea pigs as early as 24h after intranasal inoculation with SD0835. The results of virus isolation and titration showed that guinea pigs were permissive for

  18. Glutamine supplementation maintains intramuscular glutamine concentrations and normalizes lymphocyte function in infected early weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Yoo, S S; Field, C J; McBurney, M I

    1997-11-01

    Numerous studies in humans and rats have shown that glutamine supplementation during stressful conditions has favorable outcomes. However, the requirements for glutamine during weaning are unknown. Thus, the effects of glutamine supplementation in healthy and infected weaned pigs were investigated. At 21 d of age, pigs were weaned to an elemental diet supplemented with glutamine (+Gln) or an isonitrogenous diet containing nonessential amino acids (-Gln). At 26 d of age, pigs were intraperitoneally injected with Escherichia coli (+Ecoli) or buffered saline (-Ecoli) and killed at 28 d of age. Infection decreased (P < 0.05) plasma and intramuscular glutamine concentrations, but infected pigs that received +Gln diets had higher intramuscular glutamine levels than those that received -Gln diets. Infected pigs had elevated (P < 0.05) total leukocyte counts, and blood lymphocyte responses ([3H]-thymidine incorporation) to a mixture of phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin were reduced. White blood cell counts were greater (P < 0.05) in +Gln than -Gln pigs. The peak responses to concanavalin A (Con A) by lymphocytes of +Ecoli+Gln pigs were greater (P < 0.05) than those of +Ecoli-Gln pigs and not different than those of noninfected pigs. Hence, glutamine supplementation maintained muscular glutamine concentrations and normalized lymphocyte function in infected pigs.

  19. Monovalent Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Protects Guinea Pigs and Nonhuman Primates Against Infection with Multiple Marburg Viruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Kolesnikova L, Smolina M et al. Ebola virus infection in guinea pigs: presumable role of granulomatous inflammation in pathogenesis . Arch. Virol. 141...Slenczka W. The pathogenesis and epidemiology of the “Marburg- virus ” infection. Ger. Med. Mon. 14(1), 7–10 (1969). 36 Haas R, Maass G. Experimental...isolates. KEYWORDS: antibody • Ebola • filovirus • Marburg • nonhuman primate • protective immunity • vaccine • virus -like particle Marburg virus (MARV

  20. Recognition of Highly Diverse Type-1 and -2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (PRRSVs) by T-Lymphocytes Induced in Pigs after Experimental Infection with a Type-2 PRRSV Strain.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chungwon J; Cha, Sang-Ho; Grimm, Amanda L; Chung, Grace; Gibson, Kathleen A; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Parish, Steven M; Ho, Chak-Sum; Lee, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines confer partial protection in pigs before the appearance of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting the contribution of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). However, PRRSV-specific T-lymphocyte responses and protective mechanisms need to be further defined. To this end, the hypothesis was tested that PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes induced by exposure to type-2 PRRSV can recognize diverse isolates. An IFN-gamma ELISpot assay was used to enumerate PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes from PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts and piglets born after in utero infection against 12 serologically and genetically distinct type-1 and -2 PRRSV isolates. The IFN-gamma ELISpot assay using synthetic peptides spanning all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 was utilized to localize epitopes recognized by T-lymphocytes. Virus neutralization tests were carried out using the challenge strain (type-2 PRRSVSD23983) and another strain (type-2 PRRSVVR2332) with high genetic similarity to evaluate cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies in gilts after PRRSVSD23983 infection. At 72 days post infection, T-lymphocytes from one of three PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts recognized all 12 diverse PRRSV isolates, while T-lymphocytes from the other two gilts recognized all but one isolate. Furthermore, five of nine 14-day-old piglets infected in utero with PRRSVSD23983 had broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, including one piglet that recognized all 12 isolates. Overlapping peptides encompassing all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 were used to identify ≥28 peptides with T-lymphocyte epitopes from 10 viral proteins. This included one peptide from the M protein that was recognized by T-lymphocytes from all three gilts representing two completely mismatched MHC haplotypes. In contrast to the broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, neutralizing antibody responses were specific to the infecting PRRSVSD23983 isolate. These results demonstrated that T-lymphocytes recognizing antigenically and genetically diverse

  1. Recognition of Highly Diverse Type-1 and -2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (PRRSVs) by T-Lymphocytes Induced in Pigs after Experimental Infection with a Type-2 PRRSV Strain

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Sang-Ho; Grimm, Amanda L.; Chung, Grace; Gibson, Kathleen A.; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Parish, Steven M.; Ho, Chak-Sum; Lee, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim Live attenuated vaccines confer partial protection in pigs before the appearance of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting the contribution of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). However, PRRSV-specific T-lymphocyte responses and protective mechanisms need to be further defined. To this end, the hypothesis was tested that PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes induced by exposure to type-2 PRRSV can recognize diverse isolates. Methods An IFN-gamma ELISpot assay was used to enumerate PRRSV-specific T-lymphocytes from PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts and piglets born after in utero infection against 12 serologically and genetically distinct type-1 and -2 PRRSV isolates. The IFN-gamma ELISpot assay using synthetic peptides spanning all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 was utilized to localize epitopes recognized by T-lymphocytes. Virus neutralization tests were carried out using the challenge strain (type-2 PRRSVSD23983) and another strain (type-2 PRRSVVR2332) with high genetic similarity to evaluate cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies in gilts after PRRSVSD23983 infection. Results At 72 days post infection, T-lymphocytes from one of three PRRSVSD23983-infected gilts recognized all 12 diverse PRRSV isolates, while T-lymphocytes from the other two gilts recognized all but one isolate. Furthermore, five of nine 14-day-old piglets infected in utero with PRRSVSD23983 had broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, including one piglet that recognized all 12 isolates. Overlapping peptides encompassing all open reading frames of PRRSVSD23983 were used to identify ≥28 peptides with T-lymphocyte epitopes from 10 viral proteins. This included one peptide from the M protein that was recognized by T-lymphocytes from all three gilts representing two completely mismatched MHC haplotypes. In contrast to the broadly reactive T-lymphocytes, neutralizing antibody responses were specific to the infecting PRRSVSD23983 isolate. Conclusion These results demonstrated that T-lymphocytes recognizing

  2. A Comparison of Diets Supplemented with a Feed Additive Containing Organic Acids, Cinnamaldehyde and a Permeabilizing Complex, or Zinc Oxide, on Post-Weaning Diarrhoea, Selected Bacterial Populations, Blood Measures and Performance in Weaned Pigs Experimentally Infected with Enterotoxigenic E. coli †

    PubMed Central

    Stensland, Ingunn; Kim, Jae Cheol; Bowring, Bethany; Collins, Alison M.; Mansfield, Josephine P.; Pluske, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of three diets on diarrhoea, performance (weight change, feed intake and feed conversion ratio), selected bacterial populations and blood measures of weaner pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. The three diets were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds), base diet containing zinc oxide, and base diet containing a feed additive (blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex). Only feeding zinc oxide decreased diarrhoea, with zinc oxide-fed pigs performing better than base diet-fed pigs. Zinc oxide-fed pigs performed similarly to pigs fed the organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex. Significant interactions between treatment and day after weaning were found for some bacterial populations, although the implications of such findings require further examination. Abstract The effects of feeding a diet supplemented with zinc oxide (ZnO) or a blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and a permeabilizing complex (OACP) on post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) and performance in pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were examined. Additionally, changes in selected bacterial populations and blood measures were assessed. A total of 72 pigs weaned at 22 d of age and weighing 7.2 ± 1.02 kg (mean ± SEM) was used. Treatments were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds); base diet + 3 g ZnO/kg; base diet + 1.5 g OACP/kg. Dietary treatments started on the day of weaning and were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks. All pigs were infected with an F4 ETEC on d 4, 5 and 6 after weaning. The incidence of PWD was lower in pigs fed ZnO (p = 0.026). Overall, pigs fed ZnO grew faster (p = 0.013) and ate more (p = 0.004) than the base diet-fed pigs, with OACP-fed pigs performing the same (p > 0.05) as both the ZnO- and base diet-fed pigs. Feed conversion ratio was similar for all diets (p > 0.05). The percentage of E. coli with F4 fimbriae was affected a day by treatment interaction (p

  3. Experimental Trichinella infection in seals.

    PubMed

    Kapel, C M O; Measures, L; Møller, L N; Forbes, L; Gajadhar, A

    2003-11-01

    The susceptibility of seals to infection with Trichinella nativa and the cold tolerant characteristics of muscle larvae in seal meat were evaluated. Two grey seals, Halichoerus grypus, were inoculated with 5000 (100 larvae/kg) T. nativa larvae and two grey seals with 50000 (1000 larvae/kg). One seal from each dose group and two control seals were killed at 5 and 10 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.). At 5 weeks p.i., infection was established in both low and high dose seals with mean larval densities of 68 and 472 larvae per gram (lpg), respectively, using eight different muscles for analyses. At 10 weeks p.i., mean larval densities were 531 and 2649 lpg, respectively, suggesting an extended persistence of intestinal worms. In seals with high larval density infections, the distribution of larvae in various muscles was uniform, but in one seal with a low larval density infection, predilection sites of larvae included muscle groups with a relative high blood flow, i.e. diaphragm, intercostal and rear flipper muscles. Trichinella-specific antibody levels, as measured by ELISA, increased during the 10 week experimental period. Infected seal muscle was stored at 5, -5 and -18 degrees C for 1, 4 and 8 weeks. Muscle larvae released from stored seal muscle by artificial digestion were inoculated into mice to assess viability and infectivity. Larvae from seal muscle 10 weeks p.i. tolerated -18 degrees C for 8 weeks but larvae from seal muscle 5 weeks p.i. tolerated only 1 week at -18 degrees C, supporting the hypothesis that freeze tolerance increases with the age of the host-parasite tissue complex. The expressed susceptibility to infection, extended production of larvae, antibody response and freeze tolerance of T. nativa in seals are new findings from the first experimental Trichinella infection in any marine mammal and suggest that pinnipeds (phocids, otariiids or walrus) may acquire Trichinella infection by scavenging even small amounts of infected tissue left by hunters or

  4. The effect of dietary carbohydrates and Trichuris suis infection on pig large intestine tissue structure, epithelial cell proliferation and mucin characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, L E; Knudsen, K E Bach; Hedemann, M S; Roepstorff, A

    2006-11-30

    Two experiments (Exps. 1 and 2) were performed to study the influence of Trichuris suis infection and type of dietary carbohydrates on large intestine morphology, epithelial cell proliferation and mucin characteristics. Two experimental diets based on barley flour were used; Diet 1 was supplemented with resistant carbohydrates from oat hull meal, while Diet 2 was supplemented with fermentable carbohydrates from sugar beet fibre and inulin. In Experiment 1, 32 pigs were allocated randomly into four groups. Two groups were fed Diet 1 and two groups Diet 2. Pigs from one of each diet group were inoculated with a single dose of 2000 infective T. suis eggs and the other two groups remained uninfected controls. In Experiment 2, 12 pigs were allocated randomly into two groups and fed Diet 1 or Diet 2, respectively, and inoculated with a single dose of 2000 infective T. suis eggs. All the pigs were slaughtered 8 weeks post inoculation (p.i.). The worm counts were lower in pigs fed Diet 2 in both experiments, but not significantly so. Both diet and infection status significantly influenced the tissue weight of the large intestine. In both experiments, pigs fed Diet 2 had heavier large intestines than pigs fed Diet 1 and in Experiment1 the infected pigs of both diets had heavier large intestines than their respective control groups. Diet and infection also significantly affected the morphological architecture and mucin production in both experiments. Pigs fed Diet 1 had larger crypts both in terms of area and height than pigs fed Diet 2 and T. suis infected pigs on both diets in Experiment 1 had larger crypts than their respective control groups. The area of the mucin granules in the crypts constituted 22-53% of the total crypt area and was greatest in the T. suis infected pigs fed Diet 1. Epithelial cell proliferation was affected neither by diet nor infection in any of the experiments. The study showed that both T. suis infection and dietary carbohydrates significantly

  5. Acquired chemotactic inhibitors during infection with guinea pig cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Tannous, R; Myers, M G

    1983-01-01

    Factors involved in neutrophil and monocyte migrations were serially studied in strain 2 guinea pigs undergoing initial cytomegalovirus infection and sham-inoculated controls. All studies remained unchanged in uninfected animals. Monocyte migrations and neutrophil spontaneous migration remained unchanged in infected animals. However, transient abnormalities occurred early in infection, comprising a decrease in neutrophil-directed migration towards C5-derived chemotactic fractions (C5-fr) and a decrease in the chemotactic activity of zymosan-activated plasma. Consequently, the presence of neutrophil- and chemotaxin-directed inhibitors in plasma was investigated. Normal neutrophils, C5-fr, Escherichia coli-derived bacterial factor, and the synthetic peptide F-met-leu-phe were first incubated with control or infected plasmas and then assayed for directed migration and lysosomal enzyme release. Results indicated the de novo appearance of both neutrophil- and chemotaxin-directed inhibitory activities in plasma during early infection. The neutrophil-directed inhibition was heat stable (56 degrees C for 120 min) and nonspecific (responses to all chemotaxins were inhibited). The chemotaxin-directed inhibition was heat stable and C5-fr specific. The cytomegalovirus-induced inhibitors may be important in the enhanced susceptibility to concurrent opportunistic infections. PMID:6305847

  6. Quantification of airborne African swine fever virus after experimental infection.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Ferreira, H C; Weesendorp, E; Quak, S; Stegeman, J A; Loeffen, W L A

    2013-08-30

    Knowledge on African Swine Fever (ASF) transmission routes can be useful when designing control measures against the spread of ASF virus (ASFV). Few studies have focused on the airborne transmission route, and until now no data has been available on quantities of ASF virus (ASFV) in the air. Our aim was to validate an air sampling technique for ASF virus (ASFV) that could be used to detect and quantify virus excreted in the air after experimental infection of pigs. In an animal experiment with the Brazil'78, the Malta'78 and Netherlands'86 isolates, air samples were collected at several time points. For validation of the air sampling technique, ASFV was aerosolised in an isolator, and air samples were obtained using the MD8 air scan device, which was shown to be suitable to detect ASFV. The half-life of ASFV in the air was on average 19 min when analysed by PCR, and on average 14 min when analysed by virus titration. In rooms with infected pigs, viral DNA with titres up to 10(3.2) median tissue culture infective dose equivalents (TCID50eq.)/m(3) could be detected in air samples from day 4 post-inoculation (dpi 4) until the end of the experiments, at dpi 70. In conclusion, this study shows that pigs infected with ASFV will excrete virus in the air, particularly during acute disease. This study provides the first available parameters to model airborne transmission of ASFV.

  7. Cytokine Protein Expression Levels in Tracheobronchial Lymph Node Homogenates of Pigs Infected with Pseudorabies Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that produces fatal encephalitis in newborn pigs, respiratory disorders in fattening pigs and reproductive failure in sows. Following primary infection of the respiratory tract, PRV can develop into a systemic infection with dispersion of t...

  8. Immune and inflammatory responses in pigs infected with Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of the present study was to investigate parasite induced immune responses in pigs co-infected with Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum as compared to mono-species infected pigs. T. suis is known to elicit a strong immune response leading to rapid expulsion, and a strong antagonistic ...

  9. A Comparison of Diets Supplemented with a Feed Additive Containing Organic Acids, Cinnamaldehyde and a Permeabilizing Complex, or Zinc Oxide, on Post-Weaning Diarrhoea, Selected Bacterial Populations, Blood Measures and Performance in Weaned Pigs Experimentally Infected with Enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Stensland, Ingunn; Kim, Jae Cheol; Bowring, Bethany; Collins, Alison M; Mansfield, Josephine P; Pluske, John R

    2015-11-23

    The effects of feeding a diet supplemented with zinc oxide (ZnO) or a blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and a permeabilizing complex (OACP) on post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) and performance in pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were examined. Additionally, changes in selected bacterial populations and blood measures were assessed. A total of 72 pigs weaned at 22 d of age and weighing 7.2 ± 1.02 kg (mean ± SEM) was used. Treatments were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds); base diet + 3 g ZnO/kg; base diet + 1.5 g OACP/kg. Dietary treatments started on the day of weaning and were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks. All pigs were infected with an F4 ETEC on d 4, 5 and 6 after weaning. The incidence of PWD was lower in pigs fed ZnO ( p = 0.026). Overall, pigs fed ZnO grew faster ( p = 0.013) and ate more ( p = 0.004) than the base diet-fed pigs, with OACP-fed pigs performing the same ( p > 0.05) as both the ZnO- and base diet-fed pigs. Feed conversion ratio was similar for all diets ( p > 0.05). The percentage of E. coli with F4 fimbriae was affected a day by treatment interaction ( p = 0.037), with more E. coli with F4 fimbriae found in pigs fed ZnO on d 11 ( p = 0.011) compared to base diet-fed pigs. Only significant time effects ( p < 0.05) occurred for blood measures. Under the conditions of this study, inclusion of OACP gave statistically similar production responses to pigs fed ZnO, however pigs fed ZnO had less PWD compared to OACP- and the base diet-fed pigs.

  10. Experimental pig-to-pig transmission dynamics for African swine fever virus, Georgia 2007/1 strain.

    PubMed

    Guinat, C; Gubbins, S; Vergne, T; Gonzales, J L; Dixon, L; Pfeiffer, D U

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) continues to cause outbreaks in domestic pigs and wild boar in Eastern European countries. To gain insights into its transmission dynamics, we estimated the pig-to-pig basic reproduction number (R 0) for the Georgia 2007/1 ASFV strain using a stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model with parameters estimated from transmission experiments. Models showed that R 0 is 2·8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·3-4·8] within a pen and 1·4 (95% CI 0·6-2·4) between pens. The results furthermore suggest that ASFV genome detection in oronasal samples is an effective diagnostic tool for early detection of infection. This study provides quantitative information on transmission parameters for ASFV in domestic pigs, which are required to more effectively assess the potential impact of strategies for the control of between-farm epidemic spread in European countries.

  11. Cross-Species Infectivity of H3N8 Influenza Virus in an Experimental Infection in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Solórzano, Alicia; Foni, Emanuela; Córdoba, Lorena; Baratelli, Massimiliano; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Bilato, Dania; Martín del Burgo, María Ángeles; Perlin, David S.; Martínez, Jorge; Martínez-Orellana, Pamela; Fraile, Lorenzo; Chiapponi, Chiara; Amadori, Massimo; del Real, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian influenza A viruses have gained increasing attention due to their ability to cross the species barrier and cause severe disease in humans and other mammal species as pigs. H3 and particularly H3N8 viruses, are highly adaptive since they are found in multiple avian and mammal hosts. H3N8 viruses have not been isolated yet from humans; however, a recent report showed that equine influenza A viruses (IAVs) can be isolated from pigs, although an established infection has not been observed thus far in this host. To gain insight into the possibility of H3N8 avian IAVs to cross the species barrier into pigs, in vitro experiments and an experimental infection in pigs with four H3N8 viruses from different origins (equine, canine, avian, and seal) were performed. As a positive control, an H3N2 swine influenza virus A was used. Although equine and canine viruses hardly replicated in the respiratory systems of pigs, avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation. Interestingly, antibodies against hemagglutinin could not be detected after infection by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test with avian and seal viruses. This phenomenon was observed not only in pigs but also in mice immunized with the same virus strains. Our data indicated that H3N8 IAVs from wild aquatic birds have the potential to cross the species barrier and establish successful infections in pigs that might spread unnoticed using the HAI test as diagnostic tool. IMPORTANCE Although natural infection of humans with an avian H3N8 influenza A virus has not yet been reported, this influenza A virus subtype has already crossed the species barrier. Therefore, we have examined the potential of H3N8 from canine, equine, avian, and seal origin to productively infect pigs. Our results demonstrated that avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation

  12. Cross-Species Infectivity of H3N8 Influenza Virus in an Experimental Infection in Swine.

    PubMed

    Solórzano, Alicia; Foni, Emanuela; Córdoba, Lorena; Baratelli, Massimiliano; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Bilato, Dania; Martín del Burgo, María Ángeles; Perlin, David S; Martínez, Jorge; Martínez-Orellana, Pamela; Fraile, Lorenzo; Chiapponi, Chiara; Amadori, Massimo; del Real, Gustavo; Montoya, María

    2015-11-01

    Avian influenza A viruses have gained increasing attention due to their ability to cross the species barrier and cause severe disease in humans and other mammal species as pigs. H3 and particularly H3N8 viruses, are highly adaptive since they are found in multiple avian and mammal hosts. H3N8 viruses have not been isolated yet from humans; however, a recent report showed that equine influenza A viruses (IAVs) can be isolated from pigs, although an established infection has not been observed thus far in this host. To gain insight into the possibility of H3N8 avian IAVs to cross the species barrier into pigs, in vitro experiments and an experimental infection in pigs with four H3N8 viruses from different origins (equine, canine, avian, and seal) were performed. As a positive control, an H3N2 swine influenza virus A was used. Although equine and canine viruses hardly replicated in the respiratory systems of pigs, avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation. Interestingly, antibodies against hemagglutinin could not be detected after infection by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test with avian and seal viruses. This phenomenon was observed not only in pigs but also in mice immunized with the same virus strains. Our data indicated that H3N8 IAVs from wild aquatic birds have the potential to cross the species barrier and establish successful infections in pigs that might spread unnoticed using the HAI test as diagnostic tool. Although natural infection of humans with an avian H3N8 influenza A virus has not yet been reported, this influenza A virus subtype has already crossed the species barrier. Therefore, we have examined the potential of H3N8 from canine, equine, avian, and seal origin to productively infect pigs. Our results demonstrated that avian and seal viruses replicated substantially and caused detectable lesions in inoculated pigs without previous adaptation. Surprisingly, we

  13. PR-39, a porcine host defence peptide, is prominent in mucosa and lymphatic tissue of the respiratory tract in healthy pigs and pigs infected with actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Host defence peptides are important components of mammalian innate immunity. We have previously shown that PR-39, a cathelicidin host defence peptide, is an important factor in porcine innate immune mechanisms as a first line of defence after infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. PR-39 interacts with bacterial and mammalian cells and is involved in a variety of processes such as killing of bacteria and promotion of wound repair. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of infected pigs PR-39 concentrations are elevated during the chronic but not during the acute stage of infection when polymorphonuclear neutrophils (known as the major source of PR-39) are highly increased. Thus it was assumed, that the real impact of PR-39 during infection might not be reflected by its concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Results Using immunohistochemistry this study demonstrates the actual distribution of PR-39 in tissue of the upper and lower respiratory tract of healthy pigs, and of pigs during the acute and chronic stage of experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. During the acute stage of infection PR-39 accumulated adjacent to blood vessels and within bronchi. Immune reactions were mainly localized in the cytoplasm of cells with morphological characteristics of polymorphonuclear neutrophils as well as in extracellular fluids. During the chronic stage of infection pigs lacked clinical signs and lung alterations were characterized by reparation and remodelling processes such as tissue sequestration and fibroblastic pleuritis with a high-grade accumulation of small PR-39-positive cells resembling polymorphonuclear neutrophils. In healthy pigs, PR-39 was homogenously expressed in large single cells within the alveoli resembling alveolar macrophages or type 2 pneumocytes. PR-39 was found in all tissue samples of the upper respiratory tract in healthy and diseased pigs. Within the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, PR-39 dominated in the

  14. Intranasal immunization with an adenovirus vaccine protects guinea pigs from Ebola virus transmission by infected animals.

    PubMed

    Wong, Gary; Richardson, Jason S; Cutts, Todd; Qiu, Xiangguo; Kobinger, Gary P

    2015-04-01

    Experimental Ebola virus (EBOV) vaccines have previously been shown to protect animals against a high dose intramuscular (IM) challenge, which is seen as a stringent challenge model. However, the protective efficacy against other modes of infection, such as contact with infectious hosts, is unknown. Using a previously established EBOV transmission animal model, we evaluated the efficacy of an adenovirus-based EBOV vaccine given to guinea pigs (gps) 4weeks before direct contact with untreated, infectious animals. Prior vaccination resulted in robust levels of EBOV-specific antibodies and conferred complete protection in gps. These results support the use of vaccines to prevent EBOV transmission between hosts.

  15. Effect of fenbendazole in water on pigs infected with Ascaris suum in finishing pigs under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Oliviero, Claudio; Orro, Toomas; Jukola, Elias; Laurila, Tapio; Haimi-Hakala, Minna; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-03-06

    The husbandry of pigs for meat production is a constantly developing industry. Most studies on the effects of Ascaris suum infection in pigs and its prevention with anthelmintics are over a decade old. We examined the effect of 2.5mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight administered in drinking water for two consecutive days on A. suum infection 1 and 6 weeks after pigs arrived to fattening units. We hypothesised that the treatment would reduce the presence of A. suum-infections, improve the average daily weight gain of pigs, reduce the percentage of liver rejections in pens by 50% and increase the lean meat percentage at slaughter by 1%. The study included a placebo group (427 pigs) and a treatment group (420 pigs) spanning four different farms previously reporting ≥15% liver rejection. The treatment was given for 2 consecutive days 1 and 6 weeks after the pigs arrived to the fattening unit. Faecal samples were collected during weeks 1, 6 and 12 from all pigs and examined for A. suum eggs. Blood was collected during weeks 1 and 12 from a subgroup of the pigs and examined for anti-A. suum antibodies and clinical blood parameters. Data on liver rejection and lean meat percentage were collected post-mortem. The proportion of Ascaris seropositive pigs changed from 8.6% to 22.2% and 20.3% to 16.3% in the placebo and treatment group respectively. Fenbendazole reduced the presence of A. suum eggs in faeces the percentage of liver rejections by 69.8%. The treatment did not affect daily weight gain or lean meat percentage. Pigs with A. suum eggs in faeces at week 6 had a lower average daily weight gain of 61.8g/day compared with pigs without parasite eggs. Fenbendazole treatment may be a useful option for farms struggling with persistent A. suum problems and demonstrate a beneficial effect on the weight gain of the animals shedding eggs in faeces and result in fewer condemned livers at slaughter.

  16. Efficacy of combined vaccination against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in dually infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Bourry, Olivier; Fablet, Christelle; Simon, Gaëlle; Marois-Créhan, Corinne

    2015-11-18

    Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is one of the main causes of economic losses for swine producers. This complex is due to a combination of different pathogens and their interactions. Two major pathogens involved in PRDC are Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The objectives of this study were (i) to develop an experimental model of dual Mhp/PRRSV infection in SPF pigs with European strains of Mhp and PRRSV and (ii) to assess and compare the effects of single Mhp, single PRRSV or combined Mhp/PRRSV vaccination against this dual infection. Pigs dually infected with Mhp and PRRSV showed a combination of symptoms characteristic of each pathogen but no significant exacerbation of pathogenicity. Thus, the co-infected pigs displayed coughing and pneumonia typical of Mhp infection in addition to PRRSV-related hyperthermia and decrease in average daily gain (ADG). Hyperthermia was reduced in PRRSV vaccinated animals (single or combined vaccination), whereas ADG was restored in Mhp/PRRSV vaccinated pigs only. Regarding respiratory symptoms and lung lesions, no vaccine decreased coughing. However, all vaccines reduced the pneumonia score but more so in animals receiving the Mhp vaccine, whether single or combined. This vaccine also decreased the Mhp load in the respiratory tract. In conclusion, combined vaccination against both Mhp and PRRSV efficiently pooled the efficacy of each single PRRSV and Mhp vaccination and could be an interesting tool to control PRDC in European swine production.

  17. Kinetics of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha gene expression and their relationship with disease progression after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Roh, In Soon; Cho, Sungae; Eum, Seok-Yong; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2013-05-01

    Guinea pig is one of the most suitable animal models for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection since it shows similarities to pulmonary infection in humans. Although guinea pig shows hematogenous spread of M. tb infection into the whole body, immunological studies have mainly focused on granulomatous tissues in lungs and spleens. In order to investigate the time-course of disease pathogenesis and immunological profiles in each infected organ, we performed the following approaches with guinea pigs experimentally infected with M. tb over a 22-week post-infection period. We examined body weight changes, M. tb growth curve, cytokine gene expression (IFN-γ and TNF-α), and histopathology in liver, spleen, lungs and lymph nodes of infected guinea pigs. The body weights of infected guinea pigs did not increase as much as uninfected ones and the number of M. tb bacilli in their organs increased except bronchotracheal lymph node during the experimental period. The gene expression of IFN-γ and TNF-α was induced between 3 and 6 weeks of infection; however, kinetic profiles of cytokine gene expression showed heterogeneity among organs over the study period. Histophathologically granulomatous lesions were developed in all four organs of infected guinea pigs. Although IFN-γ and TNF-α gene expression profiles showed heterogeneity, the granuloma formation was clearly observed in every organ regardless of whether the number of bacilli increased or decreased. However, this protective immunity was accompanied with severe tissue damage in all four organs, which may lead to the death of guinea pigs.

  18. Age-dependent variation in innate immune responses to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection in suckling versus weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Thavamathi; Saif, Linda J; Lu, Zhongyan; Jung, Kwonil

    2015-12-15

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an enteric coronaviral infection that causes severe morbidity and mortality in suckling pigs, but less severe disease in older pigs. Consequently, it causes significant economic losses to the pork industry. There are limited studies on the innate immune responses to PED virus (PEDV) in pigs. The aims of our study were to investigate differences in innate immune responses to PEDV infection in suckling and weaned pigs and to examine if disease severity coincides with reduced innate immune responses. Weaned 26-day-old pigs (n=20) and 9-day-old nursing pigs (n=20) were assigned to PEDV inoculated or uninoculated control groups. The pigs were observed daily for clinical signs, virus shedding and were euthanized at post-inoculation days (PIDs) 1 and 5 to assay immune responses. Blood samples were collected at PIDs 1, 3 and 5. The natural killer (NK) cell frequencies, NK cell activities (lysis of target K562 tumor cells in vitro), CD3+CD4+ T cell and CD3+CD8+ T cell frequencies were measured in blood and ileum at PIDs 1 and 5. The PEDV infected suckling pigs showed severe diarrhea and vomiting at PID 1, whereas the PEDV infected weaned pigs showed milder clinical signs starting at PID 3. PEDV infected suckling pigs had significantly higher diarrhea scores, earlier fecal PEDV RNA shedding and significantly higher viremia (viral RNA in serum) compared to weaned pigs. There was no mortality in either infected suckling or infected weaned pigs. The control pigs not inoculated with PEDV did not show any clinical signs and no detectable fecal or serum PEDV RNA. Strikingly, PEDV infected suckling pigs had significantly lower NK cell frequencies, undetectable NK cell activity and lower IFNγ producing NK cells in blood and ileum compared to PEDV infected weaned pigs. Pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles of PEDV infected suckling pigs differed from those of PEDV infected weaned pigs and coincided with onset of fecal PEDV RNA shedding and serum PEDV

  19. Experimental parvovirus infection in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, L N; Jones, J B; Patton, C S; Webb-Martin, T A

    1981-01-01

    Five eight week old dogs were inoculated orally and intranasally with cell culture origin canine parvovirus. Three dogs became depressed and anorectic and developed a mild (one dog) to severe diarrhea five days postinfection. The remaining dogs had subclinical infections but developed a lymphopenia followed by a transient lymphocytosis. The ill dogs developed mild (one dog) to severe neutropenia and a moderate lymphopenia. One died nine days postinfection. Recovery was associated with cessation of viral excretion and with lymphocytosis and antibody production. Two of three dogs challenged intragastrically developed mild clinical signs and a moderate panleukopenia four to eight days postinfection. The pathological changes of the experimental disease were very similar to that of spontaneous disease. Bone marrow changes included a severe granulocytic and mild erythroid depletion. The pathogenesis of canine parvovirus infection is discussed. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7340906

  20. Detection of a quantitative trait locus associated with resistance to infection with Trichuris suis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Skallerup, P; Thamsborg, S M; Jørgensen, C B; Mejer, H; Göring, H H H; Archibald, A L; Fredholm, M; Nejsum, P

    2015-06-15

    Whipworms (Trichuris spp.) infect a variety of hosts, including domestic animals and humans. Of considerable interest is the porcine whipworm, T. suis, which is particularly prevalent in outdoor production systems. High infection levels may cause growth retardation, anaemia and haemorrhagic diarrhoea. A significant proportion of the variation in Trichuris faecal egg count (FEC) has been attributed to the host's genetic make-up. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic loci associated with resistance to T. suis in pigs. We used single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to perform a whole-genome scan of an F1 resource population (n = 195) trickle-infected with T. suis. A measured genotype analysis revealed a putative quantitative trait locus (QTL) for T. suis FEC on chromosome 13 covering ∼ 4.5 Mbp, although none of the SNPs reached genome-wide significance. We tested the hypothesis that this region of SSC13 harboured genes with effects on T. suis burden by genotyping three SNPs within the putative QTL in unrelated pigs exposed to either experimental or natural T. suis infections and from which we had FEC (n = 113) or worm counts (n = 178). In these studies, two of the SNPs (rs55618716, ST) were associated with FEC (P < 0.01), thus confirming our initial findings. However, we did not find any of the SNPs to be associated with T. suis worm burden. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that genetic markers for resistance to T. suis as indicated by low FEC can be identified in pigs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Immune response and persistence of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in infected pigs and farm units.

    PubMed

    Albina, E; Madec, F; Cariolet, R; Torrison, J

    1994-05-28

    The kinetics of the serum antibody response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus and the persistence of the virus after infection were determined in experimentally and naturally infected pigs. In an experimental study, four specific pathogen free (SPF) sows were infected with a French strain of PRRS virus at 90 days of gestation, and their piglets (the test piglets) were monitored for 29 weeks from birth. In one litter, antibodies against PRRS virus were absent before the piglets had ingested colostrum. Four days after birth, passive antibodies were present in the serum of these piglets, but they had disappeared by three weeks (just before weaning) when clinical signs were observed in a minority of the pigs. In a second litter, most of the piglets had no detectable antibodies until they were four weeks old, and clinical signs were observed during their second week of life. By eight weeks, antibodies were detected in all the pigs, and they persisted until observations ceased at 29 weeks. Two groups of three SPF pigs were placed in direct contact with the test piglets when they were four weeks old and a group of five SPF pigs was placed in indirect contact when they were 13 weeks old. The first two groups showed clinical signs and seroconverted but the third group did not. At 22 weeks old, two of the test piglets were subjected to movement stress and were given exogenous corticosteroids, after which the in-contact SPF pigs developed clinical signs and seroconverted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Introduction of infected animals to herds is an important route for the spread of Yersinia enterocolitica infection between pig farms.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, S; Nikunen, S; Korkeala, H

    2014-01-01

    Altogether, 369 pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica isolates from 1,118 fecal samples collected from 22 pig farms of different production types were characterized by biotyping, serotyping, and genotyping using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis. We investigated the distribution of the different genotypes at the farm level and their association with different farm conditions. Pigs were found to carry and transmit Y. enterocolitica between farms, because the same genotypes were found on farms that had previously transported the pigs between them. The purchase of new animals for the farms associated significantly with the number of different multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis types of Y. enterocolitica found within a farm. Some genotypes seemed to persist on farms for years. The results of this study show that pigs purchased from infected herds transmit Y. enterocolitica infection between farms. Certain pig farms may act as long-term sources of infection.

  3. Effect of attenuated Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae vaccine in pigs infected with porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Sakano, T; Shibata, I; Namimatsu, T; Mori, M; Ono, M; Uruno, K; Osumi, T

    1997-11-01

    Twenty 2nd specific pathogen-free pigs were divided into 4 groups: Group A were infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus at 6 weeks of age and treated with available swine erysipelas and swine fever combined vaccine (vaccinated) at 7 weeks of age; Group B were vaccinated at 7 weeks of age and infected with PRRS virus at 8 weeks of age; Group C were vaccinated at 7 weeks of age: Group D were neither vaccinated nor infected with PRRS virus. All pigs were challenged to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae C42 strain at 10 weeks of age. No clinical signs appeared after vaccination of group A and B pigs, thus confirming that the safety of the vaccine was not influenced by infection with PRRS virus. None of the pigs in Groups A and C developed erysipelas after challenge exposure to E. rhusiopathiae. In contrast, fever and/or urticaria appeared transiently in all pigs of Group B after challenge exposure. At the time of challenge exposure to E. rhusiopathiae, the PRRS virus titer was high in sera of Group B, but was low in those from Group A. However, vaccination of pigs with attenuated E. rhusiopathiae was effective in dual infection with PRRS virus and E. rhusiopathiae, because the clinical signs were milder and the E. rhusiopathiae strain was less recovered from these pigs compared to pigs of group D.

  4. [Establishing an experimental guinea pig model of dermatophytosis Using Trichophyton rubrum].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xian-Jin; Shen, Yong-Nian; Lü, Gui-Xia; Liu, Wei-Da

    2008-10-01

    To construct an animal model infected by Trichophyton rubrum. Three different strains of Trichophyton rubrum were separated from clinical specimen for the infection of guinea pigs. Corticosteroids were given before and after the construction of animal model to facilitate the infection. Direct microscopy, culture, and histopathologic methods were adopted to verify the construction. Ten days after the inoculation of Trichophyton rubrum, with the intervention of corticosteroid, the guinea pigs were examined. Prominent scales and inflammation could be seen on the inoculation site of the Trichophyton rubrum infected guinea pig. Scales and hairs of Trichophyton rubrum infected guinea pig dealt with 10% potassium hydroxide, hypha out of the hair and microconidia or hypha in the hair shaft could be seen. Seven days after the inoculation of scales and hair on SDA plate, cultures of Trichophyton rubrum showed that the colonial morphology were identical to the original dermatophytes. PAS staining of infected guinea pig skin tissue showed that hypha and microconidia could be seen in the infundibula and hair root. With the intervention of corticosteroid, a stable guinea pig model infected by Trichophyton rubrum were successfully constructed.

  5. Multiple models of porcine teschovirus pathogenesis in endemically infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shu-Chun; Yang, Chih-Lin; Chen, Ya-Mei; Hu, Shu-Chia; Chiu, Kuo-Chao; Lin, Yi-Chien; Chang, Chia-Yi; Wang, Fun-In

    2014-01-10

    Porcine teschoviruses (PTVs) belong to the genus Teschovirus within the family Picornaviridae. PTVs are universal contaminants in pig herds in endemic and multi-infection status. To further the understanding of PTV pathogenesis in endemically infected pigs, a set of samples was studied by real time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to quantitate viral loads in tissues and by in situ hybridization (ISH) to locate PTV signals in target cells, both targeting the 5'-NTR. cRNA of PTV-1 and PTV-7, in vitro transcribed from cloned fragments of 5'-NTR of 2 viruses, was used to construct standard curves and to run parallel in qRT-PCR, which had detection limits of 10(1) copies/per reaction, with a linearity in between 10(1) and 10(7) copies/per reaction and correlation coefficients of 0.997-0.9988. The qRT-PCR specifically amplified RNA from PTV-1 to -11, while excluding those of Sapelovirus, PEV-9 and PEV-10. Inguinal lymph node (LN) had the highest viral load of all (assuming 100%), followed by ileac LN (89-91%), tonsil (66-68%), ileum (59-60%), spleen (38-40%), and kidney (30-31%), with the least in brain (22.9%) of the inguinal LN. The 22.9% load in brain was higher than that anticipated from a simple fecal-oral-viremia operative model. The results suggested in addition that intranasal infection and retrograding axonal infection from the tonsils were equally operative and significant. ISH revealed PTV signals in a wider variety of tissue cell types than before. PTV signals were noted most impressively in neurons of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and in the dark zone of the germinal center and adjacent paracortex of regional LN. Multiple operative models indicated that PTVs seemed to have no difficulty invading the brain. The key to whether encephalitis would ensue resided in the animal's immune status and topographic differences of neurons' susceptibilities to PTVs. When common co-infected agents are present, as is typical in the field, PTVs may synergize in

  6. Identification of auto-antigens in skin scrapings from scabies-infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Zalunardo, M; Cargill, C F; Sandeman, R M

    2006-09-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei continues to cause major health and economic problems in a large range of animals and humans. Although the inflammatory response to the mite and its antigens is known to cause the main pathology, little work has been carried out on this response at the site of infection. This report presents an initial analysis of the proteins found in skin scrapings and their antigenic responsiveness in pigs. Skin scrapings and mite extracts were isolated from chronically infected sows while infected and uninfected sera were isolated from pigs with confirmed infections or mange-free pigs, respectively. Electrophoresis and sequencing confirmed the main components of both the skin and mite extracts to be serum proteins. Immunoblotting then suggested that transferrin was the major antigen recognised by pooled infected sera in the skin and the mite extracts. Immunoassays confirmed that a majority of infected pigs produced antibodies to transferrin while mange-free pigs did not. A pool of IgG from infected dogs was then used to isolate another antigen from pig skin scrapings which was shown to be haptoglobin. This was also found to induce high titres of antibody in infected pigs as compared with mange-free pigs. The use of albumin as a control antigen showed no reactivity in either group of sera. The finding of two iron-binding molecules as strong auto-antigens in pig scabies has implications for the importance of iron during this infection and may help to explain the persistence and magnitude of the host inflammatory response.

  7. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K; Marques, Patricia X; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S; Forney, Larry J; Myers, Garry S A; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rank, Roger G; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. © FEMS 2015.

  8. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K.; Marques, Patricia X.; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S.; Forney, Larry J.; Myers, Garry S.A.; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Rank, Roger G.; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. PMID:25761873

  9. Blast cells transfer experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitis in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Schuyler, M.; Cook, C.; Listrom, M.; Fengolio-Preiser, C.

    1988-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) can be transferred by lymph node cells (LNC) cultured in vitro with antigen. The purpose of this study was to identify the cells responsible for transfer and to determine if pulmonary cells can transfer HP. We cultured LNC from sensitized Strain 2 guinea pigs with a soluble extract of Micropolyspora faeni for 72 h, separated lymphoblasts from small lymphocytes, and transferred both subpopulations intravenously to syngeneic recipients. We also transferred irradiated lymphoblasts (1,500 rads), macrophage-depleted, lymphoblast-enriched populations, and pulmonary cells either without culture or after culture with M. faeni. Control animals received an equal volume of medium. All recipient animals were challenged intratracheally (i.t.) with M. faeni 48 h after the cell transfer, and they were killed 4 days after i.t. challenge. Randomly selected microscopic fields of the lung (250/animal) were judged to be normal or abnormal without knowledge of treatment. This measurement was reproducible (r = 0.95 for duplicate measurements, n = 55). All guinea pigs were maintained in HEPA-filtered air. There was a low level of pulmonary response to an i.t. challenge of M. faeni in animals that received medium. Animals that received pulmonary cells, either cultured or noncultured, did not differ from those in the control group. There was a substantial increase (p less than 0.01) in the extent of pulmonary abnormalities in the recipients of the lymphoblast population, with significant correlation (r = 0.87, p less than 0.01) between the number of lymphoblasts transferred and the extent of pulmonary abnormalities.

  10. American trypanosomiasis infection in fattening pigs from the south-east of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Coello, M; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Guzman-Marin, E; Ortega-Pacheco, A

    2012-09-01

    American Trypanosomiasis (AT) is an infectious parasitic disease produced by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). Infection is acquired by vectorial via but can also be transmitted congenitally, by ingestion of an infected host, by transfusion with contaminated blood or transplant of organs from an infected donor. Currently, AT is widely distributed from the South of the United States to South America. In Mexico, the presence of the parasite has been reported throughout the country where several reservoirs such as dogs, opossums, rats and cats have been identified. Yucatan is in the south-east of Mexico where AT is endemic and has been reported since 1940s. There is little information about the role of pigs as reservoirs of T. cruzi. The frequency of specific antibodies against T. cruzi was determined in fattening pigs from Yucatan, Mexico. After sampling in the 3 main areas of pig production in the state, IgG ELISA and Western blot were performed to identify seropositive cases. Association of farm size, farm area and production system with infected pigs was evaluated. From 273 sampled pigs, 5.4% (n = 15) positive cases were found. No association with evaluated factors and infected pigs was found. Pigs are also reservoirs of T. cruzi in the studied area. These findings are considered important to improve vectorial control in the area in order to avoid the parasite infection in animal populations destined for human consumption and avoid further transmission to humans. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Rapid Accumulation of Eosinophils in Lung Lesions in Guinea Pigs Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lasco, Todd M.; Turner, Oliver C.; Cassone, Lynne; Sugawara, Isamu; Yamada, Hiroyuki; McMurray, David N.; Orme, Ian M.

    2004-01-01

    Guinea pig eosinophils were positively identified in bronchoalveolar lavage populations and in the lung granulomas of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs. It is possible that the rapid influx of these cells, and their subsequent degranulation during acute pulmonary tuberculosis, may play a key role in the susceptibility of this animal model. PMID:14742563

  12. Experimental microembolism induces localized neuritic pathology in guinea pig cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Ming; Cai, Yan; Liu, Fei; Yang, La; Hu, Xia; Patrylo, Peter R; Cai, Huaibin; Luo, Xue-Gang; Xiao, Dong; Yan, Xiao-Xin

    2015-05-10

    Microbleeds are a common finding in aged human brains. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuritic plaques composed of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits and dystrophic neurites occur frequently around cerebral vasculature, raising a compelling question as to whether, and if so, how, microvascular abnormality and amyloid/neuritic pathology might be causally related. Here we used a guinea pig model of cerebral microembolism to explore a potential inductive effect of vascular injury on neuritic and amyloid pathogenesis. Brains were examined 7-30 days after experimental microvascular embolization occupying ~0.5% of total cortical area. Compared to sham-operated controls, glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity was increased in the embolized cerebrum, evidently around intracortical vasculature. Swollen/sprouting neurites exhibiting increased reactivity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase, parvalbumin, vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and choline acetyltransferase appeared locally in the embolized brains in proximity to intracortical vasculature. The embolization-induced swollen/sprouting neurites were also robustly immunoreactive for β-amyloid precursor protein and β-secretase-1, the substrate and initiating enzyme for Aβ genesis. These experimental data suggest that microvascular injury can induce multisystem neuritic pathology associated with an enhanced amyloidogenic potential in wild-type mammalian brain.

  13. Experimental model of non-controlled hemorrhagic shock in pigs.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Fernanda Paula; Nani, Ricardo Souza; Filho, Joel Avancini Rocha; Auler Junior, José Otávio Costa; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho; Machado, Marcel Cerqueira Cesar

    2011-01-01

    A better understanding of pathophysiologic changes associated to trauma and hemorrhagic shock can help the development of therapies capable of reducing trauma-related mortality. The objective of this study was to describe a model of non-controlled hemorrhagic shock in pigs. Animals received ketamine and midazolam as pre-anesthetic medications. Anesthesia was induced with propofol, and tracheal intubation was performed with the animals on spontaneous ventilation. After intubation neuromuscular blockade was performed. Animals were maintained in controlled mechanical ventilation and normocapnia. Anesthesia was maintained with propofol and fentanyl as needed. Saline was infused during the entire preparation period. Cardioscope, pulse oximeter, invasive blood pressure, volumetric catheter in the pulmonary artery, and urine output by cystostomy were used. Experimental model: after the initial recording of hemodynamic, metabolic, and coagulation variables, right subcostal incision and left lobe liver biopsy were performed. Anesthetic infusion was reduced while the infusion of saline was interrupted. An incision 12cm long 2cm deep was performed in the right liver lobe followed by digital divulsion of the wound. During the hemorrhagic phase, an aspiration probe was placed close to the wound and the volume of aspirated blood was recorded. When mean arterial pressure reached 40mmHg and bleeding was above 700mL the intervention phase was initiated according to the type of study. The development of experimental models to reduce high mortality and costs related to trauma is important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental microembolism induces localized neuritic pathology in guinea pig cerebrum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-Ming; Cai, Yan; Liu, Fei; Yang, La; Hu, Xia; Patrylo, Peter R.; Cai, Huaibin; Luo, Xue-Gang; Xiao, Dong; Yan, Xiao-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Microbleeds are a common finding in aged human brains. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuritic plaques composed of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits and dystrophic neurites occur frequently around cerebral vasculature, raising a compelling question as to whether, and if so, how, microvascular abnormality and amyloid/neuritic pathology might be causally related. Here we used a guinea pig model of cerebral microembolism to explore a potential inductive effect of vascular injury on neuritic and amyloid pathogenesis. Brains were examined 7-30 days after experimental microvascular embolization occupying ~0.5% of total cortical area. Compared to sham-operated controls, glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity was increased in the embolized cerebrum, evidently around intracortical vasculature. Swollen/sprouting neurites exhibiting increased reactivity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase, parvalbumin, vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and choline acetyltransferase appeared locally in the embolized brains in proximity to intracortical vasculature. The embolization-induced swollen/sprouting neurites were also robustly immunoreactive for β-amyloid precursor protein and β-secretase-1, the substrate and initiating enzyme for Aβ genesis. These experimental data suggest that microvascular injury can induce multisystem neuritic pathology associated with an enhanced amyloidogenic potential in wild-type mammalian brain. PMID:25871402

  15. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris requires a functional pigB for epiphytic survival and host infection.

    PubMed

    Poplawsky, A R; Chun, W

    1998-06-01

    indicated that strain B24-B2 was reduced in its ability to infect the host via the hydathodes, but unaffected in infection via wounds. When strains B-24 and B24-B2 were mixed in equal numbers and sprayed on plants together, B24-B2 epiphytic populations were intermediate between those of B-24 applied alone and B24-B2 applied alone. These results indicate that a functional pigB is required for epiphytic survival and natural host infection under the experimental conditions tested, and suggest that DF, xanthomonadins, and EPS could all be important for survival of this pathogen on the leaf surface, and/or for host infection.

  16. Occurrence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling and nursery pigs in a region of high pig density.

    PubMed

    Nathues, H; Kubiak, R; Tegeler, R; grosse Beilage, E

    2010-02-13

    The occurrence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in young pigs was surveyed in a retrospective study of 1122 datasets obtained from routine diagnostics where either suckling or nursery pigs were examined for M hyopneumoniae in lung tissue. Findings were correlated with the presence of lung lesions, detection of other respiratory pathogens, vaccination history and parameters describing the herd of origin. The prevalence of M hyopneumoniae in lung tissue from 201 suckling pigs was 2.0 per cent and, therefore, significantly lower than in lung tissue from 921 nursery pigs, which was 9.3 per cent. Previous use of antimicrobials and the vital status of the pigs when delivered for postmortem examination did not influence the detection of M hyopneumoniae infection. The presence of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-EU genotype, Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis, Mycoplasma hyorhinis or Streptococcus suis was correlated with a higher probability of also finding M hyopneumoniae. The history of vaccination, the time of the first or second application, and the type of vaccine (one- versus two-shot) did not influence the detection of M hyopneumoniae. A correlation between the type of herd and the presence of M hyopneumoniae was statistically insignificant and no effect of farrowing rhythm could be confirmed.

  17. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in Veracruz State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Romero-Salas, Dora; García-Vázquez, Zeferino; Crivelli-Diaz, Margarita; Barrientos-Morales, Manuel; Lopez-de-Buen, Lorena; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs has epidemiological concern for its contributing role in human infections. We determined seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 402 domestic pigs raised in backyards in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT; cut off 1:25); 182 (45.3%) of the 402 pigs were seropositive with MAT titers of 1:25 in 28, 1:50 in 22, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 30, 1:400 in 35, 1:800 in 23, 1:1,600 in 11, and 1:3,200 or higher in 15. Seropositive pigs were found in 137 (53.3%) of 257 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii seropositivity in pigs was associated with tropical-humid climate (OR = 4.32; 95% CI 1.47-12.62; P = 0.007) of the raising municipalities, feeding with leftovers (OR = 2.83; 95% CI 1.01-7.91; P = 0.04), storing pig food in the owner's home (OR = 2.39; 95% CI 1.09-5.22; P = 0.02), and free ranging (OR = 3.48; 95% CI 1.49-8.15; P = 0.003). Results indicate that backyard pigs in Veracruz have the highest seroprevalence of T. gondii infection obtained by MAT in pigs studied in Mexico so far. The correlates of T. gondii infection found in the present study may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against T. gondii infection in pigs. Results also remark the risk of T. gondii infection in humans by ingestion of raw or undercook pork in Mexico.

  18. Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in experimentally infected conventional piglets.

    PubMed

    Poutahidis, T; Tsangaris, T; Kanakoudis, G; Vlemmas, I; Iliadis, N; Sofianou, D

    2001-11-01

    A conventional nonmutant animal that could be experimentally infected with Helicobacter pylori isolates would be a useful animal model for human H. pylori-associated gastritis. Gnotobiotic and barrier-born pigs are susceptible to H. pylori infection, but attempts to infect conventional pigs with this bacterium have been unsuccessful. In the present study, a litter of eight 20-day-old crossbreed piglets were purchased from a commercial farm. Six of them were orally challenged two to five times at different ages, between 29 and 49 days, with doses of H. pylori inoculum containing approximately 10(9) bacterial cells. Two animals served as controls. The inoculation program began 2 days postweaning when the piglets were 29 days of age. Prior to every inoculation, the piglets were fasted and pretreated with cimetidine, and prior to the first and second inoculation each piglet also was pretreated with dexamethasone. The challenged piglets were euthanasized between 36 and 76 days of age. H. pylori colonized all six inoculated piglets. The pathology of the experimentally induced gastritis was examined macroscopically and by light and electron microscopy. H. pylori induced a severe lymphocytic gastritis in the conventional piglets and reproduced the large majority of the pathologic features of the human disease. Therefore, the conventional piglet represents a promising new model for study of the various pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of lesions of the human H. pylori-associated gastritis.

  19. Cavia porcellus as a Model for Experimental Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Yauri, Verónica; Angulo, Noelia; Verastegui, Manuela; Velásquez, Daniel E.; Sterling, Charles R.; Martin, Diana; Bern, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is a natural reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi but has seldom been used as an experimental infection model. We developed a guinea pig infection model for acute and chronic Chagas disease. Seventy-two guinea pigs were inoculated intradermally with 104 trypomastigotes of T. cruzi strain Y (experimental group); 18 guinea pigs were used as control group. Eight animals from the experimental group and two from the control group were sacrificed 5, 15, 20, 25, 40, 55, 115, 165, and 365 days after inoculation. During the acute phase (15 to 55 days), we observed parasitemia (with a peak on day 20) and positive IgM and IgG Western blots with anti-shed acute-phase antigen bands. The cardiac tissue showed vasculitis, necrosis (on days 40 to 55), moderate to severe inflammation, and abundant amastigote nests. Smaller numbers of amastigote nests were also present in kidney, brain, and other organs. In the early chronic phase (115 to 165 days), parasitemia disappeared and anti–T. cruzi IgG antibodies were still detectable. In cardiac tissue, the number of amastigote nests and the grade of inflammation decreased. In the chronic phase (365 days), the cardiac tissue showed vasculitis and fibrosis; detectable parasite DNA was associated with higher grades of inflammation. The experimental T. cruzi infection model in guinea pigs shows kinetics and pathologic changes similar to those of the human disease. PMID:21703410

  20. Cavia porcellus as a model for experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E; Gilman, Robert H; Yauri, Verónica; Angulo, Noelia; Verastegui, Manuela; Velásquez, Daniel E; Sterling, Charles R; Martin, Diana; Bern, Caryn

    2011-07-01

    The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is a natural reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi but has seldom been used as an experimental infection model. We developed a guinea pig infection model for acute and chronic Chagas disease. Seventy-two guinea pigs were inoculated intradermally with 10(4) trypomastigotes of T. cruzi strain Y (experimental group); 18 guinea pigs were used as control group. Eight animals from the experimental group and two from the control group were sacrificed 5, 15, 20, 25, 40, 55, 115, 165, and 365 days after inoculation. During the acute phase (15 to 55 days), we observed parasitemia (with a peak on day 20) and positive IgM and IgG Western blots with anti-shed acute-phase antigen bands. The cardiac tissue showed vasculitis, necrosis (on days 40 to 55), moderate to severe inflammation, and abundant amastigote nests. Smaller numbers of amastigote nests were also present in kidney, brain, and other organs. In the early chronic phase (115 to 165 days), parasitemia disappeared and anti-T. cruzi IgG antibodies were still detectable. In cardiac tissue, the number of amastigote nests and the grade of inflammation decreased. In the chronic phase (365 days), the cardiac tissue showed vasculitis and fibrosis; detectable parasite DNA was associated with higher grades of inflammation. The experimental T. cruzi infection model in guinea pigs shows kinetics and pathologic changes similar to those of the human disease. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Detection of Infection in Pigs through an Online Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Avilés, M; Fernández-Carrión, E; López García-Baones, J M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2017-04-01

    Late detection of emergency diseases causes significant economic losses for pig producers and governments. As the first signs of animal infection are usually fever and reduced motion that lead to reduced consumption of water and feed, we developed a novel smart system to monitor body temperature and motion in real time, facilitating the early detection of infectious diseases. In this study, carried out within the framework of the European Union research project Rapidia Field, we tested the smart system on 10 pigs experimentally infected with two doses of an attenuated strain of African swine fever. Biosensors and an accelerometer embedded in an eartag captured data before and after infection, and video cameras were used to monitor the animals 24 h per day. The results showed that in 8 of 9 cases, the monitoring system detected infection onset as an increase in body temperature and decrease in movement before or simultaneously with fever detection based on rectal temperature measurement, observation of clinical signs, the decrease in water consumption or positive qPCR detection of virus. In addition, this decrease in movement was reliably detected using automatic analysis of video images therefore providing an inexpensive alternative to direct motion measurement. The system can be set up to alert staff when high fever, reduced motion or both are detected in one or more animals. This system may be useful for monitoring sentinel herds in real time, considerably reducing the financial and logistical costs of periodic sampling and increasing the chances of early detection of infection. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. The innate immunity of guinea pigs against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Xu, Wei Wei; Zhang, Zhaowei; Liu, Jing; Li, Jing; Sun, Lijuan; Sun, Weiyang; Jiao, Peirong; Sang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Zhiguang; Yu, Zhijun; Li, Yuanguo; Feng, Na; Wang, Tiecheng; Wang, Hualei; Yang, Songtao; Zhao, Yongkun; Zhang, Xuemei; Wilker, Peter R; Liu, WenJun; Liao, Ming; Chen, Hualan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2017-05-02

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses are a major pandemic concern. In contrast to the highly virulent phenotype of H5N1 in humans and many animal models, guinea pigs do not typically display signs of severe disease in response to H5N1 virus infection. Here, proteomic and transcriptional profiling were applied to identify host factors that account for the observed attenuation of A/Tiger/Harbin/01/2002 (H5N1) virulence in guinea pigs. RIG-I and numerous interferon stimulated genes were among host proteins with altered expression in guinea pig lungs during H5N1 infection. Overexpression of RIG-I or the RIG-I adaptor protein MAVS in guinea pig cell lines inhibited H5N1 replication. Endogenous GBP-1 expression was required for RIG-I mediated inhibition of viral replication upstream of the activity of MAVS. Furthermore, we show that guinea pig complement is involved in viral clearance, the regulation of inflammation, and cellular apoptosis during influenza virus infection of guinea pigs. This work uncovers features of the guinea pig innate immune response to influenza that may render guinea pigs resistant to highly pathogenic influenza viruses.

  3. The innate immunity of guinea pigs against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; wei Xu, Wei; Zhang, Zhaowei; liu, Jing; Li, Jing; Sun, Lijuan; Sun, Weiyang; Jiao, Peirong; Sang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Zhiguang; Yu, Zhijun; Li, Yuanguo; Feng, Na; Wang, Tiecheng; Wang, Hualei; Yang, Songtao; Zhao, Yongkun; Zhang, Xuemei; Wilker, Peter R.; Liu, WenJun; Liao, Ming; Chen, Hualan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2017-01-01

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses are a major pandemic concern. In contrast to the highly virulent phenotype of H5N1 in humans and many animal models, guinea pigs do not typically display signs of severe disease in response to H5N1 virus infection. Here, proteomic and transcriptional profiling were applied to identify host factors that account for the observed attenuation of A/Tiger/Harbin/01/2002 (H5N1) virulence in guinea pigs. RIG-I and numerous interferon stimulated genes were among host proteins with altered expression in guinea pig lungs during H5N1 infection. Overexpression of RIG-I or the RIG-I adaptor protein MAVS in guinea pig cell lines inhibited H5N1 replication. Endogenous GBP-1 expression was required for RIG-I mediated inhibition of viral replication upstream of the activity of MAVS. Furthermore, we show that guinea pig complement is involved in viral clearance, the regulation of inflammation, and cellular apoptosis during influenza virus infection of guinea pigs. This work uncovers features of the guinea pig innate immune response to influenza that may render guinea pigs resistant to highly pathogenic influenza viruses. PMID:28418930

  4. Prevalence of pigs infected by Salmonella Typhimurium at slaughter after an enterocolitis outbreak.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Celso J B; Carvalho, Luiz F O S; Fernandes, Sueli A; Tavechio, Ana T; Domingues, Francisco J

    2005-11-25

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of slaughter pigs infected by Salmonella typhimurium after an enterocolitis outbreak in a commercial pig farm, which was characterised by diarrhoea during the growing phase. Anatomopathological and histopathological findings were suggestive of salmonellosis, which was further confirmed by isolation of S. typhimurium from organs and faeces samples from diseased animals. Ileocolic lymph nodes were aseptically collected from 43 pigs during slaughter procedures. The estimated prevalence of Salmonella-infected pigs was 53.48% [confidence interval (CI): 42.94:64.02%]. This finding demonstrates that the carriage of S. typhimurium at slaughter might be high if pigs originate from a batch previously affected by Salmonella-enterocolitis outbreak at the pre-harvest pork production chain.

  5. Large-scale screening and characterization of enteroviruses and kobuviruses infecting pigs in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Dung, Nguyen; Anh, Pham Hong; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Hien, Vo Be; Sharp, C; Rabaa, M; Berto, A; Campbell, James; Baker, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy; Woolhouse, Mark E; Bryant, Juliet E; Simmonds, Peter

    2016-02-01

    A recent survey of pigs in Dong Thap province, Vietnam identified a high frequency of enterovirus species G (EV-G) infection (144/198; 72.7%). Amongst these was a plethora of EV-G types (EV-G1, EV-G6 and four new types EV-G8-EV-G11). To better characterize the genetic diversity of EV-G and investigate the possible existence of further circulating types, we performed a larger-scale study on 484 pig and 45 farm-bred boar faecal samples collected in 2012 and 2014, respectively. All samples from the previous and current studies were also screened for kobuviruses. The overall EV infection frequency remained extremely high (395/484; 81.6%), but with comparable detection rates and viral loads between healthy and diarrhoeic pigs; this contrasted with less frequent detection of EV-G in boars (4/45; 8.9%). EV was most frequently detected in pigs ≤ 14 weeks old (∼ 95%) and declined in older pigs. Infections with EV-G1 and EV-G6 were most frequent, whilst less commonly detected types included EV-G3, EV-G4 and EV-G8-EV-G11, and five new types (EV-G12-EV-G16). In contrast, kobuvirus infection frequency was significantly higher in diarrhoeic pigs (40.9 versus 27.6%; P = 0.01). Kobuviruses also showed contrasting epizootiologies and age associations; a higher prevalence was found in boars (42%) compared with domestic pigs (29%), with the highest infection frequency amongst pigs >52 weeks old. Although genetically diverse, all kobuviruses identified belonged to the species Aichivirus C. In summary, this study confirms infection with EV-G was endemic in Vietnamese domestic pigs and exhibits high genetic diversity and extensive inter-type recombination.

  6. Large-scale screening and characterization of enteroviruses and kobuviruses infecting pigs in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Van Dung, Nguyen; Anh, Pham Hong; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Hien, Vo Be; Sharp, C.; Rabaa, M.; Berto, A.; Campbell, James; Baker, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy; Woolhouse, Mark E.; Bryant, Juliet E.

    2016-01-01

    A recent survey of pigs in Dong Thap province, Vietnam identified a high frequency of enterovirus species G (EV-G) infection (144/198; 72.7 %). Amongst these was a plethora of EV-G types (EV-G1, EV-G6 and four new types EV-G8–EV-G11). To better characterize the genetic diversity of EV-G and investigate the possible existence of further circulating types, we performed a larger-scale study on 484 pig and 45 farm-bred boar faecal samples collected in 2012 and 2014, respectively. All samples from the previous and current studies were also screened for kobuviruses. The overall EV infection frequency remained extremely high (395/484; 81.6 %), but with comparable detection rates and viral loads between healthy and diarrhoeic pigs; this contrasted with less frequent detection of EV-G in boars (4/45; 8.9 %). EV was most frequently detected in pigs ≤ 14 weeks old (∼95 %) and declined in older pigs. Infections with EV-G1 and EV-G6 were most frequent, whilst less commonly detected types included EV-G3, EV-G4 and EV-G8–EV-G11, and five new types (EV-G12–EV-G16). In contrast, kobuvirus infection frequency was significantly higher in diarrhoeic pigs (40.9 versus 27.6 %; P = 0.01). Kobuviruses also showed contrasting epizootiologies and age associations; a higher prevalence was found in boars (42 %) compared with domestic pigs (29 %), with the highest infection frequency amongst pigs >52 weeks old. Although genetically diverse, all kobuviruses identified belonged to the species Aichivirus C. In summary, this study confirms infection with EV-G was endemic in Vietnamese domestic pigs and exhibits high genetic diversity and extensive inter-type recombination. PMID:26653281

  7. Natural infection of guinea pigs exposed to patients with highly drug-resistant tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Dharmadhikari, Ashwin S.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Van Der Walt, Martie L.; Weyer, Karin; Mphahlele, Matsie; Venter, Kobus; Jensen, Paul A.; First, Melvin W.; Parsons, Sydney; McMurray, David N.; Orme, Ian M.; Nardell, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    A natural TB infection model using guinea pigs may provide useful information for investigating differences in transmission efficiency and establishment of active disease by clinical TB strains in a highly susceptible host under controlled environmental conditions. We sought to examine the capacity of naturally transmitted multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis to establish infection and produce active disease in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were continuously exposed for 4 months to the exhaust air of a 6-bed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis inpatient hospital ward in South Africa. Serial tuberculin skin test reactions were measured to determine infection. All animals were subsequently evaluated for histologic disease progression at necropsy. Although 75% of the 362 exposed guinea pigs had positive skin test reactions [≥6mm], only 12% had histopathologic evidence of active disease. Reversions (≥ 6 mm change) in skin test reactivity were seen in 22% of animals, exclusively among those with reactions of 6 to 13 mm. Only two of 86 guinea pigs with reversion had histological evidence of disease compared to 47% (31/66) of guinea pigs with large, non-reverting reactions. Immunosuppression of half the guinea pigs across all skin test categories did not significantly accelerate disease progression. In guinea pigs that reverted a skin test, a second positive reaction in 27 (33%) of them strongly suggested re-infection due to ongoing exposure. These results show that a large majority of guinea pigs naturally exposed to human-source strains of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis became infected, but that many resolved their infection and a large majority failed to progress to detectable disease. PMID:21478054

  8. Experimental zinc deficiency in guinea-pigs: biochemical changes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R P; Verma, P C; Gupta, R K

    1986-05-01

    1. Zinc deficiency was produced experimentally in guinea-pigs fed on a diet containing 1.25 mg Zn/kg diet over a period of 60 d. In addition, the response of the Zn-deficient (ZnD) animals to Zn supplementation was studied for 15 d. 2. In the ZnD group a significant reduction was found in serum Zn and protein concentrations and in alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1; AP) activity from day 24 onwards. 3. Paper electrophoretic studies on serum revealed a significant decrease in relative values, as well as absolute values, of albumin and gamma-globulin and an increase in beta-globulin. 4. Albumin:globulin increased on day 24 but decreased significantly from day 48 onwards. 5. The kidney and testis of the ZnD group showed a reduction in Zn and protein contents, and AP activity. 6. Zn supplementation of the previously ZnD group resulted in marked although incomplete improvement in the biochemical indices studied.

  9. The laryngeal mask airway in experimental pig anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wemyss-Holden, S A; Porter, K J; Baxter, P; Rudkin, G E; Maddern, G J

    1999-01-01

    The pig is used as a large animal model in many research projects. Standard practice for airway maintenance under general anaesthesia is using endotracheal (ET) intubation after intravenous induction to a near surgical plane. This is a technically demanding skill, requiring the assistance of an experienced technician. A technique is required which simplifies pig anaesthesia. This study examined the feasibility and potential advantages of using the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in 10 pigs during laparotomy under spontaneous breathing anaesthesia. The results show that the LMA can be inserted rapidly, with minimal time for airway control by researchers relatively inexperienced in anaesthesia and is associated with few complications. By removing the need for intravenous induction, an entire step in the anaesthetic process is removed. The LMA designed for humans fits well in the pig hypopharynx; all pigs could be manually ventilated with no detectable gas leak. Although the pigs in this study were spontaneously breathing it is proposed that the LMA should be further investigated in studies of artificially ventilated pigs.

  10. Experimental Colibacillosis in Gnotobiotic Baby Pigs I. Microbiological and Clinical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Christie, B. R.; Waxler, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    Sixty-two gnotobiotic pigs were used in three experiments to determine the means whereby two related strains of Escherichia coli colonized the intestinal tract. Pigs were exposed by a method simulating neonatal contamination of the umbilical stump. Bacteremia was produced within one and one half hours, and by 24 hours the infection was generally well established in the gastrointestinal tract. By 48 hours after exposure, the bacteremia had subsided so that only an occasional isolation from organs other than the gastrointestinal tract was made. Oral exposure of one litter of germfree pigs produced heavy colonization of the entire gastrointestinal tract within four hours. Evidence of intermittent bacteremia was present in pigs of this litter. Diarrhea appeared earlier when pigs were exposed orally than when they were exposed by way of the umbilical stump. PMID:4270433

  11. Persistence of porcine rubulavirus in experimentally infected boars.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; Martínez-Bautista, Rebeca; Pérez-Torres, Armando; García-Contreras, Adelfa Del Carmen; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2013-03-23

    Porcine rubulavirus is the etiological agent of blue eye disease in pigs. In boars, this virus causes orchitis and epididymitis and reduces seminal quality. The objective of this study was to determine the persistence of porcine rubulavirus in experimentally infected boars. Nine 12-month-old boars were infected with 5 ml of the PAC-3 strain of porcine rubulavirus at 1 × 10(5) TCID(50)/ml and held for 142 days post infection (DPI) to evaluate humoral immune response. The virus was isolated in cell cultures and detected by RT-PCR. Infection with porcine rubulavirus produced clinical signs beginning at 5 DPI. Necropsy results showed that 3 boars had lesions in the testicles and epididymes. Histological analysis showed the characteristic lesions in all infected boars. Porcine rubulavirus antibodies were detected in the second week post infection and increased significantly (P<0.05) over time. Isolation of the virus from semen was achieved between 5 DPI and 48 DPI and from the testicles and epididymes between 64 DPI and 142 DPI. Viral RNA was detected in the serum between 2 DPI and 64 DPI and in the semen until 142 DPI. These results confirm that the RNA of the porcine rubulavirus persists in the semen and that this virus remains in the reproductive tract for prolonged periods of infection. Semen of persistently infected boars, therefore, represents an important source of the virus and a risk factor for the spread of blue eye disease in swine populations.

  12. Pig major acute-phase protein and apolipoprotein A-I responses correlate with the clinical course of experimentally induced African Swine Fever and Aujeszky's disease.

    PubMed

    Carpintero, Rakel; Alonso, Covadonga; Piñeiro, Matilde; Iturralde, María; Andrés, Marta; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Madec, Francois; Alava, María A; Piñeiro, Andrés; Lampreave, Fermín

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, we studied the acute phase protein response after experimental virus infection in pigs. The animals were experimentally infected with African Swine Fever (ASF) or Aujeszky's disease (AD) viruses. The clinical course of ASF infection correlated with increasingly high levels of pig Major Acute-phase Protein (pig-MAP) (mean value of 6 mg/mL on day 6 post infection (p.i.), from 6 to 9 times higher than day 0) and sharp apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) decrease (mean value of 0.5 mg/mL, from 4 to 10 times lower than day 0 on day 4 p.i.). AD-clinical signs appeared at day 3 p.i., both in vaccinated (moderate clinical signs) and non-vaccinated pigs (severe outcome within 48 h p.i.). Pig-MAP and apo A-I profiles also followed clinical signs (changing from 0.70 mg/mL to around 3 mg/mL and from around 3 mg/mL to 0.96 mg/mL, respectively in non-vaccinated animals), with minor changes in concentration in the vaccinated group. Haptoglobin levels significantly increased in ASF and AD infected animals (mean maximum values of 2.77 and 3.96 mg/mL, respectively). Minor differences for the C-Reactive Protein in the case of ASF were observed, whereas its concentration increased more than 7 times in AD-infection. The albumin level was not modified in either case. The correlation of clinical signs to our data suggests the potential use of pig-MAP and apo A-I in monitoring infections in swine.

  13. Experimental transmission of avian-like swine H1N1 influenza virus between immunologically naïve and vaccinated pigs.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Lucy E; Jonczyk, Magdalena; Jervis, Carley M; Flack, Deborah J; Lyall, John; Foote, Alasdair; Mumford, Jennifer A; Brown, Ian H; Wood, James L; Elton, Debra M

    2011-09-01

    Infection of pigs with swine influenza has been studied experimentally and in the field; however, little information is available on the natural transmission of this virus in pigs. Two studies in an experimental transmission model are presented here, one in immunologically naïve and one in a combination of vaccinated and naïve pigs. To investigate the transmission of a recent 'avian-like' swine H1N1 influenza virus in naive piglets, to assess the antibody response to a commercially available vaccine and to determine the efficiency of transmission in pigs after vaccination. Transmission chains were initiated by intranasal challenge of two immunologically naïve pigs. Animals were monitored daily for clinical signs and virus shedding. Pairs of pigs were sequentially co-housed, and once virus was detected in recipients, prior donors were removed. In the vaccination study, piglets were vaccinated and circulating antibody levels were monitored by haemagglutination inhibition assay. To study transmission in vaccinates, a pair of infected immunologically naïve animals was co-housed with vaccinated recipient pigs and further pairs of vaccinates were added sequentially as above. The chain was completed by the addition of naive pigs. Transmission of the H1N1 virus was achieved through a chain of six pairs of naïve piglets and through four pairs of vaccinated animals. Transmission occurred with minimal clinical signs and, in vaccinates, at antibody levels higher than previously reported to protect against infection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Steenhard, Nina R; Jungersen, Gregers; Kokotovic, Branko; Beshah, Ethiopia; Dawson, Harry D; Urban, Joseph F; Roepstorff, Allan; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2009-08-13

    Since their first introduction more than a century ago, vaccines have become one of the most cost-effective tools to prevent and manage infectious diseases in human and animal populations. It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) vaccine would modulate the protective immune response to a subsequent challenge infection. Four groups of pigs were either (1) untreated (group C), (2) vaccinated against Mh 3 weeks after the start of the study (group V), (3) given a trickle infection with A. suum throughout the study (group A), or (4) given a trickle infection with A. suum and vaccinated against Mh (group AV). All pigs were subsequently inoculated with live Mh bacteria 4 weeks after the Mh vaccination and necropsied after another 4 weeks. All pigs in group V sero-converted 3 weeks after vaccination (100%), as opposed to only 33% of group AV pigs that were Mh-vaccinated and given A. suum. At the end of the study, only 78% of pigs in group AV had sero-converted. Pigs in group AV had a higher mean percentage of lung pathology and the variation was significantly higher in these pigs compared to pigs in group V. The pattern of gene expression in the lungs and draining lymph nodes indicated a local Th2-skewed response induced by A. suum. Our study indicated that A. suum significantly compromised the effect of Mh vaccination. The impact of reduced vaccine efficacy caused by a common gastrointestinal helminth emphasises the importance of parasite control. More focus should be put into this area of research to outline the practical consequences of this interaction, and to be able to predict, prevent and correct negative interactions.

  15. A Phosphorylcholine-Containing Glycolipid-like Antigen Present on the Surface of Infective Stage Larvae of Ascaris spp. Is a Major Antibody Target in Infected Pigs and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Masure, Dries; Wang, Tao; Nejsum, Peter; Hokke, Cornelis H.; Geldhof, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background The pig parasite Ascaris suum plays and important role in veterinary medicine and represents a suitable model for A. lumbricoides, which infects over 800 million people. In pigs, continued exposure to Ascaris induces immunity at the level of the gut, protecting the host against migrating larvae. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize parasite antigens targeted by this local immune response that may be crucial for parasite invasion and establishment and to evaluate their protective and diagnostic potential. Methodology/Principal Findings Pigs were immunized by trickle infection for 30 weeks, challenged with 2,000 eggs at week 32 and euthanized two weeks after challenge. At necropsy, there was a 100% reduction in worms recovered from the intestine and a 97.2% reduction in liver white spots in comparison with challenged non-immune control animals. Antibodies purified from the intestinal mucus or from the supernatant of cultured antibody secreting cells from mesenteric lymph nodes of immune pigs were used to probe L3 extracts to identify antibody targets. This resulted in the recognition of a 12kDa antigen (As12) that is actively shed from infective Ascaris L3. As12 was characterized as a phosphorylcholine-containing glycolipid-like antigen that is highly resistant to different enzymatic and chemical treatments. Vaccinating pigs with an As12 fraction did not induce protective immunity to challenge infection. However, serological analysis using sera or plasma from experimentally infected pigs or naturally infected humans demonstrated that the As12 ELISA was able to detect long-term exposure to Ascaris with a high diagnostic sensitivity (98.4% and 92%, respectively) and specificity (95.5% and 90.0%) in pigs and humans, respectively. Conclusions/Significance These findings show the presence of a highly stage specific, glycolipid-like component (As12) that is actively secreted by infectious Ascaris larvae and which acts as a major antibody

  16. Genetic diversity of Taenia solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs of central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Reyes-Montes, María del Rocio; Duarte-Escalante, Esperanza; Vega, Rodrigo; de Aluja, Aline S; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Morales, Julio; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2010-02-26

    This study was designed to explore if each individual case of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis, living in different geographic rural areas of central Mexico, is caused by one or more different specimens of Taenia solium tapeworm. The genetic variability among cysticerci from the same pig and that from different pigs was assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs), through the percentage of polymorphic loci, the number of effective alleles, the expected heterozygosity and the Shannon index. The parasite population's reproductive structure was estimated through the association index (I(A)), and the degree of genetic differentiation and variation was determined using AMOVA. Using six different random primers, and a total of 181 cysticerci from 14 pigs, 88 different loci were amplified: 85% were polymorphic between pigs and 24% within pigs. The phenogram grouped the cysticerci into eight major clusters, with differences in the genetic distances among all cysticerci from 14 pigs ranging from 0.78 to 1. Most of the cysticerci grouped in accord with their different geographical origin and with their pig of origin. The similarity matrix produced from the phenogram (obtained by UPGMA) and the original similarity matrix yielded a good cophenetic correlation (r=0.82317, P=0.0004), which suggests that the phenogram accurately represents the original genetic similarities between isolates. The combination of I(A) (0.0-0.089) with the genetic diversity index (0.009-0.073) supports the idea that DNA diversity in T. solium cysticerci of naturally infected pigs is within the range expected from a recombination process occurring during sexual reproduction. The small genetic diversity found within the cysticerci of each pig (33.81%), when compared with that between pigs (66.19%), indicates that pigs are rarely infected by different tapeworms. It would then appear that porcine cysticercosis courses with effective concomitant immunity, as occurs in ovine

  17. Simultaneous infections by different Salmonella strains in mesenteric lymph nodes of finishing pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonellosis is a major worldwide zoonosis, and Salmonella-infected finishing pigs are considered one of the major sources of human infections in developed countries. Baseline studies on salmonellosis prevalence in fattening pigs in Europe are based on direct pathogen isolation from mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). This procedure is considered the most reliable for diagnosing salmonellosis in apparently healthy pigs. The presence of simultaneous infections by different Salmonella strains in the same animal has never been reported and could have important epidemiological implications. Results Fourteen finishing pigs belonging to 14 farms that showed high salmonellosis prevalence and a variety of circulating Salmonella strains, were found infected by Salmonella spp, and 7 of them were simultaneously infected with strains of 2 or 3 different serotypes. Typhimurium isolates showing resistance to several antimicrobials and carrying mobile integrons were the most frequently identified in the colonized MLN. Four animals were found infected by Salmonella spp. of a single serotype (Rissen or Derby) but showing 2 or 3 different antimicrobial resistance profiles, without evidence of mobile genetic element exchange in vivo. Conclusion This is the first report clearly demonstrating that pigs naturally infected by Salmonella may harbour different Salmonella strains simultaneously. This may have implications in the interpretation of results from baseline studies, and also help to better understand human salmonellosis outbreaks and the horizontal transmission of antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:24606823

  18. Efficacy of a live attenuated vaccine in classical swine fever virus postnatally persistently infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Sara; Perez-Simó, Marta; Muñoz, Marta; Bohorquez, José Alejandro; Rosell, Rosa; Summerfield, Artur; Domingo, Mariano; Ruggli, Nicolas; Ganges, Llilianne

    2015-07-09

    Classical swine fever (CSF) causes major losses in pig farming, with various degrees of disease severity. Efficient live attenuated vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are used routinely in endemic countries. However, despite intensive vaccination programs in these areas for more than 20 years, CSF has not been eradicated. Molecular epidemiology studies in these regions suggests that the virus circulating in the field has evolved under the positive selection pressure exerted by the immune response to the vaccine, leading to new attenuated viral variants. Recent work by our group demonstrated that a high proportion of persistently infected piglets can be generated by early postnatal infection with low and moderately virulent CSFV strains. Here, we studied the immune response to a hog cholera lapinised virus vaccine (HCLV), C-strain, in six-week-old persistently infected pigs following post-natal infection. CSFV-negative pigs were vaccinated as controls. The humoral and interferon gamma responses as well as the CSFV RNA loads were monitored for 21 days post-vaccination. No vaccine viral RNA was detected in the serum samples and tonsils from CSFV postnatally persistently infected pigs for 21 days post-vaccination. Furthermore, no E2-specific antibody response or neutralising antibody titres were shown in CSFV persistently infected vaccinated animals. Likewise, no of IFN-gamma producing cell response against CSFV or PHA was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the absence of a response to vaccination in CSFV persistently infected pigs.

  19. Co-infection of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; De la Luz-Armendáriz, Jazmín; Saavedra-Montañez, Manuel; Jasso-Escutia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Betancourt, Ivan; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Martínez-Lara, Atalo; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-02-29

    Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) and swine influenza virus infection causes respiratory disease in pigs. PorPV persistent infection could facilitate the establishment of secondary infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the pathogenicity of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus (swH1N1) in growing pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus. Conventional six-week-old pigs were intranasally inoculated with PorPV, swH1N1, or PorPV/swH1N1. A mock-infected group was included. The co-infection with swH1N1 was at 44 days post-infection (DPI), right after clinical signs of PorPV infection had stopped. The pigs of the co-infection group presented an increase of clinical signs compared to the simple infection groups. In all infected groups, the most recurrent lung lesion was hyperplasia of the bronchiolar-associated lymphoid tissue and interstitial pneumonia. By means of immunohistochemical evaluation it was possible to demonstrate the presence of the two viral agents infecting simultaneously the bronchiolar epithelium. Viral excretion of PorPV in nasal and oral fluid was recorded at 28 and 52 DPI, respectively. PorPV persisted in several samples from respiratory tissues (RT), secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). For swH1N1, the viral excretion in nasal fluids was significantly higher in single-infected swH1N1 pigs than in the co-infected group. However, the co-infection group exhibited an increase in the presence of swH1N1 in RT, SLO, and BALF at two days after co-infection. In conclusion, the results obtained confirm an increase in the clinical signs of infection, and PorPV was observed to impact the spread of swH1N1 in analysed tissues in the early stage of co-infection, although viral shedding was not enhanced. In the present study, the interaction of swH1N1 infection is demonstrated in pigs persistently infected with PorPV.

  20. Experimental Porcine Toxoplasma gondii Infection as a Representative Model for Human Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Nau, Julia; Eller, Silvia Kathrin; Wenning, Johannes; Spekker-Bosker, Katrin Henrike; Schroten, Horst; Schwerk, Christian; Hotop, Andrea; Groß, Uwe; Däubener, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Porcine infections are currently not the state-of-the-art model to study human diseases. Nevertheless, the course of human and porcine toxoplasmosis is much more comparable than that of human and murine toxoplasmosis. For example, severity of infection, transplacental transmission, and interferon-gamma-induced antiparasitic effector mechanisms are similar in pigs and humans. In addition, the severe immunosuppression during acute infection described in mice does not occur in the experimentally infected ones. Thus, we hypothesise that porcine Toxoplasma gondii infection data are more representative for human toxoplasmosis. We therefore suggest that the animal model chosen must be critically evaluated for its assignability to human diseases.

  1. Use of a Guinea Pig-Specific Transcriptome Array for Evaluation of Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydial Infection following Intranasal Vaccination in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Veselenak, Ronald L.; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Cap, Andrew P.; Guentzel, M. Neal; Chambers, James P.; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G.; Pyles, Richard B.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis. PMID:25502875

  2. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Veselenak, Ronald L; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Cap, Andrew P; Guentzel, M Neal; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G; Pyles, Richard B; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  3. Protection of Lassa virus-infected guinea pigs with Lassa-immune plasma of guinea pig, primate, and human origin.

    PubMed

    Jahrling, P B

    1983-01-01

    Lassa virus-immune plasma has been used to treat human Lassa fever patients; however, criteria for plasma selection were based arbitrarily on available serologic tools and protective efficacy was never directly assessed. To test the validity of plasma therapy for Lassa virus infections in an animal model, and to develop biologically relevant criteria for selection of protective immune plasma, inbred, strain 13 guinea pigs were infected with a lethal dose of Lassa virus and treated with various Lassa-immune plasmas obtained from guinea pigs, primates, and convalescent human patients. Neutralizing antibody titers were determined in a virus dilution, plaque reduction test, and were expressed as a log10 plaque-forming units (PFU) neutralization index (LNI). All guinea pigs treated with immune plasma 6 ml/kg/treatment on days 0, 3, and 6 after virus inoculation were protected, provided the LNI exceeded 2.0. Plasmas obtained from donors in early convalescence (32-45 days) had low titers of N-antibody (LNI less than 2) and failed to confer protection, despite high titers of Lassa antibody measured in the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test. Higher doses of marginally titered plasma conferred increased protection. The degree of protection and suppression of viremia was closely associated with LNI an not IFA titers. Administration of low-titered plasma did not result in immune enhancement. A high dose of human plasma from Liberia (12 ml/kg/treatment) was required to confer complete protection to guinea pigs infected with a Lassa virus strain from Sierra Leone (LNI = 1.6), while a lower dose (3 ml/kg/treatment) was sufficient for protection against a Liberian strain (LNI = 2.8), suggesting that a geographic matching of immune plasma and Lassa virus strain origin may increase treatment success. These studies support the concept of plasma therapy for Lassa infection and suggest that the plaque reduction neutralization test is more appropriate than the IFA test for

  4. CESSATION OF TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS TRANSMISSION AMONG SCAVENGING MAMMALS AFTER THE REMOVAL OF INFECTED PIGS FROM A POORLY MANAGED FARM

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pigs infected with the zoonotic parasite Trichinella spiralis were detected on a farm in Maryland during an animal welfare investigation. Sera and/or tissues were collected from 49 pigs and 3 pig carcasses (7 weeks of age to adult, mixed sex). The tissues were tested for the presence of T. spiralis ...

  5. The impact of gastrointestinal parasites infection on slaughter efficiency in pigs.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Damian; Jankowska, Anna; Zaleśny, Grzegorz

    2012-03-23

    The aim of the present study was to determine an influence of parasites invasion on fodder consumption and slaughter yield of fatteners in three different maintenance systems. The experimental part of the study was conducted on pigs farm producing in a close cycle. The study on internal parasites of fatteners were conducted based on coproscopic methods. In order to describe the relationship between following variables: meatiness, slaughter yield, fodder consumption and mean EPG value, the principal component analysis (PCA) was used. The analysis between fodder consumption and maintenance system and fodder consumption and helminths infection did not demonstrate any significant relationship. The analysis between slaughter yield and meatiness and an infection demonstrated in turn a decrease in both parameters values in the two maintenance systems, i.e. in fatteners kept on litter meatiness decrease in infected fatteners of 4.2% and yield of 1.7%. On slatted floor meatiness decrease in infected fatteners of 6.1% and yield of 2.7%. The decreasing tendency in meat content (3.7%) and in slaughter yield (1.1%) was also observed in fatteners maintained on deep litter, however the values were not significant statistically.

  6. Protein A Suppresses Immune Responses during Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwan Keun; Falugi, Fabiana; Thomer, Lena; Missiakas, Dominique M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Staphylococcus aureus infection is not associated with the development of protective immunity, and disease relapses occur frequently. We hypothesize that protein A, a factor that binds immunoglobulin Fcγ and cross-links VH3 clan B cell receptors (IgM), is the staphylococcal determinant for host immune suppression. To test this, vertebrate IgM was examined for protein A cross-linking. High VH3 binding activity occurred with human and guinea immunoglobulin, whereas mouse and rabbit immunoglobulins displayed little and no binding, respectively. Establishing a guinea pig model of S. aureus bloodstream infection, we show that protein A functions as a virulence determinant and suppresses host B cell responses. Immunization with SpAKKAA, which cannot bind immunoglobulin, elicits neutralizing antibodies that enable guinea pigs to develop protective immunity. Importance  Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of soft tissue and bloodstream infections; however, a vaccine with clinical efficacy is not available. Using mice to model staphylococcal infection, earlier work identified protective antigens; however, corresponding human clinical trials did not reach their endpoints. We show that B cell receptor (IgM) cross-linking by protein A is an important immune evasion strategy of S. aureus that can be monitored in a guinea pig model of bloodstream infection. Further, immunization with nontoxigenic protein A enables infected guinea pigs to elicit antibody responses that are protective against S. aureus. Thus, the guinea pig model may support preclinical development of staphylococcal vaccines. PMID:25564466

  7. Modeling the Disease Course of Zaire ebolavirus Infection in the Outbred Guinea Pig.

    PubMed

    Cross, Robert W; Fenton, Karla A; Geisbert, Joan B; Mire, Chad E; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    Rodent models that accurately reflect human filovirus infection are needed as early screens for medical countermeasures. Prior work in rodents with the Zaire species of Ebola virus (ZEBOV) primarily used inbred mice and guinea pigs to model disease. However, these inbred species do not show some of the important features of primate ZEBOV infection, most notably, coagulation abnormalities. Thirty-six outbred guinea pigs were infected with guinea pig-adapted ZEBOV and examined sequentially over an 8-day period to investigate the pathologic events that lead to death. Features of disease in ZEBOV-infected outbred guinea pigs were largely consistent with disease in humans and nonhuman primates and included early infection of macrophages and dendritiform cells, apoptosis of bystander lymphocytes, and increases in levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Most importantly, dysregulation of circulating levels of fibrinogen, protein C activity, and antifibrinolytic proteins and deposition of fibrin in tissues demonstrated both biochemical and microscopic evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation. These findings suggest that the outbred guinea pig model recapitulates ZEBOV infection of primates better than inbred rodent models, is useful for dissecting key events in the pathogenesis of ZEBOV, and is useful for evaluating candidate interventions prior to assessment in primates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Infected Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Transmit Latent Varicella Zoster Virus Infection to the Guinea Pig Enteric Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lin; Wang, Mingli; Chen, Jason J.; Gershon, Michael D.; Gershon, Anne A.

    2014-01-01

    Latent wild-type (WT) and vaccine (vOka) varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are found in the human enteric nervous system (ENS). VZV also infects guinea pig enteric neurons in vitro, establishes latency and can be reactivated. We therefore determined whether lymphocytes infected in vitro with VZV secrete infectious virions and can transfer infection in vivo to the ENS of recipient guinea pigs. T lymphocytes (CD3-immunoreactive) were preferentially infected following co-culture of guinea pig or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with VZV-infected HELF. VZV proliferated in the infected T cells and expressed immediate early and late VZV genes. Electron microscopy confirmed that VZV-infected T cells produced encapsulated virions. Extracellular virus, however, was pleomorphic, suggesting degradation occurred prior to release, which was confirmed by the failure of VZV-infected T cells to secrete infectious virions. Intravenous injection of WT- or vOka-infected PBMCs, nevertheless, transmitted VZV to recipient animals (guinea pig > human lymphocytes). Two days post-inoculation, lung and liver, but not gut, contained DNA and transcripts encoding ORFs 4, 40, 66 and 67. Twenty-eight days after infection, gut contained DNA and transcripts encoding ORFs 4 and 66 but neither DNA nor transcripts could any longer be found in lung or liver. In situ hybridization revealed VZV DNA in enteric neurons, which also expressed ORF63p (but not ORF68p) immunoreactivity. Observations suggest that VZV infects T cells, which can transfer VZV to and establish latency in enteric neurons in vivo. Guinea pigs may be useful for studies of VZV pathogenesis in the ENS. PMID:24965252

  9. Prior infection of pigs with a genotype 3 swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) protects against subsequent challenges with homologous and heterologous genotypes 3 and 4 human HEV.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Brenton J; Dryman, Barbara A; Huang, Yao-Wei; Feagins, Alicia R; Leroith, Tanya; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important human pathogen. At least four recognized and two putative genotypes of mammalian HEV have been reported: genotypes 1 and 2 are restricted to humans whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic. The current experimental vaccines are all based on a single strain of HEV, even though multiple genotypes of HEV are co-circulating in some countries and thus an individual may be exposed to more than one genotype. Genotypes 3 and 4 swine HEV is widespread in pigs and known to infect humans. Therefore, it is important to know if prior infection with a genotype 3 swine HEV will confer protective immunity against subsequent exposure to genotypes 3 and 4 human and swine HEV. In this study, specific-pathogen-free pigs were divided into 4 groups of 6 each. Pigs in the three treatment groups were each inoculated with a genotype 3 swine HEV, and 12 weeks later, challenged with the same genotype 3 swine HEV, a genotype 3 human HEV, and a genotype 4 human HEV, respectively. The control group was inoculated and challenged with PBS buffer. Weekly sera from all pigs were tested for HEV RNA and IgG anti-HEV, and weekly fecal samples were also tested for HEV RNA. The pigs inoculated with swine HEV became infected as evidenced by fecal virus shedding and viremia, and the majority of pigs also developed IgG anti-HEV prior to challenge at 12 weeks post-inoculation. After challenge, viremia was not detected and only two pigs challenged with swine HEV had 1-week fecal virus shedding, suggesting that prior infection with a genotype 3 swine HEV prevented pigs from developing viremia and fecal virus shedding after challenges with homologous and heterologous genotypes 3 and 4 HEV. The results from this study have important implications for future development of an effective HEV vaccine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental infection of specific pathogen free piglets with French strains of Streptococcus suis capsular type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Berthelot-Hérault, F; Cariolet, R; Labbé, A; Gottschalk, M; Cardinal, J Y; Kobisch, M

    2001-01-01

    A standardized model of Streptococcus suis type 2 infection in specific-pathogen-free piglets, housed in high-security barns, was used to compare the virulence of 3 French field strains of S. suis serotype 2 isolated from tonsils of a healthy pig (strain 65) or from diseased pigs (meningitis, strain 166', or septicemia, strain 24). In one of the 2 trials, 7-week-old pigs, in 3 groups of 8, were inoculated intravenously with 2 x 10(8) colony-forming units of S. suis type 2. In each group, 1 uninfected animal was a sentinel. Eight animals were also used as negative control group. The experiment was repeated under similar conditions with strains 65 and 166'. Virulence differed markedly among these S. suis strains when clinical signs, zootechnical performances, lesions, and bacteriological data were analyzed. Strain 65 did not induce clinical signs in inoculated pigs. In contrast, pigs infected with the other 2 strains exhibited clinical signs and typical lesions of S. suis type 2 infections. Differences in virulence were also observed between the 2 virulent strains. Sentinel animals exhibited the same manifestations as those recorded in inoculated piglets. Results were similar in the second trial, indicating that under the present experimental conditions, results were reproducible. The standardized conditions described in this study could be a useful tool to further study about the S. suis infection. PMID:11480526

  11. Pathogenesis of systemic Mycobacterium avium infection in pigs through histological analysis of hepatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Hibiya, Kenji; Utsunomiya, Kimiko; Yoshida, Takashi; Toma, Satoshi; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Fujita, Jiro

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium causes systemic infections through primary intestinal lesions in pigs. However, its pathogenesis is not well understood. The aim of this study was to confirm the effects on swine after enteral infection. One hundred and twelve pigs with hepatic lesions infected with M. avium were used in this study. We investigated the involvement of other organs and the distribution of hepatic lesions in the lobular structure. Most lesions involved the mesenteric lymph nodes. Hepatic lymph nodes were the secondary nodes involved. In 74 cases (66.1%), the hepatic lesions were predominantly distributed in the portal tract of the affected livers. The other 38 cases (33.9%) showed granulomatous lesions in the hepatic lobule. Many cases showed interface hepatitis. There was a significant relationship between focal lesions within hepatic lobule and splenic lesions. These findings suggest that granulomatous lesions formed in hepatic lobules upon establishment of bacteremia in pigs systemically infected with M. avium. PMID:21197224

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for swine influenza virus infection in the English pig population

    PubMed Central

    Mastin, Alexander; Alarcon, Pablo; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Wood, James; Williamson, Susanna; Brown, Ian; Wieland, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Infection of pigs with influenza viruses is a cause of considerable economic loss for pig farmers as well as a potential human health concern - as evidenced by the identification of genetic material derived from swine-adapted influenza viruses in an novel strain of H1N1 influenza virus in 2009. A study was conducted investigating the prevalence of influenza virus infection in a selection of 143 English pig herds between April 2008 and April 2009, which found evidence of recent virus circulation in over half of these herds (n=75). Farms which were sampled in the Summer months were found to have lower odds of recent virus circulation, as were farms containing pigs kept in straw yards. Additionally, farms containing pigs kept indoors and farms containing high numbers of finisher pigs per water space were found to have higher odds of recent virus circulation. It is hoped that further studies will expand on these findings, and may allow targeting of surveillance for influenza viruses in the English pig population. PMID:21637347

  13. Update on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs: Knowledge gaps for improved disease control.

    PubMed

    Maes, D; Sibila, M; Kuhnert, P; Segalés, J; Haesebrouck, F; Pieters, M

    2017-08-23

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is the primary pathogen of enzootic pneumonia, a chronic respiratory disease in pigs. Infections occur worldwide and cause major economic losses to the pig industry. The present paper reviews the current knowledge on M. hyopneumoniae infections, with emphasis on identification and analysis of knowledge gaps for optimizing control of the disease. Close contact between infected and susceptible pigs is the main route of M. hyopneumoniae transmission. Management and housing conditions predisposing for infection or disease are known, but further research is needed to better understand M. hyopneumoniae transmission patterns in modern pig production systems, and to assess the importance of the breeding population for downstream disease control. The organism is primarily found on the mucosal surface of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. Different adhesins and lipoproteins are involved in the adherence process. However, a clear picture of the virulence and pathogenicity of M. hyopneumoniae is still missing. The role of glycerol metabolism, myoinositol metabolism and the Mycoplasma Ig binding protein-Mycoplasma Ig protease system should be further investigated for their contribution to virulence. The destruction of the mucociliary apparatus, together with modulating the immune response, enhances the susceptibility of infected pigs to secondary pathogens. Clinical signs and severity of lesions depend on different factors, such as management, environmental conditions and likely also M. hyopneumoniae strain. The potential impact of strain variability on disease severity is not well defined. Diagnostics could be improved by developing tests that may detect virulent strains, by improving sampling in live animals and by designing ELISAs allowing discrimination between infected and vaccinated pigs. The currently available vaccines are often cost-efficient, but the ongoing research on developing new vaccines that confer protective

  14. Transcript Expression Analysis in Tracheobronchial Lymph Nodes of Pseudorabies Virus Infected Pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study addresses the critical relationship between Pseudorabies virus (PRV) and its host at a transcriptional level during the course of an infection. RNA isolated from draining tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) specimens from 5-week old pigs clinically infected with a feral isolate of PRV (FS...

  15. Transcript Expression Analysis in Tracheobronchial Lymph Nodes of Pseudorabies Virus Infected Pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study addresses the critical relationship between Pseudorabies virus (PRV) and its host at a transcriptional level during the course of an infection. RNA isolated from draining tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) specimens from 5-week old pigs clinically infected with a feral isolate of PRV (FS...

  16. Survey of Trichinella infections in domestic pigs from northern and eastern Henan, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jing; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Li Na; Wang, Zhong Quan

    2013-05-20

    The aim of this work was to investigate the current situation of Trichinella infections in swine in the cities of Anyang and Shanqiu in the Henan province historically designated as trichinellosis-free. A total of 475 diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 2010 to 2011 and examined by trichinelloscopy and artificial digestion. No Trichinella larvae were detected by trichinelloscopy; however, using the digestion method, 3.79% (18/475) of domestic pigs were deemed positive for Trichinella. Among the 475 pigs examined, 112 from an industrialized pig farm were negative. However. Trichinella larvae were detected in 10% (9/90) of pigs from small pig farms, which was significantly higher than the 3.3% (9/273) of pigs found positive from backyard farms (P<0.05). The larval burdens in infected animals ranged from 0.1 to 1.58 larvae per gram. The larvae were identified by multiplex PCR as Trichinella spiralis. Our study confirms the existence of porcine trichinellosis in northern and eastern parts of Henan. The results will be useful for evaluating the risk of infection for humans. Given this new found data, public health officials should consider implementing strategies to eliminate human transmission.

  17. Effect of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection of female guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Rank, R G; White, H J; Hough, A J; Pasley, J N; Barron, A L

    1982-01-01

    Female guinea pigs were treated daily with 1 mg of beta-estradiol-3-benzoate intramuscularly beginning 14 days before intravaginal inoculation with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis and continuing during the course of the infection. Treatment with estradiol was found to markedly influence the course of genital infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis, producing infections of greater intensity and longer duration than those in control animals. Moreover, pathogenesis was altered in that ascending infection was observed, resulting in endometritis, cystic salpingitis, and cystitis. Infection in the controls was limited to the cervix and vagina. Estradiol treatment increased the apparent number of infected cells in the cervix and vagina as detected by histopathology and immunofluorescent staining. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis were comparable in estradiol-treated and untreated animals. These data indicate that hormonal manipulation may have profound effects on the course of chlamydial genital infections. Images PMID:7141709

  18. Effect of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection of female guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Rank, R G; White, H J; Hough, A J; Pasley, J N; Barron, A L

    1982-11-01

    Female guinea pigs were treated daily with 1 mg of beta-estradiol-3-benzoate intramuscularly beginning 14 days before intravaginal inoculation with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis and continuing during the course of the infection. Treatment with estradiol was found to markedly influence the course of genital infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis, producing infections of greater intensity and longer duration than those in control animals. Moreover, pathogenesis was altered in that ascending infection was observed, resulting in endometritis, cystic salpingitis, and cystitis. Infection in the controls was limited to the cervix and vagina. Estradiol treatment increased the apparent number of infected cells in the cervix and vagina as detected by histopathology and immunofluorescent staining. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis were comparable in estradiol-treated and untreated animals. These data indicate that hormonal manipulation may have profound effects on the course of chlamydial genital infections.

  19. Experimental treatment of Curvularia infection.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Katihuska; Capilla, Javier; Sutton, Deanna A; Mayayo, Emilio; Fothergill, Annette W; Guarro, Josep

    2014-08-01

    We have evaluated the efficacy of amphotericin B, posaconazole, and voriconazole in immunosuppressed murine models of disseminated infection by Curvularia spicifera and Curvularia hawaiiensis. The 3 antifungals improved survival of mice in comparison to controls; however, only the 2 azoles were able to reduce significantly the fungal load. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiplex analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Wyns, H; Croubels, S; Vandekerckhove, M; Demeyere, K; De Backer, P; Goddeeris, B M; Meyer, E

    2015-10-01

    Porcine pleuropneumonia is a severe respiratory disease caused by Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae. The aim of the present study was to analyze serum samples of A. pleuropneumoniae-infected pigs for TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 using a cytometric bead array (CBA) 3-plex assay and additionally for IL-6 using ELISA. The CBA 3-plex assay was successfully validated for use in serum. The limits of detection varied between 0.012 and 0.333 ng/mL, and the inter- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were <5% and <10%, respectively. Increased levels were observed for all 3 cytokines following experimental infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. Mean peak concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were recorded at 12h and at 10h p.i., respectively. For IL-6, similar concentration-time profiles were observed with CBA and ELISA. It is proposed that this immuno-assay can be applied for the screening of immunomodulatory properties of drugs and vaccine adjuvants in infection, inflammation and vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in naturally infected domestic pigs in Northern Serbia.

    PubMed

    Kuruca, Ljiljana; Klun, Ivana; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Bobić, Branko; Simin, Stanislav; Lalošević, Vesna; Lalošević, Dušan; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2017-09-27

    Insufficiently cooked pork is considered as an important source of human infection with Toxoplasma gondii. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of T. gondii in pigs intended for human consumption from Northern Serbia. Blood and diaphragm samples were collected from 182 naturally infected market-weight pigs, originating from both commercial farms and smallholdings. Sera were examined using modified agglutination test (MAT), and diaphragms from seropositive, as well as from some MAT-negative pigs, were bioassayed in mice. In addition, digests were examined for the presence of T. gondii DNA using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) which was targeted at the 529 bp repetitive element of the T. gondii genome. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in pigs was 17% (31/182), with no difference between pigs from large commercial farms (17.8%) and those raised on smallholdings (16.3%). However, the seroprevalence in farm pigs was largely influenced by the findings on a single farm, where all examined animals tested positive. Parasites and/or parasite DNA were detected in the tissues of 15 of the 45 (25 seropositive and 20 seronegative) animals examined by either direct method. Tissue cysts were isolated in eight bioassays and an additional bioassay was positive by serology; all nine were confirmed positive by qPCR. All positive bioassays originated from seropositive pigs, but no correlation was observed between isolation rate and antibody titer. T. gondii DNA was detected in diaphragm tissues of eight pigs, of which three were seronegative. The results of our study provide further evidence for pork as a source of human T. gondii infection.

  2. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Pigs at the Time of Slaughter, United Kingdom, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Sylvia; Heaney, Judith; Cheney, Tanya; Morgan, Dilys; Wyllie, Stephen; Powell, Laura; Smith, Donald; Ijaz, Samreen; Steinbach, Falko; Choudhury, Bhudipa

    2015-01-01

    Since 2010, reports of infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) have increased in England and Wales. Despite mounting evidence regarding the zoonotic potential of porcine HEV, there are limited data on its prevalence in pigs in the United Kingdom. We investigated antibody prevalence, active infection, and virus variation in serum and cecal content samples from 629 pigs at slaughter. Prevalence of antibodies to HEV was 92.8% (584/629), and HEV RNA was detected in 15% of cecal contents (93/629), 3% of plasma samples (22/629), and 2% of both (14/629). However, although HEV is prevalent in pigs in the United Kingdom and viremic pigs are entering the food chain, most (22/23) viral sequences clustered separately from the dominant type seen in humans. Thus, pigs raised in the United Kingdom are unlikely to be the main source of human HEV infections in the United Kingdom. Further research is needed to identify the source of these infections. PMID:26196216

  3. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Pigs at the Time of Slaughter, United Kingdom, 2013.

    PubMed

    Grierson, Sylvia; Heaney, Judith; Cheney, Tanya; Morgan, Dilys; Wyllie, Stephen; Powell, Laura; Smith, Donald; Ijaz, Samreen; Steinbach, Falko; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Tedder, Richard S

    2015-08-01

    Since 2010, reports of infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) have increased in England and Wales. Despite mounting evidence regarding the zoonotic potential of porcine HEV, there are limited data on its prevalence in pigs in the United Kingdom. We investigated antibody prevalence, active infection, and virus variation in serum and cecal content samples from 629 pigs at slaughter. Prevalence of antibodies to HEV was 92.8% (584/629), and HEV RNA was detected in 15% of cecal contents (93/629), 3% of plasma samples (22/629), and 2% of both (14/629). However, although HEV is prevalent in pigs in the United Kingdom and viremic pigs are entering the food chain, most (22/23) viral sequences clustered separately from the dominant type seen in humans. Thus, pigs raised in the United Kingdom are unlikely to be the main source of human HEV infections in the United Kingdom. Further research is needed to identify the source of these infections.

  4. Echinococcosis in pigs and intestinal infection with Echinococcus spp. in dogs in southwestern Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Bruzinskaite, R; Sarkūnas, M; Torgerson, P R; Mathis, A; Deplazes, P

    2009-03-23

    Cystic echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in many Eastern European and Asian countries. Post slaughter examinations of 684 pig livers in Lithuania revealed significantly higher numbers of Echinococcus granulosus infections in animals from family farms (13.2%; 95% CI 10.7-16.2) as compared with those from industrial farms (4.1%; 95% CI 0.8-11.5). The prevalence was also significantly higher in pigs older than 1 year than in younger ones. In addition, in 0.5% of the pigs from the family farms, infertile and calcified E. multilocularis lesions were identified by PCR. Faecal samples from rural dogs (n=240) originating from 177 family farms in 12 villages were investigated for taeniid eggs with two methods. Significantly more dogs excreting taeniid eggs were diagnosed with the flotation/sieving method (n=34) as compared to the modified McMaster method (n=12). Multiplex PCR performed with DNA from taeniid eggs isolated from faeces of 34 dogs revealed 26 infections with Taenia spp., 9 with E. granulosus and 2 with E. multilocularis (4 cases with concurrent Taenia spp. and E. granulosus or E. multilocularis infections). Genotyping of E. granulosus cyst tissues from 7 pigs, 1 head of cattle and from E. granulosus eggs from 8 dog faeces revealed the genotype G6/7 ('pig/camel strain') in all cases. The high infection pressure with Echinococcus spp. in family farms necessitates initiating control programs.

  5. Comparison of sow and/or piglet vaccination of 3 commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) single-dose vaccines on pigs under experimental PCV2 challenge.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yeonsu; Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2014-08-27

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of sow and/or piglet vaccination regimen by three commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines on pigs experimentally challenged with PCV2 at 84 days of age based on immunological, virological, and pathological evaluation. One hundred and nineteen piglets born to vaccinated or non-vaccinated sows were divided into 17 groups. A portion of the pigs with or without passively acquired immunity was vaccinated at 21 or 49 days of age. Regardless of the PCV2 vaccine, the combination of sow and pig (49 days of age) vaccinations significantly (P<0.05) reduced PCV2 viremia, induced higher log2 transformed neutralizing antibody titers, and resulted in higher proportion of CD4(+)CD8(+)IFN-γ(+) lymphocyte subsets than the sow vaccination alone, the pig (21 or 49 days of age) vaccination alone, and the combination of sow and pig (21 days of age) vaccinations at various days post challenge. The results showed a significant negative correlation between maternally derived antibodies at the day of vaccination and the increment of antibody titers to PCV2 at 28 days post vaccination in the combination of sow and pig (21 days of age) vaccinations but not the combination of sow and pig (49 days of age) vaccinations. The combination of sow and pig (49 days of age) vaccinations could be more effective for controlling PCV2 infection if PCV2 the infection occurs during the growing-finishing period in herds. Optimal vaccination strategies must balance the advantage of delayed vaccination with the need to induce immunity prior to exposure to pathogens under field conditions.

  6. BCG vaccination enhances resistance to M. tuberculosis infection in guinea pigs fed a low casein diet.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Isamu; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Satoru

    2007-03-01

    In order to examine the relationship between malnutrition and tuberculosis development in vivo, a malnourished guinea pig model fed with a low casein (5%) diet was developed. After being fed with the low casein diet, the guinea pigs were infected with Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis Kurono strain by aerosol infection, and seven weeks later were subjected to histopathologic examination, colony-forming unit (CFU) assay, fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-12 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA. Another group of guinea pigs were vaccinated subcutaneously with 10(6) CFU BCG Tokyo for three weeks and then similarly infected by aerosol. Eighty-eight% (7/8) of the malnourished guinea pigs succumbed to mycobacterial infection within 85 days after infection, while the malnourished guinea pigs vaccinated with BCG Tokyo survived. CFU assay showed that lung and splenic CFUs were higher in the low casein diet-fed groups than in the control diet (20% casein)-fed groups, although both groups had significantly lower CFUs after vaccination with BCG Tokyo (p<0.01). Examination of lung histopathology revealed that pulmonary granulomas were large and disorganized in the groups fed the low casein diet. The number of visible lesions on the surfaces of the fixed lungs in guinea pigs fed control diet+BCG and low casein diet+BCG was low significantly. Pan T-, CD4-, CD8- and Mac antigen-positive cells were also recognized in the infected lung tissues of low casein-fed guinea pigs and Pan T-, CD4- and Mac antigen-positive cells increased after vaccination with BCG Tokyo. Expression of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-12 and iNOS mRNA was also recognized in the infected lung tissues of low casein-fed guinea pigs and IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha mRNA expression was enhanced with BCG vaccination. These results indicate that

  7. Cross-Sectional Study of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Pig Farms in England.

    PubMed

    Limon, Georgina; Beauvais, Wendy; Dadios, Nikolaos; Villena, Isabelle; Cockle, Charlotte; Blaga, Radu; Guitian, Javier

    2017-05-01

    Ingestion of undercooked meat has been proposed as an important source of human Toxoplasma gondii infection. To ascertain the contribution of meat consumption to the risk of human infection, estimates of the prevalence of infection in meat-producing animals are required. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess T. gondii infection in pigs raised in England, to identify risk factors for infection, and to compare performance of two serological tests: modified agglutination test (MAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blood samples from 2071 slaughter pigs originating from 131 farms were collected and 75 (3.6%) were found to be positive by MAT. Positive pigs originated from 24 farms. A subset of samples (n = 492) were tested using ELISA, and a significant disagreement (p < 0.001) was found between the two tests. An empirical Bayes approach was used to estimate the farm-level prevalence and the probability of each individual farm having at least one positive animal, considering the uncertainty arising from the sampling strategy and the imperfect test performance. The adjusted farm-level prevalence was 11.5% (95% credible interval of positive farms 8.4-16.0%). Two different criteria were used for classifying farms as infected: (1) ≥50% probability of having at least one infected pig (n = 5, 6.8%) and (2) ≥10% probability (n = 15, 20.5%). Data on putative risk factors were obtained for 73 farms. Using a 10% cutoff, the relative risk (RR) of infection was higher in farms where cats have direct access to pigs' food (RR = 2.6; p = 0.04), pigs have outdoor access (RR = 3.0; p = 0.04), and farms keeping ≤200 pigs (RR = 3.9; p = 0.02), with strong collinearity between the three variables. The findings suggest a low level of T. gondii infection in the farms studied, most of which are likely to send to slaughter batches comprising 100% uninfected pigs. These results provide key inputs to quantitatively assess the

  8. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  9. In vitro inactivation of complement by a serum factor present in Junin-virus infected guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Rimoldi, M T; de Bracco, M M

    1980-01-01

    A serum factor(s) of guinea-pigs infected with Junin virus, the etiological agent of Argentine haemorrhagic fever, is endowed with a potent anticomplementary activity. It is resistant to heat (56 degrees, 30 min) and elutes from a Sephadex G-200 column between albumin and haemoglobin. It is ineffective in the presence of EDTA or EGTA and does not sediment at 82,000 g. It has no direct effect on C4 unless functional Cl is present. However, it induces Cl activation that consumes C4 haemolytic activity in normal human and guinea-pig sera. The evidence presented in this report demonstrates that the complement activation observed in experimental Argentine haemorrhagic fever is at least in part due to a direct effect of this serum factor on the classical complement pathway. PMID:6247264

  10. Infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells transmit latent varicella zoster virus infection to the guinea pig enteric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lin; Wang, Mingli; Chen, Jason J; Gershon, Michael D; Gershon, Anne A

    2014-10-01

    Latent wild-type (WT) and vaccine (vOka) varicella zoster virus (VZV) are found in the human enteric nervous system (ENS). VZV also infects guinea pig enteric neurons in vitro, establishes latency and can be reactivated. We therefore determined whether lymphocytes infected in vitro with VZV secrete infectious virions and can transfer infection in vivo to the ENS of recipient guinea pigs. T lymphocytes (CD3-immunoreactive) were preferentially infected following co-culture of guinea pig or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with VZV-infected HELF. VZV proliferated in the infected T cells and expressed immediate early and late VZV genes. Electron microscopy confirmed that VZV-infected T cells produced encapsulated virions. Extracellular virus, however, was pleomorphic, suggesting degradation occurred prior to release, which was confirmed by the failure of VZV-infected T cells to secrete infectious virions. Intravenous injection of WT- or vOka-infected PBMCs, nevertheless, transmitted VZV to recipient animals (guinea pig > human lymphocytes). Two days post-inoculation, lung and liver, but not gut, contained DNA and transcripts encoding ORFs 4, 40, 66 and 67. Twenty-eight days after infection, gut contained DNA and transcripts encoding ORFs 4 and 66 but neither DNA nor transcripts could any longer be found in lung or liver. In situ hybridization revealed VZV DNA in enteric neurons, which also expressed ORF63p (but not ORF68p) immunoreactivity. Observations suggest that VZV infects T cells, which can transfer VZV to and establish latency in enteric neurons in vivo. Guinea pigs may be useful for studies of VZV pathogenesis in the ENS.

  11. A neonatal gnotobiotic pig model of human enterovirus 71 infection and associated immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xingdong; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Bui, Tammy; Liu, Fangning; Kocher, Jacob; Jortner, Bernard S; Vonck, Marlice; Pelzer, Kevin; Deng, Jie; Zhu, Runan; Li, Yuyun; Qian, Yuan; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine development and pathogenesis studies for human enterovirus 71 are limited by a lack of suitable animal models. Here, we report the development of a novel neonatal gnotobiotic pig model using the non-pig-adapted neurovirulent human enterovirus 71 strain BJ110, which has a C4 genotype. Porcine small intestinal epithelial cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neural cells were infected in vitro. Oral and combined oral–nasal infection of 5-day-old neonatal gnotobiotic pigs with 5×108 fluorescence forming units (FFU) resulted in shedding up to 18 days post-infection, with viral titers in rectal swab samples peaking at 2.22×108 viral RNA copies/mL. Viral capsid proteins were detected in enterocytes within the small intestines on post-infection days (PIDs) 7 and 14. Additionally, viral RNA was detected in intestinal and extra-intestinal tissues, including the central nervous system, the lung and cardiac muscle. The infected neonatal gnotobiotic pigs developed fever, forelimb weakness, rapid breathing and some hand, foot and mouth disease symptoms. Flow cytometry analysis revealed increased frequencies of both CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-γ-producing T cells in the brain and the blood on PID 14, but reduced frequencies were observed in the lung. Furthermore, high titers of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies were generated in both orally and combined oral–nasally infected pigs on PIDs 7, 14, 21 and 28. Together, these results demonstrate that neonatal gnotobiotic pigs represent a novel animal model for evaluating vaccines for human enterovirus 71 and for understanding the pathogenesis of this virus and the associated immune responses. PMID:26038741

  12. Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Serbia: seroprevalence and demonstration of parasites in blood

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A seroepizootiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection involving a total of 488 slaughter pigs (468 market-weight pigs and 20 sows) in the Belgrade area, also included examination of the presence of T. gondii in the blood. Blood sampled at the slaughter line was examined for specific antibodies by modified direct agglutination, and blood clots of those seropositive at titres of 1:50-1:12800 were bioassayed in mice. The overall seroprevalence was 9.2%, significantly higher (p = 0.0063) in sows (30.0%) than in market-weight pigs (8.3%). Amongst the 22 bioassays performed, a total of 16 (72.7%) were positive, by observation of T. gondii cysts (12), seropositivity (7, including 3 in which cysts were not detected), and/or detection of T. gondii DNA by real-time PCR (12, including one otherwise negative). The positive bioassays originated from the blood of 12 market-weight pigs and 4 sows. Despite a general increase in the rate of demonstration of T. gondii with the increase in the specific antibody level, the association was not significant (p = 0.101). The risk of infection was 41-fold increased in sows vs market-weight pigs, and 15-fold in pigs from smallholders' finishing type farms vs those from large farrow-to-finish farms. The presence of viable T. gondii in a proportion of the samples indicates that some of the pigs had an active parasitaemia at the time of slaughter, which, along with the seroprevalence established, points to a potential source of human infection in Serbia. This is the first report on parasitaemia in naturally infected swine. PMID:21314900

  13. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Jiangxi province, South-Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H H; Huang, S Y; Zhang, W B; Zhao, L; Xu, C M; Deng, S Z; Zhu, X Q

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative obligate bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. To assess the risk of zoonosis posed by pigs, a total of 920 serum samples were collected from pigs in 11 administrative cities in Jiangxi province, south-eastern China, and the seroprevalence of Chlamydia antibodies was investigated by an indirect haemagglutination assay. The pathogen-specific antibodies were detected in 539 (58.59 %) pigs with seroprevalence ranging from 33.33 % (Jingdezhen) to 90.91 % (Pingxiang) among different cities (P<0.05). The highest prevalence was found in pregnant sows (80.89 %, 127/157), followed by breeding boars (79.37 %, 50/63), suckling sows (77.01 %, 67/87), fattening pigs (69.32 %, 61/88) and non-pregnant sows (62.5 %, 180/288). Piglets had the lowest prevalence of 22.78 % (54/237). The seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection among different categories of pigs was also significantly different (P<0.05). These results indicate that Chlamydia is highly prevalent in pigs in Jiangxi province and our results indicate that the presence of Chlamydia exposure in pigs may pose a potential threat to human health.

  14. Experimental Chagas' disease in complement-deficient mice and guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Dalmasso, A P; Jarvinen, J A

    1980-01-01

    The course of infection with trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (House 510 strain) in mice and guinea pigs with genetic complement deficiencies was compared with that in normocomplementemic animals. Parasitemias in a mouse strain (B10.D2/old) genetically deficient in C5 and therefore unable to sustain lysis were similar to or lower than in a congenic normocomplementemic strain (B10.D2/new). The levels of C3 measured immunochemically were generally unaffected. There were no significant differences in mortality rates. These results indicate that, in mice, complement-mediated lysis does not play a significant role in the control of T. cruzi (House 510) infections. Studies were also performed in normocomplementemic guinea pigs and in guinea pigs genetically deficient in the fourth component of complement and thus unable to support functions mediated by the classical pathway of complement activation. No significant differences were noted between the two strains in the course of infection, persistence of subpatent infection, or rate of mortality, indicating that if the classical complement pathway plays a role in resistance to T. cruzi (House 510) in guinea pigs, this role must be a small one. PMID:6772558

  15. Acute phase protein response during subclinical infection of pigs with H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2012-10-12

    In the present study acute phase proteins (APPs) responses in pigs after subclinical infection with H1N1 swine influenza virus (SwH1N1) were evaluated. Fourteen 5 weeks old, seronegative piglets, both sexes were used. Ten of them were infected intranasally with SwH1N1. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP) concentrations in serum were measured using commercial ELISAs. No significant clinical signs were observed in any of the infected pigs, however, all infected animals developed specific antibodies against SwH1N1 and viral shedding was observed from 2 to 5 dpi. Only concentrations of Hp and SAA were significantly induced after infection, with mean maximum levels from days 1 to 2 post infection (dpi). The concentrations of CRP and Pig-MAP remained generally unchanged, however in half of infected pigs the concentration of CRP tended to increase at 1 dpi (but without statistical significance). The results of our study confirmed that monitoring of APPs may be useful for detection of subclinically infected pigs. The use of SAA or Hp and Pig-MAP may be a valuable in combination [i.e. Hp (increased concentration) and Pig-MAP (unchanged concentration)] to detect subclinically SIV infected pigs, or to identify pigs actually producing a large amount of virus. Additional studies need to be done in order to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Coprological survey of parasitic infections in pigs and cattle in slaughterhouse in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Kita, Toshimasa; Narushima, Tsuguto; Kimata, Isao; Tani, Hiroyuki; Sasai, Kazumi; Baba, Eiichiroh

    2009-08-01

    A coprological survey was performed at a slaughterhouse in Osaka, Japan, from 2004 to 2007 on 129 pigs reared in 8 prefectures, and on 213 cattle reared in 21 prefectures. Eimeria spp., Trichuris suis, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus spp. infections were found in 52 (40.3%), 32 (24.8%), 19 (14.7%) and 3 pigs (2.3%), respectively, while Eimeria spp., Capillaria bovis and Trichuris sp. infections were detected in 163 (76.5%), 15 (7.0%) and 8 cattle (3.8%), respectively. Our results suggest that environmentally resistant oocysts and eggs of parasites could be widespread at the farms examined.

  17. Tumor necrosis factor and the pathogenesis of Pichinde virus infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Aronson, J F; Herzog, N K; Jerrells, T R

    1995-03-01

    Pichinde virus (PIC) is a reticuloendothelial arenavirus of the New World tropics. A guinea pig passage-adapted strain of this virus (adPIC) is uniformly lethal for inbred guinea pigs, while the related, prototype strain (PIC3739) has attenuated virulence. The abilities of adPIC and PIC3739 to induce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in vivo and in cultured macrophages were compared. Infection with adPIC, but not PIC3739, was associated with detectable serum TNF that peaked in week 2 of infection. Tumor necrosis factor was found in the spleens of adPIC- and PIC3739-infected animals in week 1 of infection; TNF alpha mRNA levels in spleens and livers of adPIC infected animals increased and remained high throughout infection, whereas PIC3739-infected organs showed down regulation of TNF alpha mRNA late in infection. Peritoneal macrophages explanted from adPIC-infected animals showed enhanced lipopolysaccharide-inducible TNF production. Altered regulation of TNF production may play a role in the pathogenesis of guinea pig arenavirus disease.

  18. Tumor Necrosis Factor and the Pathogenesis of Pichinde Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Judith F.; Herzog, Norbert K.; Jerrells, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    Pichinde virus (PIC) is a reticuloendothelial arenavirus of the New World tropics. A guinea pig passage–adapted strain of this virus (adPIC) is uniformly lethal for inbred guinea pigs, while the related, prototype strain (PIC3739) has attenuated virulence. The abilities of adPIC and PIC3739 to induce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in vivo and in cultured macrophages were compared. Infection with adPIC, but not PIC3739, was associated with detectable serum TNF that peaked in week 2 of infection. Tumor necrosis factor was found in the spleens of adPIC- and PIC3739-infected animals in week 1 of infection ; TNFα mRNA levels in spleens and livers of adPIC infected animals increased and remained high throughout infection, whereas PIC3739-infected organs showed down regulation of TNFα mRNA late in infection. Peritoneal macrophages explanted from adPIC-infected animals showed enhanced lipopolysaccharide-inducible TNF production. Altered regulation of TNF production may play a role in the pathogenesis of guinea pig arenavirus disease. PMID:7694969

  19. Identification of swine influenza A virus and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia co-infection in Chinese pigs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Influenza virus virulence can be exacerbated by bacterial co-infections. Swine influenza virus (SIV) infection together with some bacteria is found to enhance pathogenicity. Methods SIV-positive samples suspected of containing bacteria were used for bacterial isolation and identification. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion methods. To investigate the interaction of SIV and the bacteria in vitro, guinea pigs were used as mammalian hosts to determine the effect on viral susceptibility and transmissibility. Differences in viral titers between groups were compared using Student’s t-test. Results During surveillance for SIV in China from 2006 to 2009, seven isolates (24.14%) of 29 influenza A viruses were co-isolated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia from nasal and tracheal swab samples of pigs. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the bacteria possessed a high level of resistance towards clinically used antibiotics. To investigate the interaction between these two microorganisms in influencing viral susceptibility and transmission in humans, guinea pigs were used as an infection model. Animals were inoculated with SIV or S. maltophilia alone or co-infected with SIV and S. maltophilia. The results showed that although no transmission among guinea pigs was observed, virus–bacteria co-infections resulted in higher virus titers in nasal washes and trachea and a longer virus shedding period. Conclusions This is the first report of influenza virus co-infection with S. maltophilia in the Chinese swine population. Increased replication of virus by co-infection with multidrug resistant bacteria might increase the infection rate of SIV in humans. The control of S. maltophilia in clinics will contribute to reducing the spread of SIV in pigs and humans. PMID:22913775

  20. Identification of swine influenza A virus and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia co-infection in Chinese pigs.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dongjun; Bi, Yuhai; Sun, Honglei; Yang, Jun; Fu, Guanghua; Sun, Yipeng; Liu, Jinhua; Pu, Juan

    2012-08-22

    Influenza virus virulence can be exacerbated by bacterial co-infections. Swine influenza virus (SIV) infection together with some bacteria is found to enhance pathogenicity. SIV-positive samples suspected of containing bacteria were used for bacterial isolation and identification. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion methods. To investigate the interaction of SIV and the bacteria in vitro, guinea pigs were used as mammalian hosts to determine the effect on viral susceptibility and transmissibility. Differences in viral titers between groups were compared using Student's t-test. During surveillance for SIV in China from 2006 to 2009, seven isolates (24.14%) of 29 influenza A viruses were co-isolated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia from nasal and tracheal swab samples of pigs. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the bacteria possessed a high level of resistance towards clinically used antibiotics. To investigate the interaction between these two microorganisms in influencing viral susceptibility and transmission in humans, guinea pigs were used as an infection model. Animals were inoculated with SIV or S. maltophilia alone or co-infected with SIV and S. maltophilia. The results showed that although no transmission among guinea pigs was observed, virus-bacteria co-infections resulted in higher virus titers in nasal washes and trachea and a longer virus shedding period. This is the first report of influenza virus co-infection with S. maltophilia in the Chinese swine population. Increased replication of virus by co-infection with multidrug resistant bacteria might increase the infection rate of SIV in humans. The control of S. maltophilia in clinics will contribute to reducing the spread of SIV in pigs and humans.

  1. Micro-endoscopic ear anatomy of guinea pig applied to experimental surgery.

    PubMed

    Barros, Bruno Borges de Carvalho; Andrade, José Santos Cruz de; Garcia, Leandro Borborema; Pifaia, Gustavo Ribeiro; Cruz, Oswaldo Laércio Mendonça; Onishi, Ektor Tsuneo; Penido, Norma de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    To describe topographic and endoscopic anatomy of guinea pig ear for development of surgical approaches in experimental studies. Experimental study. Eight adult guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were used in this study. Four animals were described through endoscopic view and four animals were used to describe topographic anatomy. The main structures of middle ear were well identified through endoscopy view: oval and round window, ossicles and vascular structures. Temporal bone position, landmarks and its relations to skull are perceived with topographic description. Topographic anatomic description allowed exposition of temporal bone relations for external surgical approaches. Alternatively, grooves and middle ear structures were identified and may be used to transcanal accesses.

  2. Clinical cystoisosporosis associated to porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV, Suid herpesvirus 2) infection in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Basso, Walter; Marti, Hanna; Hilbe, Monika; Sydler, Titus; Stahel, Anina; Bürgi, Esther; Sidler, Xaver

    2017-09-21

    Cystoisospora (syn. Isospora) suis is the causative agent of neonatal porcine coccidiosis and one of the main causes of diarrhoea in suckling piglets worldwide. Infection with porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV, Suid herpesvirus 2) causes inclusion body rhinitis in pigs. In a Swiss pig herd (n=2 boars, 7 sows, 2 gilts, 18 finishing pigs, 30 fattening pigs, 54 suckling piglets), an outbreak of PCMV infection with high morbidity in all age categories, characterized by fever, anorexia, reduced general condition, respiratory signs and increased piglet mortality, was diagnosed by histopathology and molecular methods. Five fattening pigs (age~17weeks) additionally showed diarrhoea, not typical for PCMV infections, and one fattener had to be euthanized due to poor condition. Histopathologically, severe fibrinopurulent jejunoileitis with extensive atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi, loss of goblet cells and crypt abscesses associated to C. suis infection were present. In the liver, herpesvirus intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed and PCMV was confirmed by PCR/sequencing. No further infectious causes of diarrhoea (i.e. Rotavirus A; TGEV; PEDV; PCV-2; enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli or Lawsonia intracellularis) were detected in the euthanized fattener. Coproscopically, C. suis oocysts were identified in the faeces from further fatteners with diarrhoea. While C. suis usually produces disease only in suckling piglets, its association with severe intestinal lesions and diarrhoea in ~17-week-old fatteners was surprising. It is supposed that the underlying PCMV infection might have contributed to the presentation of clinical cystoisosporosis in fattening pigs. The interaction mechanisms between these two pathogens are unknown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental infection with a Thai reassortant swine influenza virus of pandemic H1N1 origin induced disease.

    PubMed

    Charoenvisal, Nataya; Keawcharoen, Juthatip; Sreta, Donruethai; Tantawet, Siriporn; Jittimanee, Suphattra; Arunorat, Jirapat; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje

    2013-03-16

    Following the emergence of the pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus in 2009 in humans, this novel virus spread into the swine population. Pigs represent a potential host for this virus and can serve as a mixing vessel for genetic mutations of the influenza virus. Reassortant viruses eventually emerged from the 2009 pandemic and were reported in swine populations worldwide including Thailand. As a result of the discovery of this emergent disease, pathogenesis studies of this novel virus were conducted in order that future disease protection and control measures in swine and human populations could be enacted. The pandemic H1N1 2009 virus (pH1N1) and its reassortant virus (rH1N1) isolated from pigs in Thailand were inoculated into 2 separate cohorts of 9, 3-week-old pigs. Cohorts were consisted of one group experimentally infected with pH1N1 and one group with rH1N1. A negative control group consisting of 3 pigs was also included. Clinical signs, viral shedding and pathological lesions were investigated and compared. Later, 3 pigs from viral inoculated groups and 1 pig from the control group were necropsied at 2, 4, and 12 days post inoculation (DPI). The results indicated that pigs infected with both viruses demonstrated typical flu-like clinical signs and histopathological lesions of varying severity. Influenza infected-pigs of both groups had mild to moderate pulmonary signs on 1-4 DPI. Interestingly, pigs in both groups demonstrated viral RNA detection in the nasal swabs until the end of the experiment (12 DPI). The present study demonstrated that both the pH1N1 and rH1N1 influenza viruses, isolated from naturally infected pigs, induced acute respiratory disease in experimentally inoculated nursery pigs. Although animals in the rH1N1-infected cohort demonstrated more severe clinical signs, had higher numbers of pigs shedding the virus, were noted to have increased histopathological severity of lung lesions and increased viral antigen in lung tissue, the findings were

  4. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) vaccine would modulate the protective immune response to a subsequent ch...

  5. Worm recovery and precipitin antibody response in guinea pigs and rats infected with Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Su, K E; Wang, F Y; Chi, P Y

    1998-12-01

    Guinea pigs (Hartley strain) and rats (Wistar strain) were each fed 200 and 100 Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae, respectively. Five animals from each species were sacrificed weekly between 1-8 weeks postinfection (WPI) and then at 12, 16, 20 and 30 WPI for collection of worms, bile and sera. The overall worm recovery rates for guinea pigs and rats were 18.7% and 12.4%, respectively. Only one of the five rats examined at 20 WPI still harbored one worm, while all were worm-free at 30 WPI. By a double diffusion test, no antibodies were detected against C. sinensis adult antigens in the bile juice. Serum antibodies were detected in at least 95% of the infected guinea pigs between 4-30 WPI and rats between 3-16 WPI. Precipitin antibodies seemed to be correlated with the presence of live worms in rats that had been infected for more than 12 weeks.

  6. Passive immunisation of post-weaned piglets using hyperimmune serum against experimental Haemophilus parasuis infection.

    PubMed

    Nedbalcova, K; Kucerova, Z; Krejci, J; Tesarik, R; Gopfert, E; Kummer, V; Leva, L; Kudlackova, H; Ondriasova, R; Faldyna, M

    2011-10-01

    The protective role of hyperimmune serum in the prevention of Haemophilus parasuis infections in post-weaned piglets was assessed by experimental challenge. The hyperimmune serum was obtained from a pig vaccinated with a commercial vaccine against Glässer's disease. Thirty-eight weaned piglets were divided into four groups: three groups were immunised intramuscularly with 10 ml of hyperimmune serum and one group consisted of unimmunised control animals. All piglets were subsequently infected intraperitoneally with H. parasuis serotype 5 at different times after immunisation. The use of hyperimmune serum provided the piglets with partial protection against experimental infection. The levels of protection indirectly depend on time between serum inoculation and challenge infection. The best protection of piglets against experimental infection was obtained in the group immunised 1 week before inoculation; the same group in which the highest levels of antibodies were detected at the time of challenge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Immune and inflammatory responses in pigs infected with Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Annette; Petersen, Heidi H; Kringel, Helene; Iburg, Tine M; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Dawson, Harry; Urban, Joseph F; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2015-01-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate parasite induced immune responses in pigs co-infected with Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum as compared to mono-species infected pigs. T. suis is known to elicit a strong immune response leading to rapid expulsion, and a strong antagonistic effect on O. dentatum populations has been observed in co-infected pigs. Forty-eight helminth naïve pigs were allocated into 4 groups in a 2-factorial design. Two groups were trickle inoculated with either 10 T. suis eggs/kg/day (Group T) or 20 O. dentatum L3/kg/day (Group O). Group OT was infected with same levels of both T. suis and O. dentatum (Group OT) and Group C remained uninfected. In each group, six pigs were necropsied after 35 days and the remaining pigs after 71 days. Parasite E/S-antigen specific serum antibodies were quantified by an in-direct ELISA. qPCR was used to measure the expression of immune function related genes in the mucosa of proximal colon and the draining lymph node. Highly significant interactions were identified for O. dentatum specific IgG1 (p<0.0001) and IgG2 (p<0.0006) antibodies with a remarkable 2-fold higher antibody response in group OT pigs as compared to group O. These findings indicated that T. suis enhanced the antibody response against O. dentatum in Group OT. The gene expression data confirmed a strong Type 2 response to T. suis (e.g. marked increase in IL-13, ARG1 and CCL11) and clearly weaker in amplitude and/or delayed onset response to O. dentatum in the single infected group. Interactions were found between the two nematodes with regard to several cytokines, e.g. the increase in IL-13 observed in Group T was absent in Group OT (p=0.06, proximal colon mucosa, 35 and 71 p.i.). Some of these immune response-related interactions may support, or even partially explain, the observed interactions between the two worm populations in co-infected pigs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in landrace and mixed breed pigs slaughtered in Baja California Sur State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Vazquez-Morales, Renata Fabiola; Colado-Romero, Edgar Eusebio; Guzmán-Sánchez, Ramiro; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-03-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 308 domestic pigs slaughtered in La Paz, Baja California Sur State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Forty (13%) of the 308 pigs were seropositive with MAT titers of 1:25 in 16, 1:50 in 5, 1:100 in 4, 1:200 in 5, 1:400 in 3, 1:800 in 3, 1:1600 in 2, and 1:3200 in 2. Multivariate analysis of pigs' characteristics showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was negatively associated with mixed breed (OR = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.003-0.26; P = 0.001). Other variables including sex, type of raising, and municipality did not show an association with T. gondii seropositivity by multivariate analysis. The frequency of high antibody titers (≥1:400) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in Landrace pigs than mixed breed pigs. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pigs for slaughter in Baja California Sur State is low compared with seroprevalences reported in pigs in other Mexican states. Landrace pigs demonstrated higher seroprevalence rates and antibody levels than mixed breed pigs. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in pigs raised in a desert climate.

  9. Prevalence of Chlamydial Infections in Fattening Pigs and Their Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Karolin; Schott, Franziska; Donati, Manuela; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Hässig, Michael; Wanninger, Sabrina; Sidler, Xaver; Borel, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydial infections in pigs are associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea, conjunctivitis and other pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in Swiss fattening pigs by applying sensitive and specific detection methods and to correlate prior antibiotic treatment and farm related factors with differences in prevalence. Conjunctival and fecal swabs were collected from 636 pigs in 29 Swiss fattening pig farms with and without antibiotic treatment, at the beginning and the end of the fattening period. The swabs were screened by real-time PCR for Chlamydiaceae. For the chlamydial detection and species-identification, a DNA-microarray analysis was performed. All farms were positive for Chlamydiaceae with 94.3 and 92.0% prevalence in fecal swabs as well as 45.9 and 32.6% in conjunctival swabs at the first and second time points, respectively. Antibiotic treatment could not clear the infection on herd level. Potential contact with wild boars was a significant risk factor, while hygiene criteria did not influence chlamydial prevalence. A correlation of chlamydial positivity to diarrhea, but not to conjunctivitis was evident. Chlamydia suis was the predominant species. Mixed infections with C. suis and C. pecorum were common, with a substantial increase in C. pecorum positivity at the end of the fattening period, and this finding was associated with ruminant contact. C. abortus was detected in one conjunctival swab. In this study, C. suis inhabited the intestinal tract of nearly all examined pigs, implying a long-term infection. C. pecorum was also common and might be transmitted to pigs by ruminants. PMID:26619187

  10. Clinical chemical responses to experimental airborne legionellosis in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Hambleton, P.; Bailey, N. E.; Fitzgeorge, R. B.; Baskerville, A.

    1985-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila infection of guinea-pigs by the aerosol route with either of two strains, one (serogroup I) giving an acute the other (serogroup 3) giving a protracted illness, induced a pyrexia and similar pneumonic lesions. With both strains there was a bacteraemia with early decreases in serum iron and zinc and increases in serum copper concentrations. Marked changes in other serum components were evident only in those animals which had protracted illness (serogroup 3-infected animals). These included transient increases in aminotransferase, creatine kinase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities and triglyceride levels, together with gradual decreases in alkaline phosphatase and leucine aminopeptidase activities. Serum lysozyme activity and acute-phase protein synthesis increased, as did the ratio of phenylalanine to tyrosine. The findings confirm the relevance of the aerosol-infected guinea-pig model for the investigation of the disease processes and evaluation of therapeutic measures for use in man. PMID:2580546

  11. Florfenicol feed supplemented decrease the clinical effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae experimental infection in swine in México.

    PubMed

    Ciprián, A; Palacios, J M; Quintanar, D; Batista, L; Colmenares, G; Cruz, T; Romero, A; Schnitzlein, W; Mendoza, S

    2012-04-01

    The therapeutic value of Florfenicol feed supplemented was evaluated in conventional pigs to eliminate consequences of chronic infection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. The experimental animals were pigs with an average of 16 kg, after intratracheally inoculation with M. hyopneumoniae they were divided in two experimental groups: (a) the non-medicated; and (b) the feed supplemented group (20 g Florfenicol/ton of feed) during the ensuing 35 days. The average daily weight gain of the Florfenicol-treated pigs (0.33±0.14 kg/day) was significantly higher than that of the non-treated ones (0.21±0.10 kg/day). In medicated animals was still impaired relative to that of the uninfected ones control group (0.39±0.02 kg/day). The average percentage of pneumonic gross lesions extensions' of the pigs groups was: 13.99% for M. hyopneumoniae infected non-medicated group; 1.79% M. hyopneumoniae infected, Florfenicol-treated group and, 0.56% of the uninfected control group. M. hyopneumoniae; colonization was detected at these levels in 7 and 9 members of the respective infected groups. The extent of the pneumonic lesions and M. hyopneumoniae generally was greater in the non-medicated pigs. Therefore, oral administration of Florfenicol via feed ingestion seemed to be somewhat effective in ameliorating the clinical effects of M. hyopneumoniae infection of swine.

  12. Experimental animal infections with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, S J; Jacobs, N F; Chandler, F W; Arum, E S

    1977-01-01

    Subcutaneous tissue cavities in mice and guinea pigs were infected with human isolates of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis. The minimal infective dose for M. hominis was as low as less than 10 color-changing units (CCU) for mice and 10(2) CCU for guinea pigs. The minimal infective dose for U. urealyticum was as low as less than 10 CCU for mice and 10(4) CCU for guinea pigs. Mouse infections with either U. urealyticum or M. hominis persisted for 1 day to greater than 4 months. Guinea pigs remained infected for up to 4 weeks. Two M. hominis isolates were similar in their ability to infect subcutaneous tissue cavities but two U. urealyticum isolates varied in their ability to infect the cavities. The histopathology of the M. hominis and U. urealyticum infections was similar: an initial intense polymorphonuclear response with giant cells, followed in 4 weeks by histiocytes and giant cells with some plasma cells and lymphocytes. Images PMID:873611

  13. Pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) are impaired in controlling influenza A virus infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Influenza A viruses (IAV) infect many host species, including humans and pigs. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is a condition characterized by a lack of T, B, and/or natural killer (NK) cells. Animal models of SCID have great value for biomedical research. Here, we evaluated the pathogenesis...

  14. Raw pig blood consumption and potential risk for Streptococcus suis infection, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Huong, Vu Thi Lan; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Horby, Peter; Bryant, Juliet E; Van Kinh, Nguyen; Toan, Tran Khanh; Wertheim, Heiman F L

    2014-11-01

    We assessed consumption of raw pig blood, which is a risk factor for Streptococcus suis infection in Vietnam, by using a mix-method design. Factors associated with consumption included rural residency, age, sex, occupation, income, and marital status. We identified risk groups and practices and perceptions that should be targeted by communication programs.

  15. Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. reuteri modulate cytokine responses in gnotobiotic pigs infected with human rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, M. S. P.; Zhang, W.; Wen, K.; Gonzalez, A. M.; Saif, L. J.; Yousef, A. E.; Yuan, L.

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been shown to alleviate inflammation, enhance the immunogenicity of rotavirus vaccines, or reduce the severity of rotavirus diarrhoea. Although the mechanisms are not clear, the differential Th1/Th2/Th3-driving capacities and modulating effects on cytokine production of different LAB strains may be the key. Our goal was to delineate the influence of combining two probiotic strains L. acidophilus and L. reuteri on the development of cytokine responses in neonatal gnotobiotic pigs infected with human rotavirus (HRV). We demonstrated that HRV alone, or HRV plus LAB, but not LAB alone, initiated serum cytokine responses, as indicated by significantly higher concentrations of IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-12, and IL-10 at post-inoculation day (PID) 2 in the HRV only and LAB+HRV+ pigs compared to LAB only and LAB-HRV- pigs. Peak cytokine responses coincided with the peak of HRV replication. LAB further enhanced the Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to HRV infection as indicated by significantly higher concentrations of IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 in the LAB+HRV+ pigs compared to the LAB-HRV+ pigs. The LAB+HRV+ pigs maintained relatively constant concentrations of TGF-β compared to the HRV only group which had a significant increase at PID 2 and decrease at PID 7, suggesting a regulatory role of LAB in maintaining gut homeostasis. At PID 28, cytokine secreting cell (CSC) responses, measured by ELISpot, showed increased Th1 (IL-12, IFN-γ) CSC numbers in the LAB+HRV+ and LAB-HRV+ groups compared to LAB only and LAB-HRV- pigs, with significantly increased IL-12 CSCs in spleen and PBMCs and IFN-γ CSCs in spleen of the LAB+HRV+ group. Thus, HRV infection alone, but not LAB alone was effective in inducing cytokine responses but LAB significantly enhanced both Th1 and Th2 cytokines in HRV-infected pigs. LAB may also help to maintain immunological homeostasis during HRV infection by regulating TGF-β production. PMID:22348907

  16. Experimental induction of malignant catarrhal fever in pigs with ovine herpesvirus 2 by intranasal nebulization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a frequently fatal herpesviral disease, has been sporadically reported in pigs. All cases of naturally-occurring porcine MCF reported to date have been linked to ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Macavirus carried by sheep. Experimental in...

  17. Vaccination of pigs reduces Torque teno sus virus viremia during natural infection.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Melsió, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Fernando; Darji, Ayub; Segalés, Joaquim; Cornelissen-Keijsers, Vivian; van den Born, Erwin; Kekarainen, Tuija

    2015-07-09

    Anelloviruses are a group of single-stranded circular DNA viruses infecting several vertebrate species. Four species have been found to infect swine, namely Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) 1a and 1b (TTSuV1a, TTSuV1b; genus Iotatorquevirus), TTSuVk2a and TTSuVk2b (genus Kappatorquevirus). TTSuV infection in pigs is distributed worldwide, and is characterized by a persistent viremia. However, the real impact, if any, on the pig health is still under debate. In the present study, the impact of pig immunization on TTSuVk2a loads was evaluated. For this, three-week old conventional pigs were primed with DNA vaccines encoding the ORF2 gene and the ORF1-A, ORF1-B, and ORF1-C splicing variants and boosted with purified ORF1-A and ORF2 Escherichia coli proteins, while another group served as unvaccinated control animals, and the viral load dynamics during natural infection was observed. Immunization led to delayed onset of TTSuVk2a infection and at the end of the study when the animals were 15 weeks of age, a number of animals in the immunized group had cleared the TTSuVk2a viremia, which was not the case in the control group. This study demonstrated for the first time that TTSuV viremia can be controlled by a combined DNA and protein immunization, especially apparent two weeks after the first DNA immunization before seroconversion was observed. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms behind this and its impact for pig producers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Overexpression of Porcine Beta-Defensin 2 Enhances Resistance to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Infection in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Tan, Mei-Fang; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Liu, Wan-Quan; Zou, Geng; Zhang, Liang-Sheng; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Deng, Si-Min; Yu, Lei; Hu, Xue-Ying; Li, Lu; Zhou, Rui

    2015-07-01

    To reduce the need for antibiotics in animal production, alternative approaches are needed to control infection. We hypothesized that overexpression of native defensin genes will provide food animals with enhanced resistance to bacterial infections. In this study, recombinant porcine beta-defensin 2 (PBD-2) was overexpressed in stably transfected PK-15 porcine kidney cells. PBD-2 antibacterial activities against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important respiratory pathogen causing porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, were evaluated on agar plates. Transgenic pigs constitutively overexpressing PBD-2 were produced by a somatic cell cloning method, and their resistance to bacterial infection was evaluated by direct or cohabitation infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. Recombinant PBD-2 peptide that was overexpressed in the PK-15 cells showed antibacterial activity against A. pleuropneumoniae. PBD-2 was overexpressed in the heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and jejunum of the transgenic pigs, which showed significantly lower bacterial loads in the lungs and reduced lung lesions after direct or cohabitation infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. The results demonstrate that transgenic overexpression of PBD-2 in pigs confers enhanced resistance against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Overexpression of Porcine Beta-Defensin 2 Enhances Resistance to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Infection in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xi; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Tan, Mei-Fang; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Liu, Wan-Quan; Zou, Geng; Zhang, Liang-Sheng; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Deng, Si-Min; Yu, Lei; Hu, Xue-Ying; Li, Lu

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the need for antibiotics in animal production, alternative approaches are needed to control infection. We hypothesized that overexpression of native defensin genes will provide food animals with enhanced resistance to bacterial infections. In this study, recombinant porcine beta-defensin 2 (PBD-2) was overexpressed in stably transfected PK-15 porcine kidney cells. PBD-2 antibacterial activities against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important respiratory pathogen causing porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, were evaluated on agar plates. Transgenic pigs constitutively overexpressing PBD-2 were produced by a somatic cell cloning method, and their resistance to bacterial infection was evaluated by direct or cohabitation infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. Recombinant PBD-2 peptide that was overexpressed in the PK-15 cells showed antibacterial activity against A. pleuropneumoniae. PBD-2 was overexpressed in the heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and jejunum of the transgenic pigs, which showed significantly lower bacterial loads in the lungs and reduced lung lesions after direct or cohabitation infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. The results demonstrate that transgenic overexpression of PBD-2 in pigs confers enhanced resistance against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. PMID:25916992

  20. Effectiveness of an experimental consensus phytase in improving dietary phytate-phosphorus utilization by weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Gentile, J M; Roneker, K R; Crowe, S E; Pond, W G; Lei, X G

    2003-11-01

    Consensus phytase is a new biosynthetic, heat-stable enzyme derived from the sequences of multiple homologous phytases. Two experiments were conducted to determine its effectiveness, relative to inorganic P and a mutant enzyme of Escherichia coli phytase (Mutant-EP), in improving dietary phytate-P availability to pigs. In Exp. 1, 36 pigs (3 wk old, 7.00 +/- 0.24 kg of BW) were fed a low-P corn-soybean meal basal diet plus consensus phytase at 0, 250, 500, 750, 1,000, or 1,250 U/kg of feed for 5 wk. Plasma inorganic P concentration, plasma alkaline phosphatase activity, bone strength, and overall ADG and gain:feed ratio of pigs were improved (P < 0.05) by consensus phytase in both linear (R2 = 0.20 to 0.70) and quadratic (R2 = 0.30 to 0.70) dose-dependent fashions. In Exp. 2, 36 pigs (4 wk old, 9.61 +/- 0.52 kg BW) were fed the basal diet + inorganic P at 0.1 or 0.2%, consensus phytase at 750 or 450 U/kg of feed, Mutant-EP at 450 U/kg of feed, or 225 U consensus + 225 U Mutant-EP/kg of feed. Pigs fed 750 U of consensus phytase or 450 U of Mutant-EP/kg feed had plasma inorganic concentrations and bone strength that fell between those of pigs fed 0.1 or 0.2% inorganic P. These two measures were 16 to 29% lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed 450 U of consensus phytase/kg of feed than those of pigs fed 0.2% inorganic P. Plasma inorganic P concentrations were 14 to 29% higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed Mutant-EP vs. consensus phytase at 450 U/kg at wk 2 and 3. In conclusion, the experimental consensus phytase effectively releases phytate P from the corn-soy diet for weanling pigs. The inorganic P equivalent of 750 U of consensus phytase/kg of feed may fall between 0.1 and 0.2%, but this requires further determination.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL VIBRIO INFECTIONS OF DEVELOPING CHICK EMBRYOS

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Armine T.

    1946-01-01

    Developing chick embryos are highly susceptible to infection with strains on V. cholerae representing Gardner and Venkatraman's 6 groups and the types Inaba and Ogawa. There is a moderate decrease in susceptibility with advancing age of the embryo. The influence of dosage on survival rates is not marked, probably because a minimal dose, consisting of a very few organisms, is sufficient to produce death rapidly. Passive protection of a low order is conferred on the embryos by the introduction of inactivated specific immune serum at the time of inoculation of vibrios. This protective influence is enormously enhanced by the previous or simultaneous administration of guinea pig complement. The antigens of group I organisms which give rise to embryo-protective and bacteriolytic antibodies are dual in character. One antigen is shared by all members of the group and is productive of antibodies which will protect against infections with all strains of the group, of whatever type. The other antigen is type-specific, and its antibodies are protective and lytic only for organisms of the homologous type. PMID:19871571

  2. Experimental Proteus mirabilis Burn Surface Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    Reprinted from the Achie of Surgery ECTE February 1982, Volume 117 Copyright 19 2. American Medical Association MAY 2 8 1982 V0A Experimental Proteus ... mirabilis Burn Surface Infection Albert T. McManus, PhD; Charles G. McLeod, Jr, DVM; Arthur D. Mason, Jr, MD * We established a human burn Isolate of... Proteus mirabills as have examined human burn isolates from the genera an experimental pathogen. Infliction of a nonfatal scald injury Enterobacter

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease: a review of intranasal infection of cattle, sheep and pigs.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Robert; Gloster, John

    2008-08-01

    In an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) it is important to identify animals at risk from airborne virus. Investigations have been carried out over the years to determine the dose required to infect cattle, sheep and pigs by the intranasal route. This paper reviews the results of investigations for animals which have been infected by instillation or spraying a virus suspension into the nostrils or by exposure to affected animals through a mask or by indirect contact. The lowest doses were found by use of a mask. With virus from affected pigs given through a mask, doses of 18 infectious units (IU) in cattle and 8 IU in sheep were found to cause infection and give rise to lesions. Overall, cattle required the least amount of virus followed by sheep. Pigs required a dose of 22 IU to cause infection and a dose of 125 IU to give rise to lesions. In many experiments pigs failed to become infected. With all three species the dose varied with the individual animal and the virus strain. For modelling previous outbreaks and in real time, a dose of 8 IU or 10 and 50% infectious doses (ID50) could be used where cattle and sheep were involved. Experience in the field, combined with the results from experiments involving natural infection, indicate that pigs are not readily infected by the intranasal route. However, for modelling purposes a dose of about 25 IU should be used with care. Investigations are needed to determine doses for virus strains currently in circulation around the world. In addition, the nature of the aerosol droplets needs to be analysed to determine how the respective amounts of infective and non-infective virus particles, host components and, in later emissions, the presence of antibody affect the survival in air and ability to infect the respiratory tract. Further work is also required to correlate laboratory and field findings through incorporation of the doses into modelling the virus concentration downwind in order that those responsible for

  4. [Experimental infection of 2 species of laboratory rodents with invasive larvae of Elaphostrongylus cervi (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea)].

    PubMed

    Demiaszkiewicz, A W

    1989-01-01

    Single doses (from 300 to 1000 larvi per an animal) of invasive larvae E. cervi Cameron, 1931, obtained from experimentally infected snails Helix pomatia L. were given to 17 guinea pigs and 17 golden hamsters. Clinical nervous symptoms in the form of paresis and paralysis of limbs occurred only in the guinea pigs which were given a dose of 1000 larvi. These animals died in the period from the 75th to 117th day of infection. From their central nervous system single adult males and females of E. cervi were isolated. In the lungs and mesenteries of 2 dead pigs live larvae of E. cervi were found. This fact proves that the guinea pig can fulfil the role of a final and a paratenic host of E. cervi. No clinical symptoms were noticed in any hamster. In hamsters dissected on the 7th day of infection live larvae of E. cervi were found in the mesentery and in the fleshy part of the diaphgram. After 14 days the larvae found both in the mesentery and in the diaphragm were dead and surrounded by cellular infiltration. A strong tissue reaction of the hamster after the administration of E. cervi larvae is responsible for the larvae destruction and resorption.

  5. [An experimental model of hepatointestinal transplant in the pig with clinical applications].

    PubMed

    López Santamaría, M; Gámez, M; Murcia, J; Bueno, J; Paz, J A; Canser, E; Reinoso, F; Muñoz, J; Lobato, R; Martínez, L; de Miguel, E; Polanco, I; Jara, P; Tovar, J

    1996-10-01

    A model of experimental hepatointestinal transplant in pigs, with clinical applications is presented. Ten animals received a graft composed by the liver and the full length of the small bowel. Two pigs died during the transplant and in eight the surgical procedure was well tolerated with a good revascularization of the grafts. The coagulation parameters were normal after the transplant and only minor biochemical disturbances were found. The main difficulties of the surgical technique are related with the poor tolerance of the pig to the portal and caval clamping, and the close relationships of the duodenum, pancreas and distal colon, produced by the 360 degrees anti-clockwise bowel rotation around the mesenteric vessels. Clamping the supraceliac aorta during the implant of the graft keeps the animal hemodynamically stable and makes unnecessary the use of the more complicated veno venous shunt.

  6. Down-regulation of mechanisms involved in cell transport and maintenance of mucosal integrity in pigs infected with Lawsonia intracellularis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterium, responsible for the disease complex known as proliferative enteropathy (PE). L. intracellularis is associated with intestinal crypt epithelial cell proliferation but the mechanisms responsible are yet to be defined. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the host-pathogen interaction in experimentally infected pigs to identify pathways that may be involved. Ileal samples originating from twenty-eight weaner pigs experimentally challenged with a pure culture of L. intracellularis (strain LR189/5/83) were subjected to microarray analysis. Microarray transcriptional signatures were validated using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real time PCR of selected genes at various time points post challenge. At peak of infection (14 days post challenge) 86% of altered transcripts were down regulated, particularly those involved in maintenance of mucosal integrity and regulation of cell transport. Among the up-regulated transcripts, CD163 and CDK1 were novel findings and considered to be important, due to their respective roles in innate immunity and cellular proliferation. Overall, targeted cellular mechanisms included those that are important in epithelial restitution, migration and protection; maintenance of stable inter-epithelial cell relationships; cell transport of nutrients and electrolytes; innate immunity; and cell cycle. PMID:24885874

  7. Degradation of foot-and-mouth disease virus during composting of infected pig carcasses

    PubMed Central

    Guan, J.; Chan, M.; Grenier, C.; Brooks, B.W.; Spencer, J.L.; Kranendonk, C.; Copps, J.; Clavijo, A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the inactivation and degradation of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus during composting of infected pig carcasses as measured by virus isolation in tissue culture and by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). Three FMD-infected pig carcasses were composted in a mixture of chicken manure and wood shavings in a biocontainment level 3 facility. Compost temperatures had reached 50°C and 70°C by days 10 and 19, respectively. Under these conditions, FMD virus was inactivated in specimens in compost by day 10 and the viral RNA was degraded in skin and internal organ tissues by day 21. In comparison, at ambient temperatures close to 20°C, FMD virus survived to day 10 in the skin tissue specimen from the pig that had the highest initial level of viral RNA in its tissues and the viral RNA persisted to day 21. Similarly, beta-actin mRNA, tested as a PCR control, persisted to day 21 in specimens held at ambient temperatures, but it was degraded in the remnants of tissues recovered from compost on day 21. Results from this study provide evidence that composting could be used for safe disposal of pig carcasses infected with FMD virus. PMID:20357957

  8. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs: duration of the disease and resistance to reinfection.

    PubMed

    Kobisch, M; Blanchard, B; Le Potier, M F

    1993-01-01

    Forty-eight hysterectomy produced piglets reared in a pathogen-free environment were housed in 4 separate units. Three groups were intratracheally challenged with M hyopneumoniae at 2 wk, or at 16 wk, or at 2 and 16 wk of age. The fourth group was uninfected and received broth medium. Coughing started 2 weeks after the first infection but the booster infection did not induce any coughing. Macroscopic lesions, typical of mycoplasmal pneumonia, were noted 1 wk post-infection. After 7-9 wk, piglets showed recovering lesions. In the group that was twice infected, only 1 pig had extensive pneumonia after the second infection. The remaining pigs only had recovering lesions (RL) (resulting from the first challenge). Histopathology and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the macroscopic observations. Antibodies were detected by ELISA and immunoblotting at 3-4 wk post-infection, peaking after 11-12 wk and then gradually decreasing. However, the antibody response increased after the second infection. These findings showed a noticeable recovery following infection with M hyopneumoniae and a clear resistance to pneumonia following the booster infection.

  9. Experimental infection of Philippine Taenia in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Lin, C Y; Chung, W C

    1992-04-01

    In the present study, six 34-44-day-old Small-Ear-Miniature pigs and one 14-day-old Holstein calf were each fed 10,000 Philippine Taenia eggs and sacrificed 27-43 days after inoculation. The infection rate was 100% for both pigs and calf with cysticerci recovery rates of 11 and 6%, respectively. A total of 6431 cysticerci were recovered only from the livers of the six pigs and 597 only from the liver of the calf; more occurred in the parenchyma (pigs 75%, calf 83%) than on the surface (pigs 25%, calf 17%). Mature cysticerci were found in four of the six pigs. A total of 317 cysticerci recovered from the pig livers were mature and the rest were either immature (926), degenerate or calcified (5188). All 597 cysticerci recovered from the liver of the calf were degenerate or calcified. Measurements of length, width, diameter of protoscolex, rostellum, and sucker and hooklet pattern indicated that Philippine Taenia is very similar to Taenia from Taiwan, Korea, Indonesia and Thailand and very different from classical T. saginata and T. solium.

  10. Swine influenza virus infection dynamics in two pig farms; results of a longitudinal assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess the dynamics of influenza virus infection in pigs, serological and virological follow-ups were conducted in two whole batches of pigs from two different farms (F1 and F2), from 3 weeks of age until market age. Anti-swine influenza virus (SIV) antibodies (measured by ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition) and nasal virus shedding (measured by RRT-PCR and isolation in embryonated chicken eggs and MDCK cells) were carried out periodically. SIV isolates were subtyped and hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes were partially sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. In F1, four waves of viral circulation were detected, and globally, 62/121 pigs (51.2%) were positive by RRT-PCR at least once. All F1 isolates corresponded to H1N1 subtype although hemagglutination inhibition results also revealed the presence of antibodies against H3N2. The first viral wave took place in the presence of colostral-derived antibodies. Nine pigs were positive in two non-consecutive sampling weeks, with two of the animals being positive with the same isolate. Phylogenetic analyses showed that different H1N1 variants circulated in that farm. In F2, only one isolate, H1N2, was detected and all infections were concentrated in a very short period of time, as assumed for a classic influenza outbreak. These findings led us to propose that influenza virus infection in pigs might present different patterns, from an epidemic outbreak to an endemic form with different waves of infections with a lower incidence. PMID:22452923

  11. Absence of progesterone effects on chlamydial genital infection in female guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of progesterone alone and in combination with estradiol was investigated in ovariectomized and gonadally intact female guinea pigs infected with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). The course of the infection, as determined by the percentage of cells with GPIC (chlamydia) inclusions in Giemsa-stained vaginal scrapings, was not affected in animals receiving 5.0 mg of progesterone daily. Progesterone had no influence on the enhancement of infection by estradiol. In comparison with sesame oil-treated controls, infection was prolonged by four to six days (P less than .05) in animals receiving a combination of 5.0 mg of progesterone plus 1.0 microgram of estradiol or 1.0 microgram of estradiol alone each day. In ovariectomized animals, estradiol delayed the appearance of IgA antibody in genital secretions, whereas progesterone alone had no effect. Guinea pigs treated with estradiol or progesterone plus estradiol manifested an acute endometritis not observed in animals treated with progesterone alone or in controls receiving sesame oil. Although cervical ectopy, analogous to that seen in women with high levels of progesterone, was identified by histopathology in animals treated with progesterone, no enhancement of the chlamydial infection was observed.

  12. Antibody response to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in vaccinated pigs with or without maternal antibodies induced by sow vaccination.

    PubMed

    Martelli, P; Terreni, M; Guazzetti, S; Cavirani, S

    2006-06-01

    Vaccination with bacterins is an important tool for the control of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection of pigs. Because such vaccination often involves piglets that have suckled M. hyopneumoniae antibody-positive dams it is important to understand the effect of pre-existing (passively acquired) antibody on vaccine-induced immunity. To investigate this issue experimentally, 20 sows that were seronegative for M. hyopneumoniae were selected from a M. hyopneumoniae-infected herd and then randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups (five sows/group): Group A, vaccinated sows/vaccinated piglets; Group B, vaccinated sows/non-vaccinated piglets; Group C, non-vaccinated sows/vaccinated piglets; Group D, non-vaccinated sows/non-vaccinated piglets. Sows (Groups A and B) were vaccinated 14 days before farrowing and seroconverted within the next 14 days. Conversely, none of the non-vaccinated sows was seropositive at farrowing. Piglets (Groups A and C) were vaccinated when they were 7 days of age. Regardless of treatments none of the piglets had any evidence of an active immune response until many of those of Groups A and C and a few of those of Groups B and D seroconverted after it had been shown that at least some pigs of all groups had been naturally infected with a field strain of M. hyopneumoniae. This pattern of immune responsiveness (i.e. the collective results of Groups A, B, C and D) suggested that vaccination of pigs had primed their immune system for subsequent exposure to M. hyopneumoniae, and that passively acquired antibody had little or no effect on either a vaccine-induced priming or a subsequent anamnestic response. According to the statistical analysis sow serological status did not interfere with the antibody response in early vaccinated piglets. In conclusion, the results pointed out that early vaccination of piglets may assist M. hyopneumoniae control independently from the serological status of sows.

  13. Prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in landrace and mixed breed pigs slaughtered in Baja California Sur state, Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 308 domestic pigs slaughtered in La Paz, Baja California Sur State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Results Forty (13%) of the 308 pigs were seropositive ...

  14. Clinical and pathological responses of pigs from two genetically diverse commercial lines to porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The response to infection from porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) for two genetically diverse commercial pig lines was investigated. Seventy two pigs from each line, aged 6 weeks, were challenged with PRRSV VR-2385, and 66 littermates served as control. The clinical response...

  15. Whole blood microarray analysis of pigs showing extreme phenotypes after a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background Observed variability in pig response to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) infection, and recently demonstrated genetic control of such responses, suggest that it may be possible to reduce the economic impact of this disease by selecting more disease-resistant pig...

  16. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE (EATON'S AGENT)

    PubMed Central

    Dajani, Adnan S.; Clyde, Wallace A.; Denny, Floyd W.

    1965-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was studied in the Syrian hamster with qualitative and quantitative culture methods and special histopathologic techniques. The animals were readily infected with the mycoplasma, which multiplied throughout the respiratory tract. Sensitivity of this experimental host to infection was indicated by the 50 per cent infective dose, which was 10 colony-forming units of the organism. Inoculation consistently resulted in the production of peribronchial pneumonitis which was induced by the mycoplasma. The organisms were visualized in a superficial location in the mucosa of involved bronchi, by means of indirect fluorescent antibody staining and by a modification of the Brown and Brenn technique. The data indicate applicability of the hamster to the study of problems concerned with M. pneumoniae disease which are impractical or impossible to resolve in the human host. PMID:14319403

  17. The effect of oxfendazole treatment on muscle pathology in pigs infected with Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Karlsson, Madeleine; Spång, Frederic; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2012-12-21

    The aim of the present study was to test histopathologically the hypothesis that the time for clearing Taenia solium cysts in muscle tissue of pigs following treatment with oxfendazole is cyst density dependent. A total of 248 cyst lesions in the masseter muscle of 28 naturally infected pigs were examined 1, 4 and 8 weeks after oxfendazole (OFZ) treatment. As controls, half of the pigs received no treatment. Lesions were graded 0-V according to their inflammatory response, based on viability of the parasite, the degree and type of cellular response as well as deposition of collagen. Comparison of the degree of inflammatory response was made between treated and un-treated groups showing a significant difference in the mean grade of inflammatory response between 1 and 8 weeks after OFZ treatment. The OFZ treated pigs were further divided into 4 cyst intensity groups. The group with the highest cyst intensity had the lowest mean grade of inflammatory response and the group with the lowest cyst intensity had the highest mean grade of inflammatory response. Thus the present study supports the hypothesis that the time needed for the body to clear the cysts depends on the cyst intensity of individual pigs at the time of treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Results of the experimental repair of osteochondral lesions in a pig model using tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Villalobos Córdoba, F Enrique; Velasquillo Martínez, Cristina; Martínez López, Valentín; Lecona Butrón, Hugo; Reyes Marín, Baltasar; Estrada Villaseñor, Eréndira; Villegas, Castrejón Hilda; Solís Arrieta, Lilia; Espinosa Morales, Rolando; Ponce de León, Clemente Ibarra

    2007-01-01

    To repair experimental osteochondral knee lesions in pigs using tissue engineering. Eight 40-kg pigs underwent surgery. Cartilage and periosteal biopsies of their control knee were taken. Cartilage and periosteal cells were independently isolated, cultured and seeded in biodegradable PGA and PLA polymers that were fixed on the bottom of an osteochondral defect in the pig's experimental knee, with bioabsorbable Mitek implants. Four months later the pigs were sacrificed and the knees were analyzed with nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), macroscopic assessment, histology, electron microscopy (EM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SEM element analysis. All the defects were filled with cartilage-like tissue according to the NMRI evaluation and the visual examination. Hyaline-like cartilage was obtained in 3 defects and fibrocartilage in 5. The EM showed chondrocytes in the repair tissue. The SEM showed appropriate integration to the bone and the surrounding tissue. SEM element analysis showed sulphurized matrix attached to the bone with calcium and phosphates as predominant elements. Tissue engineering enabled the production of tissues similar to normal ones. The polymer fixation system was effective.

  19. Quantitative PCR analysis of Mycoplasma suis shedding patterns during experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Stefanie; Mack, Sarah-Lena; Hoelzle, Katharina; Becker, Katja; Jannasch, Carolin; Stadler, Julia; Ritzmann, Mathias; Hoelzle, Ludwig E

    2014-08-27

    The uncultivable hemotrophic bacterium Mycoplasma suis causes infectious anemia in pigs worldwide. The mechanisms by which M. suis is transmitted from pig to pig are largely unknown. Thus, the present study aimed at investigating urine, feces, saliva, nasal and vaginal secrets as well as environmental samples for the presence of M. suis DNA to get insights into potential transmission routes. Seven pigs were experimentally infected with M. suis KI3806. Samples were taken for 8 days post infection (p.i.). A quantitative LightCycler msg1 PCR was used to detect and quantify M. suis. Shedding was found in saliva as well as nasal and vaginal secrets from day 6 p.i. on with a quantity of 3.4 × 10(2) to 2.7 × 10(5)M. suis/swab. In urine M. suis DNA could be detected in 100.0% of the samples from day 6 p.i. on with a quantity of 4.7 × 10(2) to 6.3 × 10(5)M. suis per mL. When shedding patterns were correlated to the median bacterial blood loads shedding was observed at loads of 2.0 × 10(9)-7.0 × 10(10)M. suis per mL blood. No M. suis DNA could be amplified from feces. Dust and water samples of the pig drinking troughs were positive for M. suis on days 2 and 6 post infection, air samples were M. suis-negative throughout the experiment. Our results indicate that blood independent direct transmission as well as indirect transmission via environmental contamination could play a role in the epidemiology of M. suis infections.

  20. Experimental guinea pig model of dermatophytosis: a simple and useful tool for the evaluation of new diagnostics and antifungals.

    PubMed

    Saunte, D M; Hasselby, J P; Brillowska-Dabrowska, A; Frimodt-Møller, N; Svejgaard, E L; Linnemann, D; Nielsen, S S; Haedersdal, M; Arendrup, M C

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a simple guinea pig model for the purpose of evaluating diagnostic principles and treatment modalities for dermatophytic infections. The following variables were evaluated; pre-treatment of the skin by shaving versus tape stripping, Microsporum canis or Trichophyton mentagrophytes test strains as etiologic agents, differences in inoculum concentrations, and inoculation with and without occlusion. The course of infection was evaluated clinically by redness and lesion scores and mycologically by microscopy, culture, and histopathology. The applicability of the model was evaluated with a recently developed diagnostic pan-dermatophyte PCR and antifungal treatment was tested with an oral solution of itraconazole, 10 mg/kg, once daily during days 3-14 of the test period. Pre-treatment of the skin with a manual razor was for practical reasons preferable to tape stripping. Inoculation under occlusion showed no advantage in the establishment of experimental infections. Infection severity showed some association with the inoculum concentration and subtype of T. mentagrophytes but not in studies involving M. canis. The establishment of dermatophytosis was confirmed by histopathology. Surprisingly, microscopy was found to be less sensitive than culture and the latter was as sensitive as pan-dermatophyte PCR. Itraconazole significantly reduced lesion and redness score, with M. canis infections responding better to itraconazole treatment than those caused by T. mentagrophytes. In conclusion, we established a dermatophytosis animal model, which was proven useful for evaluating diagnostic methods and antifungal susceptibility testing.

  1. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae does not affect the interferon-related anti-viral response but predisposes the pig to a higher level of inflammation following swine influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Deblanc, Céline; Delgado-Ortega, Mario; Gorin, Stéphane; Berri, Mustapha; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Berthon, Patricia; Herrler, Georg; Meurens, François; Simon, Gaëlle

    2016-10-01

    In pigs, influenza A viruses and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) are major contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex. Pre-infection with Mhp was previously shown experimentally to exacerbate the clinical outcomes of H1N1 infection during the first week after virus inoculation. In order to better understand the interactions between these pathogens, we aimed to assess very early responses (at 5, 24 and 48 h) after H1N1 infection in pigs pre-infected or not with Mhp. Clinical signs and macroscopic lung lesions were similar in both infected groups at early times post-H1N1 infection; and Mhp pre-infection affected neither the influenza virus replication nor the IFN-induced antiviral responses in the lung. However, it predisposed the animals to a higher inflammatory response to H1N1 infection, as revealed by the massive infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages into the lungs and the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α). Thus, it seems it is this marked inflammatory state that would play a role in exacerbating the clinical signs subsequent to H1N1 infection.

  2. Profiling circulating miRNAs in serum from pigs infected with the porcine whipworm, Trichuris suis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eline Palm; Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Jex, Aaron; Nejsum, Peter

    2016-06-15

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are recently discovered as key regulators of gene translation and are becoming increasingly recognized for their involvement in various diseases. This study investigates the miRNA profile in pig serum during the course of an infection with the gastrointestinal parasite, Trichuris suis. Of this panel, the expression of selected miRNAs in serum from T. suis infected and uninfected pigs were determined by quantitative real time PCR using Exiqon Human Panel assays at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks post first infection (wpi). One miRNA, ssc-let-7d-3p, was significantly up-regulated in infected pigs 8 wpi. Interestingly, ssc-let-7d-3p shows high complementary to tsu-let-7a, which is the most highly transcribed miRNA in T. suis. The let-7 family miRNAs have been shown to post-transcriptionally regulate the translation of the helminth-controlling cytokine, IL-13, in a murine model for asthma and we hypothesize possible interactions between these host- and parasite-derived miRNAs and their immunomodulating roles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcriptional profiling of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during the acute phase of a natural infection in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a respiratory disease which causes great economic losses worldwide. Many virulence factors are involved in the pathogenesis, namely capsular polysaccharides, RTX toxins, LPS and many iron acquisition systems. In order to identify genes that are expressed in vivo during a natural infection, we undertook transcript profiling experiments with an A. pleuropneumoniae DNA microarray, after recovery of bacterial mRNAs from serotype 5b-infected porcine lungs. AppChip2 contains 2033 PCR amplicons based on the genomic sequence of App serotype 5b strain L20, representing more than 95% of ORFs greater than 160 bp in length. Results Transcriptional profiling of A. pleuropneumoniae recovered from the lung of a pig suffering from a natural infection or following growth of the bacterial isolate in BHI medium was performed. An RNA extraction protocol combining beadbeating and hot-acid-phenol was developed in order to maximize bacterial mRNA yields and quality following total RNA extraction from lung lesions. Nearly all A. pleuropneumoniae transcripts could be detected on our microarrays, and 150 genes were deemed differentially expressed in vivo during the acute phase of the infection. Our results indicate that, for example, gene apxIVA from an operon coding for RTX toxin ApxIV is highly up-regulated in vivo, and that two genes from the operon coding for type IV fimbriae (APL_0878 and APL_0879) were also up-regulated. These transcriptional profiling data, combined with previous comparative genomic hybridizations performed by our group, revealed that 66 out of the 72 up-regulated genes are conserved amongst all serotypes and that 3 of them code for products that are predicted outer membrane proteins (genes irp and APL_0959, predicted to code for a TonB-dependent receptor and a filamentous hemagglutinin/adhesin respectively) or lipoproteins (gene APL_0920). Only 4 of 72 up-regulated genes

  4. Activity of terbinafine in experimental fungal infections of laboratory animals.

    PubMed Central

    Petranyi, G; Meingassner, J G; Mieth, H

    1987-01-01

    The allylamine derivative terbinafine is the first antifungal agent with primary fungicidal properties against dermatophytes which acts systemically after oral application as well as locally after topical application. Comparative oral studies carried out with griseofulvin and ketoconazole in model infections such as guinea pig trichophytosis and microsporosis revealed terbinafine to be superior to the reference compounds both clinically and mycologically. An excellent antimycotic activity of terbinafine was also demonstrable after topical treatment of guinea pig dermatophytoses caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes or Microsporum canis. Results of comparative chemotherapeutic studies carried out with econazole and tolnaftate demonstrated superior efficacy of terbinafine in the treatment of both trichophytosis and microsporosis. Skin infections of guinea pigs caused by Candida albicans and vaginal candidiasis in rats proved to be responsive to a topical application of terbinafine also. However, the reference compounds, clotrimazole and miconazole, exhibited activity superior to that of terbinafine in both models. PMID:3435103

  5. Embryonation and infectivity of Ascaris suum eggs isolated from worms expelled by pigs treated with albendazole , pyrantel pamoate, ivermectin or piperazine dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Boes, J; Eriksen, L; Nansen, P

    1998-02-28

    The effect of anthelmintic treatment of pigs on the embryonation and infectivity of Ascaris suum eggs isolated from expelled worms was investigated. Four groups of two naturally infected pigs were dosed with albendazole, pyrantel pamoate, ivermectin or piperazine dihydrochloride, respectively. Following worm expulsion, the eggs were removed from the uteri of female worms and embryonated in sulphuric acid. The infectivity of the embryonated eggs was tested through mouse inoculation. Egg development appeared normal in cultures from worms of the piperazine. pyrantel and ivermectin treated groups. In the albendazole cultures, egg development was largely arrested at the one-cell stage (81%). Where development occurred, irregular cell division was observed and only 7% of the eggs in the culture developed into fullgrown larvae. Following mouse inoculation with 2500 embryonated eggs, significantly lower lung larval counts on day 8 post inoculation (p.i.) were observed for mice in the piperazine and pyrantel treated groups (P < 0.01) compared to untreated controls. The larvae that developed in the eggs from ivermectin and albendazole treated groups appeared fully infective for mice. It was concluded that ovicidal activity of albendazole in vivo inhibits subsequent A. suum egg development in vitro; albendazole is, therefore, not suitable to obtain worms for egg embryonation to produce experimental inoculums. The anthelmintic treatment of pigs with ivermectin had only a limited effect on both embryonation and infectivity of A. suum eggs isolated from expelled worms.

  6. The effects of organic chromium on adipose anatomical parts, using pig as experimental model.

    PubMed

    Untea, A E; Varzaru, I; Ropota, M; Panaite, T D; Cornescu, G M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of chromium supplements on the quality of protein and lipids of adipose anatomical parts using pig as experimental modelfor humans. An experiment was conducted on 18 fattening castrated TOPIGS male pigs, for 4 weeks, under experimental farm conditions. The source of Cr(III) was chromium . picolinate, a food supplement used in human nutrition, 200 µg.Cr per kg diet (El) and 400 µg.Cr per kg diet (E2). The analytic.data showed an improvement of the amino acids profile in belly and in ham samples. A significant decrease of fatty acids concentrations in belly samples was noticed. In conclusion, we observed a positive effect associated with the essential amino acids deposition and decreasing of fatty acids concentrations in tissues with high content offat, thus in human nutrition, chromium is used as a nutritional supplement most recommended in impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

  7. Protein A suppresses immune responses during Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection in guinea pigs

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Hwan Keun; Falugi, Fabiana; Thomer, Lena; ...

    2015-01-06

    Staphylococcus aureus infection is not associated with the development of protective immunity, and disease relapses occur frequently. We hypothesize that protein A, a factor that binds immunoglobulin Fcγ and cross-links VH3 clan B cell receptors (IgM), is the staphylococcal determinant for host immune suppression. To test this, vertebrate IgM was examined for protein A cross-linking. High VH3 binding activity occurred with human and guinea immunoglobulin, whereas mouse and rabbit immunoglobulins displayed little and no binding, respectively. Establishing a guinea pig model of S. aureus bloodstream infection, we show that protein A functions as a virulence determinant and suppresses host Bmore » cell responses. Immunization with SpAKKAA, which cannot bind immunoglobulin, elicits neutralizing antibodies that enable guinea pigs to develop protective immunity.« less

  8. Serum antibody responses in pigs trickle-infected with Ascaris and Trichuris: Heritabilities and associations with parasitological findings.

    PubMed

    Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Petersen, Heidi Huus; Göring, Harald Heinz Herbert; Skallerup, Per; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-07-30

    A humoral immune response following helminth infection in pigs is well documented. However, it has been difficult to confirm the existence of antibody mediated resistance against the large roundworm, Ascaris suum, and whipworm, Trichuris suis, in experimental settings by correlating worm burdens or egg excretion with specific antibody levels. We set out to investigate the association between worm load and T. suis and A. suum specific serum antibody levels (IgG1, IgG2 and IgA) against excretory-secretory products of adults and third stage larvae, respectively, measured at 0, 7 and 14 weeks p.i. in a trickle-infected F1-resource-population of crossbred pigs (n=195). Furthermore, we wanted to determine the heritability of these antibody isotypes during the course of infection. Most pigs remained infected with A. suum throughout the experiment while they expelled T. suis between 7 and 14 weeks post infection (p.i.). Parasite specific IgG1 and IgA were significantly (P<0.001) elevated after 7 and 14 weeks of infection, whereas parasite specific IgG2 levels only changed slightly at 14 weeks p.i.. However, the observed association between specific antibody isotype levels and faecal egg counts and macroscopic worm load was weak. The relative heritabilities of the different parasite specific isotypes were assessed and resulted in significant heritability estimates for parasite specific IgG1 and IgA. The highest heritabilities were found for A. suum specific IgG1 (h(2)=0.41 and 0.46 at 7 and 14 weeks p.i., respectively). Thus, the present study demonstrates that host genetic factors influence the IgG1 and IgA antibody isotype responses specific to two of the most common gastrointestinal nematodes of swine whereas specific antibody levels were poorly associated with egg excretion and the presence of macroscopic worms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Nonlinear hierarchical modeling of experimental infection data.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Michael D; Breheny, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a nonlinear hierarchical model (NLHM) for analyzing longitudinal experimental infection (EI) data. The NLHM offers several improvements over commonly used alternatives such as repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) and the linear mixed model (LMM). It enables comparison of relevant biological properties of the course of infection including peak intensity, duration and time to peak, rather than simply comparing mean responses at each observation time. We illustrate the practical benefits of this model and the insights it yields using data from experimental infection studies on equine arteritis virus. Finally, we demonstrate via simulation studies that the NLHM substantially reduces bias and improves the power to detect differences in relevant features of the infection response between two populations. For example, to detect a 20% difference in response duration between two groups (n=15) in which the peak time and peak intensity were identical, the RM-ANOVA test had a power of just 11%, and LMM a power of just 12%. By comparison, the nonlinear model we propose had a power of 58% in the same scenario, while controlling the Type I error rate better than the other two methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Passive transfer of experimental autoimmune myasthenia by lymph node cells in inbred guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Passive transfer of experimental autoimmune myasthenia (EAM) was performed with lymph node cells from donor guinea pigs immunized with purified acetylcholine receptor (AChR) from Torpedo californica. Recipient animals revealed the same clinical signs and electromyographic patterns as observed in actively challenged animals. These phenomena are parallel to the clinical manifestations of the human disease myasthenia gravis, in which cellular response to AChR was recently demonstrated. PMID:1165476

  11. First case of natural infection in pigs. Review of Trypanosoma cruzi reservoirs in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Schettino, P M; Bucio, M I; Cabrera, M; Bautista, J

    1997-01-01

    An epidemiological research project was performed in the State of Morelos including collection of samples for blood smears and culture, serological tests, and xenodiagnoses from a total of 76 domestic and peridomestic mammals. Two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were isolated by haemocultures; one from a pig (Sus scrofa), the first case of natural infection reported in Mexico, and the other from a dog (Canis familiaris). This study summarizes current information in Mexico concerning confirmed reservoirs of T. cruzi.

  12. C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and pig major acute phase protein response in pigs simultaneously infected with H1N1 swine influenza virus and Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Kwit, Krzysztof; Stępniewska, Katarzyna; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2013-01-18

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Swine influenza is generally characterized by acute onset of fever and respiratory symptoms. The most frequent complications of influenza are secondary bacterial pneumonia. The objective of this work was to study the acute phase proteins (APP) responses after coinfection of piglets with H1N1 swine influenza virus (SwH1N1) and Pasteurella multocida (Pm) in order to identify whether the individual APP response correlate with disease severity and whether APP could be used as markers of the health status of coinfected pigs. In all coinfected pigs clinical sings, including fever, coughing and dyspnea, were seen. Viral shedding was observed from 2 to 7 dpi. The mean level of antibodies against Pm dermonecrotoxin in infected piglets increase significantly from 7 dpi. Anti-SwH1N1 antibodies in the serum were detected from 7 dpi. The concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) increased significantly at 1 dpi as compared to control pigs, and remained significantly higher to 3 dpi. Level of serum amyloid A (SAA) was significantly higher from 2 to 3 dpi. Haptoglobin (Hp) was significantly elevated from 3 dpi to the end of study, while pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP) from 3 to 7 dpi. The concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA significantly increased before specific antibodies were detected. Positive correlations were found between serum concentration of Hp and SAA and lung scores, and between clinical score and concentrations of Pig-MAP and SAA. The results of current study confirmed that monitoring of APP may revealed ongoing infection, and in this way may be useful in selecting clinically healthy pigs (i.e. before integration into an uninfected herd). Present results corroborated our previous findings that SAA could be a potentially useful indicator in experimental infection studies (e.g. vaccine efficiency investigations) or as a marker for disease severity, because of correlation

  13. C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and pig major acute phase protein response in pigs simultaneously infected with H1N1 swine influenza virus and Pasteurella multocida

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Swine influenza is generally characterized by acute onset of fever and respiratory symptoms. The most frequent complications of influenza are secondary bacterial pneumonia. The objective of this work was to study the acute phase proteins (APP) responses after coinfection of piglets with H1N1 swine influenza virus (SwH1N1) and Pasteurella multocida (Pm) in order to identify whether the individual APP response correlate with disease severity and whether APP could be used as markers of the health status of coinfected pigs. Results In all coinfected pigs clinical sings, including fever, coughing and dyspnea, were seen. Viral shedding was observed from 2 to 7 dpi. The mean level of antibodies against Pm dermonecrotoxin in infected piglets increase significantly from 7 dpi. Anti-SwH1N1 antibodies in the serum were detected from 7 dpi. The concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) increased significantly at 1 dpi as compared to control pigs, and remained significantly higher to 3 dpi. Level of serum amyloid A (SAA) was significantly higher from 2 to 3 dpi. Haptoglobin (Hp) was significantly elevated from 3 dpi to the end of study, while pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP) from 3 to 7 dpi. The concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA significantly increased before specific antibodies were detected. Positive correlations were found between serum concentration of Hp and SAA and lung scores, and between clinical score and concentrations of Pig-MAP and SAA. Conclusions The results of current study confirmed that monitoring of APP may revealed ongoing infection, and in this way may be useful in selecting clinically healthy pigs (i.e. before integration into an uninfected herd). Present results corroborated our previous findings that SAA could be a potentially useful indicator in experimental infection studies (e.g. vaccine efficiency investigations) or as a marker for disease

  14. The hemorrhagic syndrome of leptospirosis: an experimental study in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    da Silva, J J; Netto, B A; Lilembaum, W; Alvim, M E; de Oliveira, A V

    1995-01-01

    The hemorrhagic syndrome of leptospirosis was studied in guinea pigs. The study correlates hematological, histopathological and immunohistochemical alterations in sixty animals inoculated by the intraperitoneal route with 1ml of the culture of virulent strain of Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni. Leptospirae antigens were detected by immunoperoxidase, chiefly in liver, kidney and heart muscle capillaries. Possible pathogenic mechanisms responsible for hemorrhagic syndrome are discussed with emphasis on toxic and anoxic attacks causing damage to endothelia, platelet depletion and alterations to hemostasia rates: prothrombin time [PT], partial thromboplastin time [PTT] and fibrinogen concentrations. The clinical-laboratory picture is compatible with the histopathological observation of disseminated intravascular coagulation [DIC] in most of the guinea pigs from day 4 of infection.

  15. Taenia crassiceps infection abrogates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Reyes, José L; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett F; González, Marisol I; Verdin, Leticia; Terrazas, Luis I

    2011-01-01

    Helminth infections induce strong immunoregulation that can modulate subsequent pathogenic challenges. Taenia crassiceps causes a chronic infection that induces a Th2-biased response and modulates the host cellular immune response, including reduced lymphoproliferation in response to mitogens, impaired antigen presentation and the recruitment of suppressive alternatively activated macrophages (AAMФ). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the ability of T. crassiceps to reduce the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Only 50% of T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed EAE symptoms, which were significantly less severe than uninfected mice. This effect was associated with both decreased MOG-specific splenocyte proliferation and IL-17 production and limited leukocyte infiltration into the spinal cord. Infection with T. crassiceps induced an anti-inflammatory cytokine microenvironment, including decreased TNF-α production and high MOG-specific production of IL-4 and IL-10. While the mRNA expression of TNF-α and iNOS was lower in the brain of T. crassiceps-infected mice with EAE, markers for AAMФ were highly expressed. Furthermore, in these mice, there was reduced entry of CD3(+)Foxp3(-) cells into the brain. The T. crassiceps-induced immune regulation decreased EAE severity by dampening T cell activation, proliferation and migration to the CNS.

  16. Experimental infection in gerbils by Conidiobolus lamprauges.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Isabela; de Campos, Camila Gonçalves; Pescador, Caroline Argenta; Galceran, João Vitor Amorim; Cândido, Stéfhano Luis; Dutra, Valéria; Nakazato, Luciano

    2017-02-28

    Conidiobolomycosis is an emerging entomophthoramycosis caused by fungi Conidiobolus spp. Animal models are essential for the study of infectious disease in various areas such as pathogenesis, diagnostic methods, treatment and prevention. There is not currently an animal model for conidiobolomycosis. The aim of this study was to create an experimental infection protocol for Conidiobolus lamprauges in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). The study animals were randomly divided into four groups of four animals: immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide (CPA) and infected with C. lamprauges (G1), immunocompetent and infected with C. lamprauges (G2), immunosuppressed with CPA (G3), and an immunocompetent control group (G4). Clinical signs were observed only in G1 animals, where the mortality rate reached 75% by day 7 after infection (AI) with a median survival of 2 days. C. lamprauges was detected only in G1, both by PCR and by isolation. Necropsies of the G1 animals showed lesions in the nasal cavity and lung tissue. These lesions were characterized by polymorphonuclear infiltrate cells and by the presence of hyphal structures under silver staining. This animal model will be useful for further investigation of diseases caused by C. lamprauges, particularly of those associated with immunosuppression factors in naturally occurring animal infections.

  17. Chemotherapy of experimental leptospiral infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Spradbrow, P. B.

    1963-01-01

    A strain of Leptospira zanoni was used to produce chronic renal infections in young white mice. A variant of this strain produced an acute disease with over 50% mortality. The responses of both forms of disease to chemotherapy were studied. When treatment of the acute disease was initiated before jaundice occurred, suitable single doses of streptomycin, chlortetracycline, tetracycline, erythromycin, oxytetracycline and oxytetracycline (in oil) prevented death and chronic renal infection in a high percentage of mice. Bicillin, a long-acting penicillin preparation, was more effective than other penicillins, but it prevented the development of chronic renal infection in only half the treated mice. Streptomycin was the only antibiotic of which a single administration regularly cured the chronic renal infections: chlortetracycline, tetracycline and oxytetracycline (in oil) were partially effective. Oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, Bicillin, fortified penicillin, procaine penicillin and potassium penicillin had no permanent action. The suitability of mice as laboratory animals in the study of experimental leptospirosis and the need for complete cure of carriers of chronic renal infection are emphasized. The above findings indicate that streptomycin is the drug of choice for the treatment of leptospirosis in animals, and that it is worthy of further trial in man. PMID:13990247

  18. Brain is the predilection site of Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally inoculated pigs as revealed by magnetic capture and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Juránková, Jana; Basso, Walter; Neumayerová, Helena; Baláž, Vojtech; Jánová, Eva; Sidler, Xaver; Deplazes, Peter; Koudela, Břetislav

    2014-04-01

    Pigs represent an important source of food in many countries, and undercooked pork containing tissue cysts is one of the most common sources of Toxoplasma gondii infection for humans. A magnetic capture method for the isolation of T. gondii DNA and quantitative real-time PCR targeting the 529 bp TOXO repeat element were used to estimate the parasite burden in different tissues of pigs experimentally infected with T. gondii oocysts, and to determine the predilection sites of T. gondii in this host species. The highest concentration of T. gondii DNA was found in brain tissues, equivalent to [median] 553.7 (range 3857.7-121.9) parasites per gram, followed by lungs, heart and dorsal muscles with median values corresponding to 0.3 (range 61.3-0.02); 2.6 (range 7.34-0.37) and 0.6 (range 2.81-0.31) parasites per gram of tissue, respectively. Skeletal muscles from fore and hindlimb, liver and kidney presented very low infection burdens equivalent to [median] ≤0.2 parasites per gram of tissues, and no parasite DNA could be detected in the spleen. This study contributes to understanding the value of different pig tissues as a source of T. gondii infection for humans and shows that the brain, while not being of major importance as human food source, may represent a first-line selection tissue when performing non-serological surveys (e.g. bioassays, histopathological, immunohistochemical or molecular studies) to detect T. gondii infections in pigs.

  19. Desferoxamine and iron dextran in acute Salmonella cholerae-suis infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kramer, T T; Saucke, L; Griffith, R W; Kunesh, J P

    1986-07-01

    Serum iron (SI)-related and hematologic changes were evaluated in a herd of weaned pigs inoculated with a strain of Salmonella cholerae-suis, causing 83% mortality within 22 days after inoculation was done. Serum iron concentrations decreased to 35% of base-line values 2 days after inoculation was done, but recovered to near base line subsequently. Total SI-binding capacity (TIBC) decreased gradually for 14 days after inoculation was done. Transferrin (TF) concentrations decreased to near half the base line throughout the postinoculation observation period. The calculated SI saturation coefficient decreased to half the base line, but recovered to or above the base-line value subsequently. Combined observations of SI, TIBC, TF, and SI saturation coefficient concentrations indicated that there was higher saturation of host iron-binding proteins and recruitment of additional iron-binding systems subsequent to 2 days after inoculation was done. Day 2 after inoculation seemed to be a critical period for host iron metabolism. Injection of supplemental iron dextran simultaneously with Salmonella infection resulted in lower mortality of iron-injected pigs (P less than 0.005). A highly significant negative correlation was observed between SI concentration and rectal temperatures after pigs were inoculated with Salmonella (r = -0.54; P less than 0.0001). Hemoglobin concentrations, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were not significantly affected by Salmonella infection or iron injection concurrent with Salmonella infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Detection of African swine fever virus in infected pig tissues by immunocytochemistry and in sity hybridisation.

    PubMed

    Oura, C A; Powell, P P; Parkhouse, R M

    1998-06-01

    The techniques for determining cellular sites of establishment and persistence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) were established in susceptible domestic pigs and the resistant African reservoir hosts, the warthog and bushpig. Detection, both in vitro and in vivo, was achieved by in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry, focusing principally on specific probes for vp73, a major capsid protein. Hybridisation of radio-labelled probes for DNA and RNA was relatively insensitive and time consuming whereas hybridisation of non-radioactive DNA probes was quicker and more sensitive. Detection of vp73 protein by immunocytochemistry was as sensitive as non-radioactive DNA hybridisation, offering in addition improved speed, ease and morphology. Both non-radioactive DNA hybridisation and immunocytochemistry were therefore used to detect ASFV DNA and protein in a range of porcine cells infected in vitro with different ASFV isolates. Malta and Malawi isolates infected both alveolar and bone marrow macrophages, but infected negligible numbers of endothelial (< 1%) and kidney cells (IBRS2 cells). Attenuated Uganda isolate, however, infected a high percentage of endothelial cells and IBRS2 cells as well as alveolar and bone marrow macrophages. When used to investigate the cell tropism of ASFV in tissues from pigs infected with the highly virulent Malawi isolate of ASFV, both techniques identified virus principally in cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system. In the lung, double staining revealed that pulmonary intravascular macrophages, but not alveolar macrophages, were infected.

  1. Geographical distribution of salmonella infected pig, cattle and sheep herds in Sweden 1993-2010

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Swedish salmonella control programme covers the entire production chain, from feed to food. All salmonella serotypes are notifiable. On average, less than 20 cases of salmonella in food-producing animals are reported every year. In some situations, the cases would be expected to cluster geographically. The aim of this study was to illustrate the geographic distribution of the salmonella cases detected in pigs, cattle and sheep. Methods Data on all herds with pigs, cattle and sheep found to be infected with salmonella during the time period from 1993 to 2010 were obtained from the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Using the ArcGIS software, various maps were produced of infected herds, stratified on animal species as well as salmonella serotype. Based on ocular inspection of all maps, some were collapsed and some used separately. Data were also examined for temporal trends. Results No geographical clustering was observed for ovine or porcine cases. Cattle herds infected with Salmonella Dublin were mainly located in the southeast region and cattle herds infected with Salmonella Typhimurium in the most southern part of the country. Some seasonal variation was seen in cattle, but available data was not sufficient for further analyses. Conclusions Analyses of data on salmonella infected herds revealed some spatial and temporal patterns for salmonella in cattle. However, despite using 18 years' of data, the number of infected herds was too low for any useful statistical analyses. PMID:21975258

  2. Intestinal absorption and histomorphometry of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis.

    PubMed

    Vannucci, Fabio Augusto; Borges, Elizabeth Lage; de Oliveira, Juliana Saes Vilaça; Guedes, Roberto Mauricio Carvalho

    2010-10-26

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the intestinal absorption and histomorphometry of hamsters experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis and correlate these parameters with severity of infection based on immunohistochemistry. Sixty hamsters were equally divided into control and inoculated groups which were orally infected with intestinal mucosa homogenate from pigs naturally infected with L. intracellularis. The intestinal absorption of glucose, sodium, potassium and chloride was evaluated in live animals (25 inoculated and 25 control) on day 26 after inoculation. In this procedure, a standard solution was infused into the cranial jejunum and collected at the terminal ileum. The experimental infection was confirmed by gross and histopathological examination and L. intracellularis antigen labeling by immunohistochemistry. Histomorphometry analysis demonstrated positive correlation between intestinal crypt depth and severity of infection based on immunohistochemistry. Infected animals had significantly lower intestinal absorption of glucose, potassium and chloride. These results indicate a lower intestinal absorption as an important mechanism of diarrhea in hamsters experimentally infected with L. intracellularis. Therefore, malabsorption should be considered as the main mechanism involved in the physiopathology of the diarrhea in L. intracellularis infected animals.

  3. Infectious dose and repeated infections are key factors influencing immune response characteristics in guinea pig ocular chlamydial infection.

    PubMed

    Belij-Rammerstorfer, Sandra; Inic-Kanada, Aleksandra; Stojanovic, Marijana; Marinkovic, Emilija; Lukic, Ivana; Stein, Elisabeth; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Bintner, Nora; Schürer, Nadine; Ghasemian, Ehsan; Kundi, Michael; Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether infectious dose of Chlamydia caviae after repeated infections influences the immunological responses and subsequent clearance of pathogen at the ocular surface of guinea pigs. Animals were infected three times via the conjunctiva at six- and twelve-week intervals by applying either 1 × 10(4) or 1 × 10(6) inclusion-forming units (IFUs) of C. caviae. Ocular pathology, infection course, C. caviae-specific serum IgG levels and their capacity to bind and neutralize infection ex vivo were assessed. Animals infected with 1 × 10(4) IFUs had completely diminished ocular infection and pathology after the 2nd infection with increased levels of C. caviae-specific serum IgG and their effective capacity to bind and neutralize C. caviae. Only partial protection was observed in animals infected with 1 × 10(6) IFUs after the 2nd and 3rd infections. Our findings show that full protection was observed in animals repeatedly infected with the lower dose. The lower dose appeared not to compromise the host immune system, thereby enabling fast clearance of the pathogen and the establishment of competent neutralizing antibodies.

  4. Occurrence, clinical involvement and zoonotic potential of endoparasites infecting Swiss pigs.

    PubMed

    Schubnell, Fabienne; von Ah, Sereina; Graage, Robert; Sydler, Titus; Sidler, Xaver; Hadorn, Daniela; Basso, Walter

    2016-12-01

    In order to estimate the diversity, clinical involvement and zoonotic potential of parasites in pigs submitted for diagnosis to the PathoPig project of the Swiss Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office, faeces (n=125) from suckling piglets (n=39), weaners (n=60) and piglets beginning fattening (n=26) from 74 Swiss farms were examined by 3 coproscopical methods (i.e. sedimentation/zinc chloride-flotation; SAFC and Ziehl-Neelsen staining). Samples microscopically positive for Cryptosporidium were further tested by PCR/sequencing for species assessment. The most frequently detected parasite was Balantidium coli, a facultative pathogenic ciliate with zoonotic potential, in 5.1, 36.7 and 50.0% of suckling, weaners and fatteners and 43.2% of farms; however, no association with disease was observed. Isospora (syn. Cystoisospora) suis infections were detected in 13.3 and 11.1% of suckling piglets with and without diarrhoea, and in 10.0 and 13.3% of weaners and fatteners with diarrhoea, respectively, and were significant associated with emaciation. Cryptosporidium infections were detected in 10.3, 15.0 and 19.2% of sucklings, weaners and fatteners, respectively, and in 18.9% of the farms. Interestingly, two age-related species were identified: C. suis in younger piglets (2 to 6weeks) and C. scrofarum in older ones (6 to 17weeks). None of the pigs infected with C. scrofarum (n=8), but 3 of 4 piglets infected with C. suis (co-infection with I. suis in 2 cases) had diarrhoea. The zoonotic species C. parvum was not detected, nevertheless, sporadic cases of human infection with the porcine-adapted species have been reported. Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis and Strongylida were rarely detected (<4%) in all age categories.

  5. A model of latent adenovirus 5 infection in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Vitalis, T Z; Keicho, N; Itabashi, S; Hayashi, S; Hogg, J C

    1996-03-01

    A model of adenovirus 5 (Ad5) infection was developed in guinea pigs to begin to study its role in the pathogenesis of peripheral lung inflammation. Forty animals were inoculated intranasally with 10(7.0) pfu of Ad5/animal, and 15 animals inoculated with sterile culture media served as controls. Viral titres were 10(4.4), 10(6.1), 10(5.2), and 10(2.9) pfu/animal, on days 1, 3, 4, and 7 after infection, respectively. In situ hybridization to viral DNA and immunocytochemistry for Ad5 E1A protein localized the virus to airway and alveolar epithelial cells. Histologic examination showed an extensive inflammatory cell infiltration around the airways, with epithelial necrosis and an alveolar exudate that caused localized alveolar collapse in the infected areas. Immunocytochemistry identified the cells in the infiltrate as cytotoxic T cells. Although all animals 20 and 47 days after infection had seroconverted to Ad5, virus was not detected in these groups either by viral plaque assay or in situ hybridization. Ad5 E1A DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in five of six animals 20 days after infection and in five of five animals 47 days after infection. In these same animals, E1A protein was detected 20 days after infection in two and 47 days after infection in one while persistent bronchiolitis was observed in four and three animals 20 and 47 days after infection, respectively. These results demonstrate that the guinea pig provides a useful model to study the role of Ad5 infection in chronic airway inflammation.

  6. Experimental Infection of Pigs with the 1918 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Swine influenza was first recognized as a disease during the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic suggesting the Spanish flu virus caused swine influenza. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of swine to the Spanish flu virus. A plasmid-derived 1918 pandemic H1N1 (1918/rec) influe...

  7. Longitudinal serological responses to Salmonella enterica of growing pigs in a subclinically infected herd.

    PubMed

    Beloeil, P A; Chauvin, C; Proux, K; Rose, N; Queguiner, S; Eveno, E; Houdayer, C; Rose, V; Fravalo, P; Madec, F

    2003-08-28

    A longitudinal survey was conducted in France in a subclinically Salmonella-infected farrow-to-finish pig farm to describe the time-course of the serological response to Salmonella enterica in growing pigs. We used three batches of sows and their corresponding litters (n = 31 litters). Among these, 256 pigs randomly selected and individually identified were followed from the first week of age until slaughter. Serial individual blood samples were submitted to indirect Salmonella-ELISA testing. Salmonella shedding was investigated by bacteriological testing of faecal material regularly collected from the sows and pigs and by environment swabs taken from the pens. Caecal contamination was checked at the slaughterhouse. Information about litter composition (filiation), location of the pigs in post-weaning and fattening pens, sanitary events, sex and body weights was recorded. 11.6% of the pigs shed S. enterica; 52% of pigs seroconverted before slaughter. The age-related variation of the natural logarithm of calibrated optical densities (COD) of pigs was described with two linear mixed models. From 8 to 61 days of age, the decrease in COD with age was fitted with a model including random effects of the animal and the dam on the intercept and slope, a batch random effect on the intercept and an individual birth-weight fixed effect on the intercept. The dam random effect was explained by the parity of the sow, Salmonella shedding by the sow during the farrowing phase and the value of the optical density of colostrum collected at parturition. A second model fitting the increase in COD from 61 days of age until slaughter included the random effect on intercept of the batch and the random effects on slope and intercept of the animal, the dam and the pen in which the followed animals were located during the fattening phase and the environmental contamination as fixed effect. In this second model, no relation was found between individual slaughter-bacteriological results and

  8. Guinea Pig Neutrophils Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Produce Cytokines Which Activate Alveolar Macrophages in Noncontact Cultures▿

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Kirti V.; McMurray, David N.

    2007-01-01

    The early influx of neutrophils to the site of infection may be an important step in host resistance against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of M. tuberculosis infection on the ability of guinea pig neutrophils to produce interleukin-8 (IL-8; CXCL8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and to activate alveolar macrophages. Neutrophils and alveolar macrophages were isolated from naïve guinea pigs, cultured together or alone, and infected with virulent M. tuberculosis for 3, 12, and 24 h. IL-8 protein production in cocultures, as measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was found to be additive at 24 h and significantly greater in M. tuberculosis-infected cocultures than in uninfected cocultures and in cultures of the infected neutrophils or macrophages alone. The IL-8 mRNA levels, determined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, were elevated at 24 h in infected cocultures and infected cells cultured alone. In order to elucidate the contributions of neutrophils and their soluble mediators to the activation of alveolar macrophages, neutrophils and alveolar macrophages were cultured in a contact-independent manner by using a Transwell insert system. Neutrophils were infected with virulent M. tuberculosis in the upper wells, and alveolar macrophages were cultured in the lower wells. The release of hydrogen peroxide from alveolar macrophages exposed to soluble products from infected neutrophils was significantly increased compared to that from unexposed alveolar macrophages. Significant up-regulation of IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA levels in alveolar macrophages was observed at 24 and 30 h, respectively, compared to those in cells not exposed to soluble neutrophil products. Treatment with anti-guinea pig TNF-α polyclonal antibody completely abolished the response of alveolar macrophages to neutrophil products. This finding suggests that TNF-α produced by infected neutrophils may be involved in the activation of

  9. Fatal bronchopneumonia in a Metastrongylus elongatus and Porcine circovirus type 2 co-infected pig.

    PubMed

    Marruchella, G; Paoletti, B; Speranza, R; Di Guardo, G

    2012-08-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection is distributed worldwide and PCV2-associated disease (PCVAD) is considered among the most economically relevant ones to the global swine industry. PCV2 is known to play a causal role in the porcine respiratory disease complex, usually in close association with a large plethora of other biologic agents. We describe herein a case of fatal parasitic bronchopneumonia by Metastrongylus elongatus in a PCV2-infected pig. Metastrongylosis may still represent a major concern for outdoor herds. Our recent experience suggests that a concurrent PCVAD condition may trigger metastrongylosis, which may subsequently result, at its turn, in severe, sometimes fatal, pulmonary disease.

  10. The Concentration of Apolipoprotein A-I Decreases during Experimentally Induced Acute-Phase Processes in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Carpintero, R.; Piñeiro, M.; Andrés, M.; Iturralde, M.; Alava, M. A.; Heegaard, P. M. H.; Jobert, J. L.; Madec, F.; Lampreave, F.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) was purified from pig sera. The responses of this protein after sterile inflammation and in animals infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae or Streptococcus suis were investigated. Decreases in the concentrations of ApoA-I, two to five times lower than the initial values, were observed at 2 to 4 days. It is concluded that ApoA-I is a negative acute-phase protein in pigs. PMID:15845530

  11. Experimental Cochlosoma anatis infections in poultry.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Larsen, C T; Zajac, A M; Pierson, F W

    1999-02-01

    Cochlosoma anatis [Kotlán, A., 1923. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infektienskr. Hyg. 90, pp. 24-28] is a flagellated protozoan parasite of birds. We have encountered C. anatis in turkeys with enteritis. Experimental oral inoculations of turkeys with 1 x 10(6) to 10 x 10(6) trophozoites consistently reproduced infections in recipients. Trophozoites were most numerous in the jejunum and ileum but could be observed in the duodenum, ceca, colon, and feces. When 12 naive turkeys were placed on contaminated litter vacated by excreting turkeys only one of 12 became infected. When eight naive turkeys were placed in boxes with birds currently excreting trophozoites, seven of eight became infected. Trophozoites could not survive exposure to water or to freezing. Attempts to culture trophozoites in modified Diamond's medium, Kiester's medium, RPMI 1640 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum, or on cultured bovine turbinate cells were not successful. Four of six bobwhite quail and one of eight chickens orally inoculated with 10 x 10(6) to 20 x 10(6) trophozoites had detectable infections. Trophozoites were observed only in the ilea of bobwhite quail and the ceca of the positive chicken. Trophozoites collected from chickens and bobwhite quail remained infectious for turkeys.

  12. Systems infection biology: a compartmentalized immune network of pig spleen challenged with Haemophilus parasuis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Network biology (systems biology) approaches are useful tools for elucidating the host infection processes that often accompany complex immune networks. Although many studies have recently focused on Haemophilus parasuis, a model of Gram-negative bacterium, little attention has been paid to the host's immune response to infection. In this article, we use network biology to investigate infection with Haemophilus parasuis in an in vivo pig model. Results By targeting the spleen immunogenome, we established an expression signature indicative of H. parasuis infection using a PCA/GSEA combined method. We reconstructed the immune network and estimated the network topology parameters that characterize the immunogene expressions in response to H. parasuis infection. The results showed that the immune network of H. parasuis infection is compartmentalized (not globally linked). Statistical analysis revealed that the reconstructed network is scale-free but not small-world. Based on the quantitative topological prioritization, we inferred that the C1R-centered clique might play a vital role in responding to H. parasuis infection. Conclusions Here, we provide the first report of reconstruction of the immune network in H. parasuis-infected porcine spleen. The distinguishing feature of our work is the focus on utilizing the immunogenome for a network biology-oriented analysis. Our findings complement and extend the frontiers of knowledge of host infection biology for H. parasuis and also provide a new clue for systems infection biology of Gram-negative bacilli in mammals. PMID:23339624

  13. Systems infection biology: a compartmentalized immune network of pig spleen challenged with Haemophilus parasuis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Liu, Xiang-dong; Li, Xin-yun; Chen, Hong-bo; Jin, Hui; Zhou, Rui; Zhu, Meng-jin; Zhao, Shu-hong

    2013-01-22

    Network biology (systems biology) approaches are useful tools for elucidating the host infection processes that often accompany complex immune networks. Although many studies have recently focused on Haemophilus parasuis, a model of Gram-negative bacterium, little attention has been paid to the host's immune response to infection. In this article, we use network biology to investigate infection with Haemophilus parasuis in an in vivo pig model. By targeting the spleen immunogenome, we established an expression signature indicative of H. parasuis infection using a PCA/GSEA combined method. We reconstructed the immune network and estimated the network topology parameters that characterize the immunogene expressions in response to H. parasuis infection. The results showed that the immune network of H. parasuis infection is compartmentalized (not globally linked). Statistical analysis revealed that the reconstructed network is scale-free but not small-world. Based on the quantitative topological prioritization, we inferred that the C1R-centered clique might play a vital role in responding to H. parasuis infection. Here, we provide the first report of reconstruction of the immune network in H. parasuis-infected porcine spleen. The distinguishing feature of our work is the focus on utilizing the immunogenome for a network biology-oriented analysis. Our findings complement and extend the frontiers of knowledge of host infection biology for H. parasuis and also provide a new clue for systems infection biology of Gram-negative bacilli in mammals.

  14. The Guinea Pig Sensitized by House Dust Mite: A Model of Experimental Cough Studies.

    PubMed

    Buday, T; Gavliakova, S; Mokry, J; Medvedova, I; Kavalcikova-Bogdanova, N; Plevkova, J

    2016-01-01

    The guinea pig sensitized by ovalbumin is the most widely used model to study cough experimentally, as the neurophysiology of the vagus nerve in the guinea pig is closest to humans. Nonetheless, the choice of the antigen remains questionable, which influences the translation of results into clinical medicine. The present study seeks to develop an alternative model of cough study using house dust mite sensitization (HDM). Thirty guinea pigs were divided into the HDM group, ovalbumin (OVA) group, and control group based on their cough response to 0.4 M citric acid. In the HDM group animals were sensitized by 0.25 %HDM aerosol, which they inhaled for 5 min over 5 days, followed by inhalation of 0.5 %HDM in the same protocol. Sensitization was confirmed by a skin test. Symptoms of allergic rhinitis were induced by intranasal application of 15 μl 0.5 %HDM and cough challenges with citric acid were performed. Airway resistance was measured in vivo by Pennock's method. We found that both HDM and OVA-sensitized groups showed a significantly enhanced nasal reactivity and cough response compared with controls. The airway resistance data did not show significant differences. We conclude that the HDM cough model replicates functional aspects of the OVA model, which may make it an alternative to the latter. However, the superiority of the HDM model for experimental cough studies remains to be further explored.

  15. Colonisation and shedding of Lawsonia intracellularis in experimentally inoculated rodents and in wild rodents on pig farms.

    PubMed

    Collins, A M; Fell, S; Pearson, H; Toribio, J-A

    2011-06-02

    Lawsonia intracellularis is an intracellular bacterium causing proliferative enteropathy in various animal species, and is considered an economically important pathogen of pigs. Rats and mice have been implicated as external vectors for a wide range of pig pathogens, including L. intracellularis. Previous studies have demonstrated L. intracellularis infection and proliferative enteropathy in rodents, but did not show the duration of shedding or the number of L. intracellularis shed by infected rodents, and therefore the infection risk that rodents pose to pigs. In this study, the number of L. intracellularis shed in the faeces and intestinal mucosa of wild rats trapped on pig farms was determined by a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction assay. The prevalence of L. intracellularis in wild rats trapped on pig farms with endemic proliferative enteropathy (PE) was very high (≥ 70.6%), and large numbers of L. intracellularis were shed (10(10)/g of faeces) in a small proportion of wild rats. The duration of colonisation in laboratory rats and mice challenged with porcine isolates of L. intracellularis was also shown. Faecal shedding of L. intracellularis persisted for 14-21 days in rats and mice that were mildly affected with histological lesions of PE. The humoral immune response to L. intracellularis persisted for 40 days in both species. This study demonstrates that rodents may be an important reservoir of L. intracellularis on piggeries, and hence rodent control is important in disease eradication programs on pig farms.

  16. Understanding Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection in pigs through a transcriptional approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) is an important pathogen of pigs. S suis 2 infections have high mortality rates and are characterized by meningitis, septicemia and pneumonia. S. suis 2 is also an emerging zoonotic agent and can infect humans that are exposed to pigs or their by-products. To increase our knowledge of the pathogenesis of meningitis, septicemia and pneumonia in pigs caused by S. suis 2, we profiled the response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), brain and lung tissues to infection with S. suis 2 strain SC19 using the Affymetrix Porcine Genome Array. Results A total of 3,002 differentially expressed transcripts were identified in the three tissues, including 417 unique genes in brain, 210 in lung and 213 in PBMC. These genes showed differential expression (DE) patterns on analysis by visualization and integrated discovery (DAVID). The DE genes involved in the immune response included genes related to the inflammatory response (CD163), the innate immune response (TLR2, TLR4, MYD88, TIRAP), cell adhesion (CD34, SELE, SELL, SELP, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1), antigen processing and presentation (MHC protein complex) and angiogenesis (VEGF), together with genes encoding cytokines (interleukins). Five selected genes were validated by qRT-PCR analysis. Conclusions We studied the response to infection with S. suis 2 strain SC19 by microarray analysis. Our findings confirmed some genes identified in previous studies and discovered numerous additional genes that potentially function in S. suis 2 infections in vivo. This new information will form the foundation of future investigations into the pathogenesis of S. suis. PMID:21599948

  17. Severe Hemorrhagic Fever in Strain 13/N Guinea Pigs Infected with Lujo Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Brian H.; Dodd, Kimberly A.; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Albariño, César G.; Chakrabarti, Ayan K.; McMullan, Laura K.; Bergeron, Eric; Ströeher, Ute; Cannon, Deborah; Martin, Brock; Coleman-McCray, JoAnn D.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Spiropoulou, Christina F.

    2012-01-01

    Lujo virus (LUJV) is a novel member of the Arenaviridae family that was first identified in 2008 after an outbreak of severe hemorrhagic fever (HF). In what was a small but rapidly progressing outbreak, this previously unknown virus was transmitted from the critically ill index patient to 4 attending healthcare workers. Four persons died during this outbreak, for a total case fatality of 80% (4/5). The suspected rodent source of the initial exposure to LUJV remains a mystery. Because of the ease of transmission, high case fatality, and novel nature of LUJV, we sought to establish an animal model of LUJV HF. Initial attempts in mice failed, but infection of inbred strain 13/N guinea pigs resulted in lethal disease. A total of 41 adult strain 13/N guinea pigs were infected with either wild-type LUJV or a full-length recombinant LUJV. Results demonstrated that strain 13/N guinea pigs provide an excellent model of severe and lethal LUJV HF that closely resembles what is known of the human disease. All infected animals experienced consistent weight loss (3–5% per day) and clinical illness characterized by ocular discharge, ruffled fur, hunched posture, and lethargy. Uniform lethality occurred by 11–16 days post-infection. All animals developed disseminated LUJV infection in various organs (liver, spleen, lung, and kidney), and leukopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, and elevated transaminase levels. Serial euthanasia studies revealed a temporal pattern of virus dissemination and increasing severity of disease, primarily targeting the liver, spleen, lungs, and lower gastrointestinal tract. Establishing an animal LUJV model is an important first step towards understanding the high pathogenicity of LUJV and developing vaccines and antiviral therapeutic drugs for this highly transmissible and lethal emerging pathogen. PMID:22953019

  18. Pre-infection of pigs with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae induces oxidative stress that influences outcomes of a subsequent infection with a swine influenza virus of H1N1 subtype.

    PubMed

    Deblanc, C; Robert, F; Pinard, T; Gorin, S; Quéguiner, S; Gautier-Bouchardon, A V; Ferré, S; Garraud, J M; Cariolet, R; Brack, M; Simon, G

    2013-03-23

    The severity of swine influenza is highly variable and can be exacerbated by many factors, such as a pre-infection of pigs with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp). The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative stress induced by Mhp and the impact of this stress on the evolution of an infection with the European avian-like swine H1N1 influenza virus. Two experimental trials (E1 and E2), which differed only by the feed delivered to the animals, were conducted on SPF pigs. In each trial, one group of nine 6-week-old pigs was inoculated intra-tracheally with Mhp and H1N1 at 21 days intervals and a mock-infected group (8 pigs) was included. Clinical signs were observed, blood samples were collected throughout the study and pathogens were detected in nasal swabs and lung tissues. Results indicated that Mhp infection induced an oxidative stress in E1 and E2, but its level was more important in E2 than in E1 three weeks post-Mhp inoculation, before H1N1 infection. In both trials, a strong inflammatory response and a response to the oxidative stress previously induced by Mhp appeared after H1N1 infection. However, the severity of influenza disease was significantly more marked in E2 as compared to E1, as revealed by prolonged hyperthermia, stronger reduction in mean daily weight gain and earlier viral shedding. These results suggested that severity of flu syndrome and reduction in animal performance may vary depending on the level of oxidative stress at the moment of the influenza infection, and that host responses could be influenced by the feed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Interaction of porcine circovirus type 2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines on dually infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Su-Jin; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccinations on disease severity in an experimental PCV2-M. hyopneumoniae dual challenge model. Vaccine effectiveness was evaluated using microbiological (PCV2 viremia and M. hyopneumoniae nasal shedding), immunological (neutralizing antibodies and interferon-γ-secreting cells), and pathological (gross lung lesions, histopathologic pulmonary and lymphoid lesions, and the presence of PCV2 antigen and M. hyopneumoniae DNA within the lesions) evaluations. Although M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of PCV2-associated lesions and lesion-associated PCV2 antigen in dually challenged pigs, vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone did not reduce PCV2 viremia, PCV2-induced lesions, or PCV2 antigen in dually challenged pigs. In addition, vaccination against PCV2 did not reduce the nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae, the M. hyopneumoniae-induced pulmonary lesions or the lesion-associated M. hyopneumoniae DNA in dually challenged pigs. Dual challenge with PCV2 and M. hyopneumoniae did not interfere with the induction of active immunity induced by a previous single vaccination for either PCV2 or M. hyopneumoniae. The results of this study demonstrated that (i) vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone did not decrease the potentiation of PCV2-induced lesions by M. hyopneumoniae and (ii) vaccination against PCV2 alone decreased the potentiation of PCV2-induced lesions by M. hyopneumoniae in dually challenged pigs.

  20. Characterization of chlamydial genital infection resulting from sexual transmission from male to female guinea pigs and determination of infectious dose.

    PubMed

    Rank, Roger G; Bowlin, Anne K; Reed, Ronald L; Darville, Toni

    2003-11-01

    A major problem in the study of chlamydial genital infections in animal models has been the use of varied doses of chlamydiae for infection in different laboratories. It is clearly desirable to use a dose which approximates that of natural sexual infection, but that dose to date has not been determined because of the inability of researchers to quantify chlamydiae in semen. Fortunately, sexual transmission of chlamydiae has been described for the guinea pig model of infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). In this study, we undertook to determine the approximate infection dose in actual sexual transmission by comparing the kinetics of infection in female guinea pigs acquired via sexual contact to those of genital infections induced artificially with known quantities of chlamydiae. Groups of guinea pigs were infected intravaginally with 10(4), 10(3), 10(2), and 10(1) inclusion-forming units (IFU) of GPIC, and the kinetics of the infection were determined. Infection with 10(2) IFU produced infections with lower peak levels than those in animals receiving 10(4) or 10(3) IFU. Seventy percent of animals receiving 10(2) IFU became infected, while 100 and 79% of animals receiving 10(4) and 10(3) IFU, respectively, became infected. Animals receiving 10(2) IFU also had a longer incubation period. Of 19 animals that mated with infected males, 63.2% became infected, with an infection course which was not significantly different than that of the 10(2)-IFU-infected group. The data suggest that female guinea pigs received approximately 10(2) IFU by sexual transmission. Of interest was the observation that the guinea pigs infected by sexual transmission shed organisms for a significantly shorter time period than that of any group that was artificially infected. This result suggests that there may be factors associated with semen which passively transfer antimicrobial activity to the female or enhance the innate host response in the female

  1. Characterization of Chlamydial Genital Infection Resulting from Sexual Transmission from Male to Female Guinea Pigs and Determination of Infectious Dose

    PubMed Central

    Rank, Roger G.; Bowlin, Anne K.; Reed, Ronald L.; Darville, Toni

    2003-01-01

    A major problem in the study of chlamydial genital infections in animal models has been the use of varied doses of chlamydiae for infection in different laboratories. It is clearly desirable to use a dose which approximates that of natural sexual infection, but that dose to date has not been determined because of the inability of researchers to quantify chlamydiae in semen. Fortunately, sexual transmission of chlamydiae has been described for the guinea pig model of infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). In this study, we undertook to determine the approximate infection dose in actual sexual transmission by comparing the kinetics of infection in female guinea pigs acquired via sexual contact to those of genital infections induced artificially with known quantities of chlamydiae. Groups of guinea pigs were infected intravaginally with 104, 103, 102, and 101 inclusion-forming units (IFU) of GPIC, and the kinetics of the infection were determined. Infection with 102 IFU produced infections with lower peak levels than those in animals receiving 104 or 103 IFU. Seventy percent of animals receiving 102 IFU became infected, while 100 and 79% of animals receiving 104 and 103 IFU, respectively, became infected. Animals receiving 102 IFU also had a longer incubation period. Of 19 animals that mated with infected males, 63.2% became infected, with an infection course which was not significantly different than that of the 102-IFU-infected group. The data suggest that female guinea pigs received approximately 102 IFU by sexual transmission. Of interest was the observation that the guinea pigs infected by sexual transmission shed organisms for a significantly shorter time period than that of any group that was artificially infected. This result suggests that there may be factors associated with semen which passively transfer antimicrobial activity to the female or enhance the innate host response in the female. Immunization of females

  2. Retrospective serological study on hepatitis E infection in pigs from 1985 to 1997 in Spain.

    PubMed

    Casas, Maribel; Pujols, Joan; Rosell, Rosa; de Deus, Nilsa; Peralta, Bibiana; Pina, Sonia; Casal, Jordi; Martín, Marga

    2009-03-30

    The objective of the present work was to ascertain the date in which hepatitis E virus (HEV) was introduced in the Spanish pig population. For this, a serological retrospective study was carried out using archived sera. A total of 2871 serum samples gathered between 1985 and 1997 and collected in 208 farms of Spain were tested for anti-HEV IgG by an in-house ELISA. Of the 2871 sera analyzed by ELISA, 1390 were positive for anti-HEV antibodies (48.4%, 95% CI: 46.9-49.9%) and that corresponded to 204/208 farms (98%, 95% CI: 96.1-99.9%) having at least one positive pig. Our results show that HEV was present and widespread in Spanish swine farms at least since 1985. Any significant changes in prevalence were detected from 1 year to another and therefore, HEV infection in swine should be considered endemic in Spain.

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, horses, pigs and chickens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kayoko; Kamai, Rika; Uetsu, Hirona; Goto, Hanyu; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2014-08-01

    The presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in livestock and poultry was investigated by latex agglutination tests; samples that agglutinated at dilutions of 1:64 or higher were regarded as positive. Sera were collected from fattening beef cattle (102 Japanese black, 105 crossbreeds and 114 castrated Holstein), culled dairy cattle (101 Holstein), 100 horses, 115 fattening pigs and 235 chickens (163 free-range and 72 broilers) at abattoirs in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, from August 2012 to August 2013. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 7.3% (31/422) in cattle, 5.2% (8/155) in pigs, but not in horses or chickens. These results suggest that toxoplasmosis may be transmitted to humans via consumption of T. gondii-infected raw beef in Japan. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Detection of cysteine protease in Taenia solium-induced brain granulomas in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Leifsson, Pall S; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-10-18

    In order to further characterize the immune response around the viable or degenerating Taenia solium cysts in the pig brain, the involvement of cysteine protease in the immune evasion was assessed. Brain tissues from 30 adult pigs naturally infected with T. solium cysticercosis were subjected to histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and immunohistochemistry using caspase-3 antibodies. Histopathological evaluation revealed lesions of stage I which was characterized by presence of viable parasite surrounded with minimal to moderate inflammatory cells and stage III characterized by the presence of a disintegrating parasite surrounded with high inflammatory cells. The results of immunohistochemistry indicated caspase-3 positive cells interspaced between inflammatory infiltrate mainly in stage I lesions, indicating the presence of cysteine protease. This result confirms the earlier hypothesis that cysteine protease may play a role in inducing immune evasion through apoptosis around viable T. solium cysts.

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Faecal Escherichia coli and Hepatitis E Virus as Biological Indicators of Contacts Between Domestic Pigs and Eurasian Wild Boar.

    PubMed

    Barth, S; Geue, L; Hinsching, A; Jenckel, M; Schlosser, J; Eiden, M; Pietschmann, J; Menge, C; Beer, M; Groschup, M; Jori, F; Etter, E; Blome, S

    2017-04-01

    Domestic pigs and Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) share several important viral and bacterial pathogens. Therefore, direct and indirect contacts between domestic pigs and wild boar present a risk of pathogen spillover and can lead to long-term perpetuation of infection. Biological indicators could be a powerful tool to understand and characterize contacts between wild boar and domestic pigs. Here, faecal Escherichia coli and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) were explored as potential biological indicators under experimental conditions. The data gained in our pilot study suggest that faecal E. coli can be used as biological indicator of contact between wild boar and domestic pig. For HEV, faecal transmission was also confirmed. However, molecular studies on full-genome basis did not reveal markers that would allow tracing of transmission direction. Based on these promising results, future field studies will especially target the practicability of E. coli microbiome molecular typing as surrogate of contacts at the wildlife-livestock interface. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Evaluation of a nonsteroidal topical cream in a guinea pig model of Malassezia furfur infection.

    PubMed

    Nalamothu, Vijendra; O'Leary, Ann L; Kandavilli, Sateesh; Fraser, Joanne; Pandya, Vishvabhavan

    2009-01-01

    Malassezia furfur is an important causal factor for seborrheic dermatitis, and topical antifungal therapy is an effective treatment approach. This study assessed the antifungal activity of Promiseb Topical Cream (Promius Pharma, LLC, Bridgewater, NJ), a novel nonsteroidal prescription medical device cream, in the M furfur-infected skin model for guinea pigs. Guinea pigs (N = 28) were divided into 4 groups and infected with M furfur for 7 days. On day 8, the first group of animals was sacrificed. The scrapings of inoculation site on each animal were tested for the presence of the organism, and the skin was excised for quantitation of M furfur. The second group was left untreated. The remaining 2 groups were treated with one of the test agents (Promiseb) and the positive control product (ciclopirox olamine cream, 0.77%; Loprox, Medicis, Scottsdale, AZ) each once daily for 3 days. At the end of treatment, animals were sacrificed and analyzed similarly to the first group. M furfur was recovered from all animals in the first group. Visual signs of infection, such as erythema and edema, were not observed in the infected animals at the end of the study. In the animals treated for 3 days with the test agents, the M furfur counts were reduced to below the limit of quantitation. Both test agents were equally effective in substantially reducing the density of M furfur compared with the untreated control.

  7. Immune responses to HTLV-I(ACH) during acute infection of pig-tailed macaques.

    PubMed

    McGinn, Therese M; Wei, Qing; Stallworth, Jackie; Fultz, Patricia N

    2004-04-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) is causally linked to adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and a chronic progressive neurological disease, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). A nonhuman primate model that reproduces disease symptoms seen in HTLV-I-infected humans might facilitate identification of initial immune responses to the virus and an understanding of pathogenic mechanisms in HTLV-I-related disease. Previously, we showed that infection of pig-tailed macaques with HTLV-I(ACH) is associated with multiple signs of disease characteristic of both HAM/TSP and ATL. We report here that within the first few weeks after HTLV-I(ACH) infection of pig-tailed macaques, serum concentrations of interferon (IFN)-alpha increased and interleukin-12 decreased transiently, levels of nitric oxide were elevated, and activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes and CD16(+) natural killer cells in peripheral blood were observed. HTLV-I(ACH) infection elicited virus-specific antibodies in all four animals within 4 to 6 weeks; however, Tax-specific lymphoproliferative responses were not detected until 25-29 weeks after infection in all four macaques. IFN-gamma production by peripheral blood cells stimulated with a Tax or Gag peptide was detected to varying degrees in all four animals by ELISPOT assay. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from one animal that developed only a marginal antigen-specific cellular response were unresponsive to mitogen stimulation during the last few weeks preceding its death from a rapidly progressive disease syndrome associated with HTLV-I(ACH) infection of pig-tailed macaques. The results show that during the first few months after HTLV-I(ACH) infection, activation of both innate and adaptive immunity, limited virus-specific cellular responses, sustained immune system activation, and, in some cases, immunodeficiency were evident. Thus, this animal model might be valuable for understanding early stages of infection

  8. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to chlamydial antigens in guinea pigs infected ocularly with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Senyk, G; Kerlan, R; Stites, D P; Schanzlin, D J; Ostler, H B; Hanna, L; Keshishyan, H; Jawetz, E

    1981-04-01

    Cell-mediated immune response and humoral response to chlamydial antigens were investigated in guinea pigs infected with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). Pronounced cell-mediated immune response to the homologous antigen, as well as to two other chlamydial antigens, 6BC (Chlamydia psittaci) and LB-1 (C. trachomatis), occurred in all infected animals. Cell-mediated immune response to GPIC, and to a lesser extent to 6BC and LB-1 as well, was enhanced with time after infection even without the re-inoculation of the infectious agent. Extensive cross-reactions among the three chlamydial antigens during the cell-mediated immune response appeared to be due to shared species-specific and group-reactive antigens. Serum antibody response was pronounced and uniform to GPIC; it was less marked to 6BC and LB-1, with fewer cross-reactions than seen in tests for cell-mediated immunity.

  9. Wound ballistics of the pig mandibular angle: a preliminary finite element analysis and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yubin; Miao, Yingyun; Xu, Chuan; Zhang, Gang; Lei, Tao; Tan, Yinghui

    2010-04-19

    To study wound ballistics of the mandibular angle, a combined hexahedral-tetrahedral finite element (FE) model of the pig mandible was developed to simulate ballistic impact. An experimental study was carried out by measuring impact load parameters from 14 fresh pig mandibles that were shot at the mandibular angle by a standard 7.62 mm M43 bullet. FE analysis was executed through the LS-DYNA code under impact loads similar to those obtained from the experimental study. The resulting residual velocity, the transferred energy from the bullet to the mandible, and the surface area of the entrance wound had no statistical differences between the FE simulation and the experimental study. However, the mean surface area of the exit wounds in the experimental study was significantly larger than that in the simulation. According to the FE analysis, the stress concentrated zones were mainly located at the region of impact, condylar neck, coronoid process and mandibular body. The simulation results also indicated that trabecular bone had less stress concentration and a lower speed of stress propagation compared with cortical bone. The FE model is appropriate and conforms to the basic principles of wound ballistics. This modeling system will be helpful for further investigations of the biomechanical mechanisms of wound ballistics. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased and prolonged human norovirus infection in RAG2/IL2RG deficient gnotobiotic pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shaohua; Ryu, Junghyun; Wen, Ke; Twitchell, Erica; Bui, Tammy; Ramesh, Ashwin; Weiss, Mariah; Li, Guohua; Samuel, Helen; Clark-Deener, Sherrie; Jiang, Xi; Lee, Kiho; Yuan, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Application of genetically engineered (GE) large animals carrying multi-allelic modifications has been hampered by low efficiency in production and extended gestation period compared to rodents. Here, we rapidly generated RAG2/IL2RG double knockout pigs using direct injection of CRISPR/Cas9 system into developing embryos. RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs were immunodeficient, characterized by depletion of lymphocytes and either absence of or structurally abnormal immune organs. Pigs were maintained in gnotobiotic facility and evaluated for human norovirus (HuNoV) infection. HuNoV shedding lasted for 16 days in wild type pigs, compared to 27 days (until the end of trials) in RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs. Additionally, higher HuNoV titers were detected in intestinal tissues and contents and in blood, indicating increased and prolonged HuNoV infection in RAG2/IL2RG deficient pigs and the importance of lymphocytes in HuNoV clearance. These results suggest that GE immunodeficient gnotobiotic pigs serve as a novel model for biomedical research and will facilitate HuNoV studies. PMID:27118081

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with hepatitis E virus infections among people and pigs in Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihong; Li, Kun; Huang, Shucheng; Liu, Dongyu; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Lan, Yanfang; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Hao, Yanan; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Mehmood, Khalid; Chamba, Yangczom; Li, Jiakui

    2017-08-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, is an important public health problem throughout the world. There is little information available on the autochthonous HEV infection in highland inhabitants (Tibet, average elevation >3000m) of China. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the sero-prevalence of Hepatitis E and association of different risk factors in local people and pigs in Tibet, China. For this purpose, serum samples were collected from 600 local volunteers and 453 Tibetan pigs from July 2014 to August 2015. All the samples were examined for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). While socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics were also obtained through questionnaire. The present survey found a close relationship among the HEV of Tibetan people and pigs. The prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was detected 39.33% (236/600) and 42.38% (192/453) in local people and pigs, respectively. There was a significance association of different age groups, ethnic groups, people having contact with pigs or consuming uncooked meat, and gender of Tibetan pigs. Our findings confirmed the presence of autochthonous HEV among people and pigs in Tibet, China. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to prevent and control HEV infection in Tibet, China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Chronological study of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection, seroconversion and associated lung lesions in vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs.

    PubMed

    Sibila, M; Nofrarías, M; López-Soria, S; Segalés, J; Valero, O; Espinal, A; Calsamiglia, M

    2007-05-16

    A field trial was conducted to study Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) infection dynamics by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and serology in pigs of a farm affected by enzootic pneumonia (EP). Moreover, correlation of Mh detection at different respiratory tract sites with presence of EP gross and microscopic lung lesions was assessed. These parameters were studied and compared between vaccinated (two doses at 1 and 3 weeks of age versus one dose at 6 weeks of age) and non-vaccinated pigs. Animals were monitored from birth to slaughter by nPCR from nasal swabs and by serology. From 3 to 22 weeks of age, an average of three pigs per treatment and per batch were necropsied (n = 302). The remaining pigs were sent to the slaughter (n = 103). Nasal, bronchial and tonsillar swabs were taken from the necropsied/slaughtered pigs; gross and microscopic EP-suggestive lung lesions were also assessed. Single and double vaccination resulted in earlier seroconversion and higher percentage of Mh seropositive pigs compared to control group. At slaughter, double vaccinated pigs showed lower percentage of EP-compatible gross lung lesions and lower Mh prevalence at upper respiratory tract sites (nasal cavity and tonsil) than control pigs.

  13. Apoptosis in lymph nodes and changes in lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood of pigs infected with porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ropón, A; Hernández-Jauregui, P; Sánchez-Torres, L; Favila-Castillo, L; Estrada-Parra, S; Moreno-López, J; Kennedy, S

    2003-01-01

    In a first experiment, five pigs were inoculated intranasally with porcine rubulavirus (PoRV) at 5 days of age and killed 7 days post-infection (pi). In a second experiment, four pigs were infected with the same virus at 17 days of age and killed at 9 or 15 days pi. Control piglets in each experiment received uninfected cell culture supernate. All PoRV-infected pigs developed respiratory and nervous signs, and histological lesions of non-suppurative encephalitis and interstitial pneumonia. All control pigs remained clinically normal and did not have histological lesions. Significantly increased numbers of apoptotic cells were detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) in tonsil and lymph nodes of the pigs infected at 7 days of age and killed at 7 days pi. Significantly increased percentages of CD2(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes were also found in peripheral blood of these animals at this time, while the percentages of CD4(+) and MHC class II lymphocytes were significantly reduced. Significantly increased numbers of apoptotic cells were detected in lymphoid tissues of the pigs infected at 17 days of age and killed at 9 days pi. The percentages of CD2(+), CD8(+) and MHC class II lymphocytes in peripheral blood were also significantly increased at this time; the percentage of MHC class II lymphocytes remained elevated at 15 days pi. These results indicate that induction of apoptosis is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of PoRV infection in young pigs, and that this virus induces changes in lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood.

  14. Isolated Liver Perfusion Using Percutaneous Methods:[ql An Experimental Study in the Pig

    SciTech Connect

    Harnek, Jan; Cwikiel, Wojciech; Bergqvist, Lennart; Persson, Bo; Stridbeck, Hans

    1996-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a method for isolated perfusion of the liver using radiological methods. Methods: Twenty-one pigs, weighing about 20 kg, were divided into three groups. By transjugular and transfemoral approaches two occlusion balloons were placed in the inferior vena cava cranial and caudal, respectively, to the origin of the hepatic veins. One occlusion balloon was placed transfemorally in the common hepatic artery. Another occlusion balloon was inserted in the main branch of the portal vein via the transjugular-transhepatic approach in 11 pigs (groups 1 and 2), and in 10 pigs (group 3) by a percutaneous transhepatic route. After inflation of the balloons, patency of the isolated liver circulation was evaluated by recirculation of {sup 99}Tc{sup m}-labelled human albumin during 30 min. Blood tests were obtained after 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min to evaluate leakage from the liver to the systemic circulation. Results: Increasing leakage to the systemic circulation from the isolated liver circulation was observed in groups 1 and 2. In the third group the leakage was less than 10%. Conclusion: In an experimental animal model, isolated perfusion of the liver with minor leakage to the systemic circulation may be achieved using radiological methods.

  15. Serological characterization of guinea pigs infected with H3N2 human influenza or immunized with hemagglutinin protein

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent and previous studies have shown that guinea pigs can be infected with, and transmit, human influenza viruses. Therefore guinea pig may be a useful animal model for better understanding influenza infection and assessing vaccine strategies. To more fully characterize the model, antibody responses following either infection/re-infection with human influenza A/Wyoming/03/2003 H3N2 or immunization with its homologous recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) protein were studied. Results Serological samples were collected and tested for anti-HA immunoglobulin by ELISA, antiviral antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and recognition of linear epitopes by peptide scanning (PepScan). Animals inoculated with infectious virus demonstrated pronounced viral replication and subsequent serological conversion. Animals either immunized with the homologous HA antigen or infected, showed a relatively rapid rise in antibody titers to the HA glycoprotein in ELISA assays. Antiviral antibodies, measured by HI assay, were detectable after the second inoculation. PepScan data identified both previously recognized and newly defined linear epitopes. Conclusions Infection and/or recombinant HA immunization of guinea pigs with H3N2 Wyoming influenza virus resulted in a relatively rapid production of viral-specific antibody thus demonstrating the strong immunogenicity of the major viral structural proteins in this animal model for influenza infection. The sensitivity of the immune response supports the utility of the guinea pig as a useful animal model of influenza infection and immunization. PMID:20735849

  16. Cross-species infection of pigs with a novel rabbit, but not rat, strain of hepatitis E virus isolated in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cossaboom, Caitlin M; Córdoba, Laura; Sanford, Brenton J; Piñeyro, Pablo; Kenney, Scott P; Dryman, Barbara A; Wang, Youchun; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2012-08-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important human pathogen. In addition to humans, HEV has also been identified in pig, chicken, mongoose, deer, rat, rabbit and fish. There are four recognized and two putative genotypes of mammalian HEV. Genotypes 1 and 2 are restricted to humans, while genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic. The recently identified rabbit HEV is a distant member of genotype 3. Here, we first expressed and purified the recombinant capsid protein of rabbit HEV and showed that the capsid protein of rabbit HEV cross-reacted with antibodies raised against avian, rat, swine and human HEV. Conversely, we showed that antibodies against rabbit HEV cross-reacted with capsid proteins derived from chicken, rat, swine and human HEV. Since pigs are the natural host of genotype 3 HEV, we then determined if rabbit HEV infects pigs. Twenty pigs were divided into five groups of four each and intravenously inoculated with PBS, US rabbit HEV, Chinese rabbit HEV, US rat HEV and swine HEV, respectively. Results showed that only half of the pigs inoculated with rabbit HEV had low levels of viraemia and faecal virus shedding, indicative of active but not robust HEV infection. Infection of pigs by rabbit HEV was further verified by transmission of the virus recovered from pig faeces to naïve rabbits. Pigs inoculated with rat HEV showed no evidence of infection. Preliminary results suggest that rabbit HEV is antigenically related to other HEV strains and infects pigs and that rat HEV failed to infect pigs.

  17. Impact of an experimental PRRSV and Streptococcus suis coinfection on the pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur hydrochloride after intramuscular injection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Day, D N; Sparks, J W; Karriker, L A; Stalder, K J; Wulf, L W; Zhang, J; Kinyon, J M; Stock, M L; Gehring, R; Wang, C; Ellingson, J; Coetzee, J F

    2015-10-01

    This study determined the impact of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Streptococcus suis coinfection on the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of ceftiofur hydrochloride in pigs after intramuscular (i.m.) injection. Eighteen clinically normal crossbred gilts were assigned by weight into a challenge group (10 pigs) and control group (eight pigs). Pigs in both groups received a single i.m. injection of ceftiofur hydrochloride (Excenel RTU Sterile Suspension; Zoetis) at a 5 mg/kg BW dose. Serial blood samples were collected to characterize the plasma concentration curve. After a 10 days drug washout period, the challenge group was inoculated with 2 mL of PRRSV isolate VR-2385 (10(5.75) 50% tissue culture infective doses per mL) intranasally and 8 days later inoculated S. suis. When clinical disease was evident, the second PK assessment began in both challenge and control groups. Coinfected pigs demonstrated lower values of AUC and CMAX , but higher values of Cl/F and Vz/F indicating drug kinetics were altered by infection. The data from this study have implications on ceftiofur treatment regimens in diseased pigs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Acute neurologic disease in Porcine rubulavirus experimentally infected piglets.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Jenifer; Gómez-Núñez, Luis; Lara-Romero, Rocío; Diosdado, Fernando; Martínez-Lara, Atalo; Jasso, Miguel; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Rivera-Benítez, José Francisco

    2017-02-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical disease, humoral response and viral distribution of recent Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates in experimentally infected pigs. Four, 6-piglet (5-days old) groups were employed (G1-84, G2-93, G3-147, and G4-T). Three viral strains were used for the experimental infection: the reference strain LPMV-1984 (Michoacán 1984) and two other strains isolated in 2013, one in Queretaro (Qro/93/2013) and the other in Michoacán (Mich/147/2013). Each strain was genetically characterized by amplification and sequencing of the gene encoding hemagglutinin-neuroamidase (HN). The inoculation was performed through the oronasal and ocular routes, at a dose of 1×10(6)TCID50/ml. Subsequently, the signs were evaluated daily and necropsies were performed on 3 different days post infection (dpi). We recorded all micro- and macroscopic lesions. Organs from the nervous, lymphatic, and respiratory system were analyzed by quantifying the viral RNA load and the presence of the infectious virus. The presence of the viral antigen in organs was evidenced through immunohistochemistry. Seroconversion was evaluated through the use of a hemagglutination inhibition test. In the characterization of gene HN, only three substitutions were identified in strain Mich/147/2013, two in strain LPMV/1984 (fourth passage) and one in strain Qro/93/2013, with respect to reference strain LPMV-84, these changes had not been identified as virulence factors in previously reported strains. Neurological alterations associated with the infection were found in all three experimental groups starting from 3dpi. Groups G1-84 and G3-147 presented the most exacerbated nervous signs. Group G2-93 only presented milder signs including slight motor incoordination, and an increased rectal temperature starting from day 5 post infection (PI). The main histopathological findings were the presence of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate (lymphocytic/monocytic) surrounding the

  19. Mycobacterium ulcerans Fails to Infect through Skin Abrasions in a Guinea Pig Infection Model: Implications for Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Heather R.; Mosi, Lydia; Donnell, Robert; Aqqad, Maha; Merritt, Richard W.; Small, Pamela L. C.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of M. ulcerans, the etiological agent of Buruli ulcer, from the environment to humans remains an enigma despite decades of research. Major transmission hypotheses propose 1) that M. ulcerans is acquired through an insect bite or 2) that bacteria enter an existing wound through exposure to a contaminated environment. In studies reported here, a guinea pig infection model was developed to determine whether Buruli ulcer could be produced through passive inoculation of M. ulcerans onto a superficial abrasion. The choice of an abrasion model was based on the fact that most bacterial pathogens infecting the skin are able to infect an open lesion, and that abrasions are extremely common in children. Our studies show that after a 90d infection period, an ulcer was present at intra-dermal injection sites of all seven animals infected, whereas topical application of M. ulcerans failed to establish an infection. Mycobacterium ulcerans was cultured from all injection sites whereas infected abrasion sites healed and were culture negative. A 14d experiment was conducted to determine how long organisms persisted after inoculation. Mycobacterium ulcerans was isolated from abrasions at one hour and 24 hours post infection, but cultures from later time points were negative. Abrasion sites were qPCR positive up to seven days post infection, but negative at later timepoints. In contrast, M. ulcerans DNA was detected at intra-dermal injection sites throughout the study. M. ulcerans was cultured from injection sites at each time point. These results suggest that injection of M. ulcerans into the skin greatly facilitates infection and lends support for the role of an invertebrate vector or other route of entry such as a puncture wound or deep laceration where bacteria would be contained within the lesion. Infection through passive inoculation into an existing abrasion appears a less likely route of entry. PMID:24722416

  20. Experimental infection with Paragonimus heterotremus metacercariae in laboratory animals in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Devi, K Ranjana; Singh, L Deben; Binchai, Sutheewan; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to find out the host-parasite relationship between Paragonimus heterotremus isolated as metacercariae from mountain crabs, Indochinamon manipurensis, in Manipur, India and laboratory animals such as puppies, albino rats, Swiss mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits, as experimental animals. The animals were fed with the metacercariae. Infected animals were sacrificed 35 to 430 days after feeding to recover worms, which were used to determine the developmental stages. Adult worms (n = 14) were recovered from 3 puppies > or = 70 days after feeding and immature worms (n = 25) were recovered from 2 other puppies 35 or 43 days after infection. The infection rate in puppies was 100%. Juvenile worms were recovered from 3 of 13 rats: 1 of 11 rats whose viscera and cavities were examined and both of two rats whose muscles were examined. Rats were not a suitable animal model for pulmonary infection with P. heterotremus. Mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits were also found to be insusceptible to pulmonary infection with P. heterotremus.

  1. Therapeutic efficacy of AS2077715 against experimental tinea pedis in guinea pigs in comparison with terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Ohsumi, Keisuke; Murai, Hidetsugu; Nakamura, Ikko; Watanabe, Masato; Fujie, Akihiko

    2014-10-01

    AS2077715 is a novel antifungal metabolite produced by the newly isolated fungal strain Capnodium sp. 339855. This compound has potent inhibitory activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex (complex III) and potent fungicidal activity against T. mentagrophytes, as measured in vitro. Here, we compared the effects of AS2077715 and terbinafine in a guinea pig model of tinea pedis. In a treatment regimen started from the day 7 after infection, 10 daily oral doses of 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) AS2077715 and 20 mg kg(-1) of terbinafine significantly decreased fungal colony-forming units (CFUs) in foot pad skin. In a treatment regimen started from the day 11 after infection, 20 mg kg(-1) AS2077715 significantly reduced fungal CFUs in foot pad skin after 7 daily doses in comparison with 20 mg kg(-1) terbinafine-treated guinea pigs. Our findings suggest that in vivo potency and efficacy of AS2077715 are equal to or greater than that of terbinafine, positioning AS2077715 as a good candidate for use in treating trichophytosis.

  2. Age at Vaccination and Timing of Infection Do Not Alter Vaccine-Associated Enhanced Respiratory Disease in Influenza A Virus-Infected Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Carine K.; Rajão, Daniela S.; Loving, Crystal L.; Gauger, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines are widely used in the swine industry to reduce clinical disease against homologous influenza A virus (IAV) infection. In pigs experimentally challenged with antigenically distinct heterologous IAV of the same hemagglutinin subtype, WIV vaccinates have been shown to develop vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD). We evaluated the impact of vaccine valency, age at vaccination, and duration between vaccination and challenge on the development of VAERD using vaccine containing δ1-H1N2 and challenge with pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus. Pigs were vaccinated with monovalent WIV MN08 (δ1-H1N2) and bivalent (δ1-H1N2–H3N2 or δ1-H1N2–pH1N1) vaccines and then were challenged with pH1N1 at 3 weeks postboost (wpb). Another group was vaccinated with the same monovalent WIV and challenged at 6 wpb to determine if the time postvaccination plays a role in the development of VAERD. In a follow-up study, the impact of age of first WIV vaccination (at 4 versus 9 weeks of age) with a boost 3 weeks later (at 7 versus 12 weeks of age) was evaluated. A monovalent live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine administered at 4 and 7 weeks of age was also included. All mismatched WIV groups had significantly higher lung lesions than the LAIV, bivalent MN08-CA09, and control groups. Age of first vaccination or length of time between booster dose and subsequent challenge did not alter the development of VAERD in WIV-vaccinated pigs. Importantly, the mismatched component of the bivalent MN08-CA09 WIV did not override the protective effect of the matched vaccine component. PMID:27030585

  3. Age at Vaccination and Timing of Infection Do Not Alter Vaccine-Associated Enhanced Respiratory Disease in Influenza A Virus-Infected Pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carine K; Rajão, Daniela S; Loving, Crystal L; Gauger, Phillip C; Pérez, Daniel R; Vincent, Amy L

    2016-06-01

    Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines are widely used in the swine industry to reduce clinical disease against homologous influenza A virus (IAV) infection. In pigs experimentally challenged with antigenically distinct heterologous IAV of the same hemagglutinin subtype, WIV vaccinates have been shown to develop vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD). We evaluated the impact of vaccine valency, age at vaccination, and duration between vaccination and challenge on the development of VAERD using vaccine containing δ1-H1N2 and challenge with pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus. Pigs were vaccinated with monovalent WIV MN08 (δ1-H1N2) and bivalent (δ1-H1N2-H3N2 or δ1-H1N2-pH1N1) vaccines and then were challenged with pH1N1 at 3 weeks postboost (wpb). Another group was vaccinated with the same monovalent WIV and challenged at 6 wpb to determine if the time postvaccination plays a role in the development of VAERD. In a follow-up study, the impact of age of first WIV vaccination (at 4 versus 9 weeks of age) with a boost 3 weeks later (at 7 versus 12 weeks of age) was evaluated. A monovalent live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine administered at 4 and 7 weeks of age was also included. All mismatched WIV groups had significantly higher lung lesions than the LAIV, bivalent MN08-CA09, and control groups. Age of first vaccination or length of time between booster dose and subsequent challenge did not alter the development of VAERD in WIV-vaccinated pigs. Importantly, the mismatched component of the bivalent MN08-CA09 WIV did not override the protective effect of the matched vaccine component. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Experimental joint immobilization in guinea pigs. Effects on the knee joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcondesdesouza, J. P.; Machado, F. F.; Sesso, A.; Valeri, V.

    1980-01-01

    In young and adult guinea pigs, the aftermath experimentally induced by the immobilization of the knee joint in hyperextended forced position was studied. Joint immobilization which varied from one to nine weeks was attained by plaster. Eighty knee joints were examined macro and microscopically. Findings included: (1) muscular hypotrophy and joint stiffness in all animals, directly proportional to the length of immobilization; (2) haemoarthrosis in the first week; (3) intra-articular fibrous tissue proliferation ending up with fibrous ankylosis; (4) hyaline articular cartilage erosions; (5) various degrees of destructive menisci changes. A tentative explanation of the fibrous tissue proliferation and of the cartilage changes is offered.

  5. Influenza A Virus Infection in Pigs Attracts Multifunctional and Cross-Reactive T Cells to the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Talker, Stephanie C.; Stadler, Maria; Koinig, Hanna C.; Mair, Kerstin H.; Rodríguez-Gómez, Irene M.; Graage, Robert; Zell, Roland; Dürrwald, Ralf; Starick, Elke; Harder, Timm; Weissenböck, Herbert; Lamp, Benjamin; Hammer, Sabine E.; Ladinig, Andrea; Saalmüller, Armin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pigs are natural hosts for influenza A viruses and play a critical role in influenza epidemiology. However, little is known about their influenza-evoked T-cell response. We performed a thorough analysis of both the local and systemic T-cell response in influenza virus-infected pigs, addressing kinetics and phenotype as well as multifunctionality (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and interleukin-2 [IL-2]) and cross-reactivity. A total of 31 pigs were intratracheally infected with an H1N2 swine influenza A virus (FLUAVsw) and consecutively euthanized. Lungs, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, and blood were sampled during the first 15 days postinfection (p.i.) and at 6 weeks p.i. Ex vivo flow cytometry of lung lymphocytes revealed an increase in proliferating (Ki-67+) CD8+ T cells with an early effector phenotype (perforin+ CD27+) at day 6 p.i. Low frequencies of influenza virus-specific IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells could be detected in the lung as early as 4 days p.i. On consecutive days, influenza virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells produced mainly IFN-γ and/or TNF-α, reaching peak frequencies around day 9 p.i., which were up to 30-fold higher in the lung than in tracheobronchial lymph nodes or blood. At 6 weeks p.i., CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells had accumulated in lung tissue. These cells showed diverse cytokine profiles and in vitro reactivity against heterologous influenza virus strains, all of which supports their potential to combat heterologous influenza virus infections in pigs. IMPORTANCE Pigs not only are a suitable large-animal model for human influenza virus infection and vaccine development but also play a central role in the emergence of new pandemic strains. Although promising candidate universal vaccines are tested in pigs and local T cells are the major correlate of heterologous control, detailed and targeted analyses of T-cell responses at the site of infection are scarce. With the present study, we

  6. Effects of various doses of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection in ovariectomized guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of various doses of estradiol on genital tract infection by the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) was investigated in ovariectomized guinea pigs. Prolongation of infection, as determined by chlamydial inclusion counts of cells in Giemsa-stained smears of vaginal scrapings, was observed in animals receiving daily doses of 1.0, 10.0, 100.0, or 1000 micrograms of estradiol. In contrast to controls, ascending infection resulting in endometritis was found in animals receiving doses of greater than or equal to 1.0 microgram of estradiol per day. Response to estradiol treatment was reflected in an increase in cervical-uterine wet weight and uterine wall thickness. No differences were observed in time of appearance of antibody titers to GPIC in serum, but a delay in appearance of IgA antibody to GPIC in genital secretions was found in estradiol-treated animals receiving doses of greater than or equal to 1.0 microgram per day.

  7. [Infectivity of the entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii in mice and guinea pigs].

    PubMed

    Mier, T; Rivera, F; Rodríguez-Ponce, M P; Carrillo-Farga, J; Toriello, C

    1994-01-01

    The resistance of plague insects to chemical insecticides as well as the importance of a healthy environment demands an alternative for agricultural plagues. Among others, biological control seems an alternate strategy with fungal entomopathogens playing a relevant role. The hyphomycete Verticillium lecanii is a natural bioregulator of aphids, scales and white-flies that attack different agricultural plantations. Its use in biological control programs must be assessed previously by safety procedures such as its innocuity in mammals and useful animals and plants. The aim of this study was pointed at demonstrating the innocuity of V. lecanii in mice and guinea pigs. Two strains of the fungus were injected intraperitoneally (10(8) conidia/kg of animal weight) to 130 mice and 66 guinea pigs. Two control groups were included, one injected with heat-killed fungi and the other with sterile physiological saline. The animals were killed at 8, 30 and 70 days after infection, and mycological and histopathological studies performed in their organs. Negative results obtained with the live fungus in the same manner as the two control groups, suggest the innocuity of V. lecanii in mice and guinea pigs.

  8. Does inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha affect chlamydial genital tract infection in mice and guinea pigs?

    PubMed

    Darville, T; Andrews, C W; Rank, R G

    2000-09-01

    The role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in host defense against chlamydial infection remains unclear. In order to further evaluate the relevance of TNF-alpha to host resistance in chlamydial genital tract infection, we examined the effect of local inhibition of the TNF-alpha response in normal C57 mice and in interferon gamma gene-deficient C57 mice infected intravaginally with the mouse pneumonitis agent of Chlamydia trachomatis. Since the guinea pig model of female genital tract infection more closely approximates the human in terms of ascending infection and development of pathology, we also examined the effect of local inhibition of the TNF-alpha response in guinea pigs infected intravaginally with the guinea pig strain of Chlamydia psittaci. We successfully blocked the early TNF-alpha response in the respective animal models. This blockade had no effect on the numbers of organisms isolated from the genital tract during the time of TNF-alpha inhibition in mice or guinea pigs. Analysis of interleukin-1beta, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor in the mouse model revealed that blockade of the TNF-alpha response did not alter the release of these proinflammatory proteins. Yet, in TNF-alpha-depleted mice, increased numbers of neutrophils were detected in the genital tract, and, in TNF-alpha-depleted guinea pigs, increased numbers of neutrophils as well as infiltrating lymphocytes were seen in the endocervix. Blockade of TNF-alpha does not affect the level of infection in mice or guinea pigs, but it may decrease TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis of infiltrating inflammatory cells.

  9. Swine torque teno virus (TTV) infection and excretion dynamics in conventional pig farms.

    PubMed

    Sibila, M; Martínez-Guinó, L; Huerta, E; Llorens, A; Mora, M; Grau-Roma, L; Kekarainen, T; Segalés, J

    2009-11-18

    Torque teno virus (TTV) is a non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus infecting human and non-primate species. Two genogroups of TTV (TTV1 and TTV2) have been described in swine so far. In the present study, TTV1 and TTV2 prevalences in serum, and nasal as well as rectal swabs of 55 randomly selected piglets from seven Spanish multi-site farms, were monitored from 1 to 15 weeks of age. Also, blood from their dams (n=41) were taken at 1 week post-farrowing. Samples were tested by means of two TTV genogroup specific PCRs. Although prevalence of TTV1 and TTV2 in sows was relatively high (54% and 32%, respectively), it was not directly associated to their prevalence in the offspring. Percentage of viremic pigs for both TTV genogroups followed similar dynamics, increasing progressively over time, with the highest rate of detection at 11 weeks of age for TTV1 and at 15 weeks for TTV2. Forty-two (76%) and 33 (60%) of the 55 studied pigs were TTV1 and TTV2 PCR positive in serum, respectively, in more than one sampling time. TTV1 and TTV2 viremia lasted in a number of animals up to 15 and 8 weeks, respectively. Co-infection with both TTV genogroups in serum was detected at all sampling points, but at 1 week of age. On the contrary, there were animals PCR negative to both genogroups in serum at all sampling times but at 15 weeks of age. During the study period, TTV1 and TTV2 nasal shedding increased also over time and faecal excretion was intermittent and of low percentage (<20%). In conclusion, the present study describes for the first time the infection dynamics of TTV1 and TTV2 as well as the nasal and faecal excretion throughout the life of pigs from conventional, multi-site farms. Moreover, results indicate that both swine TTV genogroups are able to establish persistent infections in a number of pigs.

  10. Analysis of the acute-phase protein response in pigs to clinical and subclinical infection with H3N2 swine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Kwit, Krzysztof; Pejsak, Zygmunt; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona

    2014-03-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is a contagious, important respiratory disease. Diagnosis of SI is based on the clinical signs, confirmed by the detection of viral RNA or specific antibodies. However, the infection is much more frequent than the disease. The aim of study was to investigate the kinetics of acute-phase protein (APP) response during subclinical and clinical influenza in pigs. The utility of APP measurements in identification of infected animals was also evaluated. Twenty-eight piglets were used. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major acute-phase protein (Pig-MAP) concentrations in serum were measured using commercial ELISAs. No relevant clinical signs were observed in intranasally infected pigs. In contrast, coughing, nasal discharge, and fever were observed in pigs infected intratracheally. All infected pigs exhibited specific antibodies in the serum at 10 dpi, and viral shedding was confirmed. The concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA were significantly increased after infection. The level of Pig-MAP remained constant during subclinical and clinical infection. The concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA were higher in pigs with clinical disease. Although not specific, strategic APP measurements may reveal ongoing clinical and subclinical infection. A close relationship between the magnitude of serum APP response with the severity of disease, providing an objective tool for validation the severity of infection. The maximum concentration of SAA in serum was closely correlated with lung score and makes this APP potential indicator for disease progress or estimation of treatment strategy.

  11. Differential Expression of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Open Reading Frame 5, but not Apoptogenic Cytokines, Contribute to Severe Respiratory Disease in Pigs Infected with Type 2 PRRSV Compared with Pigs Infected with Type 1 PRRSV.

    PubMed

    Han, K; Lee, J; Park, C; Choi, K; Jeong, J; Park, S-J; Kang, I; Chae, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression of open reading frame 5 (ORF5) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and apoptogenic cytokines in the lungs from pigs infected with type 1 and type 2 PRRSV. Microscopical lung lesion scores and the mean number of apoptotic cells were significantly (P <0.05) higher in pigs with type 2 PRRSV infection than in those with type 1 PRRSV infection. The score for the mean number of PRRSV ORF5-positive cells per unit area of lung was significantly (P <0.05) higher in pigs with type 2 PRRSV infection. There were no significant differences in the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 in lung tissues between type 1 and type 2 PRRSV-infected pigs. The severity of microscopical lung lesions and the number of apoptotic cells correlated well with the number of PRRSV ORF5-positive cells. Therefore, differential expression of PRRSV ORF5, but not apoptogenic cytokines, may attribute to the severity of lung lesions and apoptosis in lungs in PRRSV infection. These results suggest that expression of PRRSV ORF5 may be a critical determinant for different virulence between PRRSV genotypes in terms of respiratory disease.

  12. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel; Bøtner, Anette; Ponsart, Claire; Zientara, Stéphan; Lohse, Louise; Pozzi, Nathalie; Viarouge, Cyril; Sarradin, Pierre; Leroux-Barc, Céline; Riou, Mickael; Laloy, Eve; Breithaupt, Angele; Beer, Martin

    2013-10-25

    Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited. In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy. Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3-5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10-14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation. In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period.

  13. Dietary plant extracts modulate gene expression profiles in ileal mucosa of weaned pigs after an Escherichia coli infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Che, T M; Lee, J J; Bravo, D; Maddox, C W; Pettigrew, J E

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the effects of infection with a pathogenic F-18 Escherichia coli and 3 different plant extracts on gene expression of ileal mucosa in weaned pigs. Weaned pigs (total = 64, 6.3 ± 0.2 kg BW, and 21-d old) were housed in individual pens for 15 d, 4 d before and 11 d after the first inoculation (d 0). Treatments were in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement: with or without an F-18 E. coli challenge and 4 diets (a nursery basal, control diet [CON], 10 ppm of capsicum oleoresin [CAP], garlic botanical [GAR], or turmeric oleoresin [TUR]). Results reported elsewhere showed that the plant extracts reduced diarrhea in challenged pigs. Total RNA (4 pigs/treatment) was extracted from ileal mucosa of pigs at d 5 post inoculation. Double-stranded cDNA was amplified, labeled, and further hybridized to the microarray, and data were analyzed in R. Differential gene expression was tested by fitting a mixed linear model in a 2 × 4 factorial ANOVA. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted by DAVID Bioinformatics Resources 6.7 (DAVID; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases [NIAID, NIH], http://david.abcc.ncifcrf.gov). The E. coli infection altered (P < 0.05) the expression of 240 genes in pigs fed the CON (148 up- and 92 down-regulated). Compared with the infected CON, feeding CAP, GAR, or TUR altered (P < 0.05) the expression of 52 genes (18 up, 34 down), 117 genes (34 up- and 83 down-regulated), or 84 genes (16 up- and 68 down-regulated), respectively, often counteracting the effects of E. coli. The E. coli infection up-regulated (P < 0.05) the expression of genes related to the activation of immune response and complement and coagulation cascades, but down-regulated (P < 0.05) the expression of genes involved in protein synthesis and accumulation. Compared with the CON, feeding CAP and GAR increased (P < 0.05) the expression of genes related to integrity of membranes in infected pigs, indicating enhanced gut mucosa health. Moreover

  14. Usability of a gamma interferon release assay in the diagnosis of naturally infected pigs with Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis.

    PubMed

    Faldyna, Martin; Göpfert, Eduard; Kudlackova, Hana; Stepanova, Hana; Kaevska, Marija; Slana, Iva; Pavlik, Ivo

    2012-03-01

    In the current study, the results of an intradermal tuberculin test and a gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay were compared. IFN-γ release assay is based on the detection of IFN-γ production after in vitro stimulation with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium-specific antigen for the discrimination of pigs naturally infected with M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Fifty-five clinically healthy pigs were used in the study. Three of these were proven by culture and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods to be infected with M. avium subsp. hominissuis (2 animals) and Mycobacterium xenopi (1 animal). No animals were positive by the tuberculin test. Both M. avium subsp. hominissuis-positive pigs were evaluated as positive by the IFN-γ release assay. Bacteriologically negative and M. xenopi-positive pigs were unresponsive in the IFN-γ release assay, indicating the specificity of the method. The results suggest that the IFN-γ release assay has a higher sensitivity than the tuberculin test and that the assay can be used for diagnosis of M. avium infections in live, naturally infected pigs.

  15. The role of porcine teschovirus in causing diseases in endemically infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shu-Chun; Hu, Shu-Chia; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Yi; Huang, Chin-Cheng; Pang, Victor F; Wang, Fun-In

    2012-12-28

    Porcine teschoviruses (PTVs) belong to the genus Teschovirus within the family Picornaviridae. Hitherto, PTVs have had 13 serotypes associated with a variety of clinical diseases. The virulent PTV-1 strains were associated with highly fatal, nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis of pigs (Teschen disease) in the 1930-1950s. Today, less virulent Talfan strains of PTV-1 are more widespread, and PTVs have contaminated swine herds worldwide (endemic or enzootic) together with a variety of common swine pathogens (multi-infection status). The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which PTVs play a role in causing diseases in the field, under the endemic and multi-infection situation, when most pigs in the herds are infected and immune. Based on the fecal-oral model of pathogenesis, a set of 15 organs were collected from 30 culled post-weanling piglets of 4-8 weeks old. For nested RT-PCR targeted on the 5'-NTR, the PTV detection rate was 96.7% (by heads), confirming the endemic status, and infection was most commonly detected in the intestines (averaged 61%) and lymphoid organs (averaged 59%), followed by visceral organs (averaged 37%) and the CNS (different parts varied from 17 to 47%). The correlation of PTVs detected by nested RT-PCR and a histological lesion were analyzed by Chi-square test showing that in the field situation only non-suppurative encephalitis in the caudal part of the brain (P=0.054) may be marginal significantly attributed to infection by PTVs. By genotyping based on partial VP1 sequences, 5 serotypes, namely PTV-1, -4, -6, -7, and -11, were identified, with some animals having two serotypes co-existed in different organs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Drug Treatment Combined with BCG Vaccination Reduces Disease Reactivation in Guinea Pigs Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Shaobin; Shanley, Crystal A.; Caraway, Megan L.; Orme, Eileen A.; Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Hascall-Dove, Laurel; Ackart, David; Orme, Ian M.; Ordway, Diane J.; Basaraba, Randall J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the only human tuberculosis vaccine, primes a partially protective immune response against M. tuberculosis infection in humans and animals. In guinea pigs, BCG vaccination slows the progression of disease and reduces the severity of necrotic granulomas, which harbor a population of drug-tolerant bacilli. The objective of this study was to determine if reducing disease severity by BCG vaccination of guinea pigs prior to M. tuberculosis challenge enhanced the efficacy of combination drug therapy. At 20 days of infection, treatment of vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals with rifampin, isoniazid, and pyrizinamide (RHZ) was initiated for 4 or 8 weeks. On days 50, 80 and 190 of infection (10 weeks after drug were withdrawn), treatment efficacy was evaluated by quantifying clinical condition, bacterial loads, lesion severity, and dynamic changes in peripheral blood and lung leukocyte numbers by flow cytometry. In a separate, long-term survival study, treatment efficacy was evaluated by determining disease reactivation frequency post-mortem. BCG vaccination alone delayed pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disease progression, but failed to prevent dissemination of bacilli and the formation of necrotic granulomas. Drug therapy either alone or in combination with BCG, was more effective at lessening clinical disease and lesion severity compared to control animals or those receiving BCG alone. Fewer residual lesions in BCG vaccinated and drug treated animals, equated to a reduced frequency of reactivation disease and improvement in survival even out to 500 days of infection. The combining of BCG vaccination and drug therapy was more effective at resolving granulomas such that fewer animals had evidence of residual infection and thus less reactivation disease. PMID:22244979

  17. Protection of European domestic pigs from virulent African isolates of African swine fever virus by experimental immunisation.

    PubMed

    King, Katherine; Chapman, Dave; Argilaguet, Jordi M; Fishbourne, Emma; Hutet, Evelyne; Cariolet, Roland; Hutchings, Geoff; Oura, Christopher A L; Netherton, Christopher L; Moffat, Katy; Taylor, Geraldine; Le Potier, Marie-Frederique; Dixon, Linda K; Takamatsu, Haru-H

    2011-06-20

    African swine fever (ASF) is an acute haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs for which there is currently no vaccine. We showed that experimental immunisation of pigs with the non-virulent OURT88/3 genotype I isolate from Portugal followed by the closely related virulent OURT88/1 genotype I isolate could confer protection against challenge with virulent isolates from Africa including the genotype I Benin 97/1 isolate and genotype X Uganda 1965 isolate. This immunisation strategy protected most pigs challenged with either Benin or Uganda from both disease and viraemia. Cross-protection was correlated with the ability of different ASFV isolates to stimulate immune lymphocytes from the OURT88/3 and OURT88/1 immunised pigs.

  18. A study of lymphoid organs and serum proinflammatory cytokines in pigs infected with African swine fever virus genotype II.

    PubMed

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Cholakyans, Victorya; Simonyan, Lusine; Misakyan, Alla; Karalova, Elena; Chavushyan, Andranik; Karalyan, Zaven

    2015-06-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV), the causative agent of one of the most important viral diseases of domestic pigs for which no vaccine is available, causes immune system disorders in infected animals. In this study, the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as the histological and cellular constitution of lymphoid organs of pigs infected with ASFV genotype II were investigated. The results showed a high degree of lymphocyte depletion in the lymphoid organs, particularly in the spleen and lymph nodes, where ASFV infection led to a twofold decrease in the number of lymphocytes on the final day of infection. Additionally, ASFV-infected pigs had atypical forms of lymphocytes found in all lymphoid organs. In contrast to lymphocytes, the number of immature immune cells, particularly myelocytes, increased dramatically and reached a maximum on day 7 postinfection. The serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were evaluated. Proinflammatory cytokines showed increased levels after ASFV infection, with peak values at 7 days postinfection, and this highlights their role in the pathogenesis of ASFV. In conclusion, this study showed that ASFV genotype II, like other highly virulent strains, causes severe pathological changes in the immune system of pigs.

  19. Effects of Sho-seiryu-to on experimental allergic rhinitis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Mase, A; Ikeda, Y; Iizuka, A; Imamura, S; Komatsu, Y; Ukai, K; Sakakura, Y

    1999-05-01

    The effects of Sho-seiryu-to, an antiallergic Kampo medicine, on experimental allergic rhinitis were investigated in actively sensitized guinea pigs. The number of sneezes and scratches by the animals after a topical antigen challenge was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with Sho-seiryu-to (1000 mg/kg per os p.o.). The antigen-induced eosinophil infiltration in the nasal mucosa was significantly inhibited by Sho-seiryu-to (1000 mg/kg p.o.). Sho-seiryu-to (100 mg/kg p.o.) also reduced the increase in dye leakage to the nasal cavity induced by the antigen challenge and the antigen-induced decrease in volume of the nasal cavity was inhibited. Moreover, Sho-seiryu-to (1000 mg/kg p.o.) suppressed the volume change in the nasal cavity induced by leukotriene D4. These results demonstrate that Sho-seiryu-to inhibits experimental allergic rhinitis in guinea pigs, confirming that the agent may be beneficial for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

  20. Development of a peptide-based immunochromatographic strip for differentiation of serotype O Foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected pigs from vaccinated pigs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Suzhen; Yang, Jifei; Zhang, Gaiping; Qiao, Songlin; Wang, Xuannian; Zhao, Dong; Li, Xuewu; Deng, Ruiguang; Zhi, Aimin; You, Leiming; Chai, Sujun; Teng, Man

    2010-05-01

    An immunochromatographic strip for discriminating Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected from vaccinated pigs was developed based on synthetic peptide. Five peptides designed from the amino acid sequences of nonstructural proteins (NSP) of FMDV were synthesized, and pep5 located in NSP 3B reacted strongly with serum from FMDV-infected pigs but did not react with serum samples from healthy vaccinated pigs. An immunochromatographic strip was developed by using colloidal gold labeled with pep5 as the detector. Staphylococcal protein A and rabbit against peptide-conjugated ovalbumin antibody immunoglobulin G were blotted on the nitrocellulose membrane for the test and control lines. In comparison with 2 commercial NSP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the peptide-based strip showed good specificity and sensitivity. The apparent agreements of this new assay with Ceditest(R) ELISA and UBI(R) ELISA were 98.59% and 96.63%, respectively. These results indicate that the strip can be adequately used to discriminate FMDV-infected animals from vaccinated animals.

  1. Morpho-functional patterns of kidney injury in the experimental leptospirosis of the guinea-pig (L. icterohaemorrhagiae).

    PubMed

    Dávila de Arriaga, A J; Rocha, A S; Yasuda, P H; De Brito, T

    1982-10-01

    Thirty-seven guinea-pigs experimentally infected with a virulent strain of L. icterohaemorrhagiae, were submitted to a renal function study as evaluated through the maximal urinary concentration (MUC) test, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and afterwards had their kidneys examined by light and electron microscopy. Vascular changes were also studied after the administration of colloidal carbon as a marker. Through the MUC test and BUN determination, two groups of tubulo-interstitial lesions can be visualised, one in animals without renal sufficiency, manifested chiefly by cell edema with RE dilation and another, in animals with renal insufficiency, characterised not only by marked cell edema and mitochondrial changes, but also by proximal tubule regenerative aspects without overt tubular necrosis. Interstitial edema and focal nephritis was prominent in both groups, a finding which minimises their role in the pathogenesis of renal failure in experimental leptospirosis. Vascular injury, affecting the vessels of the renal microcirculation chiefly at the cortico-medular junction, was observed in both groups. Its severity and extension ran parallel to the intensity of the tubular injury. This suggests a simultaneous action of a noxious agent liberated by the leptospires over both structures, tubular damage being accentuated by the local circulatory changes.

  2. Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on growth performance and microbiota of weaned pigs during Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Price, K L; Totty, H R; Lee, H B; Utt, M D; Fitzner, G E; Yoon, I; Ponder, M A; Escobar, J

    2010-12-01

    Anaerobically fermented yeast products are a rich source of nutritional metabolites, mannanoligosaccharides, and β-glucans that may optimize gut health and immunity, which can translate into better growth performance and a reduced risk of foodborne pathogens. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (Diamond V Original XPC) inclusion in nursery diets on pig performance and gastrointestinal microbial ecology before, during, and after an oral challenge with Salmonella. Pigs (n = 40) were weaned at 21 d of age, blocked by BW, and assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of diet (control or 0.2% XPC) and inoculation (sterile broth or Salmonella). Pigs were fed a 3-phase nursery diet (0 to 7 d, 7 to 21 d, and 21 to 35 d) with ad libitum access to water and feed. On d 14, pigs were orally inoculated with 10(9) cfu of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 or sterile broth. During d 17 to 20, all pigs were treated with a 5 mg/kg of BW intramuscular injection of ceftiofur-HCl. Growth performance and alterations in the gastrointestinal microbial ecology were measured during preinoculation (PRE; 0 to 14 d), sick (SCK; 14 to 21 d), and postinoculation (POST; 21 to 35 d). Body weight and ADG were measured weekly. Rectal temperature (RT) was measured weekly during PRE and POST, and every 12 h during SCK. Diet had no effect on BW, ADG, or RT during any period (P = 0.12 to 0.95). Inclusion of XPC tended (P < 0.10) to increase Salmonella shedding in feces during SCK. Consumption of XPC altered the composition of the gastrointestinal microbial community, resulting in increased (P < 0.05) populations of Bacteroidetes and Lactobacillus after Salmonella infection. Pigs inoculated with Salmonella had decreased ADG and BW, and increased RT during SCK (P < 0.001). Furthermore, fecal Salmonella cfu (log(10)) was modestly correlated (P = 0.002) with BW (r = -0.22), ADFI (r = -0.27), ADG (r = -0.36), G:F (r

  3. Experimental evaluation of furosemide renography in unobstructed and partially obstructed upper urinary tracts in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Harving, N.; Christiansen, P.; Taagehoj-Jensen, F.; Frokjaer, J.; Djurhuus, J.C.; Mortensen, J. )

    1991-06-01

    To evaluate the reliability and the constancy of the furosemide renography an experimental evaluation of the test has been performed. A standardized unilateral partial proximal ureteral obstruction was applied to 11 pigs. Preoperatively and again weekly in the three weeks following obstruction a furosemide renogram (FR) was done. The furosemide renography was a very constant parameter in the unobstructed kidney (85%) and in the partly obstructed kidney (85%). A type I FR pattern (O'Reilly classification) was an exact indicator of an unobstructed pelvis. After partial ureteral obstruction, an immediate change in the FR pattern was seen either into type II or type IIIa renography. In this experimental study furosemide renography was found to be a reliable tool in the differentiation between the unobstructed normal renal pelves and the partly obstructed dilated renal pelves.

  4. Host-pathogen interplay at primary infection sites in pigs challenged with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Sassu, Elena L; Frömbling, Janna; Duvigneau, J Catharina; Miller, Ingrid; Müllebner, Andrea; Gutiérrez, Ana M; Grunert, Tom; Patzl, Martina; Saalmüller, Armin; von Altrock, Alexandra; Menzel, Anne; Ganter, Martin; Spergser, Joachim; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Verspohl, Jutta; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Hennig-Pauka, Isabel

    2017-02-28

    Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia and causes significant losses in the pig industry worldwide. Early host immune response is crucial for further progression of the disease. A. pleuropneumoniae is either rapidly eliminated by the immune system or switches to a long-term persistent form. To gain insight into the host-pathogen interaction during the early stages of infection, pigs were inoculated intratracheally with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 and humanely euthanized eight hours after infection. Gene expression studies of inflammatory cytokines and the acute phase proteins haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and C-reactive protein were carried out by RT-qPCR from the lung, liver, tonsils and salivary gland. In addition, the concentration of cytokines and acute phase proteins were measured by quantitative immunoassays in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, serum and saliva. In parallel to the analyses of host response, the impact of the host on the bacterial pathogen was assessed on a metabolic level. For the latter, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR-) spectroscopy was employed. Significant cytokine and acute phase protein gene expression was detected in the lung and the salivary gland however this was not observed in the tonsils. In parallel to the analyses of host response, the impact of the host on the bacterial pathogen was assessed on a metabolic level. For the latter investigations, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR-) spectroscopy was employed. The bacteria isolated from the upper and lower respiratory tract showed distinct IR spectral patterns reflecting the organ-specific acute phase response of the host. In summary, this study implies a metabolic adaptation of A. pleuropneumoniae to the porcine upper respiratory tract already during early infection, which might indicate a first step towards the persistence of A. pleuropneumoniae. Not only in lung, but also in the salivary gland an increased inflammatory gene expression

  5. Understanding African Swine Fever infection dynamics in Sardinia using a spatially explicit transmission model in domestic pig farms.

    PubMed

    Mur, L; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Fernández-Carrión, E; Jurado, C; Rolesu, S; Feliziani, F; Laddomada, A; Martínez-López, B

    2017-03-13

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) has been endemic in Sardinia since 1978, resulting in severe losses for local pig producers and creating important problems for the island's veterinary authorities. This study used a spatially explicit stochastic transmission model followed by two regression models to investigate the dynamics of ASFV spread amongst domestic pig farms, to identify geographic areas at highest risk and determine the role of different susceptible pig populations (registered domestic pigs, non-registered domestic pigs [brado] and wild boar) in ASF occurrence. We simulated transmission within and between farms using an adapted version of the previously described model known as Be-FAST. Results from the model revealed a generally low diffusion of ASF in Sardinia, with only 24% of the simulations resulting in disease spread, and for each simulated outbreak on average only four farms and 66 pigs were affected. Overall, local spread (indirect transmission between farms within a 2 km radius through fomites) was the most common route of transmission, being responsible for 98.6% of secondary cases. The risk of ASF occurrence for each domestic pig farm was estimated from the spread model results and integrated in two regression models together with available data for brado and wild boar populations. There was a significant association between the density of all three populations (domestic pigs, brado, and wild boar) and ASF occurrence in Sardinia. The most significant risk factors were the high densities of brado (OR = 2.2) and wild boar (OR = 2.1). The results of both analyses demonstrated that ASF epidemiology and infection dynamics in Sardinia create a complex and multifactorial disease situation, where all susceptible populations play an important role. To stop ASF transmission in Sardinia, three main factors (improving biosecurity on domestic pig farms, eliminating brado practices and better management of wild boars) need to be addressed.

  6. Interaction between single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines on dually infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Jin; Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and/or porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination on dually infected pigs. In total, 72 pigs were randomly divided into nine groups (eight pigs per group), as follows: five vaccinated and challenged groups, three non-vaccinated and challenged groups, and a negative control group. Single-dose vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone decreased the levels of PRRSV viremia and PRRSV-induced pulmonary lesions, whereas single-dose vaccination against PRRSV alone did not decrease nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae and mycoplasma-induced pulmonary lesions in the dually infected pigs. The M. hyopneumoniae challenge impaired the protective cell-mediated immunity induced by the PRRSV vaccine, whereas the PRRSV challenge did not impair the protective cell-mediated immunity induced by the M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. The present study provides swine practitioners and producers with efficient vaccination regimes; vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae is the first step in protecting pigs against co-infection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV.

  7. Evaluation of counterimmunoelectrophoresis for serotyping Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates and detection of type-specific antigens in lungs of infected pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, K R; Bourdon, S; Berrouard, M

    1993-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and accurate counterimmunoelectrophoresis technique was developed for serotyping cultures of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae as well as for detection of their type-specific antigens in the lung tissues of infected pigs. The counterimmunoelectrophoresis test correctly identified all of the reference antigens and more than 99% of 1,200 field isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae representing the 12 established serotypes within 1 h. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis and coagglutination tests did not differ broadly in sensitivity from each other. Both procedures were more rapid and more sensitive than immunodiffusion and indirect hemagglutination tests. A total of 355 lung tissue samples (130 lungs of pigs that died because of acute respiratory problems, 125 lungs of pigs from herds with chronically infected pleuropneumonia, and 100 lungs from apparently healthy pigs at the slaughterhouse) were examined for the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae type-specific antigens by counterimmunoelectrophoresis, coagglutination, and immunodiffusion tests. A. pleuropneumoniae type-specific antigen was found in all 55 samples from which the bacteria had earlier been isolated and in 27 specimens in which they had not been found. Detection of antigen in the lung tissues by coagglutination and counterimmunoelectrophoresis tests was found to be much simpler and much more rapid than conventional culture isolation. Both counterimmunoelectrophoresis and coagglutination tests were found extremely useful in the diagnosis of acute cases of porcine pleuropneumonia. However, these techniques were able to detect only some of the chronically infected carrier pigs. PMID:8408552

  8. Experimental intoxication of guinea pigs with Ipomoea carnea: behavioural and neuropathological alterations.

    PubMed

    Cholich, Luciana A; Márquez, Mercedes; Pumarola i Batlle, Martí; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Teibler, Gladys P; Rios, Elvio E; Acosta, Ofelia C

    2013-12-15

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant that affects goats, with symptoms being characterised by nervous disorders and death. Swainsonine and calystegines are the principal toxic components isolated from I. carnea, which also yields lysergic acid derivatives. The aim of this study was to improve the clinical characterisation of experimental intoxication by I. carnea in guinea pigs through the evaluation of behavioural changes and to perform a thorough histopathological analysis of the affected CNS. Leaves of I. carnea were administered to guinea pigs. Open-field gait analysis and monoamine levels were measured. The poisoned animals exhibited increased vocalisation, lethargy, and a reduction in the locomotion frequency after the fourth week of intoxication, as demonstrated in the open-field test. Significant differences were observed in hind-limb gait width by the last week of intoxication. After 65 days, the guinea pigs were euthanised, necropsied, and examined using light and electron microscopy. At the end of the experiment, plasma serotonin decreased. In contrast, dopamine decreased, and noradrenaline increased in urine. Brain sections were evaluated with conventional histological methods and immunohistochemistry (IHC), as well as by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Vacuoles were observed throughout the brain, but they were particularly prominent in the brainstem. In addition, there were PAS-negative regions, and the Nissl substance was dispersed or absent, which was confirmed with the Kluver-Barreda stain. Moderate microgliosis was observed by immunohistochemistry. In the medulla oblongata, numerous ubiquitin-positive spheroids together with neuronal degeneration were observed in the nucleus gracilis/cuneatus. Furthermore, vacuoles were observed in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and endothelial cells by TEM. Our results showed that the behavioural effects may have been caused by alterations in the brain in conjunction with changes in monoamine levels. This

  9. Activities of pefloxacin and ciprofloxacin in experimentally induced Pseudomonas pneumonia in neutropenic guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Gordin, F M; Hackbarth, C J; Scott, K G; Sande, M A

    1985-01-01

    Pefloxacin and ciprofloxacin are two new quinoline carboxylic acid derivatives that have activity in vitro against a wide range of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using a well-standardized model of Pseudomonas pneumonia in neutropenic guinea pigs, we tested the efficacy in vivo of these new agents. Both were highly effective in increasing survival and decreasing bacterial counts in the lungs of surviving animals. Pefloxacin and ciprofloxacin were significantly better (P less than 0.05) than aminoglycosides or beta-lactams tested in prior studies with this model, and they were as effective as combination therapy with aminoglycosides and beta-lactams. Resistance to either ciprofloxacin or pefloxacin did not emerge during the study period. Further studies with these drugs in the therapy of Pseudomonas sp. infections are warranted. PMID:3159336

  10. Whole genome response in guinea pigs infected with the high virulence strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis TT372

    PubMed Central

    Aiyaz, Mohamed; Bipin, Chand; Pantulwar, Vinay; Mugasimangalam, Raja; Shanley, Crystal A.; Ordway, Diane J; Orme, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study we conducted a microarray-based whole genomic analysis of gene expression in the lungs after exposure of guinea pigs to a low dose aerosol of the Atypical Beijing Western Cape TT372 strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, after harvesting lung tissues three weeks after infection at a time that effector immunity is starting to peak. The infection resulted in a very large up-regulation of multiple genes at this time, particularly in the context of a “chemokine storm” in the lungs. Overall gene expression was considerably reduced in animals that had been vaccinated with BCG two months earlier, but in both cases strong signatures featuring gamma interferon [IFNγ] and tumor necrosis factor [TNFα] were observed indicating the potent TH1 response in these animals. Even though their effects are not seen until later in the infection, even at this early time point gene expression patterns associated with the potential emergence of regulatory T cells were observed. Genes involving lung repair, response to oxidative stress, and cell trafficking were strongly expressed, but interesting these gene patterns differed substantially between the infected and vaccinated/infected groups of animals. Given the importance of this species as a relevant and cost-effective small animal model of tuberculosis, this approach has the potential to provide new information regarding the effects of vaccination on control of the disease process. PMID:25621360

  11. Survey of Trichinella infection from domestic pigs in the historical endemic areas of Henan province, central China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Li Ang; Han, Lu Hong; Yang, Mei; Duan, Jiang Yang; Sun, Ge Ge; Qi, Xin; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the current situation of Trichinella infection from domestic pigs in the historical endemic areas of Henan province, central China. A total of 823 diaphragm samples from the indoor-raised pigs were collected in five cities of Henan during 2014-2015 and examined by artificial digestion method. The overall prevalence of Trichinella infection in pigs was 0.61 % (5/823). Trichinella larvae were detected in 0.91 % (5/550) of pigs from Nanyang city of Henan. The larval burden in infected animals was 0.03 larvae per gram (lpg) of muscles with a range from 0.02 to 0.05 lpg. The larvae were identified as Trichinella spiralis by multiple PCR. Our study confirms the existence of swine trichinellosis in Henan, but the infection level was under the minimum level for defining infectious sources for humans. However, the prevalence of swine Trichinella infection in Henan need to be further evaluated with a large scale of pork samples for ensuring meat food safety.

  12. Evaluation of a single dose versus a divided dose regimen of amoxycillin in treatment of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, B; Lykkesfeldt, J; Friis, C

    2005-08-01

    The theory of a time-dependent effect of amoxycillin was examined in a model of porcine Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap)-infection using clinically relevant dosage regimens. Twenty hours after infection of fourteen pigs, when clinical signs of pneumonia were present, one group of pigs received a single dose of amoxycillin (20 mg/kg, i.m.), whereas another group received four doses of 5 mg/kg injected at 8-h intervals. A similar AUC of the plasma amoxycillin concentration versus time curve was obtained in the two groups, whereas the maximum concentration was threefold higher using the single high dose. Plasma amoxycillin was above the MIC for twice as long using the fractionated dosage scheme. The condition of the animals was evaluated by clinical and haematological observations combined with quantification of biochemical infection markers: C-reactive protein, zinc and ascorbic acid. Within 48 h of treatment, the pigs in both treatment groups recovered clinically. No significant differences in the time-course of clinical observations or plasma concentrations of the biomarkers of infection were observed between the two treatments. In conclusion, the efficacy of these two dosage regimens of amoxycillin was not significantly different in treatment of acute Ap-infection in pigs.

  13. MicroRNA expression profiling in alveolar macrophages of indigenous Chinese Tongcheng pigs infected with PRRSV in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Michal, Jennifer J; Jiang, Zhihua; Liu, Bang

    2017-10-02

    Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS), caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV), is one of the most serious infectious diseases in the swine industry worldwide. Indigenous Chinese Tongcheng (TC) pigs reportedly show strong resistance to PRRSV infection. The miRNA expression profiles of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) of control TC pigs and those infected with PRRSV in vivo were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing to explore changes induced by infection. A total of 182 known miRNAs including 101 miRNA-5p and 81 miRNA-3p were identified with 23 up-regulated differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) and 25 down-regulated DEmiRNAs. Gene Ontology analysis showed that predicted target genes for the DEmiRNAs were enriched in immune response, transcription regulation, and cell death. The integrative analysis of mRNA and miRNA expression revealed that down-regulated methylation-related genes (DNMT1 and DNMT3b) were targeted by five up-regulated DEmiRNAs. Furthermore, 35 pairs of miRNAs (70 miRNAs) were co-expressed after PRRSV infection and six pairs were co-expressed differently. Our results describe miRNA expression profiles of TC pigs in response to PRRSV infection and lay a strong foundation for developing novel therapies to control PRRS in pigs.

  14. Can Taenia solium latent post-oncospheral stages be found in muscle tissue of cysticercosis-infected pigs (Sus scrofa)?

    PubMed

    Rodrìguez, Mary L; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E; Verastegui, Manuela; Bernal, Teresa; Jimenez, Juan A; Garcia, Hector H

    2006-02-01

    The existence of latent Taenia solium post-oncospheral stages in the tissues of infected pigs has been postulated. To assess whether such structures exist and can be detected, we examined muscle samples from cysticercosis-infected and uninfected pigs. Pork samples were homogenized, centrifuged, and resuspended in saline solution. Round microscopic structures of approximately 10 microm with variable refringence were found in the pellets of all samples from both infected and uninfected pigs. These became homogeneously red after staining with Sudan IV and disappeared after ether extraction. The only difference between samples from infected and uninfected pigs was the presence of inflammatory cells and tissue necrosis debris in the former group. Taenia solium oncospheres were stained and observed for comparative purposes, before and after inoculation into pork. Control oncospheres were ellipsoidal, had nucleated basophile cells in their interior, and showed red aggregates on their surfaces when stained with 3% Sudan IV. While rounded microscopical structures similar to those previously reported were found, these differed morphologically from oncospheres, were of a lipid nature, and occurred in both infected and uninfected animals. No evidence supporting the presence of latent post-oncospheral stages of Taenia solium was generated in this series of experiments.

  15. Gene expression analysis of whole blood RNA from pigs infected with low and high pathogenic African swine fever viruses

    DOE PAGES

    Jaing, Crystal; Rowland, Raymond R. R.; Allen, Jonathan E.; ...

    2017-08-31

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a macrophage-tropic virus responsible for ASF, a transboundary disease that threatens swine production world-wide. Since there are no vaccines available to control ASF after an outbreak, obtaining an understanding of the virus-host interaction is important for developing new intervention strategies. In this study, a whole transcriptomic RNA-Seq method was used to characterize differentially expressed genes in pigs infected with a low pathogenic ASFV isolate, OUR T88/3 (OURT), or the highly pathogenic Georgia 2007/1 (GRG). After infection, pigs infected with OURT showed no or few clinical signs; whereas, GRG produced clinical signs consistent with acutemore » ASF. RNA-Seq detected the expression of ASFV genes from the whole blood of the GRG, but not the OURT pigs, consistent with the pathotypes of these strains and the replication of GRG in circulating monocytes. Even though GRG and OURT possess different pathogenic properties, there was significant overlap in the most upregulated host genes. A small number of differentially expressed microRNAs were also detected in GRG and OURT pigs. These data confirm previous studies describing the response of macrophages and lymphocytes to ASFV infection, as well as reveal unique gene pathways upregulated in response to infection with GRG.« less

  16. Experimental infections using the foot-and-mouth disease virus O/JPN/2010 in animals administered a vaccine preserved for emergency use in Japan

    PubMed Central

    FUKAI, Katsuhiko; NISHI, Tatsuya; SHIMADA, Nobuaki; MORIOKA, Kazuki; YAMADA, Manabu; YOSHIDA, Kazuo; SAKAMOTO, Kenichi; KITANO, Rie; YAMAZOE, Reiko; YAMAKAWA, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of a vaccine preserved for emergency use in Japan was analyzed under experimental conditions using cows and pigs in order to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of the emergency vaccination performed in the 2010 epidemic in Japan. Cows and pigs were administered a vaccine preserved for emergency use in Japan at 3 or 30 days before virus infection (dbv) and were subsequently infected with the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) O/JPN/2010, which was isolated in the 2010 epidemic in Japan. All animals vaccinated at 30 dbv and one of three pigs vaccinated at 3 dbv showed no vesicular lesions during the experimental period. The virus titers and viral RNA loads obtained from clinical samples were lower in the vaccinated cows than in the non-vaccinated cows. The viral excretion periods were shorter in the vaccinated cows than in the non-vaccinated cows. In contrast, in the vaccinated pigs, the virus titers and viral RNA loads obtained from the samples, except for those obtained from sera, were not decreased significantly, and the viral excretion periods were not sufficiently shortened. These results suggest that the vaccine can protect against clinical signs of infection by the FMDV O/JPN/2010 in animals; however, it should be noted that in vaccinated and infected animals, especially pigs, clinical samples, such as saliva and nasal swabs, may contain excreted viruses, even if no clinical signs were exhibited. PMID:27773883

  17. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation. PMID:26828597

  18. Dynamics of African swine fever virus shedding and excretion in domestic pigs infected by intramuscular inoculation and contact transmission.

    PubMed

    Guinat, Claire; Reis, Ana Luisa; Netherton, Christopher L; Goatley, Lynnette; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Dixon, Linda

    2014-09-26

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a highly virulent swine pathogen that has spread across Eastern Europe since 2007 and for which there is no effective vaccine or treatment available. The dynamics of shedding and excretion is not well known for this currently circulating ASFV strain. Therefore, susceptible pigs were exposed to pigs intramuscularly infected with the Georgia 2007/1 ASFV strain to measure those dynamics through within- and between-pen transmission scenarios. Blood, oral, nasal and rectal fluid samples were tested for the presence of ASFV by virus titration (VT) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Serum was tested for the presence of ASFV-specific antibodies. Both intramuscular inoculation and contact transmission resulted in development of acute disease in all pigs although the experiments indicated that the pathogenesis of the disease might be different, depending on the route of infection. Infectious ASFV was first isolated in blood among the inoculated pigs by day 3, and then chronologically among the direct and indirect contact pigs, by day 10 and 13, respectively. Close to the onset of clinical signs, higher ASFV titres were found in blood compared with nasal and rectal fluid samples among all pigs. No infectious ASFV was isolated in oral fluid samples although ASFV genome copies were detected. Only one animal developed antibodies starting after 12 days post-inoculation. The results provide quantitative data on shedding and excretion of the Georgia 2007/1 ASFV strain among domestic pigs and suggest a limited potential of this isolate to cause persistent infection.

  19. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation.

  20. Guinea Pig-Adapted Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus with Altered Receptor Recognition Can Productively Infect a Natural Host▿

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, José I.; Molina, Nicolas; Baranowski, Eric; Domingo, Esteban; Clark, Stuart; Burman, Alison; Berryman, Stephen; Jackson, Terry; Sobrino, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    We report that adaptation to infect the guinea pig did not modify the capacity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) to kill suckling mice and to cause an acute and transmissible disease in the pig, an important natural host for this pathogen. Adaptive amino acid replacements (I248→T in 2C, Q44→R in 3A, and L147→P in VP1), selected upon serial passages of a type C FMDV isolated from swine (biological clone C-S8c1) in the guinea pig, were maintained after virus multiplication in swine and suckling mice. However, the adaptive replacement L147→P, next to the integrin-binding RGD motif at the GH loop in VP1, abolished growth of the virus in different established cell lines and modified its antigenicity. In contrast, primary bovine thyroid cell cultures could be productively infected by viruses with replacement L147→P, and this infection was inhibited by antibodies to αvβ6 and by an FMDV-derived RGD-containing peptide, suggesting that integrin αvβ6 may be used as a receptor for these mutants in the animal (porcine, guinea pig, and suckling mice) host. Substitution T248→N in 2C was not detectable in C-S8c1 but was present in a low proportion of the guinea pig-adapted virus. This substitution became rapidly dominant in the viral population after the reintroduction of the guinea pig-adapted virus into pigs. These observations illustrate how the appearance of minority variant viruses in an unnatural host can result in the dominance of these viruses on reinfection of the original host species. PMID:17522230

  1. Immunology of experimental and natural human hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    Gaze, S; Bethony, J M; Periago, M V

    2014-08-01

    Human hookworm infection is one amongst the most prevalent of the neglected tropical diseases. An informative experimental animal model, that is, one that parallels a human infection, is not available for the study of human hookworm infection. Much of our current understanding of the human immune response during hookworm infection relies on the studies from experimental infection of hookworm-naïve individuals or the natural infections from individuals residing in hookworm-endemic areas. The experimental human infections tend to be acute, dose-controlled infections, often with a low larval inoculum so that they are well tolerated by human volunteers. Natural hookworm infections usually occur in areas where hookworm transmission is constant and infection is chronic. In cases where there has been drug administration in an endemic area, re-infection often occurs quickly even amongst those who were treated. Hence, although many of the characteristics of experimental and natural hookworm infection differ, both models have elements in common: mainly an intense Th2 response with the production of total and specific IgE as well as elevated levels of eosinophilia, IL-5, IL-10 and TNF. While hookworm infection affects millions of individuals worldwide, much of the human immunology of this infection still needs to be studied and understood.

  2. Efficacy of one dose vaccination against experimental infection with two Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains.

    PubMed

    Michiels, Annelies; Arsenakis, Ioannis; Boyen, Filip; Krejci, Roman; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Maes, Dominiek

    2017-08-29

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is the primary agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs. Pigs are often infected with different M. hyopneumoniae strains. This study assessed the efficacy of vaccination against experimental infection with two genetically different M. hyopneumoniae strains in weaned piglets. At 33 days of age (D0), 45 M. hyopneumoniae-free piglets were randomly assigned to three different groups: 1) negative control group (NCG; n = 5): not vaccinated, not infected, 2) positive control group (PCG; n = 20): not vaccinated, infected, and 3) vaccination group (VG; n = 20): single vaccination with an inactivated whole-cell M. hyopneumoniae vaccine (Hyogen®, Ceva) (D1), infected. The PCG and VG were endotracheally inoculated with 7 × 10(7) CCU in 7 ml of the highly virulent M. hyopneumoniae strain F7.2C (D24) and 7 × 10(7) CCU in 7 ml low virulent strain F1.12A (D25). A respiratory disease score (RDS) was assessed from D24 until D53. At D53 (euthanasia), macroscopic lung lesions (MLL) were scored, log copies of M. hyopneumoniae DNA (qPCR) and IL-1 and IL-6-concentrations (ELISA) on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were determined. The RDS and MLL at euthanasia were respectively 0, 1.20 and 0.55 (P < 0.001) and 0, 7.56 and 0.68 (P < 0.001) for NCG, PCG and VG, respectively. The qPCR results for PCG and VG were 3.99 and 1.78 log copies (P < 0.001), respectively, with a significant difference between PCG and VG. The IL-1 and IL-6 results at euthanasia for NCG, PCG and VG were 17.61, 1283.39 and 53.04 pg/ml (P < 0.001) and 148.10, 493.35 and 259.80 pg/ml (P = 0.004), respectively with a significant difference between PCG and VG. Vaccination with Hyogen® in pigs was efficacious against an experimental challenge with both a low and highly virulent M. hyopneumoniae strain as the vaccinated pigs coughed significantly less, and showed significantly less lung lesions compared to the non-vaccinated challenged pigs: the vaccinated

  3. Pasteurization Procedures for Donor Human Milk Affect Body Growth, Intestinal Structure, and Resistance against Bacterial Infections in Preterm Pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqi; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; de Waard, Marita; Christensen, Lars; Zhou, Ping; Jiang, Pingping; Sun, Jing; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Bering, Stine Brandt; Sangild, Per Torp

    2017-06-01

    Background: Holder pasteurization (HP) destroys multiple bioactive factors in donor human milk (DM), and UV-C irradiation (UVC) is potentially a gentler method for pasteurizing DM for preterm infants.Objective: We investigated whether UVC-treated DM improves gut maturation and resistance toward bacterial infections relative to HP-treated DM.Methods: Bacteria, selected bioactive components, and markers of antioxidant capacity were measured in unpasteurized donor milk (UP), HP-treated milk, and UVC-treated milk (all from the same DM pool). Fifty-seven cesarean-delivered preterm pigs (91% gestation; ratio of males to females, 30:27) received decreasing volumes of parental nutrition (average 69 mL · kg(-1) · d(-1)) and increasing volumes of the 3 DM diets (n = 19 each, average 89 mL · kg(-1) · d(-1)) for 8-9 d. Body growth, gut structure and function, and systemic bacterial infection were evaluated.Results: A high bacterial load in the UP (6×10(5) colony forming units/mL) was eliminated similarly by HP and UVC treatments. Relative to HP-treated milk, both UVC-treated milk and UP showed greater activities of lipase and alkaline phosphatase and concentrations of lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, xanthine dehydrogenase, and some antioxidant markers (all P < 0.05). The pigs fed UVC-treated milk and pigs fed UP showed higher relative weight gain than pigs fed HP-treated milk (5.4% and 3.5%), and fewer pigs fed UVC-treated milk had positive bacterial cultures in the bone marrow (28%) than pigs fed HP-treated milk (68%) (P < 0.05). Intestinal health was also improved in pigs fed UVC-treated milk compared with those fed HP-treated milk as indicated by a higher plasma citrulline concentration (36%) and villus height (38%) (P < 0.05) and a tendency for higher aminopeptidase N (48%) and claudin-4 (26%) concentrations in the distal intestine (P < 0.08). The gut microbiota composition was similar among groups except for greater proportions of Enterococcus in pigs fed

  4. Use of Oral Fluids for Detection of Virus and Antibodies in Pigs Infected with Swine Vesicular Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaran, C; Bittner, H; Ambagala, A; Lung, O; Babiuk, S; Yang, M; Zimmerman, J; Giménez-Lirola, L G; Nfon, C

    2016-09-15

    The use of swine oral fluid (OF) for the detection of nucleic acids and antibodies is gaining significant popularity. Assays have been developed for this purpose for endemic and foreign animal diseases of swine. Here, we report the use of OF for the detection of virus and antibodies in pigs experimentally infected with swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), a virus that causes a disease clinically indistinguishable from the economically devastating foot-and-mouth disease. Viral genome was detected in OF by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) from 1 day post-infection (DPI) to 21 DPI. Virus isolation from OF was also successful at 1-5 DPI. An adapted competitive ELISA based on the monoclonal antibodies 5B7 detected antibodies to SVDV in OF starting at DPI 6. Additionally, using isotype-specific indirect ELISAs, SVDV-specific IgM and IgA were evaluated in OF. IgM response started at DPI 6, peaking at DPI 7 or 14 and declining sharply at DPI 21, while IgA response started at DPI 7, peaked at DPI 14 and remained high until the end of the experiment. These results confirm the potential use of OF for SVD surveillance using both established and partially validated assays in this study.

  5. Detection of genome, antigen, and antibodies in oral fluids from pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus

    PubMed Central

    Senthilkumaran, Chandrika; Yang, Ming; Bittner, Hilary; Ambagala, Aruna; Lung, Oliver; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Giménez-Lirola, Luis G.; Nfon, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Virus nucleic acids and antibody response to pathogens can be measured using swine oral fluids (OFs). Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome in swine OFs has previously been demonstrated. Virus isolation and viral antigen detection are additional confirmatory assays for diagnosing FMDV, but these methods have not been evaluated using swine OF. The objectives of this study were to further validate the molecular detection of FMDV in oral fluids, evaluate antigen detection and FMDV isolation from swine OFs, and develop an assay for isotypic anti-FMDV antibody detection in OFs. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) from FMDV was detected in OFs from experimentally infected pigs by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) from 1 day post-infection (dpi) to 21 dpi. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was isolated from OFs at 1 to 5 dpi. Additionally, FMDV antigens were detected in OFs from 1 to 6 dpi using a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test (LFIST), which is a rapid pen-side test, and from 2 to 3 dpi using a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS ELISA). Furthermore, FMDV-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) was detected in OFs using an isotype-specific indirect ELISA starting at dpi 14. These results further demonstrated the potential use of oral fluids for detecting FMDV genome, live virus, and viral antigens, as well as for quantifying mucosal IgA antibody response. PMID:28408775

  6. The comparative utility of oral swabs and probang samples for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in cattle and pigs.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Lohse, Louise; Belsham, Graham J

    2013-03-23

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA was measured using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays in oral swab and probang samples collected from cattle and pigs during experimental infections with serotype O FMDV. During acute infection, FMDV RNA was measurable in oral swabs as well as in probang samples from both species. FMDV RNA could be detected in oral swabs and probang samples from a time point corresponding to the onset of viremia in directly inoculated animals, whereas animals which were infected through contact exposure had low levels of FMDV RNA in oral swabs before viral RNA could be measured in serum. Analysis of samples collected from cattle persistently infected with FMDV showed that it was not possible to detect FMDV RNA in oral swabs harvested beyond 10 days post infection (dpi), despite the presence of FMDV RNA in probang samples that had been collected as late as 35 dpi. An interesting feature of the persistent infection in the cattle was the apparent decline in the level of FMDV RNA in probang samples after the acute phase of infection, which was followed by a marked rise again (in all the carrier animals) by 28 dpi. Results from this study indicate that qRT-PCR analysis of oral swabs is a useful approach in order to achieve a time efficient and reliable initial diagnosis of acute FMD in cattle and pigs, whereas probang sampling is essential for the detection of cattle that are persistently infected "carriers" of FMDV. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antitussive effect of naringin on experimentally induced cough in Guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Sen; Li, Peibo; Yang, Hongliang; Fang, Siqi; Su, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of action of naringin has been investigated in different models of experimentally induced cough in guinea pigs. In contrast to codeine phosphate (6 mg/kg, intravenous administration [i. v.]), naringin (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, i. v.) had no central antitussive effect on cough elicited by electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve. Naringin (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 µmol) could not prevent the cough reflex induced by stimulation of the trachea after intracerebroventricular injection (i. c. v.), while codeine phosphate (0.5 µmol) was highly effective. Further characterizing the peripheral mechanism of naringin, we found that its effect (50 mg/kg, i. v.) was not affected by the depletion of sensory neuropeptides, whereas levodropropizine (10 mg/kg, i. v.) lost its capacity to prevent cough in the capsaicin-desensitized guinea pig. Furthermore, pretreatment with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i. p.]) significantly reduced the antitussive effect of pinacidil (5 mg/kg, subcutaneous [s. c.]), but could not antagonize the antitussive effect of naringin (30 mg/kg, s. c.). Our present results suggest that naringin is not a central antitussive drug. And naringin does not exert its peripheral antitussive effect through either the sensory neuropeptides system or the modulation of ATP-sensitive K (+) channels. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Assessing the Effectiveness of Tuberculosis Management in Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), through Indirect Surveillance of Mycobacterium bovis Infection Using Released Sentinel Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, G.; Yockney, I. J.; Whitford, E. J.; Cross, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    In New Zealand, wild pigs acquire Mycobacterium bovis infection by scavenging tuberculous carrion, primarily carcasses of the main disease maintenance host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). We investigated the utility of captive-reared, purpose-released pigs as sentinels for tuberculosis (TB) following lethal possum control and subsequent population recovery. Within 2-3 years of possum control by intensive poisoning, TB prevalence and the incidence rate of M. bovis infection in released sentinel pigs were lower than in an adjacent area where possums had not been poisoned. Unexpectedly, TB did not decline to near zero levels among pigs in the poisoned area, a fact which reflected an unanticipated rapid increase in the apparent abundance of possums. Monitoring infection levels among resident wild pigs confirmed that TB prevalence, while reduced due to possum control, persisted in the poisoned area at >20% among pigs born 2-3 years after poisoning, while remaining >60% among resident wild pigs in the nonpoisoned area. When fitted with radio-tracking devices, purpose-released pigs provided precise spatial TB surveillance information and facilitated effective killing of wild pigs when employed as “Judas” animals to help locate residents. Sentinel pigs offer value for monitoring disease trends in New Zealand, as TB levels in possums decline nationally due to large-scale possum control. PMID:24804148

  9. Hosting infection: experimental models to assay Candida virulence.

    PubMed

    Maccallum, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    Although normally commensals in humans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei are capable of causing opportunistic infections in individuals with altered physiological and/or immunological responses. These fungal spe