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Sample records for pigs fed high

  1. Selenium retention in tissues of swine fed carcasses of pigs grown on diets containing sodium selenite or high selenium white sweet clover grown on fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Mandisodza, K.T.; Pond, W.G.; Lisk, D.J.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Hogue, D.E.

    1980-04-01

    Growing pigs were fed diets containing 5 or 10% white sweet clover, and 0, 3.5 or 7.0 ppM selenium (Se) supplied as sodium selenite (Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/) or occurring naturally in white sweet clover harvested from a coal fly ash dump. Ground carcasses of these pigs were included in corn meal diets at 23% and fed back to pigs. Compared to the pigs fed the high Se, fly ash-grown clover diets, the pigs fed Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ diets had higher blood Se levels but lower Se concentrations in kidney, liver and skeletal muscle. Tissues of the pigs which were fed carcasses of the high Se clover-fed pigs had higher Se concentrations than those of the pigs fed carcasses of the Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ - fed pigs.

  2. High dietary calcium level decreases colonic phytate degradation in pigs fed a rapeseed diet.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, A S; Larsen, T; Sandström, B

    1993-03-01

    The degradation of phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) in rapeseed meal diet not containing phytase activity was studied in 15 growing ileum-fistulated pigs. Stomach and small intestinal degradation and total gastrointestinal degradation were compared. The effect of addition of calcium carbonate to the rapeseed meal diet at two levels (9.2 and 18.5 g/kg diet) was investigated. A commercial barley-wheat-soybean diet with intrinsic phytase activity was used as reference. Phytate and its hydrolysis products in diets, ileal digesta and feces were determined by HPLC ion-pair chromatography. Hydrolysis of phytate in the stomach and small intestine was 35-45% in pigs fed the rapeseed meal diet independent of calcium addition, and 65% in pigs fed the reference diet. Total gastrointestinal degradation of phytate in pigs fed the rapeseed diet was 97, 77 and 42% (P < 0.001) when calcium intakes were 4.5, 9.9 and 15 g/d, respectively; total gastrointestinal degradation was 72% in pigs fed the reference diet. The intestinal phytate degradation pattern, when rapeseed diet was fed, indicated the activity of an unspecific phosphatase, whereas that of the reference diet indicated intrinsic dietary phytase activity. We conclude that dietary supplementation of calcium carbonate decreases the phytate degradation in the colon of pigs, but not in the stomach and small intestine.

  3. Expression of Selenoprotein Genes Is Affected by Obesity of Pigs Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Li, Ke; Tang, Jia-Yong; Zhou, Ji-Chang; Wang, Kang-Ning; Xia, Xin-Jie; Lei, Xin Gen

    2015-07-01

    Relations of the 25 mammalian selenoprotein genes with obesity and the associated inflammation remain unclear. This study explored impacts of high-fat diet-induced obesity on inflammation and expressions of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 10 tissues of pigs. Plasma and 10 tissues were collected from pigs (n = 10) fed a corn-soy-based control diet or that diet containing 3-7% lard from weanling to finishing (180 d). Plasma concentrations (n = 8) of cytokines and thyroid hormones and tissue mRNA abundance (n = 4) of 25 selenoprotein genes and 16 obesity-related genes were compared between the pigs fed the control and high-fat diets. Stepwise regression was applied to analyze correlations among all these measures, including the previously reported body physical and plasma biochemical variables. The high-fat diet elevated (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, leptin, and leptin receptor by 29-42% and affected (P < 0.05-0.1) tissue mRNA levels of the selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 3 patterns. Specifically, the high-fat diet up-regulated 12 selenoprotein genes in 6 tissues, down-regulated 13 selenoprotein genes in 7 tissues, and exerted no effect on 5 genes in any tissue. Body weights and plasma triglyceride concentrations of pigs showed the strongest regressions to tissue mRNA abundances of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes. Among the selenoprotein genes, selenoprotein V and I were ranked as the strongest independent variables for the regression of phenotypic and plasma measures. Meanwhile, agouti signaling protein, adiponectin, and resistin genes represented the strongest independent variables of the obesity-related genes for the regression of tissue selenoprotein mRNA. The high-fat diet induced inflammation in pigs and affected their gene expression of selenoproteins associated with thioredoxin and oxidoreductase systems, local tissue thyroid hormone activity, endoplasmic reticulum protein degradation

  4. Effect of Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial on slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions in growing pigs fed with high fibre-based diets.

    PubMed

    Prenafeta-Boldú, F X; Fernández, B; Viñas, M; Lizardo, R; Brufau, J; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Walsh, M C; Awati, A

    2017-02-01

    A 26-day trial with 18 Pietrain×(Landrace×Duroc) pigs was conducted to investigate the effect of two dose levels of a specifically selected Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial (DFM) product, on the emission of environmentally harmful gasses (methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide) from manure. Pigs were assigned to one of three treatments in a randomized complete block design according to their sex and initial BW. Each treatment contained three replications with two pigs per pen. The test treatments included a Bacillus spp. DFM containing 3×108 colony-forming unit/g, added at a low (250 mg/kg) and high (500 mg/kg) dose to an antibiotic free high fibre-based diet, and a non-supplemented control diet. Manure from pigs fed with the supplemented diets emitted lower amounts of atmospheric contaminants. The most significant reduction was observed with low DFM supplementation, in which methane and ammonia volatilization decreased (P40% and 50%, respectively, on fresh weight basis in relation to the control. Microbiome analysis of manure by high through put sequencing techniques on eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes highlighted the complex interactions between indigenous gut microflora and inoculated Bacillus spp. The tested Bacillus DFM could be considered as a best available technique in reducing the environmental impacts of growing pigs fed with high fibre-based diets.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of hepatic responses to testosterone deficiency in miniature pigs fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhaowei; Jiang, Xiaoling; Pan, Yongming; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Lifan; Zhu, Keyan; Cai, Yueqin; Ling, Yun; Chen, Fangming; Xu, Xiaoping; Chen, Minli

    2015-02-06

    Recent studies have indicated that low serum testosterone levels are associated with increased risk of developing hepatic steatosis; however, the mechanisms mediating this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. To gain insight into the role of testosterone in modulating hepatic steatosis, we investigated the effects of testosterone on the development of hepatic steatosis in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet and profiled hepatic gene expression by RNA-Seq in HFC-fed intact male pigs (IM), castrated male pigs (CM), and castrated male pigs with testosterone replacement (CMT). Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in CM pigs, and testosterone replacement attenuated castration-induced testosterone deficiency. CM pigs showed increased liver injury accompanied by increased hepatocellular steatosis, inflammation, and elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels compared with IM pigs. Moreover, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were markedly increased in CM pigs. Testosterone replacement decreased serum and hepatic lipid levels and improved liver injury in CM pigs. Compared to IM and CMT pigs, CM pigs had lower serum levels of superoxide dismutase but higher levels of malondialdehyde. Gene expression analysis revealed that upregulated genes in the livers of CM pigs were mainly enriched for genes mediating immune and inflammatory responses, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Surprisingly, the downregulated genes mainly included those that regulate metabolism-related processes, including fatty acid oxidation, steroid biosynthesis, cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, and glucose metabolism. KEGG analysis showed that metabolic pathways, fatty acid degradation, pyruvate metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway were the major pathways altered in CM pigs. This study demonstrated that testosterone deficiency aggravated

  6. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: I. Effects on growth performance, liver function, and oxidative status.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Zhao, J; Estienne, M J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of a dietary antioxidant blend (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) and vitamin E on growth performance, liver function, and oxidative status in pigs fed diets high in oxidants. Crossbred barrows (n=100, 10.91±0.65 kg BW, 36±2 d of age, Landrace×Duroc) were allotted to 5 treatments on the basis of BW (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included 1) HO, high-oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soybean oil and 10% PUFA source (providing 2.05% docosahexaenoic acid in the diet), 2) VE, the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E, 3) AOX, the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg), 4) VE+AOX, the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend, and 5) SC, a standard corn-soy control diet. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet because the animals were displaying very poor health. Compared with SC pigs, HO pigs had decreased ADG (0.92 vs. 0.51 kg for d 26 to 55, 1.29 vs. 0.34 kg for d 56 to 82; P<0.05) and ADFI (1.84 vs. 0.96 kg for d 26 to 55, 3.41 vs. 1.14 kg for d 56 to 82; P<0.05). However, switching the HO pigs to the SC diet resulted in HO pigs having a greater ADG than VE-fed pigs from d 83 to 118 (0.90 vs. 0.60 kg; P<0.05). The antioxidant blend restored pig performance to a level similar that of pigs fed the SC diet (P>0.05) with greater G:F for the entire period (0.44 vs. 0.38; P<0.05). A greater liver to BW ratio was found in HO compared with other treatments on d 55 and in VE on d 118. Total bilirubin concentration in plasma of HO pigs on d 55 was greater than that in VE+AOX pigs (P<0.05), whereas on d 118, bilirubin concentration in VE was higher than those in VE+AOX and SC (P<0.05). A similar trend was observed in aspartate transaminase. Plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and carbonyl were elevated (P<0.05) in the HO pigs compared with the SC pigs on d 55 but not on d 118. Liver TBARS and

  7. Oxidized LDL and Fructosamine Associated with Severity of Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in Insulin Resistant Pigs Fed a High Fat/High NaCl Diet

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Timothy C.; Merricks, Elizabeth P.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Raymer, Robin A.; Yu, Jing; Lam, Diana; Koch, Gary G.; Busby, Walker H.; Clemmons, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Insulin-resistant subjects develop more severe and diffuse coronary artery atherosclerosis than insulin-sensitive controls but the mechanisms that mediate this atherosclerosis phenotype are unknown. Research Objective To determine the metabolic parameters that associate with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in insulin resistant pigs fed a high fat/high NaCl diet. Key Methods The primary endpoint was severity of coronary atherosclerosis in adult pigs (Sus scrofa, n = 37) fed a high fat diet that also contained high NaCl (56% above recommended levels) for 1 year. Principal Findings Twenty pigs developed severe and diffuse distal coronary artery atherosclerosis (i.e., severe = intimal area as a percent medial area > 200% in at least 2 coronary artery cross sections and diffuse distal = intimal area as a percent medial area ≥ 150% over 3 sections separated by 2 cm in the distal half of the coronary artery). The other 17 pigs had substantially less coronary artery atherosclerosis. All 37 pigs had blood pressure in a range that would be considered hypertensive in humans and developed elevations in total and LDL and HDL cholesterol, weight gain, increased backfat, and increased insulin resistance (Bergman Si) without overt diabetes. Insulin resistance was not associated with atherosclerosis severity. Five additional pigs fed regular pig chow also developed increased insulin resistance but essentially no change in the other variables and little to no detectible coronary atherosclerosis. Most importantly, the 20 high fat/high NaCl diet -fed pigs with severe and diffuse distal coronary artery atherosclerosis had substantially greater increases (p< 0.05) in oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and fructosamine consistent with increased protein glycation. Conclusion In pigs fed a high fat/high NaCl diet, glycated proteins are induced in the absence of overt diabetes and this degree of increase is associated with the development of severe and diffuse distal coronary artery

  8. Oxidized LDL and Fructosamine Associated with Severity of Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in Insulin Resistant Pigs Fed a High Fat/High NaCl Diet.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Timothy C; Merricks, Elizabeth P; Bellinger, Dwight A; Raymer, Robin A; Yu, Jing; Lam, Diana; Koch, Gary G; Busby, Walker H; Clemmons, David R

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-resistant subjects develop more severe and diffuse coronary artery atherosclerosis than insulin-sensitive controls but the mechanisms that mediate this atherosclerosis phenotype are unknown. To determine the metabolic parameters that associate with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in insulin resistant pigs fed a high fat/high NaCl diet. The primary endpoint was severity of coronary atherosclerosis in adult pigs (Sus scrofa, n = 37) fed a high fat diet that also contained high NaCl (56% above recommended levels) for 1 year. Twenty pigs developed severe and diffuse distal coronary artery atherosclerosis (i.e., severe = intimal area as a percent medial area > 200% in at least 2 coronary artery cross sections and diffuse distal = intimal area as a percent medial area ≥ 150% over 3 sections separated by 2 cm in the distal half of the coronary artery). The other 17 pigs had substantially less coronary artery atherosclerosis. All 37 pigs had blood pressure in a range that would be considered hypertensive in humans and developed elevations in total and LDL and HDL cholesterol, weight gain, increased backfat, and increased insulin resistance (Bergman Si) without overt diabetes. Insulin resistance was not associated with atherosclerosis severity. Five additional pigs fed regular pig chow also developed increased insulin resistance but essentially no change in the other variables and little to no detectible coronary atherosclerosis. Most importantly, the 20 high fat/high NaCl diet-fed pigs with severe and diffuse distal coronary artery atherosclerosis had substantially greater increases (p< 0.05) in oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and fructosamine consistent with increased protein glycation. In pigs fed a high fat/high NaCl diet, glycated proteins are induced in the absence of overt diabetes and this degree of increase is associated with the development of severe and diffuse distal coronary artery atherosclerosis.

  9. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Dibner, J J; Scheffler, J M; Corl, B A; Estienne, M J; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9±1.4 kg BW, 36±2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet with nonoxidized oil and no PUFA source. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P<0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, the VE pigs had decreased dressing percentage than the AOX and VE+AOX pigs (65.7 vs. 75.3 and 74.2%). Compared to the SC pigs, greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%) and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P<0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P=0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24-h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P=0.07). The antioxidant blend addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P>0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater

  10. Effects of dietary chromium (III) picolinate on growth performance, respiratory rate, plasma variables, and carcass traits of pigs fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beob G; Lindemann, Merlin D; Cromwell, Gary L

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the effects of supplemental chromium (Cr) as Cr (III) picolinate on pigs fed high-fat diets (HFD) in a 56-day experiment. Thirty-two crossbred pigs (9.6 kg) were allotted to four treatments with four blocks and two pigs/pen. Treatments included: (1) low-fat diet (fat < 3.5%; LFD) with no Cr, (2) HFD (fat > 30%) with no Cr, (3) HFD with 1,000 ppb Cr, and (4) HFD with 2,000 ppb Cr. Pigs fed HFD gained weight faster, consumed less, and had lower feed:gain (p < 0.05). Pigs fed HFD had higher respiration rates than pigs fed LFD on d 41 (p < 0.05). Plasma insulin on d 14 linearly decreased with Cr (p = 0.05). Plasma cholesterol concentrations were higher in the pigs fed HFD than those fed LFD, but were largely unaffected by supplemental Cr. Consumption of HFD resulted in greater carcass weight, perirenal fat, and backfat measures (p < 0.01) compared with the LFD group. Cr resulted in linear reductions of hot carcass weight (p = 0.08) and average backfat (p < 0.05). The effects of Cr on carcass fat measures were more pronounced in castrated males than in females. These results indicate that Cr attenuates some effects of a HFD, mainly body fat accretion of pigs, and especially in castrated pigs.

  11. Energy, phosphorus, and amino acid digestibility of high-protein distillers dried grains and corn germ fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Widmer, M R; McGinnis, L M; Stein, H H

    2007-11-01

    Three experiments were conducted to measure energy, P, and AA digestibility in 2 novel co-products from the ethanol industry [i.e., high-protein distillers dried grains (HP DDG) and corn germ]. These products are produced by dehulling and degerming corn before it enters the fermentation process. Experiment 1 was an energy balance experiment conducted to measure DE and ME in HP DDG, corn germ, and corn. Six growing pigs (initial BW, 48.9 +/- 1.99 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and fed diets based on corn, corn and HP DDG, or corn and corn germ. Pigs were allotted to a replicated, 3 x 3 Latin square design. The DE and ME in corn (4,056 and 3,972 kcal/kg of DM, respectively) did not differ from the DE and ME in corn germ (3,979 and 3,866 kcal/kg of DM, respectively). However, HP DDG contained more (P < 0.05) energy (4,763 kcal of DE/kg of DM and 4,476 kcal of ME/kg of DM) than corn or corn germ. Experiment 2 was conducted to measure apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and true total tract digestibility of P in HP DDG and corn germ. Thirty growing pigs (initial BW, 33.2 +/- 7.18 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and fed a diet based on HP DDG or corn germ. A P-free diet was used to measure endogenous P losses. Pigs were assigned to treatments in a randomized complete block design, with 10 replications per treatment. The ATTD and the retention of P were calculated for the diets containing HP DDG and corn germ, and the endogenous loss of P was estimated from pigs fed the P-free diet. The ATTD was lower (P < 0.05) in corn germ (28.6%) than in the HP DDG (59.6%). The retention of P was also lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed corn germ (26.7%) than in pigs fed HP DDG (58.9%). The endogenous loss of P was estimated to be 211 +/- 39 mg per kg of DMI. The true total tract digestibility of P for HP DDG and corn germ was calculated to be 69.3 and 33.7%, respectively. In Exp. 3, apparent ileal digestibility and standardized ileal digestibility values of CP and AA in HP DDG

  12. Effect of supplementation of lecithin and carnitine on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Saseendran, Arathy; Ally, K.; Gangadevi, P.; Banakar, P. S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of dietary supplementation of lecithin and carnitine on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed high-fat diet. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 weaned female large white Yorkshire piglets of 2 months of age were selected and randomly divided into three groups allotted to three dietary treatments, T1 - Control ration as per the National Research Council nutrient requirement, T2 - Control ration plus 5% fat, and T3 - T2 plus 0.5% lecithin plus 150 mg/kg carnitine. The total dry matter (DM) intake, fortnightly body weight of each individual animal was recorded. Digestibility trial was conducted toward the end of the experiment to determine the digestibility coefficient of various nutrients. Results: There was a significant improvement (p<0.01) observed for pigs under supplementary groups T2 and T3 than that of control group (T1) with regards to growth parameters studied such as total DM intake, average final body weight and total weight gain whereas among supplementary groups, pigs reared on T3 group had better intake (p<0.01) when compared to T2 group. Statistical analysis of data revealed that no differences were observed (p>0.05) among the three treatments on average daily gain, feed conversion efficiency, and nutrient digestibility during the overall period. Conclusion: It was concluded that the dietary inclusion of animal fat at 5% level or animal fat along with lecithin (0.5%) and carnitine (150 mg/kg) improved the growth performance in pigs than non-supplemented group and from the economic point of view, dietary incorporation of animal fat at 5% would be beneficial for improving growth in pigs without dietary modifiers. PMID:28344396

  13. Expression of Selenoprotein Genes Is Affected by Obesity of Pigs Fed a High-Fat Diet123

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Li, Ke; Tang, Jia-Yong; Zhou, Ji-Chang; Wang, Kang-Ning; Xia, Xin-Jie; Lei, Xin Gen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Relations of the 25 mammalian selenoprotein genes with obesity and the associated inflammation remain unclear. Objective: This study explored impacts of high-fat diet-induced obesity on inflammation and expressions of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 10 tissues of pigs. Methods: Plasma and 10 tissues were collected from pigs (n = 10) fed a corn-soy–based control diet or that diet containing 3–7% lard from weanling to finishing (180 d). Plasma concentrations (n = 8) of cytokines and thyroid hormones and tissue mRNA abundance (n = 4) of 25 selenoprotein genes and 16 obesity-related genes were compared between the pigs fed the control and high-fat diets. Stepwise regression was applied to analyze correlations among all these measures, including the previously reported body physical and plasma biochemical variables. Results: The high-fat diet elevated (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, leptin, and leptin receptor by 29–42% and affected (P < 0.05–0.1) tissue mRNA levels of the selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 3 patterns. Specifically, the high-fat diet up-regulated 12 selenoprotein genes in 6 tissues, down-regulated 13 selenoprotein genes in 7 tissues, and exerted no effect on 5 genes in any tissue. Body weights and plasma triglyceride concentrations of pigs showed the strongest regressions to tissue mRNA abundances of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes. Among the selenoprotein genes, selenoprotein V and I were ranked as the strongest independent variables for the regression of phenotypic and plasma measures. Meanwhile, agouti signaling protein, adiponectin, and resistin genes represented the strongest independent variables of the obesity-related genes for the regression of tissue selenoprotein mRNA. Conclusions: The high-fat diet induced inflammation in pigs and affected their gene expression of selenoproteins associated with thioredoxin and oxidoreductase systems, local tissue

  14. Testosterone Deficiency Induces Changes of the Transcriptomes of Visceral Adipose Tissue in Miniature Pigs Fed a High-Fat and High-Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifan; Cai, Yueqin; Wei, Shengjuan; Ling, Yun; Zhu, Liang; Li, Dongfeng; Cai, Zhaowei

    2016-12-16

    Testosterone deficiency causes fat deposition, particularly in visceral fat, and its replacement might reverse fat accumulation, however, the underlying mechanisms of such processes under diet-induced adiposity are largely unknown. To gain insights into the genome-wide role of androgen on visceral adipose tissue (VAT), RNA-Seq was used to investigate testosterone deficiency induced changes of VAT in miniature pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet among intact male pigs (IM), castrated male pigs (CM), and castrated male pigs with testosterone replacement (CMT) treatments. The results showed that testosterone deficiency significantly increased VAT deposition and serum leptin concentrations. Moreover, a total of 1732 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between any two groups. Compared with gene expression profiles in IM and CMT pigs, upregulated genes in CM pigs, i.e., LOC100520753 (CD68), LCN2, EMR1, S100A9, NCF1 (p47phox), and LEP, were mainly involved in inflammatory response, oxidation-reduction process, and lipid metabolic process, while downregulated genes in CM pigs, i.e., ABHD5, SPP1, and GAS6, were focused on cell differentiation and cell adhesion. Taken together, our study demonstrates that testosterone deficiency alters the expression of numerous genes involved in key biological processes of VAT accumulation under HFC diet and provides a novel genome-wide view on the role of androgen on VAT deposition under HFC diet, thus improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in VAT changes induced by testosterone deficiency.

  15. Testosterone Deficiency Induces Changes of the Transcriptomes of Visceral Adipose Tissue in Miniature Pigs Fed a High-Fat and High-Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lifan; Cai, Yueqin; Wei, Shengjuan; Ling, Yun; Zhu, Liang; Li, Dongfeng; Cai, Zhaowei

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency causes fat deposition, particularly in visceral fat, and its replacement might reverse fat accumulation, however, the underlying mechanisms of such processes under diet-induced adiposity are largely unknown. To gain insights into the genome-wide role of androgen on visceral adipose tissue (VAT), RNA-Seq was used to investigate testosterone deficiency induced changes of VAT in miniature pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet among intact male pigs (IM), castrated male pigs (CM), and castrated male pigs with testosterone replacement (CMT) treatments. The results showed that testosterone deficiency significantly increased VAT deposition and serum leptin concentrations. Moreover, a total of 1732 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between any two groups. Compared with gene expression profiles in IM and CMT pigs, upregulated genes in CM pigs, i.e., LOC100520753 (CD68), LCN2, EMR1, S100A9, NCF1 (p47phox), and LEP, were mainly involved in inflammatory response, oxidation-reduction process, and lipid metabolic process, while downregulated genes in CM pigs, i.e., ABHD5, SPP1, and GAS6, were focused on cell differentiation and cell adhesion. Taken together, our study demonstrates that testosterone deficiency alters the expression of numerous genes involved in key biological processes of VAT accumulation under HFC diet and provides a novel genome-wide view on the role of androgen on VAT deposition under HFC diet, thus improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in VAT changes induced by testosterone deficiency. PMID:27999286

  16. Intestinal Microbiota and Microbial Metabolites Are Changed in a Pig Model Fed a High-Fat/Low-Fiber or a Low-Fat/High-Fiber Diet

    PubMed Central

    Heinritz, Sonja N.; Weiss, Eva; Eklund, Meike; Aumiller, Tobias; Louis, Sandrine; Rings, Andreas; Messner, Sabine; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Seifert, Jana; Bischoff, Stephan C.; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota and its metabolites appear to be an important factor for gastrointestinal function and health. However, research is still needed to further elaborate potential relationships between nutrition, gut microbiota and host’s health by means of a suitable animal model. The present study examined the effect of two different diets on microbial composition and activity by using the pig as a model for humans. Eight pigs were equally allotted to two treatments, either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for 7 weeks. Feces were sampled at day 7 of every experimental week. Diet effects on fecal microbiota were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, DNA fingerprinting and metaproteomics. Furthermore, fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and ammonia concentrations were determined. Gene copy numbers of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria (P<0.001) and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P<0.05) were higher in the LF pigs, while Enterobacteriaceae were more abundant in the HF pigs (P<0.001). Higher numbers of proteins affiliated to Enterobacteriaceae were also present in the HF samples. Proteins for polysaccharide breakdown did almost exclusively originate from Prevotellaceae. Total and individual fecal SCFA concentrations were higher for pigs of the LF treatment (P<0.05), whereas fecal ammonia concentrations did not differ between treatments (P>0.05). Results provide evidence that beginning from the start of the experiment, the LF diet stimulated beneficial bacteria and SCFA production, especially butyrate (P<0.05), while the HF diet fostered those bacterial groups which have been associated with a negative impact on health conditions. These findings correspond to results in humans and might strengthen the hypothesis that the response of the porcine gut microbiota to a specific dietary modulation is in support of using the pig as suitable animal model for humans to assess diet-gut-microbiota interactions. Data are available

  17. Intestinal Microbiota and Microbial Metabolites Are Changed in a Pig Model Fed a High-Fat/Low-Fiber or a Low-Fat/High-Fiber Diet.

    PubMed

    Heinritz, Sonja N; Weiss, Eva; Eklund, Meike; Aumiller, Tobias; Louis, Sandrine; Rings, Andreas; Messner, Sabine; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Seifert, Jana; Bischoff, Stephan C; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota and its metabolites appear to be an important factor for gastrointestinal function and health. However, research is still needed to further elaborate potential relationships between nutrition, gut microbiota and host's health by means of a suitable animal model. The present study examined the effect of two different diets on microbial composition and activity by using the pig as a model for humans. Eight pigs were equally allotted to two treatments, either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for 7 weeks. Feces were sampled at day 7 of every experimental week. Diet effects on fecal microbiota were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR, DNA fingerprinting and metaproteomics. Furthermore, fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and ammonia concentrations were determined. Gene copy numbers of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria (P<0.001) and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P<0.05) were higher in the LF pigs, while Enterobacteriaceae were more abundant in the HF pigs (P<0.001). Higher numbers of proteins affiliated to Enterobacteriaceae were also present in the HF samples. Proteins for polysaccharide breakdown did almost exclusively originate from Prevotellaceae. Total and individual fecal SCFA concentrations were higher for pigs of the LF treatment (P<0.05), whereas fecal ammonia concentrations did not differ between treatments (P>0.05). Results provide evidence that beginning from the start of the experiment, the LF diet stimulated beneficial bacteria and SCFA production, especially butyrate (P<0.05), while the HF diet fostered those bacterial groups which have been associated with a negative impact on health conditions. These findings correspond to results in humans and might strengthen the hypothesis that the response of the porcine gut microbiota to a specific dietary modulation is in support of using the pig as suitable animal model for humans to assess diet-gut-microbiota interactions. Data are available via

  18. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomics study of cloned versus normal pigs fed either restricted or ad libitum high-energy diets.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kirstine L; Hedemann, Mette S; Jørgensen, Henry; Stagsted, Jan; Knudsen, Knud Erik B

    2012-07-06

    Genetically identical cloned pigs should in principle eliminate biological variation and provide more pronounced effects when subjected to, e.g., dietary interventions, but little is known about how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning. Therefore, an investigation of the metabolome of cloned pigs compared to normal control pigs was performed to elucidate the variation and possible differences in the metabolic phenotypes during a dietary intervention. A total of 19 control pigs and 17 cloned pigs were given the same high-energy dense diet either ad libitum or in a restricted manner (60% of ad libitum) for ∼6 months, and plasma was subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry nontargeted metabolomics and biochemical analyses. Low systemic levels of IGF-1 could indicate altered growth conditions and energy metabolism in cloned pigs. In response to ad libitum feeding, clones had a decreased energy intake and lower weight gain compared to controls, and plasma lipid profiles were changed accordingly. Elevated lactate and decreased creatine levels implied an increased anaerobic metabolism in ad libitum fed clones. Less interindividual variation between cloned pigs was however not established, suggesting a strong role for epigenetics and/or the gut microbiota to develop variation.

  19. Accumulation of copper in the kidney of pigs fed high dietary zinc is due to metallothionein expression with minor effects on genes involved in copper metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zetzsche, A; Schunter, N; Zentek, J; Pieper, R

    2016-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of high dietary zinc (Zn) oxide on trace element accumulation in various organs with special emphasis on the kidney. A total of 40 weaned piglets were allocated into two groups with 16 and 24 piglets each receiving a diet containing normal (NZn; 100mg Zn/kg) or high (HZn; 2,100mg Zn/kg) Zn concentration, respectively. After two weeks, eight piglets from each treatment were killed and organ samples were taken. Eight piglets from the remaining 16 pigs fed HZn diets were changed to NZn diets (CZn). All remaining piglets were killed after another two weeks for organ sampling. Trace element concentration was determined in the jejunum, liver, kidney, pancreas, bone (metacarpal IV), spleen, lung, thymus, tonsils and lymph nodes of jejunum, ileum and colon. Kidney mRNA expression of Zn transporter ZnT1 and ZIP4, genes involved in Cu metabolism (Ctr1, Atox1, SOD1, ATP7A, CCS, CP) and divalent metal ion transport (DMT1) and binding (MT-1a, MT-2b, MT-3) were determined. The Zn concentration in jejunum, liver, pancreas tissue and metacarpal IV was higher (P<0.05) in HZn group compared with NZn and CZn groups. Trace element concentration in organs of CZn pigs was similar to those fed NZn diets. Zn concentration in muscle, lung and lymphatic organs as thymus, tonsils, spleen and lymph nodes of jejunum, ileum and colon did not differ between the groups. Zn and Cu were positively correlated (R=0.67; P<0.05) in the kidney. No significant differences for Cu chaperones, Cu transporters and Cu-dependent factors were determined despite decreased expression of Atox1 after two weeks and increased Ctr1 expression over time in the HZn group. Expression of MT-1a, MT-2b and MT-3 were significantly higher in HZn fed pigs with most pronounced effects for MT-1a > MT-2b > MT-3. Gene expression of MTs in pigs fed CZn diets did not differ from pigs fed NZn diets. The data suggest that high dietary Zn feeding in pigs leads to Cu co-accumulation in the

  20. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, T F; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2016-12-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs (initial BW: 9.15 ± 0.06 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with 12 dietary treatments and 9 pens per treatment. A control diet based on corn and SBM and 4 diets containing 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV were formulated to a similar NE by adjusting inclusion of choice white grease. Four additional diets also contained 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV, but no additional choice white grease, and NE in these diets, therefore, was less than in the control diet. The control diet and the diets containing 30% CM-HP or CM-CV without increased choice white grease were also formulated with inclusion of an exogenous carbohydrase. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 22 d and 1 pig per pen was sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment. Results indicated that compared with the control diet, there was no impact of canola meal on final BW, ADG, ADFI, or G:F, but pigs fed CM-CV had greater ( < 0.05) final BW, ADG, and ADFI than pigs fed CM-HP, and pigs fed diets with reduced NE had greater ( < 0.05) ADG and ADFI than pigs fed diets with constant NE. Only minor effects of CM-HP or CM-CV on intestinal weight, gut fill, digesta pH, cecal VFA concentrations, and serum concentrations of urea N, total N, or albumin were observed, but the weight of the thyroid gland increased ( < 0.05) as the concentration of dietary canola meal increased. Serum concentrations of IgG were reduced if canola meal was included in the diets without the carbohydrase, but that was not the case if the carbohydrase was included in the diet (interaction, ( < 0.05). In conclusion, up to 30% CM-HP or CM-CV in diets fed to weanling pigs from 2 wk postweaning did not impact growth performance

  1. Comparative effects of a high-amylose starch and a fructooligosaccharide on fecal bifidobacteria numbers and short-chain fatty acids in pigs fed Bifidobacterium animalis.

    PubMed

    Bird, Anthony R; Vuaran, Michelle; Crittenden, Ross; Hayakawa, Takashi; Playne, Martin J; Brown, Ian L; Topping, David L

    2009-05-01

    Pigs were fed a freeze-dried probiotic (Bifidobacterium animalis CSCC 1941) plus a high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) and a fructooligosaccharide (FOS) separately or together. Fecal output and total and individual major short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations and excretion were higher and pH was lower with HAMS than with FOS relative to when they were fed a low-amylose maize starch (LAMS; control). Fecal bifidobacteria numbers and total excretion were equally higher during feeding of FOS or HAMS and highest with HAMS + FOS. When probiotic supplementation was stopped, bifidobacteria numbers declined rapidly when they were fed LAMS, more slowly with FOS or HAMS, and were maintained with HAMS + FOS. The data confirm that both HAMS and FOS are prebiotics and suggest that they act through different mechanisms and that they are most effective in combination. However only HAMS raises fecal SCFA.

  2. Nutritional value of high fiber co-products from the copra, palm kernel, and rice industries in diets fed to pigs.

    PubMed

    Stein, Hans Henrik; Casas, Gloria Amparo; Abelilla, Jerubella Jerusalem; Liu, Yanhong; Sulabo, Rommel Casilda

    2015-01-01

    High fiber co-products from the copra and palm kernel industries are by-products of the production of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. The co-products include copra meal, copra expellers, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel expellers. All 4 ingredients are very high in fiber and the energy value is relatively low when fed to pigs. The protein concentration is between 14 and 22 % and the protein has a low biological value and a very high Arg:Lys ratio. Digestibility of most amino acids is less than in soybean meal but close to that in corn. However, the digestibility of Lys is sometimes low due to Maillard reactions that are initiated due to overheating during drying. Copra and palm kernel ingredients contain 0.5 to 0.6 % P. Most of the P in palm kernel meal and palm kernel expellers is bound to phytate, but in copra products less than one third of the P is bound to phytate. The digestibility of P is, therefore, greater in copra meal and copra expellers than in palm kernel ingredients. Inclusion of copra meal should be less than 15 % in diets fed to weanling pigs and less than 25 % in diets for growing-finishing pigs. Palm kernel meal may be included by 15 % in diets for weanling pigs and 25 % in diets for growing and finishing pigs. Rice bran contains the pericarp and aleurone layers of brown rice that is removed before polished rice is produced. Rice bran contains approximately 25 % neutral detergent fiber and 25 to 30 % starch. Rice bran has a greater concentration of P than most other plant ingredients, but 75 to 90 % of the P is bound in phytate. Inclusion of microbial phytase in the diets is, therefore, necessary if rice bran is used. Rice bran may contain 15 to 24 % fat, but it may also have been defatted in which case the fat concentration is less than 5 %. Concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) are slightly less in full fat rice bran than in corn, but defatted rice bran contains less than 75 % of the DE and ME in

  3. Performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs fed crude glycerol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs fed crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, were determined in a 138-d feeding trial conducted at the Iowa State University Swine Nutrition Research Farm, Ames, IA. Pigs were weaned at 21d of age and were fed a commercial starter-...

  4. Induction of lesions of selenium-vitamin E deficiency in pigs fed silver.

    PubMed

    Van Vleet, J F

    1976-12-01

    Four weanling swine fed for 4 weeks a commercial ration adequate in selenium and vitamin E, but supplemented with 0.5% silver acetate, developed lesions typical of selenium-vitamin E deficiency. Clinically, the pigs fed this high level of silver had anorexia, diarrhea, and growth depression; 3 of 4 pigs died. At necropsy, hepatic lesions of hepatosis dietetica were present in 4 of 4 silver-fed pigs, and 1 of 4 pigs had cardiac and skeletal muscle lesions characteristic of selenium-vitamin E deficiency. Development of lesions and mortality was prevented in 2 pigs fed the silver diet supplemented with alpha-tocopherol (100 IU/kg of diet), but not in 2 pigs fed the ration supplemented with selenium as selenite (1 ppm). Four pigs fed a lower dose level of silver (0.2% silver acetate) for 6 weeks failed to develop clinical or pathologic features of selenium-vitamin E deficiency. However, hepatic selenium content was significantly increased in pigs fed the silver-supplemented ration.

  5. Expression of cationic amino acid transporters, carcass traits, and performance of growing pigs fed low-protein amino acid-supplemented versus high protein diets.

    PubMed

    Morales, A; Grageola, F; García, H; Araiza, A; Zijlstra, R T; Cervantes, M

    2013-10-18

    Free amino acids (AA) appear to be absorbed faster than protein-bound AA (PB-AA). We conducted an experiment to assess the effect of feeding pigs with a partially free (F-AA) or totally PB-AA diet on expression of selected genes and performance of pigs. The expression of cationic AA transporters b(0,+) and CAT-1 in intestinal mucosa, liver, and longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus (SM) muscles, as well as that of myosin in LM and SM, was analyzed. Twelve pigs (31.7 ± 2.7 kg) were used. The F-AA diet was based on wheat, supplemented with 0.59% L-Lys, 0.33% L-Thr, and 0.10% DL-Met. The PB-AA diet was formulated with wheat-soybean meal. Average daily feed intake was 1.53 kg per pig. The expression of b(0,+) and CAT-1 was analyzed in jejunal and ileal mucosa, liver, LM, and SM; myosin expression was also analyzed in both muscles. Pigs fed the PB-AA diet tended to have higher weight gain and feed efficiency (P < 0.10), and had thinner back fat (P = 0.02). The expression of b(0,+) was higher (P < 0.01) in jejunum but lower (P < 0.01) in the liver of pigs fed the F-AA diet; CAT-1 tended to be lower in liver but higher in LM of PB-AA pigs. Myosin expression was not affected. Intestinal AA absorption was faster in pigs fed the F-AA diet, but AA uptake by the liver seemed to be faster in pigs fed the PB-AA. Performance and expression of AA transporters and myosin suggest that the dietary content of free or protein-bound AA does not affect their availability for protein synthesis in pigs.

  6. Intestinal morphology and enzymatic activity in newly weaned pigs fed contrasting fiber concentrations and fiber properties.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, M S; Eskildsen, M; Laerke, H N; Pedersen, C; Lindberg, J E; Laurinen, P; Knudsen, K E Bach

    2006-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of fiber source and concentration on morphological characteristics, mucin staining pattern, and mucosal enzyme activities in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. The experiment included 50 pigs from 10 litters weaned at 4 wk of age (BW 8.6 +/- 1.4 kg) and divided into 5 treatment groups. Diets containing fiber of various physico-chemical properties and concentrations were formulated to contain 73, 104, or 145 g of dietary fiber/kg of DM. The diets were based on raw wheat and barley flours. Pectin and barley hulls, representing soluble and insoluble fiber sources, respectively, were used to increase the fiber concentration. The pigs were fed the experimental diets for 9 d, and then the pigs were euthanized and the entire gastrointestinal tract was removed. Tissue samples were taken from the mid and distal small intestine and from the mid colon. Inclusion of pectin in the diets significantly decreased (P < 0.001) ADFI and ADG compared with pigs fed no pectin. The villi and the crypts were shorter in pigs fed pectin-containing diets, but the villous height/crypt depth ratio was unaltered. Pectin significantly decreased the area of mucins in the crypts of the small intestine, indicating that the pigs fed the pectin-containing diet would probably be more susceptible to pathogenic bacteria, although this cannot be separated from the impact on ADFI. The lectin-binding pattern of the intestinal mucosa was unaffected by diet. The activity of lactase and maltase was increased in pigs fed diets with high fiber content, whereas sucrase activity was increased in pigs fed the pectin-containing diets. The activity of the peptidases, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidylpeptidase IV, was increased when feeding high fiber diets, whereas the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase remained unaffected by the experimental diets. In conclusion, the reduced feed intake observed with the pectin-containing diets could explain the

  7. Dietary Resistant Starch Supplementation Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Particle Number in Pigs Fed a Western Diet.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Todd C; Harding, Scott V; Raslawsky, Amy; Rempel, Curtis B

    2017-05-04

    Resistant starch (RS) has been well characterized for its glycemic control properties; however, there is little consensus regarding the influence of RS on blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein distribution and size. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the effect of daily RS supplementation in a controlled capsule delivery on biomarkers of cardiovascular (blood lipids, lipoproteins) and diabetes (glucose, insulin) risk in a pig model. Twelve 8-week-old male Yorkshire pigs were placed on a synthetic Western diet and randomly divided into two groups (n = 6/group) for 30 days: (1) a placebo group supplemented with capsules containing unmodified pre-gelatinized potato starch (0 g/RS/day); and (2) an RS group supplemented with capsules containing resistant potato starch (10 g/RS/day). Serum lipids including total-cholesterol (C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides did not differ (p > 0.05) between the RS and placebo groups. Although the total numbers of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles were similar (p > 0.05) between the two groups, total high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were higher (+28%, p < 0.05) in the RS group compared with placebo, resulting from an increase (p < 0.05) in the small HDL subclass particles (+32%). Compared with the placebo group, RS supplementation lowered (p < 0.05) fasting serum glucose (-20%) and improved (p < 0.05) insulin resistance as estimated by Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) without a change in insulin. Additionally, total serum glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) was higher (+141%, p < 0.05) following RS supplementation compared with placebo. This data suggests that in addition to the more well-characterized effect of RS intake in lowering blood glucose and improving insulin sensitivity, the consumption of RS may be beneficial in lipid management strategies by enhancing total

  8. Lipid-lowering activity of Cow urine ark in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Manubhai, Chawda Hiren; Rasiklal, Mandavia Divyesh; Natvarlal, Baxi Seema; Kishorbhai, Vadgama Vishalkumar; Rajkishor, Tripathi ‎Chandrabhanu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cow urine ark (CUA), known as “Amrita” as mentioned in Ayurveda, contains‎ anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant effects. Therefore, we designed the present study to evaluate the lipid ‎lowering activity of CUA and its possible implication in metabolic syndrome.‎ Materials and Methods: Thirty guinea pigs of either sex were divided into five groups: Group 1 and 2 serving as a vehicle ‎and sham control, received normal and high fat diet for 60 days respectively; Group 3, 4 and 5 ‎received high fat diet for 60 days with CUA 0.8 ml/kg, 1.6 ml/kg and rosuvastatin (1.5 mg/kg) on the‎last 30 days of study period, respectively. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-‎C, VLDL-C, HDL-C, total Cholesterol/HDL-C) and serum enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and CK-MB) ‎were performed in each group at the beginning and end of the study. Histological study of liver and ‎kidney was done in each group. Results: CUA (0.8 ml/kg) significantly decreased the serum triglycerides and VLDL-C, but CUA (1.6 ml/kg) ‎decreased the total serum Cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL-C (p < 0.05). Higher dose (1.6 ml/kg) of ‎CUA also increased HDL-C level, significantly (p < 0.05). CUA reduced serum AST, ALP and LDH ‎level, which was statistically significant as well, while it also decreased the accumulation of lipid in hepatocytes as ‎compared to sham control.‎ Conclusions: CUA reduced triglycerides, increased HDL-C and found to be hepatoprotective in ‎animals that are on a high fat diet. PMID:25386398

  9. Lipid-lowering activity of Cow urine ark in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Manubhai, Chawda Hiren; Rasiklal, Mandavia Divyesh; Natvarlal, Baxi Seema; Kishorbhai, Vadgama Vishalkumar; Rajkishor, Tripathi Chandrabhanu

    2014-09-01

    Cow urine ark (CUA), known as "Amrita" as mentioned in Ayurveda, contains‎ anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant effects. Therefore, we designed the present study to evaluate the lipid ‎lowering activity of CUA and its possible implication in metabolic syndrome.‎ Thirty guinea pigs of either sex were divided into five groups: Group 1 and 2 serving as a vehicle ‎and sham control, received normal and high fat diet for 60 days respectively; Group 3, 4 and 5 ‎received high fat diet for 60 days with CUA 0.8 ml/kg, 1.6 ml/kg and rosuvastatin (1.5 mg/kg) on the‎last 30 days of study period, respectively. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-‎C, VLDL-C, HDL-C, total Cholesterol/HDL-C) and serum enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and CK-MB) ‎were performed in each group at the beginning and end of the study. Histological study of liver and ‎kidney was done in each group. CUA (0.8 ml/kg) significantly decreased the serum triglycerides and VLDL-C, but CUA (1.6 ml/kg) ‎decreased the total serum Cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL-C (p < 0.05). Higher dose (1.6 ml/kg) of ‎CUA also increased HDL-C level, significantly (p < 0.05). CUA reduced serum AST, ALP and LDH ‎level, which was statistically significant as well, while it also decreased the accumulation of lipid in hepatocytes as ‎compared to sham control.‎ CUA reduced triglycerides, increased HDL-C and found to be hepatoprotective in ‎animals that are on a high fat diet.

  10. San Miguel sea lion virus fed to mink and pigs.

    PubMed

    Wilder, F W; Dardiri, A H

    1978-04-01

    Mink became infected with San Miguel sea lion virus when fed ground meat from seal carcasses showing vesicular-like lesions in the skin. The mink also contracted the infection when they were fed San Miguel sea lion virus infected pig meat or cell culture propagated virus. San Miguel sea lion virus infection in mink was inapparent but the virus was isolated from blood and rectal swabs. Pigs treated similarly with the same virus preparations given to mink developed a severe vesicular disease syndrome similar to that produced by vesicular exanthema of swine. In a separate trial, pigs fed a large sample of commercial ground seal meat did not develop disease signs or antibodies. Further work is needed to assess the hazard of introducing San Miguel sea lion virus into swine on the same premises when potentially San Miguel sea lion virus infective seal meat is fed to mink.

  11. Enhancement of phosphorus utilization in growing pigs fed phytate-rich diets by using rye bran.

    PubMed

    Pointillart, A

    1991-03-01

    Some cereal by-products, such as bran, exhibit a high phytase activity that may enhance phytate P digestibility. This was studied in growing pigs fed a phytase-rich (1,200 IU/kg) diet containing 20% rye bran. The trial involved 12 animals; six were fed a control diet and six were fed a diet containing rye bran for 2 mo. Both diets contained the same levels of energy, protein, Ca (.7%) and total P (.4%). No inorganic P was added; thus, the dietary P was mainly phytic. Pigs fed the control diet, in contrast to those fed the diet containing rye bran, developed a P deficiency, as indicated by hypophosphatemia, hypophosphaturia, hyperhydroxyprolinuria, hypercalcemia, and hypercalciuria. Phosphorus from the rye bran diet was more completely absorbed (55 vs 36%) and retained (50 vs 36%) than that from the control diet. Calcium absorption was equal for the two diets, but Ca retention was higher in pigs fed rye bran than in controls. Pigs fed the rye bran diet showed greater bone density, ash content, and bending moments than controls. In conclusion, high dietary phytase levels or phytase-rich by-products increased phytate P availability and consequently improved bone scores.

  12. Characterization and quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in manure of piglets and adult pigs fed on different diets.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Li, Wen-Feng; Li, Chao-Ben

    2017-10-01

    Studies have shown that pig manure is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, little is known about the characteristics of ARGs in the manure of piglets and adult pigs fed on different diets. In the present study, the ARG characteristics of the manure of piglets and adult pigs fed on different diets (feed, grain) were analyzed using high-throughput fluorescence quantitative PCR. Correlations between heavy metals, antibiotics, and ARGs in pig manure were analyzed. The results showed that the heavy metal and antibiotic contents in the manure of pigs receiving feed significantly exceeded those in the manure of pigs receiving grain. The heavy metal and antibiotic contents were higher in manure of piglets than in that of adult pigs. Feed significantly increased the ARG diversity in the pig manure. The ARG diversity was higher in manure of piglets than in that of adult pigs. In the manure of pigs receiving feed, 25 (from piglets), 12 (from adult pigs) ARGs were enriched significantly compared with pig fed with grain. In particular, sat4 (in piglets) and vatE-01 (in adult pigs) showed the highest enrichment, being increased by 59 and 19-fold, respectively. The ARG diversity correlated positively with the concentrations of antibiotics and heavy metals in the manure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in high-protein canola meal, conventional canola meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Berrocoso, J D; Rojas, O J; Liu, Y; Shoulders, J; González-Vega, J C; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 2 sources of high-protein canola meal (CM-HP1 and CM-HP2), conventional canola meal (CM-CV), and soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 barrows (51.5 ± 4.0 kg initial BW) were housed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet. A corn-based diet (97.4% corn) and 4 diets that contained both corn and each of the 3 sources of canola meal or SBM were formulated. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period. The DE and ME were 3,347 and 3,268 kcal/kg in corn, 3,312 and 2,893 kcal/kg in CM-HP1, 3,627 and 3,346 kcal/kg in CM-HP2, 2,798 and 2,492 kcal/kg in CM-CV, and 4,000 and 3,796 kcal/kg in SBM, respectively. Values for DE and ME were greater (P< 0.05) in SBM than in all other ingredients, but DE and ME were greater (P < 0.05) in corn and the 2 high-protein canola meals than in CM-CV. The DE and ME were also greater (P< 0.05) in CM-HP2 than in CM-HP1. In Exp. 2, 10 barrows (65.3 ± 10.4 kg initial BW) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly allotted to a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design with 5 diets and 5 periods in each square. A N-free diet and 4 corn starch-based diets that contained CM-HP1, CM-HP2, CM-CV, or SBM as the sole source of AA were formulated. Each period lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The SID of CP and all AA except Pro were greater (P < 0.05) in SBM than in the 3 sources of canola meal. With the exception of His and Lys, no differences in SID of indispensable AA were observed among the 3 sources of canola meal. The SID of His and Lys were greater (P < 0.05) in CM-HP1 and CM-HP2 than in CM-CV and the SID of CP was greater (P < 0.05) in CM-HP2 than in CM-CV, but no differences in the SID of indispensable AA were observed between CM-HP1 and CM-HP2. In conclusion, the 2 high-protein canola

  14. High-throughput sequence-based analysis of the intestinal microbiota of weanling pigs fed genetically modified MON810 maize expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab (Bt maize) for 31 days.

    PubMed

    Buzoianu, Stefan G; Walsh, Maria C; Rea, Mary C; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Gardiner, Gillian E; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if feeding genetically modified (GM) MON810 maize expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein (Bt maize) had any effects on the porcine intestinal microbiota. Eighteen pigs were weaned at ~28 days and, following a 6-day acclimatization period, were assigned to diets containing either GM (Bt MON810) maize or non-GM isogenic parent line maize for 31 days (n = 9/treatment). Effects on the porcine intestinal microbiota were assessed through culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Fecal, cecal, and ileal counts of total anaerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, and Lactobacillus were not significantly different between pigs fed the isogenic or Bt maize-based diets. Furthermore, high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed few differences in the compositions of the cecal microbiotas. The only differences were that pigs fed the Bt maize diet had higher cecal abundance of Enterococcaceae (0.06 versus 0%; P < 0.05), Erysipelotrichaceae (1.28 versus 1.17%; P < 0.05), and Bifidobacterium (0.04 versus 0%; P < 0.05) and lower abundance of Blautia (0.23 versus 0.40%; P < 0.05) than pigs fed the isogenic maize diet. A lower enzyme-resistant starch content in the Bt maize, which is most likely a result of normal variation and not due to the genetic modification, may account for some of the differences observed within the cecal microbiotas. These results indicate that Bt maize is well tolerated by the porcine intestinal microbiota and provide additional data for safety assessment of Bt maize. Furthermore, these data can potentially be extrapolated to humans, considering the suitability of pigs as a human model.

  15. Review: Drinking water for liquid-fed pigs.

    PubMed

    Meunier-Salaün, M-C; Chiron, J; Etore, F; Fabre, A; Laval, A; Pol, F; Prunier, A; Ramonet, Y; Nielsen, B L

    2016-11-07

    Liquid feeding has the potential to provide pigs with sufficient water to remain hydrated and prevent prolonged thirst. However, lack of permanent access to fresh water prevents animals from drinking when they are thirsty. Moreover, individual differences between pigs in a pen may result in uneven distribution of the water provided by the liquid feed, leading to some pigs being unable to meet their water requirements. In this review, we look at the need for and provision of water for liquid-fed pigs in terms of their production performance, behaviour, health and welfare. We highlight factors which may lead to water ingestion above or below requirements. Increases in the need for water may be caused by numerous factors such as morbidity, ambient temperature or competition within the social group, emphasising the necessity of permanent access to water as also prescribed in EU legislation. The drinkers can be the target of redirected behaviour in response to feed restriction or in the absence of rooting materials, thereby generating water losses. The method of water provision and drinker design is critical to ensure easy access to water regardless of the pig's physiological state, and to limit the amount of water used, which does not benefit the pig.

  16. Nitrogen excretion and ammonia emissions from pigs fed modified diets.

    PubMed

    Panetta, D M; Powers, W J; Xin, H; Kerr, B J; Stalder, K J

    2006-01-01

    Two swine feeding trials were conducted (initial body weight = 47 +/- 2 and 41 +/- 3 kg for Trials 1 and 2, respectively) to evaluate reduced crude protein (CP) and yucca (Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies) extract-supplemented diets on NH3 emissions. In Trial 1, nine pigs were offered a corn-soybean meal diet (C, 174 g kg(-1) CP), a Lys-supplemented diet (L, 170 g kg(-1) CP), or a 145 g kg(-1) CP diet supplemented with Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp (LMTT). In Trial 2, nine pigs were fed diet L supplemented with 0, 62.5, or 125 mg of yucca extract per kg diet. Each feeding period consisted of a 4-d dietary adjustment followed by 72 h of continuous NH3 measurement. Urine and fecal samples were collected each period. Feeding the LMTT diet reduced (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (G:F) compared to diet L. Fecal N concentration decreased with a reduction in dietary CP, but urinary ammonium increased from pigs fed diet LMTT (2.0 g kg(-1), wet basis) compared to those fed diet C (1.1 g kg(-1)) or L (1.0 g kg(-1)). When pigs were fed reduced CP diets NH3 emission rates decreased (2.46, 2.16, and 1.05 mg min(-1) for diets C, L, and LMTT). Yucca had no effect on feed intake, ADG, or G:F. Ammonium and N concentrations of manure and NH3 emission rates did not differ with yucca content. Caution must be executed to maintain animal performance when strategies are implemented to reduce NH3 emissions.

  17. Postprandial lipoprotein composition in pigs fed diets differing in type and amount of dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Luhman, C M; Faidley, T D; Beitz, D C

    1992-01-01

    To determine the effects of diet on postprandial lipoprotein composition, growing pigs were fed diets containing 20 or 40% of energy as soybean oil, tallow or a 50:50 blend of soybean oil and tallow. At the end of wk 6, a blood sample was drawn from pigs fasted for 12 h. Pigs were then fed, and blood samples were drawn 1 and 4 h later. In LDL, concentrations of free and total cholesterol were greater in pigs fed 40% of energy as fat than in pigs fed 20% of energy as fat (P less than 0.02). Pigs fasted for 12 h had lesser concentrations of triacylglycerol and greater concentrations of phospholipid in LDL and HDL than did pigs fasted for 1 and 4 h (P less than 0.05). In HDL, total cholesterol and phospholipid concentrations were greater in pigs fed 40% of energy as fat than in pigs fed 20% of energy as fat (P less than 0.01). A greater concentration of triacylglycerol was found in VLDL of pigs fed 40% of energy as fat than in pigs fed 20% of energy as fat (P less than 0.01). Amount of dietary fat had a greater effect than did type of dietary fat on composition of lipoproteins from postprandial pigs.

  18. Estimation of endogenous phosphorus loss in growing and finishing pigs fed semi-purified diets.

    PubMed

    Pettey, L A; Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D

    2006-03-01

    Thirty-six barrows were used in a series of 3 P-balance experiments in which growing and finishing pigs were fed highly digestible, semi-purified diets at or below the dietary available P requirement to estimate the effect of BW on endogenous P loss. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 were conducted with pigs averaging 27, 59, and 98 kg of BW, respectively. In each experiment, pigs were placed in metabolism crates and allotted by weight and litter to 3 dietary treatments. The basal diet consisted of sucrose, dextrose, cornstarch, and casein fortified with minerals (except P) and vitamins. Diets 1, 2, and 3 in Exp. 1 were the basal diet with 0, 0.078, or 0.157% added P, respectively, from monosodium phosphate. In Exp. 2 and 3, diets 1, 2, and 3 were the basal diet with 0, 0.067, and 0.134% added P, respectively, from monosodium phosphate. Within replicate, pigs were fed equal amounts of feed twice daily. Pigs were adjusted to treatments for 7 d before a 6-d, marker-to-marker collection of feces and urine. Phosphorus intakes for pigs fed the 3 diets ranged from 1.73 to 3.91 g/d in Exp. 1, from 2.18 to 5.32 g/d in Exp. 2, and from 1.96 to 6.26 g/d in Exp. 3. Fecal P excretion and P absorption increased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing P intake. In the 3 experiments, urinary P excretion (g/d) was low for pigs fed diet 1 (0.010, 0.011, 0.019) and diet 2 (0.013, 0.058, 0.084) and was low for pigs fed diet 3 in Exp. 1 (0.037); however, urinary P was greater in pigs fed diet 3 in Exp. 2 and 3 (0.550 and 0.486, respectively). When P absorption (Y, g/d) was regressed on P intake (X, g/d) in Exp. 1, 2, and 3, the relationships were linear (P < 0.01): Y = -0.110 + 0.971X (R2 = 0.999), Y = -0.156 + 0.939X (R2 = 0.998), and Y = -0.226 + 0.8919X (R2 = 0.982), respectively. Thus, our estimates of endogenous P loss at zero P intake were 110, 156, and 226 mg/d for 27-, 59-, and 98-kg pigs, respectively. When these Y-intercepts were regressed on BW, the relationship was Y = 63.06 + 1.632X (R

  19. Xylanase increased the ileal digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides and concentration of low molecular weight nondigestible carbohydrates in pigs fed high levels of wheat distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M B; Yu, S; Arent, S; Dalsgaard, S; Bach Knudsen, K E; Lærke, H N

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to study the effect of a commercially available xylanase (CAX), an experimental xylanase (EX), and EX in combination with protease (EXP) on the degradation of nondigestible carbohydrates (NDC) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients in wheat distillers dried grains with solubles (wDDGS). The control and 3 enzyme diets contained 96% wDDGS supplemented with vitamins, minerals, L-lysine, and chromic oxide as a digestibility marker in addition to enzyme premix. Eight ileal cannulated pigs were fed 4 experimental diets containing 96% wDDGS-a control diet or 1 of 3 diets with CAX, EX, or EXP-in a double 4 × 4 Latin square design. The experimental period lasted 7 d; adaptation lasted 4 d, and the ileal digesta were collected for 8 h on d 5 and 7, when spot samples of feces were also collected. Digesta samples were analyzed for NDC, total and soluble nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), low molecular weight (LMW) NDC, OM, CP, fat, starch, and marker. Compared with the control diet, addition of CAX, EX, and EXP increased the AID of arabinoxylan by 32 (P < 0.001), 28 (P = 0.001), and 24% (P = 0.004), respectively. In addition, EXP increased the AID of noncellulosic polysaccharide glucose by 21% compared with the control (P = 0.005). Compared with the control, addition of EX, EXP, and CAX decreased the concentration of soluble arabinoxylan in ileal digesta by 40 (P < 0.0001), 40 (P < 0.0001), and 21% (P = 0.022), respectively. Furthermore, addition of CAX, EXP, and EX increased the concentration of LMW arabinoxylan in ileal digesta by 40 (P = 0.0001), 36 (P = 0.0006), and 24% (P = 0.023), respectively, compared with the control. Addition of EX and EXP decreased the concentration of soluble NSP of ileal digesta by 25 (P = 0.001) and 26% (P < 0.001), respectively, compared with the control diet. Addition of CAX (P < 0.0001) and EXP (P = 0.013) increased the arabinose-to-xylose ratio in the insoluble arabinoxylan fraction in ileal digesta compared with

  20. Enteral but not parenteral antibiotics enhance gut function and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in formula-fed newborn preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Birck, Malene M; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Cilieborg, Malene S; Kamal, Shamrulazhar S; Nielsen, Dennis S; Damborg, Peter; Olsen, John E; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Sangild, Per T; Thymann, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Preterm infants are susceptible to infection and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and are often treated with antibiotics. Simultaneous administration of enteral and parenteral antibiotics during the first days after preterm birth prevents formula-induced NEC lesions in pigs, but it is unknown which administration route is most effective. We hypothesized that only enteral antibiotics suppress gut bacterial colonization and NEC progression in formula-fed preterm pigs. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs (90-92% of gestation) were fed increasing amounts of infant formula from birth to day 5 and given saline (CON) or antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, and metronidazole) via the enteral (ENT) or parenteral (PAR) route (n = 16-17). NEC lesions, intestinal morphology, function, microbiology, and inflammatory mediators were evaluated. NEC lesions were completely prevented in ENT pigs, whereas there were high incidences of mild NEC lesions (59-63%) in CON and PAR pigs (P < 0.001). ENT pigs had elevated intestinal weight, villus height/crypt depth ratio, and goblet cell density and reduced gut permeability, mucosal adherence of bacteria, IL-8 levels, colonic lactic acid levels, and density of Gram-positive bacteria, relative to CON pigs (P < 0.05). Values in PAR pigs were intermediate with few affected parameters (reduced lactic acid levels and density and adherence of Gram-positive bacteria, relative to CON pigs, P < 0.05). There was no evidence of increased antimicrobial resistance following the treatments. We conclude that enteral, but not parenteral, administration of antibiotics reduces gut bacterial colonization, inflammation, and NEC lesions in newborn, formula-fed preterm pigs. Delayed colonization may support intestinal structure, function, and immunity in the immediate postnatal period of formula-fed preterm neonates. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Cholesterol-lowering potential in human subjects of fat from pigs fed rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Sandström, B; Bügel, S; Lauridsen, C; Nielsen, F; Jensen, C; Skibsted, L H

    2000-08-01

    The possibility of achieving blood-lipid-lowering characteristics of pig fat by increasing the content of unsaturated fat in pig feed was evaluated. Three pig feeding regimens were applied: basal feed (no added fat or vitamin E), basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg feed), and basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg) + vitamin E (200 mg/kg). Meat and meat products from the three pig groups were incorporated into diets providing 86 g pig fat/10 MJ. The diets were served to twelve healthy human male subjects for 3 weeks each in a randomised crossover design. The diets prepared from pigs fed rapeseed oil had a lower content of saturated fatty acids (approximately 9 v. 11% of energy) and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (approximately 6 v. 4% of energy) than the diet prepared from pigs fed the basal feed. Diets based on fat from pigs fed the rapeseed oil resulted in significantly lower (approximately 4%, P = 0.019) total serum cholesterol concentration compared with the diet from pigs fed the basal feed. No differences were observed in LDL-, HDL- or VLDL-cholesterol, or in triacylglycerol or VLDL-triacylglycerol concentrations. Addition of vitamin E to the pig feed resulted in only a minor increase in vitamin E content in the human subjects' diet and the vitamin E content was low in all three pig diets. Plasma vitamin E concentration in the human subjects at the end of the period with diets from pigs fed rapeseed oil without vitamin E was significantly lower (P = 0.04) than in the other two diet periods. In conclusion, an increased content of rapeseed oil in pig feed changes the fatty acid composition of the pig fat in a way that has a potential to reduce blood cholesterol concentrations in human subjects. However, intake of pig fat with a higher content of unsaturated fatty acids needs to be matched by a higher dietary intake of vitamin E.

  2. Orally administered lactoferrin increases hepatic protein synthesis in formula-fed newborn pigs.

    PubMed

    Burrin, D G; Wang, H; Heath, J; Dudley, M A

    1996-07-01

    Lactoferrin is a polypeptide which is abundant in colostrum; however, its biologic effect in the neonate is unknown. The objective was to determine the potentially anabolic effect of orally administered lactoferrin on visceral organ growth and protein synthesis in newborn pigs. We studied a total of 18 unsuckled newborn pigs from six litters. Three pigs from each litter were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatment groups (n = 6) and bottle-fed (10 mL/h) formula, formula containing physiologic levels (1 mg/mL) of added bovine lactoferrin (bLF), or colostrum. After 24 h of feeding, we measured visceral organ protein synthesis in vivo using a flooding dose of [3H]phenylalanine. We also measured visceral organ protein and DNA mass, as well as intestinal hydrolase activities and villus morphology. Hepatic protein synthesis in pigs fed either formula containing bLF or colostrum was similar and in both groups was significantly higher than in pigs fed formula. Splenic protein synthesis was not significantly different in pigs fed either formula or formula containing bLF, but was significantly higher in colostrum-fed animals. There were no significant differences in small intestinal growth, protein synthesis, or hydrolase activities between newborn pigs fed formula, formula containing bLF, or colostrum. Our results demonstrate that feeding formula containing physiologic concentrations of added bLF increased hepatic protein synthesis in newborn pigs, suggesting that colostrumborne lactoferrin serves an anabolic function in neonates.

  3. Growth and intestinal morphology of pigs from sows fed two zinc sources during gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Payne, R L; Bidner, T D; Fakler, T M; Southern, L L

    2006-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of organic (Zn AA complex, ZnAA) and inorganic Zn (ZnSO4) sources on sows and their progeny during gestation and lactation and on the pigs during the nursery period. The dietary treatments were 1) a corn-soybean meal diet with 100 ppm Zn from ZnSO4 (control); 2) diet 1 + 100 ppm additional Zn from ZnSO4; and 3) diet 1 + 100 ppm additional Zn from ZnAA. Dietary additions were on an as-fed basis. Thirty-one primaparous and multiparous sows were allotted to the treatment diet beginning on d 15 of gestation and continuing through lactation. At weaning (d 17 of age), 202 pigs (63, 55, and 84 pigs for treatments 1 to 3, respectively) were allotted to the same dietary treatment as their dam. The pigs were fed a 3-phase diet regimen during the nursery period: d 0 to 7 (phase I); d 7 to 21 (phase II); and d 21 to 28 (phase III). At weaning and at the end of phase III, 1 gilt per replicate was killed, and the left front foot, liver, pancreas, and entire small intestine were removed. Diet had no effect (P > 0.10) on any response during gestation. During lactation, there was an increase (P < 0.10) in litter birth weight in sows fed ZnAA compared with those fed the control or ZnSO4 diets. The sows fed ZnAA nursed more pigs (P < 0.10) than sows fed the ZnSO4 diet, and they weaned more pigs (P < 0.05) than sows fed the control diet. Jejunal villus height of the weaned pigs from sows fed ZnSO4 was increased (P < 0.05) compared with those from the sows fed the control diet. During the nursery period, growth performance was not affected (P > 0.10) by diet. Pigs fed ZnSO4 had greater duodenal villus width (P < 0.05) than those fed ZnAA, and pigs fed ZnSO4 or the control diet had greater ileal villus width (P < 0.05) than those fed ZnAA. Pigs fed ZnSO4 or ZnAA had more (P < 0.05) bone Zn than those fed the control diet. Liver Zn concentration was greatest in pigs fed ZnSO4, followed by those fed ZnAA, and then by those fed the control

  4. Effect of Addition of Allium hookeri on the Quality of Fermented Sausage with Meat from Sulfur Fed Pigs during Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ki-Won

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the addition of Allium hookeri on the quality of fermented sausage made with meat from sulfur fed pigs was examined, throughout a 60 d ripening period. There were two treatments in animal management: normal feed fed pigs, and sulfur fed pigs given 0.3% sulfur mixed normal feed. Fermented sausage manufactured with meat from normal feed fed pigs, and with meat from sulfur fed pigs, and 1% A. hookeri-containing fermented sausage processed with meat from sulfur fed pigs, were determined at 1 d, 15 d, 30 d, and 60 d. The meat qualities in fermented sausage were measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ABTS+ radical scavenging activity (ABTS+), total phenolic acids, and total flavonoid contents. Fermented sausage made from pigs that had been fed with 0.3% sulfur was protected from oxidation by reduced free radical, as shown by the significant increase in DPPH and ABTS+ values, compared with fermented sausage made from normal feed fed pigs (p<0.05). A. hookeri-added fermented sausage with sulfur fed pork was shown to increase the values in DPPH, ABTS+, total phenolic acid, and total flavonoid contents, by comparison with both the control sausage, and sausage with sulfur fed pork, at 60 d. These results suggest that A. hookeri in meat from sulfur fed pigs could be a source of natural addition, to increase quality in the food industry. PMID:26761166

  5. Consumption of guar gum and retrograded high-amylose corn resistant starch increases IL-10 abundance without affecting pro-inflammatory cytokines in the colon of pigs fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Fan, M Z; Archbold, T; Lackeyram, D; Liu, Q; Mine, Y; Paliyath, G

    2012-12-01

    Increases in dietary intake of viscous and nonviscous soluble fiber are reported to improve bowel health. However, related biological mechanisms are not very clear. This study was conducted to examine if colonic inflammation would occur in a typical Western diet model and determine if consumption of soluble fiber components would attenuate potential detrimental effects by differentially affecting colonic abundances of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and 2 pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 in pigs fed a high-fat basal diet supplemented, respectively, with 15% viscous soluble fiber guar gum (GG) and 15% nonviscous soluble fiber, that is, retrograded high-amylose corn (Zea mays) resistant starch (RS). A total of 24 Yorkshire growing barrows were assigned into a standard corn and soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM)-based grower diet as a positive control (PC), an animal protein-based high-fat basal diet as the negative control (NC), and 2 NC basal diets supplemented with 15% GG and 15% RS, respectively, according to a completely randomized block design for 4 wk. Abundance of these cytokines in homogenized and extracted colonic tissue supernatant samples was measured by ELISA. Although colonic IL-10 abundance was lower (P < 0.05) in the corn and SBM-based PC group than that in the high-fat basal NC group, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in colonic abundances of TNF-α and IL-6 between NC and PC groups and among all of the treatment groups. Compared with the NC group, consumption of GG and RS at 15% increased (P < 0.05) colonic IL-10 abundance. Moreover, there was no difference (P > 0.05) in colonic IL-10 abundance between the 15% GG and the 15% RS groups. Thus, consumption of a typical high-fat Western diet did not induce colonic inflammation. Diets supplemented with 15% GG or 15% RS may protect the colon from developing inflammation by enhancing IL-10 abundance.

  6. Performance of growing pigs fed diets based on by-products of maize and wheat processing.

    PubMed

    Mwesigwa, Robert; Mutetikka, David; Kugonza, Donald Rugira

    2013-02-01

    Forty-eight crossbred Landrace × Large white pigs with an average body weight of 8.5 ± 0.4 kg and aged 2 months were used to evaluate performance and carcass characteristics of pigs fed two diets in which bran from maize or wheat was used as the energy source. A third diet based on whole maize grain was used as a control. Animals in groups of four, balanced for litter, sex and weight were allotted to dietary treatments in a completely randomised design with four replications. Data were collected on feed intake and weight gain for a period of 4 months. A digestibility trial was carried at the end of the feeding trial using two male pigs per treatment while six pigs per treatment were randomly selected for slaughter to determine carcass characteristics. Daily gain averaged 0.23, 0.31 and 0.13 kg/day, for pigs fed maize bran, wheat bran and whole maize diets, respectively. Average feed intake and final body weight were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by diets. Digestibility of dry matter, crude fibre and calcium were higher (P < 0.05) for pigs fed maize bran while crude protein digestibility was highest (P < 0.05) for the pigs fed wheat bran. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the diets in carcass yield, ham, head, trotters and heart weights and also for rib weight, rib eye muscle and other tissues. This study indicates that comparable performance of growing pigs fed cereal bran and full-grain diets are real.

  7. A study of fluctuations in Escherichia coli sensitivity patterns from pigs fed a halquinol supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, R F; Forster, T C; Jones, G T; Pickles, R W

    1981-03-01

    Escherichia coli isolated from pigs fed on a medicated diet containing 120 p.p.m. halquinol did not develop any resistance to this addition over a 6-week period. Sensitivity patterns of the E. coli isolates to eight antimicrobial substances, although fluctuating slightly during the test period (but no more than a control group), did not significantly alter. However, the patterns did change significantly when for 17 days after the completion of the halquinol trial the pigs were fed a normal commercial ration medicated with a commonly used feed additive containing chlortetracycline hydrochloride, procaine penicillin and sulphadimidine.

  8. BCG vaccination enhances resistance to M. tuberculosis infection in guinea pigs fed a low casein diet.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Isamu; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Satoru

    2007-03-01

    In order to examine the relationship between malnutrition and tuberculosis development in vivo, a malnourished guinea pig model fed with a low casein (5%) diet was developed. After being fed with the low casein diet, the guinea pigs were infected with Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis Kurono strain by aerosol infection, and seven weeks later were subjected to histopathologic examination, colony-forming unit (CFU) assay, fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-12 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA. Another group of guinea pigs were vaccinated subcutaneously with 10(6) CFU BCG Tokyo for three weeks and then similarly infected by aerosol. Eighty-eight% (7/8) of the malnourished guinea pigs succumbed to mycobacterial infection within 85 days after infection, while the malnourished guinea pigs vaccinated with BCG Tokyo survived. CFU assay showed that lung and splenic CFUs were higher in the low casein diet-fed groups than in the control diet (20% casein)-fed groups, although both groups had significantly lower CFUs after vaccination with BCG Tokyo (p<0.01). Examination of lung histopathology revealed that pulmonary granulomas were large and disorganized in the groups fed the low casein diet. The number of visible lesions on the surfaces of the fixed lungs in guinea pigs fed control diet+BCG and low casein diet+BCG was low significantly. Pan T-, CD4-, CD8- and Mac antigen-positive cells were also recognized in the infected lung tissues of low casein-fed guinea pigs and Pan T-, CD4- and Mac antigen-positive cells increased after vaccination with BCG Tokyo. Expression of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-12 and iNOS mRNA was also recognized in the infected lung tissues of low casein-fed guinea pigs and IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha mRNA expression was enhanced with BCG vaccination. These results indicate that

  9. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid changes belly and bacon quality from pigs fed varied lipid sources.

    PubMed

    Larsen, S T; Wiegand, B R; Parrish, F C; Swan, J E; Sparks, J C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary lipid source with or without the addition of CLA on bacon composition and quality. Forty-eight barrows at a beginning BW of 55 kg +/- 2.2 were fed 1 of 6 diets for 56 d. These diets consisted of: 1) normal corn (NC), 2) NC + 1.25% CLA-60 oil (NC + CLA), 3) high-oil corn (HOC), 4) HOC + 1.25% CLA-60 oil (HOC-CLA), 5) NC + choice white grease (CWG; NC + CWG), and 6) NC + CWG + 1.25% CLA-60 oil (NC + CWG + CLA). The CLA-60 contains 60% CLA isomers in the oil, and therefore, 1.25% oil was needed to achieve 0.75% CLA in the diet. Soy oil replaced CLA in control diets. Choice white grease and high-oil corn were selected as fat sources for this study because of their utility in energy density for growing-finishing pigs, especially in hot weather. Pigs were slaughtered at an average BW of 113 kg +/- 4.1, and carcasses were fabricated at 24 h postmortem. Statistical analysis was performed using the mixed model procedure of SAS, and the main effects tested were dietary lipid source, CLA, and 2-way interaction. The addition of CLA to each basal diet improved (P < 0.05) belly firmness measured either lean side down or fat side down from the belly bar firmness test [4.39 cm vs. 7.01 cm (lean down) and 5.75 cm vs. 10.54 cm (fat down)] for 0 and 0.75% dietary CLA, respectively. The compression test used on bacon slabs showed that bacon from CLA-supplemented pigs was approximately 20% firmer than that from controls. Pigs fed the HOC diets had softer bellies compared (P < 0.05) with pigs fed the NC diet as measured by the belly bar test [6.94 cm vs. 9.26 cm (fat down)], respectively. Conjugated linoleic acid did not, however, improve bacon sliceability. No differences were observed for moisture, protein, or lipid percentages between any treatments. Overall, there was a CLA effect (P < 0.04) for lipid oxidation, in which the addition of CLA decreased bacon oxidation (0.1498 CLA vs. 0.1638 no CLA). Dietary CLA

  10. Nutrient utilization and manure P excretion in growing pigs fed corn-barley-soybean based diets supplemented with microbial phytase.

    PubMed

    Emiola, Adewale; Akinremi, Oluwole; Slominski, Bogdan; Nyachoti, C Martin

    2009-02-01

    The effect of high levels of microbial phytase supplementation in diets for growing pigs was studied in a 2-week performance and nutrient digestibility trial involving 28 growing pigs weighing 16.4 +/- 1.06 (mean +/- SD) kg. Seven corn-barley-soybean meal-based diets consisting of a positive control (PC) formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements; a negative control (NC) with non-phytate P reduced by 0.1% unit from NRC requirement and fed without or with 500 or 1000 U/kg; a doubled negative control (DNC) with no added inorganic P and fed without or with 2000 or 4000 U/kg. Chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker and all diets were fed as mash. Pigs fed the PC diet had a higher P digestibility compared with those fed the NC (P < 0.02) and the DNC (P < 0.001) diets. Supplementing the NC diet with pyhtase tended to improve P digestibility (P < 0.10). However, addition of phytase to the DNC diet resulted in linear (P < 0.001) and quadratic (P < 0.03) increases in P digestibility with an overall improvement of 8% and 121% at 4000 phytase U/kg of diet, respectively, compared with the PC and DNC diets. Apparent total tract digestibility of N, OM and DM were higher (P < 0.05) in the PC diet compared with the DNC diet, but not the NC diet (P < 0.10). No effect of phytase addition to NC was observed on Ca, N, DM and OM digestibility. Phytase addition to the DNC diet resulted in a linear increase (P < 0.05) in N, DM and OM digestibility but not Ca. Increasing the levels of phytase supplementation in the NC and the DNC diets linearly decreased fecal P (P < 0.05) content by 45 and 42%, respectively. Adding phytase at 1000 or 4000 U/kg increased P retention (P < 0.05) by 14.3 or 15.6% units, respectively, compared with the PC diet. Urinary P excretion was higher in the group fed the PC diet compared with those fed the NC and DNC diets (P < 0.05). The results of this study show that complete removal of inorganic P from growing pig diets coupled with phytase

  11. Modification in the transmural concentration of cholesterol and the transmural distribution of /sup 131/I-albumin in the aortas of pigs fed cholesterol: a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, F.P.

    1983-01-01

    Transmural cholesterol concentrations and transmural distribution of intravenously injected /sup 131/I-albumin were measured simultaneously in the aorta of both normal and cholesterol-fed pigs. The characteristic profile of /sup 131/I-distribution across the normal pig aorta in areas of high and low permeability (as identified by Evans Blue dye) is modified by cholesterol feeding. Additionally, the transmural concentration of cholesterol, which is similar in areas of high and low permeability of the normal pig aorta, is remarkably higher in the intima of high permeability areas of aortas of cholesterol-fed pigs and suggests that differential permeability in focal areas of the aorta is important only under conditions of hyperlipemia.

  12. Behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs provided with straw in various amounts and frequencies.

    PubMed

    Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H V; Lahrmann, H P; Nielsen, M B F; Amdi, C; Hansen, C F

    2014-11-01

    Straw possesses many characteristics that make it attractive to pigs and can therefore be effective in preventing negative penmate-directed behaviours. However, straw is difficult to handle in current vacuum slurry systems under most commercial conditions and can therefore only be used in limited amounts. To occupy pigs effectively, straw must remain attractive to pigs throughout the whole day; hence, have a certain degree of novelty. We investigated the penmate-directed behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs in a production herd, assigned to five experimental treatments: 1×25, 1×50, 1×100, 2×50 and 4×25 g of chopped straw/pig per day, with 20 replicates of each treatment (pen was regarded as experimental unit). Behaviour was observed at two different growth stages; ~40 and 80 kg live weight of the pigs. Activity and exploratory behaviour directed at penmates, straw, pen components and the slatted floor were registered continuously for 15 min of each hour during day time (0600 to 2200 h) by use of video observation of three focal pigs per pen. The pigs were active for about one-third of the day corresponding to ~5 h/day. Of the active time, an average of 7% (35 min) was spent on penmate-directed behaviour. The pigs were more active and increased their straw-directed behaviour when provided with 100 g straw/pig per day compared with 25 and 50 g (P<0.001). However, penmate-directed behaviour was not reduced with an increased amount of straw (P>0.05), and there was no effect on pigs' behaviour when straw provision was increased per day (P>0.05). Pigs became less active and reduced their straw-directed activities when their weight increased from 40 to 80 kg live weight (P<0.001), but the amount of penmate-directed behaviour was similar (P>0.05). Further, the residual straw results indicated that perhaps a more frequent straw provision could help establish a more even level of fresh available straw during the day. However, the frequent straw provision did not occupy

  13. [Gallbladder contractility in early stages of lithogenesis in the lithogenic fed guinea pig].

    PubMed

    Lange, K; Gottschalk, M

    1995-07-01

    The main aim of our study was the investigation of gallbladder motility prior to gallstone formation in vivo in guinea pigs fed a lithogenic diet. In a first experiment guinea pigs were fed a lithogenic diet for 5, 15, 30 and 45 days. First gallstones (pigment calculi) appeared after 30 days diet application. The in vitro contractility after lithogenic diet remained unchanged. In a second experimental part the in vivo gallbladder contractility was measured in two experimental animal groups (control group and 21 days lithogenic fed guinea pigs). The isovolumetric pressure rise inside the gallbladder following the intravenous injection of 10(-9) mol/kg body weight ceruletid was the essential contractility parameter (intraluminal basal pressure 5 mm hg). Due to lithogenic feeding of 21 days--that means prior to gallstone formation--the isovolumetric pressure rise was significantly elevated (p < 0.01). Moreover we observed passive distensibility changes of gallbladder muscle due to muscular hyperplasia. The main result of this investigation is the fact that gallbladder muscle in guinea pigs fed a lithogenic diet response to ceruletid application with hypercontractility prior to provable pigment gallstone formation. However gallbladder hypomotility--believed to be a causal factor in cholelithogenesis--was not observed in our experimental conditions.

  14. Microbial production of volatile sulphur compounds in the large intestine of pigs fed two different diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Only little is known about the microbial production of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) in the 18 gastrointestinal tract, the dietary influence, and the magnitude of this production. To investigate intestinal VSC production in more detail, pigs were fed diets based on either wheat and barley (CONTRO...

  15. Gastric ulceration and suspected vitamin A toxicosis in grower pigs fed fish silage.

    PubMed Central

    Coates, J W; Holbek, N E; Beames, R M; Puls, R; O'Brien, W P

    1998-01-01

    In 3 feeding trials, gastric ulceration was diagnosed in 2 of 12 lame and recumbent grower pigs fed a diet of 50% fish silage produced from the offal of farmed Atlantic salmon. Premature femoral physeal closure and elevated serum retinyl palmitate levels, features of vitamin A toxicosis, were also observed. Images Figure 1. PMID:9524722

  16. Digestibility of energy and lipids and oxidative stress in nursery pigs fed commercially available lipids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of lipid source on GE and ether extract (EE) digestibility, oxidative stress, and gut integrity in nursery pigs fed diets containing 10% of soybean oil (SO), choice white grease (CWG), palm oil (PO), or 2 different distillers corn oils (DCO-1 and DC...

  17. Fresh meat and further processing characteristics of ham muscles from finishing pigs fed ractopamine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Boler, D D; Holmer, S F; Duncan, D A; Carr, S N; Ritter, M J; Stites, C R; Petry, D B; Hinson, R B; Allee, G L; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J

    2011-01-01

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) has consistently led to an advantage in carcass cutting yields of finishing pigs and remains a common feed additive in US finishing pig diets. Less is known about the effect of RAC on further processing characteristics. Some researchers have reported advantages in ultimate pH of the LM in pigs fed RAC. If a greater ultimate pH was also observed in hams, the increased pH could affect further processing characteristics and lead to better protein interaction and improved textural properties. The objective of this experiment was to determine if RAC-fed pigs yielded hams with a greater ultimate pH, and if so, whether or not that advantage improves textural properties and water retention of further processed hams. Two hundred hams from barrows and gilts fed RAC or control diets were selected based on HCW. Hams were fabricated into 5 separate pieces to determine cutting yields, and 6 muscles were evaluated for ultimate pH. Hams were processed to make cured and smoked hams. Ractopamine increased cutting yields of the whole ham (P < 0.0001), inside (P < 0.01), outside (P < 0.01), and knuckle (P < 0.01) when expressed as a percentage of chilled side weight. Ultimate pH of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and semitendinosus were all 0.06 pH units greater (P < 0.05), the biceps femoris was 0.04 pH units greater (P = 0.02), and the semimembranosus and adductor muscles were 0.03 pH units greater in pigs fed 7.4 mg/kg of RAC when compared with control pigs. Cured hams from RAC-fed pigs were heavier at all stages of production. No differences were detected in binding strengths (P = 0.88) or protein fat-free values (P = 0.13) between RAC (9.06 kg and 20.37) and control hams (9.01 kg and 20.13). Ractopamine increased cutting yields, total weight of cured hams, and ultimate muscle pH. Ractopamine can be fed to pigs to achieve the desired growth characteristic advantages and cutting yields without affecting further processed ham characteristics.

  18. Effects of a 3 strain -based direct-fed microbial and dietary fiber concentration on growth performance and expression of genes related to absorption and metabolism of volatile fatty acids in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, N W; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Walsh, M C; McCann, J C; Loor, J J; Stein, H H

    2017-01-01

    Effects of a -based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, plasma tumor necrosis factor ɑ (TNFɑ), relative gene expression, and intestinal VFA concentrations in weanling pigs fed low- or high-fiber diets were evaluated. Two hundred pigs (initial BW: 6.31 ± 0.73 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (5 pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment). Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 diet types [low-fiber (LF) or high-fiber (HF)] and 2 concentrations of DFM (0 or 60 g DFM/t of feed). The DFM contained 1.5 × 10 cfu/g and was obtained from Danisco Animal Nutrition-DuPont Industrial Biosciences, Marlborough, UK. Phase 1 diets were fed for 2 wk post-weaning and phase 2 diets were fed over the following 29 d. Low fiber diets contained corn and soybean meal as main ingredients and HF diets contained corn, soybean meal, corn distillers dried grains with solubles (7.5 and 15.0% in phase 1 and 2, respectively), and wheat middlings (10.0%). Pigs and feed were weighed at the start and at the end of each phase, and ADG, ADFI, and G:F were calculated. At the conclusion of phase 2, blood was collected from 1 pig per pen and 1 pig per pen was sacrificed. Cecum and rectum contents were analyzed for VFA, and tissue samples were collected from the ileum, cecum, rectum, and liver to determine expression of genes related to absorption and metabolism of VFA using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Results indicated that feeding HF diets reduced ( ≤ 0.05) ADFI and ADG of pigs compared with feeding LF diets. Pigs fed DFM diets had improved ( ≤ 0.05) G:F compared with pigs fed non-DFM diets. Pigs fed LF diets had greater ( ≤ 0.05) BW at the end of phase 2 compared with pigs fed HF diets. The concentration of VFA in rectum contents was greater ( ≤ 0.05) in pigs fed LF diets than in pigs fed HF diets. The expression of in the rectum of pigs fed HF diets was greater ( ≤ 0.05) than for pigs fed LF diets, and pigs fed DFM

  19. Apparent digestible energy value of crude glycerol fed to pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The apparent digestible energy of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, was determined in two studies conducted at the Iowa State University Swine Nutrition Research Farm, Ames, IA. In the first study, 24 barrows with an average body weight of 11.0 kg were fed 376 g/d of a basal corn...

  20. Escherichia coli phytase improves growth performance of starter, grower, and finisher pigs fed phosphorus-deficient diets.

    PubMed

    Jendza, J A; Dilger, R N; Adedokun, S A; Sands, J S; Adeola, O

    2005-08-01

    Corn-soybean meal-based diets, consisting of a high-P control (HPC) containing supplemental dicalcium phosphate (DCP), a basal diet containing no DCP, and the basal diet plus Escherichia coli phytase at 500 or 1,000 phytase units per kilogram (FTU/kg; as-fed basis) were fed to evaluate growth performance in starter, grower, and finisher pigs. Pigs were blocked by weight and gender, such that average weight across treatments was similar, with equal numbers of barrows and gilts receiving each treatment in each block. In Exp. 1, 48 pigs with an average initial BW of 11 kg, housed individually, with 12 pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 3 wk. Overall ADG and G:F were increased linearly (P < 0.05) by dietary phytase addition. Final BW and plasma P concentrations at 3 wk also increased linearly (P < 0.05). In Exp. 2, 128 pigs with an average initial BW of 23 kg, housed four pigs per pen, with eight pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 6 wk. A linear increase in response to phytase was noted for ADG and G:F in all three 2-wk periods, as well as overall (P < 0.05). Percentage of bone ash also showed a linear increase (P < 0.01). In Exp. 3, 160 pigs (53 kg), housed five pigs per pen, with eight pens per diet, were used to evaluate growth performance over 6 wk. A linear increase was detected for final BW, as well as ADG and G:F in the first and second 2-wk periods, and overall (P < 0.01). Twenty-four 15-kg individually housed pigs were used to evaluate total-tract nutrient digestibility in Exp. 4. Daily absorption of P linearly increased (P < 0.05) with phytase supplementation. Results of this research indicate that E. coli phytase is effective in liberating phytate P for uptake and utilization by starter, grower, and finisher pigs.

  1. Bioavailability of zinc from inorganic and organic sources for pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, K J; Lewis, A J; Giesemann, M A; Miller, P S

    1994-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted with pigs 1) to determine the effect of supplemental Zn on growth performance, bone Zn, and plasma Zn in pigs fed Zn-unsupplemented, corn-soybean meal diets and 2) to assess bioavailability of Zn from inorganic and organic Zn sources. In both experiments, weanling pigs were fed a diet with no supplemental Zn for 5 wk to deplete their Zn stores. In Exp. 1, 192 pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal diet (growing diet, 32 mg/kg of Zn; finishing diet, 27 mg/kg of Zn) supplemented with feed-grade ZnSO4.H2O to provide 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg of supplemental Zn. Supplemental Zn did not affect weight gain, feed intake, or gain/feed during either the growing or the finishing period (P > .05). However, bone and plasma Zn concentrations increased linearly (P < .01) in response to supplemental Zn at dietary Zn levels between 27 mg/kg (basal) and 47 mg/kg (breakpoint). In Exp. 2, three levels of supplemental Zn from ZnSO4.H2O (0, 7.5, and 15 mg/kg of supplemental Zn) were used to construct a standard curve (metacarpal, coccygeal vertebrae, and plasma Zn concentrations regressed on supplemental Zn intake; R2 = .93, .89, and .82, respectively). From the standard curve, the bone and plasma Zn concentrations obtained from pigs fed 15 mg/kg of supplemental Zn from ZnO and 7.5 mg/kg of supplemental Zn from Zn-methionine (ZnMET) and Zn-lysine (ZnLYS) were used to calculate bioavailable Zn via multiple linear regression, slope-ratio analysis. The estimates of Zn bioavailability differed depending on which variable was used. Overall trends indicated the following rankings: ZnSO4.H2O > ZnMet > ZnO > ZnLys.

  2. Digestion and deposition of individual fatty acids in growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing either beef tallow or sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Mitchaothai, J; Everts, H; Yuangklang, C; Wittayakun, S; Vasupen, K; Wongsuthavas, S; Srenanul, P; Hovenier, R; Beynen, A C

    2008-08-01

    The apparent digestibility and deposition in carcass of individual dietary fatty acids (FA) were determined in growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing either beef tallow or sunflower oil. The beef tallow was rich in saturated FA (SFA) and the sunflower oil had a high content of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). A total of 39 barrows was used. The experimental diets contained 5% (w/w) of the variable fat source and were fed ad libitum. The dietary fat type had no effect (p > 0.05) on growth performance, even though the apparent digestibilities of crude fat and crude protein were higher (p < 0.05) in the animals fed sunflower oil. The pigs fed the sunflower oil diet showed higher apparent digestibilities (p < 0.05) of the sum of SFA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and PUFA, but had a lower digestibility (p < 0.05) of stearic acid. The intakes of individual digestible FA were derived feed intake data, FA contents of the diets and the digestibility of individual FA. For the entire feeding period of 13 weeks, the ratio of deposition in carcass to intake of digestible FA was increased (p < 0.05) for palmitic and stearic acid in the pigs fed sunflower oil, but the ratios for oleic acid and linoleic acid were decreased (p < 0.001). In the pigs fed sunflower oil instead of beef tallow, the deposition:intake ratio was raised for the SFA (p < 0.001), but diminished for the MUFA (p < 0.05). The calculated minimum de novo synthesis of SFA was increased (p < 0.05) and that of MUFA decreased (p < 0.05) in the pigs fed sunflower oil. It is concluded that the feeding of a diet with sunflower oil instead of beef tallow improved apparent digestibility of SFA, MUFA and PUFA, increased the deposition:digestible intake ratio for SFA, but lowered that for MUFA and PUFA.

  3. Hepatic midzonal necrosis in a pig fed aflatoxin and a horse fed moldy hay.

    PubMed

    McGavin, M D; Knake, R

    1977-03-01

    A 35-kg Duroc pig died 3 days after eating a ration containing aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2. It had hemorrhagic enteritis and extensive midzonal necrosis in the liver. A 13-year-old Quarterhorse that died 2 days after eating moldy hay had hemorrhagic enteritis, fatty degeneration of the myocardium and renal tubules, and extensive total midzonal necrosis of the liver.

  4. Reduced use of antibiotic growth promoters in diets fed to weanling pigs: dietary tools, part 2.

    PubMed

    Stein, Hans H; Kil, Dong Y

    2006-01-01

    Diets formulated to maximize performance of weanling pigs need to support the development of intestinal tissue, support intestinal colonization with beneficial, mainly lactic acid-producing bacteria, and support development of the intestinal and overall immune system. This objective is not likely to be achieved using one single strategy, but there is strong evidence that diets formulated with cereal grains other than corn, with a low concentration of crude protein and with the use of direct-fed microbials, will improve intestinal health and performance of weanling pigs. Further improvements may be observed if the grain part of the diet is fermented prior to feeding or if the diet is fed in a liquid form, but the need for specialized equipment limit the implementation of this strategy. Dietary supplements such as essential oils and nucleosides or nucleotides may also be useful, but more research is needed to verify the effects of these substances.

  5. Effects of microbial phytase on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in calcium supplements fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca exist among Ca supplements and that inclusion of microbial phytase increases the ATTD and STTD of Ca. One hundred and four growing barrows (average initial BW of 17.73 ± 2.53 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 13 dietary treatments and 8 pigs per treatment. A basal diet containing corn, cornstarch, potato protein isolate, soybean oil, calcium carbonate, monosodium phosphate, vitamins, and minerals was formulated. Five additional diets were formulated by adding monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), calcium carbonate, Lithothamnium calcareum Ca, or a high-Ca sugar beet co-product to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Six additional diets that were similar to the previous 6 diets with the exception that they also contained 500 units per kilogram of microbial phytase were also formulated. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected using the marker-to-marker approach. Results indicated that regardless of inclusion of microbial phytase, MCP had the greatest (P < 0.05) ATTD and STTD of Ca. The ATTD and STTD of Ca in DCP were greater (P < 0.05) than in calcium carbonate, L. calcareumC a, or in the sugar beet co-product, but no differences were observed among the ATTD and STTD of Ca in calcium carbonate, L. calcareum Ca, or sugar beet co-product. Inclusion of microbial phytase increased (P < 0.05) the ATTD and STTD of Ca in the diets, but this was not the case in the Ca supplements. Regardless of inclusion of microbial phytase, the ATTD of P was greater ( P< 0.05) in pigs fed basal, MCP, or DCP diets than in pigs fed calcium carbonate, L. calcareum Ca, or the sugar beet co-product, but pigs fed calcium carbonate diets had greater ( P< 0.05) ATTD of P than pigs fed L. calcareumCa or the sugar beet co

  6. Mineral balance of finishing pigs fed copper sulfate or a copper-lysine complex at growth-stimulating levels.

    PubMed

    Apgar, G A; Kornegay, E T

    1996-07-01

    Twenty-four crossbred barrows (average BW, 70.8 kg) were used to compare the digestibility of dry matter and the mineral absorption and retention by pigs fed two Cu sources. Dietary treatments were 1) basal (B) (16% CP corn-soybean meal-based diet, 36 mg/kg of Cu), 2) B + 200 mg/kg of Cu from CuSO4.5 H2O (CuSO4), and 3) B + 200 mg/kg of Cu from a copper lysine complex (CuLys). All diets contained equal lysine content and .05% chromic oxide for indirect determination of absorption. Two 7-d total collection periods were conducted. Pigs were fed 8% of metabolic BW (BW.75) divided into two equal feedings. Average daily gain tended to be higher for pigs fed CuLys than for pigs fed CuSO4 (P < .02). Dry matter digestibilities were similar (P > .10) among treatments. The absolute amount of Cu absorbed and retained was greater for pigs fed both Cu sources (P < .001) than for pigs fed the control diet. Iron and Zn intake and excretion and the percentage of Fe absorbed and retained were similar (P > .10) among treatment groups. Chromium intake and excretion in feces were not different (P > .10), with an average recovery of 93.8%. Indirect DM digestibility was similar to total collection values; however, mineral values were similar only after correction for Cr recovery. Pigs fed elevated Cu absorbed more Cu, with no difference between the two sources. Zinc and Fe absorption and retention were generally not affected (P > .10) by Cu addition or sources. The absorption and retention of Cu was similar for pigs fed growth-stimulative levels of Cu from CuSO4 or copper lysine complex.

  7. The interactive effects of high-fat, high-fiber diets and ractopamine HCl on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality.

    PubMed

    Graham, A B; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Nitikanchana, S

    2014-10-01

    A total of 576 mixed-sex pigs (PIC 327 × 1,050; initial BW = 55.8 ± 5.5 kg) were used to determine the effects of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat middlings (midds) withdrawal 24 d before harvest in diets without or with ractopamine HCl (RAC) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality. From d 0 to 49, pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet (CS) or a diet high in unsaturated fat and crude fiber provided by 30% DDGS and 19% wheat midds (HFF) and not balanced for energy. On d 49, pens of pigs previously fed CS diets remained on the CS diet. Half of the HFF-fed pigs were switched to the CS-based diets, which served as the withdrawal regimen. Finally, half of the HFF-fed pigs remained on the same HFF diet. All 3 regimens were fed without or with 10 mg/kg RAC. There were 12 pens per treatment with 8 pigs per pen. No significant diet regimen × RAC interactions were observed. From d 0 to 49, pigs fed the CS diet had increased (P < 0.001) ADG and G:F compared with pigs fed the HFF diet. Overall (d 0 to 73), pigs fed the CS diets throughout had greater (P < 0.001) ADG and G:F than those fed the HFF diets throughout. Pigs fed the withdrawal diets had greater (P = 0.014) ADG, but similar G:F to those fed the HFF diets throughout. Pigs fed the CS diets throughout had greater (P = 0.025) carcass yield compared with pigs fed the HFF diets throughout, with those fed the withdrawal diets intermediate. Pigs fed RAC had greater (P < 0.001) ADG, G:F, and carcass yield (P = 0.061 than pigs not fed RAC. Jowl, backfat, belly, and leaf fat iodine value (IV) were lowest (P < 0.001) for pigs fed the CS diets, highest (P < 0.015) for those fed HFF diets throughout, and intermediate for pigs fed the withdrawal diet. There were no differences in either full or rinsed intestine or organ weights between pigs that were fed CS diets throughout and pigs fed the withdrawal diet; however, pigs fed the HFF diets throughout the study had

  8. Estimation of true phosphorus digestibility and endogenous phosphorus loss in growing pigs fed conventional and low-phytate soybean meals.

    PubMed

    Dilger, R N; Adeola, O

    2006-03-01

    This study reevaluated the method of regressing of total P output against dietary P intake to simultaneously estimate true P digestibility and endogenous P loss in growing pigs fed either conventional or low-phytate soybean meal (SBM). Four isocaloric diets were formulated to contain increasing concentrations of each type of SBM (8 diets total), and therefore contained increasing concentrations of dietary P. Dietary P and Ca concentrations were deficient because they were supplied solely by SBM, and Ca:total P ratios were less than 1:1. Sixteen barrows (initial BW 17.7 +/- 1.8 kg) were surgically fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum, randomly assigned to metabolism crates, and fed the experimental diets in a replicated 8 x 8 Latin square design. Feed was provided at 90 g/kg of BW(0.75) and fed in 2 equally sized meals at 0800 and 2000, with diets containing Cr sesquioxide (3 g/kg) as an indigestible marker. As the P concentration increased from 0.9 to 3.9 g/kg of DM, the apparent prececal P digestibility increased for conventional SBM (P < 0.05), but no relationship was observed for low-phytate SBM. The output of total P [mg/(kg of BW(0.75).d)], either prececal or total tract, exhibited a linear relationship (P < 0.01) with increasing P intake. However, a quadratic response (P = 0.02) was also detected for total tract P output from pigs fed low-phytate SBM. True P digestibility was not different between prececal and total tract collection sites (P > 0.10), but was greater (P < 0.01) for low-phytate SBM (62.6%) compared with conventional SBM (44.5%). Endogenous P estimates were not different between the SBM varieties and averaged 4.83 mg/(kg of BW(0.75).d). However, endogenous P estimates were highly variable between individual animals and, therefore, were not significantly different from zero. In this study, estimates of endogenous P loss from pigs were relatively low compared with previously reported values, and evidence of nonlinearity in P output

  9. Epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis enhances growth performance of early-weaned pigs fed diets devoid of blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Bedford, A; Li, Z; Li, M; Ji, S; Liu, W; Huai, Y; de Lange, C F M; Li, J

    2012-12-01

    The effect of supplementing Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) that was engineered to express epidermal growth factor (EGF-LL) to early-weaned pigs fed diets with typical levels of blood plasma (5%) or diets without blood plasma [blood plasma was substituted with soybean (Glycine max) meal and fish meal, based on amino acid supply] was examined. A total of 108 weaned piglets (19-26 d of age; mean initial BW 6.58 kg; 9 pigs per pen) were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program without growth promoters. Three pens were assigned to each of 4 treatments: i) blood plasma-containing diet with blank bacterial growth medium (BP-Con), ii) blood plasma-containing diet with fermented EGF-LL (BP-EGF), iii) blood plasma-free diet with blank bacterial growth medium (BPF-Con), and iv) blood plasma-free diet with fermented EGF-LL (BPF-EGF). The amount of epidermal growth factor (EGF) was determined in the fermentation product and pigs were allotted 60 μg EGF/kg BW/d for 3 wk postweaning. There were no differences in overall growth performance between BP-Con and BP-EGF pigs and no differences in overall growth performance between LoCon and BPF-EGF pigs. Pigs fed BPF-EGF showed increased daily BW gain (410 vs. 260 g/d; P < 0.01) and gain:feed (0.67 vs. 0.58; P < 0.05) compared to BPF-Con pigs in wk 3 postweaning; this was comparable to values for the BP-Con group (400 g/d and 0.64). These results indicate that supplementation with EGF-LL can be effective in enhancing the performance of early-weaned piglets fed a low complexity diet and reduces the need for feeding high-quality animal proteins and antibiotics.

  10. Carcass, meat quality, and sensory characteristics of heavy body weight pigs fed ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Dueñas, D M; Myers, A J; Scramlin, S M; Parks, C W; Carr, S N; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K

    2008-12-01

    Carcass characteristics, meat quality traits, and sensory attributes were evaluated in late-finishing barrows and gilts, weighing between 100 to 130 kg of BW, fed 0, 5, or 7.4 mg/kg of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) for the final 21 to 28 d before slaughter. Carcass data were collected from carcasses from barrows and gilts (n = 168), and all primal cuts from the right sides of these carcasses were fabricated to calculate primal yields as a percentage of the HCW. Subjective (National Pork Producers Council and Japanese) color, firmness, and marbling scores were determined on the LM of each loin and the semimembranosus muscle (SM) of the ham, whereas the moisture, extractable lipid, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and trained sensory evaluations (juiciness, tenderness, and pork flavor) were measured on the LM samples only. Gilts produced heavier (P < 0.05) HCW than barrows, whereas feeding RAC increased (P < 0.05) HCW over pigs fed diets devoid of RAC. Carcasses from gilts also had greater (P < 0.02) primal cut and lean cut (P < 0.01) yields than barrows, and dietary inclusion of 5 mg/kg of RAC increased (P < 0.05) total boneless cut and lean cut yields when compared with carcass from pigs fed 0 or 7.4 mg/kg of RAC. Warner-Bratzler shear forces values were greater (P < 0.05) in the LM of gilts than barrows, but only juiciness scores were greater (P < 0.03) in LM chops from barrows than gilts. The LM from barrows had greater intramuscular lipid (P < 0.001) than the LM from gilts, and even though the LM from pigs fed 5 mg/kg of RAC had greater (P < 0.04) WBSF values than the LM from pigs fed 0 or 7.4 mg/kg of RAC, including RAC in the late-finishing diets for 21 or 28 d did not affect sensory panel rating or percentages of moisture and intramuscular lipid. In summary, addition of RAC in the late-finishing diet improved carcass and primal cut yields when it was fed at 5 and 7.4 mg/kg without altering pork quality traits regardless of whether RAC was fed for 21 or

  11. Pork fat quality of pigs fed distillers dried grains with solubles with variable oil content and evaluation of iodine value prediction equations.

    PubMed

    Wu, F; Johnston, L J; Urriola, P E; Shurson, G C

    2016-03-01

    Back, belly, and jowl fat samples of pigs fed control corn-soybean meal-based diets and diets containing 4 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were used to determine the impact of feeding DDGS with variable oil content on pork fat quality and to evaluate the precision and accuracy of published iodine value (IV) prediction equations. Dietary treatments consisted of 4 corn-soybean meal diets containing 40% DDGS from different sources with 10.7, 5.6, 14.2, or 16.0% ether extract (EE; as-fed) content. Diets did not contain any other supplemental lipid sources. Regardless of fat depot, SFA content (g/100 g fat) of pigs fed 5.6% EE DDGS (35.4) was greater ( < 0.05) than that of pigs fed 14.2 or 16.0% EE DDGS sources (34.4 and 30.2, respectively) and tended to be greater ( < 0.10) than that of pigs fed 10.7% EE DDGS (34.6). Pigs fed 10.7 and 14.2% EE DDGS had greater ( < 0.01) SFA concentration than pigs fed 16.0% EE DDGS. Regardless of fat depot, MUFA content (g/100 g fat) of pigs fed 10.7, 5.6, and 14.2% DDGS sources were similar (43.7, 43.1, and 43.0, respectively) but were greater ( < 0.01) than that of pigs fed 16.0% EE DDGS (40.0). A dietary treatment × fat depot interaction was observed for PUFA ( < 0.05) and IV ( = 0.079). Pigs fed 10.7, 5.6, and 14.2% DDGS sources had reduced ( < 0.01) PUFA concentration and IV compared with pigs fed 16.0% EE DDGS, but the magnitude of responses in PUFA and IV to the variable oil content of DDGS was greater in backfat than in belly and jowl fat. Carcass fat IV data were used to evaluate prediction error (PE) and bias of published carcass fat IV prediction equations. Equations using dietary C18:2 content or IV product as a single predictor resulted in highly variable PE (g/100 g) ranging from 3.43 to 8.36 and bias (g/100 g) ranging from -5.05 to 5.66. Using equations that included additional diet composition information and pig growth performance factors decreased PE (3.27 to 4.73) and bias (-3.37 to 1.73) of

  12. Sunlight exposure increases vitamin D sufficiency in growing pigs fed a diet formulated to exceed requirements.

    PubMed

    Alexander, B M; Ingold, B C; Young, J L; Fensterseifer, S R; Wechsler, P J; Austin, K J; Larson-Meyer, D E

    2017-04-01

    Traditional confinement practices limit exposure to sunlight and vitamin D synthesis, and vitamin insufficiency occurs even with dietary supplementation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of limited sun exposure on serum concentration of vitamin D and the expression of vitamin D synthesizing enzymes in the liver and kidney of pigs on a vitamin D sufficient diet. White-pigmented grower pigs (29.7 ± 2.3 kg) fed 15% CP diet ad libitum providing >1,200 IU vitamin D3/kg of feed were exposed to sunlight for 1 h each day at solar noon for 14 d at the spring equinox (March pigs, n = 10) or summer solstice (June pigs, n = 5) and again before slaughter in June (March pigs) and September (June pigs). Blood for the analysis of 25(OH)D was collected before and after sunlight exposure. Traditionally housed pigs served as controls. After initial sun exposure, blood samples were collected from June pigs daily for 5 d and weekly for 8 wk to determine vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D decay, respectively. Kidney and liver samples were collected from the June pigs at slaughter after sun exposure for analysis of messenger RNA expression of vitamin D binding protein and synthesizing/degrading enzymes. Average daily gain (ADG) was not influenced (P > 0.5) by sunlight exposure. June pigs had fewer days on feed, lower (P = 0.003) ADG and were slaughtered at a lighter (P < 0.001) weight. Exposure to sunlight increased (P < 0.001) 25(OH) vitamin D for all pigs. March pigs, obtained from a Midwest producer, had lower (P < 0.001) concentration of 25(OH)D than June pigs born on-farm. Initial sunlight exposure increased serum concentration of 25(OH)D in March pigs by 200% and June pigs by 67%. Serum concentration of vitamin D3 was decreased (P < 0.05) by 72 h with 25(OH)D decreased (P < 0.05) by wk 4 after exposure. Expression of vitamin D binding protein, vitamin D synthesizing CYP2R1, CYP27A1, CYP2D25, or degrading enzyme CYP24A1 were not influenced (P ≥ 0.19) by sunlight

  13. Fresh meat quality and further processing characteristics of shoulders from finishing pigs fed ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean).

    PubMed

    Tavárez, M A; Boler, D D; Carr, S N; Ritter, M J; Petry, D B; Souza, C M; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K; Dilger, A C

    2012-12-01

    Our objectives were to characterize the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on fresh meat and further processing characteristics of muscles (serratus ventralis and triceps brachii) from the shoulders of finishing pigs. Two hundred forty shoulders originating from 120 carcasses (60 barrows and 60 gilts) were selected from a commercial population of pigs. A 2 × 2 factorial in a completely randomized design was used, with factors of RAC inclusion in the diet (0 or 7.4 mg/kg, as-fed basis) and sex (barrow or gilt). Paired shoulders (120 rights and 120 lefts) were transported from a federally inspected slaughter facility under refrigeration to the University of Illinois Meat Science Laboratory for evaluation. Subsequently, right and left shoulders were separated and designated for 2 separate experiments. Shoulders from right side were used in Exp. 1 to determine further processing characteristics. Cellar trimmed (CT) butts from the Boston butt of the shoulders were cured and dried-cured to manufacture cottage bacon and coppa, respectively. Shoulders from left side were used in Exp. 2 to determine fresh meat characteristics. Pigs fed RAC had greater shoulder weights and increased yields of cuts from the shoulder. Feeding RAC decreased Boston butt fat content (P = 0.01) but had no effect on picnic fat content (P = 0.86). Pigs fed RAC had greater (P < 0.01) iodine values than controls (67.00 vs. 64.95, respectively). Inclusion of RAC in the diet had no effect on cottage bacon cooked yield (P = 0.33), but it decreased (P < 0.01) cottage bacon fat content without having an effect on protein content (P = 0.50). In addition, cottage bacon from RAC shoulders had greater slice total area (P = 0.01) and less seam fat (P = 0.01) than controls. Ractopamine hydrochloride had no detrimental effect on coppa processing characteristics and visual appearance. Cottage bacon and coppa from RAC pigs had sensory characteristics similar to controls. Shoulders from pigs fed RAC might

  14. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of gut bacterial colonization in enterally and parenterally fed neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Roger B; Andrews, Kathleen; Droleskey, Robert E; Kansagra, Ketan V; Stoll, Barbara; Burrin, Douglas G; Sheffield, Cynthia L; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2006-09-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) has been associated with mucosal atrophy, impaired gut barrier function, and translocation of luminal bacteria with resultant sepsis in preterm human infants. Currently, we examined the effects of enteral (ENT) or TPN treatments on translocation events in neonatal pigs and on colonization and composition of microbiota in the neonatal gut. Newborn, colostrum-deprived pigs (<24 hours old) were fitted with intravenous catheters and were fed either ENT (n = 13) or TPN (n = 13) for 7 days. After 7 days of treatment, pigs were euthanized and samples were collected for bacterial culture from the blood, intestinal tract and organs. ENT pigs had increased numbers of bacterial genera isolated, higher concentrations of bacteria (CFU/g), and increased colonization of all segments of the intestinal tract compared to the TPN pigs. Translocation of bacteria from the intestinal tract to tissues or blood was similar (8 of 13) for both groups. The ENT group had 1/13 positive for Clostridium difficile toxin A whereas the TPN group had 5/13. We concluded that ENT favored increased bacterial concentrations comprised of more speciation in the gastrointestinal tract compared to TPN, and that TPN-treated piglets were at higher risk of colonization by toxin-expressing strains of C. difficile.

  15. Nutritional value of soy protein concentrate ground to different particle sizes and fed to pigs.

    PubMed

    Casas, G A; Huang, C; Stein, H H

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA and concentrations of DE and ME in soy protein concentrate (SPC) ground to 3 particle sizes and in soybean meal and fish meal when fed to weanling pigs. An additional experiment was conducted to determine effects on growth performance and blood characteristics of including SPC in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, a N-free diet and diets containing soybean meal, fish meal, or SPC ground to a mean particle size of 70, 180, or 700 μm as the only source of AA were fed to 6 barrows (initial BW: 12.90 ± 1.51 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum. In Exp. 2, 36 barrows (13.70 ± 1.86 kg BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 6 diets and 6 replicate pigs per diet. A corn-based diet and diets containing corn and soybean meal, fish meal, or SPC ground to the 3 particle sizes were used. In Exp. 3, 160 pigs (initial BW: 7.06 ± 1.07 kg) were allotted to 4 dietary treatments with 8 pens per treatment and 5 pigs per pen. Pigs were fed one of 4 diets during phase 1 (d 0 to 14 postweaning), and a common diet in phase 2 (d 14 to 28 postweaning). The 4 diets used in phase 1 included a control diet containing fish meal and spray-dried plasma protein, and diets in which fish meal, spray-dried plasma protein, or both fish meal and spray-dried plasma protein were replaced by SPC ground to 180 μm. Results of Exp. 1 indicated that the SID of His, Lys, and Thr tended ( < 0.10) to be greater in SPC ground to 180 μm than in soybean meal, and the SID of Arg, Ile, Phe, and Trp was greater ( < 0.05) in SPC ground to 70 or 180 μm than in soybean meal. There were no differences in the DE and ME (DM-basis) among corn, soybean meal, fish meal, and SPC ground to 70, 180, or 700 μm. Results of Exp. 3 indicated that growth performance of pigs fed the 4 experimental diets in phase 1 was not different in phase 1, phase 2, or in the entire experiment. In

  16. Pectin isolated from prickly pear (Opuntia SSP) modifies LDL metabolism in cholesterol-fed guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, M.L.; McNamara, D.J. )

    1990-02-26

    The effects of dietary pectin on plasma and hepatic cholesterol (CH) levels, plasma lipoprotein profiles, hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to hepatic membranes were investigated by feeding 1% pectin to guinea pigs on a high CH diet. Animals were fed either chow + 0.25% CH (HC diet) or the CH diet + 1% prickly pear pectin (HC-P diet) for 25 days. Plasma CH levels were decreased 26% by the HC-P with 33% decreases in LDL and KDL. LDL peak density shifted from 1.040 to 1.055 g/ml with pectin. Hepatic total, free and esterified CH levels were reduced 60, 40 and 85% respectively by the HC-P diet. In contrast, HMG-CoA reductase activity was unaffected. {sup 125}I-LDL binding to hepatic membranes was increased by intake of the HC-P diet compared to the HC diet. The affinity of the apo B/E receptor for LDL was not affected by dietary pectin while the receptor number was increased 1.5-fold in animals on the HC-P diet. These data suggest that the parameters of HC metabolism affected by dietary pectin are consistent with an increased demand on the hepatic CH pools which possibly results from increased fecal excretion of bile acids.

  17. Effects of co-products from the corn-ethanol industry on body composition, retention of protein, lipids and energy, and on the net energy of diets fed to growing or finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Nestor A; Kil, Dong Yong; Liu, Yanhong; Pettigrew, James E; Stein, Hans H

    2014-11-01

    Conventional distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS-CV), uncooked distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS-BPX) and high-protein distillers dried grains (HP-DDG) are used in diets for pigs to provide protein and energy. These ingredients may have different effects on body composition and energy retention. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine effects of DDGS-CV, DDGS-BPX and HP-DDG on body composition and on retention of protein, lipids, and energy when fed to growing or finishing pigs. The total organ weight was greater (P < 0.05) for finishing pigs fed the HP-DDG diet than for finishing pigs fed the basal diet or the DDGS-CV diet. Finishing pigs fed the DDGS-CV diet had greater (P < 0.05) lipid gain than pigs fed the other diets, and the net energy (NE) for DDGS-CV was greater (P < 0.05) than for DDGS-BPX, but the NE value of HP-DDG was not different from that of DDGS-CV or DDGS-BPX. Inclusion of up to 30% DDGS or HP-DDG in diets fed to growing or finishing pigs will not affect body composition or the retention of energy, protein and lipids, regardless of the stage of growth of pigs. The NE value of DDGS-BPX and HP-DDG is not affected by the stage of growth of pigs, but the NE value of DDGS-CV is greater in finishing than in growing pigs. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Nutritionally related blood metabolites and performance of finishing pigs fed on graded levels of dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Bakare, Archibold Garikayi; Ndou, Saymore Petros; Madzimure, James; Chimonyo, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to determine effect of feeding fibrous diets on performance and biochemical profiles of finishing pigs. A total of 84 clinically healthy male pigs were used in the experiment. Body weight of the pigs at the beginning of the experiment was 85 ± 10.1 kg. Maize cob (MC), sunflower hulls (SH), lucerne hay (LH) and dried citrus pulp (PU) were incorporated in a basal diet for finishing pigs at different inclusion levels of 0, 80, 160, 240, 320 and 400 g/kg. Effects of week of feeding, fibre source and inclusion level of fibre were significant (P < 0.05). Pigs consumed more LH compared to MC, SH and PU. Average daily gain was high for pigs consuming diets with inclusion levels of 0, 80, 160 and 240 g/kg and low for pigs consuming 320 and 400 g/kg inclusion level of fibre in a diet. There was an increase in serum total concentration (TP) with an increase in PU, MC and LH in pig diets (P < 0.05). Creatine kinase (CK) concentrations decreased as levels of PU, LH and MC increased (P < 0.05). Increasing inclusion level of LH and SH in pig diets resulted in an increase in glycated haemoglobin concentration (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that level of PU, LH, MC and SH in diets of finishing pigs negatively influences average daily feed intake, average daily gain and biochemical profiles.

  19. Lutein decreases oxidative stress and inflammation in liver and eyes of guinea pigs fed a hypercholesterolemic diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Eun; Clark, Richard M.; Park, Youngki; Lee, Jiyoung

    2012-01-01

    Guinea pigs were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (0.25 g/100 g cholesterol) and randomly allocated either to a Control group (n = 9) or to a Lutein (0.1 g/100 g) group (n = 10) for 12 weeks to evaluate oxidative stress and inflammation in both liver and eyes. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and inflammatory cytokines were measured as well as hepatic nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) binding. Lutein concentrations were greater in eyes (P < 0.01) and liver (P < 0.001) in the Lutein group. All guinea pigs had high concentrations of hepatic cholesterol as well as high plasma ALT and AST levels indicative of liver injury. However, the Lutein group had 43% lower hepatic free cholesterol than the Controls (P < 0.05). Hepatic MDA and MDA in the eye were lower in the Lutein compared to the Control group (P < 0.05). Hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α was 32% lower in the Lutein group (P < 0.05). Lastly, the Lutein group presented lower NF-κB DNA binding activity than the Control group (P < 0.001). These results suggest that in the presence of high cholesterol, lutein exerts both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which can be explained by attenuated NF-κB DNA binding activity. Furthermore, results also suggest that lutein accumulates in the eyes of guinea pigs to protect against oxidative stress. PMID:22586499

  20. Efficacy of dietary spray dried plasma protein to mitigate the negative effects on performance of pigs fed diets with corn naturally contaminated with multiple mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Weaver, A C; Campbell, J M; Crenshaw, J D; Polo, J; Kim, S W

    2014-09-01

    The ability of spray dried plasma protein (SDPP) to reduce the negative effects of multiple mycotoxins from naturally contaminated corn on weaned pig performance and health was investigated (n = 180; 6.84 ± 0.11 kg). For 12 d after weaning, pigs were fed phase 1 nursery diets with either 0% SDPP (PP0) or 6% SDPP (PP6). After 12 d, pigs were fed phase 2 diets for 3 wk. Pigs fed PP0 in phase 1 continued to be fed a phase 2 diet with no SDPP (PP0/PP0) or were fed a diet including corn naturally contaminated with multiple mycotoxins (M), labeled PP0/PP0M. Pigs fed SDPP in phase 1 were fed either a diet with no SDPP (PP6/PP0), a diet with M and no SDPP (PP6/PP0M), a diet with M and 3% SDPP (PP6/PP3M), or a diet with M and 6% SDPP (PP6/PP6M). During phase 1, pigs fed PP6 had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and G:F, whereas immunological parameters were not altered. During phase 2, pigs consuming PP0/PP0M had reduced ADG (P < 0.01) and ADFI (P < 0.05) in contrast to pigs fed PP0/PP0, whereas the performance of pigs fed PP6/PP0M was intermediate to pigs fed PP0/PP0M and PP6/PP0. The ADG and ADFI did not differ for pigs fed PP0/PP0M and PP6/PP0M during phase 2. Performance of pigs fed PP6/PP3M in contrast to pigs fed PP6/PP0M during phase 2 did not differ; however, these pigs had lower (P < 0.05) tumor necrosis factor α and tended (P = 0.094) to have lower DNA damage. During phase 2, ADG and ADFI of pigs fed PP6/PP6M did not differ from pigs fed PP6/PP0M, but G:F tended (P = 0.067) to be increased in pigs fed PP6/PP6M. Over the entire study period, pigs fed PP0/PP0M had reduced (P < 0.05) ADG and tended (P = 0.067) to have reduced ADFI. During this time, pigs fed PP6/PP0M tended to have greater ADG and ADFI (P = 0.093 and P = 0.067, respectively) compared with pigs fed PP0/PP0M. Overall, feeding a diet with SDPP improved growth performance and feed intake of young pigs directly after weaning. Feeding multiple M had a negative impact on growth performance of pigs during

  1. Addition of nonstarch polysaccharides degrading enzymes to two hulless barley varieties fed in diets for weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Morlacchini, M; Giuberti, G; Moschini, M; Rzepus, M; Della Casa, G

    2014-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 2 hulless barley varieties, with or without the addition of a nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) enzyme complex (β-glucanase and xylanase), on growth performance of weaned piglets in a 42-d feeding study. The study was conducted with 140 piglets (PIC × Duroc). Pigs were allocated to pens (4 castrated males or 4 females per pen) based on BW and sex, and pens were assigned to 5 experimental diets with 4 pens of castrated males and 3 pens of females per treatment. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were compared: 1) control corn-based diet (CTR), 2) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the Astartis hulless barley variety (AS), 3) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the AS supplemented with the NSP enzyme complex (ASE), 4) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the Alamo hulless barley variety (AL), and 5) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the AL supplemented with the NSP enzyme complex (ALE). The diets were formulated to meet or exceed nutrient requirements and offered in 2 phases: d 0 to 14 and d 14 to 42. At the end of the study, pigs fed AS and AL had equal weights as pigs fed CTR. Pigs fed the hulless barley diets had greater (P < 0.05) ADG during the second phase (P2) and overall phase, BW at d 42, and G:F during the P2 than those fed the CTR. Pigs fed the ASE and ALE had greater (P < 0.05) ADFI during the P2 and overall ADG than those fed the AS and AL. The increases in ADG during the P2 and final BW obtained with NSP enzyme supplementation were greater in pigs fed the AS than those fed the AL (barley × enzyme, P < 0.05). On the other hand, the NSP enzyme complex increased G:F in pigs fed the AS during the P2 and overall phase, but it had no effect on those fed the AL (barley × enzyme, P < 0.05). In conclusion, hulless barley with or without the NSP enzyme complex can be a replacement ingredient for corn and wheat bran in weaned pig diets. Addition of the NSP enzyme complex to AS

  2. Effects on performance of growing pigs fed diets containing different levels of dried cashew pulp.

    PubMed

    Oddoye, E O K; Takrama, J F; Anchirina, V; Agyente-Badu, K

    2009-10-01

    The purpose was to investigate the use of dried cashew pulp (DrCP), the sun-dried residue after juice has been extracted from the cashew apple, as a feed ingredient in growing pig diets. The growth rate, feed intake, feed to gain ratio and cost of gain of grower pigs fed diets containing 0 (0DrCP), 100 (100DrCP), 150 (150DrCP) or 200 (200DrCP) g kg(-1) of dried cashew pulp was investigated in a feeding trial set up as a Completely randomized design with 4 treatments replicated 3 times and lasting 112 days. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) among treatments in the parameters measured. It was concluded that dried cashew pulp could be used in growing pig diets up to a level of 200 g kg(-1) without any deleterious effects. Future work will look at higher levels of DrCP inclusion in the diets of growing pigs.

  3. Effect of High Dietary Tryptophan on Intestinal Morphology and Tight Junction Protein of Weaned Pig

    PubMed Central

    Tossou, Myrlene Carine B.; Bai, Miaomiao; Chen, Shuai; Cai, Yinghua; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Liu, Hongbin; Adebowale, Tolulope O.; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Long, Lina; Tarique, Hussain; Oso, Abimbola O.; Liu, Gang; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) plays an essential role in pig behavior and growth performances. However, little is known about Trp's effects on tight junction barrier and intestinal health in weaned pigs. In the present study, twenty-four (24) weaned pigs were randomly assigned to one of the three treatments with 8 piglets/treatments. The piglets were fed different amounts of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) as follows: 0.0%, 0.15, and 0.75%, respectively, named zero Trp (ZTS), low Trp (LTS), and high Trp (HTS), respectively. No significant differences were observed in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain: feed (G/F) ratio between the groups. After 21 days of the feeding trial, results showed that dietary Trp significantly increased (P < 0.05) crypt depth and significantly decreased (P < 0.05) villus height to crypt depth ratio (VH/CD) in the jejunum of pig fed HTS. In addition, pig fed HTS had higher (P < 0.05) serum diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactate. Furthermore, pig fed HTS significantly decreased mRNA expression of tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 but not claudin-1 in the jejunum. The number of intraepithelial lymphocytes and goblet cells were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between the groups. Collectively, these data suggest that dietary Trp supplementation at a certain level (0.75%) may negatively affect the small intestinal structure in weaned pig. PMID:27366740

  4. Metabolomic Analysis of Survival in Carbohydrate Pre-fed Pigs Subjected to Shock and Polytrauma

    PubMed Central

    Witowski, Nancy E; Lusczek, Elizabeth R; Determan, Charles E; Lexcen, Daniel R; Mulier, Kristine E; Wolf, Andrea; Ostrowski, Beverly G; Beilman, Greg J

    2017-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock, a result of extensive blood loss, is a dominant factor in battlefield morbidity and mortality. Early rodent studies in hemorrhagic shock reported carbohydrate feeding prior to the induction of hemorrhagic shock decreased mortality. When repeated in our laboratory with a porcine model, carbohydrate pre-feed resulted in a 60% increase in death rate following hemorrhagic shock with trauma when compared to fasted animals (15/32 or 47% vs 9/32 or 28%). In an attempt to explain the unexpected death rate for pre-fed animals, we further investigated the metabolic profiles of pre-fed non-survivors (n = 15) across 4 compartments (liver, muscle, serum, and urine) at specific time intervals (pre-shock, shock, and resuscitation) and compared them to pre-fed survivors (n = 17). As hypothesized, pre-fed pigs that died as a result of hemorrhage and trauma showed differences in their metabolic and physiologic profiles at all time intervals and in all compartments when compared to pre-fed survivors. Our data suggest that, although all animals were subjected to the same shock and trauma protocol, non-survivors exhibited altered carbohydrate processing as early as the pre-shock sampling point. This was evident in (for example) the higher levels of ATP and markers of greater anabolic activity in the muscle at the pre-shock time point. Based on the metabolic findings, we propose two mechanisms that connect pre-fed status to a higher death rate: 1) animals that die are more susceptible to opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, a major factor in ischemia/reperfusion injury; and 2) loss of fasting-associated survival mechanisms in pre-fed animals. PMID:26989839

  5. Amino acid, phosphorus, and energy digestibility of Aspergillus niger fermented rapeseed meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Shi, C; He, J; Yu, J; Yu, B; Mao, X; Zheng, P; Huang, Z; Chen, D

    2015-06-01

    Fermented rapeseed meal (FRSM) contains greater levels of protein and less glucosinolates, NDF, and phytic acid than rapeseed meal (RSM) and might be an attractive feedstuff for swine, but its nutritional value has been poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of RSM fermented by for growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 6 barrows (21.20 ± 1.47 kg initial BW) fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum were allotted to a repeated 3 × 3 Latin square with 3 diets and 3 periods per square to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA. A N-free diet and 2 diets containing RSM or FRSM as the only source of AA were formulated. Results indicated that there was no difference in AID and SID of CP and most AA between FRSM and RSM. However, the AID of 2 indispensable AA (Lys and Met) and 3 dispensable AA (Asp, Gly, and Tyr) were greater (P < 0.05) for FRSM than for RSM. The SID of only 2 dispensable AA (Gly and Tyr) were greater (P < 0.05) for FRSM than for RSM. In Exp. 2, 16 barrows (32.57 ± 2.67 kg initial BW) were allotted to 2 diets formulated to contain RSM or FRSM as the sole source of P to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P. The ATTD and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in FRSM were 72.10 and 77.31%, respectively. These values were greater (P < 0.01) than in RSM (34.79 and 41.34%, respectively). In Exp. 3, 24 growing barrows (32.23 ± 1.33 kg initial BW) were fed 3 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet to measure concentration of DE and ME of FRSM. A corn diet consisting of 98.40% corn was formulated and 2 additional diets were formulated by mixing corn with 35% RSM or FRSM. The DE and ME in FRSM (2,887 and 2,650 kcal/kg of DM, respectively) were greater (P < 0.05) than those in RSM (2,609 and 2,328 kcal/kg of DM, respectively). In summary, solid-state fermentation of RSM by has a greater nutritional value than RSM and is a promising

  6. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Lammers, P J; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Bregendahl, K; Lonergan, S M; Prusa, K J; Ahn, D U; Stoffregen, W C; Dozier, W A; Honeyman, M S

    2008-11-01

    The effects of dietary crude glycerin on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality indices, and tissue histology in growing pigs were determined in a 138-d feeding trial. Crude glycerin utilized in the trial contained 84.51% glycerin, 11.95% water, 2.91% sodium chloride, and 0.32% methanol. Eight days postweaning, 96 pigs (48 barrows and 48 gilts, average BW of 7.9 +/- 0.4 kg) were allotted to 24 pens (4 pigs/pen), with sex and BW balanced at the start of the experiment. Dietary treatments were 0, 5, and 10% crude glycerin inclusion in corn-soybean meal-based diets and were randomly assigned to pens. Diets were offered ad libitum in meal form and formulated to be equal in ME, sodium, chloride, and Lys, with other AA balanced on an ideal AA basis. Pigs and feeders were weighed every other week to determine ADG, ADFI, and G:F. At the end of the trial, all pigs were scanned using real-time ultrasound and subsequently slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Blood samples were collected pretransport and at the time of slaughter for plasma metabolite analysis. In addition, kidney, liver, and eye tissues were collected for subsequent examination for lesions characteristic of methanol toxicity. After an overnight chilling of the carcass, loins were removed for meat quality, sensory evaluation, and fatty acid profile analysis. Pig growth, feed intake, and G:F were not affected by dietary treatment. Dietary treatment did not affect 10th-rib backfat, LM area, percent fat free lean, meat quality, or sensory evaluation. Loin ultimate pH was increased (P = 0.06) in pigs fed the 5 and 10% crude glycerin compared with pigs fed no crude glycerin (5.65 and 5.65 versus 5.57, respectively). Fatty acid profile of the LM was slightly changed by diet with the LM from pigs fed 10% crude glycerin having less linoleic acid (P < 0.01) and more eicosapentaenoic acid (P = 0.02) than pigs fed the 0 or 5% crude glycerin diets. Dietary treatment did not affect blood metabolites or

  7. Changes in bacterial population of gastrointestinal tract of weaned pigs fed with different additives.

    PubMed

    Roca, Mercè; Nofrarías, Miquel; Majó, Natàlia; Pérez de Rozas, Ana María; Segalés, Joaquim; Castillo, Marisol; Martín-Orúe, Susana María; Espinal, Anna; Pujols, Joan; Badiola, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide novel insights into the gastrointestinal microbial diversity from different gastrointestinal locations in weaning piglets using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Additionally, the effect of different feed additives was analyzed. Thirty-two piglets were fed with four different diets: a control group and three enriched diets, with avilamycin, sodium butyrate, and a plant extract mixture. Digesta samples were collected from eight different gastrointestinal segments of each animal and the bacterial population was analysed by a PCR-RFLP technique that uses 16S rDNA gene sequences. Bacterial diversity was assessed by calculating the number of bands and the Shannon-Weaver index. Dendrograms were constructed to estimate the similarity of bacterial populations. A higher bacterial diversity was detected in large intestine compared to small intestine. Among diets, the most relevant microbial diversity differences were found between sodium butyrate and plant extract mixture. Proximal jejunum, ileum, and proximal colon were identified as those segments that could be representative of microbial diversity in pig gut. Results indicate that PCR-RFLP technique allowed detecting modifications on the gastrointestinal microbial ecology in pigs fed with different additives, such as increased biodiversity by sodium butyrate in feed.

  8. Changes in Bacterial Population of Gastrointestinal Tract of Weaned Pigs Fed with Different Additives

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Mercè; Nofrarías, Miquel; Majó, Natàlia; Pérez de Rozas, Ana María; Castillo, Marisol; Martín-Orúe, Susana María; Espinal, Anna; Pujols, Joan; Badiola, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide novel insights into the gastrointestinal microbial diversity from different gastrointestinal locations in weaning piglets using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Additionally, the effect of different feed additives was analyzed. Thirty-two piglets were fed with four different diets: a control group and three enriched diets, with avilamycin, sodium butyrate, and a plant extract mixture. Digesta samples were collected from eight different gastrointestinal segments of each animal and the bacterial population was analysed by a PCR-RFLP technique that uses 16S rDNA gene sequences. Bacterial diversity was assessed by calculating the number of bands and the Shannon-Weaver index. Dendrograms were constructed to estimate the similarity of bacterial populations. A higher bacterial diversity was detected in large intestine compared to small intestine. Among diets, the most relevant microbial diversity differences were found between sodium butyrate and plant extract mixture. Proximal jejunum, ileum, and proximal colon were identified as those segments that could be representative of microbial diversity in pig gut. Results indicate that PCR-RFLP technique allowed detecting modifications on the gastrointestinal microbial ecology in pigs fed with different additives, such as increased biodiversity by sodium butyrate in feed. PMID:24575403

  9. Microbial community dynamics in continuous microbial fuel cells fed with synthetic wastewater and pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Sotres, Ana; Tey, Laura; Bonmatí, August; Viñas, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Two-chambered microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operating with synthetic wastewater and pig slurry were assessed. Additionally, the use of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES-Inh) was studied. The synthetic wastewater-fed MFC (MFCSW) showed a maximum power density (PDmax) of 2138mWm(-3), and the addition of BES-Inh (10mM) did not show any improvement in its performance (PDmax=2078mWm(-3)). When pig slurry was used as feed (MFCPS), PDmax increased up to 5623mWm(-3). The microbial community composition was affected by the type of substrate used. While, Pseudomonadaceae and Clostridiaceae were the most representative families within the acetate-based medium, Flavobacteriaceae, Chitinophagaceae, Comamonadaceae and Nitrosomonadaceae were predominant when pig slurry was used as feed. Otherwise, only the Eubacterial microbial community composition was strongly modified when adding BES-Inh, thus leading to an enrichment of the Bacteroidetes phylum. Oppositely, the Archaeal community was less affected by the addition of BES-Inh, and Methanosarcina sp., arose as the predominant family in both situations. Despite all the differences in microbial communities, 6 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to Bacteroidetes (Porphyromonadaceae and Marinilabiaceae) and Firmicutes (Clostridiales) were found to be common to both MFCs, also for different contents of COD and N-NH4(+), and therefore could be considered as the bioanode core microbiome.

  10. Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in flaxseed meal fed to growing and finishing pigs without or with phytase supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kim, J W; Ndou, S P; Mejicanos, G A; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in flaxseed meal (FM) and the effect of dietary microbial phytase on the digestibility of P in FM fed to growing and finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, eighteen growing barrows (26.6 ± 1.8 kg BW) were allotted to 1 of 3 experimental diets consisting of a diet containing 32% FM that was fed with or without phytase at 500 phytase units (FTU/kg and a P-free diet in a completely randomized design to give 6 replicates per diet. The experimental period lasted 12 d including first 7 d for adaptation and 5 d for total collection of feces. Pigs were fed their assigned diets at 4% of BW at the beginning of the experiment. The daily feed allowance was offered in 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h. All experimental diets were provided in mash form. Results indicated that pigs fed the diets containing FM with dietary phytase had less ( < 0.05) fecal P concentration and daily P output than those fed the diets without phytase supplementation. Also, phytase supplementation increased ( < 0.05) the ATTD of P of the diets containing FM from 37.3% to 51.8% and STTD of P of the diets containing FM from 43.2% to 57.7%. The basal endogenous P losses (EPL) was calculated at 140 ± 11 mg/kg of DMI in growing pigs fed the P-free diet. In Exp. 2, eighteen finishing pigs (78.7 ± 2.4 kg BW) were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments. The experimental diets and procedures were similar to those described in Exp. 1. Similar to Exp. 1, pigs fed FM diets with phytase supplementation had less ( < 0.05) P concentration in feces than those fed diets without phytase supplementation. Also, daily P output was reduced ( = 0.08) when pigs were fed the FM diets with phytase compared to those fed the FM diets without phytase. The ATTD of P in FM diets was increased ( < 0.01) from 31.4% to 45.8%, whereas the STTD of P in FM diets was increased ( < 0.01) from 37

  11. Reduced use of antibiotic growth promoters in diets fed to weanling pigs: dietary tools, part 1.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, J E

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotics improve health and productive performance of pigs. There is increasing evidence that other dietary ingredients may provide similar, but probably not identical, benefits. A properly prepared immune egg product, spray-dried plasma, or a high level of dietary zinc can provide protection against enteric infection in young pigs. Spray-dried plasma also increases growth rate dramatically, and zinc increases it substantially. The evidence in refereed publications also indicates that organic acids increase growth rate substantially, but does not clearly identify the most effective acid or combination of acids. Whey proteins, lactose, mannan oligosaccharide, or a high level of dietary copper provides a modest but useful increase in growth rate. It is not clear whether conventional egg products or other milk proteins may be beneficial. There are many other feed ingredients commercially available that may improve health and productive performance of pigs.

  12. Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA in digesta and tissues of sheep and pigs fed Roundup Ready canola meal.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ranjana; Damgaard, Dana; Alexander, Trevor W; Dugan, Mike E R; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A

    2006-03-08

    The persistence of plant-derived recombinant DNA in sheep and pigs fed genetically modified (Roundup Ready) canola was assessed by PCR and Southern hybridization analysis of DNA extracted from digesta, gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissues, and visceral organs. Sheep (n = 11) and pigs (n = 36) were fed to slaughter on diets containing 6.5 or 15% Roundup Ready canola. Native plant DNA (high- and low-copy-number gene fragments) and the cp4 epsps transgene that encodes 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase were tracked in ruminal, abomasal, and large intestinal digesta and in tissue from the esophagus, rumen, abomasum, small and large intestine, liver, and kidney of sheep and in cecal content and tissue from the duodenum, cecum, liver, spleen, and kidney of pigs. High-copy chloroplast-specific DNA (a 520-bp fragment) was detected in all digesta samples, the majority (89-100%) of intestinal tissues, and at least one of each visceral organ sample (frequencies of 3-27%) from sheep and swine. Low-copy rubisco fragments (186- and 540-bp sequences from the small subunit) were present at slightly lower, variable frequencies in digesta (18-82%) and intestinal tissues (9-27% of ovine and 17-25% of porcine samples) and infrequently in visceral organs (1 of 88 ovine samples; 3 of 216 porcine samples). Each of the five cp4 epsps transgene fragments (179-527 bp) surveyed was present in at least 27% of ovine large intestinal content samples (maximum = 64%) and at least 33% of porcine cecal content samples (maximum = 75%). In sheep, transgene fragments were more common in intestinal digesta than in ruminal or abomasal content. Transgene fragments were detected in 0 (esophagus) to 3 (large intestine) GI tract tissues from the 11 sheep and in 0-10 of the duodenal and cecal tissues collected from 36 pigs. The feed-ingested recombinant DNA was not detected in visceral tissues (liver, kidney) of lambs or in the spleen from pigs. Of note, however, one liver and one kidney sample from

  13. Nutritional value of full-fat green canola seed fed to growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Yánez, J; Young, M G; Lanz, G; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-08-01

    Immature green canola seed (full-fat green canola seed [FFGC]) is rejected by canola crushing plants due to chlorophyll staining of oil destined for human consumption. With >35% oil, FFGC can contribute energy to pig diets. The nutritive value of FFGC for growing-finishing pigs was determined in 2 studies. In Exp. 1, 6 ileal-cannulated barrows (46.5 kg BW) were fed 3 diets as a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square to determine standardized ileal digestible (SID) coefficients of AA and calculate DE and NE values for FFGC. A diet including 40% FFGC replaced wheat in a basal diet and a cornstarch-based N-free diet were fed to determine energy and nutrient digestibility by difference and to estimate basal endogenous AA losses to calculate SID of AA. In Exp. 2, 1,100 pigs (32.9 kg BW), housed in 50 pens of 22 barrows or gilts per pen, were fed 5 diets including 0, 5, 10, and 15% constant or declining amounts (15, 10, 5, 0, and 0%, respectively) of FFGC over 5 phases to determine effects of feeding FFGC on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Phase diets were formulated to provide 4.00, 3.60, 3.25, 2.90, and 2.65 g SID Lys/Mcal NE for d 0 to 21, d 22 to 42, d 43 to 62, d 63 to 74, and d 75 to 123 kg market weight. Carcass characteristics were measured using the Destron grading system. On DM basis, FFGC contained 43% ether extract, 25% CP, 22% NDF, 10 μmol/g glucosinolates, 1.35% Lys, 0.5% Met, 0.9% Thr, and 0.27% Trp. In FFGC, SID coefficients of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp were 86.9, 87.3, 76.9, and 84.3%, respectively, and calculated DE and NE values were 4.92 and 3.50 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. Overall, increasing dietary FFGC inclusion from 0 to 15% linearly decreased (P < 0.05) G:F, carcass weight, and dressing percentage (0.392 to 0.381 kg/kg, 96.7 to 95.7 kg, and 78.4 to 77.8%, respectively) and tended to decrease (P = 0.078) ADG. Pigs fed decreasing amounts of FFGC by growth phase compared with controls (0% FFGC) had lower (P = 0.011) overall G:F (0.392 vs. 0

  14. Digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in meat and bone meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2013-03-01

    Seventy-two growing pigs (initial BW: 18.0 ± 1.6 kg) were used to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in 8 different sources of meat and bone meal (MBM) and to develop equations to predict digestibility of P and Ca in MBM. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism cages and were randomly allotted to 9 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet. Eight diets were formulated by mixing cornstarch, sucrose, soybean oil, sodium chloride, vitamin-mineral premix, and 8% of each source of MBM, and MBM was the sole source of P and Ca in each diet. A P-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous P losses (EPL) by the pigs. Feces were collected for 5 d based on the marker to marker approach after a 5-d adaptation period. On an as-fed basis, the concentration of P in the MBM sources ranged from 2.6 to 5.3% with an average of 4.3 ± 0.8% whereas Ca concentration ranged from 5.1 to 11.0% with an average of 9.2 ± 2.0%. The variation among MBM samples in Ca and P concentrations was calculated (CV = 22.1 and 20.0%, respectively) as was the variation in the concentration of other chemical components (CV = 6.2, 10.5, and 13.8% for CP, acid-hydrolyzed ether extract, and ash, respectively). The ATTD of P (52.1 to 80.1%, average = 65.9 ± 8.8%) and Ca (53.0 to 81.0%, average = 63.9 ± 9.4%) differed (P < 0.05) among MBM sources. The basal EPL was measured at 106 ± 51 mg/kg DMI in pigs fed the P-free diet. The STTD of P was different (54.8 to 84.4%; average = 68.8 ± 9.3%; P < 0.05) among MBM sources. The ATTD of Ca and the STTD of P decreased (P < 0.01) as ash, Ca, and P concentration in MBM increased, and the ATTD of Ca was positively related (R(2) = 0.99, P < 0.001) with the STTD of P. The STTD of P (%) in MBM may be predicted as 107.857 - 8.8 × total P [R(2) = 0.68, root mean square error (RMSE) = 5.73, P < 0.01] whereas ATTD of Ca (%) may be predicted as 105.375 - 9.327 × total P (R(2) = 0

  15. Effects of alginate and resistant starch on feeding patterns, behaviour and performance in ad libitum-fed growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza da Silva, C; Bosch, G; Bolhuis, J E; Stappers, L J N; van Hees, H M J; Gerrits, W J J; Kemp, B

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the long-term effects of feeding diets containing either a gelling fibre (alginate (ALG)), or a fermentable fibre (resistant starch (RS)), or both, on feeding patterns, behaviour and growth performance of growing pigs fed ad libitum for 12 weeks. The experiment was set up as a 2×2 factorial arrangement: inclusion of ALG (yes or no) and inclusion of RS (yes or no) in the control diet, resulting in four dietary treatments, that is, ALG-RS- (control), ALG+RS-, ALG-RS+, and ALG+RS+. Both ALG and RS were exchanged for pregelatinized potato starch. A total of 240 pigs in 40 pens were used. From all visits to an electronic feeding station, feed intake and detailed feeding patterns were calculated. Apparent total tract digestibility of energy, dry matter (DM), and CP was determined in week 6. Pigs' postures and behaviours were scored from live observations in weeks 7 and 12. Dietary treatments did not affect final BW and average daily gain (ADG). ALG reduced energy and DM digestibility (P<0.01). Moreover, ALG increased average daily DM intake, and reduced backfat thickness and carcass gain : digestible energy (DE) intake (P<0.05). RS increased feed intake per meal, meal duration (P<0.05) and inter-meal intervals (P=0.05), and reduced the number of meals per day (P<0.01), but did not affect daily DM intake. Moreover, RS reduced energy, DM and CP digestibility (P<0.01). Average daily DE intake was reduced (P<0.05), and gain : DE intake tended to be increased (P=0.07), whereas carcass gain : DE intake was not affected by RS. In week 12, ALG+RS- increased standing and walking, aggressive, feeder-directed, and drinking behaviours compared with ALG+RS+ (ALG×RS interaction, P<0.05), with ALG-RS- and ALG-RS+ in between. No other ALG×RS interactions were found. In conclusion, pigs fed ALG compensated for the reduced dietary DE content by increasing their feed intake, achieving similar DE intake and ADG as control pigs. Backfat thickness and carcass efficiency

  16. Effect of phytase supplementation on phosphorus digestibility in low-phytate barley fed to finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Thacker, P A; Rossnagel, B G; Raboy, V

    2004-02-01

    Forty crossbred barrows (Camborough 15 Line female x Canabred sire) weighing an average of 79.6 +/- 8.0 kg were used in a factorial design experiment (5 barleys x 2 enzyme levels) conducted to determine the effects of phytase supplementation on nutrient digestibility in low-phytate barleys fed to finishing pigs. The pigs were assigned to one of 10 dietary treatments comprised of a normal 2-rowed, hulled variety of barley (CDC Fleet, 0.26% phytate) or 2 low-phytate hulled genotypes designated as LP422 (0.14% phytate) and LP635 (0.09% phytate). A normal, hulless barley (CDC Dawn, 0.26% phytate) and a hulless genotype designated as LP422H (0.14% phytate) were also included. All barleys were fed with and without phytase (Natuphos 5000 FTU/kg). The diets fed contained 98% barley, 0.5% vitamin premix, 0.5% trace mineral premix, 0.5% NaCl and 0.5% chromic oxide but no supplemental phosphorus. The marked feed was provided for a 7-day acclimatization period, followed by a 3-day faecal collection. In the absence of phytase, phosphorus digestibility increased substantially (P < 0.05) as the level of phytate in the barley declined. For the hulled varieties, phosphorus digestibility increased from 12.9% for the normal barley (0.26% phytate) to 35.3 and 39.8% for the two low-phytate genotypes (0.14 and 0.09% phytate respectively). For the hulless varieties, phosphorus digestibility increased from 9.2% for the normal barley (0.26% phytate) to 34.7% for the hulless variety with 54% of the normal level of phytate (0.14% phytate). In contrast, when phytase was added to the diet, there was little difference in phosphorus digestibility between pigs fed normal barley and those fed the low-phytate genotypes (significant barley x enzyme interaction, P = 0.01). For the hulled varieties, phosphorus digestibility was 50.1% for the barley with the normal level of phytate (0.26% phytate) compared with 51.1 and 52.4% for the varieties with 54 and 35% of the normal level of phytate (0.14 and 0

  17. Effects of combining three fungal phytases with a bacterial phytase on plasma phosphorus status of weanling pigs fed a corn-soy diet.

    PubMed

    Stahl, C H; Roneker, K R; Pond, W G; Lei, X G

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine possible synergistic effects of supplementing one of three fungal phytases: Aspergillus fumitagus PhyA (AFP),A. niger PhyA (ANP), or Peniophora lyci phytase (PLP) with an Escherichia coli AppA phytase (EP) in diets for pigs. Three experiments, each lasting for 4 wk, were conducted with a total of 106 weanling pigs (5 wk old). The corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD) contained no supplemental inorganic P. In Exp. 1, 35 pigs (8.6 +/- 1.0 kg BW) were fed (as-fed basis) BD + AFP at 750 U/ kg of feed, BD + inorganic P (0.2% P), or BD + PLP at 500, 750, or 1,000 U/kg feed. Pigs fed BD + AFP or BD + 0.2% P had higher (P < 0.05) plasma inorganic P concentrations than those fed BD + PLP at the end of the trial (wk 4). In Exp. 2, 35 pigs (8.1 +/- 0.9 kg BW) were fed BD + AFP, EP, PLP, a 1:1 mix of AFP:EP, or a 1:1 mix of PLP:EP at 500 U/kg. Pigs fed the AFP:EP mixture had growth performance and plasma measures similar to those fed either enzyme alone. Pigs fed the PLP:EP mixture had lower (P < 0.05) plasma alkaline phosphatase activity than those fed BD + PLP. Pigs fed BD + PLP had lower (P < 0.05) plasma inorganic P concentrations than pigs fed BD + EP, and higher (P < 0.05) plasma alkaline phosphatase activity than all other groups at wk 4. In Exp. 3, 36 pigs (9.1 +/- 1.2 kg BW) were fed BD + ANP, EP, or a 1:1 mix of ANP:EP at 500 U/kg feed. Pigs fed the two enzymes together had lower (P < 0.05) plasma inorganic P concentration than those fed BD + EP and lower (P < 0.05) plasma alkaline phosphatase activity than pigs fed BD + ANP at wk 4. In conclusion, although the four phytases showed different effects on plasma P status of weanling pigs, there was no synergistic effect between any of the three fungal phytases and the bacterial phytase on the plasma measures or growth performance under the conditions of the present study.

  18. Growth performance, diet nutrient digestibility, and bone mineralization in weaned pigs fed pelleted diets containing thermostable phytase.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, J L; Landero, J L; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Cervantes, M; Zijlstra, R T

    2013-02-01

    Traditional supplemental dietary phytase loses activity during steam pelleting. The thermal tolerance and bioefficacy of a phytase product with a thermoprotective coating [coated phytase (C-phytase)] was compared in mash and pelleted diets to a traditional, uncoated phytase (U-phytase) added to a negative control (NC) diet, formulated with reduced dietary Ca and P, and compared with a corn-soybean meal based positive control (POC) diet. Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and third metacarpal bone characteristics were response variables. Weaned pigs (n = 56; 8.20 ± 0.5 kg initial BW; 28 d of age) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 7 diets for 21 d. The diets were 1) POC mash, 2) NC mash, 3) NC pelleted at 90°C, 4) NC mash + 500 U/kg U-phytase, 5) NC mash + 500 U/kg C-phytase, 6) NC + 500 U/kg C-phytase pelleted at 80°C, and 7) NC + 500 U/kg C-phytase pelleted at 90°C. The POC and NC diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and isolysinic. The content of Ca and available P was 1.01 and 0.40% and 0.83 and 0.22% in the POC and NC diets, respectively. Pig BW and feed intake were measured on d 7, 14, and 21, and feces were collected for 2 d. On d 21, pigs were killed and ileal digesta and the third metacarpal bone collected. Pigs fed POC had greater (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, P digestibility, and bone mineralization but lower (P < 0.01) energy digestibility than pigs fed NC. Pelleting the NC diet did not improve performance, nutrient digestibility, or P use. Adding the U-phytase to NC mash diet increased (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP and Ile, Leu, Phe, Thr, Val, and Ser, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P compared with pigs fed NC. Pigs fed C-phytase in NC mash diets had increased (P < 0.05) G:F and an AID of CP and AA and ATTD of P compared with pigs fed NC but not different than pigs fed U-phytase NC mash diets. Pigs fed pelleted NC diet with C-phytase had a greater (P < 0.05) ATTD of P and

  19. Performance and apparent total tract phosphorus and calcium digestibility in grower-finisher pigs fed diets with and without phytase.

    PubMed

    Kühn, I; Männer, K

    2012-12-01

    The efficacy of a thermotolerant 6-phytase on performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca was evaluated in 96 crossbred barrows (8 replicates with 3 pigs each) fed 4 diets. Diets based on corn (Zea mays), a heat-treated grain mix, and soybean (Glycine max) meal with recommended [positive control (PC)] or reduced [negative control (NC)] P and Ca levels were fed from 25 to 115 kg BW. The PC diets contained 0.61% P and 0.72% Ca from 25 to 45 kg, 0.59% P and 0.66% Ca from 45 to 70 kg, and 0.48% P and 0.51% Ca from 70 kg to final BW. The NC diets were reduced in digestible P by 2.0, 2.0, and 1.1 g/kg and in Ca by 1.4, 1.0, and 0.8 g/kg, respectively, for the 3 phases. Phytase was added at 0, 250, and 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg to the NC diet. Performance was measured at the end of each feeding period and ATTD of P and Ca evaluated for a 3-d collection following a 7-d adaptation at an average BW of 45, 70, and 116 kg. Final BW of NC pigs (111.9 kg) was increased (P < 0.05) by P addition (120.3 kg; PC) and by phytase inclusion at both rates (116.5 and 117.6 kg, respectively). The ADG of NC pigs (781 g) was increased (P < 0.05) by both phytase levels (5.5 and 6.6%); pigs fed 500 FTU/kg achieved similar ADG as PC pigs (833 and 858 g, respectively). The G:F was reduced (P < 0.05) in NC pigs (0.308) compared to pigs fed the PC diet (0.328) or diets with 250 or 500 FTU phytase/kg (0.324 and 0.330, respectively). The ATTD of P was lowest in all periods for pigs fed NC diets (35.5% in starter, 32.2% in grower, and 32.1% in finisher period). Phytase increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of P in all periods at both application rates. Pigs fed 500 FTU/kg diet had a higher (P < 0.05) ATTD of P than pigs fed 250 FTU/kg and an ATTD of P at least similar to pigs fed PC. Similar but less pronounced effects were observed for ATTD of Ca. The phytase added to grower-finisher diets with reduced P and Ca nearly restored performance to the level of pigs fed diets with adequate P

  20. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality indices, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerol were determined in a 138-d feeding trial. Crude glycerol utilized in the trial contained 84.51% glycerol, 11.95% water, 2.91% sodium chloride, and 0.32% methanol. Eight days pos...

  1. Standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratios in growing pigs fed corn-based and non-corn-based diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two 21-d experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standard ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio in growing pigs fed corn-based diets compared to non-corn-based diets. The primary response variables in both experiments were ADG and plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations with the optimum SID Tr...

  2. Objective and sensory measures of meat quality and fatty acid profile of longissimus intramuscular lipid from pigs fed crude glycerol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The longissimus dorsi from 87 pigs (43 barrows, 44 gilts) fed corn-soybean meal based diets containing 0, 5, or 10% crude glycerol for 138 days were examined for objective and sensory measures of meat quality and the fatty acid profile of LD lipid was determined. Crude glycerol was obtained from AG ...

  3. Nutrient-independent and nutrient-dependent factors stimulate protein synthesis in colostrum-fed newborn pigs.

    PubMed

    Burrin, D G; Davis, T A; Ebner, S; Schoknecht, P A; Fiorotto, M L; Reeds, P J; McAvoy, S

    1995-05-01

    We hypothesized that nonnutrient components, including growth factors, present in colostrum contribute to the stimulation of protein synthesis in colostrum-fed neonatal pigs. We studied neonatal pigs fed mature milk, colostrum, or a formula containing a macronutrient composition comparable to that of colostrum for 24 h. We measured the circulating concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor I, glucose, and amino acids at intervals throughout the 24-h period, after which we measured in vivo protein synthesis using a flooding dose of [3H]phenylalanine. The rates of protein synthesis in several tissues measured after 24 h of feeding were greater than those we reported previously after 6 h of feeding. The acute (within 6 h) stimulation of protein synthesis in visceral and skeletal muscle tissues of neonatal pigs fed milk, colostrum, or formula was primarily influenced by nutrient intake and associated with rapid secretion of insulin. Indirect evidence suggests that intestinal absorption of ingested colostral insulin was minimal. However, the sustained increase in tissue protein synthesis between 6 and 24 h coincided with an increase in circulating insulin-like growth factor I. We found a novel, specific stimulation of skeletal muscle and jejunal protein synthesis in colostrum-fed pigs that can be attributed to some nonnutrient component of colostrum.

  4. Evaluation of corn grain with the genetically modified input trait DAS-59122-7 fed to growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Stein, H H; Rice, D W; Smith, B L; Hinds, M A; Sauber, T E; Pedersen, C; Wulf, D M; Peters, D N

    2009-04-01

    A growth performance experiment was conducted to assess the feeding value of a double-stacked transgenic corn grain for growing-finishing pigs. The genetically modified corn grain contained event DAS-59122-7, which expresses the Cry34/35Ab1 binary insecticidal protein for the control of corn rootworm. This modified transgenic grain is resistant to western corn rootworm and is also tolerant to herbicides containing the active ingredient glufosinate-ammonium. The modified grain (59122), a nontransgenic near-isoline grain (control corn), and a commercial corn (Pioneer brand hybrid 35P12) were grown in a 2005 production trial in individually isolated plots that were located 201 m apart. A total of 108 pigs were allotted to corn-soybean meal diets containing 1 of the 3 grains as the sole source of corn. There were 3 pigs per pen and 12 replicate pens per treatment. Pigs were fed grower diets from 37 to 60 kg, early finisher diets from 60 to 90 kg, and late finisher diets from 90 to 127 kg. Within each phase, data for ADG, ADFI, and G:F were calculated. At the conclusion of the experiment, pigs were slaughtered and data for carcass quality were collected. Differences between 59122 and the control corn were evaluated, with statistical significance at P<0.05. No differences in ADG, ADFI, or G:F between pigs fed the control corn and pigs fed the modified corn were observed during the grower, early finisher, or late finisher phases. For the entire experimental period, no difference between pigs fed the control and the 59122 corn were observed for final BW (128.9 vs. 127.1 kg), ADG (1.02 vs. 1.00 kg), ADFI (2.88 vs. 2.80 kg), or G:F (0.356 vs. 0.345 kg/kg). Likewise, no differences in dressing percentage (76.48 vs. 76.30%), LM area (49.8 vs. 50.4 cm(2)), 10th-rib back fat (2.20 vs. 2.12 cm), and carcass lean content (52.9 vs. 53.4%) were observed between pigs fed the control and the 59122 corn grain. It was concluded that the nutritional value of the modified transgenic corn

  5. Adipose tissue transcriptional response of lipid metabolism genes in growing Iberian pigs fed oleic acid v. carbohydrate enriched diets.

    PubMed

    Benítez, R; Núñez, Y; Fernández, A; Isabel, B; Rodríguez, C; Daza, A; López-Bote, C; Silió, L; Óvilo, C

    2016-06-01

    Diet influences animal body and tissue composition due to direct deposition and to the nutrients effects on metabolism. The influence of specific nutrients on the molecular regulation of lipogenesis is not well characterized and is known to be influenced by many factors including timing and physiological status. A trial was performed to study the effects of different dietary energy sources on lipogenic genes transcription in ham adipose tissue of Iberian pigs, at different growth periods and on feeding/fasting situations. A total of 27 Iberian male pigs of 28 kg BW were allocated to two separate groups and fed with different isocaloric feeding regimens: standard diet with carbohydrates as energy source (CH) or diet enriched with high oleic sunflower oil (HO). Ham subcutaneous adipose tissue was sampled by biopsy at growing (44 kg mean BW) and finishing (100 kg mean BW) periods. The first sampling was performed on fasted animals, while the last sampling was performed twice, with animals fasted overnight and 3 h after refeeding. Effects of diet, growth period and feeding/fasting status on gene expression were explored quantifying the expression of a panel of key genes implicated in lipogenesis and lipid metabolism processes. Quantitative PCR revealed several differentially expressed genes according to diet, with similar results at both timings: RXRG, LEP and FABP5 genes were upregulated in HO group while ME1, FASN, ACACA and ELOVL6 were upregulated in CH. The diet effect on ME1 gene expression was conditional on feeding/fasting status, with the higher ME1 gene expression in CH than HO groups, observed only in fasting samples. Results are compatible with a higher de novo endogenous synthesis of fatty acids (FA) in the carbohydrate-supplemented group and a higher FA transport in the oleic acid-supplemented group. Growth period significantly affected the expression of most of the studied genes, with all but PPARG showing higher expression in finishing pigs according to

  6. Carcass traits and cutting yields of entire and immunocastrated pigs fed increasing protein levels with and without ractopamine hydrochloride supplementation.

    PubMed

    Needham, T; Hoffman, L C

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increasing balanced protein, with and without ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC), in the finisher diets of immunocastrates on their carcass cutting yields and respective muscle, fat, and bone proportions. Carcass traits and yields of 120 individually housed entire male pigs and immunocastrates were evaluated following a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design. Vaccination occurred at 16 and 20 wk of age and slaughtering at 24 wk. Up until 20 wk of age, all pigs received a commercial grower diet. Low-, medium-, and high-protein (7.50, 9.79, and 12.07 g standardized ileal digestible [SID] lysine/kg, respectively) diets were then fed for the last 28 d with RAC supplemented at 0 or 10 mg/kg. Immunocastration and RAC supplementation increased ( = 0.003 and = 0.017, respectively) the live weight at slaughter. The interaction between sex and protein ( = 0.039) for caliper backfat depths showed greater backfat depths in immunocastrates fed medium protein whereas RAC decreased ( = 0.027) the caliper backfat depth. Feeding RAC increased the trotters ( = 0.040), tenderloins (fillets; < 0.001), shoulder ( = 0.002), hindquarter ( = 0.026), loin ( = 0.028), and belly ( = 0.044) percentages. The shoulder ( < 0.001), hindquarter ( < 0.001), and loin ( = 0.005) muscle percentages were increased and the hindquarter fat percentages were decreased ( = 0.032) with RAC supplementation. Immunocastration increased the belly cut ( = 0.006), loin fat ( < 0.001), and belly fat ( < 0.001) percentages. Therefore, carcass cutting and lean yields can be improved by RAC supplementation while decreasing the backfat depth, and the increase in backfat due to immunocastration could be avoided with the correct dietary protein level.

  7. Soluble arabinoxylan enhances large intestinal microbial health biomarkers in pigs fed a red meat-containing diet.

    PubMed

    Williams, Barbara A; Zhang, Dagong; Lisle, Allan T; Mikkelsen, Deirdre; McSweeney, Christopher S; Kang, Seungha; Bryden, Wayne L; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how moderately increased dietary red meat combined with a soluble fiber (wheat arabinoxylan [AX]) alters the large intestinal microbiota in terms of fermentative end products and microbial community profiles in pigs. Four groups of 10 pigs were fed Western-type diets containing two amounts of red meat, with or without a solubilized wheat AX-rich fraction for 4 wk. After euthanasia, fermentative end products (short-chain fatty acids, ammonia) of digesta from four sections of large intestine were measured. Di-amino-pimelic acid was a measure of total microbial biomass, and bacterial profiles were determined using a phylogenetic microarray. A factorial model determined effects of AX and meat content. Arabinoxylan was highly fermentable in the cecum, as indicated by increased concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (particularly propionate). Protein fermentation end products were decreased, as indicated by the reduced ammonia and branched-chain ratio although this effect was less prominent distally. Microbial profiles in the distal large intestine differed in the presence of AX (including promotion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii), consistent with an increase in carbohydrate versus protein fermentation. Increased di-amino-pimelic acid (P < 0.0001) suggested increased microbial biomass for animals fed AX. Solubilized wheat AX has the potential to counteract the effects of dietary red meat by reducing protein fermentation and its resultant toxic end products such as ammonia, as well as leading to a positive shift in fermentation end products and microbial profiles in the large intestine. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth performance and preference studies to evaluate solvent-extracted Brassica napus or Brassica juncea canola meal fed to weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Landero, J L; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-12-01

    Inclusion of conventional dark-seeded (Brassica napus) and novel yellow-seeded (Brassica juncea) canola meal (CM) can potentially replace soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM) in pig diets. Our objective was to examine the preference of weaned pigs fed diets containing SBM or B. napus or B. juncea CM and to compare it against previously reported growth performance data (Exp. 1 and 2). In Exp. 1 and 2, growth performance was evaluated using 220 and 240 weaned pigs, respectively, by replacing dietary SBM with up to 20% B. napus (Exp. 1) or 24% B. juncea CM (Exp. 2). Feeding up to 20% B. napus CM to pigs did not affect growth performance, but increasing inclusion of B. juncea CM linearly reduced (P < 0.001) ADFI, ADG, and G:F most likely due to the higher content of glucosinolates, particularly gluconapin in B. juncea CM as confirmed by principle component analysis. In Exp. 3 and 4, SBM and B. napus and B. juncea CM fed at 20% dietary inclusion were evaluated in 2 preference studies using 216 and 144 pigs of 35 d of age, respectively. Pens equipped with 2 feeders housed 8 or 4 pigs per pen, in Exp. 3 and 4, respectively. Diets formulated to equal NE and standardized ileal digestible AA were offered in a paired choice as mash (Exp. 3) or pellets (Exp. 4) for 3 consecutive 7-d periods (3 d nontest and 4 d preference test). The 3 treatments offered were (i) SBM vs. B. napus CM, (ii) SBM vs. B. juncea CM, and (iii) B. napus vs. B. juncea CM. Pigs preferred SBM (P < 0.001) over B. napus and B. juncea CM diets, and pigs preferred B. napus (P < 0.001) over B. juncea CM diet. High content of the glucosinolate gluconapin likely reduced feed preference in B. juncea more than in B. napus CM. In conclusion, the contrast between preference and performance studies feeding CM to pigs indicates that preference studies should be interpreted cautiously until validated by growth performance data.

  9. Dietary cholesterol supplementation improves growth and behavioral response of pigs selected for genetically high and low serum cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Schoknecht, P A; Ebner, S; Pond, W G; Zhang, S; McWhinney, V; Wong, W W; Klein, P D; Dudley, M; Goddard-Finegold, J; Mersmann, H J

    1994-02-01

    We hypothesized that, in pigs selected for low (L) or high (H) serum cholesterol for four generations, neonatal endogenous cholesterol synthesis would be sufficient to meet requirements for brain and body growth. In Experiment 1, eight 16-wk-old L pigs received a diet with or without 200 mg cholesterol/100 g diet for 35 d. Supplemented pigs grew approximately 25% faster and had a significantly greater concentration of free cholesterol in the cerebrum. In Experiment 2, 16 H and 16 L newborn pigs were fed a milk replacer with or without 200 mg cholesterol/100 g diet for 28 d. Pigs fed cholesterol had greater average daily gain (P < or = 0.09), significantly reduced liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity, and significantly increased cerebral cholesterol content than pigs not fed cholesterol. One of three indices of exploratory behavior was significantly greater in the L pigs that received cholesterol compared with L pigs that did not receive cholesterol. These data suggest that these neonatal pigs are unable to produce sufficient cholesterol to meet requirements for normal growth and brain development and are dependent on dietary cholesterol in milk.

  10. Characterization of protected designation of origin Italian meat products obtained from heavy pigs fed barley-based diets.

    PubMed

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Gallo, A; Faeti, V; Della Casa, G

    2015-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the quality and sensory properties of protected designation of origin (PDO) Parma ham and Piacentina neck obtained from heavy pigs (Italian Duroc × Italian Large White) fed barley-based diets. Four diets were tested: 1) a corn-based diet (control), 2) the control diet with 80% of a normal-amylose hulled barley variety (Cometa), 3) the control diet with 80% of a normal-amylose hulless barley variety (Astartis), and 4) the control diet with 80% of a low-amylose hulless barley variety (Alamo). All the meat products were analyzed for physicochemical and color parameters. The dry-cured hams and necks were also evaluated for sensory properties. The data of physicochemical, color, and sensory parameters were separately analyzed by multivariate factor analysis, and interpretation of each extracted factor was based on specific original variables loading on each one. The meat products obtained from pigs fed the barley-based diets differed from those obtained from the control pigs on the PUFA factors characterized by C18:2-6 and omega-3:omega-6 ratio. In particular, the meat products obtained from pigs fed the barley-based diets had a lower content of C18:2-6 and a higher omega-3:omega-6 ratio ( < 0.05) than the control. In fresh hams, iodine number and SFA (C16:0 and C18:0) in addition to PUFA and omega-3:omega-6 ratio loaded on the PUFA/SFA factor. The fresh hams produced from pigs fed the barley-based diets had subcutaneous fat (SC) with a lower iodine number and a higher SFA level compared with those produced from the control pigs ( < 0.05). A sex effect was measured for PUFA/SFA and oleic acid factors. In particular, the barrow SC had a lower SFA content, higher PUFA and C18:1-9 levels, and a higher iodine number ( < 0.05) than the gilt SC. There were no appreciable differences in the color and sensory properties of meat products obtained from pigs fed the different diets. The hams from barrows differed from those obtained from gilts on

  11. Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy Content of Rice Bran Fed to Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Shi, C. X.; Liu, Z. Y.; Shi, M.; Li, P.; Zeng, Z. K.; Liu, L.; Huang, C. F.; Zhu, Z. P.; Li, D. F.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) content of 19 rice bran samples and to develop prediction equations for DE and ME based on their chemical composition. The 19 rice bran samples came from different rice varieties, processing methods and regions. The basal diet was formulated using corn and soybean meal (74.43% corn and 22.91% soybean meal and 2.66% vitamins and minerals). The 19 experimental diets based on a mixture of corn, soybean meal and 29.2% of each source of rice bran, respectively. In Exp. 1, 108 growing barrows (32.1±4.2 kg) were allotted to 1 of 18 treatments according to a completely randomized design with 6 pigs per treatment. The treatment 1 was the control group which was fed with basal diet. The treatments 2 to 18 were fed with experimental diets. In Exp. 2, two additional rice bran samples were measured to verify the prediction equations developed in Exp. 1. A control diet and two rice bran diets were fed to 18 growing barrows (34.6±3.5 kg). The control and experimental diets formulations were the same as diets in Exp. 1. The results showed that the DE ranged from 14.48 to 16.85 (mean 15.84) MJ/kg of dry matter while the ME ranged from 12.49 to 15.84 (mean 14.31) MJ/kg of dry matter. The predicted values of DE and ME of the two additional samples in Exp. 2 were very close to the measured values. PMID:25656179

  12. Distribution of isoflavones in samples of serum, liver and mammary glands of rats or pigs fed dietary isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Gilani, G Sarwar; Farmer, Chantal; Dyck, Monica; Robertson, Patrick; Dahiya, Jagroop; Sepehr, Estatira; Fan, Li; Nicolidakis, Helen; Curran, Ivan; Cooke, Gerard M

    2011-01-01

    There has been great interest in the potential beneficial and adverse health effects of dietary isoflavones. Determination of tissue concentrations of isoflavone metabolites provides an insight into the potential bioactivity of dietary isoflavones. However, data on the distribution of isoflavones in animal models fed dietary isoflavones are limited. In this study, additional data on the distribution of isoflavones in serum and/or tissues of rats and pigs fed dietary isoflavones were generated. Rats (male and female) were fed a casein control diet (containing no isoflavones) and an isoflavone-supplemented diet (containing an alcohol-washed soy protein isolate plus NOVASOY, providing a total of 1,047 mg/kg of total isoflavones). Female pigs were fed a control diet (without soy) containing 17.5 mg/kg of isoflavones, a soy diet containing 582.8 mg/kg of isoflavones or a soy diet supplemented with a daily dose of 2.3 g (equivalent to 42.0 and 14.5 mg/kg of body weight at the onset and end of treatment, respectively) of crystalline genistein. The concentrations of isoflavones in serum and tissues (liver and mammary gland) and in tissues (liver and mammary gland) of pigs were determined via a sensitive and rapid method using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rats fed the control diet containing no isoflavones had nondetectable levels of isoflavone metabolites in serum, liver and mammary gland samples. Rats fed the isoflavone-supplemented diet had the greatest levels of equol, followed by genistein, daidzein and glycitein, respectively, in their serum, livers and mammary glands. The concentrations of total isoflavones (daidzein, equol and genistein plus glycitein) in serum were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in male rats vs. female rats, but the reverse was true in the case of livers. Concentrations of daidzein, equol, genistein and glycitein were lowest (p < 0.05) in the livers of pigs fed the control diet, and in the mammary glands of female pigs there was only

  13. Models to quantify excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in growing pigs fed regional diets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Modern pig production contributes to many environmental problems that relate to manure, especially in areas with highly intensive production systems and in regions like Asia where the regulative control is not effective. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use three different pig diets varying in dietary protein, fibre and fat as representative for Danish (DK), Thai (TH) and Vietnamese (VN) pig production to develop and evaluate different approaches to predict/calculate excretion from growing pigs in comparison with the experimentally determined values. Nine female growing pigs were used in a digestibility and balance experiment. Excretion of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) of the experimental diets were determined. Due to the highest dietary fibre content, VN had the lowest digestibility of N, P and C (73, 49, and 73%, respectively) compared with the DK and TH pig diets. From the known diet composition using standard table values on chemical and nutrient digestibly, high accuracy (bias) and low variation was found and the results could be used for prediction on chemical composition and excretion in faeces and urine in growing pigs. Calculation based on standard values regarding nutrient retention in the pig body as used in the Danish manure normative system (DMNS) showed likewise to be quite useful for quantifying the total excretion of N and P. Overall, the results demonstrate that simple models that require cheap and normally available information on dietary nutrients can give useful information on nutrient excretion in growing pigs. PMID:24206677

  14. Models to quantify excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in growing pigs fed regional diets.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Henry; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Vu, Van Thi Khanh; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2013-11-09

    Modern pig production contributes to many environmental problems that relate to manure, especially in areas with highly intensive production systems and in regions like Asia where the regulative control is not effective. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use three different pig diets varying in dietary protein, fibre and fat as representative for Danish (DK), Thai (TH) and Vietnamese (VN) pig production to develop and evaluate different approaches to predict/calculate excretion from growing pigs in comparison with the experimentally determined values.Nine female growing pigs were used in a digestibility and balance experiment. Excretion of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) of the experimental diets were determined.Due to the highest dietary fibre content, VN had the lowest digestibility of N, P and C (73, 49, and 73%, respectively) compared with the DK and TH pig diets. From the known diet composition using standard table values on chemical and nutrient digestibly, high accuracy (bias) and low variation was found and the results could be used for prediction on chemical composition and excretion in faeces and urine in growing pigs. Calculation based on standard values regarding nutrient retention in the pig body as used in the Danish manure normative system (DMNS) showed likewise to be quite useful for quantifying the total excretion of N and P.Overall, the results demonstrate that simple models that require cheap and normally available information on dietary nutrients can give useful information on nutrient excretion in growing pigs.

  15. Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in various inorganic phosphates fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Woong Bi; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2017-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of phosphorus (P) in five sources of inorganic phosphate fed to growing pigs, including dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monodicalcium phosphate (MDCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP), tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and monosodium phosphate (MSP, reagent grade). Six barrows (42.4 ± 1.1 kg) individually housed in metabolism crates were allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin square design with six dietary treatments and six periods. Each experimental period consisted of a 4 day adaptation period and a 5 day collection period. The five experimental diets contained 0.24 to 0.34% of P from each inorganic phosphate as a sole source of P. A P-free diet was also prepared to estimate the basal endogenous loss of P. The STTD of P in MSP (94.9%) was not different from the STTD of P in MCP (93.0%), but was greater (P < 0.05) than that in DCP, MDCP and TCP (87.0, 86.5 and 71.3%, respectively). In conclusion, digestibility of P in reagent-grade MSP was greater than that in feed-grade inorganic phosphates such as DCP, MDCP and TCP, and digestibility of P in DCP and MDCP was greater than that in the TCP. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Effect of a Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial feed supplement on growth performance and pen cleaning characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Davis, M E; Parrott, T; Brown, D C; de Rodas, B Z; Johnson, Z B; Maxwell, C V; Rehberger, T

    2008-06-01

    A direct-fed microbial (DFM) based on a combination of Bacillus organisms specifically selected to increase the manure decomposition process was evaluated to determine its efficacy for improving growth performance and manure dissolution time. Three experiments involving 336 crossbred barrows and gilts were conducted to determine the effect of the Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance and pen cleaning time. In each experiment, 2 dietary treatments (0 and 0.05% DFM) were fed during the growing-finishing period throughout the experiment, such that the DFM provided 1.47 x 10(8) cfu of Bacillus organisms per gram of supplement. Data from the 3 experiments were combined for analysis, such that there were 28 pens representing each of the 2 treatments. Pigs were weighed and feed intake was determined at the initiation and termination of each phase (starter, grower, and finisher). At the end of Exp. 1 and 3, pen cleaning time was determined by measuring the time required for each pen to be scraped and washed with a high-pressure sprayer. Additionally, 2 solid manure mat samples weighing approximately 4 g each were collected from solid manure buildup in each pen (16 pens/treatment), and the time required to completely disperse each manure mat sample was determined. Gain:feed improved (P < 0.05) in pigs fed Bacillus compared with the control diet during the finisher phase and throughout the combined growing-finishing period. The time required to dissolve the manure mat was reduced (P < 0.01) in samples collected from pens containing pigs fed Bacillus compared with samples from control pens. An additional evaluation was conducted in a commercial swine production facility using statistical process control analysis. Statistical process control analysis determined that supplementation with Bacillus increased the expected mean for ADG and decreased the expected mean for death loss percentage. Supplementation with a DFM composed of specifically selected Bacillus

  17. Performance Responses, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Measures of Gastrointestinal Health in Weanling Pigs Fed Protease Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Tactacan, Glenmer B.; Cho, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Jin H.; Kim, In H.

    2016-01-01

    Although exogenous protease enzymes have been used in poultry diets quite extensively, this has not been the case for pig diets. In general, due to their better gut fermentative capacity and longer transit time, pigs have greater capacity to digest dietary proteins than poultry. However, in early-weaned piglets, the stress brought about by weaning adversely affects the digestion of dietary proteins. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the effects of a commercial protease enzyme in weanling pigs. Indices of growth, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora, fecal gas emission and fecal scores were measured during the study. A total of 50 weanling pigs (6.42±0.12 kg) at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 dietary treatments: i) control diet (corn-soy based) with no supplemental protease (CON), and ii) control diet+200 g/ton protease (PROT) for 42 d. A completely randomized design consisting of 2 treatments, 5 replicates, and 5 pigs in each replicate was used. Growth performance in terms of body weight (27.04±0.38 kg vs 25.75±0.39 kg; p<0.05) and average daily gain (491±7.40 g vs 460±7.46 g; p<0.05) in PROT fed pigs were increased significantly, but gain per feed (0.700±0.01 vs 0.678±0.01; p>0.05) was similar between treatments at d 42. Relative to CON pigs, PROT fed pigs had increased (p<0.05) apparent total tract digestibility (84.66%±0.65% vs 81.21%±1.13% dry matter and 84.02%±0.52% vs 80.47%±1.22% nitrogen) and decreased (p<0.05) NH3 emission (2.0±0.16 ppm vs 1.2±0.12 ppm) in the feces at d 42. Except for a decreased (p<0.05) in blood creatinine level, no differences were observed in red blood cell, white blood cell, lymphocyte, urea nitrogen, and IgG concentrations between treatments. Fecal score and fecal microflora (Lactobacillus and E. coli) were also similar between CON and PROT groups. Overall, the supplementation of protease enzyme in weanling pigs resulted in improved growth rate and nutrient

  18. Controlling Salmonella infection in weanling pigs through water delivery of direct-fed microbials or organic acids: Part II. Effects on intestinal histology and active nutrient transport

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of water-delivered direct-fed microbials (DFM) or organic acids on intestinal morphology and active nutrient absorption in weanling pigs following deliberate Salmonella infection. Pigs (n = 88) were weaned at 19 ± 2 d of age and assigned to one...

  19. Controlling Salmonella infection in weanling pigs through water delivery of direct-fed microbials or organic acids; Part I. Effects on growth performance, microbial populations and immune status

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pigs (n=88) weaned at 19 ± 2 d of age were used in a 14 d study to evaluate the effects of water-delivered direct-fed microbials (DFM) or organic acids on immune status, Salmonella infection and shedding, and intestinal microbial populations following a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge. Pigs were ch...

  20. Tannin is a key factor in the determination and prediction of energy content in sorghum grains fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pan, L; Li, P; Ma, X K; Xu, Y T; Tian, Q Y; Liu, L; Li, D F; Piao, X S

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine and compare the DE and ME content as well as the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE in 28 samples of sorghum grain fed to growing pigs and to generate prediction equations for DE, ME, and the ATTD of GE based on chemical analysis. The 28 samples included 8 low-tannin sorghum cultivars (LTS; tannin ≤ 0.16%), 10 medium-tannin sorghum cultivars (MTS: 0.67% ≤ tannin ≤ 0.98%), and 10 high-tannin sorghum cultivars (HTS; 1.11% ≤ tannin ≤ 1.51%) obtained from 9 provinces in China and 3 samples of LTS cultivars were obtained internationally. The 28 diets were formulated to contain 96.9% of 1 of the 28 sorghum grains and 3.1% of vitamins and minerals. Eighty-four barrows (36.5 ± 3.4 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design conducted during 2 consecutive periods ( = 6 per treatment) with the pigs fed different diets during the 2 periods. For each period, pigs were placed in metabolic crates for a 5-d total collection of feces and urine following 7 d of adaptation to the diets. Among the 28 samples, GE, CP, and ADF content (DM basis) ranged from 4,363 to 4,496 kcal/kg, 8.26 to 13.41%, and 3.26 to 5.78%, respectively. The average tannin content was 0.08, 0.84, and 1.29% in the LTS, MTS, and HTS samples, respectively. The DE and ME content (DM basis) ranged from 3,861 to 3,989 and from 3,784 to 3,905 kcal/kg, respectively, in LTS; from 3,646 to 3,740 and from 3,588 to 3,669 kcal/kg, respectively, in MTS; and from 3,481 to 3,617 and from 3,418 to 3,538 kcal/kg, respectively, in HTS. The mean DE, ME, DE/GE, ME/GE, and ATTD of GE in MTS were less than those in LTS ( < 0.05) and greater than those in HTS ( < 0.05). The correlation coefficients between DE, ME, or the ATTD of GE and tannin content were all -0.96 ( < 0.01). The best-fit equations for DE and ME (kcal/kg DM) for the complete set of 28 sorghum grains were 6,974 - (236 × % tannin) - (43.27 × % ADF) + (24.96 × % CP) - (0.71 × % GE) for

  1. Ileal digestibility of amino acids of cassava, sweet potato, cocoyam and erythrina foliages fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Régnier, C; Jaguelin, Y; Noblet, J; Renaudeau, D

    2012-04-01

    Ileal digestibility in growing pigs fed starch-based diets with inclusion of four tropical leaves in a meal form was studied in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Five diets were formulated with only casein as protein source in the basal diet (CAS), and casein plus dry cassava (CA) leaves, casein plus dry sweet potato (SP) leaves, casein plus dry cocoyam (CO) leaves and casein plus erythrina (ER) leaves in the other four diets. All diets contained the same amount of CP (14%), either provided by only CAS or a combination of casein and 250 g of leaf meal per kg of diet in the other diets. Leaves were separated manually from stems, and only the leaf part was used. A protein-free diet was fed during a sixth period in order to estimate the endogenous protein losses and calculate the CP- and amino-acid (AA)-standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values. The values for the foliages were calculated according to the difference method, assuming no interaction between the foliage and the casein. The ileal tract apparent digestibility of CP, organic matter and energy was higher in diet CAS than in the other diets (P < 0.05). The SID of CP and AA was close to 0.950 for casein, whereas the SID of AA was markedly lower in the foliages; the SID of indispensable and dispensable AA was highest in CO (0.500 and 0.352) and lowest in ER (0.170 and 0.195); intermediate values were obtained for SPs (0.367 and 0.349) and CA (0.232 and 0.242) leaves. Accordingly, the SID of lysine was highest (0.538) for CO leaves and lowest (0.126) in ER leaves; intermediate values were measured for CA and SP leaves. These low SID values in foliage meals must be related to the high levels of dietary fibre and the presence of secondary metabolites (tannins). These results suggest that it is only possible to replace a fraction of the conventional protein sources such as soyabean meal by tropical foliages in growing pig diets with a preference for CO leaves.

  2. Zinc concentration in tissues and performance of weanling pigs fed pharmacological levels of zinc from ZnO, Zn-methionine, Zn-lysine, or ZnSO4.

    PubMed

    Schell, T C; Kornegay, E T

    1996-07-01

    Four trials were conducted to examine concentration of zinc in tissues and performance of pigs fed high levels of Zn from ZnO, Zn-methionine, Zn-lysine, or ZnSO4. In Trials 1 (n = 80, 28 d of age, 7.5 kg BW), 2 (n = 80, 26 d of age, 7.1 kg BW), and 3 (n = 70, 23 d of age, 5.3 kg BW), pigs were assigned either to a control diet containing 105 mg/kg of Zn and 15 mg/kg of Cu or to supplemental dietary treatments of 3,000, 2,000, or 1,000 mg of Zn/kg of diet. In all three trials, dietary sources were ZnO, Zn-methionine, Zn-lysine, or ZnSO4. The trials lasted 2 wk. In Trial 1, performance of pigs generally was not improved by feeding 3,000 mg of Zn/kg from any of the Zn sources. Serum, liver, and rib Zn concentrations (P < .01) and liver Zn concentrations (P < .05) were greater for pigs fed the high Zn diets. In Trial 2, feeding high Zn did not affect overall performance. Pigs fed the high Zn diets had greater (P < .01) serum, liver, kidney, and rib Zn concentrations. In Trial 3, there were no differences (P > .10) in ADG or ADFI, but serum and liver Zn concentrations were greater (P < .01 and .05, respectively) for pigs fed high Zn diets. Within Zn sources, serum and liver concentrations of Zn were greater (P < .05) for pigs fed ZnSO4 rather than ZnO in Trials 1 and 2. In Trial 4 (n = 72, 7.1 kg), 25-d-old pigs fed diets containing 3,000 mg/kg of Zn from feed-grade ZnSO4, reagent-grade ZnSO4, or feed-grade ZnO in a 4-wk growth trial had similar ADG and ADFI, but the gain:feed ratio was lower (P < .05) for pigs fed the reagent-grade ZnSO4. Serum, liver, and kidney Zn concentrations were lower (P < .05) for pigs fed the ZnO diet after wk 2 than for pigs fed the ZnSO4 diets, but no differences (P > .10) were observed at the end of wk 4. In summary, performance was not enhanced by feeding pharmacological levels of zinc after weaning, although serum and tissue Zn concentrations were increased. When compared with the bioavailability of Zn in ZnSO4, the bioavailability of Zn

  3. Amino acid digestibility in low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Curry, Shelby Marie; Navarro, Diego Mario David Labadan; Almeida, Ferdinando Nielsen; Almeida, Juliana Abranches Soares; Stein, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in 3 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with different concentrations of fat. Twelve growing barrows (initial body weight: 76.1 [Formula: see text] 6.2 kg) were randomly allotted to a replicated 6 × 4 Youden square design with 6 diets and 4 periods. The fat content of the 3 sources of DDGS were 11.5, 7.5, and 6.9% respectively. Diets contained 60% DDGS and fat concentration of the diets were 7.5, 5.2, and 5.2%, respectively. Two additional diets containing the 2 sources of DDGS with 7.5 and 6.9% fat were also formulated, and corn oil was added to these diets to increase the concentration of fat in the diets to levels that were calculated to be similar to the diet containing conventional DDGS with 11.5% fat. A N-free diet was also formulated to calculate endogenous losses of crude protein (CP) and AA from the pigs. Pigs were fed experimental diets during four 7-d periods. The first 5 d of each period were an adaptation period and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The apparent ileal digestibililty (AID) and SID of CP and all indispensable AA, except AID Pro and SID of Trp, were greater (P < 0.01) in conventional DDGS than in the 2 sources of DDGS with reduced fat. Adding oil to the diets containing the 2 sources of DDGS with reduced fat did not consistently increase SID of AA. In conclusion, conventional DDGS has greater SID values for most AA compared with DDGS that contains less fat and inclusion of additional oil to diets containing low-fat DDGS does not increase AID or SID of AA. The lower AA digestibility in low-fat DDGS could not be overcome by the inclusion of additional fat to the diets.

  4. Prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) pectin alters hepatic cholesterol metabolism without affecting cholesterol absorption in guinea pigs fed a hypercholesterolemic diet.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M L; Lin, E C; Trejo, A; McNamara, D J

    1994-06-01

    Prickly pear pectin intake decreases plasma LDL concentrations by increasing hepatic apolipoprotein B/E receptor expression in guinea pigs fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. To investigate whether prickly pear pectin has an effect on cholesterol absorption and on enzymes responsible for hepatic cholesterol homeostasis, guinea pigs were fed one of three semipurified diets, each containing 15 g lard/100 g diet: 1) the lard-basal diet with no added cholesterol or prickly pear pectin (LB diet); 2) the LB diet with 0.25 g added cholesterol/100 g diet (LC diet); or 3) the LC diet containing 2.5 g prickly pear pectin/100 g diet, added at the expense of cellulose (LC-P diet). Animals fed the LB diet had the lowest plasma LDL and hepatic cholesterol concentrations, followed by animals fed the LC-P diet (P < 0.001). Hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity was highest in the group fed the LB diet, with similar values for animals in the other two groups. A positive correlation existed between plasma LDL cholesterol concentration and hepatic acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity (r = 0.87, P < 0.001). Cholesterol absorption was not different among the three dietary groups. These results indicate that the decreased plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations of animals fed prickly pear pectin are not explained by differences in cholesterol absorption but rather are due to mechanisms that alter hepatic cholesterol homeostasis, resulting in lower plasma LDL concentrations.

  5. Characterisation of the gastrointestinal bacterial community in pigs fed fermented liquid feed and dry feed: composition and fermentation capacity (phenotypic fingerprint).

    PubMed

    Højberg, O; Knudsen, B; Canibe, N; Jensen, B B

    2001-01-01

    Feeding pigs with fermented liquid feed (FLF) has been shown to reduce the number of enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Brachyospira hyodysenteriae as well as coliform bacteria in general in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Also the commensal bacterial populations have been shown to respond to the use of FLF, e.g. the total counts of anaerobes, including lactic acid bacteria are reduced. In the present work we demonstrate that the capacity to ferment a series of substrates (mainly low-molecular weight carbohydrates) is reduced in caecum, colon and faeces of pigs fed FLF compared to pigs fed dry feed. This reduction could be due to the fact that these substrates are partially depleted by fermentation in the liquid feed prior to entering the animal. Therefore nutrient availability may be limited in the large intestine of pigs fed FLF, which may again affect bacterial enzyme synthesis and growth and thus the possibility for pathogenic and zoonotic bacteria to establish.

  6. Effect of supplemental vitamin E and selenium in high moisture corn diets on the incidence of mulberry heart disease and hepatosis dietetica in pigs.

    PubMed

    Sharp, B A; Young, L G; Van Dreumel, A A

    1972-10-01

    Forty-eight intact male pigs were used to investigate the influence of source of protein supplement, corn moisture content, and supplemental vitamin E-selenium survived the cidence of mulberry heart disease, hepatosis dietetica and associated lesions. Pigs fed soybean meal-high moisture corn diets survived fewer days than pigs fed the other diets. None of the pigs fed torula yeast-dry corn or soybean meal-high moisture corn without supplemental vitamin E-selenium survived the 13 week trial. Supplemental vitamin E-selenium increased survival of pigs. A higher incidence of hepatosis dietetica, myocardial degeneration, skeletal muscle degeneration, and exudative diathesis was observed in pigs fed torula yeast-dry corn or soybean meal-high moisture corn than pigs fed soybean meal-dry corn. Supplemental vitamin E-selenium resulted in a reduction in the incidence of the above lesions by approximately 50% with the exception of hepatosis dietetica. Tissue selenium concentration did not appear to be related to the incidence of the various lesions.

  7. Effect of Supplemental Vitamin E and Selenium in High Moisture Corn Diets on the Incidence of Mulberry Heart Disease and Hepatosis Dietetica in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, B. A.; Young, L. G.; Dreumel, A. A. van

    1972-01-01

    Forty-eight intact male pigs were used to investigate the influence of source of protein supplement, corn moisture content, and supplemental vitamin E-selenium survived the cidence of mulberry heart disease, hepatosis dietetica and associated lesions. Pigs fed soybean meal-high moisture corn diets survived fewer days than pigs fed the other diets. None of the pigs fed torula yeast-dry corn or soybean meal-high moisture corn without supplemental vitamin E-selenium survived the 13 week trial. Supplemental vitamin E-selenium increased survival of pigs. A higher incidence of hepatosis dietetica, myocardial degeneration, skeletal muscle degeneration, and exudative diathesis was observed in pigs fed torula yeast-dry corn or soybean meal-high moisture corn than pigs fed soybean meal-dry corn. Supplemental vitamin E-selenium resulted in a reduction in the incidence of the above lesions by approximately 50% with the exception of hepatosis dietetica. Tissue selenium concentration did not appear to be related to the incidence of the various lesions. PMID:4263921

  8. Pigs fed saturated fat/cholesterol have a blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, are insulin resistant and have decreased expression of IRS-1, PGC1α and PPARα.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Michael A; Karamanlidis, Georgios; Laws, John; Cremers, Stephanie G; Weinberg, Peter D; Clarke, Lynne

    2013-04-01

    The increasing incidence of insulin resistance has been linked to both increased intake of saturated fatty acids and disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We tested the hypothesis that adding saturated fat/cholesterol to the diet of growing pigs would both disrupt HPA function and cause insulin resistance. Three-month-old pigs were fed either a control (13% energy from fat) or a high saturated fatty acid cholesterol (HSFC) diet (44% energy from fat; 2% cholesterol). After 10 weeks on the diets, intravenous ACTH, insulin and glucose challenges were performed, and after 12 weeks, tissue samples were taken for measurement of mRNA and for lipid-rich aortic lesions. Plasma total, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol were significantly increased in pigs fed the HSFC diet. Cortisol release during the ACTH challenge was suppressed in HSFC-fed pigs which were also more insulin resistant and glucose intolerant than controls. The HSFC diet decreased the expression of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate-1 in muscle and adipose tissue as well as adiponectin and adiponectin receptor 2 expression in fat. The HSFC diet decreased PGC-1α and PPARα expression in muscle but increased PPARα expression in liver. There was a trend for an increase in lipid-stained lesion frequency around the abdominal branches of the aorta in HSFC-fed pigs. We conclude that feeding increased saturated fat to pigs causes disruption in the HPA axis, insulin resistance and decreased muscle and adipose expression of genes controlling insulin signalling and mitochondrial oxidative capacity.

  9. Differences in whole-body protein turnover between Iberian and Landrace pigs fed adequate or lysine-deficient diets.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Ferre, M G; Aguilera, J F; Nieto, R

    2006-12-01

    The capacity for protein deposition in Iberian pigs is lower than in modern (e.g., Landrace) pig breeds, and the reasons for this remain unknown. The hypothesis tested in this work is that under similar nutritional and physiological conditions, whole-body protein turnover as well as the protein synthesis to protein deposition ratio differs between Iberian and Landrace breeds, resulting in dissimilar protein deposition rates. As a main objective, these variables were compared at different protein and Lys intakes in growing gilts. The study examined the effect of Lys deficiency because this is the prevalent condition during the fattening period of the Iberian pig in the Mediterranean forest, where the main feed source is oak acorn, which provides approximately one-third of the available Lys present in an ideal protein. Three diets were tested within each breed: 2 diets with an optimal essential AA pattern, containing 12 or 16% CP as-fed, or a Lys-deficient diet (35% of the recommended Lys content). This diet was supplied at 12% CP for the Iberian and 16% CP for the Landrace pigs, respectively. The contrasts made were breed x dietary protein concentration and breed x AA pattern (adequate vs. inadequate Lys content). Cumulative urinary (15)N excretion over 60 h after receiving an oral dose of [(15)N]-glycine was used to calculate N flux. Mean BW for Landrace and Iberian pigs were 25.8 +/- 0.55 kg and 30.8 +/- 0.74 kg, respectively. Protein deposition (g of N/(kg(0.75).d) was lower in the Iberian than in the Landrace gilts (4 to 16%; P = 0.002) and increased with dietary protein content. In contrast, protein synthesis and degradation [g of N/(kg(0.75).d)] were greater for the Landrace breed (16 to 18 and 23%, respectively, for the 2 dietary protein contents studied; P < 0.05), but no breed differences were detected in fractional protein synthesis and degradation rates. The ratio of protein synthesis:protein deposition (S/PD) did not change with dietary protein

  10. Effects of a multi-strain Bacillus species-based direct-fed microbial on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, and gut health in nursery pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Indrakumar, S; Kiarie, E; Kim, I H

    2015-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a spp.-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), blood profile, intestinal histomorphology, and fecal gas emission in piglets fed corn and soybean meal-based diets. The DFM product was based on 1 strain of and 2 strains of and formulated to supply 1.5 × 10 cfu/g of feed. A total of 128 piglets ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc; 6.8 ± 0.6 kg BW; weaning age: 24 d) were housed in groups (4 pigs/pen, 2 barrows and 2 gilts) and fed diets ( = 16) without or with DFM in a 2-phase feeding program: d 0 to 14 (phase I) and 15 to 42 (phase II). Feed intake and BW were measured weekly. At the end of each phase, samples for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood creatinine, ATTD, and fecal noxious gas emission were taken. At termination, 12 piglets per treatment were killed to access intestinal tissues for histomorphology. Overall, pigs fed DFM had a greater ( < 0.05) G:F than pigs fed the control diet. In phase I, pigs fed DFM showed a greater ( < 0.05) ADG and lower ( < 0.05) concentration of BUN and fecal ammonia emission than the control group. In phase II, a greater ( < 0.05) ATTD of nitrogen and longer ( < 0.05) duodenum and jejunum villi were observed in pigs fed the DFM diet compared with the control group. In conclusion, inclusion of DFM improved growth performance and villi length of the duodenum and jejunum in nursery pigs. Furthermore, DFM enhanced protein utilization as demonstrated by increased nitrogen digestibility, lower BUN, and lower fecal ammonia release.

  11. Chemical composition and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of eight genotypes of rye fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Strang, E J P; Eklund, M; Rosenfelder, P; Sauer, N; Htoo, J K; Mosenthin, R

    2016-09-01

    A study with growing pigs was conducted to determine the chemical composition, physical characteristics, and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA of 8 rye genotypes that have recently been added to the German Descriptive Variety List. Eight barrows with an initial BW of 24 ± 2 kg were fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum and allotted to an 8 × 8 Latin square design with 8 periods of 6 d each and 8 pigs receiving 8 different diets. The N-free method was used to determine the basal ileal endogenous CP and AA losses. The 8 assay diets contained 1 of 8 rye genotypes (Guttino, Palazzo, Visello, Bellami, Dukato, Conduct, Helltop, and Dankowski Diament) as the sole source of CP and AA. The rye genotypes were grown under identical environmental conditions on the same site. Among the 8 rye genotypes, contents of CP ranged from 9.5 to 11.2% (as-fed basis) and contents of total nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) ranged from 10.7 to 12.9% (as-fed basis). Arabinoxylan (AX) constituted the major NSP fraction, with values ranging from 6.5 to 7.6% (as-fed basis). Among the 8 rye genotypes, starch contents ranged from 55.7 to 57.5% (as-fed basis). The SID of CP in the 8 rye genotypes ranged from 70 to 74%. The SID of Cys in genotypes Visello, Bellami, Dukato, and Dankowski Diament was lower ( < 0.05) when compared with Palazzo, Conduct, and Helltop. For all other AA, SID in the 8 rye genotypes did not differ. The standardized ileal digestible content (cSID) of CP was greatest ( < 0.001) in genotype Dankowski Diament (8.1%, as-fed basis) and lowest ( < 0.001) in genotype Guttino (6.9%, as-fed basis). Genotype Guttino had the lowest ( < 0.05) cSID of AA among all rye genotypes, except for Trp, Gly, and Pro. For Thr, Ala, and Gly, there were no differences in cSID among the 8 rye genotypes. For CP and most AA, cSID decreased as contents of total and insoluble β-glucan ( < 0.05), total AX, and soluble NSP increased ( < 0.05). The results of the present study

  12. Composition and quality characteristics of carcasses from pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake on high- or low-energy diets.

    PubMed

    Arkfeld, E K; Young, J M; Johnson, R C; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K; Patience, J F; Dekkers, J C M; Gabler, N K; Lonergan, S M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to determine the extent to which feeding low-energy, high-fiber (LEHF) and high-energy, low-fiber (HELF) diets impacts meat quality and carcass composition of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI). Two experiments were conducted in the divergently selected Iowa State University RFI lines: Exp. 1 evaluated carcasses of generation (G) 8 pigs fed on commercial feeders; Exp. 2 evaluated composition, pork quality, sensory, and postmortem proteolysis of pigs fed on electronic single-space feeders in G 8 and 9. Pigs (N = 177) in Exp. 1 were randomly assigned a pen (mixed sex and line; N = 8). Groups (n = 3) of pigs were slaughtered at a mean BW of 121.5 kg. Pigs in Exp. 2 (G8: n = 158; G9: n = 157) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 pens of each diet per G. Pigs from G8 were slaughtered at a mean BW of 122.5 kg and G9 at a mean of 128.4 kg. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS. Fixed effects were line, diet, sex, and all appropriate interactions. Random effects were group, pen, litter, and sire and covariate of off-test BW. For Exp. 2, G was added as a fixed effect and sensory day was added as a random effect when applicable. In Exp. 1, carcasses from low RFI (LRFI) pigs were leaner and had less fat depth (P < 0.01). Carcasses from pigs fed the LEHF diet had a lighter HCW and greater estimated percent lean than pigs fed HELF diet (P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, LRFI pigs on the HELF diet had the greatest loin depth (P < 0.01). Chops from HRFI pigs had greater drip loss, color scores, lean tissue a*, and percent lipid and lesser percent moisture than LRFI ( P< 0.05). Chops from pigs on the LEHF diet had lesser muscle L* values and greater percent moisture than chops from pigs fed the HELF diet (P < 0.05). Chops from LRFI pigs were juicer than those from HRFI pigs (P < 0.05). Protein extracted at d 2 postmortem from LRFI pigs on the LEHF diet had a greater 38 kDa desmin degradation product than protein from LRFI pigs fed the HELF

  13. Supplemental Escherichia coli phytase and strontium enhance bone strength of young pigs fed a phosphorus-adequate diet.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Angela R; Yasuda, Koji; Roneker, Karl R; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Lei, Xin Gen

    2007-07-01

    Young pigs represent an excellent model of youth to assess potentials of dietary factors for improving bone structure and function. We conducted 2 experiments to determine whether adding microbial phytase (2,000 U/kg, OptiPhos, JBS United) and Sr (50 mg/kg, SrCO3 Alfa Aesar) into a P-adequate diet further improved bone strength of young pigs. In Expt. 1, 24 gilts (8.6 +/- 0.1 kg body wt) were divided into 2 groups (n = 12), and fed a corn-soybean-meal basal diet (BD, 0.33% available P) or BD + phytase for 6 wk. In Expt. 2, 32 pigs (11.4 +/- 0.2 kg) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8), and fed BD, BD + phytase, BD + Sr, or BD + phytase and Sr for 5 wk. Both supplemental phytase and Sr enhanced (P < 0.05) breaking strengths (11-20%), mineral content (6-15%), and mineral density (6-11%) of metatarsals and femurs. Supplemental phytase also resulted in larger total bone areas (P < 0.05) and a larger cross-sectional area of femur (P = 0.06). Concentrations of Sr were elevated 4-fold (P < 0.001) in both bones by Sr, and moderately increased (P = 0.05-0.07) in metatarsal by phytase. In conclusion, supplemental phytase at 2000 U/kg of P-adequate diets enhanced bone mechanical function of weanling pigs by modulating both geometrical and chemical properties of bone. The similar benefit of supplemental Sr was mainly due to an effect on bone chemical properties.

  14. Determination of the energy value of corn distillers dried grains with solubles containing different oil levels when fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Z-C; Li, P; Liu, D-W; Li, D-F; Wang, F-L; Su, Y-B; Zhu, Z-P; Piao, X-S

    2017-04-01

    This experiment used indirect calorimetry to determine the net energy (NE) content of five corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn DDGS) containing different oil levels and to compare the NE obtained using indirect calorimetry with that calculated using previously published prediction equations. There were two samples of high-oil DDGS, one sample of medium-oil DDGS and two samples of low-oil DDGS. Twelve barrows (initial BW of 32.8 ± 2.0 kg) were used in a repeated 3 × 6 Youden square design with three periods and six diets. The diets were comprised of a corn-soybean meal basal diet and five diets containing 29.25% of one of the corn DDGS added at the expense of corn and soybean meal. During each period, the pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates for 16 days which included 7 days for adaption to feed and environmental conditions. On day 8, the pigs were transferred to respiration chambers and fed one of the six diets at 2300 kJ ME/kg BW(0.6) /day. Faeces and urine were collected from day 9 to 13 and heat production (HP) was also measured. From day 14 to 15, the pigs were fed 893 kJ ME/kg BW(0.6) /day to allow them to adapt from the fed to the fasted state. On the last day of each period (day 16), the pigs were fasted and fasting HP was measured. The digestible energy value was 16.0, 17.1 and 15.3 MJ/kg DM, the metabolizable energy value was 14.6, 15.5 and 13.7 MJ/kg DM and the NE value was 10.7, 11.0 and 9.4 MJ/kg DM, for the high-oil, medium-oil and low-oil corn DDGS, respectively. The NE obtained with indirect calorimetry in the present study did not differ from values calculated using previously published prediction equations.

  15. Performance and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs fed wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles-containing diets supplemented with phytase and multi-carbohydrase.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, Tofuko A; Ige, Dupe V; Akinremi, Oluwole O; Nyachoti, Charles M

    2016-04-01

    Effect of supplementing wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS)-containing diet with enzymes on nutrient utilization by growing pigs was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 60 pigs weighing ~30 kg were fed five diets that included a corn-based diet (Control), Control with 10% wheat DDGS (DDGS-PC), DDGS-PC without inorganic P source (DDGS-NC), and DDGS-NC plus phytase alone or with multi-carbohydrase for 4 weeks to determine average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain-to-feed ratio (G:F). In Experiment 2, 30 barrows weighing 22 kg were fed five diets fed in Experiment 1 to determine nutrient digestibility and retention. Pigs fed DDGS-PC and Control diets had similar ADG and G:F. The ADG and G:F for DDGS-PC diet were higher (P < 0.05) than those for DDGS-NC diet. Phytase improved (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, total tract P digestibility and P retention by 6.6, 8.7, 86.0 and 85.5%, respectively. Addition of multi-carbohydrase to phytase-supplemented diet did not affected growth performance, but reduced (P < 0.05) P retention. In conclusion, inclusion of 10% wheat DDGS in growing pig diet may not affect growth performance of growing pigs. Phytase supplementation to wheat DDGS-containing diet can eliminate the need for inorganic P supplement in pig diets.

  16. Determination of quarantine period in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed with pig (Sus sp.) offal to assure compliance with halal standards.

    PubMed

    Wan Norhana, M N; Dykes, G A; Padilah, B; Ahmad Hazizi, A A; Masazurah, A R

    2012-12-01

    Pig (Sus sp.) and pig by-products are considered as najasa (impurities) in Islam and forbidden in Muslim consumer products. Animals fed on najasa are categorised as al-jallālah (contaminated animals) which are allowed to be consumed as long as they have been quarantined for a certain period of time. During this quarantine period the animals will have undergone a natural purification process or istihālah. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) are commonly consumed in Malaysia and may be fed on najasa. This study was carried out to estimate the istihālah period for catfish after feeding with pig offal, based on the absence of pig DNA in catfish gut and to suggest the quarantine period in catfish fed with pig offal. The results indicated that the maximum istihālah period could reach 36h in the stomach, 6h in the midgut and less than 2h in the hindgut although in many cases shorter periods were observed. Based on these results it is estimated that the minimum quarantine period for catfish fed with pig offal is 1.5days.

  17. The course of phosphorus excretion in growing pigs fed continuously increasing phosphorus concentrations after a phosphorus depletion.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, M; Faust, M; Pfeffer, E

    1999-01-01

    A balance study was performed in order to quantify the effect of continuously increased phosphorus (P) intake on faecal and urinary P excretion. The aim was to quantify the level of intake where regulatory P excretion becomes relevant for comparative digestibility measurements on P, and when the pig adapts its urinary P excretion to increased P intake. Phosphorus intake of growing pigs was continuously increased on a daily basis starting at a marginal level and P excretion via faeces and urine was continuously followed for 92 days. Two semi-synthetic diets were prepared with different proportions of Na2HPO4 resulting in 2.4 (diet 1) and 6.3 (diet 2) g P/kg DM. Concentration of Ca was adapted to achieve a Ca supply approximately 3.1 fold the digestible P supply. Six castrated male crossbred pigs (31 kg BW) were kept individually in metabolism crates after they had undergone a 14 d P depletion period during which they were fed diet 1 solely. Pigs received 1.04kg of diet 1 per day throughout the experiment, and each day the amount of feed and P supplied to pigs from diet 2 was increased by 12 g and 69 mg, respectively. ME supply was approximately 2.4 fold maintenance and average daily BW gain of pigs during the entire experiment was 690 +/- 30 g. While intake increased linearly, faecal excretion of P and Ca increased non-linearly and could be best described by third order polynomial functions. The proportion of ingested P not excreted via faeces followed a quadratic type of curve with a maximum of 81% at 25 days on experiment and P intake of 4.0 g/d. Thereafter, the proportion decreased continuously. The digestibility of P from diet 2, determined by the slope ratio technique, was constant and not affected by P intake up to a P intake of 5 g/d. Renal P excretion did not exceed inevitable losses until day 60 and increased exponentially thereafter when body P reserves were restored. It is concluded, that an adaptation to surplus P supply occurred earlier on the

  18. Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Petersen, G I; Stein, H H

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent ileal digestibility and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and hominy feed and to compare these values with the apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and AA in corn and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Eight growing barrows (initial BW: 82.5 ± 5.5 kg) were randomly allotted to an 8 × 8 Latin square design with 8 diets and 8 periods. Diets contained corn, DDGS, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, or hominy feed as the sole source of protein and AA. An N-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of AA and protein. Pigs were fed experimental diets for eight 7-d periods, with ileal digesta being collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results indicated that the SID of Lys in corn gluten meal (78.7%) was greater (P < 0.01) than in DDGS, bakery meal, corn germ meal, and hominy feed (46.0, 48.4, 68.4, and 58.8%, respectively). The SID of all indispensable AA except Arg, Leu, and Met in bakery meal were not different from those in DDGS. The SID of Arg, His, Leu, and Met in corn gluten feed were less (P < 0.01) than in corn, but the SID of all other indispensable AA in corn gluten feed were not different from those in corn. However, for most indispensable AA, the SID in corn gluten feed was not different from the SID in DDGS. The SID of all indispensable AA in corn germ meal, except Arg, His, Leu, and Met, were not different from the SID in corn. Likewise, the SID of all indispensable AA in corn germ meal, except Arg and Leu, were not different from those in DDGS. The SID of Ile, Met, Phe, and Val in hominy feed were less (P < 0.01) than in corn, but the SID of the remaining indispensable AA in hominy feed were not different from the SID of indispensable AA in corn. All indispensable AA in hominy feed also had SID values that were not different from the SID values

  19. Effect of phytase on apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in corn-soybean meal diets fed to finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Miller, P S; Southern, L L

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments were conducted to investigate the ability of different phytase products to improve P digestibility in finishing pigs. A corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 0.50% Ca, 0.32% P, and 0.40% Cr(2)O(3) was used to calculate apparent P and GE digestibility. Pigs were individually penned and fed their respective diet for ad libitum intake for 12 d before fecal sampling on d 13 and 14 and blood collection on d 14 for plasma P determination. Experiments 1 through 4 used gilts with across-trial average initial and final BW of 84 and 97 kg, respectively. Pigs were fed Natuphos (Exp. 1), OptiPhos (Exp. 2), Phyzyme (Exp. 3), or RonozymeP (Exp. 4) at 0, 200, 400, 600, 800, or 1,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg (where 1 FTU is defined as the quantity of enzyme required to liberate 1 micromol of inorganic P per min, at pH 5.5, from an excess of 15 micromol/L of sodium phytate at 37 degrees C). Experiment 5 used barrows with initial and final BW of 98 and 111 kg, respectively, and were fed diets containing 0, 500, or 1,000 FTU/kg of Natuphos, OptiPhos, Phyzyme, or RonozymeP. Pigs fed Natuphos (Exp. 1) and OptiPhos (Exp. 2) exhibited a linear and quadratic (P < 0.01) improvement in P digestibility with increasing levels of dietary phytase, whereas pigs fed Phyzyme (Exp. 3) and RonozymeP (Exp. 4) exhibited a linear (P < 0.01) improvement in apparent P digestibility with increasing levels of dietary phytase. In Exp. 5, the improvement in apparent P digestibility with increasing levels of dietary phytase was linear (P < 0.01) for Natuphos, Phyzyme, and RonozymeP, but was linear and quadratic (P < 0.01) for OptiPhos. Based on regression analysis, inorganic P release at 500 FTU/kg was predicted to be 0.070, 0.099, 0.038, and 0.030% for Natuphos, OptiPhos, Phyzyme, and RonozymeP, respectively. These estimates are comparable with those of pigs in Exp. 5, for which the estimated inorganic P release at 500 FTU/kg was 0.102, 0.039, and 0.028% for OptiPhos, Phyzyme, and Ronozyme

  20. Expression of heat shock protein 27 in gut tissue of growing pigs fed diets without and with inclusion of chicory fiber.

    PubMed

    Liu, H Y; Lundh, T; Dicksved, J; Lindberg, J E

    2012-12-01

    The physiological expression of cytoprotective heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) in the gut was investigated in eighteen 7-wk-old pigs fed one of 3 fiber-rich diets for 18 d. The diets were a cereal-based control diet and a cereal-based diet with inclusion of either 80 g/kg chicory forage (CF80) or chicory root (CR80). Immunohistochemical staining showed that Hsp27 was expressed in all the samples from ileum and colon. The expression was most intensive in the apical intestinal epitheliums in close contact with luminal contents and lighter in crypt cells. The ileal Peyer's patches showed a strong expression of Hsp27, which was highly correlated with Hsp27 expression in the ileal epithelial cells (P = 0.003). The frequency of ileal Hsp27 expression with the most intensive staining was distributed higher in pigs fed chicory forage diet (CF80, 25%) followed by chicory root diet (CR80, 16.7%) and the control (11.1%). In proximal colon, the frequency of expression showed a similar pattern for the different diets. The intestinal microbiota profile was characterized with the intention to find correlations to heat shock protein (Hsp) expression in pig gastrointestinal (GI) tract and showed that the distal ileum and proximal colon encompass its own unique microbial profile. However, no significant relationship was found between gut microbiota diversity and Hsp27 expression. These indicate that Hsp27 expression in the porcine gut could be associated with specific dietary fiber components but not the overall microbiota diversity.

  1. Effectiveness of a zinc amino acid chelate and zinc sulfate in restoring serum and soft tissue zinc concentrations when fed to zinc-depleted pigs.

    PubMed

    Swinkels, J W; Kornegay, E T; Zhou, W; Lindemann, M D; Webb, K E; Verstegen, M W

    1996-10-01

    In a 36-d experiment, 32 pigs were depleted of Zn (24 d) using a soy-isolate (basal) diet (17 mg/kg of Zn) and then fed the basal diet (12 d) supplemented with 45 mg/kg of Zn from ZnSO4 (purified zinc sulfate dry powder, ZnSO4.nH2O) or from a Zn amino acid chelate (ZnAAC) to study the effectiveness of these dietary Zn sources in restoring serum and soft tissue Zn concentrations. Concurrently, nondepleted pigs were pair-fed both Zn-supplemented diets (eight pigs per diet) throughout the experiment. Serum Zn concentrations and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of pigs fed the diets with no supplemental Zn were lower (P < .05) than those of nondepleted pigs after 7 and 14 d, respectively. After 24 d, concentrations of Zn in liver, pancreas, kidney, brain, and small intestine of Zn-depleted pigs were lower (P < .01) than those of nondepleted pigs. Except for decreased (P < .001) kidney Cu, soft tissue Cu and Fe concentrations were not affected by Zn status or Zn source. From d 24 to 36 (Zn repletion), serum and tissue Zn concentrations and serum ALP activities increased (P < .05), but the response was similar for both Zn sources in Zn-depleted and nondepleted pigs. At d 30 and 36, kidney Cu was increased (P < .01) in Zn-depleted pigs fed 45 mg/kg of Zn as either ZnSO4 or ZnAAC. Furthermore, Fe concentration was higher (P < .05) in intestinal segments of Zn-depleted and nondepleted pigs fed ZnAAC than in pigs fed ZnSO4. Accumulations of Cu in the kidney and Fe in the small intestine were affected by depletion and repletion of Zn and by dietary Zn source, respectively. In conclusion, serum and soft tissue Zn concentrations were clearly affected by Zn status: however, an effect of Zn source was not observed.

  2. Safety Evaluation of Neo Transgenic Pigs by Studying Changes in Gut Microbiota Using High-Throughput Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shengwang; Cai, Chunbo; Ma, Dezun; Gao, Pengfei; Li, Hegang; Jiang, Ke; Tang, Maoxue; Hou, Jian; Liu, Jie; Cui, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The neo (neomycin phosphotransferase) gene is widely used as a selection marker in the production of genetically engineered animals and plants. Recent attention has been focused on safety concerns regarding neo transgene expression. In this study, neo transgenic and non-transgenic piglets were randomly assigned into Group A and Group B to evaluate effects of neo transgene by studying changes in gut microbiota using high-throughput sequencing. Group A pigs were fed a standard diet supplemented with antibiotic neomycin; Group B pigs were fed a standard diet. We examined horizontal transfer of exogenous neo gene using multiplex PCR; and investigated if the presence of secreted NPT II (neo expression product) in the intestine could lead to some protection against neomycin in transgenic pigs by monitoring different patterns of changes in gut microbiota in Group A animals. The unintended effects of neo transgene on gut microbiota were studied in Group B animals. Horizontal gene transfer was not detected in gut microbiota of any transgenic pigs. In Group A, a significant difference was observed between transgenic pigs and non-transgenic pigs in pattern of changes in Proteobacteria populations in fecal samples during and post neomycin feeding. In Group B, there were significant differences in the relative abundance of phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, and genera Lactobacillus and Escherichia-Shigella-Hafnia between transgenic pigs and non-transgenic pigs. We speculate that the secretion of NPT II from transgenic tissues/cells into gut microbiota results in the inhibition of neomycin activity and the different patterns of changes in bacterial populations. Furthermore, the neo gene also leads to unintended effects on gut microbiota in transgenic pigs that were fed with basic diet (not supplemented with neomycin). Thus, our data in this study caution that wide use of the neo transgene in genetically engineered animals should be carefully considered and fully

  3. Safety Evaluation of Neo Transgenic Pigs by Studying Changes in Gut Microbiota Using High-Throughput Sequencing Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingqing; Qian, Lili; Jiang, Shengwang; Cai, Chunbo; Ma, Dezun; Gao, Pengfei; Li, Hegang; Jiang, Ke; Tang, Maoxue; Hou, Jian; Liu, Jie; Cui, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The neo (neomycin phosphotransferase) gene is widely used as a selection marker in the production of genetically engineered animals and plants. Recent attention has been focused on safety concerns regarding neo transgene expression. In this study, neo transgenic and non-transgenic piglets were randomly assigned into Group A and Group B to evaluate effects of neo transgene by studying changes in gut microbiota using high-throughput sequencing. Group A pigs were fed a standard diet supplemented with antibiotic neomycin; Group B pigs were fed a standard diet. We examined horizontal transfer of exogenous neo gene using multiplex PCR; and investigated if the presence of secreted NPT II (neo expression product) in the intestine could lead to some protection against neomycin in transgenic pigs by monitoring different patterns of changes in gut microbiota in Group A animals. The unintended effects of neo transgene on gut microbiota were studied in Group B animals. Horizontal gene transfer was not detected in gut microbiota of any transgenic pigs. In Group A, a significant difference was observed between transgenic pigs and non-transgenic pigs in pattern of changes in Proteobacteria populations in fecal samples during and post neomycin feeding. In Group B, there were significant differences in the relative abundance of phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, and genera Lactobacillus and Escherichia-Shigella-Hafnia between transgenic pigs and non-transgenic pigs. We speculate that the secretion of NPT II from transgenic tissues/cells into gut microbiota results in the inhibition of neomycin activity and the different patterns of changes in bacterial populations. Furthermore, the neo gene also leads to unintended effects on gut microbiota in transgenic pigs that were fed with basic diet (not supplemented with neomycin). Thus, our data in this study caution that wide use of the neo transgene in genetically engineered animals should be carefully considered and fully

  4. Effects of pelleting, extrusion, or extrusion and pelleting on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets containing different levels of fiber and fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rojas, O J; Vinyeta, E; Stein, H H

    2016-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine effects of pelleting, extrusion, and extrusion and pelleting on energy and nutrient digestibility in diets containing low, medium, or high concentrations of fiber. Three diets were formulated: 1) the low-fiber diet contained corn and soybean meal; 2) the medium-fiber diet contained corn, soybean meal, and 25% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS); and 3) the high-fiber diet contained corn, soybean meal, 25% DDGS, and 20% soybean hulls. Each diet was divided into 4 batches after mixing. One batch was not further processed and was fed in a meal form, one batch was pelleted at 85°C, one batch was extruded at 115°C using a single-screw extruder, and one batch was extruded at 115°C and then pelleted at 85°C. Thus, 12 different diets were produced. Twenty-four growing pigs (26.5 ± 1.5 kg initial BW) had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum and were allotted to the 12 diets in a split-plot design with 8 pigs allotted to the low-fiber diets, the medium-fiber diets, and the high-fiber diets, respectively. Diets were fed to the pigs during four 14-d periods. Within each type of diet, the 8 pigs were fed the diets produced using the 4 processing technologies. Therefore, there were 8 replicate pigs per diet. Pigs were adjusted to their diets for 14 d before the experiment was initiated. Each of the four 14-d periods consisted of 5 d for adaptation, 5 d of fecal collection according to the marker to marker approach, and ileal digesta were collected on d 13 and 14. Results indicated that pelleting, extrusion, or extrusion and pelleting improved ( < 0.05) the apparent ileal digestibility of starch and most indispensable AA. In most cases, there were no differences between the pelleted, the extruded, and the extruded and pelleted diets. The apparent total tract digestibility of GE was also improved ( < 0.05) by pelleting and by the combination of extrusion and pelleting. The ME of pelleted diets was greater ( < 0.05) than

  5. Alternating dietary fat sources for growing-finishing pigs fed dried distillers grains with solubles: II. Fresh belly and bacon quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Browne, N A; Apple, J K; Maxwell, C V; Yancey, J W; Johnson, T M; Galloway, D L; Bass, B E

    2013-03-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 216) were used to test the effects of phase-feeding beef tallow (BT) and yellow grease (YGr) on fresh belly and bacon quality characteristics of growing-finishing swine fed dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Pigs were blocked by initial BW (26.0 ± 5.3 kg) before allotment to pens (6 pigs/pen), and pens (6 pens/block) were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments: 1) corn-soybean meal-based grower and finisher diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during all 5 feeding phases (YG15); 2) corn-soybean meal-based diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during all 5 phases (BT15); 3) diets containing 5.0% BT fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 4.7% YGr fed the last 3 phases (YG345); 4) diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during first 3 phases and diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the last 2 phases (YG45); 5) diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the first 3 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 2 feeding phases (BT45); or 6) diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 3 phases (BT345). All dietary treatments were formulated with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) during the first 3 phases, 15% DDGS in the fourth phase, and no DDGS during the last phase. Fresh belly quality data were collected on the left-side bellies, whereas bacon from the right-side bellies was prepared under commercial processing conditions. Additionally, USDA-certified No. 1 slices were collected for cooking characteristics and sensory panel evaluations. Bellies from the YG15-fed pigs were softer (P ≤ 0.05) than bellies from BT15-fed pigs; however, instrumentally measured belly firmness was not (P ≥ 0.06) different among treatments. Concentrations of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids, as well as all SFA and all MUFA, were greater (P < 0.01) in bellies from BT15- than YG15-fed pigs. In contrast, proportions of linoleic acid, all PUFA, and iodine value were greater (P < 0

  6. Tooth length and incisal wear and growth in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) fed diets of different abrasiveness.

    PubMed

    Müller, J; Clauss, M; Codron, D; Schulz, E; Hummel, J; Kircher, P; Hatt, J-M

    2015-06-01

    Dental diseases are among the most important reasons for presenting guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and other rodents to veterinary clinics, but the aetiopathology of this disease complex is unclear. Clinicians tend to believe that the ever-growing teeth of rabbits and rodents have a constant growth that needs to be worn down by the mastication of an appropriate diet. In this study, we tested the effect of four different pelleted diets of increasing abrasiveness [due to both internal (phytoliths) and external abrasives (sand)] or whole grass hay fed for 2 weeks each in random order to 16 guinea pigs on incisor growth and wear, and tooth length of incisors and cheek teeth. There was a positive correlation between wear and growth of incisors. Tooth lengths depended both on internal and external abrasives, but only upper incisors were additionally affected by the feeding of whole hay. Diet effects were most prominent in anterior cheek teeth, in particular M1 and m1. Cheek tooth angle did not become shallower with decreasing diet abrasiveness, suggesting that a lack of dietary abrasiveness does not cause the typical 'bridge formation' of anterior cheek teeth frequently observed in guinea pigs. The findings suggest that other factors than diet abrasiveness, such as mineral imbalances and in particular hereditary malocclusion, are more likely causes for dental problems observed in this species. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in soybean meal produced from conventional, high-protein, or low-oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans and fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Baker, K M; Stein, H H

    2009-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine AA digestibility and the concentration of DE and ME in 5 sources of soybean meal (SBM). The 5 sources included hexane-extracted SBM produced from high-protein soybeans (SBM-HP) and conventional soybeans (SBM-CONV), and mechanically extruded-expelled SBM produced from high-protein soybeans (EE-SBM-HP), low-oligosaccharide soybeans (EE-SBM-LO), and conventional soybeans (EE-SBM-CONV). Five diets that each contained 1 source of SBM and a N-free diet were used in Exp. 1 to determine AA digestibility in each meal. Twelve growing barrows (initial BW: 67.7 +/- 1.34 kg) were allotted to a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design with 6 periods and 6 diets in each square. Each period lasted 7 d, and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results of the experiment showed that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of all AA except Trp was similar for SBM-HP and SBM-CONV, but EE-SBM-HP and EE-SBM-LO had greater (P < 0.05) SID of His, Ile, Lys, Thr, and Val than EE-SBM-CONV. The SID of all indispensable AA in EE-SBM-HP was greater (P < 0.05) than in SBM-HP. The SID of Arg, Ile, Leu, and Phe in EE-SBM-CONV was greater (P < 0.05) than in SBM-CONV, but the SID of Trp was also greater (P < 0.05) in SBM-CONV than in EE-SBM-CONV. Experiment 2 was conducted to measure DE and ME in the same 5 sources of SBM as used in Exp. 1. Forty-eight growing barrows (initial BW: 38.6 +/- 3.46 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 6 diets with 8 replicates per diet. A corn-based diet and 5 diets based on a mixture of corn and each source of SBM were formulated. Urine and feces were collected during a 5-d collection period, and values for DE and ME in each source of SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. Results showed that the ME in SBM-HP tended to be greater (P = 0.10) than in SBM-CONV (4,074 vs. 3,672 kcal/kg of DM). The ME in EE-SBM-HP also tended to be greater (P = 0.10) than in EE-SBM-CONV and

  8. Evaluating lysine requirements of nursery pigs fed low protein diets with different sources of nonessential amino acids.

    PubMed

    Jones, C K; Tokach, M D; Usry, J L; Neill, C R; Patience, J F

    2014-08-01

    The Lys requirement of nursery pigs may be dependent on the source of nonessential AA (NEAA) nitrogen or the source of Lys itself. However, little peer-reviewed data examines these phenomena. The objectives of these experiments were to determine if the Lys requirement of pigs is altered when 1) low protein diets are supplemented with different sources of NEAA nitrogen or 2) Lys is supplied as a crystalline source instead of intact protein such as soybean meal (SBM). Two 14-d experiments were conducted using 450 (Exp. 1) and 540 (Exp. 2) pigs (PIC C22/C29 × 337). There were 10 treatments in each experiment, each aligned as a 2 × 5 factorial. In Exp. 1, there were 2 sources of NEAA (l-Gln + l-Gly or l-Gly + l-Ala + l-Pro + l-His) and 5 levels of Lys (1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, and 1.6%). In Exp. 2, there were 2 sources of proteins providing additional Lys (l-Lys HCl or SBM) and the same 5 levels of Lys. Following weaning at 18 to 22 d of age, pigs were fed a common starter diet for 5 d postweaning followed by a 14-d treatment period. Pigs were weighed and feed disappearance determined on d 0, 7, and 14 of the experiment. Data were analyzed using the MIXED and NLIN procedures of SAS (SAS Inst., Cary, NC). In Exp. 1, increasing CP and Lys resulted in a quadratic increase (P < 0.05) in ADG and a linear improvement (P < 0.05) in G:F during the 14-d treatment period. Breakpoint regression analyses revealed that optimum ADG was obtained at 1.36% Lys, while optimum G:F was obtained at 1.45% Lys. The source of NEAA did not affect (P > 0.10) growth performance during the treatment period. In Exp. 2, both ADG and G:F increased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing Lys. Optimal ADG was obtained at 1.47% Lys, but the breakpoint for optimum G:F was above tested levels. Source of Lys did not affect (P > 0.10) ADG, but pigs fed additional Lys from crystalline sources had improved (P < 0.05) G:F than those fed additional Lys from intact protein at 1.50% Lys; however, the analyzed Lys

  9. Effects of alcohol consumption on biomarkers of oxidative damage to DNA and lipids in ethanol-fed pigs.

    PubMed

    Petitpas, F; Sichel, F; Hébert, B; Lagadu, S; Beljean, M; Pottier, D; Laurentie, M; Prevost, V

    2013-03-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is known to result in tissue injury, particularly in the liver, and is considered a major risk factor for cancers of the upper respiratory tract. Here we assessed the oxidative effects of subchronic ethanol consumption on DNA and lipids by measuring biomarkers 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively. Physiological responses of pigs (n = 4) administered ethanol in drinking water for 39 days were compared with those of water-fed pigs (n = 4). Alcoholisation resulted in serum ethanol concentration of 1.90 g L(-1) and in a moderate but significant increase in alanine aminotransferase activity, an index of liver injury. However, between the alcoholised and control groups there were no significant differences in the levels of 8-oxodG (8-oxodG per 10(6) 2'deoxyguanosine) from leucocytes (2.52 ± 0.42 Vs 2.39 ± 0.34) or from target organs, liver, cardia and oesophagus. Serum MDA levels were also similar in ethanol-fed pigs (0.33 ± 0.04 μM) and controls (0.28 ± 0.03 μM). Interestingly, levels of 8-oxodG in cardia were positively correlated with those in oesophagus (Spearman correlation coefficient R = 1, P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that alcohol consumption may not cause oxidative damage to DNA and lipids as measured by 8-oxodG and MDA, respectively. The duration of alcoholisation and the potential alcohol-induced nutritional deficiency may be critical determinants of ethanol toxicity. Relevant biomarkers, such as factors involved in sensitization to ethanol-induced oxidative stress are required to better elucidate the relationship between alcohol consumption, oxidative stress and carcinogenesis.

  10. Effects of neonatal iron status, iron injections at birth, and weaning in young pigs from sows fed either organic or inorganic trace minerals.

    PubMed

    Peters, J C; Mahan, D C

    2008-09-01

    Second-parity sows (n = 7) were fed diets containing organic or inorganic trace minerals, and their progeny (n = 68) were used to determine the Fe status of pigs at birth and nursing and postweaning phases. The experiment comprised 2 parts, in which the first experiment was a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Sow trace mineral (organic vs. inorganic) was the first factor evaluated, and the injection of Fe (0 or 200 mg) to neonatal pigs within litter was the second factor. In Exp. 2, half the pigs in each litter from each neonatal Fe injection group were injected with Fe (0 vs. 200 mg) at weaning as an added factor in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement in a split-split-plot design. Weanling pigs were fed diets fortified with 90 mg/kg of Fe (sulfate), but the analyzed indigenous and fortified Fe content was 170 mg/kg. Pigs in both experiments were bled at periodic intervals to determine hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, percentage of hematocrit (Hct), and ceruloplasmin oxidase activity. Neonates and d-2 pigs from sows fed organic trace minerals had lower (P < 0.05) Hb concentrations compared with sows fed inorganic trace minerals, but they had similar percentages of Hct values. Blood Hb seemed to remain lower throughout the nursing period when sows were fed organic vs. inorganic Fe. Pigs without Fe injection had decreased ADG (P < 0.05) from 0 to 7 and 7 to 17 d than pigs injected with Fe. Although Hb values increased when neonatal pigs received Fe injection, they were somewhat lower when sows were fed the organic Fe. Ceruloplasmin oxidase activity was low at birth, increased to weaning in each treatment group, and was greater in pigs without Fe injection at d 13 (P < 0.05) and those from sows fed organic minerals at d 17 (P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, when the Fe-fortified diet was fed, BW and ADG responses were both greater (P < 0.01) to 28 d postweaning when neonates had received Fe injections. Neonates not injected with Fe at birth but injected at weaning had greater ADG, Hb, and

  11. Nutritive value of unconventional fibrous ingredients fed to Guinea pigs in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Bindelle, J; Kinsama, A; Picron, P; Umba di M'Balu, J; Kindele, E; Buldgen, A

    2009-12-01

    The energy and protein value for Guinea pigs (GP) of 9 forages (7 dicots and 2 grasses) and 5 hay-based diets was determined. The apparent faecal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and energy was measured on GP housed in metabolic cages. The forages and the diets were digested in vitro using pepsin and pancreatin hydrolysis and gas fermentation test to simulate stomach, small intestine and large intestine, respectively. Most of the dicots had high digestible crude protein content (152-201 g/kg DM) and the 2 grasses showed lower values (80-85 g/kg DM). Digestible energy content of the forages ranged between 5.79 to 13.08 MJ/kg DM. None of the forage species or hay-based diets provided sufficient energy to supply the 11.7 MJ/kg metabolic energy requirements. The influence of intestinal fermentation on energy and protein values was highlighted by correlations (P<0.05) between in vivo and in vitro data, including gas fermentation. It is the first time that such relationships are reported in single-stomach animals.

  12. Effect of potential multimicrobe probiotic product processed by high drying temperature and antibiotic on performance of weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Choi, J Y; Kim, J S; Ingale, S L; Kim, K H; Shinde, P L; Kwon, I K; Chae, B J

    2011-06-01

    In this study, the effect of a potential multimicrobe probiotic subjected to high-temperature drying was investigated. Potential multimicrobe probiotics produced by solid substrate fermentation were dried at low (LT, 40°C for 72 h) or high (HT, 70°C for 36 h) temperature. In Exp. 1, 288 weaned pigs (BW, 6.43 ± 0.68 kg) were allotted to 4 treatments on the basis of BW (4 pens per treatment with 18 pigs in each pen). Dietary treatments were negative control (NC; basal diet without any antimicrobial), positive control (PC; basal diet + 0.1% chlortetracycline), basal diet with 0.3% probiotic LT, and basal diet with 0.3% probiotic HT. Diets were fed in 2 phases, phase I (d 0 to 14) and phase II (d 15 to 28); and growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD, d 28), and fecal microflora (d 14 and 28) were evaluated. Over the 28-d trial, pigs fed PC and probiotic diets had greater ADG (P < 0.001), ADFI (P < 0.05), and G:F (P < 0.01) than pigs fed NC diet. The ATTD of DM and GE was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed probiotic diets when compared with pigs fed the NC diet. At d 28, fewer Clostridia (P < 0.01) were identified in the feces of pigs fed PC and probiotic diets than pigs fed the NC diet. However, the performance, ATTD of DM and GE, and fecal Clostridia population were similar among pigs fed probiotic LT and HT diets. In Exp. 2, 288 weaned pigs (initial BW, 5.84 ± 0.18 kg) were allotted to 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement on the basis of BW. The effects of 2 levels of probiotic HT (0.30 or 0.60%), each with or without antibiotic (chlortetracycline, 0 or 0.1%), on performance, ATTD, intestinal morphology, and fecal and intestinal microflora were investigated. Feeding of 0.60% probiotic HT diet improved (P < 0.05) overall ADG, ATTD of DM and GE, and Lactobacillus population in the feces and intestine, and reduced the population of Clostridium and coliforms in feces (d 14) and ileum. Inclusion of antibiotic improved (P < 0.05) the overall

  13. Influence of genetic capacity for lean tissue growth on rate and efficiency of tissue accretion in pigs fed ractopamine.

    PubMed

    Bark, L J; Stahly, T S; Cromwell, G L; Miyat, J

    1992-11-01

    The influence of genetic capacity for lean tissue (LT) growth on responses of pigs to ractopamine, in terms of rate and efficiency of body growth and the distribution and accretion rate of body tissues, was determined in this study. Two sources of pigs representing low and high LT genotypes were used. Within each source, two littermate barrows from each of eight litters were individually penned and given ad libitum access to a lysine-supplemented, corn-soybean meal diet (17.7% CP, 1.08% lysine) containing 0 or 20 ppm of ractopamine hydrochloride from 63 to 104 kg. Carcasses were physically dissected into muscle, fatty tissue, skin, and bone. Within each source, four additional pigs were killed for determination of initial body composition. Pigs of high LT genotype gained BW and muscle faster (P < .01), required less (P < .01) feed per unit of gain, and produced carcasses that contained more (P < .01) muscle and bone and less (P < .01) fatty tissue. Ractopamine increased (P < .01) weight gain and improved (P < .01) feed:gain ratio in both genotypes. Ractopamine enhanced the accretion rate and the amount of carcass muscle in both genotypes, but the degree of improvement was greater in pigs of the high than in those of the low LT genotype (genotype x ractopamine, P < .02). Ractopamine also reduced the accretion rate and amount of dissectible fat by a greater magnitude in the high LT genotype (genotype x ractopamine, P < .04). Based on these data, ractopamine increases muscle accretion to a greater degree in pigs with a high genetic capacity for LT growth than in those with a low capacity.

  14. Digestible and metabolizable energy concentrations in copra meal, palm kernel meal, and cassava root fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Son, A R; Ji, S Y; Kim, B G

    2012-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure DE and ME in copra (Cocos nucifera) meal (CM), palm kernel meal (PKM), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) root (CR) in growing pigs. Eight boars with an initial BW of 67.3 ± 5.8 kg were individually housed in metabolism crates that were equipped with a feeder and a nipple drinker. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design was used with 4 dietary treatments, 4 periods, and 8 animals. A basal diet mainly contained corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) meal. Three additional diets were formulated to contain 30% of CM, PKM, and CR. All diets contained the same proportion of corn:soybean meal ratio at 4.14:1. The apparent total tract digestibility of energy was 89.5, 84.1, 82.4, and 87.9% (P < 0.001) in the basal, CM, PKM, and CR diets, respectively. The DE in CM and PKM were greater (P < 0.05) than in CR (3440 and 3238 vs. 2966 kcal/kg as-fed). The ME in CM was greater (P < 0.05) than in CR (3340 vs. 2935 kcal/kg as-fed) but not different from the ME in PKM (3168 kcal/kg as-fed). In conclusion, CM and PKM have a higher DE value than CR, and CM has a higher ME value than CR.

  15. Emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from pigs fed standard diets and diets supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian

    2014-07-01

    Swine producers are supplementing animal diets with increased levels of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to offset the cost of a standard corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet. However, the environmental impact of these diets on emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia (NH), and hydrogen sulfide (HS) is largely unknown. Twenty-four pigs (103.6 kg initial body weight) were fed a standard CSBM diet or a CSBM diet containing 35% DDGS for 42 d. Pigs were fed and their manure was collected twice daily over the 42-d trial. Pigs fed diets containing DDGS had reduced manure pH ( < 0.01), increased surface crust coverage ( < 0.01), increased manure dry matter content ( < 0.01), and increased manure C ( < 0.01), N ( < 0.01), and S ( < 0.01) contents. Animals fed DDGS diets also had significantly higher concentrations of total ammoniacal nitrogen ( < 0.01) and sulfide ( < 0.01) in their manure compared with animals fed CSBM diets. Manure emissions of NH ( < 0.01) and HS ( < 0.05) were significantly higher in animals fed the CSBM diet. There was no dietary treatment effect for methane or nitrous oxide emissions from manure. This study demonstrates that diets containing DDGS can significantly affect manure composition and potentially lower emissions of NH and HS. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. The Nutritive Values in Different Varieties of Corn Planted in One Location Fed to Growing Pigs over Three Consecutive Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L.; Li, Y. K.; Li, Z. C.; Li, Q. F.; Lyu, M. B.; Li, D. F.; Lai, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of variety and planting year on the nutritive values of corn fed to growing pigs. Four corn varieties examined in this experiment were planted in the same village located in Longhua County, Heibei Province, China, in 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively. During each year, corn was hand-harvested in early October and sun dried to about 14% moisture content. Three batches of twenty-four barrows (33.27±4.30, 31.88±2.93, 34.21±3.81 kg body wight [BW] in 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively) were used and allotted to a complete block design with 4 diets and 6 replicate pigs per diet. Pigs were individually placed in metabolic crates. The four experimental diets were formulated by mixing each variety of corn and vitamins and minerals, respectively. A five-day collection period followed a seven-day diet acclimation period. The results indicated that variety of corn significantly influenced the available energy content (digestible energy [DE] on dry matter basis, p<0.05; metabolizable energy (ME) on dry matter basis, p<0.05, respectively), and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of organic matter (p<0.01), dry matter (p<0.05), gross energy (p<0.05), neutral detergent fiber (p<0.01), acid detergent fiber and ether extract (p<0.05). The planting year also significantly influenced the available energy contents (DE on dry matter basis, p<0.05; ME on dry matter basis, p<0.01, respectively) and the ATTD of neutral detergent fiber (p<0.01), acid detergent fiber (p<0.01), crude protein (p<0.01), and ether extract (p<0.01). No interaction was observed between the variety and planting year in DE and ME contents in corn. In conclusion, the variety and planting year significantly influenced the available energy and nutrient digestibility of corn fed to growing pigs. PMID:27004815

  17. Feed intake and growth performance of growing pigs fed on Acacia tortilis leaf meal treated with polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Hlatini, Vuyisa Andries; Khanyile, Mbongeni; Zindove, Titus Jairus; Chimonyo, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the response in feed intake and performance of pigs fed on incremental levels of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Forty-eighty male F1 hybrid pigs were randomly allotted to six diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 g/kg of PEG, respectively. Acacia tortilis leaf meal was included at a rate of 150 g/kg. Each diet was offered ad libitum to eight pigs in individual pens. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), scaled feed intake (SFI), average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined weekly. The ADG showed a linear response to PEG (p < 0.01). The linear regression equation was y = 0.0061x + 0.6052 (R(2) = 0.64). There was a quadratic response to PEG on ADFI, and SFI (p < 0.01) and G:F (p > 0.05). The regression equations and R(2) values were as follows: ADFI y = 0.0008x(2) - 00086x + 1.2339 (R(2) = 0.96), SFI y = 0.0147x(2) - 0.2349x + 40.096 (R(2) = 0.95), and G:F ratio y = 0.0002x(2) - 0.0017x + 0.5168 (R(2) = 0.56). The ADFI, SFI, and ADG increased as weeks of feeding progressed (p < 0.01), but the G:F ratio decreased as weeks increased. It can be concluded that the relationship between PEG inclusion and performance of growing pigs fed on A. tortilis is exponential, rather than linear. The economic benefit of using PEG depend on cost of labor, availability of Acacia, costs of harvesting together with processing, and acceptability of the pork.

  18. New generation lipid emulsions prevent PNALD in chronic parentally fed preterm pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with the development of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions can reverse PNALD, yet it is unknown if they can prevent PNALD. We studied preterm pigs administered TPN for 14 days with either 100...

  19. Identification of Anthocyanins in the Liver, Eye, and Brain of Blueberry-fed Pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary intervention with anthocyanins may confer benefits in brain function, including vision. Research to date indicates that animals have only a limited capacity to absorb anthocyanins, compared to other types of flavonoids. Pigs, which are a suitable model for human digestive absorption, were us...

  20. Growth performance of pigs fed diets with and without tylosin phosphate supplementation and reared in a biosecure all-in all-out housing system

    PubMed Central

    Van Lunen, T. A.

    2003-01-01

    measured by loin muscle depth (P = 0.04). Mortality rates and the number of underweight pigs sent to market were low for this trial. Mortality was similar for both treatments; however, more of the control pigs than of the tylosin phosphate fed pigs were underweight when sent to market. From the results of this study, it appears that pigs of fast growing genotypes fed adequate diets and housed in a biosecure environment do not require dietary tylosin phosphate supplementation in order to maximize growth. There is some indication that tylosin phosphate supplementation may improve lean content of the carcass in pigs housed in such an environment. PMID:12892287

  1. Responses in ileal and cecal bacteria to low and high amylose/amylopectin ratio diets in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu-Heng; Yang, Can; Wright, André-Denis G; He, Jun; Chen, Dai-Wen

    2015-12-01

    Dietary starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine may serve as a carbon source for bacterial fermentation in the distal intestine. This study aimed to compare the bacterial community in the ileal and cecal digesta of growing pigs fed diets with low (0.14, LR pigs) and high (0.43, HR pigs) amylose/amylopectin ratio. Pyrosequencing based on MiSeq 2000 platform showed that in ileum digesta, Bacteroidetes of LR pigs was markedly higher than that in HR pigs (P < 0.05). Megasphaera and Prevotella were the two most predominant genera in LR pigs, and Prevotella was significantly higher in LR pigs than in HR pigs (P < 0.05). Prevotella was predominant in cecal samples from both LR and HR pigs, although no significant differences were found between the two groups. In the ileum, Megasphaera elsdenii and Mitsuokella multacida were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in LR pigs along with an increase of acetate and butyrate concentrations. Halomonas pacifica, Escherichia fergusonii, and Actinobacillus minor which belong to class Gammaproteobacteria were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in HR pigs with a significant increase (P < 0.01) of Lactobacillus acetotolerans-like bacteria. Therefore, the changed bacterial community may lead to a transformation of microbial function, such as the alteration of fermentation mode which is showed on the change of microbial metabolites like the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), to a response to the switch of dietary composition, and in turn, to help host absorb and utilize nutrients efficiently. The increase of dietary amylose induced the reduction of conditioned pathogens which may probably be due to the increase of some probiotics such as Lactobacillus, thus reducing the risk of intestinal disease.

  2. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (P<0.05) for pigs fed Diet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2, but no

  3. Suppression of serum iron-binding capacity and bone marrow cellularity in pigs fed aflatoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.B.; Clark, D.E.; Huff, W.E.; Kubena, L.F.; Corrier, D.E.; Phillips, I.D.

    1988-04-01

    Flavus-parasiticus species of the genus Aspergillus are recognized as the primary producers of aflatoxins B/sub 1/, B/sup 2/, G/sup 1/, and G/sup 2/, hereafter referred to as aflatoxin (AF). The effects of feeding AF-contaminated diets to growing and finishing pigs have been described with changes in clinical performance, serum biochemistry, histology, and hematology attributed to aflatoxicosis. However, most of these studies evaluated AF-induced changes for a single AF dosage at a given point in time. The present study was designed to characterize how various AF dosages influence bone marrow histology, hematology, prothrombin and activated thromboplastin times, serum amino acids, and serum iron binding capacity during aflatoxicosis in growing pigs.

  4. Suppression of serum iron-binding capacity and bone marrow cellularity in pigs fed aflatoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.B.; Clark, D.E.; Huff, W.E.; Kubena, L.F.; Corrier, D.E. ); Phillips, T.D. )

    1988-05-01

    Flavus-parasiticus species of the genus Aspergillus are recognized as the primary producers of aflatoxins B{sub 1}, B{sub 2}, G{sub 1}, and G{sub 2}, hereafter referred to as aflatoxin (AF). The effects of feeding AF-contaminated diets to growing and finishing pigs have been described with changes in clinical performance, serum biochemistry, histology, and hematology attributed to aflatoxicosis. However, most of these studies evaluated AF-induced changes for a single AF dosage at a given point in time. The present study was designed to characterize how various AF dosages influence bone marrow histology, hematology, prothrombin and activated thromboplastin times, serum amino acids, and serum iron binding capacity during aflatoxicosis in growing pigs.

  5. Too late to catch up: a high nutrient specification diet in the grower phase does not improve the performance of low birth weight pigs.

    PubMed

    Douglas, S L; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-10-01

    Low birth weight pigs are on a different growth trajectory from their normal birth weight littermates and as a consequence they may need to be fed differently, if they are to show compensatory gain. The objective of the experiment was to determine if low birth weight pigs will respond to a higher AA: energy diet, in a manner similar to the response of normal birth weight pigs whose BW gain has been previously reduced as a result of feed restriction. The experiment was a 3 × 2 factorial with 180 pigs and 6 replicates. Treatments were comprised of 3 BW categories (NU = normal birth weight fed unrestrictedly [1.7 to 2.0 kg], NR = normal birth weight but fed restrictedly from d 49 to 63 and L = low birth weight [ ≤ 1.2 kg]) and 2 diet specifications given from d 63 to 91 (high or standard AA: energy ratio). In period 1 (d 0 to d 49), pigs were selected within 24 h of birth and cross fostered into litters by birth weight (11/12 piglets). Pigs were weaned at d 28 and kept in their litters until d 49. In period 2 (d 49 to 63), litters were split to form 2 treatment groups consisting of 5 pigs each: NR pigs received restricted amounts of feed (600 g/d) with the remaining NU and L pigs fed ad libitum on a conventional diet. The aim was for NR and L pigs to have the same BW by d 63. In period 3 (d 63 to 91), groups within litter were randomly allocated to a high or standard AA:energy ratio diet. Body weight on d 63 was 25.8, 21.2, 21.8 kg (0.381 SED) for NU, NR and L pigs respectively; by d 91 there was no difference in the BW of NU and NR pigs (P > 0.05), but L pigs still weighed less (P < 0.001). There was a significant effect of BW category and diet specification during period 3 on the ADG and G:F of pigs (P < 0.05), with NR pigs exhibiting higher ADG and G:F than L and NU pigs. For G:F only, there was a tendency towards significance for an interaction (P = 0.057) with NU and NR pigs having an improved G:F on the high specification diet, but L pigs did not. Average

  6. Immunocompetence of fattening pigs fed organic versus conventional diets in organic versus conventional housing.

    PubMed

    Millet, S; Cox, E; Buyse, J; Goddeeris, B M; Janssens, G P J

    2005-03-01

    The effect of organic or conventional feeding on the immune response of pigs was determined using organic or conventional housing in a pig fattening unit. The experimental design involved four pens of four animals per housing and diet combination (organic housing and organic nutrition; organic housing and conventional nutrition; conventional housing and organic nutrition and conventional housing and conventional nutrition). The IgM, IgA and IgG responses against intramuscularly injected bovine thyroglobulin were determined as indicators of the antigen-specific immune responsiveness. Some general health and welfare related parameters were evaluated by measuring haptoglobin concentrations at selected times; blood lactate concentration was measured at slaughter. Conventional housing led to a higher IgG response three weeks after the first immunisation. Organic housing led to lower haptoglobin and lactate concentrations at slaughter, indicating a higher stress resistance in these pigs. No major differences between the two feeding types were found. We conclude that the immune responses following either a conventional or an organic diet are comparable, whereas organic housing can increase stress resistance at slaughter compared to conventional housing.

  7. Digestibility energy and amino acids of canola meal from two species (Brassica juncea and Brassica napus) fed to distal ileum cannulated grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Le, M H A; Buchet, A D G; Beltranena, E; Gerrits, W J J; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-12-01

    Yellow-seeded Brassica juncea is a novel canola species targeted to grow in the southern Canadian prairies where thermotolerance, disease resistance, and adaptation to dry agronomic conditions are required. The support of its cultivation needs nutritional evaluation of its coproduct. The B. juncea canola meal (CM) contains less fiber than conventional, dark-seeded Brassica napus CM but also slightly less Lys. In a 6 × 6 Latin square, 6 distal ileum cannulated pigs (47 kg BW) were fed 6 diets to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, AID and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, and VFA content in digesta and feces. Pigs were fed 6 diets: basal [46% wheat (Triticum aestivum) and corn (Zea mays) starch], 4 diets with 46% wheat and either B. juncea or B. napus CM at 25 or 50%, and a N-free diet based on corn starch. The B. juncea CM had higher (P < 0.05) ATTD of energy than B. napus CM (68.6 vs. 60.3%) likely due to its lower fiber content. Ileal total VFA was lower (P < 0.001) in pigs fed B. juncea than B. napus CM diets. In pigs fed B. juncea CM, the molar ratio in digesta was lower (P < 0.001) for acetate and butyrate whereas the propionate ratio was lower (P < 0.001) in feces than in pigs fed B. napus CM diets. The CM species did not affect the AID of energy, SID of AA, and feces VFA content. The DE value was higher (P < 0.05) and content of SID Lys was lower (P < 0.05) for B. juncea than B. napus CM. In conclusion, availability of B. juncea CM, a coproduct of a canola species grown in Canadian prairie land, will increase flexibility in swine feed formulation.

  8. A high fat, high choleststerol diet leads to changes in metabolite patterns in pigs – a metabolomic study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianghao; Monagas, Maria; Jang, Saebyeol; Molokin, Aleksey; Harnly, James M.; Urban, Joseph F.; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Chen, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Non-targeted metabolite profiling can identify biological markers of dietary exposure that lead to a better understanding of interactions between diet and health. In this study, pigs were used as an animal model to discover changes in metabolic profiles between regular basal and high fat/high cholesterol diets. Extracts of plasma, fecal and urine samples from pigs fed high fat or basal regular diets for 11 weeks were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) and chemometric analysis. Cloud plots from XCMS online were used for class separation of the most discriminatory metabolites. The major metabolites contributing to the discrimination were identified as bile acids (BAs), lipid metabolites, fatty acids, amino acids and phosphatidic acid (PAs), phosphatidylglycerol (PGs), glycerophospholipids (PI), phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and tripeptides. These results suggest the developed approach can be used to identify biomarkers associated with specific feeding diets and possible metabolic disorders related to diet. PMID:25466009

  9. Nutrient digestibility of lentil and regular- and low-oligosaccharide, micronized full-fat soybean fed to grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Jha, R; Beltranena, E; Pharazyn, A; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA and calculate the NE value for regular-oligosaccharide, micronized full-fat soybean (R-MFFSB), low-oligosaccharide, micronized full-fat soybean (LO-MFFSB), lentil, and enzymatically hydrolyzed casein (EHC) for growing pigs. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (31.4 kg BW) were fed 6 diets in a 6 × 6 Latin square. Five diets were cornstarch based, containing either soybean meal (SBM), R-MFFSB, LO-MFFSB, or EHC as sole protein source or N free. The sixth diet contained lentil as sole protein and energy source. The SID of AA for diets was calculated using the N-free diet. Digestibility of AA in feedstuffs was determined by the direct method. Energy digestibility in SBM, R-MFFSB, and LO-MFFSB was determined by difference from the N-free diet whereas energy digestibility in lentil was determined by the direct method. On DM basis, SBM, R-MFFSB, LO-MFFSB, and lentil contained 52, 43, 43, and 27% CP, 8, 12, 14, and 16% NDF, and 1.8, 19, 21, and 1.6% ether extract, respectively. The SID of Lys for SBM was greater (P < 0.05) than that for R-MFFSB or LO-MFFSB (76 vs. 79 and 79%). The SID of other indispensable AA (except Trp) for SBM was also greater (P < 0.05) than that for R-MFFSB or LO-MFFSB. The R-MFFSB and LO-MFFSB were similar in SID of AA. The SID of Lys for lentil (81%) was lower (P < 0.05) than that for SBM with a similar trend for SID of other indispensable AA except for Met and Thr whose SID was similar to SBM. The SID of AA for EHC ranged from 98 to 112%. The SBM had a lower (P < 0.05) NE value than R-MFFSB or LO-MFFSB (2.63 vs. 2.95 and 3.00 Mcal/kg DM). Lentil and SBM were similar in NE value (2.60 vs. 2.63 Mcal/kg DM). In conclusion, R-MFFSB and LO-MFFSB were similar in energy and AA value for pigs. Lentil had lower SID of AA than SBM. However, lentil and SBM were similar in NE value; therefore, lentil can serve as alternative pulse feedstuff for pigs. The AA in EHC were mostly

  10. Impact of a High-Fat or High-Fiber Diet on Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Markers in a Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Heinritz, Sonja N.; Weiss, Eva; Eklund, Meike; Aumiller, Tobias; Heyer, Charlotte M.E.; Messner, Sabine; Rings, Andreas; Louis, Sandrine; Bischoff, Stephan C.; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    To further elaborate interactions between nutrition, gut microbiota and host health, an animal model to simulate changes in microbial composition and activity due to dietary changes similar to those in humans is needed. Therefore, the impact of two different diets on cecal and colonic microbial gene copies and metabolic activity, organ development and biochemical parameters in blood serum was investigated using a pig model. Four pigs were either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for seven weeks, with both diets being isocaloric. A hypotrophic effect of the HF diet on digestive organs could be observed compared to the LF diet (p < 0.05). Higher gene copy numbers of Bacteroides (p < 0.05) and Enterobacteriaceae (p < 0.001) were present in intestinal contents of HF pigs, bifidobacteria were more abundant in LF pigs (p < 0.05). Concentrations of acetate and butyrate were higher in LF pigs (p < 0.05). Glucose was higher in HF pigs, while glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) showed higher concentrations upon feeding the LF diet (p < 0.001). However, C-reactive protein (CRP) decreased with time in LF pigs (p < 0.05). In part, these findings correspond to those in humans, and are in support of the concept of using the pig as human model. PMID:27223303

  11. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in a threonine biomass product fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Production of crystalline l-Thr results in the generation of a Thr biomass that contains more than 80% CP, 5.20% Lys, 5.10% Val, 4.52% Thr, 4.15% Ile, and 1.06% Trp. This Thr biomass product can possibly be used as a feed ingredient in diets fed to weanling pigs, but there is little information about the nutritional value of this product. The objective of this work was to determine the AA digestibility and energy concentration in Thr biomass and to compare these values to values obtained for fish meal in diets fed to pigs. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA were determined in Exp. 1. Nine pigs (initial BW: 13.4 ± 2.5 kg) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods in each square. One diet contained 20.0% Thr biomass as the sole source of AA, and a second diet contained 25.0% fish meal as the sole source of AA. The last diet was a N-free diet that was used to measure basal endogenous losses of AA and CP. Results indicated that the AID and SID of all AA except Trp, Gly, and Pro were greater (P < 0.05) in Thr biomass than in fish meal. In Exp. 2, 24 pigs (initial BW: 18.1 ± 3.5 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 3 diets. The first diet contained 96.4% corn, the second diet contained 79.3% corn and 17.0% Thr biomass, and the third diet contained 75.3% corn and 24.0% fish meal. Total collection of feces and urine was performed for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period, and all samples of ingredients, diets, feces, and urine were analyzed for GE. Digestible energy and ME were then calculated. The DE in the Thr biomass was greater (P < 0.05) than in fish meal and corn (4,935 vs. 3,938 and 3,939 kcal DE/kg DM, respectively), and the ME in the Thr biomass was also greater (P < 0.05) than in fish meal and corn (4,335 vs. 3,508 and 3,839 kcal ME/kg DM, respectively). Results from these experiments

  12. Endogenous intestinal losses of calcium and true total tract digestibility of calcium in canola meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2013-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that values for apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of Ca in pigs are influenced by endogenous Ca lost from the gastrointestinal tract. The objective was to determine the endogenous loss of Ca, the ATTD of Ca, and the true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of Ca in canola meal without and with microbial phytase. The second objective was to determine the balance of Ca in pigs fed diets based on canola meal without or with microbial phytase. Forty-eight growing barrows (initial BW: 16.72 ± 2.52 kg) were allotted to 8 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with 6 pigs per treatment. Diets were based on sucrose, cornstarch, potato protein isolate, corn gluten meal, and canola meal. Diets were formulated to contain 0.08, 0.16, 0.24, or 0.32% Ca from canola meal. All diets were formulated with 0 or 1,500 units/kg of microbial phytase and contained 0.32% digestible P. Feces and urine samples were collected from d 6 to 11. Total endogenous losses of Ca were determined using the regression procedure. Results indicated that ATTD of Ca and Ca retention increased (P < 0.05) if dietary Ca increased and also increased (P < 0.01) when phytase was added to the diets. The estimated total endogenous loss of Ca was 0.160 and 0.189 g/kg DMI for canola meal without and with microbial phytase, respectively, and these values were not different. The TTTD of Ca increased (P < 0.01) if phytase was used but was not affected by the level of dietary Ca. As dietary Ca increased, the amount of Ca absorbed and retained increased (P < 0.01) to a greater extent if phytase was used than when no phytase was included in the diet (interaction, P < 0.05). Fecal P excretion increased (P < 0.01) as dietary Ca increased but was reduced (P < 0.01) by the use of phytase. The ATTD of P decreased (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary Ca to a lesser extent if phytase was used than when no phytase was used (interaction, P < 0.01). In

  13. Effects of potential detoxifying agents on growth performance and deoxynivalenol (DON) urinary balance characteristics of nursery pigs fed DON-contaminated wheat.

    PubMed

    Frobose, H L; Stephenson, E W; Tokach, M D; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate potential detoxifying agents on growth of nursery pigs fed deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated diets. Naturally DON-contaminated wheat (6 mg/kg) was used to achieve desired DON levels. In a 21-d study, 238 pigs (13.4 ± 1.8 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement. Diets were: 1) Positive control (PC; < 0.5 mg/kg DON), 2) PC + 1.0% Product V (Nutriquest LLC, Mason City, IA), 3) Negative control (NC; 4.0 mg/kg DON), 4) NC + 1.0% Product V, and 5) NC + 1.0% sodium metabisulfite (SMB; Samirian Chemicals, Campbell, CA). There were 6 or 7 replicate pens/treatment and 7 pigs/pen. Analyzed DON was decreased by 92% when pelleted with SMB, but otherwise matched formulated levels. Overall, a DON × Product V interaction was observed for ADG ( 0.05) with a tendency for an interaction for ADFI ( 0.10). As anticipated, DON reduced ( 0.001) ADG and ADFI, but the interaction was driven by even poorer growth when Product V was added to NC diets. Pigs fed NC diets had 10% poorer G:F ( 0.001) than PC-fed pigs. Reductions in ADG due to DON were most distinct (50%) during the initial period. Adding SMB to NC diets improved ( 0.01) ADG, ADFI, and G:F, and improved ( 0.02) ADG and G:F compared to the PC diet. A urinary balance study was conducted using diets 3 to 5 from Exp. 1 to evaluate Product V and SMB on DON urinary metabolism. A 10 d adaptation was followed by a 7 d collection using 24 barrows in a randomized complete block design. Pigs fed NC + SMB diet had greater urinary DON output ( 0.05) than pigs fed NC + Product V, with NC pigs intermediate. Daily DON excretion was lowest ( 0.05) in the NC + SMB pigs. However, degradation of DON-sulfonate back to the parent DON molecule was observed as pigs fed NC + SMB excreted more DON than they consumed (164% of daily DON intake), greater ( 0.001) than pigs fed the NC (59%) or NC + Product V (48%). Overall, Product V did not alleviate DON effects

  14. Effects of intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal high-fat diet on hepatic inflammatory response in pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbo; He, Jian; Yang, Yuekui; Yu, Jie; Mao, Xiangbing; Yu, Bing; Chen, Daiwen

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the glucose and insulin response of pigs with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) to a high-fat (HF) feeding regimen and to observe the underlying toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) signalling pathway. Weaned piglets with IUGR or normal birthweight (NBW) (n = 20 each) received during the whole fattening period control diets (0% lard) or HF diets (HF, 10% lard). At about 110 kg body weight, pigs were euthanised to collect hepatic samples. Compared with NBW pigs, IUGR pigs had lower daily gain and feed intake. Growth rate of pigs was increased by HF feeding. Pigs fed HF diets had lower peak concentrations of glucose and insulin, which decreased more slowly than in pigs that received the control diets. The mRNA expression abundances of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Rn) were significantly affected by HF feeding, and IL-6 and IL-1Rn mRNA expressions were up-regulated in IUGR pigs compared with NBW pigs. Western blot analysis indicated that HF feeding elevated the protein expressions of TLR4 signalling pathway, as TLR4, MyD88, IκB kinase β and nuclear factor-κB, and insulin signalling-related proteins, as phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphorylated protein kinase B. In summary, hepatic TLR4 signalling pathway and inflammatory response induced by HF feeding played an important role in the aggravated development of insulin resistance in pigs.

  15. Toxicokinetics of seven perfluoroalkyl sulfonic and carboxylic acids in pigs fed a contaminated diet.

    PubMed

    Numata, Jorge; Kowalczyk, Janine; Adolphs, Julian; Ehlers, Susan; Schafft, Helmut; Fuerst, Peter; Müller-Graf, Christine; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Greiner, Matthias

    2014-07-16

    The transfer of a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from contaminated feed into the edible tissues of 24 fattening pigs was investigated. Four perfluoroalkyl sulfonic (PFSAs) and three perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were quantifiable in feed, plasma, edible tissues, and urine. As percentages of unexcreted PFAA, the substances accumulated in plasma (up to 51%), fat, and muscle tissues (collectively, meat 40-49%), liver (under 7%), and kidney (under 2%) for most substances. An exception was perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), with lower affinity for plasma (23%) and higher for liver (35%). A toxicokinetic model is developed to quantify the absorption, distribution, and excretion of PFAAs and to calculate elimination half-lives. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), a PFCA, had the shortest half-life at 4.1 days. PFSAs are eliminated more slowly (e.g., half-life of 634 days for PFOS). PFAAs in pigs exhibit longer elimination half-lives than in most organisms reported in the literature, but still shorter than in humans.

  16. Protein metabolism in growing pigs fed corn or cassava peel based diets containing graded protein levels.

    PubMed

    Tewe, O O

    1985-05-01

    Sixty-four Large White cross Landrace weanling pigs were randomly allotted to eight treatments in a two by four factorial arrangement. The two dietary variables were cassava peel (0 and 40 per cent) and crude protein (20, 15, 10 and 5 per cent). Total serum protein concentration was significantly (P less than 0.01) reduced by protein deficiency and by its interaction with cassava peel. The multiple coefficient of determination (R2) showed that protein intake was the primary factor determining changes in serum protein. R2 values for cyanide intake (independent variable) on serum protein (dependent variable) increased from day 30 to 90 of the trial. Serum urea was increased on the 5 per cent protein diets on days 60 and 90 of the trial. The R2 values for cyanide and protein intake on serum urea concentration increased from day 30 to day 90 of the trial. Serum creatinine increased (P less than 0.05) on the 5 per cent protein diet on day 90 of the trial. The R2 value for the effects of protein intake on serum creatinine was higher than for cyanide intake on days 30 and 90. The results confirm the progressive and pronounced effects of long term cyanide intake on serum nitrogenous metabolites in pigs consuming between 110 and 120 ppm hydrocyanic acid, especially in diets containing 10 per cent or less protein.

  17. Nutrient digestibility and performance responses of growing pigs fed phytase- and xylanase-supplemented wheat-based diets.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Sands, J S; Guenter, W; Nyachoti, C M

    2008-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing phytase and xylanase on nutrient digestibility and performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets. In Exp. 1, 10 diets were fed to 60 pigs from 20 to 60 kg of BW to determine the effect of combining phytase and xylanase on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and growth performance. The 10 diets included a positive control diet (PC; 0.23% available P; 0.60% Ca) and a negative control diet (NC; 0.16% available P; 0.50% Ca) supplemented with phytase at 0, 250, and 500 fytase units (FTU)/kg and xylanase at 0, 2,000, and 4,000 xylanase units (XU)/kg in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement. In Exp. 2, 6 ileally cannulated barrows (initial BW = 35.1 kg) were fed 4 wheat-based diets in a 4 x 4 Latin square design, with 2 added columns to determine the effect of combining phytase and xylanase on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients. The 4 diets were NC (same as that used in Exp. 1) or NC supplemented with phytase at 500 FTU/kg, xylanase at 4,000 XU/kg, or phytase at 500 FTU/kg plus xylanase at 4,000 XU/kg. In Exp. 3, 36 barrows (initial BW = 55.5 kg) were fed 4 diets based on prepelleted (at 80 degrees C) and crumpled wheat for 2 wk to determine the effect of phytase supplementation on ATTD of nutrients. The 4 diets fed were a PC (0.22% available P; 0.54% Ca) and a NC (0.13% available P; 0.43% Ca) alone or with phytase at 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg. All diets in the 3 experiments contained Cr(2)O(3) as an indigestible marker. No synergistic interactions were detected between phytase and xylanase on any of the response criteria measured in Exp. 1 or 2. There were no dietary effects on growth performance in Exp. 1. In Exp. 1, phytase at 250 FTU/kg increased the ATTD of P and Ca by 51 and 11% at 20 kg of BW or by 54 and 10% at 60 kg of BW, respectively, but increasing the level of phytase to 500 FTU/kg only increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of P at 20 kg of BW. In Exp. 2, phytase at 500 FTU

  18. Effects of feeding distillers dried grains with solubles, high-protein distillers dried grains, and corn germ to growing-finishing pigs on pig performance, carcass quality, and the palatability of pork.

    PubMed

    Widmer, M R; McGinnis, L M; Wulf, D M; Stein, H H

    2008-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate pig performance, carcass quality, and palatability of pork from pigs fed distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), high-protein distillers dried grains (HPDDG), and corn germ. Eighty-four pigs (initial BW, 22 +/- 1.7 kg) were allotted to 7 dietary treatments with 6 replicates per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. Diets were fed for 114 d in a 3-phase program. The control treatment was based on corn and soybean meal. Two treatments were formulated using 10 or 20% DDGS in each phase. Two additional treatments contained HP-DDG in amounts sufficient to substitute for either 50 or 100% of the soybean meal used in the control treatment. An additional 2 treatments contained 5 or 10% corn germ, which was calculated to provide the same amount of fat as 10 or 20% DDGS. Results showed that for the entire experiment, pig performance was not affected by DDGS or HP-DDG, but final BW increased (linear, P < 0.05) as corn germ was included in the diets. Carcass composition and muscle quality were not affected by DDGS, but LM area and LM depth decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as HP-DDG was added to the diets. Lean meat percentage increased and drip loss decreased as corn germ was included in the diets (quadratic, P < 0.05). There was no effect of DDGS on fat quality except that belly firmness decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as dietary DDGS concentration increased. Including HP-DDG or corn germ in the diets did not affect fat quality, except that the iodine value increased (linear, P < 0.05) in pigs fed HP-DDG diets and decreased (linear, P < 0.05) in pigs fed corn germ diets. Cooking loss, shear force, and bacon distortion score were not affected by the inclusion of DDGS, HP-DDG, or corn germ in the diets, and the overall palatability of the bacon and pork chops was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, feeding 20% DDGS or high levels of HP-DDG to growing-finishing pigs did not negatively affect overall pig performance, carcass

  19. Effects of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in rice coproducts fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Casas, G A; Stein, H H

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P and the effect of microbial phytase on ATTD and STTD of P in full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), brown rice, broken rice, and rice mill feed when fed to pigs. Ninety-six barrows (initial BW of 19.4 ± 1.4 kg) were allotted to 12 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. A basal diet based on corn and soybean meal was formulated. Five additional diets containing corn, soybean meal, and each rice coproduct were also formulated, and the ratio between corn and soybean meal in these diets was similar to that in the basal diet. Six additional diets that were similar to the initial 6 diets with the exception that 1,000 units of microbial phytase were added to the diets were also formulated. The ATTD and STTD of P were calculated for each diet using the direct procedure, and the ATTD and STTD of P in each rice coproduct were calculated using the difference procedure. Results of the experiment indicated that the concentration of P in feces was reduced (P < 0.05) from pigs fed diets with microbial phytase compared with pigs fed diets without phytase. No differences were observed between the basal diet and the broken rice diet, but the ATTD and the STTD of P in those diets was greater (P < 0.05) than in all other diets both without and with phytase. Among the rice coproducts, the greatest (P < 0.05) ATTD and STTD of P were observed for broken rice regardless of inclusion of phytase. If no microbial phytase was used, the values for STTD of P in brown rice, FFRB, DFRB, and rice mill feed were not different, but if microbial phytase was included in the diet, ATTD and STTD of P in brown rice was greater (P < 0.05) than in FFRB, DFRB, and rice mill feed. The STTD of P in brown rice, FFRB, and rice mill feed was greater (P < 0.05) if microbial phytase was used than if no

  20. No transmission of hepatitis E virus in pigs fed diets containing commercial spray-dried porcine plasma: a retrospective study of samples from several swine trials.

    PubMed

    Pujols, Joan; Rodríguez, Carmen; Navarro, Nuria; Pina-Pedrero, Sonia; Campbell, Joy M; Crenshaw, Joe; Polo, Javier

    2014-12-24

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been reported in the human population and pigs are a recognized reservoir for HEV and a possible source of HEV transmission to humans. Spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) is an ingredient commonly used in feed for pigs around the world. Even though processing conditions used to produce SDPP should be adequate to inactivate HEV, it was of interest to analyze commercial SDPP samples for presence of genome and antibodies (AB) against HEV and to retrospectively analyze serum samples collected from pigs used in past experiments that had been fed diets containing either 0% or 8% SDPP to detect potential transmission of HEV as determined by seroconversion. Eighty-five commercial SDPP samples were analyzed by ELISA and 100% of them contained AB against HEV, while 22.4% (11 of 49 samples analyzed) were positive for HEV RNA. Frozen sera samples (n = 140) collected from 70 pigs used in past experiments that had been fed diets containing either 0% or 8% commercial SDPP was analyzed by ELISA for AB against HEV. Age of pigs at sera sampling ranged from 3 to 15 weeks and feeding duration of diets ranged from approximately 4 to 9 weeks. One lot of SDPP used in one experiment was analyzed and confirmed to contain HEV RNA. Regardless of the diet fed, some sera samples collected at the beginning of an experiment contained AB titer against HEV. These sera samples were collected from weaned pigs prior to feeding of the experimental diets and the HEV titer was probably from maternal origin. However, by the end of the experiments, HEV titer was not detected or had declined by more than 50% of the initial titer concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting presence of HEV AB titer and RNA in SDPP. Retrospective analysis of serum collected from pigs fed diets with SDPP revealed no indication of seroconversion to HEV. The results indicate that feeding SDPP in diets for pigs does not represent a risk of transmitting HEV, even though HEV

  1. Lipid metabolism in pigs fed supplemental conjugated linoleic acid and/or dietary arginine.

    PubMed

    Go, Gwangwoong; Wu, Guoyao; Silvey, David T; Choi, Seongho; Li, Xilong; Smith, Stephen B

    2012-10-01

    We proposed that the combination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and arginine would decrease adiposity by depressing lipid synthesis in liver and adipose tissues of growing pigs. Pigs were allotted to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design with two lipids (CLA or canola oil) and two amino acids [L-arginine or L-alanine (isonitrogenous control)]; supplements were provided from 80 to 110 kg body weight (approximately 4 weeks). Treatment groups (n = 4) were: control (2.05% L-alanine plus 1% canola oil); CLA (2.05% L-alanine plus 1% CLA); arginine (1.0% L-arginine plus 1.0% canola oil); arginine plus CLA (1.0% arginine plus 1.0% CLA). Arginine increased backfat thickness (P = 0.07) in the absence or presence of CLA, and arginine supplementation increased subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipocyte volume, especially in combination with dietary CLA (interaction P = 0.001). Arginine increased palmitate incorporation into total lipids by over 60% in liver (P = 0.07). Dietary CLA increased palmitate incorporation into lipids in longissimus muscle by over 100% (P = 0.01), and CLA increased longissimus muscle lipid by nearly 20%. CLA increased glucose oxidation to CO(2) by over 80% in retroperitoneal and subcutaneous adipose tissues (P = 0.04), and doubled palmitate oxidation to CO(2) in intestinal duodenal mucosal cells (P = 0.07). Arginine supplementation decreased muscle pH at 45 min postmortem (P = 0.001), indicating elevated early postmortem glycolysis, and CLA and arginine independently increased PGC-1α gene expression in longissimus muscle. CLA but not arginine depressed mTOR gene expression in intestinal duodenal mucosal cells. CLA decreased serum insulin by 50% (P = 0.02) but increased serum triacylglycerols by over 40%. CLA supplementation increased (P ≤ 0.01) total saturated fatty acids in liver and adipose tissue. In conclusion, neither CLA nor arginine depressed tissue lipid synthesis in growing/finishing pigs, and in fact dietary CLA promoted elevated

  2. Performance and phosphorus balance of pigs fed diets formulated on the basis of values for standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Stein, H H

    2010-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses that pigs fed diets that are equal in digestible P will perform equally regardless of the concentration of total P in the diets, and that the addition of microbial phytase, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), or a combination of phytase and DDGS will result in a reduction in P excretion. In Exp. 1, a P-free diet and 6 diets containing corn, soybean meal (SBM), or DDGS without or with microbial phytase (500 phytase units per kg) were formulated. Diets were fed for 12 d to 42 pigs (initial BW = 13.5 +/- 3.9 kg) housed in metabolism cages that allowed for total collections of feces. Basal endogenous P losses were determined to be 199 mg/kg of DMI for pigs fed the P-free diet. Addition of phytase increased (P < 0.01) the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in corn (64.4 vs. 26.4%) and SBM (74.9 vs. 48.3%), but there was no effect (P > 0.10) of the addition of phytase on the STTD of P in DDGS (75.5 vs. 72.9%). In Exp. 2, a total of 160 pigs (initial BW = 11.25 +/- 1.95 kg; 4 pigs/pen) were allotted to 4 corn- and SBM-based diets with 2 amounts of phytase (0 or 500 phytase units per kg) and 2 amounts of DDGS (0 or 20%) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. All diets were formulated to contain 0.32% STTD of P according to the STTD values determined in Exp. 1. Diets were fed for 21 d and results indicated that inclusion of phytase in the diet containing no DDGS tended (P < 0.10) to decrease G:F, but inclusion of 20% DDGS in the diets tended (P < 0.10) to increase ADG, ADFI, and final BW. In Exp. 3, the diets used in Exp. 2 were fed to 24 pigs (initial BW = 14.6 +/- 1.4 kg) that were placed in metabolism cages individually. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d. Phytase and DDGS increased (P < 0.01) the apparent total tract digestibility of P in the diets. Absorption of P was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed corn-SBM-DDGS diets than pigs fed corn-SBM diets, and phytase, DDGS, or the

  3. A comparison of faecal microbial populations of South African Windsnyer-type indigenous pigs (SAWIPs) and Large White × Landrace (LW × LR) crosses fed diets containing ensiled maize cobs.

    PubMed

    Kanengoni, Arnold T; Chimonyo, Michael; Tasara, Taurai; Cormican, Paul; Chapwanya, Aspinas; Ndimba, Bongani K; Dzama, Kennedy

    2015-07-01

    Faecal microbial communities in South African Windsnyer-type indigenous pigs (SAWIPs) and Large White × Landrace (LW × LR) crosses were investigated using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rDNA genes. The faecal microbial communities in LW × LR crosses and SAWIPs fed control (CON) and high maize cob (HMC) diets were evaluated through parallel sequencing of 16S rDNA genes. Butrivibrio, Faecalibacterium and Desulfovibrio, although present in LW × LR pigs, were absent from the SAWIP microbial community. Bacteroides, Succiniclasticum, Peptococcus and Akkermansia were found in SAWIPs but not in LW × LR crosses. The ratios of Bacteroidia to Clostridia on the CON and HMC diets were similar (0.37 versus 0.39) in SAWIPs but different (0.24 versus 0.1) in LW × LR crosses. The faecal microbial profiles determined were different between the LW × LR and SAWIP breeds but not between pigs fed the CON and HMC diets. The composition of faecal bacterial communities in SAWIPs was determined for the first time. The differences in microbial communities detected may explain the enhanced ability of SAWIPs to digest fibrous diets compared with the LW × LR crosses.

  4. Pancreatic functions in high salt fed female rats

    PubMed Central

    Lasheen, Noha N

    2015-01-01

    Salt consumption has been increased worldwide and the association of high salt diets with enhanced inflammation and target organ damage was reported. Little data were available about the effect of high salt diet on exocrine function of pancreas, while the relation between high salt intake and insulin sensitivity was controversial. This study was designed to investigate the effect of high salt diet on exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functions, and to elucidate the possible underlying mechanism(s). Twenty adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups; control group; fed standard rodent diet containing 0.3% NaCl, and high salt fed group; fed 8% NaCl for 8 weeks. On the day of sacrifice, rats were anesthized by i.p. pentobarbitone (40 μg/kg B.W.). Nasoanal length was measured and fasting blood glucose was determined from rat tail. Blood samples were obtained from abdominal aorta for determination of plasma sodium, potassium, amylase, lipase, aldosterone, insulin, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1), and interleukin 6 (IL6). Pancreata of both groups were histologically studied. Compared to control group, 8-week high salt fed group showed: significant elevation in body weight, body mass index, Lee index, plasma sodium, TGF-β1 and IL6, however, plasma aldosterone, amylase, lipase, and insulin levels were significantly decreased. A nonsignificant increase in plasma potassium and nonsignificant changes in fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR were detected between groups. Pancreatic fibrosis was observed in test group. High salt diet for 8 weeks caused pancreatic fibrosis evidenced by decline of both exocrine and endocrine functions of pancreas in Wistar rats. PMID:26216433

  5. Determining the optimal isoleucine:lysine ratio for ten- to twenty-two-kilogram and twenty-four- to thirty-nine-kilogram pigs fed diets containing nonexcess levels of leucine.

    PubMed

    Htoo, J K; Zhu, C L; Huber, L; de Lange, C F M; Quant, A D; Kerr, B J; Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D

    2014-08-01

    Three 21-d experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standardized ileal digestible (SID) Ile:Lys ratio in 10- to 22-kg and 24- to 39-kg pigs. In Exp. 1, 144 Yorkshire pigs (initial BW = 10.2 kg) were assigned to 6 diets with 6 pens per treatment. Diets 1 to 5 were formulated to contain 5 graded SID Ile:Lys (44, 51, 57, 63, and 70%), 1.18% SID Leu, and 0.90% SID Lys (second limiting). Diet 6 (diet 5 with added Lys) was formulated (1.06% SID Lys) as a positive control. Pigs fed diet 6 had higher (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F and lower (P < 0.05) plasma urea N (PUN) than pigs fed diet 5 (P < 0.02), indicating that Lys was limiting in diets 1 to 5. Final BW, ADG, and ADFI increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) while G:F and PUN at d 21 were not affected (P > 0.10) by dietary Ile:Lys. Overall, ADG and ADFI were highest for pigs fed diet 2 (51% SID Ile:Lys). In Exp. 2, 216 Yorkshire pigs (initial BW = 9.6 kg) were assigned to 9 diets with 6 pens per treatment. Diets 1 to 4 contained 0.40, 0.47, 0.54, and 0.61% SID Ile, respectively, and 1.21% SID Lys; diets 5 to 8 contained 0.72, 0.84, 0.96, and 1.08% SID Lys, respectively, and 0.68% SID Ile. Diet 9 was high in both Ile and Lys (0.68% SID Ile and 1.21% SID Lys). All diets contained 1.21% SID Leu. The ADG and G:F increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) as SID Ile:Lys increased (diets 1 to 4 and 9). The ADG and G:F increased (linear, P < 0.05) as SID Lys increased (diets 5 to 9). The PUN at d 21 decreased (linear, P < 0.05) by increasing dietary Ile:Lys. The SID Ile:Lys to optimize ADG was 46% by curvilinear plateau or exponential regression. For G:F, the optimal SID Ile:Lys was 47 and 51% by curvilinear plateau and exponential regressions, respectively. In Exp. 3, 80 pigs (PIC 327 × C23; initial BW = 24.0 kg) were allotted to 5 treatments with 4 pigs per pen. Diets 1 to 5 were formulated to contain 5 graded SID Ile:Lys (39, 46, 53, 61, and 68%), 1.17% SID Leu, and 0.91% SID Lys (second limiting). Final BW and

  6. Taurine prevents collagen abnormalities in high fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Nandhini, A T Anitha; Thirunavukkarasu, V; Anuradha, C V

    2005-08-01

    Accumulation of collagen and changes in its physiochemical properties contribute to the development of secondary complications of diabetes. We undertook this study to see the effects of taurine on the content and characteristics of collagen from tail tendon of rats fed with high fructose diet. The rats were divided into four groups of six each: control group (CON), taurine-supplemented control group (CON+TAU), taurine supplemented (FRU+TAU) and not supplemented fructose-fed group (FRU). The physico-chemical properties of collagen isolated from the tail tendon were studied. Fructose administration caused accumulation of collagen in tail tendon. Enhanced glycation and advanced glycation end products (AGE)-linked fluorescence together with alterations in aldehyde content, solubility pattern, susceptibility to denaturing agents and shrinkage temperature were observed in fructose-fed rats. Elevated b component of type I collagen was evidenced from the SDS gel pattern of collagen from the fructose-fed rats. Simultaneous administration of taurine alleviated these changes. Taurine administration to fructose-rats had a positive influence on both quantitative and qualitative properties of collagen. The results of the present study suggested a role for the action of taurine in delaying diabetic complications and the possible use of taurine as an adjuvant therapeutic measure in the management of diabetes and its complications.

  7. Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in whey powder, whey permeate, and low-ash whey permeate fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, B G; Lee, J W; Stein, H H

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P, and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in whey powder (3,646 kcal/kg), whey permeate (3,426 kcal/kg), and low-ash whey permeate (3,657 kcal/kg) fed to weanling pigs. The DE and ME in the 3 whey products were determined using 32 barrows (9.2 ± 0.4 kg of BW). A basal diet based on corn, soybean meal, and fish meal and 3 diets containing 70% of the basal diet and 30% of each whey product were prepared. Each diet was fed to 8 pigs that were housed individually in metabolism cages. The total collection method was used for fecal and urine collections with 5-d adaptation and 5-d collection periods, and the difference procedure was used to calculate DE and ME in the 3 whey products. The concentrations of DE in whey powder and low-ash whey permeate were greater (P < 0.001) than in whey permeate (3,646 and 3,683 vs. 3,253 kcal/kg of DM). The concentrations of ME in whey powder and low-ash whey permeate were also greater (P < 0.001) than in whey permeate (3,462 and 3,593 vs. 3,081 kcal/kg of DM). The ATTD and STTD of P in the 3 whey products were determined using 32 barrows (11.0 ± 0.81 kg of BW). Three cornstarch-sucrose-based diets containing 30% of each whey product as the sole source of P were prepared. A P-free diet that was used to estimate the basal endogenous losses of P was also formulated. The ATTD of P in whey powder and in whey permeate was greater (P < 0.001) than in low-ash whey permeate (84.3 and 86.1 vs. 55.9%), but the STTD values for P were not different among the 3 ingredients (91.2, 93.1, and 91.8% in whey powder, whey permeate, and low-ash whey permeate, respectively). In conclusion, whey permeate contains less GE, DE, and ME than whey powder and low-ash whey permeate, but all 3 ingredients have an excellent digestibility of P.

  8. Adverse effects of wide calcium:phosphorus ratios on supplemental phytase efficacy for weanling pigs fed two dietary phosphorus levels.

    PubMed

    Qian, H; Kornegay, E T; Conner, D E

    1996-06-01

    Ninety-six weanling pigs (initial BW = 9.3 kg, initial age = 37 d) were used in a 4-wk experiment to evaluate the response to three Ca: total (t) P ratios (1.2:1, 1.6:1, or 2.0:1) fed in combination with two P levels (.07 or .16% available that correspond to .36 or .45% tP) and two phytase levels (PY; 700 or 1,050 units/kg of diet). A 3 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed using a corn-soybean meal diet. Performance, serum mineral concentrations and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Ca and P digestibility and excretion, and bone mechanical measurements were examined. Average daily gain (P < .001), average daily feed intake (P < .01), and gain:feed (P < .05) were decreased linearly as the Ca:tP ratio became wider. The digestibility of P and Ca were decreased (P < .001) linearly as the Ca:tP ratio became wider. The digestibility of P (P < .001) and fecal P excretion (P < .01) were increased at the higher level of P. Increasing PY from 700 to 1,050 units (U)/kg of diet increased (P < .05) P digestibility and decreased (P < .01) P excretion but did not improve bone measurements. Shear force, stress and energy, and percentage of ash of both metacarpal and 10th rib linearly decreased (P < .001 to .05) as the Ca:tP ratio became wider, and bone measurements were generally greater for pigs fed the higher P level. Serum Ca concentration increased (P < .01) and the P concentration decreased (P < .001) as the Ca:tP ratio increased, but Mg, Zn, and ALP activity were not influenced by the Ca:tP ratio. Serum Ca and P concentrations were affected by PY supplementation over the 4-wk trial, but serum Mg and Zn concentrations were not affected by dietary treatments. Adverse effects of a wide Ca:tP ratio were greater at the low P diet for all responses. In addition, the activity of supplemental PY in diets seemed to be decreased as the Ca:tP ratio became wider and this negative effect of Ca:tP ratio seemed greater at the low P level, and seemed to parallel the

  9. Dietary lysine requirement for 7-16 kg pigs fed wheat-corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kahindi, R K; Htoo, J K; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the lysine requirement of weaned pigs [Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace)] with an average initial BW of 7 kg and fed wheat-corn-soybean meal-based diets. The experiments were conducted for 21 days during which piglets had free access to diets and water. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined on day 7, 14 and 21. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and 14 to determine plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentration. In experiment 1, 96 weaned pigs were housed four per pen and allocated to four dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment. The diets contained 0.99%, 1.23%, 1.51% and 1.81% standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine, respectively, corrected analysed values. The rest of the AA were provided to meet the ideal AA ratio for protein accretion. Increasing dietary lysine content linearly increased (p < 0.05) ADG and G:F. In experiment 2, 90 piglets were housed three per pen and allocated to five dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment. The five diets contained 1.03%, 1.25%, 1.31%, 1.36% and 1.51% SID lysine, respectively, corrected analysed values. Increasing dietary lysine content linearly increased (p < 0.05) G:F, linearly decreased (p < 0.05) day-14 PUN and quadratically (p < 0.05) increased ADG and ADFI. The ADG data from experiment 2 were subjected to linear and quadratic broken-lines regression analyses, and the SID lysine requirement was determined to be 1.29% and 1.34% respectively. On average, optimal dietary SID lysine content for optimal growth of 7-16 kg weaned piglets fed wheat-corn-SBM-based diets was estimated to be 1.32%; at this level, the ADG and ADFI were 444 and 560 g, respectively, thus representing an SID lysine requirement, expressed on daily intake basis as, 7.4 g/day or 16.76 mg/g gain. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Nutrient digestibility and growth performance of pigs fed diets with different levels of canola meal from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow.

    PubMed

    Sanjayan, N; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    Nutrient digestibility and the effect of high dietary inclusion of canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) on growing and weaned pigs performance were determined. In Exp.1, 6 ileal cannulated barrows (initial BW = 20.7 ± 1.5 kg) were used to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in BNB and BJY. Pigs were allotted to diets containing either BNB or BJY as the sole source of protein in a crossover design to give 6 replicates per diet. The SID of all AA in BNB and BJY were similar. In Exp. 2, 168 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.61 ± 0.76 kg) were assigned in a randomized complete block design to 7 diets (n = 24) consisting of a wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 6 diets containing 5, 10 or 15% of canola meal derived from either BNB or BJY to determine the effect of different dietary inclusion on growth performance over a 28-d period postweaning. Diets were formulated to contain similar NE and SID of Lys. There were no differences in growth performance among treatments. In Exp. 3, 162 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.26 ± 0.70 kg) were used to determine the effect of high BNB and BJY inclusion level without or with multicarbohydrase supplementation on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP, DM, and GE. A wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 8 diets containing 20 and 25% of either BNB or BJY without or with added multi-carbohydrase were formulated (n = 18) to contain comparable NE and similar SID of Lys contents. Feeding the diets containing 25% of BNB or BJY supported similar growth performance as those containing 20%. The multi-carbohydrase had no effect on growth performance but improved (P < 0.05) the ATTD of DM, CP, and GE compared with those fed nonsupplemented diets irrespective of canola meal type. Diets containing 25% canola meal had lower (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, CP, and GE regardless of canola meal type compared with the 20

  11. Ileal microbiota of growing pigs fed different dietary calcium phosphate levels and phytase content and subjected to ileal pectin infusion.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Vahjen, W; Baumgärtel, T; Rodehutscord, M; Mosenthin, R

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments with growing pigs were conducted to determine the effects of dietary P and Ca levels, phytase supplementation, and ileal pectin infusion on changes in bacterial populations in the ileum and on ileal and fecal fermentation patterns. Growing pigs (BW 30.1 +/- 1.3 kg) were fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and were fed a low-P corn-soybean meal control diet (3 g of P/kg), or the control diet supplemented with either 15 g of monocalcium phosphate (MCP)/kg (Exp. 1) or 1,000 phytase units of phytase/kg (Exp. 2). Daily infusion treatments consisted of either 60 g of pectin dissolved in 1.8 L of demineralized water or 1.8 L of demineralized water as a control infusion, infused via the ileal cannula. In each experiment, 8 barrows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments according to a double incomplete 4 x 2 Latin square design. The dietary treatments in Exp. 1 were the control diet with water infusion, the control diet with pectin infusion, the MCP diet with water infusion, or the MCP diet with pectin infusion. In Exp. 2, the pigs received the same control treatments as in Exp. 1 and the phytase diet in combination with water or pectin infusion. Gene copy numbers of total bacteria, Lactobacillus spp., Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus amylovorus/Lactobacillus sobrius, Lactobacillus mucosae, Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, bifidobacteria, the Clostridium coccoides cluster, the Clostridium leptum cluster, the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyrmonas group, and Enterobacteriaceae were determined by quantitative PCR in DNA extracts of ileal digesta. In Exp. 1, addition of MCP reduced ileal gene copy numbers of Enterococcus spp. (P = 0.048), E. faecium (P = 0.015), and the C. leptum cluster (P = 0.028), whereas pectin infusion enhanced (P = 0.008) ileal d-lactate concentration. In Exp. 2, supplemental phytase led to greater ileal gene copy numbers of the C. coccoides (P = 0.041) and C. leptum (P = 0.048) clusters and

  12. Nutrient value of spray field forages fed to pigs and the use of feed enzymes to enhance nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Passos, A A; Andrade, C; Phillips, C E; Coffey, M T; Kim, S W

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the DE, ME, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of N, and N retention of spray field forages (Bermuda grass, forage sorghum, and sweet sorghum) fed to pigs and the effects of the supplemental feed enzymes on energy and N utilization. A basal diet was formulated with 96% corn and 4% amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. Test diets contained 85% basal diet + 15% Bermuda grass, forage sorghum, or sweet sorghum. Allzyme SSF (Alltech, Nicholasville, KY) was used as a feed enzyme, which was composed of cellulase, glucanase, xylanase, phytase, and protease. The basal diet and test diets were evaluated by using 4 sets of 2 × 2 Latin square designs consisting of 2 pigs and 2 periods with a total of 32 barrows (38.7 ± 7.9 kg). Each period (10-d adjustment and 4-d collection) had 2 Latin squares. The 2 treatments were levels of enzyme supplementation (0 or 200 mg/kg). Pigs received experimental diets twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) at a fixed amount based on BW of pigs (0.09 × BW0.75 kg). On d 10, chromic oxide (0.5%) was added to the diets at 1700 h as an external marker. Fecal and urine samples were collected during 4 consecutive days. The basal diet contained 3,850 kcal DE/kg, 3,769 kcal ME/kg, 86.06% ATTD of N, and 71.10% N retention and was not affected by enzyme supplementation. Bermuda grass contained 893 kcal DE/kg, 845 kcal ME/kg, -16.50% ATTD of N, and -37.49% N retention and tended to be improved by enzyme supplementation to 1,211 kcal DE/kg (P = 0.098), 1,185 kcal ME/kg (P = 0.081), and -10.54% N retention (P = 0.076). The ATTD of N of Bermuda grass increased (P < 0.05) to 0.08% by enzyme supplementation. The forage sorghum contained 1,520 kcal DE/kg, 1,511 kcal ME/kg, -0.72% ATTD of N, and -16.99% N retention. The sweet sorghum contained 1,086 kcal DE/kg, 1,061 kcal ME/kg, -75.47% ATTD of N, and -49.22% N retention. Enzyme supplementation did not improve energy digestibility of forage sorghum and sweet sorghum. Nitrogen in these

  13. Effects of zinc sulfate pretreatment on heat tolerance of Bama miniature pig under high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Cao, Y; Zhou, X; Wang, F; Shan, T; Li, Z; Xu, W; Li, C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the heat tolerance of Bama miniature pigs under high ambient temperature (40°C) and Zn interactive functions during heat treatment (HT). Bama miniature pigs (male; n = 24; 6-mo old; BW = 10.79 ± 0.06 kg) were randomly allotted to 4 groups and were fed a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 1,500 mg of Zn (ZnSO4·H2O)/kg diet for 38 d. At 7 mo of age (d 30), the thermal neutral (TN) groups remained at 25°C, whereas the HT groups were exposed to ambient temperature at 40°C for 5 h daily for 8 consecutive days. Pigs in 4 groups were sacrificed on d 38. Individual rectal temperatures, skin temperatures, and breathing rates were recorded at 3 h after the onset of HT and the blood samples were collected immediately after HT on d 30, 34, and 38. Pigs fed diets with or without Zn doubled their breathing rates (P < 0.05) and increased body surface, scrotal, and rectal temperatures during HT on d 30, 34, and 38, respectively. Zinc supplementation increased BW gain (BWG; P < 0.05) during 38-d experiment period, and HT decreased BWG only from d 30 to 34 (P < 0.05). Heat treatment increased serum testosterone on d 30 (P < 0.05). Zinc supplementation decreased the heat-induced increase of testosterone in HT on d 30 and 34 (P < 0.05). The relative weight of liver increased in HT groups (P < 0.05). Zinc supplementation decreased the relative weights of spleen (P < 0.05) and testis (P < 0.01). The values of abnormal lymphocyte count and large unstained cell count declined approximately 5 times in groups of Zn supplementation, whereas Zn supplementation increased the values of red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Zinc concentrations increased in serum, liver, kidney, epididymis, longissimus, hair, and feces in groups fed with Zn (P < 0.01). However, additional Zn decreased Zn concentrations in lung, spleen, and testis (P < 0.01). Moreover, HT decreased serum Zn

  14. Bioavailability of two organic forms of zinc in comparison to zinc sulphate for weaning pigs fed a diet composed mainly of wheat, barley and soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Paulicks, Brigitte R; Ingenkamp, Hanna; Eder, Klaus

    2011-08-01

    This study was performed to compare the bioavailability of two organic zinc compounds, a zinc glycinate complex and a zinc amino acid chelate with that of zinc sulphate in growing pigs fed a basal diet composed mainly of wheat, barley and soybean meal. The experiment included 96 pigs with an average body weight of 8 kg, allotted to ten groups of nine to ten pigs each. The first group received the basal diet, containing 42 mg of native zinc per kg, without zinc supplementation over a period of five weeks. The other nine groups received the basal diet supplemented with 15, 30 or 50 mg of zinc/kg as zinc sulphate, zinc glycinate or the zinc amino acid chelate. Pigs fed the unsupplemented diet had a lower growth performance (body weight gain, feed conversion ratio) than the other nine groups. Supplementation of 15 mg zinc/kg diet (irrespective of zinc form) was sufficient to yield optimum growth performance. Plasma zinc concentration and activity of alkaline phosphatase were rising with increasing zinc supplementation levels up to a maximum reached at a supplementary level of 30 or 50 mg/kg diet for activity of alkaline phosphatase and plasma zinc concentration, respectively. The response of those parameters to zinc supplementation did, however, not differ between the three zinc compounds considered. The apparent digestibility of zinc from the diet was also not different for the three zinc compounds. In conclusion, these findings show that the bioavailability of the two organic zinc compounds did not differ from that of zinc sulphate in growing pigs fed a diet with wheat, barley and soybean meal as major components.

  15. Consequences of copper (Cu) deficiency are not differentially influenced by fructose or starch in growing pigs fed a dried skim milk-based diet

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenemann, H.M.; Failla, M.L.; Fields, M. )

    1989-02-09

    Some carbohydrates (CHO), e.g., fructose or sucrose but not starch, are known to aggravate the consequences of dietary Cu deficiency in rats. To evaluate if this Cu x CHO interaction is relevant to human health, the pig was used as an animal model. In the first experiment, weanling pigs (21 days of age, n=36) were fed dried skim milk (DSM)-based diets for 10 weeks with 20% of the total calories provided as either cornstarch (ST), fructose (F), or glucose (GL) and containing either deficient (-Cu; 1.4 ppm) or adequate (+Cu; 7 ppm) Cu. Plasma and tissue levels of Cu, plasma ceruloplasmin oxidase activity, activity of Cu, Zn-SOD in liver and erythrocytes, and hematocrits were lower in animals fed -Cu diets. The relative cardiac mass of all -Cu groups was greater than that of animals fed +Cu diets. These effects were not influenced by type of CHO. Similar results were obtained in a second experiment with weanling pigs (n=33) when the GL diets were excluded. For comparison, weaned male rats were also fed the same ST or F diets as pigs for as long as 10 weeks. Rats consuming both -Cu diets exhibited significantly lower hematocrits, decreased tissue Cu levels, and enlarged hearts. These changes were evident as early as 5 weeks. Together, these data demonstrate that (a) DSM-based diets are not suitable for delineation of Cu x CHO interactions, and (b) one or more components of DSM (possibly lactose) may exacerbate the consequences of dietary Cu deficiency.

  16. Performance of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing Roundup Ready corn (event nk603), a nontransgenic genetically similar corn, or conventional corn lines.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Y; Bressner, G E; Ellis, M; Lewis, A J; Fischer, R; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F

    2004-02-01

    Two studies were conducted at two locations to evaluate growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing either glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready (event nk603) corn, a nontransgenic genetically similar control corn (RX670), or two conventional sources of nontransgenic corn (RX740 and DK647). A randomized complete block design (three and four blocks in Studies 1 and 2, respectively) with a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement of treatments (two genders and four corn lines) was used. Study 1 used 72 barrows and 72 gilts (housed in single-gender groups of six; six pens per dietary treatment) with initial and final BW of approximately 22 and 116 kg, respectively. Study 2 used 80 barrows and 80 gilts (housed in single-gender groups of five; eight pens per dietary treatment) with initial and final BW of approximately 30 and 120 kg, respectively. Pigs were housed in a modified open-front building in Study 1 and in an environmentally controlled finishing building in Study 2. The test corns were included at a fixed proportion of the diet in both studies. Animals had ad libitum access to feed and water. Pigs were slaughtered using standard procedures and carcass measurements were taken. In Study 1, overall ADG, ADFI (as-fed basis), and gain:feed (G:F) were not affected (P > 0.05) by corn line. In Study 2, there was no effect of corn line on overall ADFI (as-fed basis) or G:F ratio. In addition, overall ADG of barrows fed the four corn lines did not differ (P > 0.05); however, overall ADG of gilts fed corn DK647 was greater (P < 0.05) than that of pigs fed the other corn lines. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of corn line on carcass yield or fatness measurements in either study. Differences between barrows and gilts for growth and carcass traits were generally similar for both studies and in line with previous research. Overall, these results indicate that Roundup Ready corn (nk603) gives equivalent animal performance to conventional corn

  17. Effects of a high-fibre diet on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from gestating sows and fattening pigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, François-Xavier; Laitat, Martine; Wavreille, José; Nicks, Baudouin; Cabaraux, Jean-François

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to measure under barn conditions the emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 associated with gestating sows (trial 1) and fattening pigs (trial 2) fed either a control diet (CTD) based on cereals or a high-fibre diet (HFD) based on sugar beet pulp (SBP). Three successive batches of 10 Belgian Landrace gestating sows were used for trial 1. Two successive batches of 24 Piétrain × Belgian Landrace fattening pigs were used for trial 2. Animals were kept on slatted floor. The gas emissions were measured by infrared photoacoustic detection and expressed per day and per livestock unit, equals to 500 kg body weight. Similar trends were observed for both animal types. With HFD, the NH3 emissions were reduced (27.2 vs. 36.5 g for the gestating sows, P < 0.001; 23.2 vs. 45.0 g for the fattening pigs, P < 0.001) but the CH4 emissions were increased (41.5 vs. 21.0 g for gestating sows, P < 0.001; 37.9 vs. 27.2 g for fattening pigs, P < 0.001). The fibre content of the diet had not significant impact on N2O emissions (around 1.4 g for gestating sows and 2.1 g for fattening pigs, P > 0.05), and on CO2 emissions (around 6.0 kg for gestating sows and 9.1 kg for fattening pigs, P > 0.05). Most of manure parameters did not statistically differ regarding the treatment. Reproductive performance and body condition of the sows were not affected by the diet. However, growth performance and carcass traits of the HFD-fed fattening pigs were deteriorated compared to CTD.

  18. Digestibility and retention of zinc, copper, manganese, iron, calcium, and phosphorus in pigs fed diets containing inorganic or organic minerals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Ma, Y L; Zhao, J M; Vazquez-Añón, M; Stein, H H

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the retention rate of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe in pigs fed either inorganic or organic sources of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. There were 2 types of diets (corn grits-based or corn-soybean meal [SBM]-based diets) and 3 micromineral treatments (basal micromineral premix [BMM], inorganic micromineral premix [IMM], and organic micromineral premix [OMM]). The BMM contained no added Zn, Cu, Mn, or Fe; the IMM microminerals were provided as sulfates of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe at 40, 50, 20, and 100 mg/kg, respectively. The OMM contained the same levels of the 4 microminerals as IMM, but Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe in this premix were provided by Zn(2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid [HMTBa])2, Cu(HMTBa)2, Mn(HMTBa)2, and FeGly, respectively. Forty-eight barrows (initial BW: 31.1 ± 4.2 kg) were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to the corn grits diet with BMM for 2 wk. All pigs were then moved to metabolism cages and randomly assigned to 1 of the 6 treatment diets with 8 replicates per diet. Fecal and urine samples were collected for 5 d following a 5-d adaptation period. Compared with corn grits diets, pigs fed corn-SBM diets had greater (P < 0.05) absorption and retention of Zn, Cu, and Mn but less (P < 0.05) ATTD of Zn and Cu. Compared with BMM, supplementation of IMM or OMM increased (P < 0.05) absorption, retention, ATTD, and retention rate of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe. Compared with IMM, adding OMM to the corn-SBM diet improved (P < 0.05) the absorption and retention of Cu and Mn and the ATTD of Cu, but these differences were not observed in the corn grits diets (interaction, P < 0.05). In addition, adding OMM to the corn-SBM diet increased (P < 0.05) absorption and retention of Zn and Fe and ATTD of Zn, Mn, and Fe compared with adding IMM to the corn-SBM diet

  19. Observations on Diseased Pigs with High Sulfate Intake and Normal Tissue Copper Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jericho, K. W. F.; Strausz, K. I.; Martin, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    Disease in a large pig herd reared intensively and kept on sulfate-rich drinking water is described. It is the first report of diseased progeny of sows with high sulfate intake. Results of two surveys are presented, one for water with sulfate in excess of 2000 ppm and one for water with less than 1000 ppm. The management practices are described in detail. Disease of Survey I was manifested by high morbidity and mortality (50% of 600) in piglets, incoordination in piglets and some adult stock and osteopathy in piglets and weaners. In Survey II disease was less severe and restricted to piglets. Detailed histopathological studies revealed myelin deficiency in brain and spinal cord of sows and piglets, interferred endochondreal ossification of long bones of piglets and weaners, fatty changes of livers and interstitial nephritis in piglets and weaners. The changes in the nervous tissue were considered due to delayed fixation as tissue was only immersed in fixative and not perfused with it immediately after death. Similar changes have been described for pigs deficient in copper. Copper content of tissue and body fluids of pigs of this study were normal, as were the serum inorganic phosphate and total calcium levels. The bone changes observed have also been reported for rats given dextran sulfate injections, for pigs on experimental low-copper sulfate-enriched diet and for pigs reported low in copper and fed a diet supplemented with sulfide. The cause of the locomotor disturbance and mortality in piglets was not established. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4270430

  20. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of soft winter wheat fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rosenfelder, P; Mosenthin, R; Spindler, H K; Jørgensen, H; Bach Knudsen, K E; Sauer, N; Htoo, J K; Eklund, M

    2015-03-01

    A study with growing pigs was conducted to determine the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA of 8 wheat genotypes that have recently been added to the German Descriptive Variety List. These genotypes included Tabasco, KWS Erasmus, Tobak, Skalmeje, Mulan, Event, Tommi, and Adler. The 8 genotypes were grown under identical environmental conditions on the same site, and they were harvested and processed under the same conditions. Nine barrows with an initial BW of 32 ± 2 kg were surgically fitted with simple ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a row-column design with 9 pigs and 8 periods of 6 d each. Wheat was the sole dietary source of CP and AA. Among the 8 wheat genotypes, contents of CP ranged from 10.9 to 13.3% (as-fed basis), whereas contents of total nonstarch polysaccharides ranged from 8.0 to 9.4% (as-fed basis). The SID of CP in the 8 genotypes ranged from 83 to 87%, with greatest ( = 0.01) values for Event and lowest ( = 0.01) for all other wheat genotypes. Intermediate SID of CP values were obtained for Adler and KWS Erasmus. For Lys, greater ( < 0.05) SID was observed in Adler (73%) and KWS Erasmus (74%) in comparison to Tommi, Tobak, and Mulan (69%). Adler had greater SID of Met (88%; = 0.01) when compared to Tabasco (86%); Tobak, Skalmeje, and Mulan (85%); and Tommi (84%). Among the 8 wheat genotypes, standardized ileal digestible content (cSID) of CP followed total CP content and ranged from 9.1 to 11.3% (as-fed basis). Standardized ileal digestible content of both CP and AA were greater ( < 0.001) in Adler compared to all other genotypes. For most AA, Tabasco had the lowest ( < 0.001; except for His, Trp, Asp, and Cys) cSID values of all wheat genotypes. The cSID of CP decreased ( < 0.001) as the starch content in the 8 wheat genotypes increased, but cSID of CP increased ( < 0.001) as the CP content in the 8 genotypes increased. Because SID and cSID of CP and most AA increased ( < 0.05) with lower test weight

  1. Concentration of metabolizable energy and digestibility of energy, phosphorus, and amino acids in lemna protein concentrate fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rojas, O J; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2014-11-01

    Lemna protein concentrate (LPC; 68.0% CP) is produced by extracting protein from de-oiled and dehydrated biomaterials from plants of the Lemnaceae family and may be used as a protein source for animals. There are, however, no published data on the nutritional value of LPC fed to pigs. Three experiments were, therefore, conducted to determine the concentration of ME, the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P, and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in LPC and to compare these values to values for fish meal and soybean meal (SBM). Experiment 1 was conducted to determine the ME of LPC, fish meal, SBM, and corn. Thirty-two barrows (initial BW: 16.8 ± 2.8 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to a randomized complete block design with 4 diets and 8 replicate pigs per diet. A corn-based diet and 3 diets that contained corn and LPC, fish meal, or SBM were formulated. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period, and all samples were analyzed for GE. Results indicated that the concentration of ME was not different among corn, fish meal, and SBM (3,855, 3,904, and 4,184 kcal/kg DM, respectively), but there was a tendency (P = 0.08) for a reduced ME in LPC (3,804 kcal/kg DM) compared with SBM. In Exp. 2, 24 barrows (initial BW: 12.5 ± 2.5 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 3 diets and 8 replicate pigs per diet and used to determine the STTD of P in LPC, fish meal, and SBM. Three diets that each contained 1 of the 3 test ingredients as the sole source of P were formulated. Pigs were placed in metabolism cages, and feces were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period. The STTD of P in LPC (72.8%) was not different from the STTD of P in fish meal (65.6%), but tended (P = 0.07) to be greater than in SBM (62.8%). The SID of AA in LPC, SBM, and fish meal was determined in Exp. 3. Eight barrows (initial BW: 21.4 ± 4.0 kg) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly

  2. Effects of feeding canola meal from high-protein or conventional varieties of canola seeds on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cutability of pigs.

    PubMed

    Little, K L; Bohrer, B M; Maison, T; Liu, Y; Stein, H H; Boler, D D

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine growth performance, visceral mass differences, carcass characteristics, fresh meat quality, and carcass cutability of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing high-protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). Seven dietary treatments were fed to investigate effects of increasing inclusion rates of CM-HP or CM-CV in a corn-soybean meal diet containing no canola meal (control). Inclusion rates were 33, 66, or 100% replacement of soybean meal with either CM-HP or CM-CV. Pigs (140 barrows and 140 gilts; 2 barrows and 2 gilts per pen) were fed experimental diets in 3 phases with each phase lasting 35, 28, and 28 d, respectively. Within each phase, diets were formulated to be similar in concentrations of standardized ileal digestible indispensable AA and in standardized total tract digestible P, but NE concentrations were not equalized among diets. At the conclusion of the experiment, 1 pig per pen was harvested. Over the 91-d growing-finishing period, no effects of CM-HP on ADG, ADFI, or G:F were observed, but final BW tended ( = 0.06) to be reduced as increasing levels of CM-HP were included in the diets. There was a linear increase ( < 0.05) in ADFI and a linear reduction ( < 0.05) in G:F as CM-CV inclusion level increased. Pigs fed CM-CV also had greater ( < 0.05) ADG and ADFI than pigs fed diets containing CM-HP. There was a linear increase ( < 0.01) in liver weights, as a percentage of live weight, as CM-CV inclusion increased, but that was not the case if CM-HP was included in the diets. There was a linear increase ( < 0.05) in kidney weights, as a percentage of live weight, as CM-HP or CM-CV inclusion increased. There were no differences among treatments for ending live weight, HCW, carcass yield, loin eye area, 10th rib backfat thickness, or estimated carcass lean. Shear force, cook loss, LM moisture, LM extractible lipid, and drip loss were also not different among treatment groups

  3. Comparison of values for standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Kim, B G; Stein, H H

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare values for the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) and the relative bioavailability of P in dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) when fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), the basal endogenous P loss (EPL), and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were determined. Eighteen pigs (initial BW: 34.93±1.04 kg) were allotted to 3 cornstarch-based diets in a randomized complete block design and housed individually in metabolism cages. Two diets contained DCP and DDGS, respectively, as the sole source of P and the last diet was a P-free diet that was used to measure EPL from the pigs. Results indicated that the ATTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 86.1 and 58.8%, respectively, and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 93.1 and 63.1%, respectively. The EPL was determined at 174 mg/kg DMI. In Exp. 2, 42 pigs (initial BW: 29.02±2.03 kg) were allotted to 7 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A basal diet (0.22% P) based on corn, casein, cornstarch, and potato protein concentrate was formulated. Three additional diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DCP to the basal diet to create diets containing 0.26, 0.30, or 0.34% P. The last 3 diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DDGS to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 28 d. They were then euthanized and the third and fourth metacarpals from the right front foot were collected. Metacarpal bone ash and bone P were regressed against P intake for each ingredient and via slope ratio methodology, it was determined that the bioavailability of P in DDGS was 87% relative to that in DCP. It was concluded from this work that the value for relative bioavailability of P in DDGS overestimates the digestibility of P in DDGS and values for the

  4. Effects of pantothenic acid on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs fed diets with or without ractopamine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Groesbeck, C N; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Nelssen, J L; DeRouchey, J M

    2007-10-01

    Two experiments evaluated effects of added pantothenic acid on performance of growing-finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, 156 pigs (PIC, initial BW = 25.7 kg) were used in a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial to evaluate the effects of added pantothenic acid (PA; 0, 22.5, or 45 ppm), ractopamine.HCl (RAC; 0 or 10 mg/kg), and sex on growth performance and carcass traits. Pigs were fed increasing PA from 25.7 to 123.6 kg (d 0 to 98) and RAC for the last 28 d before slaughter. Increasing the amount of added PA had no effect (P > 0.40) on ADG, ADFI, or G:F from d 0 to 70. A PA x sex interaction (P < 0.03) was observed for ADG and G:F from d 71 to 98. Increasing the amount of added PA increased ADG and G:F in gilts, but not in barrows. Increasing the amount of added PA had no effect (P > 0.38) on carcass traits. Added RAC increased (P < 0.01) ADG and G:F for d 71 to 98 and d 0 to 98 and increased (P < 0.01) LM area and percentage lean. In Exp. 2, 1,080 pigs (PIC, initial BW = 40.4 kg, final BW = 123.6 kg) were used to determine the effects of increasing PA on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs reared in a commercial finishing facility. Pigs were fed 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 90 mg/kg of added PA. Increasing the amount of added PA had no effect (P > 0.45) on ADG, ADFI, or G:F, and no differences were observed (P > 0.07) for carcass traits. In summary, adding dietary PA to diets during the growing-finishing phase did not provide any advantages in growth performance or carcass composition of growing-finishing pigs. Furthermore, it appears that the pantothenic acid in corn and soybean meal may be sufficient to meet the requirements of 25- to 120-kg pigs.

  5. Controlling Salmonella infection in weanling pigs through water delivery of direct-fed microbials or organic acids: Part II. Effects on intestinal histology and active nutrient transport.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M C; Rostagno, M H; Gardiner, G E; Sutton, A L; Richert, B T; Radcliffe, J S

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of water-delivered, direct-fed microbials (DFM) or organic acids on intestinal morphology and active nutrient absorption in weanling pigs after deliberate Salmonella infection. Pigs (n = 88) were weaned at 19 ± 2 d of age and assigned to 1 of the following treatments, which were administered for 14 d: 1) control diet; 2) control diet + DFM (Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus licheniformis) in drinking water at 10(9) cfu/L for each strain of bacteria; 3) control diet + organic acid-based blend (predominantly propionic, acetic, and benzoic acids) in drinking water at 2.58 mL/L; and 4) control diet + 55 mg/kg carbadox. Pigs were challenged with 10(10) cfu Salmonella enterica var Typhimurium 6 d after commencement of treatments. Pigs (n = 22/d) were harvested before Salmonella challenge and on d 2, 4, and 8 after challenge. Duodenal, jejunal, and ileal mucosal tissues were sampled for measurement of villus height and crypt depth. Jejunal tissue was sampled for determination of active nutrient absorption in modified Ussing chambers. Duodenal villus height was greater in pigs fed in-feed antibiotic before infection (P < 0.05). Jejunal crypts were deeper in DFM- and acid-treated pigs on d 4 after infection compared with all other treatments (P < 0.05). Salmonella infection resulted in a linear decrease in phosphorus (P < 0.001) and glucose (P < 0.05) active transport, and an increase (P < 0.001) in glutamine uptake immediately after challenge. Salmonella infection reduced basal short-circuit current (I(sc)); however, water-delivered DFM or organic acid treatments caused greater basal I(sc) on d 2 after challenge than did carbadox. Carbachol-induced chloride ion secretion was greatest in negative control pigs before infection (P < 0.01) and DFM-treated pigs (P < 0.05) after infection. In conclusion, both the DFM and acidification treatments induced increases in basal active ion movement and jejunal

  6. Large bowel fermentation of maize or sorghum-acorn diets fed as a different source of carbohydrates to Landrace and Iberian pigs.

    PubMed

    Morales, J; Pérez, J F; Martín-Orúe, S M; Fondevila, M; Gasa, J

    2002-11-01

    Twenty-four finishing pigs (twelve Iberian and twelve Landrace) were used in a growing and slaughtering experiment. Animals were fed two diets differing in their ingredients, maize (diet C) or sorghum-acorn (diet A). At an average weight of 107.0 kg pigs were slaughtered and hindgut digesta sampled to study the effect of breed and diet on large bowel fermentation. Flows of digesta to the hindgut compartment were estimated based on an indigestible flow marker (Cr2O3) and were higher in Iberian than in Landrace pigs (P<0.001), and higher in animals fed diet A than diet C (P=0.07). The higher flows in Iberian pigs were mainly associated with a higher voluntary feed intake (3.50 v. 2.70 kg/d, P<0.01) and lower ileal digestibility of NSP (-12.8 v. 47.8, P<0.01). Differences between diets were mainly associated with a lower ileal digestibility of starch from diet A (89.2 v. 96.9 %, P=0.06), although no differences in the resistant starch content were observed in vitro. Fermentation of different carbohydrates through the large bowel showed that NSP-glucose had lower digestibility in Iberian than in Landrace pigs (62.5 v. 94.2 %, P<0.001), but no differences were observed in starch, or other NSP-fibre fractions (arabinose, xylose and galactose). The type and amount of carbohydrates reaching the large bowel were related to the diet but also to breed, and promoted differences in the fermentative activity associated with different volatile fatty acid patterns and changes in microbial enzymic activity.

  7. Evaluation of commercially available enzymes, probiotics, or yeast on apparent total-tract nutrient digestion and growth in nursery and finishing pigs fed diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability of enzymes, direct fed microbials, or yeast to enhance nutrient utilization or growth performance in nursery or finishing pigs fed diets containing increased levels of corn fiber from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is largely unknown. Ten commercially available feed additiv...

  8. Physical meat quality and chemical composition of the Longissimus thoracis of entire and immunocastrated pigs fed varying dietary protein levels with and without ractopamine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Needham, T; Hoffman, L C

    2015-12-01

    Physical and chemical attributes of the Longissimus thoracis (LT) of 96 PIC(©) entire (E) and immunocastrated (C) pigs were evaluated. The study followed a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design where three diets of low, medium and high proteins (7.50, 9.79 and 12.07 g digestible lysine/kg) were fed either with (10mg/kg) or without ractopamine (RAC) for the last 28 days of growth. Vaccination of C occurred at 16 and 20 weeks and slaughtering at 24 weeks of age. The LTs were analysed for moisture, protein, fat and ash contents as well as CIE L*, a*, b* colour, drip loss, cooking loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Various sex and protein interactions were observed for LT protein content, L* values and WBSF. Cooking loss was decreased in C and by the medium protein diet. Feeding RAC increased WBSF values, whilst decreasing a* and b* values. However, the differences observed are minor and might be considered negligible when evaluated by a consumer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination and prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy from chemical analysis of corn coproducts fed to finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Anderson, P V; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Ziemer, C J; Shurson, G C

    2012-04-01

    Twenty corn coproducts from various wet- and dry-grind ethanol plants were fed to finishing pigs to determine DE and ME and to generate equations predicting DE and ME based on chemical analysis. A basal diet comprised corn (97.05%), limestone, dicalcium phosphate, salt, vitamins, and trace minerals. Twenty test diets were formulated by mixing the basal diet with 30% of a coproduct, except for dried corn solubles and corn oil, which were included at 20 and 10%, respectively. There were 8 groups of 24 finishing gilts (n = 192; BW = 112.7 ± 7.9 kg). Within each group, gilts were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 test diets or the basal diet for a total of 4 replications per diet per group. Two groups of gilts were used for each set of coproducts, resulting in 8 replications per coproduct and 32 replications of the basal diet. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design. Gilts were placed in metabolism crates and offered 3 kg daily of their assigned test diet for 13 d, with total collection of feces and urine during the last 4 d. Ingredients were analyzed for DM, GE, CP, ether extract, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, total dietary fiber (TDF), ash, AA, and minerals, and in vitro OM digestibility was calculated for each ingredient. The GE was determined in the diets, feces, and urine to calculate DE and ME for each ingredient. The DE and ME of the basal diet were used as covariates among groups of pigs. The DE of the coproducts ranged from 2,517 kcal/kg of DM (corn gluten feed) to 8,988 kcal/kg of DM (corn oil), and ME ranged from 2,334 kcal/kg of DM (corn gluten feed) to 8,755 kcal/kg of DM (corn oil). By excluding corn oil and corn starch from the stepwise regression analysis, a series of DE and ME prediction equations were generated. The best fit equations were as follows: DE, kcal/kg of DM = -7,471 + (1.94 × GE) - (50.91 × ether extract) + (15.20 × total starch) + (18.04 × OM digestibility), with R(2) = 0.90, SE = 227, and P < 0.01; ME, kcal/kg of DM = (0

  10. Prediction of digestible and metabolisable energy in soybean meals produced from soybeans of different origins fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongchao; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Guo, Panpan; Liu, Ling; Piao, Xiangshu; Stein, Hans H; Li, Defa; Lai, Changhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) in 22 sources of soybean meal (SBM) produced from soybeans from different countries and subsequently to establish equations for predicting the DE and ME in SBM based on their chemical composition. The 22 sources of SBM were all processed in Chinese crushing plants, but the soybeans used originated from China (n=6), the US (n=6), Brazil (n=7) or Argentina (n=3). The basal diet was a corn-based diet and 22 additional diets were formulated by mixing corn and 24.3% of each source of SBM. The average DE and ME in SBM from China, the US, Brazil and Argentina were 15.73, 15.93, 15.64 and 15.90 MJ/kg and 15.10, 15.31, 14.97 and 15.42 MJ/kg, respectively, and no differences among countries were observed. From a stepwise regression analysis, a series of DE and ME prediction equations were generated. The best-fit equations for SBM were DE=38.44-0.43 crude fibre -0.98 gross energy +0.11 acid detergent fibre (R2=0.67, p<0.01) and ME=2.74+0.97 DE -0.06 crude protein (R2=0.79, p<0.01). In conclusion, there were no differences in the DE and ME of SBM among the different soybean sources used in this experiment. The DE and ME of SBM of different origin can be predicted based on their chemical composition when fed to growing pigs.

  11. Nutrient digestibility of solvent-extracted Brassica napus and Brassica juncea canola meals and their air-classified fractions fed to ileal-cannulated grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Zijlstra, R T; Beltranena, E

    2015-01-01

    Energy and nutrient digestibility of solvent-extracted canola meal (CM) is limited in pigs by its relatively high fiber content. The seed hull, which greatly contributes to the fiber content of CM, is denser than the oil-free cotyledon. By utilizing streams of air, air classification partially separates these seed components on the basis of their different sizes and densities to produce a low-fiber, light-particle fraction and a high-fiber, heavy-particle fraction. Compared with parent CM, ADF and NDF were reduced by 31.9% and 29.5% in the light-particle fraction and were enriched by 16.5% and 9.0% in the heavy-particle fraction (DM basis), respectively. Particle size was 638, 18.9, and 76.1 µm for the parent CM and light- and heavy-particle fractions, respectively. To determine the nutrient digestibility of CM and their air-classified fractions, Brassica napus and B. juncea CM and their 2 air-classified fractions were evaluated in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement together with a basal diet and an N-free diet. The experiment was conducted as an 8 × 8 Latin square in which diets contained 40% B. napus or B. juncea CM or their air-classified fractions and 60% basal diet. Digesta data from pigs fed the N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses. Eight ileal-cannulated barrows (32 kg initial BW) were fed the 8 diets at 2.7 times maintenance DE for eight 11-d periods. At the end of each period, feces were collected for 48 h, and ileal digesta were collected for two 12-h periods. The DE and calculated NE values and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE were 6.3%, 10.0%, and 7.8% greater (P < 0.001) for B. juncea CM than for B. napus CM; 6.1%, 10.8%, and 5.3% greater (P < 0.001) for the light-particle fraction than for parent CM; and 5.4%, 7.2%, and 3.8% lower (P < 0.001) for the heavy-particle fraction than for parent CM, respectively. The standardized ileal digestibilities (SID) of His, Ile, Val, Asp, and Tyr were greater (P < 0.05) for B

  12. Bacterial fermentation affects net mineral flux in the large intestine of pigs fed diets with viscous and fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Hooda, S; Mosenthin, R; Gänzle, M G; Zijlstra, R T

    2010-10-01

    The impact of colonic fermentation on postileal absorption of Ca, Mg, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn was investigated in 8 ileally cannulated grower pigs (initial BW = 29.1 ± 1.6 kg) according to a double 4 × 4 Latin square. A semi-purified diet was supplemented with 5.20% low viscous, low fermentable cellulose (CEL), 6.25% high viscous, low fermentable carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), 8.95% low viscous, high fermentable oat beta-glucan (LG), or 9.25% high viscous, high fermentable oat beta-glucan (HG), resulting in 5% actual added nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in the diets. Because of the intrinsic mineral content in LG and HG, pigs receiving the LG and HG diets had a greater (P < 0.05) daily intake of Mg, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn, and also Ca for the HG diet compared with the CEL and CMC diets. Different amounts of minerals reached the large intestine for the 4 diets as indicated by the 60 to 86% less (P < 0.05) ileal flow of Ca, Mg, P, and Fe for CMC compared with CEL and HG. Apparent mineral retention was generally less (P < 0.05) for CEL compared with CMC. Regression analyses indicated that postileal flux of Ca, Cu, and Zn were related (R(2) = 0.24 to 0.99; P < 0.05) to short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in feces. Postileal Ca absorption was negatively related (R(2) = 0.24; P < 0.05) to fecal total SCFA concentrations when SCFA concentrations were greater than 95.6 mmol/kg of DM. Furthermore, postileal Zn (R(2) = 0.99; P < 0.001) and Cu secretion (R(2) = 0.94; P < 0.001) decreased with increasing total SCFA concentrations in feces. Additionally, postileal secretion of Fe increased (R(2) = 0.20; P < 0.05) with increasing 16S rRNA gene copies of Enterobacteriaceae in feces, whereas the secretion of Cu decreased (R(2) = 0.25; P < 0.01) with increasing gene copies of Enterobacteriaceae. Overall, the apparent retention of Ca, Mg, and P was 27 to 85% less (P < 0.05) for CEL and HG than for CMC, whereas the apparent retention of Fe, Mn, and Zn was less (P < 0.05) for

  13. Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, J.M.; Zadoks, A.L.

    1993-11-30

    An improved gasifier is described which is adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications. 3 figures.

  14. Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, John M.; Zadoks, Abraham L.

    1993-11-30

    An improved gasifier adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications.

  15. Super High Dosing with a Novel Buttiauxella Phytase Continuously Improves Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Mineral Status of Weaned Pigs.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhikai; Li, Qingyun; Tian, Qiyu; Zhao, Panfeng; Xu, Xiao; Yu, Shukun; Piao, Xiangshu

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a novel Buttiauxella phytase to pigs fed P-deficient, corn-soybean meal diets. One hundred and twenty crossbred piglets (9.53 ± 0.84 kg) were allocated to one of five treatments which consisted of four low P diets (0.61 % Ca and 0.46 % total P) supplemented with 0, 500, 1,000, or 20,000 FTU/kg phytase as well as a positive control diet (0.77 % Ca and 0.62 % total P). Each treatment had six replicated pens with four pigs per pen. Pigs were fed the experimental diets for 28 days. Phytase supplementation linearly improved (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, gross energy, crude protein, Ca, and P in weaned pigs. Super high dosing with phytase (20,000 FTU/kg) further increased (P < 0.05) ADG compared with 500 FTU/kg phytase inclusion group, as well as ATTD of Ca and P. Metacarpal bone characteristics and several trace mineral concentration in bone, plasma, or organ tissues were linearly (P < 0.05) improved at increasing dose of phytase. Super high dosing with phytase (20,000 FTU/kg) supplementation improved (P < 0.05) Mn and Zn concentration in bone compared to normal dose of phytase supplementation (500 or 1,000 FTU/kg). In conclusion, supplementation of 500 FTU of Buttiauxella phytase/kg and above effectively hydrolyzed phytate in a low-P corn-soybean diet for pigs. In addition, a super high dosing with phytase (20,000 FTU/kg) improved macro- or micro mineral availability and growth performance.

  16. Effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on the standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in corn and corn coproducts fed to pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Stein, H H

    2012-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of adding graded levels of microbial phytase to corn, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), high-protein distillers dried grains (HP-DDG), and corn germ on the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P. A second objective was to develop regression equations to predict the response of adding phytase to each of these ingredients. Four corn-based diets, 4 DDGS-based diets, 4 HP-DDG-based diets, and 4 corn germ-based diets were formulated. The 4 diets with each ingredient were formulated to contain 0, 500, 1,000, or 1,500 phytase units (FTU)/kg. A P-free diet was also formulated to determine basal endogenous losses of P. A total of 102 pigs (initial BW: 18.2 ± 2.1 kg) were individually housed in metabolism cages equipped with a feeder, a nipple drinker, and a screen floor that allowed for total collection of feces. Pigs were allotted to the 17 diets in a randomized complete block design with 6 replicate pigs per diet. Pigs were fed their respective diets for 12 d, and feces were collected quantitatively from d 6 to 11. Supplementation with 500, 1,000, or 1,500 FTU of microbial phytase/kg increased (linear, P < 0.01; quadratic, P < 0.05) the STTD of P in corn from 40.9 to 67.5, 64.5, and 74.9%, respectively, tended to increase (linear, P = 0.07) the STTD of P in DDGS from 76.9 to 82.9, 82.5, and 83.0%, respectively, increased (linear, P < 0.01; quadratic, P < 0.05) the STTD of P in HP-DDG from 77.1 to 88.0, 84.1, and 86.9%, respectively, and increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01) the STTD of P in corn germ from 40.7 to 59.0, 64.4, and 63.2%, respectively. Regression equations were developed to calculate the STTD of P in corn and corn germ, and R(2) values were 0.63 and 0.79, respectively. However, for DDGS and HP-DDG, the R(2) values were only 0.20 and 0.36, respectively, and these equations were, therefore, not considered adequate to predict the STTD of P. In conclusion, the increase in the

  17. Clearance of Streptococcus suis in Stomach Contents of Differently Fed Growing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Warneboldt, Franziska; Sander, Saara J; Beineke, Andreas; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Kamphues, Josef; Baums, Christoph Georg

    2016-08-06

    Streptococcus (S.) suis translocates across the intestinal barrier of piglets after intraintestinal application. Based on these findings, an oro-gastrointestinal infection route has been proposed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the survival of S. suis in the porcine stomach. Whereas surviving bacteria of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 were not detectable after 60 min of incubation in stomach contents with a comparatively high gastric pH of 5 due to feeding of fine pellets, the number of Salmonella Derby bacteria increased under these conditions. Further experiments confirmed the clearance of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 within 30 min in stomach contents with a pH of 4.7 independently of the bacterial growth phase. Finally, an oral infection experiment was conducted, feeding each of 18 piglets a diet mixed with 10(10) CFU of S. suis serotype 2 or 9. Thorough bacteriological screenings of various mesenteric-intestinal lymph nodes and internal organs after different times of exposure did not lead to any detection of the orally applied challenge strains. In conclusion, the porcine stomach constitutes a very efficient barrier against oro-gastrointenstinal S. suis infections. Conditions leading to the passage of S. suis through the stomach remain to be identified.

  18. Clearance of Streptococcus suis in Stomach Contents of Differently Fed Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Warneboldt, Franziska; Sander, Saara J.; Beineke, Andreas; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Kamphues, Josef; Baums, Christoph Georg

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus (S.) suis translocates across the intestinal barrier of piglets after intraintestinal application. Based on these findings, an oro-gastrointestinal infection route has been proposed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the survival of S. suis in the porcine stomach. Whereas surviving bacteria of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 were not detectable after 60 min of incubation in stomach contents with a comparatively high gastric pH of 5 due to feeding of fine pellets, the number of Salmonella Derby bacteria increased under these conditions. Further experiments confirmed the clearance of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 within 30 min in stomach contents with a pH of 4.7 independently of the bacterial growth phase. Finally, an oral infection experiment was conducted, feeding each of 18 piglets a diet mixed with 1010 CFU of S. suis serotype 2 or 9. Thorough bacteriological screenings of various mesenteric-intestinal lymph nodes and internal organs after different times of exposure did not lead to any detection of the orally applied challenge strains. In conclusion, the porcine stomach constitutes a very efficient barrier against oro-gastrointenstinal S. suis infections. Conditions leading to the passage of S. suis through the stomach remain to be identified. PMID:27509526

  19. Adaptation to the digestion of non-starch polysaccharide in growing pigs fed on cereal or semi-purified basal diets.

    PubMed

    Longland, A C; Low, A G; Quelch, D B; Bray, S P

    1993-09-01

    Pigs (25-45 kg) were fed on either cereal or semi-purified basal diets supplemented with either high or low levels of sugar-beet pulp or wood cellulose (Solka-floc). The apparent digestibility and retention of N and apparent digestibility and metabolizability of energy (GE) and the apparent digestibility of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and their constituent monomers were measured during weeks 2, 4 and 6 of the trial. N and GE were less well-digested, retained or metabolized from cereal basal diets than from the corresponding semi-purified diets during all three periods. NSP from sugar-beet pulp was highly digestible, unlike that from Solka-floc which was relatively poorly digested. These differences of NSP digestibility were seen more clearly when incorporated in semi-purified diets. There was no significant increase in the digestibility or retention of N, or digestibility or metabolizability of GE, or in the digestibility of sugar-beet pulp NSP with increasing time-period on the diets. In contrast, the digestibility of Solka-floc NSP tended to increase with the time-period. The digestibility of NSP from the semi-purified diet with the high level of Solka-floc inclusion was much lower than that for the low level of inclusion, indicating that microbial activity had been reduced. In conclusion, adaptation to the diets in terms of N and GE balance may be complete after 1 week, but 3-5 weeks may be necessary before stability of measurements of the digestibility of resistant NSP monomers can be obtained.

  20. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract was calculated for all diets. Digestibility of DM was greater ( < 0.05) in the diet containing soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease or the basal diet, with all other diets being intermediate. The ATTD of Ca, S, and P was greater ( < 0.05) for pigs fed diets containing soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, or tallow than for pigs fed the basal diet or the diet containing choice white grease. The ATTD of Mg, Zn, Mn, Na, and K were not different among dietary treatments. The ATTD of ether extract was greater ( < 0.05) in diets containing palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease, and the ATTD of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in the diet containing soybean oil was also greater ( < 0.05) than in the diet containing choice white grease. In conclusion, supplementation of a basal diet with tallow, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil may increase the ATTD of some macrominerals, but that

  1. Reduction of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 infection in experimentally challenged weaned pigs fed a lactobacillus-fermented feed.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fugui; Farzan, Abdolvahab; Wang, Qi Chuck; Yu, Hai; Yin, Yulong; Hou, Yongqing; Friendship, Robert; Gong, Joshua

    2014-08-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium is a foodborne pathogen and commonly present on pig farms. Probiotics have shown potential as a means of reducing Salmonella shedding in pigs. Three experimental challenge trials were conducted to investigate the potential application of newly isolated Lactobacillus isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in pigs. In each trial, 16 Yorkshire piglets (28-d old) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: (1) basal diet (BD), (2) naturally fermented (NF) feed, (3) Lactobacillus zeae-fermented (LZ-F) feed, and 4) Lactobacillus casei-fermented (LC-F) feed. All pigs consumed their assigned diets for 3 d prior to the challenge of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (approximately 6 log colony-forming units/pig) through gavage. Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. zeae, and L. casei were most abundant in NF, LZ-F, and LC-F feed, respectively. After the challenge, pigs on fermented feed had lower rectal temperature, diarrhea scores, serum haptoglobin concentrations, and intestinal Salmonella counts than the control group (BD) (p ≤ 0.01). Salmonella spp. were detected in both ileocecal lymph nodes (ICLN) and spleens from all pigs on BD, NF, and LC-F, but only 50% of spleens from pigs on LZ-F. Pigs had a dynamic spatial and temporal immune response to Salmonella infection and dietary treatments, as indicated by up- and downregulation in gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor) in the ileum, ICLN, and spleen. The alternation in cytokine expression by fermented feed, particularly LZ-F, appeared to benefit pigs in combating Salmonella infection.

  2. Biogas production from protein-rich biomass: fed-batch anaerobic fermentation of casein and of pig blood and associated changes in microbial community composition.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Etelka; Wirth, Roland; Maróti, Gergely; Bagi, Zoltán; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted as a fact in the biogas technology that protein-rich biomass substrates should be avoided due to inevitable process inhibition. Substrate compositions with a low C/N ratio are considered difficult to handle and may lead to process failure, though protein-rich industrial waste products have outstanding biogas generation potential. This common belief has been challenged by using protein-rich substrates, i.e. casein and precipitated pig blood protein in laboratory scale continuously stirred mesophilic fed-batch biogas fermenters. Both substrates proved suitable for sustained biogas production (0.447 L CH4/g protein oDM, i.e. organic total solids) in high yield without any additives, following a period of adaptation of the microbial community. The apparent key limiting factors in the anaerobic degradation of these proteinaceous materials were the accumulation of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Changes in time in the composition of the microbiological community were determined by next-generation sequencing-based metagenomic analyses. Characteristic rearrangements of the biogas-producing community upon protein feeding and specific differences due to the individual protein substrates were recognized. The results clearly demonstrate that sustained biogas production is readily achievable, provided the system is well-characterized, understood and controlled. Biogas yields (0.45 L CH4/g oDM) significantly exceeding those of the commonly used agricultural substrates (0.25-0.28 L CH4/g oDM) were routinely obtained. The results amply reveal that these high-energy-content waste products can be converted to biogas, a renewable energy carrier with flexible uses that can replace fossil natural gas in its applications. Process control, with appropriate acclimation of the microbial community to the unusual substrate, is necessary. Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community by next-generation sequencing allows a precise determination of the alterations in

  3. Biogas Production from Protein-Rich Biomass: Fed-Batch Anaerobic Fermentation of Casein and of Pig Blood and Associated Changes in Microbial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Etelka; Wirth, Roland; Maróti, Gergely; Bagi, Zoltán; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted as a fact in the biogas technology that protein-rich biomass substrates should be avoided due to inevitable process inhibition. Substrate compositions with a low C/N ratio are considered difficult to handle and may lead to process failure, though protein-rich industrial waste products have outstanding biogas generation potential. This common belief has been challenged by using protein-rich substrates, i.e. casein and precipitated pig blood protein in laboratory scale continuously stirred mesophilic fed-batch biogas fermenters. Both substrates proved suitable for sustained biogas production (0.447 L CH4/g protein oDM, i.e. organic total solids) in high yield without any additives, following a period of adaptation of the microbial community. The apparent key limiting factors in the anaerobic degradation of these proteinaceous materials were the accumulation of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Changes in time in the composition of the microbiological community were determined by next-generation sequencing-based metagenomic analyses. Characteristic rearrangements of the biogas-producing community upon protein feeding and specific differences due to the individual protein substrates were recognized. The results clearly demonstrate that sustained biogas production is readily achievable, provided the system is well-characterized, understood and controlled. Biogas yields (0.45 L CH4/g oDM) significantly exceeding those of the commonly used agricultural substrates (0.25-0.28 L CH4/g oDM) were routinely obtained. The results amply reveal that these high-energy-content waste products can be converted to biogas, a renewable energy carrier with flexible uses that can replace fossil natural gas in its applications. Process control, with appropriate acclimation of the microbial community to the unusual substrate, is necessary. Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community by next-generation sequencing allows a precise determination of the alterations in

  4. Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids metabolism pathways in the body of pigs fed diets with different sources of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Grzegorz; Poławska, Ewa; Sobol, Monika; Raj, Stanisława; Weremko, Dagmara

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out on 24 gilts (♀ Polish Large White × ♂ Danish Landrace) grown with body weight (BW) of 60 to 105 kg. The pigs were fed diets designed on the basis of a standard diet (appropriate for age and BW of pigs) where a part of the energy content was replaced by different fat supplements: linseed oil in Diet L, rapeseed oil in Diet R and fish oil in Diet F (6 gilts per dietary treatment). The fat supplements were sources of specific fatty acids (FA): in Diet L α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA); in Diet R linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6, LA) and in Diet F eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-3, DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). The protein, fat and total FA contents in the body did not differ among groups of pigs. The enhanced total intake of LA and ALA by pigs caused an increased deposition of these FA in the body (p < 0.01) and an increased potential body pool of these acids for further metabolism/conversions. The conversion efficiency of LA and ALA from the feed to the pig's body differed among groups (p < 0.01) and ranged from 64.4% to 67.2% and from 69.4% to 81.7%, respectively. In Groups L and R, the level of de novo synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated FA was higher than in Group F. From the results, it can be concluded that the efficiency of deposition is greater for omega-3 FA than for omega-6 FA and depends on their dietary amount. The level of LA and ALA intake influences not only their deposition in the body but also the end products of the omega-3 and omega-6 pathways.

  5. Calcium-regulating hormones, bone mineral content, breaking load and trabecular remodeling are altered in growing pigs fed calcium-deficient diets.

    PubMed

    Eklou-Kalonji, E; Zerath, E; Colin, C; Lacroix, C; Holy, X; Denis, I; Pointillart, A

    1999-01-01

    Studies on calcium nutrition in appropriate large animal models can be directly relevant to humans. We have examined the effect of dietary Ca deficiency on various bone and bone-related variables, including plasma markers, histomorphometry, mineral content and breaking strength in pigs. Three groups of eight 38-d-old female pigs were fed adequate (0.9%; control), low (0.4%; LCa) or very low (0.1%; VLCa) Ca diets for 32 d. Plasma Ca significantly decreased over time only in the VLCa-deficient pigs. The concentrations of the parathyroid hormones (PTH) and calcitriol increased as Ca deficiency developed, and the plasma PTH and calcitriol levels varied inversely with dietary Ca. The total bone ash contents, bending moments, trabecular bone volume and the mineral apposition rate all decreased as the calcium intake decreased. The osteoclast surface areas were greater than those of controls in both Ca-deficient groups, whereas the osteoblast surface areas were greater only in the VLCa group. The plasma osteoblast-related markers (alkaline phosphatase, carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen and osteocalcin) were either greater or unaffected in the Ca-deficient pigs. The results indicate that deficient bone mineralization combined with an increased bone resorption led to bone loss and fragility. The differences in the changes in bone cells (number and activity) between LCa and VLCa groups might be due to differences (time and extent) of circulating PTH and calcitriol. The defective mineralization in both Ca-depleted groups resulted mainly from the lack of Ca because their osteoblast activity was either maintained or stimulated. The results also underline the progressive sensitivity of pigs to Ca supply and the usefulness of this model.

  6. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Thomassen, A-M; Poulsen, H D

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (P<0.0001; P<0.001), respectively. The ATTD of P was affected by the interaction between microbial phytase and soaking (P=0.02). This was due to a greater increase in ATTD of P by soaking of the diet containing solely plant phytase compared with the diet supplemented with microbial phytase: 35%, 65%, 44% and 68% for BDD, BDD+phy, BSD and BSD+phy, respectively. As such, supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly compared with BDD+phy despite that 76% of the phytate in BDS+phy was degraded before feeding. In conclusion, soaking of BDS containing solely plant phytase provided a great potential for increasing ATTD of P. However, this potential was not present when microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet) was supplemented, most likely because soaking of BDS+phy for 24 h at 20°C did not result in a complete degradation of phytate before feeding.

  7. Comparison of spray-dried egg and albumen powder with conventional animal protein sources as feed ingredients in diets fed to weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sai; Piao, Xiangshu; Ma, Xiaokang; Xu, Xiao; Zeng, Zhikai; Tian, Qiyu; Li, Yao

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the apparent (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in spray-dried egg (SPE) and albumen powder (AP) compared with spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), dried porcine solubles (DPS) and fish meal (FM). Additionally, the effects of these egg byproducts as a replacement for conventional animal proteins on the performance and nutrient digestibility of piglets were studied. In Exp. 1, six barrows fitted with ileal T-cannulas were allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin Square design and fed six diets. The AID and SID of AA were generally higher in AP and FM (P < 0.01) than in the other protein sources. In Exp. 2, 150 piglets weaned at 21 days, were fed diets containing the five protein sources for 3 weeks. Weight gain of piglets fed SDPP was the highest among the treatments. Dry matter and protein digestibility for pigs offered SDPP were higher (P < 0.01) than those offered FM and DPS. AP decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia coli counts in the cecum. DPS decreased (P < 0.05) serum diamine oxidase compared with SPE. In conclusion, AP and SPE are competitive with traditional animal protein sources and can be successfully fed to piglets without compromising performance. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Effects of Supplemental Beta-mannanase on Digestible Energy and Metabolizable Energy Contents of Copra Expellers and Palm Kernel Expellers Fed to Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, W. B.; Kim, B. G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of β-mannanase supplementation on digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of copra expellers (CE) and palm kernel expellers (PKE) fed to pigs. Six barrows with an initial body weight of 38.0 kg (standard deviation = 1.5) were randomly allotted to a 6×6 Latin square design with 6 dietary treatments and 6 periods. Six experimental diets were prepared in a 3×2 factorial treatment arrangement with 3 diets of a corn-soybean meal-based diet, a CE 30% diet, and a PKE 30% diet and with 2 concentrations of supplemental β-mannanase at 0 or 2,400 U/kg. All diets had the same proportion of corn:soybean meal ratio at 2.88:1. The marker-to-marker procedure was used for fecal and urine collection with 4-d adaptation and 5-d collection periods. No interactive effects were observed between diet and β-mannanase on energy digestibility and DE and ME contents of experimental diets. However, diets containing CE or PKE had less (p<0.05) DE and ME contents compared with the corn-soybean meal-based diet. The DE and ME contents in CE and PKE were not affected by supplemental β-mannanase. Taken together, we failed to find the effect of β-mannanase supplementation on energy utilization in CE and PKE fed to pigs. PMID:26104407

  9. A dietary resveratrol-rich grape extract prevents the developing of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of pigs fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Azorín-Ortuño, María; Yañéz-Gascón, María Josefa; Pallarés, Francisco J; Rivera, José; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Larrosa, Mar; Vallejo, Fernando; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2012-06-06

    The presence of grape and wine polyphenol resveratrol (RES) in the diet is negligible. Therefore, the cardiovascular benefits of this molecule, in a dietary context, remain to be established. We aimed to investigate, through dietary intervention, the effects of a resveratrol-rich grape extract (GE-RES) on the prevention of early aortic lesions in pigs fed an atherogenic diet (AD). These effects were compared with those produced by a grape extract lacking RES (GE) or RES alone. Pigs fed the AD for 4 months showed early atherosclerotic lesions in the thoracic aorta: degeneration and fragmentation of elastic fibers, increase of intima thickness, subendothelial fibrosis, and accumulation of fatty cells and anion superoxide radicals. GE-RES was the most effective treatment and prevented the disruption of aortic elastic fibers, decreased their alteration (57%), and reduced the intima thickness (33%) and the accumulation of fatty cells (42%) and O(2)(•-) (38%) in aortic tissue. In addition, GE-RES moderately downregulated the expression of the suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and 3 (SOCS3), key regulators of vascular cell responses, in peripheral mononuclear blood cells. Our results suggest that the consumption of this GE-RES nutraceutical, in a dietary prevention context, could prevent early atherosclerotic events. The presence of RES in the grape extract strengthened these effects.

  10. Positional distribution of fatty acids in triacylglycerols from subcutaneous adipose tissue of pigs fed diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid, corn oil, or beef tallow.

    PubMed

    King, D A; Behrends, J M; Jenschke, B E; Rhoades, R D; Smith, S B

    2004-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary beef tallow, corn oil, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the distribution of fatty acids among positions within triacylglycerols. Crossbred barrows (n=6 per treatment group) received diets containing 1.5% beef tallow, 1.5% corn oil, or 1.5% CLA for 5 weeks. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were obtained immediately postmortem. The fatty acid composition was determined for the sn-2 positions of the triacylglycerols by digestion with Rhizopus arrhizus lipase. Fatty acids in the sn-1/3 position were calculated from these data. Feeding CLA increased (P<0.05) the concentration of total saturated fatty acids (SFA, especially 16:0) and isomers of CLA in adipose tissue lipids, but reduced (P<0.05) the concentration of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, especially 18:1n-9). Dietary CLA caused an accumulation of total SFA in the sn-1/3 position, with a proportional decrease in total MUFA and 18:2n-6 in the outer positions. Correspondingly, lipids extracted from CLA-fed pigs had slip points that were 10 °C higher (P<0.05) than those from corn oil- or tallow-fed pigs. These data suggest that dietary CLA increases the melting point of lipids in porcine adipose tissue by increasing the proportion of SFA at the sn-1/3 position of lipids.

  11. Determination and prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy from the chemical composition of chinese corn gluten feed fed to finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, T T; Liu, D W; Huang, C F; Liu, L; Piao, X S; Wang, F L

    2014-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of corn gluten feed (CGF) for finishing pigs and to develop equations predicting the DE and ME content from the chemical composition of the CGF samples, as well as validate the accuracy of the prediction equations. In Exp. 1, ten CGF samples from seven provinces of China were collected and fed to 66 finishing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with an initial body weight (BW) of 51.9±5.5 kg. The pigs were assigned to 11 diets comprising one basal diet and 10 CGF test diets with six pigs fed each diet. The basal diet contained corn (76%), dehulled soybean meal (21%) and premix (3%). The ten test diets were formulated by substituting 25% of the corn and dehulled soybean meal with CGF and contained corn (57%), dehulled soybean meal (15.75%), CGF (24.25%) and premix (3%). In Exp. 2, two additional CGF sources were collected as validation samples to test the accuracy of the prediction equations. In this experiment, 18 barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with an initial BW of 61.1±4.0 kg were randomly allotted to be fed either the basal diet or two CGF containing diets which had a similar composition as used in Exp. 1. The DE and ME of CGF ranged from 10.37 to 12.85 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM) and 9.53 to 12.49 MJ/kg of DM, respectively. Through stepwise regression analysis, several prediction equations of DE and ME were generated. The best fit equations were: DE, MJ/kg of DM = 18.30-0.13 neutral detergent fiber-0.22 ether extract, with R(2) = 0.95, residual standard deviation (RSD) = 0.21 and p<0.01; and ME, MJ/kg of DM = 12.82+0.11 Starch-0.26 acid detergent fiber, with R(2) = 0.94, RSD = 0.20 and p<0.01. These results indicate that the DE and ME content of CGF varied substantially but the DE and ME for finishing pigs can be accurately predicted from equations based on nutritional analysis.

  12. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in corn and corn coproducts from the wet-milling industry fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Almeida, F N; Tilton, S L; Cecava, M J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in corn and corn coproducts (high-fat corn germ [HFCG], corn bran, liquid corn extractives [LCE], and a mixture of corn germ meal and LCE [CGM-LCE]) fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing barrows (initial BW: 33.4 ± 5.77 kg) were housed individually in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets. A corn-based diet (97.4% corn) and 4 diets that contained both corn and each of the corn coproducts were formulated. Each diet was fed to 8 pigs. Feces and urine samples were collected using the marker to marker method with 5-d adaptation and 5-d collection periods. The DE and ME were calculated using the difference procedure. The concentrations of DE and ME in HFCG, corn bran, LCE, and CGM-LCE were less (P < 0.05) than in corn. Among corn coproducts, the concentration of DE in HFCG was greater (P < 0.05) than in corn bran, but the DE in corn bran was not different from DE values in LCE and CGM-LCE. No differences were observed in the ME concentrations among corn coproducts. In Exp. 2, 6 growing barrows (initial BW: 96.6 ± 1.16 kg) with a T-cannula in the distal ileum were randomly allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods. A N-free diet and 5 diets that contained corn, HFCG, corn bran, LCE, or CGM-LCE as the sole source of CP and AA were formulated. Each period lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The SID of CP and all indispensable AA was greater (P < 0.05) in corn than in all corn coproducts with the exception that the SID of Lys in corn was not different from the SID of Lys in HFCG, and the SID of Trp in corn was also not different from the SID of Trp in CGM-LCE. Among corn coproducts, the SID of CP, Arg, and Lys were greater (P < 0.05) in HFCG and CGM-LCE than in corn bran, the SID of Lys and Val was greater (P < 0.05) in LCE than in

  13. Studies on the Bioavailability of Deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON Sulfonate (DONS) 1, 2, and 3 in Pigs Fed with Sodium Sulfite-Treated DON-Contaminated Maize

    PubMed Central

    Paulick, Marleen; Winkler, Janine; Kersten, Susanne; Schatzmayr, Dian; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure of pigs might cause serious problems when critical dietary toxin concentrations are exceeded. As DON contamination of agricultural crops cannot be completely prevented, detoxification measures are needed. Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments. The preserved material had a characteristic DON sulfonates (DONS) pattern. DONS is known to be less toxic than DON but its stability was shown to depend on pH, which gives rise to the question if a back-conversion to DON occurs in vivo. Therefore, the toxicokinetics and bioavailability of DON and DONS were studied in pigs. After the administration of a single oral or intravenous bolus of DON or DONS, serial blood samples were collected and subsequently analyzed. DONS was not detectable after oral administration of DONS mixtures. The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo. Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate. PMID:26556376

  14. Studies on the bioavailability of deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON sulfonate (DONS) 1, 2, and 3 in pigs fed with sodium sulfite-treated DON-contaminated maize.

    PubMed

    Paulick, Marleen; Winkler, Janine; Kersten, Susanne; Schatzmayr, Dian; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-11-05

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure of pigs might cause serious problems when critical dietary toxin concentrations are exceeded. As DON contamination of agricultural crops cannot be completely prevented, detoxification measures are needed. Wet preservation with sodium sulfite resulted in a significant DON reduction of naturally-contaminated maize in previous experiments. The preserved material had a characteristic DON sulfonates (DONS) pattern. DONS is known to be less toxic than DON but its stability was shown to depend on pH, which gives rise to the question if a back-conversion to DON occurs in vivo. Therefore, the toxicokinetics and bioavailability of DON and DONS were studied in pigs. After the administration of a single oral or intravenous bolus of DON or DONS, serial blood samples were collected and subsequently analyzed. DONS was not detectable after oral administration of DONS mixtures. The results showed further that the bioavailability of DONS as DON in pigs fed maize preserved wet with sodium sulfite was significantly decreased compared to untreated control maize (DON), indicating that DONS obviously did not convert back to DON to a large extent in vivo. Moreover, the fact that DONS was not detectable in systemic blood requires further investigations regarding their ingestive and/or metabolic fate.

  15. Fecal microbiome of growing pigs fed a cereal based diet including chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) or ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L.) forage

    SciTech Connect

    Dicksved, Johan; Jansson, Janet K.; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2015-12-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate how inclusion of chicory forage or ribwort forage in a cereal-based diet influenced the fecal microbial community (microbiome) in newly weaned (35 days of age) piglets. The piglets were fed a cereal-based diet without (B) and with inclusion (80 and 160 g/kg air-dry forage) of vegetative shoots of chicory (C) and leaves of ribwort (R) forage in a 35-day growth trial. Fecal samples were collected at the start (D0), 17 (D17) and 35 (D35) days after weaning and profiles of the microbial consortia were generated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). 454-FLX pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was used to analyze the microbial composition in a subset of the samples already analyzed with T-RFLP. RESULTS: The microbial clustering pattern was primarily dependent on age of the pigs, but diet effects could also be observed. Lactobacilli and enterobacteria were more abundant at D0, whereas the genera Streptococcus, Treponema, Clostridium, Clostridiaceae1 and Coprococcus were present in higher abundances at D35. Pigs fed ribwort had an increased abundance of sequences classified as Treponema and a reduction in lactobacilli. However, the abundance of Prevotellaceae increased with age in on both the chicory and the ribwort diet. Moreover, there were significant correlations between the abundance of Bacteroides and the digested amount of galactose, uronic acids and total non-starch polysaccharides, and between the abundance of Bacteroidales and the digested amount of xylose. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that both chicory and ribwort inclusion in the diet of newly weaned pigs influenced the composition of the fecal microbiota and that digestion of specific dietary components was correlated with species composition of the microbiota. Moreover, this study showed that the gut will be exposed to a dramatic shift in the microbial community structure several weeks after weaning.

  16. Ileal digestibility of amino acids, phosphorus, phytate and energy in pigs fed sorghum-based diets supplemented with phytase and Pancreatin®.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, M; Gómez, R; Fierro, S; Barrera, M A; Morales, A; Araiza, B A; Zijlstra, R T; Sánchez, J E; Sauer, W C

    2011-04-01

    The effects of phytase supplementation on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) have been inconsistent. Two experiments evaluated the effect of providing a mixture of pancreatic enzymes (Pancreatin(®) ) to growing pigs fed sorghum-soybean meal diets supplemented with phytase on the AID of AA, energy, and phosphorus (P), as well as the ileal digestibility (ID) of phytate; there were four periods per experiment. In Experiment 1, eight pigs (BW 22.1±1.3 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Each period consisted of 9 days; 7 days for diet adaptation, and 2 days for digesta collection. Treatments (T) were: (i) basal sorghum-soybean meal diet, (ii) basal diet plus Pancreatin®, (iii) basal diet plus phytase and (iv) basal diet plus phytase and Pancreatin®. Phytase increased the digestibilities of phytate and P (p<0.001), but did not affect the AID of AA and energy (p>0.10). Except for methionine (p=0.07), Pancreatin® did not affect the AID of AA. Phytase and Pancreatin® did not interact (p>0.10). Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1, but Pancreatin® was infused into duodenum. Pancreatin® infusion did not affect the AID of AA (p>0.10); and tended to reduce (p=0.09) the AID of lysine. Phytase × Pancreatin® interactions were not observed (p>0.10). In conclusion, phytase and Pancreatin® did not improve the AID of AA in growing pigs fed sorghum-soybean meal diets indicating that phytates did not affect AA digestibility. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Diurnal variation in insulin-stimulated systemic glucose and amino acid utilization in pigs fed with identical meals at 12-hour intervals.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, S J; van der Meulen, J; Dekker, R; Corbijn, H; Mroz, Z

    2006-09-01

    The diurnal variation in insulin-stimulated systemic glucose and amino acid utilization was investigated in eleven pigs of approximately 40 kg. Pigs were fed isoenergetic/isoproteinic diets (366 kJ/kg BW (0.75) per meal) in two daily rations (06:00 and 18:00 h). After a 3-week habituation period, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic euaminoacidemic clamp studies (by intra-portal insulin, glucose and amino acids infusion and arterial blood sampling) were performed starting at 06:00 or 18:00 h (while skipping the meal), using a cross-over within-animal design. Basal (preclamp) plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, lactate, individual amino acids and urea were similar in the morning compared to the evening. Insulin-stimulated ( approximately 4-fold increase over basal) systemic glucose utilization was similar (17.6+/-1.4 and 18.9+/-1.8 mg x kg (-1) x min (-1)) but amino acid utilization was 19% greater in the morning VS. the evening (2.37+/-0.21 VS. 1.99+/-0.15 mg x kg (-1) x min (-1), p<0.05), respectively. Insulin-stimulated plasma lactate concentrations remained constant in the morning (0.77+/-0.06 to 0.71+/-0.04 mmol x l (-1)) but declined in the evening (0.89+/-0.09 to 0.65+/-0.06 mmol x l (-1), p<0.05). By contrast, insulin-stimulated plasma urea concentrations declined in the morning (2.48+/-0.11 to 2.03+/-0.10 mmol x l (-1), p<0.005) but remained constant in the evening (2.18+/-0.14 to 2.12+/-0.12 mmol x l (-1)). In conclusion, pigs fed identical meals at 12-hour intervals follow a clear diurnal biorhythm in protein anabolism, with greater insulin-stimulated systemic amino acid utilization and lower plasma urea response in the morning compared to the evening.

  18. True and standardized total tract phosphorus digestibility in canola meals from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, P A; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the true total tract digestibility (TTTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) fed to growing pigs. Fifty-four barrows with an initial BW of 19.9 ± 0.22 kg (mean ± SEM) were allocated in 3 consecutive blocks to 1 of 9 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design to give 6 replicate pigs per diet. Dietary treatments were cornstarch based with increasing concentrations of P, that is, 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, and 3.3 g/kg (as-fed basis) from either BNB or BJY as the sole source of P and a gelatin-based P-free diet. Limestone was added to maintain a Ca:total P ratio of 1.2:1 in all diets. All diets contained titanium dioxide (3 g/kg) as an indigestible marker. Daily feed allowance was calculated to supply 2.6 times the maintenance energy requirement based on the BW at the beginning of each period and offered in 2 equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h as a dry mash. Pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates and fed experimental diets for 16 d, including 9 d for adaptation to feed and 5 d for total but separate collection of feces and urine. The apparent total tract digestibility values of P increased from 19.0 to 30.0% for BNB and from 17.3 to 28.3% for BJY as the dietary P content increased from 0.8 to 3.3 g/kg DM. The TTTD of P was determined using the regression analysis as dietary P content increased from 0.8 to 3.3 g/kg whereas the STTD of P was calculated for the diet with the highest P content (i.e., 3.3 g/kg, as-fed basis) using the P-free diet to estimate endogenous P losses (EPL). The total and basal EPL estimates obtained with regression analysis and the P-free diet were 665 ± 0.03 and 209 ± 96 mg/kg DMI, respectively. The TTTD of P was 33.3 and 32.0% in BNB and BJY, respectively. Respective STTD values were 31.0 and 28.3%. The results indicated that the TTTD and STTD of P were comparable in the 2 canola meals from BNB and BJY

  19. Effects of grouping unfamiliar cohorts, high ambient temperature and stocking density on live performance of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kerr, C A; Giles, L R; Jones, M R; Reverter, A

    2005-04-01

    Ninety-six crossbred intact male pigs (34.5 +/- 3.5 kg BW) were allocated by weight and vocalization score to a 2 x 2 x 2 dynamic experimental design including two stocking densities (1 or 2 m(2)/pig), two temperatures (22 degrees C and 30 degrees C), and two short groupings of unfamiliar cohorts (six pigs as one pig per group, and six pigs per group). The study was conducted over 8 wk, and live weight gain (WTG) and feed intake (FI; as-fed basis) were measured weekly. During the first week, pigs were housed in individual pens from four independent rooms. To group pigs, pen partitions were removed. Pigs were grouped in Rooms 2 and 3 from wk 2 to 4, and in Rooms 1 and 4 during wk 7. Temperature was increased from 22 degrees C to 30 degrees C in Rooms 1 and 2 during wk 4 and 7. Pen partitions were replaced in Rooms 2 and 3 at the end of wk 4 and in Rooms 1 and 4 at the end of wk 7 to return pigs to their individual pens. Grouping pigs decreased FI during wk 3 (15.08 +/- 0.43 vs. 14.03 +/- 0.41 kg P < 0.10), and during wk 7 (17.42 +/- 0.46 vs. 14.24 +/- 0.41 kg; P < 0.01). In addition, grouping had a negative effect (P < 0.001) on WTG at wk 3 (7.38 +/- 0.28 vs. 5.71 +/- 0.28 kg) and at wk 7 (6.70 +/- 0.26 vs. 2.99 +/- 0.26 kg). For grouped pigs, raising the temperature decreased (P < 0.01) WTG (7.49 +/- 0.29 vs. 6.41 +/- 0.29 kg during wk 4, and 3.37 +/- 0.38 vs. 2.62 +/- 0.38 kg during wk 7). Mean FI was decreased (P < 0.01) with the 30 degrees C treatment during wk 7 only (15.49 +/- 0.33 kg at 22 degrees C compared with 12.99 +/- 0.33 kg at 30 degrees C). Compensatory feed intake was evident after the treatments had ceased at wk 6, whereby previously heat-treated grouped pigs had a higher FI (17.97 +/- 0.45 kg) than the animals individually housed at 22 degrees C (12.99 +/- 0.33 kg). Stocking density effects were noted after the grouping and high temperature treatments had ceased. For instance, during wk 5, low-density-housed pigs grew faster (P < 0.001) than their

  20. Gene expression, serum amino acid levels, and growth performance of pigs fed dietary leucine and lysine at different ratios.

    PubMed

    García, H; Morales, A; Araiza, A; Htoo, J K; Cervantes, M

    2015-03-06

    We examined 96 pigs (28.1 ± 0.83 kg) to analyze the effect of Leu:Lys ratios on expression of the cationic amino acid transporters b(0,+) and CAT-1 in the jejunum and liver as well as myosin expression in 2 muscles to estimate the optimum standardized ileal digestible (SID) Leu:Lys ratio for growth rate and efficiency. A wheat-and wheat bran-based diets were formulated to meet the requirements of SID amino acids other than Leu (0.70%) and Lys (0.80%). L-Leu was added to the basal diet in 5 SID Leu:Lys ratios (88, 100, 120, 140, and 160% in diets 1-5). Tissue samples were collected from 8 pigs with ratios of 88, 120, and 160%. Relative expression of b(0,+), CAT-1, and myosin was analyzed. b(0,+) expression in the jejunum was higher but lower in the liver of pigs with the 120% ratio compared to those with the 88 or 160% ratio; myosin expression in longissimus dorsi was also higher in pigs with the 120% ratio (P < 0.05). CAT-1 was lower in the jejunum and longissimus dorsi of pigs with 120 or 160% ratios than in pigs with 88%. Serum concentration of nearly all amino acids decreased with excess dietary Leu (P < 0.05). The SID Leu:Lys of 104 and 109% optimized average daily gain and feed conversion ratio, respectively. Thus, the dietary Leu:Lys ratio affects the expression of genes coding for amino acid transporters and myosin, the availability of Lys, and the growth rate and efficiency in pigs.

  1. Diets high in resistant starch and arabinoxylan modulate digestion processes and SCFA pool size in the large intestine and faecal microbial composition in pigs.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tina S; Lærke, Helle N; Theil, Peter K; Sørensen, Jens F; Saarinen, Markku; Forssten, Sofia; Knudsen, Knud E Bach

    2014-12-14

    The effects of a high level of dietary fibre (DF) either as arabinoxylan (AX) or resistant starch (RS) on digestion processes, SCFA concentration and pool size in various intestinal segments and on the microbial composition in the faeces were studied in a model experiment with pigs. A total of thirty female pigs (body weight 63.1 (sem 4.4) kg) were fed a low-DF, high-fat Western-style control diet (WSD), an AX-rich diet (AXD) or a RS-rich diet (RSD) for 3 weeks. Diet significantly affected the digestibility of DM, protein, fat, NSP and NSP components, and the arabinose:xylose ratio, as well as the disappearance of NSP and AX in the large intestine. RS was mainly digested in the caecum. AX was digested at a slower rate than RS. The digesta from AXD-fed pigs passed from the ileum to the distal colon more than twice as fast as those from WSD-fed pigs, with those from RSD-fed pigs being intermediate (P< 0.001). AXD feeding resulted in a higher number of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis, Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in the faeces sampled at week 3 of the experimental period (P< 0.05). In the caecum, proximal and mid colon, AXD feeding resulted in a 3- to 5-fold higher pool size of butyrate compared with WSD feeding, with the RSD being intermediate (P <0.001). In conclusion, the RSD and AXD differently affected digestion processes compared with the WSD, and the AXD most efficiently shifted the microbial composition towards butyrogenic species in the faeces and increased the large-intestinal butyrate pool size.

  2. Femur morphometry, densitometry, geometry and mechanical properties in young pigs fed a diet free of inorganic phosphorus and supplemented with phytase.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Grzegorz; Sobol, Monika; Raj, Stanisława

    2017-02-01

    The study investigated in piglets the effect of replacing dietary inorganic P by addition of microbial phytase and its impact on performance, nutrient digestibility and on the geometrical characteristics and mineralisation of the femur. Sixteen pigs on day 58 of age were divided into two groups and fed either a diet free of additional inorganic phosphorus (P) and supplemented with phytase (Diet LP, 4.23 g total P/kg diet) or a diet with a mineral source of P and not supplemented with phytase (Diet SP, 5.38 g total P/kg diet). Performance data and the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients were estimated between days 58 and 114, and 72 and 86 of age, respectively. On day 114 of age, the pigs were slaughtered, the femur was dissected and the mineral content and mineral density, maximum strength and maximum elastic strength, cortical wall thickness, cross-sectional area and cortical index were analysed. The growth performance and digestibility of nutrient fractions (with exception of P) did not differ between treatment groups. The P-digestibility was significantly higher in Group LP. The femur of pigs in Group LP had significantly greater cortical wall thickness, cortical index, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, maximum strength and maximum elastic strength than Group SP. Femur maximum strength and maximum elastic strength were correlated with cortical wall thickness and cortical index. Resulting from the different supply of digestible P, the femur geometrical, densitometric and mechanical properties of Group LP were better than those of Group SP. The mechanical properties of the femur of pigs depended more on its geometrical characteristics than on the degree of its mineralisation.

  3. Performance and energy metabolism in restrictively fed weanling pigs are not affected by feeding either fermented cereals or their end-products.

    PubMed

    Bruininx, E M A M; Binnendijk, G P; Zandstra, T; Heetkamp, M J W; Van Der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Gerrits, W J J

    2010-12-01

    To study the effects of feeding fermented cereals or just fermentation end-products on performance and energy metabolism, 18 restrictedly fed groups of eight pigs each were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: (i) a liquid control diet (C) containing 40% of a mixture of barley and wheat; or (ii) a liquid diet (F) containing 40% fermented barley and wheat; or (iii) a liquid diet as C with the addition of some important fermentation end-products (FP; organic acids and ethanol) in concentrations similar to those in the fermented F-diet. Energy and nitrogen balances, heat production, and performance traits were measured during two consecutive periods (days 1-5 and days 6-14). There was a considerable increase in average dry matter intake that tended (p = 0.06) to be higher in the FP-group than in the other groups. Apparent fecal digestibility of dry matter, ash, nitrogen and energy during period 2 were not affected (p > 0.1). Averaged over both periods, none of the energy metabolism parameters were affected by the diets (p > 0.1). However, there were diet × period interactions for metabolizable energy-intake (p = 0.07), energy retention (p < 0.05), the respiratory quotient (RQ; p < 0.01) and activity-related heat production (H(ACT,) p = 0.05). Additionally, there were some differences between the diets in the average hourly patterns in RQ and H(ACT). In conclusion, restricted feeding of either 40% fermented cereals nor their fermentation end-products affected performance and energy metabolism traits in weanling pigs. Nevertheless, lower postprandial activity-related heat production by pigs given the fermented cereals suggest a stimulating effect of fermented cereals on short term satiety that was not seen in pigs given fermentation end-products only.

  4. Effects of herbage ingestion upon ileal digestibility of amino acids in heavy Iberian pigs fed on an acorn-based diet.

    PubMed

    García-Valverde, R; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2010-10-01

    We conducted two experiments with heavy Iberian pigs to determine the ileal digestibility of amino acids (AA) in acorns and freshly cut herbage, and the effects of adding fresh herbage upon the supply of ileal digestible AA when pigs were fed on holm-oak acorns. In Experiment 1, carried out in cannulated pigs of 107 kg bodyweight (BW), daily intake of acorns reached 44.9 g DM/kg(0.75) BW. Arg, His and Thr showed the lowest apparent ileal digestibility (AID) values, whereas Met, the branched-chain AA and Phe had the highest coefficients. The AID of total EAA was 0.716 but only 0.222 for NEAA. Most of the digestive and absorptive processes of acorn protein occurred before the hindgut. Acorn provides (per kg DM) 2.27 g apparent ileal digestible Lys and 22.7 g apparent total digestible AA. Standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values for EAA, NEAA and total AA were 0.924 ± 0.020, 0.784 ± 0.041 and 0.860 ± 0.029. In Experiment 2 fresh herbage was given to six cannulated Iberian pigs of 140 kg either as a single feed (13.7 g DM/kg(0.75) BW) or as a supplement to acorns (28.4 g DM/kg(0.75) BW). When only freshly cut forage was offered the AID of the EAA, NEAA and total AA was close to 0.65 and supplied (per kg DM ingested) 5.61 g AID Lys and 91.7 g digestible AA. Standardized ileal values were 0.744 ± 0.023, 0.912 ± 0.038 and 0.831 ± 0.030 respectively. The addition of fresh forage to the acorns led to a significant decrease in AID of AA in acorn due to digesta transfer to the hindgut: His (p < 0.01), Met (p < 0.001), Phe (p = 0.092), Thr (p < 0.05) and Val (p < 0.05), but Arg, Lys and the branched-chain AA remained unaffected. The main contribution of herbage to AA nutrition of the grazing Iberian pig relies mainly on increasing the supply of digestible AA for pig tissues.

  5. Net energy of hemp hulls and processed hemp hull products fed to growing pigs and the comparison of net energy determined via indirect calorimetry and calculated from prediction equations.

    PubMed

    Kim, J W; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the NE of hemp hulls (HH), extruded HH (EHH), and a blended product of HH with pea (HHP) fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry (IC) and to determine effects of dietary fiber on heat production (HP) and fasting HP (FHP). Twenty-four growing barrows with an average initial BW of 22.9 ± 1.75 kg were individually housed in adjustable metabolism crates. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates per treatment. A corn-soybean meal basal diet was prepared. Three additional diets were formulated to contain a constant ratio of corn and soybean meal and each of the test ingredients. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 16 d including 10 d for adaptation and 6 d for total collection of feces and urine to determine DE and ME of experimental diets. Pigs were then moved into IC chambers to determine HP and FHP. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM was greater ( < 0.01) in the HHP diet than in the HH and EHH diets but less ( < 0.01) than in the basal diet. Similarly, the ATTD of GE in the basal diet was greater ( < 0.01) compared with the HH, EHH, and HHP diets. The DE, ME, and NE of the basal diet were greater ( < 0.01) than those of the HH, EHH, and HHP diets. No significant differences were observed for the HP (on average, 1,904 kcal/kg DM) and FHP (on average, 1,320 kcal/kg DM) among treatments. However, the retained energy of pigs fed the basal diet (1,763 kcal/kg DM) was greater ( < 0.05) than for those fed the HH (1,501 kcal/kg DM) and HHP (1,482 kcal/kg DM) diets. The NE:ME ratio tended to be greater ( ≤ 0.10) for the basal diet (0.85) than for the HH (0.82), EHH (0.82), and HHP (0.83) diets. The NE of HH, EHH, and HHP determined by the IC method were 2,375, 2,320, and 2,399 kcal/kg DM, respectively, whereas values calculated using published prediction equations were 2,308, 2,161, and 2,278 kcal/kg DM, respectively. However there was no difference between determined and

  6. Bone density and tissue lead accretion in growing rats fed low high calcium with or without supplemental clinoptilolite

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, W.G.; Ho, H.; Su, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    The toxicity of lead in animals and humans is well documented. The naturally occurring zeolite, clinoptilolite, is known to offer protection against ammonium ion toxicity in rats and sheep and to counteract cadmium-induced iron deficiency anemia in rats and swine. The cation-exchange and adsorption properties of clinoptilolite suggest is possible role in reducing tissue uptake of ingested lead by animals. Evidence supporting this role was reported in growing pigs whose liver and kidney concentrations of lead were significantly reduced by the addition of 1.0% clinoptilolite to diets containing 500 or 1000ppm of lead. The basal diet was a highly fortified milk-replacer containing about 1% calcium supplied by milk constituents. High dietary calcium is known to reduce tissue uptake of lead and protect the pig from the tissue pathology associated with lead ingestion. The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels affect the growth, tissue uptake and bone morphology of growing rats fed diets containing toxic levels of lead. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible phosphorus and total calcium intakes and their retention and excretion in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Elsbernd, A J; Hansen, S L; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Patience, J F

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible P (STTD P) and total Ca intakes with their retention and excretion by growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. Forty-eight crossbred barrows (BW = 22.7 ± 2.9 kg) were allotted to 1 of 8 diets, housed individually in pens for 3 wk, and then moved to metabolism crates and allowed 4 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection of urine and fecal samples. Eight corn-soybean meal diets were formulated for similar NE, fat, and AA concentrations but to increase the STTD P from 0.16 to 0.62% using monocalcium phosphate. Dietary treatments were formulated for a constant Ca:STTD P ratio (2.2:1). The STTD P intake increased (P < 0.001) from 64 to 242% of the daily requirement (4.59 g/d of STTD P). Fecal and total excretion of P and Ca were linearly associated with mineral intake (P < 0.001). Constant urinary P excretion of 0.03 g/d P was observed, but at 4.96 g/d of STTD P intake, the urinary P excretion increased (P < 0.001). In contrast, Ca excretion in urine decreased (P < 0.001) with Ca intake, but constant excretion of 0.40 g/d Ca was reached at 17.97 g/d of Ca intake. The daily intakes of STTD P and Ca moderately explained the variation in urinary excretion of P (R2= 0.41) and Ca (R2= 0.64). The absorption and retention of P increased linearly (P< 0.001) with dietary P intake, whereas absorption and retention of Ca showed a quadratic response (P < 0.001). Absorption and retention of P and Ca were highly predictable from the STTD P and Ca intakes, with of 0.87 and 0.90, respectively. The femur mineral content (FMC) increased by 2.71 g with STTD P intake (P < 0.001) but reached a plateau (29.54 g of FMC) at 8.84 g/d of STTD P intake. The FMC was highly predictable from the STTD P intake (R2 = 0.89). The FMC affected the urinary P excretion ( P< 0.01), but moderately (R2= 0.19) explained the variation in urinary P. In conclusion, constant excretion of P in urine

  8. Controlling Salmonella infection in weanling pigs through water delivery of direct-fed microbials or organic acids. Part I: effects on growth performance, microbial populations, and immune status.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M C; Rostagno, M H; Gardiner, G E; Sutton, A L; Richert, B T; Radcliffe, J S

    2012-01-01

    Pigs (n = 88) weaned at 19 ± 2 d of age were used in a 14-d study to evaluate the effects of water-delivered direct-fed microbials (DFM) or organic acids on growth, immune status, Salmonella infection and shedding, and intestinal microbial populations after intranasal inoculation of Salmonella Typhimurium (10(10) cfu/pig). Pigs were challenged with Salmonella 6 d after commencement of water treatments. Treatments were 1) control diet; 2) control diet + DFM (Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus licheniformis) in drinking water at 10(9) cfu/L for each strain of bacteria; 3) control diet + an organic acid-based blend (predominantly propionic, acetic, and benzoic acid) in drinking water at 2.58 mL/L; and 4) control diet + 55 mg/kg of carbadox. Serum samples were taken on d 6, 8, 10, and 14 for determination of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) concentrations. Fecal samples were taken on d 0, 5, 7, and 11 for determination of Salmonella shedding and enumeration of coliforms. Pigs were euthanized on d 6, 8, 10, and 14. Intestinal and cecal tissue and digesta and mesenteric lymph nodes were sampled and analyzed for Salmonella. Duodenal, jejunal, and ileal mucosal scrapings were sampled for measurement of mucosal TNFα concentrations. Water delivery of DFM prevented a decline in ADG on d 2 to 6 postchallenge compared with the negative control (P < 0.05). Coliform counts tended to be greater (P = 0.09) in the cecum of the DFM treatment group on d 2 postinfection compared with the negative control and acid treatment groups. However, Salmonella prevalence in the feces, gastrointestinal tract, or lymph nodes was not affected by water delivery of acids or DFM. Serum and mucosal TNFα concentrations were not affected by treatment throughout the study with the exception of ileal concentrations on d 4 postchallenge, which were greater in the negative control group compared with all other treatments (P < 0.05). The in-feed antibiotic was the only treatment that

  9. Effects of a novel bacterial phytase expressed in Aspergillus Oryzae on digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in diets fed to weanling or growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ferdinando Nielsen; Sulabo, Rommel Casilda; Stein, Hans Henrik

    2013-03-05

    In 2 experiments, 48 weanling (initial BW: 13.5 ± 2.4 kg, Exp. 1) and 24 growing pigs (initial BW: 36.2 ± 4.0 kg, Exp. 2) were used to determine effects of a novel bacterial 6-phytase expressed in Aspergillus oryzae on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus and calcium in corn-soybean meal diets fed to weanling and growing pigs. In Exp. 1 and 2, pigs were randomly allotted to 6 dietary treatments using a randomized complete block design and a balanced 2 period changeover design, respectively. In both experiments, 6 diets were formulated. The positive control diet was a corn-soybean meal diet with added inorganic phosphorus (Exp. 1: 0.42 and 0.86% standardized total tract digestible phosphorus and total calcium, respectively; Exp. 2: 0.32 and 0.79% standardized total tract digestible phosphorus and total calcium, respectively). A negative control diet and 4 diets with the novel phytase (Ronozyme HiPhos, DSM Nutritional Products Inc., Parsippany, NJ) added to the negative control diet at levels of 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 phytase units (FYT)/kg were also formulated. In Exp. 1, the ATTD of phosphorus was greater (P < 0.01) for the positive control diet (60.5%) than for the negative control diet (40.5%), but increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01) as phytase was added to the negative control diet (40.5% vs. 61.6%, 65.1%, 68.7%, and 68.0%). The breakpoint for the ATTD of phosphorus (68.4%) was reached at a phytase inclusion level of 1,016 FYT/kg. In Exp. 2, the ATTD of phosphorus was greater (P < 0.01) for the positive control diet (59.4%) than for the negative control diet (39.8%) and increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.01) as phytase was added to the negative control diet (39.8% vs. 58.1%, 65.4%, 69.1%, and 72.8%). The breakpoint for the ATTD of phosphorus (69.1%) was reached at a phytase inclusion level of 801 FYT/kg. In conclusion, the novel bacterial 6-phytase improved the ATTD of phosphorus and calcium in

  10. Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on quality characteristics of fresh pork bellies from pigs fed 3 levels of corn oil.

    PubMed

    Apple, J K; Sawyer, J T; Maxwell, C V; Yancey, J W S; Frank, J W; Woodworth, J C; Musser, R E

    2011-09-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 216) were used to test the effect of supplemental L-carnitine (CARN) on the fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of fresh pork bellies from pigs fed diets formulated with different inclusion levels of corn oil. Pigs were blocked by BW (43.6 ± 1.0 kg) and allotted randomly to pens of 6 pigs within blocks. Then, within blocks, pens were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with either 0 or 100 mg/kg of supplemental CARN and 3 dietary inclusion levels (0, 2, or 4%) of corn oil (CO). When the lightest block weighed 125.0 kg, all pigs were slaughtered, and left-side bellies were captured during carcass fabrication for quality data collection. Fresh pork bellies were evaluated for length, width, thickness, and firmness (bar-suspension and Instron-compression methods) before a 2.5-cm-wide strip of belly was removed and subsequently dissected into subcutaneous fat, primary lean (latissimus dorsi), secondary lean (cutaneous trunci), and intermuscular fat for fatty acid composition determination. Although belly length, width, and thickness of fresh pork bellies were not affected by CARN (P ≥ 0.128) or CO (P ≥ 0.073), belly firmness decreased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary CO, but there was no (P ≥ 0.137) effect of CARN on any belly firmness measure. Dietary CARN increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of total SFA in the intermuscular fat layer, increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of total MUFA in the primary and secondary lean layers, and decreased (P < 0.05) the proportion of total PUFA in the intermuscular fat and secondary lean layers of pork bellies. Moreover, the SFA and MUFA compositions decreased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary CO, and the rate of the decrease in SFA composition was greater (P < 0.001) in the fat layers than the lean layers. Conversely, the PUFA content increased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary CO, and the rate of the increase in

  11. Effects of high dietary sodium chloride content on performance and sodium and potassium balance in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Chittavong, Malavanh; Jansson, Anna; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-10-01

    Thirty castrated male Moo Lath pigs (6-8 weeks of age) were used in a 15-week growth trial to study the effect of high dietary sodium chloride (NaCl) content on feed and water intake, performance, sodium (Na) and potassium (K) balance, and plasma aldosterone concentration. The pigs were randomly allocated (ten per treatment) to diets containing 0.24 % Na (Na0.24), 0.28 % Na (Na0.28), and 0.32 % Na (Na0.32) per kg diet. Feed and water was provided ad libitum, and water consumption, feed offered, and feed residues were recorded daily. Every third week, the pigs were weighed, blood samples were collected, and a 3-day total collection of urine and feces was performed. Water intake was higher (P = 0.001) in pigs fed with diets Na0.28 (3.7 L/day) and Na0.32 (3.9 L/day) than in pigs fed with diet Na0.24 (3.4 L/day), and dry matter (DM) intake was higher on diet Na0.32 (P = 0.041) than on the other diets. The average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher on diet Na0.32 than on the other diets (P = 0.031). The feed conversion ratio (in kilogram feed DM to kilogram BW gain) was 4.6, 4.6, and 4.1 on treatments Na0.24, Na0.28, and Na0.32, respectively (P = 0.14). The highest Na balance was observed on diet Na0.32 followed by diets Na0.28 and Na0.24 (P < 0.001), while there was no treatment-related pattern for the K balance. The Na/K ratio in feces and urine increased (P < 0.001), and the K/Na ratio in feces (P < 0.001) decreased with increasing Na content in the diet. Plasma aldosterone concentration decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary content of Na. These results indicate that high NaCl intake and free access to water will increase Na balance but do not negatively influence feed intake and performance of growing local pigs.

  12. High Dietary Selenium Intake Alters Lipid Metabolism and Protein Synthesis in Liver and Muscle of Pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zeping; Barcus, Matthew; Kim, Jonggun; Lum, Krystal L; Mills, Courtney; Lei, Xin Gen

    2016-09-01

    Prolonged high intakes of dietary selenium have been shown to induce gestational diabetes in rats and hyperinsulinemia in pigs. Two experiments were conducted to explore metabolic and molecular mechanisms for the diabetogenic potential of high dietary selenium intakes in pigs. In Expt. 1, 16 Yorkshire-Landrace-Hampshire crossbred pigs (3 wk old, body weight = 7.5 ± 0.81 kg, 50% males and 50% females) were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0.3 or 1.0 mg Se/kg (as selenium-enriched yeast for 6 wk). In Expt. 2, 12 pigs of the same crossbreed (6 wk old, body weight = 16.0 ± 1.8 kg) were fed a similar basal diet supplemented with 0.3 or 3.0 mg Se/kg for 11 wk. Biochemical and gene and protein expression profiles of lipid and protein metabolism and selenoproteins in plasma, liver, muscle, and adipose tissues were analyzed. In Expt. 1, the 1-mg-Se/kg diet did not affect body weight or plasma concentrations of glucose and nonesterified fatty acids. In Expt. 2, the 3-mg-Se/kg diet, compared with the 0.3-mg-Se/kg diet, increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of plasma insulin (0.2 compared with 0.4 ng/mL), liver and adipose lipids (41% to 2.4-fold), and liver and muscle protein (10-14%). In liver, the 3-mg-Se/kg diet upregulated (P < 0.05) the expression, activity, or both of key factors related to gluconeogenesis [phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK); 13%], lipogenesis [sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthase (FASN); 46-90%], protein synthesis [insulin receptor (INSR), P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (P70), and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P-S6); 88-105%], energy metabolism [AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); up to 2.8-fold], and selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3; 1.4-fold) and suppressed (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of lipolysis gene cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP7A1; 88%) and selenoprotein gene selenoprotein W1 (SEPW1; 46%). In muscle

  13. Effect of diet grinding and pelleting fed either dry or liquid feed on dry matter and pH in the stomach of pigs and the development of gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Mösseler, A; Wintermann, M; Sander, S J; Kamphues, J

    2012-12-01

    The physical form of diets has a marked impact on the development of gastric ulcers in pigs. Earlier studies showed effects of fine grinding and pelleting on the integrity of gastric mucosa as well as on local intragastric milieu. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dry or liquid feeding on intragastric milieu (DM and pH) in pigs. The 23 piglets were housed individually and fed with test diets and water ad lib for 6 wk. Both experimental diets [coarsely ground diet fed as mash (CM) vs. finely ground pelleted diet (FP)] were identical in ingredients (39.5% wheat, 34% barley, 20% soybean meal) and chemical composition and were either offered dry or in liquid (25% DM) form. At the end of the trial the animals were slaughtered; the stomach was removed and samples were taken from different localizations. Feeding diets dry or liquid had no effect on the pH (P > 0.05). The diet noticeably affected the gastric content. The FP diets resulted in a more liquid chyme (P < 0.05), and the intragastric pH did not differ between regions. Feeding CM caused marked effects of localization regarding pH (highest values: pars nonglandularis; lowest values: fundus). None of the pigs fed CM showed signs of gastric ulcers, but the score was markedly higher (P < 0.05) when pigs were fed FP. Therefore the predominant factor for development of gastric ulcers seems to be the structure (particle size) of the diet.

  14. Narasin effects on energy, nutrient, and fiber digestibility in corn-soybean meal or corn-soybean meal-dried distillers grains with soluble diets fed to 16-, 92-, and 141-kg pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three experiments were conducted determine the effect of narasin on growth performance, and on GE and nutrient digestibility in nursery, grower, and finishing pigs fed either a corn-soybean (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with...

  15. Comparative characterization of bacterial communities in geese fed all-grass or high-grain diets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Yuan, Xiaoya; Gu, Tiantian; Li, Yang; Dai, Wangcheng; Shen, Xiaokun; Song, Yadong; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Wenming; Chang, Guobin; Chen, Guohong

    2017-01-01

    Gut microbial composition is dependent on diet. Geese are herbivores and can digest crude fibre, but the relationship between composition of the microbiota and a fibre-rich diet in geese is not well understood. Here, caecal and faecal samples were collected simultaneously from all-grass-fed geese and high-grain-fed geese and the hypervariable V3-V4 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced. The results was identified that high-grass-fed geese possessed significantly higher alpha diversity both in caecum and faeces compared with that in all-grain-fed geese. In addition, the composition of dominant bacterium occurred remarkable shifting due to different diet patterns, Firmicutes were more abundant in all-grass-fed geese, whereas Bacteroidetes were abundant in high-grain-fed geese. Fusobacteria and Deferribacteres were obviously present in high-grain-fed geese and few in all-grass-fed geese. Most importantly, some specific microorgnisms such as Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Bacteroidaceae which may associated with cellulose-degrading that were characterized to show distinctly diverse between the two diet patterns. PICRUSt analysis revealed the metabolic pathways such as carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism were overrepresented in all-grass-fed geese. In conclusion, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were identified abundantly when the geese was fed with all-grass feed and high-grain feed, respectively. And Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Bacteroidaceae were recognized as main cellulose-degrading bacteria in the geese. The functional profiles of gut microbiota revealed the dominant microbiota communities were involved mainly in the carbohydrate metabolism in all-grass-fed geese.

  16. Growth performance, blood metabolic responses, and carcass characteristics of grower and finisher South African Windsnyer-type indigenous and Large White×Landrace crossbred pigs fed diets containing ensiled corncobs.

    PubMed

    Kanengoni, A T; Chimonyo, M; Erlwanger, K H; Ndimba, B K; Dzama, K

    2014-12-01

    A study was taken to evaluate growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolite concentrations when ensiled corncobs were included in indigenous and commercial pig diets. Fifty Large White× Landrace (LW×LR) crossbred pigs and 30 South African Windsnyer-type indigenous pigs (SAWIP) were evaluated. They were fed a control (CON), a low inclusion of ensiled corncob (LMC), and a high inclusion of ensiled corncob (HMC) diet in a completely randomized block design. The LW×LR crosses had greater (P<0.05) final weight, ADFI, DMI, ADG, and G:F ratios than the SAWIP at both the grower and finisher stages. The SAWIP consumed more feed per metabolic BW (BW0.75) than LW×LR crosses at the grower stage while LW×LR crosses consumed more than SAWIP at the finisher stage (P<0.05). The finishers' G:F ratio was greater (P<0.05) in the CON than in the HMC diet. The LW×LR growers and finishers had greater (P<0.05) warm carcass weight (WCW), cold carcass weight (CCW), carcass length, drip loss, pH at 24 h, eye muscle area, and lean percent than those of SAWIP growers and finishers. The LW×LR finishers on the CON diet had greater (P<0.05) WCW and CCW than those on the HMC and LMC diets. There were diet×breed interactions for dorsal fat thickness at first rib (DFT1), dorsal fat thickness at last lumbar vertebra (DFT3), backfat thickness (BFT), and hindquarter weight proportion (HQWP) in the growers. The LW×LR growers and finishers had greater values (P<0.05) of hindquarter length, hindquarter circumference, HQWP, and shoulder weight proportion than the SAWIP growers and finishers, respectively. The SAWIP growers and finishers had greater values (P<0.05) of DFT1, dorsal fat thickness at last rib, DFT3, and BFT than the LW×LR growers and finishers, respectively. There were breed×diet interactions (P<0.05) for alanine aminotransferase and amylase (AMYL). The LW×LR crosses had greater (P< 0.05) values of creatinine, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, and

  17. Effects of zinc oxide and microbial phytase on digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in maize-based diets fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Blavi, L; Sola-Oriol, D; Perez, J F; Stein, H H

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of Zn at a pharmacological level in diets fed to pigs affects apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of Ca and P and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca. The second hypothesis was that inclusion of microbial phytase increases the ATTD of Ca and P and the STTD of Ca regardless of the concentration of Zn in the diet. Fifty-six growing barrows (15.4 ± 1.9 kg average BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 7 dietary treatments and 8 pigs per treatment. A maize-based basal diet was formulated with either 0 or 2,400 mg/kg Zn from ZnO and 0, 1,000, or 3,000 units of phytase (FTU) per kilogram. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Experimental diets were fed for 13 d, and feces were collected from the feed provided from d 6 to 11 using the marker-to-marker approach; urine was also collected from d 6 to 11. Retention of Ca, ATTD of Ca, and STTD of Ca increased ( < 0.01) as the concentration of phytase in the diet increased and were less ( < 0.01) if ZnO was used than if no ZnO was added to the diet. Retention of P and the ATTD of P increased ( < 0.0001) as the concentration of phytase increased in the diet, but the increase was greater if ZnO was not added than if ZnO was added to the diet (interaction, < 0.05). In conclusion, pharmacological levels of Zn reduced Ca and P digestibility and retention, but this effect was partly ameliorated by the inclusion of phytase in the diets. Inclusion of microbial phytase increased the ATTD and STTD of Ca in diets and also the ATTD of P.

  18. Nonprotein nitrogen is absorbed from the large intestine and increases nitrogen balance in growing pigs fed a valine-limiting diet.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Daniel A; Lapierre, Hélène; Htoo, John K; de Lange, Cornelis F M

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen absorption from the large intestine, largely as ammonia and possibly as amino acids (AAs), is generally thought to be of little nutritional value to nonruminant animals and humans. Ammonia-nitrogen absorbed from the large intestine, however, may be recycled into the small intestine as urea and incorporated into microbial AAs, which may then be used by the host. A cecal infusion study was performed to determine the form in which nitrogen is absorbed from the large intestine and the impact of large intestine nitrogen supply on nitrogen balance in growing pigs. Eighteen cecally cannulated barrows (initial body weight: 22.4 ± 1.2 kg) were used to determine the effect of supplying nitrogen into the large intestine from either casein or urea on whole-body nitrogen retention and urea kinetics. Treatments were cecal infusions of saline (control), casein, or urea with nitrogen infused at a rate of 40% of nitrogen intake. In a subsample of 9 pigs, (15)N(15)N-urea was infused via i.v. during the nitrogen-balance period to determine urea kinetics. All pigs were fed a valine-limiting cornstarch-soybean meal-based diet. More than 80% of infused nitrogen was apparently absorbed. Urea flux and urinary nitrogen excretion increased (P ≤ 0.05) by the same amount for both nitrogen sources, but this increase did not fully account for the increase in nitrogen absorption from the large intestine. Whole-body nitrogen retention improved with nitrogen infusions (129 vs. 114 g/d; P < 0.01) and did not differ (P > 0.05) between nitrogen sources. Absorption of nitrogen from the large intestine appears to be in the form of nonprotein nitrogen, which appears to be returned to the small intestine via urea and used there for microbial AA production and should therefore be considered when determining nitrogen and AA supply and requirements.

  19. Quality of Frozen Pork from Pigs Fed Diets Containing Palm Kernel Meal as an Alternative to Corn Meal

    PubMed Central

    An, Jeong Yeon; Yong, Hae In; Kim, So Yeon; Yoo, Han Bit; Kim, Yoo Yong; Jo, Cheorun

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of palm kernel meal (PKM), an alternative to corn, on the quality of pork. A total of 72 crossbred pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc) were assigned into four dietary treatments (PKM level of 0, 4, 8, or 12%). After 12 wk, one pig of median weight in each pen was selected and slaughtered to analyze meat quality. The color, free radical scavenging activity, lipid oxidation, texture, composition of fatty acids, and sensory qualities of pork loin were evaluated post slaughter. When the levels of PKM in the diet increased, the L*-value of pork loin decreased, whereas a*-value and total saturated fatty acids increased. 2-Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of pork loin were lower in groups treated with 8 and 12% PKM than in the control group at day 0; this difference, however, was not observed at day 3 and 7. The results of texture analysis showed that increasing the PKM ratio decreased hardness, chewiness, and springiness at day 7. The sensory test, however, indicated no differences between the control and treated groups. These findings show that finisher pigs could tolerate PKM as a replacement for corn; PKM did not negatively affect the quality of pork, indicating that it can be utilized as feed. PMID:28515643

  20. Are agrochemicals present in high fructose corn syrup fed to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Honey bee colonies are commonly fed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a nectar substitute. Many agrochemicals are applied to corn during cultivation including systemic neonicotinoids. Whether agrochemicals are present in HFCS fed to bees is unknown. Samples from the major manufacturers and distri...

  1. [Effect of dietary mineral nutrients and vitamins on metabolism of rat fed with high fat].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liying; Sun, Changhao; Zhou, Xiaorong; Wang, Haiying; Ren, Lina

    2004-07-01

    To explore dietary mineral nutrients (calcium, magnesium, zinc, ferric, chromium) and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, C, D, E) on the effect of metabolic disorder of Wistar rat fed with high fat diet. Fifty obesity-prone male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: A group were fed with basic diet, B group were fed with high fat diet and normal minerals and vitamins, C group were fed with high fat diet with lower minerals and vitamins, D group were fed with high fat diet with higher minerals and vitamins, E group were fed with high fat diet with only higher calcium. After 8 weeks, blood glucose, serum insulin and leptin, serum triglycerides, cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein were measured respectively. The body weight and fat content in B group were significantly higher than those of other groups. The body weight in D, E group decreased significantly compared with B group, both of which are similar with A group. In the case of blood glucose, serum insulin, leptin,triglycerides, cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein, they all have the tendency of decreasing in D group compared with E group. In addition to reducing body weight and fat content, dietary mineral nutrients and vitamins can also ameliorate the blood glucose and improve hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia, modify the metabolic disordor of rat fed with high fat diet.

  2. Energy and Ileal Digestible Amino Acid Concentrations for Growing Pigs and Performance of Weanling Pigs Fed Fermented or Conventional Soybean Meal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Lu, W. Q.; Li, D. F.; Liu, X. T.; Wang, H. L.; Niu, S.; Piao, X. S.

    2014-01-01

    A new strategy of co-inoculating Bacillus subtilis MA139 with Streptococcus thermophilus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to produce fermented soybean meal (FSBM). Three experiments were conducted to determine the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) (Exp. 1), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) (Exp. 2), and feeding value (Exp. 3) of FSBM produced by this new strategy (NFSB) compared with soybean meal (SBM) and conventionally available FSBM (Suprotein). In Exp. 1, twenty-four barrows (initial body weight [BW] of 32.2 ±1.7 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 diets with 6 replicates per diet. A corn basal diet and 3 diets based on a mixture of corn and 1 of 3 soybean products listed above were formulated and the DE and ME contents were determined by the difference method. The results showed that there were no differences in DE and ME between SBM and either FSBM product (p>0.05). In Exp. 2, eight barrows (initial BW of 26.8±1.5 kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulaes and used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Three corn-starch-based diets were formulated using each of the 3 soybean products as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. The results showed that the SID of all AA except arginine and histidine was similar for NFSB and SBM (p>0.05), but Suprotein had greater (p<0.05) SID of most AA except lysine, aspartate, glycine and proline than NFSB. In Exp. 3, a total of 144 piglets (initial BW of 8.8±1.2 kg) were blocked by weight and fed 1 of 4 diets including a control diet with 24% SBM as well as diets containing 6% and 12% NFSB or 12% Suprotein added at the expense of SBM. During d 15 to 28, replacing SBM with 6% NFSB significantly improved average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) for nursery piglets. During the overall experiment, ADG of piglets fed diets containing

  3. Intrauterine growth retardation increases the susceptibility of pigs to high-fat diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbo; Chen, Daiwen; Yao, Ying; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Huang, Zhiqing; Zheng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that there is a relationship between prenatal growth restriction and the development of metabolic-related diseases in later life, a process involved in mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) increases the susceptibility of offspring to high-fat (HF) diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggested that HF feeding decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Therefore, we hypothesized that the long-term consequences of IUGR on mitochondrial biogenesis and function make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal birth weight (NBW), and IUGR pigs were allotted to control or HF diet in a completely randomized design, individually. After 4 weeks of feeding, growth performance and molecular pathways related to mitochondrial function were determined. The results showed that IUGR decreased growth performance and plasma insulin concentrations. In offspring fed a HF diet, IUGR was associated with enhanced plasma leptin levels, increased concentrations of triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced glycogen and ATP contents in skeletal muscle. High fat diet-fed IUGR offspring exhibited decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). These alterations in metabolic traits of IUGR pigs were accompanied by impaired mitochondrial respiration function, reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents, and down-regulated mRNA expression levels of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that IUGR make the offspring more susceptible to HF diet-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

  4. Growth performance and pork fat quality as measured by three methods of pigs fed 20% DDGS and slaughtered using a standard industry split marketing strategy.

    PubMed

    Shircliff, K E; Callahan, Z D; Wilmoth, T A; Ohman, C E; Johnson, R C; Wiegand, B R

    2015-10-01

    A total of 40 pens containing 22 crossbred barrows (initial BW = 43.07 ± 1.61 kg; PIC 1050 × PIC 337 genetics) were housed in a commercial wean to finish facility. Pens were randomly allotted to dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 0% or 20%) and chosen for 1 of 3 marketing cuts removing 4, 8, and 10 animals from each pen. Fat tissue samples were removed from the anterior tip of the jowl and posterior to the sternum on the belly edge 1d postmortem. Fatty acid composition was determined via the Folch method, and iodine values (IV) were calculated from chemical titrations, fatty acid profile (GC IV), and in-plant Bruker near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Pearson's correlation coefficients for IV determination methods were estimated. Inclusion of 20% DDGS did not change ( > 0.05) growth performance, whereas marketing cut affected performance, with the second cut producing the most efficient pigs ( < 0.01). Total SFA and MUFA concentrations were higher ( < 0.01) in belly and jowl fat from pigs fed 0% DDGS. Total PUFA and the PUFA:SFA in belly and jowl fat was higher ( < 0.01) when 20% DDGS was fed. Dried distillers grains with solubles inclusion increased IV in belly and jowl as determined by all 3 methods. Regardless of dietary treatment or fat depot, Pearson correlation coefficients between titration and GC IV, titration and NIR, and GC IV and NIR were 0.46 ( < 0.01), 0.68 ( < 0.01), and 0.43 ( < 0.01), respectively. These correlations suggest methods may rank samples equally but do not provide the same absolute IV. Belly fat had a lower IV ( < 0.01) than jowl fat using titration or GC IV methods, suggesting pigs have varied degrees of physiological maturity at specific fat depots when weight end points are used during the finishing phase. In conclusion, feeding 20% DDGS negatively affected fat quality but not growth performance, and marketing time changed growth performance.

  5. Exercise Improves Glucose Disposal and Insulin Signaling in Pregnant Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lindsay G; Ngo Tenlep, Sara Y; Woollett, Laura A; Pearson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Physical activity has been suggested as a non-pharmacological intervention that can be used to improve glucose homeostasis in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of voluntary exercise on glucose tolerance and body composition in pregnant high fat diet fed mice. Methods Female mice were put on a standard diet or high fat diet for two weeks. The mice were then split into 4 groups; control standard diet fed, exercise standard diet fed, control high fat diet fed, and exercise high fat diet fed. Exercise mice had voluntary access to a running wheel in their home cage one week prior to mating, during mating, and throughout pregnancy. Glucose tolerance and body composition were measured during pregnancy. Akt levels were quantified in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue isolated from saline or insulin injected pregnant dams as a marker for insulin signaling. Results Consumption of the high fat diet led to significantly increased body weight, fat mass, and impaired glucose tolerance in control mice. However, voluntary running in the high fat diet fed dams significantly reduced weight gain and fat mass and ultimately improved glucose tolerance compared to control high fat diet fed dams. Further, body weight, fat mass, and glucose disposal in exercise high fat diet dams were indistinguishable from control dams fed the standard diet. High fat diet fed exercise dams also had significantly increased insulin stimulated phosphorylated Akt expression in adipose tissue, but not skeletal muscle, compared to control dams on high fat diet. Conclusion The use of voluntary exercise improves glucose homeostasis and body composition in pregnant female mice. Thus, future studies could investigate potential long-term health benefits in offspring born to obese exercising dams. PMID:26966635

  6. Microbiome-Metabolome Responses in the Cecum and Colon of Pig to a High Resistant Starch Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yue; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Currently, knowledge about the impact of long-term intake of high resistant starch diet on pig hindgut microbiota and metabolite profile is limited. In this study, a combination of the pyrosequencing and the mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics techniques were used to investigate the effects of a raw potato starch (RPS, high in resistant starch) diet on microbial composition and microbial metabolites in the hindgut of pig. The results showed that Coprococcus, Ruminococcus, and Turicibacter increased significantly, while Sarcina and Clostridium decreased in relative abundances in the hindgut of pigs fed RPS. The metabolimic analysis revealed that RPS significantly affected starch and sucrose metabolites, amino acid turnover or protein biosynthesis, lipid metabolites, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, inositol phosphate metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism. Furthermore, a Pearson's correlation analysis showed that Ruminococcus and Coprococcus were positively correlated with glucose-6-phosphate, maltose, arachidonic acid, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid, oleic acid, phosphate, but negatively correlated with α-aminobutyric acid. However, the correlation of Clostridium and Sarcina with these compounds was in the opposite direction. The results suggest that RPS not only alters the composition of the gut microbial community but also modulates the metabolic pathway of microbial metabolism, which may further affect the hindgut health of the host. PMID:27303373

  7. Effects of high-protein or conventional canola meal on growth performance, organ weights, bone ash, and blood characteristics of weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Parr, C K; Liu, Y; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of 2 high-protein canola meals (canola meal A [CMA]: 45.69% CP and canola meal B [CMB]: 46.97% CP) and a conventional canola meal (CM-CV: 35.10% CP) on growth performance, organ weights, bone ash, and blood parameters of weanling pigs. Inclusion rates of canola meal (CM) in the diets were 10, 20, 30, or 40% for CMA and CM-CV, whereas inclusions were 10, 20, or 30% for CMB. A control diet containing no CM was also formulated. Therefore, 12 diets were used in this experiment. A total of 420 pigs (initial BW: 9.8 ± 1.1 kg) were divided into 3 blocks and randomly allotted to 1 of the 12 diets with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 4 or 5 pigs per pen. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F were calculated, and at the conclusion of the experiment, 1 pig in each pen was euthanized to allow measurements of organ weights, collection of blood, and collection of the third and fourth metacarpals from the left foot. Results indicate that ADFI was linearly (P < 0.05) decreased if inclusion of CMA, CMB, or CM-CV was increased. Average daily gain for pigs fed CMA tended to increase quadratically with the maximum response observed at 10 or 20% CM inclusion in the diet ( P= 0.06). However, G:F was linearly (P < 0.05) increased by adding CMA or CM-CV to the diets. Liver weights were also linearly (P < 0.05) increased if pigs were fed diets containing CMB, but kidney weights were linearly (P < 0.05) decreased by the addition of CM-CV to the diets. Thyroid gland weights increased linearly (P < 0.05) for pigs fed diets containing CMA. No differences were observed in heart and bone weights if CM was added to the diets. Addition of any of the 3 CM linearly (P < 0.05) increased bone ash percentage in the metacarpals. Inclusion of CMA or CM-CV linearly (P < 0.05) decreased concentrations of serum triiodothyronine, and the inclusion of CMA also linearly (P < 0.05) decreased serum thyroxine concentrations. No differences were observed for complete blood

  8. Effects of variety and storage duration on the nutrient digestibility and the digestible and metabolisable energy content of maize fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Ling; Li, Defa; Li, Quanfeng; Piao, Xiangshu; Thacker, Philip A; Brown, Michael A; Lai, Changhua

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effects of variety and storage duration on the nutrient digestibility and the digestible (DE) and metabolisable (ME) energy content in maize when fed to growing pigs. Four maize varieties (LS1, LS2, LS3 and LS4) were hand-harvested from the same growing area in China in early October of 2012. The samples were sun dried to about 14% moisture content and then stored in the warehouse of the Fengning Pig Experiment Base at China Agricultural University for 0, 3 or 10 months. Twenty-four barrows of about 33 kg body weight were used and allotted to a completely randomised block design with four diets and six replicate pigs per diet. Pigs were individually housed in metabolic crates. The four experimental diets were formulated by mixing 96.8% of each variety of maize with 3.2% vitamins and minerals. A 5-day collection period followed a 7-day diet acclimation period. The results indicated that the DE and ME contents of maize and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of organic matter (OM), dry matter, gross energy (GE), neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre (ADF), crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by maize variety and storage duration. With an extension of storage duration from 0 to 10 months, the DE and ME of maize and the ATTD of OM, GE, ADF, CP and EE changed in a quadratic manner (p < 0.05), and 3 months of storage exceeded 0 months of storage by 1.84%, 1.43%, 0.31%, 0.32%, 15.37%, 2.11% and 5.02%, respectively. The DE, ME of maize and the ATTD of OM, GE, ADF, CP and EE decreased by 3.67%, 6.00%, 0.97%, 1.40%, 30.54%, 3.92% and 20.93%, respectively, at 10 months of storage compared to 3 months of storage. No interaction was observed between maize variety and storage duration in DE and ME contents in maize. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, most of the nutrient digestibility and the DE and ME contents of maize increased from 0

  9. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Lisbeth E; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jensen, Tim K; Christensen, Anja S; Møller, Kristian; Roepstorff, Allan

    2007-01-31

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown ingredients were composed. Both diets were based on triticale and barley and supplemented with either rape seed cake (Diet 1) or dried chicory root and sweet lupins (Diet 2). The study had a three-factorial design, with eight groups of pigs receiving Diet 1 or Diet 2, +/-B. hyodysenteriae, and +/-T. suis. Pigs fed Diet 2 and challenged with B. hyodysenteriae did not develop swine dysentery and B. hyodysenteriae was not demonstrated in any of the pigs during the study. In contrast, 94% of the B. hyodysenteriae challenged pigs fed Diet 1 showed clinical symptoms of swine dysentery and all the pigs were shedding B. hyodysenteriae in faeces at some points in time during the experiment. The number of T. suis was lower in pigs fed Diet 2 compared to pigs fed Diet 1, but the differences were not significant. Pigs on Diet 1 and challenged with both pathogens showed clinical symptoms of SD for a longer period than pigs inoculated with B. hyodysenteriae only. The study showed that diets supplemented with highly fermentable carbohydrates from dried chicory roots and sweet lupins can protect pigs against developing swine dysentery, but do not have any significant influence on T. suis.

  10. Selection of Fecal Enterococci Exhibiting tcrB-Mediated Copper Resistance in Pigs Fed Diets Supplemented with Copper † ▿

    PubMed Central

    Amachawadi, R. G.; Shelton, N. W.; Shi, X.; Vinasco, J.; Dritz, S. S.; Tokach, M. D.; Nelssen, J. L.; Scott, H. M.; Nagaraja, T. G.

    2011-01-01

    Copper, as copper sulfate, is increasingly used as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics for growth promotion in weaned piglets. Acquired copper resistance, conferred by a plasmid-borne, transferable copper resistance (tcrB) gene, has been reported in Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis. A longitudinal field study was undertaken to determine the relationship between copper supplementation and the prevalence of tcrB-positive enterococci in piglets. The study was done with weaned piglets, housed in 10 pens with 6 piglets per pen, fed diets supplemented with a normal (16.5 ppm; control) or an elevated (125 ppm) level of copper. Fecal samples were randomly collected from three piglets per pen on days 0, 14, 28, and 42 and plated on M-Enterococcus agar, and three enterococcal isolates were obtained from each sample. The overall prevalence of tcrB-positive enterococci was 21.1% (38/180) in piglets fed elevated copper and 2.8% (5/180) in the control. Among the 43 tcrB-positive isolates, 35 were E. faecium and 8 were E. faecalis. The mean MICs of copper for tcrB-negative and tcrB-positive enterococci were 6.2 and 22.2 mM, respectively. The restriction digestion of the genomic DNA of E. faecium or E. faecalis with S1 nuclease yielded a band of ∼194-kbp size to which both tcrB and the erm(B) gene probes hybridized. A conjugation assay demonstrated cotransfer of tcrB and erm(B) genes between E. faecium and E. faecalis strains. The higher prevalence of tcrB-positive enterococci in piglets fed elevated copper compared to that in piglets fed normal copper suggests that supplementation of copper in swine diets selected for resistance. PMID:21705534

  11. D-tagatose has low small intestinal digestibility but high large intestinal fermentability in pigs.

    PubMed

    Laerke, H N; Jensen, B B

    1999-05-01

    The digestibility of D-tagatose, its effect on the digestibility of macronutrients and the metabolic response of the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract to the ingestion of this carbohydrate were studied in pigs. Eight pigs were fed a low fiber diet comprising 15% sucrose (control group). Another eight pigs were fed a similar diet except that 100 g sucrose per kg diet was replaced by D-tagatose (test group). After 18 d, the pigs were killed and the gastrointestinal contents removed for analysis. The digestibility of D-tagatose was 25.8 +/- 5.6% in the distal third of the small intestine. The small intestinal digestibilities of dry matter (86.9 +/- 1.3 vs. 92.9 +/- 0.9%), gross energy (74.4 +/- 1.6 vs. 80.7 +/- 1.8%) and sucrose (90.4 +/- 2.5 vs. 98.0 +/- 0.5%) were lower (P < 0. 05) in the pigs fed D-tagatose. Digestibilities of starch, protein and fat did not differ between groups. D-Tagatose, sucrose and starch were fully digested in the large intestine. The fecal digestibilities of energy, dry matter and fat did not differ between the two groups, whereas D-tagatose reduced the fecal digestibility of protein (91.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 93.5 +/- 0.7%, P < 0.05). D-Tagatose served as a substrate for the microbiota in the cecum and proximal colon as indicated by a reduced pH, and a greater ATP concentration, adenylate energy charge (AEC) ratio and concentration of short-chain fatty acids. In particular, the increase in the concentrations of propionate, butyrate and valerate suggests possible health benefits of this monosaccharide.

  12. 75 FR 70201 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China and Indonesia, USITC... sheets suitable for high quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses; coated on one or both sides with... Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From the People's Republic of...

  13. Intensive trapping of blood-fed Anopheles darlingi in Amazonian Peru reveals unexpectedly high proportions of avian blood-meals.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Marta; Saavedra, Marlon P; Bickersmith, Sara A; Prussing, Catharine; Michalski, Adrian; Tong Rios, Carlos; Vinetz, Joseph M; Conn, Jan E

    2017-02-01

    Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia) in Amazonian Peru. Overall, the Human Blood Index (HBI) ranged from 0.58-0.87, with no significant variation among years or sites. Blood-meal analysis revealed that humans are the most common blood source, followed by avian hosts (Galliformes-chickens and turkeys), and human/Galliforme mixed-meals. The Forage Ratio and Selection Index both show a strong preference for Galliformes over humans in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our data show that 30% of An. darlingi fed on more than one host, including combinations of dogs, pigs, goats and rats. There appears to be a pattern of host choice in An. darlingi, with varying proportions of mosquitoes feeding only on humans, only on Galliformes and some taking mixed-meals of blood (human plus Galliforme), which was detected in the three sites in different years, indicating that there could be a structure to these populations based on blood-feeding preferences. Mosquito age, estimated in two localities, Lupuna and Cahuide, ranged widely between sites and years. This variation may reflect the range of local environmental factors that influence longevity or possibly potential changes in the ability of the mosquito to transmit the parasite. Of 6,204 resting An. darlingi tested for Plasmodium infection, 0.42% were infected with P. vivax. This study provides evidence for the first time of the usefulness of barrier screens for the collection of blood-fed resting mosquitoes to calculate the Human Blood Index (HBI) and other blood-meal sources in a neotropical malaria endemic setting.

  14. Intensive trapping of blood-fed Anopheles darlingi in Amazonian Peru reveals unexpectedly high proportions of avian blood-meals

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Marlon P.; Bickersmith, Sara A.; Prussing, Catharine; Michalski, Adrian; Tong Rios, Carlos; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Conn, Jan E.

    2017-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia) in Amazonian Peru. Overall, the Human Blood Index (HBI) ranged from 0.58–0.87, with no significant variation among years or sites. Blood-meal analysis revealed that humans are the most common blood source, followed by avian hosts (Galliformes-chickens and turkeys), and human/Galliforme mixed-meals. The Forage Ratio and Selection Index both show a strong preference for Galliformes over humans in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our data show that 30% of An. darlingi fed on more than one host, including combinations of dogs, pigs, goats and rats. There appears to be a pattern of host choice in An. darlingi, with varying proportions of mosquitoes feeding only on humans, only on Galliformes and some taking mixed-meals of blood (human plus Galliforme), which was detected in the three sites in different years, indicating that there could be a structure to these populations based on blood-feeding preferences. Mosquito age, estimated in two localities, Lupuna and Cahuide, ranged widely between sites and years. This variation may reflect the range of local environmental factors that influence longevity or possibly potential changes in the ability of the mosquito to transmit the parasite. Of 6,204 resting An. darlingi tested for Plasmodium infection, 0.42% were infected with P. vivax. This study provides evidence for the first time of the usefulness of barrier screens for the collection of blood-fed resting mosquitoes to calculate the Human Blood Index (HBI) and other blood-meal sources in a neotropical malaria endemic setting. PMID:28231248

  15. Chemical composition, energy and amino acid digestibility in double-low rapeseed meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Peili; Wang, Fengli; Wu, Fei; Wang, Jinrong; Liu, Ling; Lai, Changhua

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional value of rapeseed meal may be variable due to the variation of its chemical composition. And a precise understanding of the nutritional value of an ingredient is beneficial for the accurate diet formulation and reduction of feed costs. This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition, digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) content, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) for growing pigs. Thirteen solvent-extracted double-low rapeseed meal (DLRSM) samples were obtained from the main double-low rapeseed producing areas in China. The DE and ME contents of the 13 DLRSM samples were measured in growing pigs (six pigs per DLRSM sample, average initial body weight (BW) = 48.3 kg). The AID and SID of AA of 10 DLRSM samples were determined in 12 crossbred barrows (average initial BW = 35.3 kg) by using two 6 × 6 Latin square designs. Each Latin square comprised one N-free diet and 5 DLRSM test diets. The chemical composition of DLRSM varied among samples, and the coefficient of variation was greater than 10 % for ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), calcium (Ca), and total glucosinolates. The AA content of DLRSM varied among samples especially for lysine (Lys) and methionine (Met). On a dry matter (DM) basis, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of gross energy (GE), the DE and ME and the ME:DE ratio of DLRSM averaged 62.39 %, 2862 kcal/kg and 2723 kcal/kg, and 94.95 %, respectively. The mean value of SID of Lys was 70.52 % which varied from 66.54-76.54 %. The SID of crude protein (CP), Met, and threonine (Thr) averaged 72.81 %, 82.41 %, and 69.76 %, respectively. There was great variability in chemical composition especially in the concentration of EE, NDF and ADF, but no significant differences in energy content of the DLRSM samples were observed. In addition, the AID and SID of all AA were

  16. The influence of dietary carbohydrates on experimental infection with Trichuris suis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, L E; Petkevicius, S; Bach Knudsen, K E; Roepstorff, A

    2005-12-01

    Two experiments (Exps 1 and 2) were carried out to study the effect of dietary carbohydrates on the establishment of Trichuris suis in pigs. Two experimental diets based on barley flour were used; Diet 1 was supplemented with non-fermentable carbohydrates from oat hull meal, while Diet 2 was supplemented with fermentable carbohydrates from sugar beet fibre and inulin. In Exp. 1, thirty-two pigs were allocated randomly into 4 groups. Two groups were fed Diet 1 and 2 groups were fed Diet 2. Pigs from one of each diet group were inoculated with 2000 infective T. suis eggs each and the other two groups were uninfected controls. All pigs were slaughtered 8 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.). In Exp. 2, twenty-four pigs were allocated randomly into 2 groups and fed Diet 1 or Diet 2, respectively. All the pigs were inoculated with 2000 infective T. suis eggs. Six pigs from each group were slaughtered 8 weeks p.i. and the remaining 6 pigs from each group were slaughtered 12 weeks p.i. Infections were followed by faecal egg counts and worm burdens were assessed at necropsy. Pigs fed Diet 2 had lower egg counts in both experiments; in Exp. 2 the difference was significant (P<0.05). No differences were found in worm burdens 8 weeks p.i. in both experiments, however, worms from pigs on Diet 2 were significantly shorter (P<0.0001). Pigs fed Diet 2 and slaughtered 12 weeks p.i. had significantly lower worm counts (P<0.01) compared to pigs fed Diet 1. The results indicate that fermentable carbohydrates do not affect the establishment of T. suis in naïve pigs, but result in earlier expulsion and reduced growth of the established worms. Thus, diets with highly fermentable carbohydrates may be used in the control of T. suis.

  17. Changes in environmental temperature influence leptin responsiveness in low- and high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ruth B S; Mitchell, Tiffany D; Kelso, Emily W; Flatt, W P

    2007-07-01

    Loss of body fat in leptin-treated animals has been attributed to reduced energy intake, increased thermogenesis, and preferential fatty acid oxidation. Leptin does not decrease food intake or body fat in leptin-resistant high-fat (HF)-fed mice, possibly due to a failure of leptin to activate hypothalamic receptors. We measured energy expenditure of male C57BL/6 mice adapted to low-fat (LF) or HF diet and infused them for 13 days with PBS or 10 mug leptin/day from an intraperitoneal mini-osmotic pump to test whether leptin resistance prevented leptin-induced increases in energy expenditure and fatty acid oxidation. There was no effect of low-dose leptin infusions on either of these measures in LF-fed or HF-fed mice, even though LF-fed mice lost body fat. Experiment 2 tested leptin responsiveness in LF-fed and HF-fed mice housed at different temperatures (18 degrees C, 23 degrees C, 27 degrees C), assuming that the cold would increase and the hot environment would inhibit food intake and thermogenesis, which could potentially interfere with leptin action. LF-fed mice housed at 23 degrees C were the only mice that lost body fat during leptin infusion, suggesting that an ability to modify energy expenditure is essential to the maintenance of leptin responsiveness. HF-fed mice in cold or warm environments did not respond to leptin. HF-fed mice in the hot environment were fatter than other HF-fed mice, and, surprisingly, leptin caused a further increase in body fat, demonstrating that the mice were not totally leptin resistant and that partial leptin resistance in a hot environment favors positive energy balance and fat deposition.

  18. A Gnotobiotic Pig Model for Determining Human Norovirus Inactivation by High-Pressure Processing.

    PubMed

    Lou, Fangfei; Ye, Mu; Ma, Yuanmei; Li, Xinhui; DiCaprio, Erin; Chen, Haiqiang; Krakowka, Steven; Hughes, John; Kingsley, David; Li, Jianrong

    2015-10-01

    Human norovirus (NoV) is responsible for over 90% of outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and accounts for 60% of cases of foodborne illness in the United States. Currently, the infectivity of human NoVs is poorly understood due to the lack of a cell culture system. In this study, we determined the survival of a human NoV genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII.4) strain in seeded oyster homogenates after high-pressure processing (HPP) using a novel receptor binding assay and a gnotobiotic pig model. Pressure conditions of 350 MPa at 0°C for 2 min led to a 3.7-log10 reduction in the number of viral RNA copies in oysters, as measured by the porcine gastric mucin-conjugated magnetic bead (PGM-MB) binding assay and real-time RT-PCR, whereas pressure conditions of 350 MPa at 35°C for 2 min achieved only a 1-log10 reduction in the number of RNA copies. Newborn gnotobiotic piglets orally fed oyster homogenate treated at 350 MPa and 0°C for 2 min did not have viral RNA shedding in feces, histologic lesions, or viral replication in the small intestine. In contrast, gnotobiotic piglets fed oysters treated at 350 MPa and 35°C for 2 min had high levels of viral shedding in feces and exhibited significant histologic lesions and viral replication in the small intestine. Collectively, these data demonstrate that (i) human NoV survival estimated by an in vitro PGM-MB virus binding assay is consistent with the infectivity determined by an in vivo gnotobiotic piglet model and (ii) HPP is capable of inactivating a human NoV GII.4 strain at commercially acceptable pressure levels. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. A Gnotobiotic Pig Model for Determining Human Norovirus Inactivation by High-Pressure Processing

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Fangfei; Ye, Mu; Ma, Yuanmei; Li, Xinhui; DiCaprio, Erin; Chen, Haiqiang; Krakowka, Steven; Hughes, John; Kingsley, David

    2015-01-01

    Human norovirus (NoV) is responsible for over 90% of outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and accounts for 60% of cases of foodborne illness in the United States. Currently, the infectivity of human NoVs is poorly understood due to the lack of a cell culture system. In this study, we determined the survival of a human NoV genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII.4) strain in seeded oyster homogenates after high-pressure processing (HPP) using a novel receptor binding assay and a gnotobiotic pig model. Pressure conditions of 350 MPa at 0°C for 2 min led to a 3.7-log10 reduction in the number of viral RNA copies in oysters, as measured by the porcine gastric mucin-conjugated magnetic bead (PGM-MB) binding assay and real-time RT-PCR, whereas pressure conditions of 350 MPa at 35°C for 2 min achieved only a 1-log10 reduction in the number of RNA copies. Newborn gnotobiotic piglets orally fed oyster homogenate treated at 350 MPa and 0°C for 2 min did not have viral RNA shedding in feces, histologic lesions, or viral replication in the small intestine. In contrast, gnotobiotic piglets fed oysters treated at 350 MPa and 35°C for 2 min had high levels of viral shedding in feces and exhibited significant histologic lesions and viral replication in the small intestine. Collectively, these data demonstrate that (i) human NoV survival estimated by an in vitro PGM-MB virus binding assay is consistent with the infectivity determined by an in vivo gnotobiotic piglet model and (ii) HPP is capable of inactivating a human NoV GII.4 strain at commercially acceptable pressure levels. PMID:26187968

  20. Wheat-barley-rye- or corn-fed growing pigs respond differently to dietary supplementation with a carbohydrase complex.

    PubMed

    Willamil, J; Badiola, I; Devillard, E; Geraert, P A; Torrallardona, D

    2012-03-01

    Thirty-six pigs (22 kg of BW) were used to evaluate a carbohydrase preparation, with xylanase and β-glucanase as main activities, added to either wheat-barley-rye- (WBR) or corn-based diets on performance, intestinal environment, and nutrient digestibility. Pigs were offered 1 of 4 different dietary treatments for 27 d according to a factorial arrangement of treatments (a 2 × 2) with 2 cereal types (WBR or corn) and 2 levels of supplemental carbohydrase (0 or 0.01%). Pig growth and feed intake were individually measured every week until the end of the experiment when pigs were slaughtered to obtain samples of digesta and tissues. Cereal type affected performance only during wk 1, in which WBR improved ADG (590 vs. 440 g/d; P = 0.008) and G:F (0.61 vs. 0.43; P = 0.045) compared with corn. The WBR also increased the viscosity of the digestive contents in stomach (1.95 vs. 1.23 mPa·s; P = 0.001) and ileum (6.53 vs. 2.80 mPa·s; P = 0.001) and resulted in greater cecal starch digestibility (95.7 vs. 93.9%; P = 0.012). However, trends for a reduction in digestibility were observed for glucose in the nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) fraction in the ileum (64.4 vs. 75.8%; P = 0.074) and galactose in the NSP fraction in the cecum (1.4 vs. 1.8%; P = 0.055). The use of the enzyme preparation increased ADFI during wk 2 (1,328 vs. 1,215 g/d; P = 0.028), and increased villus height (423 vs. 390 µm; P = 0.045) and tended to reduce relative pancreas weight (0.16 vs. 0.17% BW; P = 0.079) at d 27. The enzyme also improved cecal starch digestibility (95.5 vs. 94.1%; P = 0.043) and tended to improve ileal energy digestibility (61.3 vs. 53.7%; P = 0.090) and cecal glucose digestibility in the NSP fraction (76.0 vs. 54.5%; P = 0.055). However, it reduced the cecal digestibility of mannose in the NSP fraction (27.0 vs. 50.5%; P = 0.016). Interactions (P < 0.05) between cereal type and enzyme supplementation were observed for ADG and G:F during wk 2, BW and ADG during wk 3, and BW and

  1. Effect of early antibiotic administration on cecal bacterial communities and their metabolic profiles in pigs fed diets with different protein levels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanjian; Yu, Miao; Yang, Yuxiang; Mu, Chunlong; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of early antibiotic administration (EAA) on cecal bacterial communities and their metabolic profiles in pigs fed diets with different protein levels. Eighteen litters (total 180) of piglets on day (d) 7 were fed either a commercial creep feed or commercial creep feed + antibiotic (Olaquindox, Oxytetracycline Calcium and Kitasamycin) until d 42. On d 42, pigs within each group were further randomly fed a normal crude protein (CP) diet (20% and 18% CP from d 42 to d 77 and d 77 to d 120, respectively) or a low-CP diet (16% and 14% CP from d 42 to d 77 and d 77 to d 120, respectively), generating 4 groups, control-low CP (Con-LP), control-normal CP (Con-NP), antibiotic-low CP (Ant-LP) and antibiotic-normal CP (Ant-NP), respectively. On d 77 and d 120, 5 pigs per group were slaughtered and cecal materials were collected for bacterial analysis. With cecal bacteria, principle component analysis (PCA) of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile showed two distinct groups of samples from low-CP diet and samples from normal-CP diet. Real-time PCR showed that EAA did not have significant effect on major bacterial groups, only showed significant interactions (P < 0.05) with CP level for Lactobacillus counts on d 77 and Clostridium cluster XIVa counts on d 120 with higher values in the Con-NP group compared to the Ant-NP groups. Low-CP diet increased (P < 0.05) short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) producing bacteria counts (Bacteroidetes on d 77 and d 120; Clostridium cluster IV and Clostridium cluster XIVa on d 77), but decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia coli counts on d 77 and d 120. For metabolites, EAA increased (P < 0.05) protein fermentation products (p-cresol, indole and skatole on d 77; ammonia, putrescine and spermidine on d 120), and showed significant interactions (P < 0.05) with CP level for p-cresol and skatole concentrations on d 77 and putrescine and spermidine concentrations on d 120 with higher values

  2. Effect of experimental methodology on fasting heat production and the net energy content of corn and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dewen; Jaworski, Neil William; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Zhongchao; Li, Defa; Wang, Fenglai

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the three experiments was to evaluated methods to predict fasting heat production (FHP) and to compare methods to determine the net energy (NE) of corn and soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. To estimate heat production (HP), pigs were housed in respiratory chambers for all experiments. In Experiment 1, six barrows (43.0 ± 1.4 kg body weight [BW]) were fed a Corn-SBM diet for 20 d. The experimental design consisted of following periods: 7 d adaptation, 5 d ad libitum feeding, 3 d feeding at 2 × metabolisable energy (ME) for maintenance (MEm), 3 d feeding at 1 × MEm and 2 d fasting. The FHP was calculated by extrapolating HP measured at the different feeding levels to zero ME intake. The daily FHP [per kg BW(0)(.6)] determined directly after fasting for 24 h and using the regression method was 774 kJ and 694 kJ, respectively. In Experiment 2, 18 barrows (34.3 ± 1.1 kg BW) were randomly allotted to three diets: Diet 1 contained 97.5% corn (direct NE determination of corn); diets 2 and 3 contained 25 % and 15% SBM at the expense of corn, respectively, and were used to calculate the NE of corn by difference. The NE of corn determined directly (13.21 MJ/kg DM) and by difference (13.69 MJ/kg DM) was not different. In Experiment 3, 24 barrows (36.2 ± 1.4 kg BW) were randomly allotted to four diets to determine the effects of different basal diets on the NE content of SBM. The diets were: Basal diet 1 (97.5% corn), Test diet 1 (15% SBM at the expense of corn), Basal diet 2 (contained 72.5% corn and 25% SBM) and Test diet 2 (58% corn and 39.5% SBM). These diets were used to determine the NE of SBM using the Corn-basal diet or the Corn-SBM-basal diet, respectively. It was shown that the estimated NE of SBM did not depend on the used diet (10.04 MJ/kg and 10.62 MJ/kg DM for Basal diet 1 and 2, respectively). In summary, using the regression method to determine FHP results in lower FHP than the fasting method. There was no difference observed in the NE of

  3. Use of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for the rapid determination of the digestible energy and metabolizable energy content of corn fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Juntao; Li, Quanfeng; Li, Defa; Chen, Yiqiang; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Wunjun; Zhang, Liying

    2016-01-01

    The ability of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) content of corn fed to growing pigs was tested. One hundred and seventeen corn samples, comprising different planting regions and varieties were collected from all over China in a three-year period. The samples were randomly split into a calibration set (n = 88) and a validation set (n = 29). The actual and calculated DE and ME content of the corn samples was determined by digestion-metabolism experiments and the prediction equations of Noblet and Perez (J Anim Sci. 71:3389-98,1993). The samples were then subjected to NIRS scanning and calibrations were performed by the modified partial least square (MPLS) regression method based on 77 different spectral pre-treatments. The NIRS equations based on the actually determined and calculated DE and ME were built separately and then validated using validation samples. The NIRS equations obtained from actually determined DE, the coefficient of determination for calibration (RSQcal), cross-validation (R(2) CV), and validation (RSQv) were 0.89, 0.87 and 0.86, and these values for determined ME were 0.87, 0.86 and 0.86. For the NIRS equations built from calculated DE, the RSQcal, R(2) CV, and RSQv values were 0.88, 0.85 and 0.84, and these values for calculated ME were 0.86, 0.84 and 0.82. Except for the equation based on calculated ME (RPDv = 2.38, < 2.50), the other three equations built from actually determined energy and calculated DE produced good prediction performance (RPDv ranging from 2.53 to 2.69, > 2.50) when applied to validation samples. These results indicate that NIRS can be used as a quantitative method for the rapid determination of the available energy in corn fed to growing pigs, and the NIRS equations based on the actually determined energy produced better predictive performance than those built from calculated energy values.

  4. Determination of additivity of apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in diets containing multiple protein sources fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Xue, P C; Ragland, D; Adeola, O

    2014-09-01

    An experiment was conducted in growing pigs to investigate the additivity of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) or standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in mixed diets containing multiple protein sources. Using the determined AID or SID for CP and AA in corn, soybean meal (SBM), corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), or canola meal (CM), the AID or SID for 4 mixed diets based on corn-SBM, corn-SBM-DDGS, corn-SBM-CM, or corn-SBM-DDGS-CM were predicted and compared with determined AID or SID, respectively. Eighteen growing pigs (initial BW = 61.3 ± 5.5 kg) were surgically fitted with T-cannulas and assigned to a duplicated 9 × 4 incomplete Latin square design with 9 diets and 4 periods. The 9 experimental diets consisted of a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) to estimate basal ileal endogenous loss (BEL) of AA, 4 semipurified diets to determine the AID and SID of CP and AA in the 4 ingredients, and 4 mixed diets to test the additivity of AID and SID. Chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker. Pigs were fed 1 of the 9 diets during each 7-d period, and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7, from 0800 to 1800 h. The analyzed AA levels for the mixed diets were close to the calculated values based on the AA composition of each ingredient. The results revealed that the predicted SID were consistent with determined values, except for Leu, Thr, Asp, Cys, Pro, and Ser in the corn-SBM diet and Met and Cys in the corn-SBM-DDGS diet. The determined AID for total AA and Arg, His, Trp, Gly, and Pro in the corn-SBM diet were greater (P < 0.05) than predicted. For the corn-SBM-DDGS diet, the determined AID were greater (P < 0.05) than predicted AID for CP, total AA, and all AA except for Arg, Leu, and Pro. In the corn-SBM-CM diet, the determined AID were greater (P < 0.05) than predicted AID for Arg, Cys, and Gly. When compared with determined values, predicted AID in the corn-SBM-DDGS-CM diet were lower (P < 0.05) for total AA and Arg, Met, Cys, and

  5. The innate immunity of guinea pigs against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Xu, Wei Wei; Zhang, Zhaowei; Liu, Jing; Li, Jing; Sun, Lijuan; Sun, Weiyang; Jiao, Peirong; Sang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Zhiguang; Yu, Zhijun; Li, Yuanguo; Feng, Na; Wang, Tiecheng; Wang, Hualei; Yang, Songtao; Zhao, Yongkun; Zhang, Xuemei; Wilker, Peter R; Liu, WenJun; Liao, Ming; Chen, Hualan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2017-05-02

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses are a major pandemic concern. In contrast to the highly virulent phenotype of H5N1 in humans and many animal models, guinea pigs do not typically display signs of severe disease in response to H5N1 virus infection. Here, proteomic and transcriptional profiling were applied to identify host factors that account for the observed attenuation of A/Tiger/Harbin/01/2002 (H5N1) virulence in guinea pigs. RIG-I and numerous interferon stimulated genes were among host proteins with altered expression in guinea pig lungs during H5N1 infection. Overexpression of RIG-I or the RIG-I adaptor protein MAVS in guinea pig cell lines inhibited H5N1 replication. Endogenous GBP-1 expression was required for RIG-I mediated inhibition of viral replication upstream of the activity of MAVS. Furthermore, we show that guinea pig complement is involved in viral clearance, the regulation of inflammation, and cellular apoptosis during influenza virus infection of guinea pigs. This work uncovers features of the guinea pig innate immune response to influenza that may render guinea pigs resistant to highly pathogenic influenza viruses.

  6. The innate immunity of guinea pigs against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; wei Xu, Wei; Zhang, Zhaowei; liu, Jing; Li, Jing; Sun, Lijuan; Sun, Weiyang; Jiao, Peirong; Sang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Zhiguang; Yu, Zhijun; Li, Yuanguo; Feng, Na; Wang, Tiecheng; Wang, Hualei; Yang, Songtao; Zhao, Yongkun; Zhang, Xuemei; Wilker, Peter R.; Liu, WenJun; Liao, Ming; Chen, Hualan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2017-01-01

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses are a major pandemic concern. In contrast to the highly virulent phenotype of H5N1 in humans and many animal models, guinea pigs do not typically display signs of severe disease in response to H5N1 virus infection. Here, proteomic and transcriptional profiling were applied to identify host factors that account for the observed attenuation of A/Tiger/Harbin/01/2002 (H5N1) virulence in guinea pigs. RIG-I and numerous interferon stimulated genes were among host proteins with altered expression in guinea pig lungs during H5N1 infection. Overexpression of RIG-I or the RIG-I adaptor protein MAVS in guinea pig cell lines inhibited H5N1 replication. Endogenous GBP-1 expression was required for RIG-I mediated inhibition of viral replication upstream of the activity of MAVS. Furthermore, we show that guinea pig complement is involved in viral clearance, the regulation of inflammation, and cellular apoptosis during influenza virus infection of guinea pigs. This work uncovers features of the guinea pig innate immune response to influenza that may render guinea pigs resistant to highly pathogenic influenza viruses. PMID:28418930

  7. Effects of diet form and type on growth performance, carcass yield, and iodine value of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C

    2015-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of pelleting, diet type (fat and fiber level), and withdrawal of dietary fiber and fat before marketing on growth performance, carcass yield, and carcass fat iodine value (IV) of finishing pigs. Each experiment used 288 pigs (initially 49.6 and 48.5 kg BW, respectively) with 6 dietary treatments arranged as 2 × 3 factorials. In Exp. 1, main effects were diet form (meal vs. pellet) and diet regimen. Diet regimens were 1) a low-fiber, low-fat (corn-soybean meal) diet from d 0 to 81, 2) a high-fiber, high-fat (30% dried distillers grains with solubles [DDGS] and 19% wheat middlings [midds]) diet from d 0 to 64 followed by the low-fiber, low-fat diet from d 64 to 81 (fiber and fat withdrawal), and 3) the high-fiber, high-fat diet fed from d 0 to 81. Pigs fed pelleted diets had increased ( < 0.05) ADG and G:F compared with those fed meal diets. Pigs fed pelleted diets had increased belly fat IV (2.9 mg/g) compared with those fed meal diets, with a greater increase when fed high-fiber, high-fat diets throughout the entire study (interaction, < 0.05). Pigs fed the low-fiber, low-fat diet throughout had increased ( < 0.001) G:F compared with pigs fed the other 2 treatments. Pigs fed low-fiber, low-fat diets throughout the study or pigs withdrawn from high-fiber, high-fat diets had increased ( < 0.001) carcass yield compared with pigs fed high-fiber, high-fat diets throughout. In Exp. 2, treatment main effects were diet form (meal vs. pellet) and diet type (corn-soybean meal-based control, the control with 30% DDGS and 19% midds, or the control diet with 3% corn oil). The diet containing corn oil was calculated to produce carcass fat IV similar to diets containing DDGS and midds. Overall, pigs fed pelleted diets had increased ( < 0.05) ADG, G:F, and belly fat IV (1.3 mg/g) compared with those fed meal diets. Pigs fed the diets containing DDGS and midds had decreased ( < 0.05) ADG, carcass yield, and HCW compared with

  8. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic pigs in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-12-01

    Pigs are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in North America. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 525 domestic pigs (337 backyard raised, 188 farm raised) in Oaxaca State, Mexico was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cutoff 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 58 (17.2%) of the 337 backyard pigs with MAT titers of 1:25 in 10, 1:50 in 12, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 6, 1:400 in 6, 1:800 in 3, and 1:1,600 in 3. Seropositive pigs were found in 39 (37.9%) of 103 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in backyard pigs varied with age, gender, geographic region, climate, and altitude. High seroprevalence was found in pigs ≥ 9-mo-old (40%), in females (40%), in pigs from the Istmo region (33.3%), and in those raised in a tropical climate (65%). Seroprevalence was higher (24.5%) in pigs raised at 100-660 m above sea level than in those at 20-60 m of altitude (14.2%). With respect to farm pigs, only 1 (0.5%, MAT titer 1:100) of 188 pigs from 5 farms was positive for anti- T. gondii antibodies. The results affirm that the management system (outdoor vs. indoor system with biosecurity) is a key factor in the epidemiology of porcine toxoplasmosis. Because there is no national system of determining the T. gondii infection status at the time of slaughter, precautions should be taken while handling pig carcasses, and all pork should be cooked thoroughly before human consumption.

  9. A 90-day subchronic study of rats fed lean pork from genetically modified pigs with muscle-specific expression of recombinant follistatin.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shiying; Tang, Min; He, Xiaoyun; Cao, Yuan; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Wentao; Liang, Zhihong; Huang, Kunlun

    2015-11-01

    Because cardiovascular disease incidence has rapidly increased in recent years, people are choosing relatively healthier diets with low animal fat. A transgenic pig with low fat and a high percentage of lean meat was created in 2011; this pig overexpresses the follistatin (FST) gene. To evaluate the safety of lean pork derived from genetically modified (GM) pigs, a subchronic oral toxicity study was conducted using Sprague-Dawley rats. GM pork and non-GM pork were incorporated into the diet at levels of 3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% (w/w), and the main nutrients of the various diets were subsequently balanced. The safety of GM pork was assessed by comparison of the toxicology response variables in Sprague-Dawley rats consuming diets containing GM pork with those consuming non-GM pork. No treatment-related adverse or toxic effects were observed based on an examination of the daily clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, and organ weight or based on gross and histopathological examination. The results demonstrate that GM pork is as safe for consumption as conventional pork. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ammonia, volatile fatty acids, phenolics, and odor offensiveness in manure from growing pigs fed diets reduced in protein concentration.

    PubMed

    Otto, E R; Yokoyama, M; Hengemuehle, S; von Bermuth, R D; van Kempen, T; Trottier, N L

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether reducing dietary CP concentration decreases fecal VFA, manure ammonia (NH3) emission and odor, and urinary phenolic metabolites. Six barrows were allotted to one of six dietary treatments in a Latin square design. Treatments consisted of four corn-soybean meal based diets containing 15, 12, 9, and 6% CP, a casein-based diet containing 15% CP, and a protein-free diet (0% protein). Crystalline AA were included in the 12, 9, and 6% CP diets. The casein-based and protein-free diets were used to determine basal endogenous contribution of VFA, phenolics, NH3, and manure odor. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism cages to allow total collection of feces and urine. Feces and urine were collected and pooled within pig and period. Feces and urine were analyzed for VFA and phenolic metabolite concentrations, respectively. Feces and urine were then mixed, stored, and fermented at room temperature for 30 d. For NH3 determination, headspace air was sampled from manure slurries at 24, 48, and 72 h after fermentation. Slurry samples were placed into vials, capped, and randomized before odor panel evaluation. Odor offensiveness was classified on severity: 1 = non-offensive; 2 = mildly offensive; 3 = moderately offensive; 4 = strongly offensive; and 5 = extremely offensive. Reducing dietary CP increased (P < 0.05) fecal VFA concentrations but did not affect phenolic concentrations in urine. Manure NH3 emission was reduced (P < 0.05) as dietary CP concentration decreased from 15 to 0%. The 15% diet had the least offensive manure slurry with odor qualitative ranking of 2.58 (i.e., mild-moderately offensive). Compared with the 15% CP diet, manure from the 9 and 6% CP diets was found to be more offensive (P < 0.05), with qualitative rankings of 2.92 and 3.10, respectively. Odor qualitative rank for the 12% CP, protein-free diet, and casein-based diet did not differ from that of the 15% CP diet. These results indicate that

  11. Mice Chronically Fed High-Fat Diet Have Increased Mortality and Disturbed Immune Response in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Strandberg, Louise; Verdrengh, Margareta; Enge, Maria; Andersson, Niklas; Amu, Sylvie; Önnheim, Karin; Benrick, Anna; Brisslert, Mikael; Bylund, Johan; Bokarewa, Maria; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov

    2009-01-01

    Background Sepsis is a potentially deadly disease that often is caused by gram-positive bacteria, in particular Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). As there are few effective therapies for sepsis, increased basic knowledge about factors predisposing is needed. Methodology/Principal Findings The purpose of this study was to study the effect of Western diet on mortality induced by intravenous S. aureus inoculation and the immune functions before and after bacterial inoculation. Here we show that C57Bl/6 mice on high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks, like genetically obese Ob/Ob mice on low-fat diet (LFD), have increased mortality during S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with LFD-fed C57Bl/6 controls. Bacterial load in the kidneys 5–7 days after inoculation was increased 10-fold in HFD-fed compared with LFD-fed mice. At that time, HFD-fed mice had increased serum levels and fat mRNA expression of the immune suppressing cytokines interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-10 compared with LFD-fed mice. In addition, HFD-fed mice had increased serum levels of the pro-inflammatory IL-1β. Also, HFD-fed mice with and without infection had increased levels of macrophages in fat. The proportion and function of phagocytosing granulocytes, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by peritoneal lavage cells were decreased in HFD-fed compared with LFD-fed mice. Conclusions Our findings imply that chronic HFD disturb several innate immune functions in mice, and impairs the ability to clear S. aureus and survive sepsis. PMID:19865485

  12. Natural killer cell populations and cytotoxic activity in pigs fed mother's milk, formula, or formula supplemented with bovine lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kilia Y; Comstock, Sarah S; Shunk, Jill M; Monaco, Marcia H; Donovan, Sharon M

    2013-10-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are components of the innate immune defense system, and their levels differ between breast and formula-fed (FF) infants. Lactoferrin (Lf) modulates NK cell cytotoxicity ex vivo. We hypothesized that dietary bovine Lf (bLf) would increase NK cell populations and cytotoxicity. Piglets were sow-reared (SR), FF, or 1 g/l bLf-fed (LF) for 21 d. NK cells (CD3(-)CD4(-)CD8(+)) in blood (peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)), spleen, and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) were determined by flow cytometry. PBMC NK cells were tested for cytotoxic activity against target K562 cells ex vivo in the presence of media (unstimulated), interleukin-2, or bLf. NK cell mRNA expression was determined by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. SR and LF piglets had more NK cells in MLN (P = 0.0097) and spleen (P = 0.0980) than FF piglets. In PBMCs, SR piglets had more NK cells than FF piglets (P = 0.0072); LF piglets were intermediate and not different from FF or SR piglets. NK cell intelectin-2 mRNA expression was 2.5-fold higher (P = 0.0095) in LF than SR or FF piglets. NK cells in SR piglets exhibited greater (P < 0.0001) cytotoxic activity than those in LF or FF piglets, which was supported by greater perforin mRNA expression. Dietary bLf increased blood NK cell populations and NK Lf receptor expression but not NK cell cytotoxicity.

  13. Pectin isolated from prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) modifies low density lipoprotein metabolism in cholesterol-fed guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M L; Trejo, A; McNamara, D J

    1990-11-01

    The effect of prickly pear soluble fiber on low density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism was investigated by feeding male guinea pigs either a nonpurified diet containing 0.25% cholesterol (HC diet) or the HC diet + 1% prickly pear pectin (HC-P diet). Plasma cholesterol levels were significantly decreased by the HC-P diet, with a 33% decrease in LDL levels (p less than 0.02) and an increase in LDL density. Hepatic free and esterified cholesterol levels were reduced 40 and 85%, respectively (p less than 0.002), by the HC-P diet. Hepatic microsomal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase levels were not different. 125I-LDL binding to hepatic membranes was increased 1.7-fold by the HC-P diet (p less than 0.001), with receptor affinity (Kd) being unaltered and receptor number (Bmax) being significantly increased (p less than 0.001). These data suggest that prickly pear pectin may act by a mechanism similar to that of bile acid-binding resins in lowering plasma cholesterol levels. The observed reduction in LDL and hepatic cholesterol levels and increase in LDL density and hepatic apolipoprotein B/E receptors are responses suggesting an increased demand on hepatic cholesterol from increased excretion of bile acids and interruption of the enterohepatic circulation.

  14. Serum and tissue thiocyanate concentrations in growing pigs fed cassava peel or corn based diets containing graded protein levels.

    PubMed

    Tewe, O O

    1984-11-01

    Thiocyanate concentrations of serum, liver, kidney, spleen and longissimus dorsi were determined in 64 growing Large White x Landrace pigs offered 8 experimental isocaloric diets containing different levels of cassava peel and crude protein. Cassava peel increased serum thiocyanate on day 60 (P less than 0.01) and day 90 (P less than 0.01) of the trial, while the crude protein level increased it (P less than 0.05) on days 30 and 90, respectively. Interaction of the two factors was significant on day 30 (P less than 0.05) and day 90 (P less than 0.05). There was a correlation between cyanide intake and serum thiocyanate level. Coefficient of determination revealed that cyanide alone accounted for 28.5; 60.6 and 48.8% variation in serum thiocyanate on days 30, 60 and 90, respectively. Liver, spleen and longissimus dorsi thiocyanate were affected by dietary protein intake (P less than 0.05). Thiocyanate concentration was higher (P less than 0.05) on cassava peel diet. Generally, crude protein at 5% reduced organ and muscle thiocyanate concentrations. A diet containing 112.2-117.3 mg/kg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) affected serum but not organ and muscle thiocyanate in protein-sufficient diets.

  15. Early- and traditionally weaned nursery pigs benefit from phase-feeding pharmacological concentrations of zinc oxide: effect on metallothionein and mineral concentrations.

    PubMed

    Carlson, M S; Hill, G M; Link, J E

    1999-05-01

    Benefits of feeding pharmacological concentrations of zinc (Zn) provided by Zn oxide (ZnO) to 21-d conventionally weaned pigs in the nursery have been documented; however, several management questions remain. We conducted two experiments to evaluate the effect on growth from feeding 3,000 ppm Zn as ZnO during different weeks of the nursery period. In Exp. 1 (n = 138, 11.5 d of age, 3.8 kg BW) and Exp. 2 (n = 246, 24.5 d of age, 7.2 kg BW), pigs were fed either basal diets containing 100 ppm supplemental Zn (adequate) or the same diet with an additional 3,000 ppm Zn (high) supplied as ZnO. Pigs were fed four or two dietary phases in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, that changed in dietary ingredients and nutrient content (lysine and crude protein) to meet the changing physiological needs of the pigs for the 28-d nursery period. Dietary Zn treatments were 1) adequate Zn fed wk 1 to 4, 2) high Zn fed wk 1, 3) high Zn fed wk 2, 4) high Zn fed wk 1 and 2, 5) high Zn fed wk 2 and 3, and 6) high Zn fed wk 1 to 4. In Exp. 1 and 2, pigs fed high Zn for wk 1 and 2 or the entire 28-d nursery period had the greatest (P < .05) ADG. During any week, pigs fed high Zn had greater concentrations of hepatic metallothionein and Zn in plasma, liver, and kidney than those pigs fed adequate Zn (P < .05). In summary, both early- and traditionally weaned pigs need to be fed pharmacological concentrations of Zn provided as ZnO for a minimum of 2 wk immediately after weaning to enhance growth.

  16. Effects of a 6-phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of minerals and amino acids in ileorectal anastomosed pigs fed on a corn-soybean meal-barley diet.

    PubMed

    Guggenbuhl, P; Waché, Y; Simoes Nunes, C; Fru, F

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus of plant-based feedstuffs for monogastric animals is mainly in the form of phytic P, which has a very low bioavailability. The nondigested phytic P may contribute to P pollution. Furthermore, phytic acid may reduce digestibility of other minerals and protein. This study evaluated effects of the microbial 6-phytase RONOZYME HiPhos on apparent ileal digestibility of P, phytic acid, Ca, CP, energy, and AA in six 60-d-old ileorectal anastomosed pigs. In a duplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, pigs had free access to alternatively a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-barley (Hordeum vulgare)-based diet or this diet supplemented with RONOZYME HiPhos at either 500 units/kg (RH500) or 1000 units/kg (RH1000). Pigs fed diets supplemented with RH500 or RH1000 increased (P < 0.05) digestibility of P, Ca, and Lys. Pigs fed diet RH1000 increased (P < 0.05) digestibility of CP, total AA, indispensable AA, Glu + Gln, His, Gly, Ala, Tyr, Leu, Phe, and Met. Similar to growth trials with increased total tract digestibility of P and Ca, phytase increased apparent ileal digestibility of these indispensable minerals and phytate. The phytase increased digestibility of CP and indispensable AA indicating a better availability of plant-based proteins.

  17. Net energy content of dry extruded-expelled soybean meal fed with or without enzyme supplementation to growing pigs as determined by indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Velayudhan, D E; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2015-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the NE content of dry extruded-expelled soybean (DESBM) and the effect of a multienzyme carbohydrase (MC) mixture on the NE content of DESBM and to determine the effect of diet design on NE values in growing pigs using indirect calorimetry (IC). In Exp. 1, 24 barrows (19.6 ± 0.51 kg BW) were allotted in a completely randomized design to 4 dietary treatments: a corn–soybean meal basal diet (Diet A), a diet containing Diet A and DESBM in an 80:20 ratio with a constant CP (Diet B), a diet with an 80:20 ratio of Diet A and DESBM with a constant corn:soybean meal ratio (Diet C), and a diet with simple substitution of Diet A with DESBM in an 80:20 ratio (Diet D). Pigs were fed in metabolism crates for a period of 16 d to determine the DE and ME and thereafter were moved into an indirect calorimeter where O2 consumption and CO2 production were measured to determine heat production and fasting heat production. The NE content of DESBM was calculated (difference method) to be 2,632, 2,548 and 2,540 kcal/kg DM in diets B, C, and D, respectively. Respective values obtained with published prediction equations were 2,624, 2,530 and 2,436 kcal/kg. In Exp. 2, 24 barrows (16.9 ± 0.76 kg BW) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments. The diets were a corn–soybean meal basal diet and a diet containing the basal diet and DESBM in an 80:20 ratio with a constant corn:soybean meal ratio with or without 2 levels (0.05% and 0.1%) of MC. The experimental procedures were similar to those described in Exp. 1. Enzyme supplementation improved (P < 0.0001) the DE, ME, and NE content of the DESBM. Multienzyme carbohydrase at 0.05% and 0.1% of the diet improved NE values of DESBM by 4.9% and 3.7%, respectively. In conclusion, the NE values of DESBM obtained with the IC method were higher than the values obtained with prediction equations; the disparity was least when diets were formulated with a constant CP level. However, as the difference

  18. Digestibility of energy and detergent fiber and digestible and metabolizable energy values in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maison, T; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2015-02-01

    There are limited data on the DE and ME values and the digestibility of fiber in canola meal, rapeseed meal, and rapeseed expellers fed to pigs. This experiment was conducted to measure the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, ADF, and NDF and to calculate DE and ME values in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs. Twenty-three barrows (initial BW: 27.7 ± 2.92 kg) were allotted to an 8 × 23 Youden square design with 8 periods and 23 animals. Twenty-three diets were prepared: a corn basal diet and 22 diets based on corn and 1 of 22 test ingredients. The test ingredients were 6 canola meals from solvent-extraction crushing plants in North America, eleven 00-rapeseed meals from solvent-extraction crushing plants in Europe, and five 00-rapeseed expellers from mechanical-press crushing plants in Europe. Pigs were placed in metabolism cages that allowed for the total, but separate, collection of feces and urine. The DE and ME values were calculated for each source of canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers using the difference procedure. The ATTD of GE and the DE and ME values in canola meal were not different from the values in 00-rapeseed meal, but 00-rapeseed expellers had greater ( < 0.01) ATTD of GE and DE and ME values than 00-rapeseed meal. Average DE and ME values were 3,378 and 3,127 kcal/kg DM in canola meal, 3,461 and 3,168 kcal/kg DM in 00-rapeseed, and 4,005 and 3,691 kcal/kg DM in 00-rapeseed expellers. The ATTD of ADF was 12.3% greater ( < 0.01) in 00-rapeseed meal than in canola meal, but no differences were observed in ATTD of NDF between canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal. No differences were observed in ATTD of ADF and NDF between 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers. The models for predicting the DE and ME values of canola and rapeseed products were DE = -1,583 + 6.64 × ash + 7.01 × ADF - 33.17 × NDF + 98.66 × ADL + 1.07 × GE ( = 0.94) and ME = -630.8 + 14.13 × ash + 5

  19. Nutritional value of dried fermentation biomass, hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products, and fish meal fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Sulabo, R C; Mathai, J K; Usry, J L; Ratliff, B W; McKilligan, D M; Moline, J D; Xu, G; Stein, H H

    2013-06-01

    Dried fermentation biomass (DFB) and hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa are co-products of L-Lys • HCl production and heparin extraction, respectively. Three experiments were conducted to determine standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA (Exp. 1), concentration of DE and ME (Exp. 2), and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P (Exp. 3) in DFB and 2 hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa products (PEP50 and PEP2+), and compare these values with values for fish meal. In Exp. 1, 12 ileal cannulated barrows (BW = 11.5 ± 1.1 kg) were allotted to a replicated 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods. A N-free diet, diet based on soybean meal (SBM), and 4 diets based on a combination of SBM and DFB, PEP50, PEP2+, or fish meal were formulated. With the exception of Lys, there were no differences in SID of indispensable AA between DFB and fish meal. Except for Thr, no differences in SID of indispensable AA between PEP50 and fish meal were observed, but SID of all indispensable AA, except Lys and Trp, was less (P < 0.05) in PEP2+ than in the other ingredients. In Exp. 2, 40 barrows (BW = 12.8 ± 1.4 kg) were allotted to 5 diets with 8 pigs/diet. A basal diet containing 96.4% corn and 4 diets containing corn and DFB, PEP50, PEP2+, or fish meal were formulated. The DE (5,445 kcal/kg DM) and ME (5,236 kcal/kg DM) in DFB were greater (P < 0.01) than in PEP50 (4,758 and 4,512 kcal/kg DM for DE and ME, respectively) and fish meal (4,227 and 3,960 kcal/kg DM for DE and ME, respectively). Also, DE in DFB was greater (P < 0.01) than in PEP2+ (4,935 kcal/kg DM), but ME in DFB was not different from that in PEP2+ (4,617 kcal/kg DM). Furthermore, DE in PEP50 and PEP2+ were greater (P < 0.01) than in fish meal, but ME did not differ from that in fish meal. In Exp. 3, 40 barrows (BW = 12.4 ± 1.3 kg) were randomly allotted to 5 diets with 8 pigs/diet. A P-free diet and 4 diets in which the sole source of P was from DFB, PEP50, PEP2+, or fish meal were

  20. Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in copra meal, palm kernel expellers, palm kernel meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Almaguer, B L; Sulabo, R C; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2014-06-01

    digestibility of CM, PKM, PKE-CR, PKE-IN, and SBM when fed to growing pigs, and the concentration of phytate P affects the response to microbial phytase.

  1. High-level vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium related to humans and pigs found in dust from pig breeding facilities.

    PubMed

    Braga, Teresa M; Pomba, Constança; Lopes, M Fátima Silva

    2013-01-25

    Environmental dust from animal breeding facilities was never screened for the presence of enterococci, nor of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), despite the possibility of being a vehicle of transmission of strains and antibiotic resistance genes between food-producing animals and man. Bio-security measures in pig facilities include disinfection with biocides to avoid the dissemination of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, namely enterococci and in particular VRE. We thus undertook collection of enterococci and VRE in a representative number of breeding pig facilities in Portugal (n=171) and analyzed their susceptibility to benzalkonium chloride (BC) and chlorhexidine (CHX). A prevalence of 15% of VRE was found, with 6% high-level resistance found, and MIC values for CHX and BC were similar to those commonly found among enterococcal isolates from related environments, 8 μg/ml and 4 μg/ml, respectively. Among the isolated high-level vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium carrying the vanA genotype, we found multilocus sequence types closely related to pig and human isolates from European countries and Brazil. These results strongly advise constant surveillance of this environment and its inclusion in future epidemiologic studies on VRE.

  2. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  3. Effects of Resistant Starch and Arabinoxylan on Parameters Related to Large Intestinal and Metabolic Health in Pigs Fed Fat-Rich Diets.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Theil, Peter Kappel; Purup, Stig; Nørskov, Natalja P; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2015-12-09

    This study compared the effects of a resistant starch (RS)-rich, arabinoxylan (AX)-rich, or low-DF Western-style control diet (all high-fat) on large intestinal gene expression, adiposity, and glycemic response parameters in pigs. Animals were slaughtered after 3 weeks of treatment. Plasma butyrate concentration was higher following the high-DF diets, whereas plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance increased after 3 weeks irrespective of diet. The mRNA abundance in the large intestine of genes involved in nutrient transport, immune response, and intestinal permeability was affected by segment (cecum, proximal, mid or distal colon) and some genes also by diet. In contrast, there was no diet-induced effect on adipose mRNA abundance or adipocyte size. Overall, a high level of RS or AX did not demonstrate strong beneficial effects on large intestinal gene expression as indicators of colonic health or glycemic response parameters when included in a high-fat diet for pigs as a model of healthy humans.

  4. Effect of magnesium deficiency on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high carbohydrate diet.

    PubMed

    Rayssiguier, Y; Gueux, E; Weiser, D

    1981-11-01

    The effects of acute magnesium deficiency on lipid metabolism were examined in weaning rats fed a high carbohydrate diet containing starch or sucrose for 8 days. Rats were killed after the feeding period. In plasma, magnesium deficiency increased triglyceride and free cholesterol levels and decreased esterified cholesterol levels. Rats fed a magnesium-deficient diet containing sucrose showed particularly high triglyceride plasma levels. In liver, magnesium-deficient rats fed sucrose showed a significant increase in triglycerides, lactate and alpha-glycerophosphate and a significant decrease in glycogen. Changes in triglycerides and glycogen in the liver of magnesium-deficient rats fed starch were not significant. In sucrose-fed rats, serum lipoproteins were isolated by ultracentrifugation. With magnesium deficiency, triglycerides were significantly increased in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions and cholesterol levels were increased in the VLDL and LDL and significantly lower in the high density lipoprotein (HDL) fractions. The detrimental effect of severe magnesium deficiency associated particularly with a high carbohydrate diet content and more especially with a sucrose diet is discussed.

  5. Dietary trimethylamine N-oxide exacerbates impaired glucose tolerance in mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Liu, Xiaofang; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Xue, Yong; Wang, Yuming

    2014-10-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is an oxidation product of trimethylamine (TMA) and is present in many aquatic foods. Here, we investigated the effects of TMAO on glucose tolerance in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the control, high fat (HF), and TMAO groups. The HF group was fed a diet containing 25% fat, and the TMAO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO for 4 weeks. After 3 weeks of feeding, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Dietary TMAO increased fasting insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and exacerbated the impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. These effects were associated with the expression of genes related to the insulin signal pathway, glycogen synthesis, gluconeogenesis and glucose transport in liver. mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine MCP-1 increased significantly and of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 greatly decreased in adipose tissue. Our results suggest that dietary TMAO exacerbates impaired glucose tolerance, obstructs the hepatic insulin signaling pathway, and causes adipose tissue inflammation in mice fed a high fat diet.

  6. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy from corn oil) ad libitum (ad l...

  7. Decreased reproductive rates in sheep fed a high selenium diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High Se-containing forages grow on seleniferous soils in many parts of the United States and throughout the world. Selenium is an essential trace element that is required for many physiological processes but can also be either acutely or chronically toxic to livestock. Anecdotal reports of decrease...

  8. Territoriality of feral pigs in a highly persecuted population on Fort Benning, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparklin, B.D.; Mitchell, M.S.; Hanson, L.B.; Jolley, D.B.; Ditchkoff, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    We examined home range behavior of female feral pigs (Sus scrofa) in a heavily hunted population on Fort Benning Military Reservation in west-central Georgia, USA. We used Global Positioning System location data from 24 individuals representing 18 sounders (i.e., F social groups) combined with markrecapture and camera-trap data to evaluate evidence of territorial behavior at the individual and sounder levels. Through a manipulative experiment, we examined evidence for an inverse relationship between population density and home range size that would be expected for territorial animals. Pigs from the same sounder had extensive home range overlap and did not have exclusive core areas. Sounders had nearly exclusive home ranges and had completely exclusive core areas, suggesting that female feral pigs on Fort Benning were territorial at the sounder level but not at the individual level. Lethal removal maintained stable densities of pigs in our treatment area, whereas density increased in our control area; territory size in the 2 areas was weakly and inversely related to density of pigs. Territorial behavior in feral pigs could influence population density by limiting access to reproductive space. Removal strategies that 1) match distribution of removal efforts to distribution of territories, 2) remove entire sounders instead of individuals, and 3) focus efforts where high-quality food resources strongly influence territorial behaviors may be best for long-term control of feral pigs.

  9. Variations in the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of triticale fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Strang, E J P; Eklund, M; Rosenfelder, P; Htoo, J K; Mosenthin, R

    2017-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine the chemical composition, physical characteristics, and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA of 8 currently available genotypes of triticale fed to growing pigs. The genotypes included Grenado, Cando, Agostino, Massimo, Tarzan, HYT Prime, SW Talentro, and Cultivo. Eight barrows with an initial BW of 31 ± 2 kg were fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and allotted to an 8 × 8 Latin square design with 8 periods of 7 d each and 8 assay diets. The N-free method was used to determine basal ileal endogenous CP and AA losses. The 8 assay diets contained 1 of 8 triticale genotypes as the sole source of CP and AA. The triticale genotypes were grown under identical environmental conditions on the same site. Among the 8 genotypes, contents of CP ranged from 104.7 to 118.1 g/kg (as-fed basis). The content of total nonstarch polysaccharides and NDF ranged, on an as-fed basis, from 84.6 to 99.5 g/kg and from 88.4 to 149.0 g/kg, respectively. Among the 8 genotypes, SID of CP ranged from 81% in Grenado to 85% in Massimo and Tarzan. The SID of CP and AA did not differ among triticale genotypes except for SID of Arg, Glu, and Gly ( < 0.05). The mean SID of CP, Lys, Met, and Trp was 4, 4, 4, and 1 percantage units less and SID of Trp was 5 percantage units greater compared with values in current feed tables. Among the 8 triticale genotypes, standardized ileal digestible content (cSID) of CP followed total CP content and ranged from 84.8 to 98.7 g/kg (as-fed basis), with the lowest ( < 0.001) values for Grenado and the greatest ( < 0.001) values for SW Talentro and Cultivo. For CP and most AA, cSID linearly decreased as the content of total, soluble, and insoluble β-glucans increased ( < 0.05) in the 8 genotypes of triticale. There was a positive correlation between thousand seed weight and cSID of CP and most AA ( < 0.01). These variables may help to predict cSID in triticale batches, whereas other nutrients are not

  10. Blueberry intervention improves vascular reactivity and lowers blood pressure in high-fat-, high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Ishisaka, Akari; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Vidal-Diez, Alberto; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Terao, Junji

    2013-05-28

    Growing evidence suggests that intake of flavonoid-containing foods may exert cardiovascular benefits in human subjects. We have investigated the effects of a 10-week blueberry (BB) supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and vascular reactivity in rats fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, known to induce endothelial dysfunction. Rats were randomly assigned to follow a control chow diet, a chow diet supplemented with 2 % (w/w) BB, a high-fat diet (10 % lard; 0·5 % cholesterol) or the high fat plus BB for 10 weeks. Rats supplemented with BB showed significant reductions in systolic BP (SBP) of 11 and 14 %, at weeks 8 and 10, respectively, relative to rats fed the control chow diet (week 8 SBP: 107·5 (SEM 4·7) v. 122·2 (SEM 2·1) mmHg, P= 0·018; week 10 SBP: 115·0 (SEM 3·1) v. 132·7 (SEM 1·5) mmHg, P< 0·0001). Furthermore, SBP was reduced by 14 % in rats fed with the high fat plus 2 % BB diet at week 10, compared to those on the high-fat diet only (SBP: 118·2 (SEM 3·6) v. 139·5 (SEM 4·5) mmHg, P< 0·0001). Aortas harvested from BB-fed animals exhibited significantly reduced contractile responses (to L-phenylephrine) compared to those fed the control chow or high-fat diets. Furthermore, in rats fed with high fat supplemented with BB, aorta relaxation was significantly greater in response to acetylcholine compared to animals fed with the fat diet. These data suggest that BB consumption can lower BP and improve endothelial dysfunction induced by a high fat, high cholesterol containing diet.

  11. Virgin coconut oil maintains redox status and improves glycemic conditions in high fructose fed rats.

    PubMed

    Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Mukesh, Reshma K; Ayoob, Shabna K; Ramavarma, Smitha K; Suseela, Indu M; Manalil, Jeksy J; Kuzhivelil, Balu T; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2016-01-01

    Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO), extracted from fresh coconut kernel possess similar fatty acid composition to that of Copra Oil (CO), a product of dried kernel. Although CO forms the predominant dietary constituent in south India, VCO is being promoted for healthy life due to its constituent antioxidant molecules. High fructose containing CO is an established model for insulin resistance and steatohepatitis in rodents. In this study, replacement of CO with VCO in high fructose diet markedly improved the glucose metabolism and dyslipidemia. The animals fed VCO diet had only 17 % increase in blood glucose level compared to CO fed animals (46 %). Increased level of GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities in VCO fed rats indicate improved hepatic redox status. Reduced lipid peroxidation and carbonyl adducts in VCO fed rats well corroborate with the histopathological findings that hepatic damage and steatosis were comparatively reduced than the CO fed animals. These results suggest that VCO could be an efficient nutraceutical in preventing the development of diet induced insulin resistance and associated complications possibly through its antioxidant efficacy.

  12. Mitochondrial biogenesis is decreased in skeletal muscle of pig fetuses exposed to maternal high-energy diets.

    PubMed

    Zou, T D; Yu, B; Yu, J; Mao, X B; Zheng, P; He, J; Huang, Z Q; He, D T; Chen, D W

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Moreover, mitochondrial biogenesis accompanies skeletal myogenesis, and we previously reported that maternal high-energy diet repressed skeletal myogenesis in pig fetuses. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moderately increased maternal energy intake on skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and function of the pig fetuses. Primiparous purebred Large White sows were allocated to a normal energy intake group (NE) as recommended by the National Research Council (NRC) and a high energy intake group (HE, 110% of NRC recommendations). On day 90 of gestation, fetal umbilical vein blood and longissimus (LM) muscle were collected. Results showed that the weight gain of sows fed HE diet was higher than NE sows on day 90 of gestation (P<0.05). Maternal HE diet increased fetal umbilical vein serum triglyceride and insulin concentrations (P<0.05), and tended to increase the homeostasis model assessment index (P=0.08). Furthermore, HE fetuses exhibited increased malondialdehyde concentration (P<0.05), and decreased activities of antioxidative enzymes (P<0.05) and intracellular NAD+ level (P<0.05) in LM muscle. These alterations in metabolic traits of HE fetuses were accompanied by reduced mitochondrial DNA amount (P<0.05) and down-regulated messenger RNA expression levels of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and function (P<0.05). Our results suggest that moderately increased energy supply during gestation decreases mitochondrial biogenesis, function and antioxidative capacity in skeletal muscle of pig fetuses.

  13. Responses of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on digestibility and performance of growing pigs fed a diet based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Fang, Z F; Peng, J; Liu, Z L; Liu, Y G

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two distinct enzyme preparations on nutrients' digestibility and growth performance of growing pigs fed diets based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal (DLRM). The two enzyme preparations were Enzyme R, a preparation extracted from fermentation of a non-GMO fungus Penicillum funiculosum, developed for multi-grain and multi-animal species; and Enzyme P, a xylanase preparation from Trichoderma longibrachiatum, for pigs fed corn-based diets only. Both enzymes were tested at 0, 0.25 and 0.50 g/kg feed using 70 crossbred male pigs (Large Yorkshire x Landrace) in five dietary treatments and seven replicates in each treatment, for growth period from 27 to 68 kg live weight in 49 days. Results showed that the supplementation of both enzymes (1) increased total-tract digestibility of dietary energy from 77.5% (control) to 81.4% (Enzyme R, p < 0.05) and 81.9% (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); of neutral detergent fibre from 41.0% (control) to 57.8% (Enzyme R, p < 0.05) and 60.0% (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); (2) improved average daily gain from 786 g (control) to 829 g (Enzyme R, p < 0.05) and 846 g (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); and numerical increases in feed intake from 1.96 kg/pig/day (control) to 2.01 (Enzyme R) and 2.00 (p > 0.05) and feed conversion ratio from 2.50 (control) to 2.42 (Enzyme R) and 2.36 (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); (3) there was a dose response but no significant differences were observed in enzyme efficacy between the two enzyme preparations. The present study demonstrated beneficial effects of applying xylanase-based enzymes to improve feeding values of pig diets based on corn, soya bean meal and DLRM.

  14. Effects of adrenalectomy on energy balance in obese (ob/ob) mice fed high carbohydrate or high fat diets.

    PubMed

    Grogan, C K; Kim, H K; Romsos, D R

    1987-06-01

    We reported previously that adrenalectomy reduced the energy density of body weight gain (an indicator of proportional gain in lean and fat tissue) and the efficiency of energy retention in obese (ob/ob) mice to values approximating those in lean mice, but that adrenalectomy had much less influence on these parameters in ob/ob mice fed a purified high fat diet. To determine if fat was the exclusive factor in the purified high fat diet that negated effects of adrenalectomy, ob/ob mice were fed a purified high carbohydrate (glucose) diet identical in composition to the high fat diet, except for the fat/carbohydrate ratio. Responses of adrenalectomized ob/ob mice fed the purified high glucose diet from 4 to 7 wk of age mimicked those of mice fed the purified high fat diet, not those of mice fed the high carbohydrate nonpurified diet. Plasma glucose responses to a glucose load in adrenalectomized ob/ob mice paralleled the diet-dependent changes in energy balance. These results demonstrate that diet composition interacts with adrenal secretions to influence energy and glucose metabolism in ob/ob mice; consumption of either a purified high glucose or high fat diet negates the beneficial effects of adrenalectomy on energy and glucose metabolism observed when adrenalectomized ob/ob mice consume a nonpurified diet.

  15. Natural infection of guinea pigs exposed to patients with highly drug-resistant tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Dharmadhikari, Ashwin S.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Van Der Walt, Martie L.; Weyer, Karin; Mphahlele, Matsie; Venter, Kobus; Jensen, Paul A.; First, Melvin W.; Parsons, Sydney; McMurray, David N.; Orme, Ian M.; Nardell, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    A natural TB infection model using guinea pigs may provide useful information for investigating differences in transmission efficiency and establishment of active disease by clinical TB strains in a highly susceptible host under controlled environmental conditions. We sought to examine the capacity of naturally transmitted multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis to establish infection and produce active disease in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were continuously exposed for 4 months to the exhaust air of a 6-bed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis inpatient hospital ward in South Africa. Serial tuberculin skin test reactions were measured to determine infection. All animals were subsequently evaluated for histologic disease progression at necropsy. Although 75% of the 362 exposed guinea pigs had positive skin test reactions [≥6mm], only 12% had histopathologic evidence of active disease. Reversions (≥ 6 mm change) in skin test reactivity were seen in 22% of animals, exclusively among those with reactions of 6 to 13 mm. Only two of 86 guinea pigs with reversion had histological evidence of disease compared to 47% (31/66) of guinea pigs with large, non-reverting reactions. Immunosuppression of half the guinea pigs across all skin test categories did not significantly accelerate disease progression. In guinea pigs that reverted a skin test, a second positive reaction in 27 (33%) of them strongly suggested re-infection due to ongoing exposure. These results show that a large majority of guinea pigs naturally exposed to human-source strains of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis became infected, but that many resolved their infection and a large majority failed to progress to detectable disease. PMID:21478054

  16. A high dietary concentration of inulin is necessary to reduce the incidence of swine dysentery in pigs experimentally challenged with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Christian F; Hernández, Aracely; Mansfield, Josie; Hidalgo, Álvaro; La, Tom; Phillips, Nyree D; Hampson, David J; Pluske, John R

    2011-11-01

    A total of sixty surgically castrated male pigs (Large White × Landrace) weighing 31·2 (sd 4·3) kg were used in a randomised block experiment to examine the effect of added dietary inulin (0, 20, 40 and 80 g/kg) on the occurrence of swine dysentery (SD) and on fermentation characteristics in the large intestine after experimental challenge with the causative spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. The pigs were allowed to adapt to the diets for 2 weeks before each pig was challenged orally four times with a broth culture containing B. hyodysenteriae on consecutive days. Increasing dietary levels of inulin linearly (P = 0·001) reduced the risk of pigs developing SD; however, eight out of fifteen pigs fed the diet with 80 g/kg inulin still developed the disease. The pH values in the caecum (P = 0·072) tended to decrease, and in the upper colon, the pH values did decrease (P = 0·047) linearly with increasing inulin levels in the diets, most probably due to a linear increase in the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in the caecum (P = 0·018), upper colon (P = 0·001) and lower colon (P = 0·013). In addition, there was a linear reduction in the proportion of the branched-chain fatty acids isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid in the caecum (P = 0·015 and 0·026) and upper colon (P = 0·011 and 0·013) with increasing levels of dietary inulin. In conclusion, the present study showed that a diet supplemented with a high level of inulin (80 g/kg) but not lower levels reduced the risk of pigs developing SD, possibly acting through a modification of the microbial fermentation patterns in the large intestine.

  17. Thiamine status of feedlot cattle fed a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Karapinar, Tolga; Dabak, Murat; Kizil, Omer

    2010-11-01

    As thiamine status of ruminants is adversely affected by rumen acidity, this study investigated whether or not thiamine deficiency occurs in feedlot cattle fed a high concentrate diet. Fifty 1- to 2-year-old feedlot cattle fed a high concentrate diet (75% barley) for at least 3 mo (high concentrate diet group) and 15 healthy feedlot cattle of similar ages (control group) that were fed a low concentrate diet (30% barley) were used. Rumen fluid samples were obtained by rumenocentesis and their pH was determined with a portable pH meter. Blood samples taken from all animals from a jugular vein were used to determine erythrocyte transketolase enzyme activity, and hence thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) effect. Odor and mean pH values of ruminal fluid samples from the high concentrate diet and control group were acidic (pH 5.3) and aromatic (pH 6.1), respectively. The mean TPP effect % in the high concentrate diet group (47.2 ± 3.2) was significantly higher than in the control group (19.53 ± 2.5) (P < 0.001). The study provides evidence of a TPP effect in feedlot cattle fed a high concentrate diet.

  18. Boron enhances strength and alters mineral composition of bone in rabbits fed a high energy diet.

    PubMed

    Hakki, Sema S; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Kerimoglu, Ulku; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether boron had a beneficial effect on bone strength and composition in rabbits with apparent adiposity induced by a high energy diet. Sixty female New Zealand rabbits, aged 8 months, were randomly divided into five groups with the following treatments for seven months: control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg); control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg boron/kg); B10, high energy diet+10 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B30, high energy diet+30 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B50, high energy diet+50mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h. Bone boron concentrations were lowest in rabbits fed the high energy diet without boron supplementation, which suggested an inferior boron status. Femur maximum breaking force was highest in the B50 rabbits. Tibia compression strength was highest in B30 and B50 rabbits. All boron treatments significantly increased calcium and magnesium concentrations, and the B30 and B50 treatments increased the phosphorus concentration in tibia of rabbits fed the high energy diet. The B30 treatment significantly increased calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in femur of rabbits fed the high energy diet. Principal component analysis of the tibia minerals showed that the three boron treatments formed a separate cluster from controls. Discriminant analysis suggested that the concentrations of the minerals in femur could predict boron treatment. The findings indicate boron has beneficial effects on bone strength and mineral composition in rabbits fed a high energy diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of energy digestibility and prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy from chemical composition of different cottonseed meal sources fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, J T; Li, D F; Zang, J J; Yang, W J; Zhang, W J; Zhang, L Y

    2012-10-01

    The present experiment was conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) content, and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in growing pigs fed diets containing one of ten cottonseed meals (CSM) collected from different provinces of China and to develop in vitro prediction equations for DE and ME content from chemical composition of the CSM samples. Twelve growing barrows with an initial body weight of 35.2±1.7 kg were allotted to two 6×6 Latin square designs, with six barrows and six periods and six diets for each. A corn-dehulled soybean meal diet was used as the basal diet, and the other ten diets were formulated with corn, dehulled soybean meal and 19.20% CSM. The DE, ME and ATTD of gross energy among different CSM sources varied largely and ranged from 1,856 to 2,730 kcal/kg dry matter (DM), 1,778 to 2,534 kcal/kg DM, and 42.08 to 60.47%, respectively. Several chemical parameters were identified to predict the DE and ME values of CSM, and the accuracy of prediction models were also tested. The best fit equations were: DE, kcal/kg DM = 670.14+31.12 CP+659.15 EE with R(2) = 0.82, RSD = 172.02, p<0.05; and ME, kcal/kg DM = 843.98+25.03 CP+673.97 EE with R(2) = 0.84, RSD = 144.79, p<0.05. These results indicate that DE, ME values and ATTD of gross energy varied substantially among different CSM sources, and that some prediction equations can be applied to predict DE and ME in CSM with an acceptable accuracy.

  20. Analysis of bacterial community shifts in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs fed diets supplemented with β-glucan from Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Murphy, P; Dal Bello, F; O'Doherty, J; Arendt, E K; Sweeney, T; Coffey, A

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of algal and yeast β-glucans on the porcine gastrointestinal microbiota, specifically the community of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and coliforms. A total of 48 pigs were fed four diets over a 28-day period to determine the effect that each had on these communities. The control diet consisted of wheat and soya bean meal. The remaining three diets contained wheat and soya bean meal supplemented with β-glucan at 250 g/tonne from Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Faecal samples were collected from animals before feeding each diet and after the feeding period. The animals were slaughtered the following day and samples were collected from the stomach, ileum, caecum, proximal colon and distal colon. Alterations in Lactobacillus in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were analysed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles generated by group-specific 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons. Plate count analysis was also performed to quantify total coliforms. DGGE profiles indicated that all β-glucan diets provoked the emergence of a richer community of Lactobacillus. The richest community of lactobacilli emerged after feeding L. digitata (LD β-glucan). Plate count analysis revealed that the L. hyperborea (LH β-glucan) diet had a statistically significant effect on the coliform counts in the proximal colon in comparison with the control diet. β-glucan from L. digitata and S. cerevisiae also generally reduced coliforms but to a lesser extent. Nevertheless, the β-glucan diets did not significantly reduce levels of Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium. DGGE analysis of GIT samples indicated that the three β-glucan diets generally promoted the establishment of a more varied range of Lactobacillus species in the caecum, proximal and distal colon. The LH β-glucan had the most profound reducing effect on coliform counts when compared with the control diet and diets supplemented with L

  1. Evaluation of Energy Digestibility and Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy from Chemical Composition of Different Cottonseed Meal Sources Fed to Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, J. T.; Li, D. F.; Zang, J. J.; Yang, W. J.; Zhang, W. J.; Zhang, L. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) content, and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in growing pigs fed diets containing one of ten cottonseed meals (CSM) collected from different provinces of China and to develop in vitro prediction equations for DE and ME content from chemical composition of the CSM samples. Twelve growing barrows with an initial body weight of 35.2±1.7 kg were allotted to two 6×6 Latin square designs, with six barrows and six periods and six diets for each. A corn-dehulled soybean meal diet was used as the basal diet, and the other ten diets were formulated with corn, dehulled soybean meal and 19.20% CSM. The DE, ME and ATTD of gross energy among different CSM sources varied largely and ranged from 1,856 to 2,730 kcal/kg dry matter (DM), 1,778 to 2,534 kcal/kg DM, and 42.08 to 60.47%, respectively. Several chemical parameters were identified to predict the DE and ME values of CSM, and the accuracy of prediction models were also tested. The best fit equations were: DE, kcal/kg DM = 670.14+31.12 CP+659.15 EE with R2 = 0.82, RSD = 172.02, p<0.05; and ME, kcal/kg DM = 843.98+25.03 CP+673.97 EE with R2 = 0.84, RSD = 144.79, p<0.05. These results indicate that DE, ME values and ATTD of gross energy varied substantially among different CSM sources, and that some prediction equations can be applied to predict DE and ME in CSM with an acceptable accuracy. PMID:25049499

  2. A high utility integrated map of the pig genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The domestic pig is being increasingly exploited as a system for modeling human disease. It also has substantial economic importance for meat-based protein production. Physical clone maps have underpinned large-scale genomic sequencing and enabled focused cloning efforts for many genome...

  3. Inhibition by dietary D-psicose of body fat accumulation in adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of dietary D-psicose on adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Wistar rats (16 weeks old) that had previously been fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD) were fed HSD or a high-starch diet (HTD) with or without 5% D-psicose for 8 weeks. The food efficiency, carcass fat percentage, abdominal fat accumulation, and body weight gain were all significantly suppressed by dietary D-psicose.

  4. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    AlSharari, Shakir D; Al-Rejaie, Salim S; Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohamed M; Hafez, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD) intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p) which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The liver functions and lipid profile were used to evaluate the HCD-induced hepatotoxicity. Quantitative real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of genes in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Results. Rutin in combination with HCD showed a significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity. HCD caused significant increase in the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 2 (Smad-2), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (Smad-4), Bcl-2-binding component 3 (Bbc3), caspase-3, P53 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decrease in the expression levels of Cyclin depended kinase inhibitor (P21) and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) in hepatic cells. Conclusion. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is involved in HCD-induced hepatotoxicity and Rutin inhibits the hepatotoxicity via suppressing this pathway. Therefore, Rutin might be considered as a protective agent for hepatotoxicity.

  5. Dietary onion intake as part of a typical high fat diet improves indices of cardiovascular health using the mixed sex pig model.

    PubMed

    Gabler, Nicholas K; Osrowska, Ewa; Imsic, Micheal; Eagling, David R; Jois, Mark; Tatham, Brendan G; Dunshea, Frank R

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential health benefits of onions consumed at two levels of intake, using the pig model. The dietary fat content was set at a level typical of a "western" diet (25% w/w). Fifteen female and fifteen male pigs (Large White x Landrace) were allocated to one of three dietary treatments in a randomised block design. Treatments consisted of control diet (no onion) and onion supplementation at either 8.6 or 21.4 g of onion/MJ DE fed for six weeks. Onion consumption reduced plasma triglyceride levels by 15% (P=0.030) regardless of sex and onion dose. Total plasma cholesterol and cholesterol fractions were unaffected by onion supplementation (P>0.050). The bioactivity of onion was evident in haematocrit measures, where red blood cell and haemoglobin were significantly reduced in a dose dependant manner (P<0.001 and P=0.011, respectively), while other cell counts, with exception of segmented neutrophils (-18%, P=0.012), were largely unaffected. Serum oxidative status was improved (P=0.007) in pigs consuming onions. These data demonstrate that consumption of onions can have positive health effects in both male and female pigs consuming a high fat diet.

  6. Effects of dietary lipid sources on performance and apparent total tract digestibility of lipids and energy when fed to nursery pigs.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, S M; van Heugten, E

    2014-02-01

    Acidulated fats and oils are by-products of the fat-refining industry. They contain high levels of FFA and are 10% to 20% less expensive than refined fats and oils. Two studies were designed to measure the effects of dietary lipid sources low or high in FFA on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of lipids and GE in nursery pigs. In Exp. 1, 189 pigs at 14 d postweaning (BW of 9.32 ± 0.11 kg) were used for 21 d with 9 replicate pens per treatment and 3 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet without added lipids and 6 diets with 6% inclusion of lipids. Four lipid sources were combined to create the dietary treatments with 2 levels of FFA (0.40% or 54.0%) and 3 degrees of fat saturation (iodine value [IV] = 77, 100, or 123) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Lipid sources were soybean oil (0.3% FFA and IV = 129.4), soybean-cottonseed acid oil blend (70.5% FFA and IV = 112.9), choice white grease (0.6% FFA and IV = 74.8), and choice white acid grease (56.0% FFA and IV = 79.0). Addition of lipid sources decreased ADFI (810 vs. 872 g/d; P = 0.018) and improved G:F (716 vs. 646 g/kg; P < 0.001). Diets high in FFA tended (P = 0.08) to improve final BW (21.35 vs. 21.01 kg) and ADG (576 vs. 560 g/d). Lipid-supplemented diets had greater ATTD of lipids than control diets (67.4% vs. 29.7%; P < 0.001). Apparent total tract digestibility of lipids was greater in diets with low FFA (69.9% vs. 64.9%; P < 0.001) and decreased linearly with increasing IV (73.2%, 69.1%, and 67.2%). For GE, ATTD was greater in diets with low FFA (83.1% vs. 80.9%; P = 0.001). In Exp. 2, 252 pigs at 7 d postweaning (BW of 7.0 ± 0.2 kg) were used for 28 d with 9 replicate pens per treatment and 4 pigs per pen. Diets included a control diet without added lipids and 6 treatments with 2.5%, 5.0%, or 7.5% of lipids from either poultry fat (1.9% FFA) or acidulated poultry fat (37.8% FFA) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Addition of lipids increased (P < 0

  7. High fat, high fructose, high cholesterol feeding causes severe NASH and cecal microbiota dysbiosis in juvenile Ossabaw swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Female Ossabaw swine (5 weeks old) were fed WD (43.0% fat; 17.8% high fructose corn syrup; 2% cholesterol) or low-fat diet (CON/lean; 10.5% fat) for 16 wks (n=6 each) or 36 wks (n=4 each). WD-fed pigs developed obesity, dyslipidemia, and systemic insulin resistance compared with CON pigs. In additio...

  8. Hypolipidemic effect of fruit fibers in rats fed with high dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Esmael, O A; Sonbul, S N; Kumosani, T A; Moselhy, S S

    2015-03-01

    The hypolipidemic effect of 10% fruit fibers in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD) was evaluated. This study was conducted on a total of 50 male Albino rats divided into 10 equal groups fed with different types of dietary fruits. The feeding period lasted for 24 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected and sera separated and subjected to lipid profile assay and atherogenic index. In addition, total antioxidant activity of different fruits was determined. The results obtained showed that pomegranate had higher content of antioxidants followed by apple, strawberry and guava compared with other fruits. Rats fed with 20% coconut oil showed a highly significant elevation in the levels of serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic factor while the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly decreased when compared with control rats. Histological examination revealed that there was a large lipid and cholesterol deposition in the livers of rats fed with HFD. The potential in lowering the levels of plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride is in the following order: pomegranate > apple > strawberry > guava > papaya > mandarin and orange. Accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets was diminished when compared with the HFD group. Also, antiatherogenic is better than the untreated groups. Accordingly these hypolipidemic effects may be due to high-fiber content and antioxidant activity of these fruits. © The Author(s) 2012.

  9. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  10. Association between pigs with high caecal Salmonella loads and carcass contamination.

    PubMed

    Pesciaroli, M; Cucco, L; De Luca, S; Massacci, F R; Maresca, C; Medici, L; Paniccià, M; Scoccia, E; Staffolani, M; Pezzotti, G; Magistrali, C F

    2017-02-02

    Contaminated pork is a significant source of foodborne Salmonella infections. Pork is contaminated at the slaughterhouse; however, the mechanisms driving Salmonella contamination of carcasses are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the amount of Salmonella carried by slaughtered pigs in their guts has an influence on carcass contamination. On that account, we tested whether the number of carcasses contaminated during a slaughter day was associated with the prevalence of highly contaminated pigs (HCP: Salmonella caecal loads ≥3log/g), or with the prevalence of pigs that simply carry Salmonella spp. in their guts. Three hundred and six pigs were sampled in a slaughterhouse from Central Italy. Salmonella loads in the caecum and on the carcass of each pig were estimated by the most probable number (MPN) technique. The overall prevalence of Salmonella was 34.64% and 7.19% for the caeca and carcasses, respectively. S. Derby and Salmonella enterica 4,[5],12:i:- were the most frequently isolated serovars. The prevalence of HCP was 11.44%. We found a higher number of contaminated carcasses on days of high prevalence of HCP than on days of low prevalence of HCP (p=0.0011). Conversely, carcass contamination did not vary with the prevalence of pigs that simply carried Salmonella spp. in their guts (p=0.7970). Therefore, the prevalence of HCP, but not the prevalence of pigs carrying Salmonella spp., was related to carcass contamination. Taken together, these findings suggest that reduction of Salmonella loads in the guts of slaughtered pigs would result in fewer contaminated carcasses, and consequently, help to minimise the risk of human infection due to the consumption of contaminated pork.

  11. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Weng-Yew; Poudyal, Hemant; Ward, Leigh C.; Brown, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome. PMID:23201770

  12. High Temperature- and High Pressure-Processed Garlic Improves Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diets

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (P<.05). The results suggest that high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles. PMID:22404600

  13. Effects of protein concentration and heat treatment on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Maison, T; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 4 sources of canola meal (high-protein [CM-HP], high-temperature-processed [CM-HT], low-temperature-processed [CM-LT], and conventional [CM-CV] canola meal) and in conventional soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 48 growing barrows (initial BW: 39.7 ± 1.58 kg) were individually housed in metabolism cages and randomly assigned to 6 treatments in a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 24 pigs and 8 replicate pigs per treatment. The 6 diets included a corn-based basal diet and 5 diets that were formulated by mixing corn and 1 of the sources of canola meal (39.0% inclusion) or SBM (28.5% inclusion). Feces and urine were collected for 5 d following a 5-d adaptation period. The DE and ME in each source of canola meal and in SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. The DE and ME in the 4 sources of canola meal were less (P < 0.05) than in corn and SBM (DE: 2,854, 2,680, 2,892, and 2,883 vs. 3,324 and 3,784 kcal/kg, respectively; ME: 2,540, 2,251, 2,681, and 2,637 vs. 3,213 and 3,523 kcal/kg, respectively). No differences in the concentrations of DE and ME were observed among the 4 sources of canola meal. In Exp. 2, 12 growing barrows (initial BW: 34.0 ± 1.41 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were randomly allotted to a repeated 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods in each square. Five diets that contained 35% SBM or 45% of 1 of the 4 sources of canola meal as the sole source of CP and AA were formulated, and a N-free diet was also used. Each period lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The AID and SID of CP and all AA in SBM were greater (P < 0.05) than in the 4 sources of canola meal. Compared with CM-CV, CM-HP had greater (P < 0.05) AID of Ile, Lys, Asp, Cys, and Pro and greater (P < 0.05) SID of Lys

  14. Growth and antioxidant status of broilers fed supplemental lysine and pyridoxine under high ambient temperature

    PubMed Central

    Khakpour Irani, Farzaneh; Daneshyar, Mohsen; Najafi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Three levels of lysine (90, 100 and 110% of Ross requirement) and of pyridoxine (3, 6 and 9 mg kg-1) were used in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment to investigate the growth and blood antioxidant ability of broilers under high ambient temperature. None of the dietary supplements affected the weight gain during the starter and grower periods. Although no significant differences were detected between the treatments during the entire period, high lysine level fed birds had a lower weight gain. At any levels of pyridoxine, high lysine fed birds were lighter than others. Neither the lysine nor pyridoxine changed the feed intake or feed conversion ratio during the starter, grower and entire period. However there was no significant difference between the treatments for blood malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, medium lysine fed birds had lower blood MDA than other ones. No significant effects on blood triglyceride, total protein and blood superoxide dismutase activity were indicated with addition of any lysine or pyridoxine level. Medium lysine fed birds had decreased blood glutathione peroxidase activity compared to the birds of other treatments. It was concluded that providing the proposed dietary lysine requirement of Ross strain during heat stress ensuring the best body weight gain and body antioxidant ability. Higher lysine level causes the retarded weight gain due to higher excretion of arginine from the body and consequently higher lipid peroxidation. PMID:26261713

  15. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Yan, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that time-restricted feeding (TRF) reduces high-fat diet-induced increase in adiposity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G or the high-fat diet ad libitum (ad lib); TRF of the high-fat diet for 12 or 8hours during the dark cycle was initiated when high-fat diet-fed mice exhibited significant increases in body weight. Energy intake of the TRF 12-hour group was not different from that of the high-fat ad lib group, although that of the TRF 8-hour group was slightly but significantly lower. Restricted feeding of the high-fat diet reduced body fat mass and body weight compared with mice fed the high-fat diet ad lib. There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio (RER) among TRF and high-fat ad lib groups, but the RER of these groups was lower than that of the AIN93G group. Energy expenditure of the TRF groups was slightly but significantly lower than that of the high-fat ad lib group. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were increased in TRF groups compared with both AIN93G and high-fat ad lib groups. Elevations of plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 by high-fat ad lib feeding were reduced by TRF to the levels of mice fed the AIN93G diet. In conclusion, TRF during the dark cycle reduces high-fat diet-induced increases in adiposity and proinflammatory cytokines. These results indicate that circadian timing of food intake may prevent obesity and abate obesity-related metabolic disturbance.

  16. Unidirectional transfer in vivo of high-density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters to lower-density lipoproteins in the pig, an animal species without plasma cholesteryl ester transfer activity.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, A H; Stucchi, A F; Foxall, T L; Shwaery, G T; Vespa, D B; Nicolosi, R J

    1993-12-01

    The metabolism of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesteryl esters (CE) was studied in the pig, an animal species without plasma cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA). In the first series of experiments, LDL and HDL from normocholesterolemic pigs were radiolabeled with cholesteryl (1-14C)oleate and intravenously administered to two groups of four normocholesterolemic pigs. Radioactive tracer in LDL remained associated with the LDL fraction, and there was no transfer of LDL-CE to HDL. The transport rate (which represents the production and disposal rate) of LDL-CE in normocholesterolemic pigs was 39 mumol CE/h/L. However, radiolabeled HDL-CE were transferred to LDL (25%), and 36% of the LDL-CE mass was derived from the HDL. The transport rate of HDL-CE was 54 mumol CE/h/L, and the flux of HDL-CE to LDL was 14 mumol CE/h/L. There was no accumulation of radiolabeled HDL-CE in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), which suggests that there was no transfer to VLDL. However, this does not rule out the possibility that either the very low levels of VLDL-CE (< 0.09 mmol/L) or the rapid turnover rate of the VLDL pool might have prevented the accumulation of substantial amounts of tracer in VLDL. Therefore, in a second set of experiments, the kinetics of HDL-CE were studied in high-fat-and high-cholesterol-fed pigs with elevated VLDL-CE concentrations (1.92 mmol/L). Hypercholesterolemia was associated with increased transport rates of LDL-CE (165 mumol/h/L) and HDL-CE (78 mumol/h/L) and with an increased flux of HDL-CE to LDL (78 mumol/h/L).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Pigs as recyclers for nutrients contained in Bermuda grass harvested from spray fields.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Theo A T G; Kim, InBae; van Heugten, Eric

    2002-02-01

    The ability of pigs to use nitrogen and energy in Bermuda grass was evaluated in order to assess whether Bermuda grass harvested from spray fields could be fed to pigs as a means to recycle nitrogen. Digestibility of Bermuda grass incorporated into corn-soybean meal diets was evaluated in heavy finishing pigs and gestating sows. Results suggest that Bermuda grass digestibility is negative in animals not adapted to a high-fiber diet. Enzymes improve this digestibility, but even with enzymes, nitrogen digestibility was poor. Pigs fed a diet containing 10% Bermuda grass required a one week adaptation period for maximal digestion; following adaptation, pigs can digest approximately 40% of the energy in Bermuda grass but none of the nitrogen. Feeding Bermuda grass to pigs as a means of recycling nitrogen is thus not recommended.

  18. High Performance Variable Speed Drive System and Generating System with Doubly Fed Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yifan

    Doubly fed machines are another alternative for variable speed drive systems. The doubly fed machines, including doubly fed induction machine, self-cascaded induction machine and doubly excited brushless reluctance machine, have several attractive advantages for variable speed drive applications, the most important one being the significant cost reduction with a reduced power converter rating. With a better understanding, improved machine design, flexible power converters and innovated controllers, the doubly fed machines could favorably compete for many applications, which may also include variable speed power generations. The goal of this research is to enhance the attractiveness of the doubly fed machines for both variable speed drive and variable speed generator applications. Recognizing that wind power is one of the favorable clean, renewable energy sources that can contribute to the solution to the energy and environment dilemma, a novel variable-speed constant-frequency wind power generating system is proposed. By variable speed operation, energy capturing capability of the wind turbine is improved. The improvement can be further enhanced by effectively utilizing the doubly excited brushless reluctance machine in slip power recovery configuration. For the doubly fed machines, a stator flux two -axis dynamic model is established, based on which a flexible active and reactive power control strategy can be developed. High performance operation of the drive and generating systems is obtained through advanced control methods, including stator field orientation control, fuzzy logic control and adaptive fuzzy control. System studies are pursued through unified modeling, computer simulation, stability analysis and power flow analysis of the complete drive system or generating system with the machine, the converter and the control. Laboratory implementations and tested results with a digital signal processor system are also presented.

  19. Fed-Batch Enzymatic Saccharification of High Solids Pretreated Lignocellulose for Obtaining High Titers and High Yields of Glucose.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yang, Jungwoo; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2017-01-11

    To reduce the distillation costs of cellulosic ethanol, it is necessary to produce high sugar titers in the enzymatic saccharification step. To obtain high sugar titers, high biomass loadings of lignocellulose are necessary. In this study, to overcome the low saccharification yields and the low operability of high biomass loadings, a fed-batch saccharification process was developed using an enzyme reactor that was designed and built in-house. After optimizing the cellulase and biomass feeding profiles and the agitation speed, 132.6 g/L glucose and 76.0% theoretical maximum glucose were obtained from the 60 h saccharification of maleic acid-pretreated rice straw at a 30% (w/v) solids loading with 15 filter paper units (FPU) of Cellic CTec2/g glucan. This study demonstrated that through the proper optimization of fed-batch saccharification, both high sugar titers and high saccharification yields are possible, even with using the high solids loading (i.e., ≥30%) with the moderate enzyme loading (i.e., <15 FPU/g glucan). These results could be contributed to improving economic feasibility of the high solids saccharification process in cellulosic fuel and chemical production.

  20. Dimethyl dimethoxy biphenyl dicarboxylate attenuates hepatic and metabolic alterations in high fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Mohamed A; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Abd-Elghany, Manal I

    2016-01-01

    High fructose consumption is currently linked to metabolic disorders including insulin resistance and dyslipidemia as well as hepatic steatosis. Dimethyl dimethoxy biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB) is a hepatoprotectant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study therefore is to evaluate the effect of DDB on high fructose-induced metabolic disturbances and hepatic steatosis in a rat model. Male Wistar rats were allocated into three groups: control, fructose-fed (10% in drinking water and 10% in diet), and fructose-fed DDB (300 mg/kg, orally)-treated groups. Rats were fed a high-fructose diet for 6 weeks, while DDB was administered for an additional 2 weeks. High-fructose consumption elevated serum glucose and insulin levels and impaired oral glucose tolerance test, revealing insulin resistance. It also increased serum triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase as well as visceral fat content and decreased serum high-density lipoprotein. Additionally, histopathological examination revealed that high fructose intake induced hepatic steatosis. These alterations were associated with increased serum uric acid as well as hepatic content of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide (NO) in addition to overexpression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). DDB administration significantly ameliorated the high fructose-induced hepatic and metabolic alterations. In conclusion, DDB ameliorates high fructose-induced metabolic disorders and hepatic steatosis in rats. Such protection is, at least in part, due to the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, decrease in iNOS overexpression, and reduction of elevated uric acid. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Ameliorative effects of boron on serum profile in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fed high fluoride ration.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Vijay K; Gupta, Meenakshi; Lall, D

    2008-02-01

    An experiment was undertaken to evaluate the protective role of boron on the serum profile of buffalo calves fed a high fluoride ration. Twelve male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves of 6-8 months age, divided into three groups of four calves in each, were fed basal diets and supplemented with sodium fluoride (NaF, 60 ppm) alone or in combination with borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O, 140 ppm) for 90 days. Boron (B) was added in the ration as borax to make @140 ppm boron (elemental B) on DM basis in treatment II. Dietary F caused a significant (p<0.05) depressing effect on serum Ca and Zn on day 90 which was improved with B supplementation. However, serum Fe and Cu did not show any significant change on F or F+B supplementation. The serum ALP and phosphorus level were increased significantly (p<0.05) on F feeding but declined significantly (p<0.05) when B was fed. The findings suggested beneficial effect of boron on serum minerals and ALP in buffalo calves fed high fluoride ration.

  2. CCK(1) receptor is essential for normal meal patterning in mice fed high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Michael J; Paulino, Gabriel; Raybould, Helen E

    2007-12-05

    Cholecystokinin (CCK), released by lipid in the intestine, initiates satiety by acting at cholecystokinin type 1 receptors (CCK(1)Rs) located on vagal afferent nerve terminals located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we determined the role of the CCK(1)R in the short term effects of a high fat diet on daily food intake and meal patterns using mice in which the CCK(1)R gene is deleted. CCK(1)R(-/-) and CCK(1)R(+/+) mice were fed isocaloric high fat (HF) or low fat (LF) diets ad libitum for 18 h each day and meal size, meal frequency, intermeal interval, and meal duration were determined. Daily food intake was unaltered by diet in the CCK(1)R(-/-) compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice. However, meal size was larger in the CCK(1)R(-/-) mice compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice when fed a HF diet, with a concomitant decrease in meal frequency. Meal duration was increased in mice fed HF diet regardless of phenotype. In addition, CCK(1)R(-/-) mice fed a HF diet had a 75% decrease in the time to 1st meal compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice following a 6 h fast. These data suggest that lack of the CCK(1)R results in diminished satiation, causing altered meal patterns including larger, less frequent meals when fed a high fat diet. These results suggest that the CCK(1)R is involved in regulating caloric intake on a meal to meal basis, but that other factors are responsible for regulation of daily food intake.

  3. Determining the optimal isoleucine:lysine ratio for 10- to 22-kg and 24- to 39-kg pigs fed diets containing non-excess levels of leucine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three 21-day experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standardized ileal digestible (SID) isoleucine:lysine (Ile:Lys) ratio in 10 to 22 kg and 24 to 39 kg pigs. In Exp. 1, 144 pigs (initial body weight = 10.2 kg) were assigned to 6 diets with 6 pens per treatment. Diets 1 to 5 were formul...

  4. Metabolic risk factors in mice divergently selected for BMR fed high fat and high carb diets.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Konarzewski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks) to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget) and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type) presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human "sedentary lifestyle", with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts) taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets.

  5. Metabolic risk factors in mice divergently selected for BMR fed high fat and high carb diets

    PubMed Central

    Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K.; Konarzewski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks) to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget) and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model—mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type) presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human “sedentary lifestyle”, with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts) taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets. PMID:28235091

  6. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    PubMed

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment; RFI for each cow was the residual error term. Cows were classified as high (>0.5 SD of the mean), medium (±0.5 SD of the mean), or low (<-0.5 SD of the mean) RFI. On average, for the linear model used to determine RFI for individual cows, each unit increase in milk energy output, metabolic BW, or body energy gain was associated with 0.35, 0.09, or 0.05kg increase in DMI, respectively. When compared with LO diets, HI diets increased energy partitioning to body energy gain and tended to increase DMI. The correlation between RFI when cows were fed HI diets and RFI when cows were fed LO diets was 0.73 and was similar across each parity and experiment. Fifty-six percent of cows maintained the same RFI classification (high, medium, or low RFI) and only 4 of 109 cows changed from high RFI to low RFI or vice versa when diets were changed. Milk:feed, income over feed cost, and DMI were also highly repeatable (r=0.72, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively). We achieved significant changes in milk yield and component concentration as well as energy partitioning between HI and LO diets and still determined RFI to be repeatable across diets. We conclude that

  7. Digestibility of energy, amino acids, and phosphorus in a novel source of soy protein concentrate and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M S; Stein, H H

    2016-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, DE and ME, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in a new source of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and in soybean meal (SBM). In Exp. 1, 9 barrows (initial BW: 13.08 ± 1.98 kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods. A nitrogen-free diet and 2 diets that contained corn starch and SPC or SBM as the sole source of CP and AA were formulated. Each period lasted 7 d, and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The SID for Ile, Leu, Phe, Pro, and Tyr was greater ( < 0.05) in SPC than in SBM, but for CP and all other AA, no difference between SPC and SBM was observed. In Exp. 2, 24 barrows (initial BW: 13.94 ± 1.34 kg) were housed individually in metabolism crates and randomly allotted to 1 of 3 diets. A corn-based diet (96.9% corn) and 2 diets that contained corn and SPC or corn and SBM were formulated. Each diet was fed to 8 pigs. Feces and urine samples were collected using the marker to marker method with 5-d adaptation and 5-d collection periods. The DE and ME in SPC and SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. Results indicated that the ATTD of GE was lower ( < 0.05) in SBM than in corn and the DE and ME in SPC were greater ( < 0.01) than in corn and SBM. In Exp. 3, 40 barrows (initial BW: 14.12 ± 2.08 kg) were placed in metabolism crates and allotted to 4 diets in a randomized complete block design with 10 pigs per diet. Two diets were based on SPC or SBM as the sole source of P. Two additional diets were formulated by adding microbial phytase to diets that were otherwise similar to the 2 initial diets. Feces were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period and values for ATTD and STTD of P were calculated. No differences were observed in ATTD and STTD of P between SPC and SBM

  8. Virginiamycin improves phosphorus digestibility and utilization by growing-finishing pigs fed a phosphorus-deficient, corn-soybean meal diet.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, J H; Lindemann, M D; Cromwell, G L; Newman, M C; Nimmo, R D

    2007-09-01

    Evaluations of the nutritional effect of antibiotics have largely centered on effects related to the digestibility and utilization of protein and energy. The current study evaluated the potential effect of virginiamycin (VIR) on P digestibility in swine. A total of 70 barrows (mean initial BW = 51 to 64 kg) were used in 4 nutrient-balance experiments. A basal, corn-soybean meal diet that was not supplemented with any inorganic source of P was used in each experiment. In Exp. 1, two diets were tested: basal vs. basal plus 11 mg/kg of VIR. In Exp. 2, four diets were used with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of 0 and 11 mg/kg of VIR and 0 and 750 phytase (PHY) units/kg of diet (PU/kg). Experiments 3 and 4 were the same as Exp. 2, except PHY was reduced to 300 PU/kg. For all experiments, VIR improved P digestibility (32.71 to 37.72%, P < 0.001) and Ca digestibility (54.99 to 58.30%, P = 0.002). The addition of PHY improved both P and Ca digestibility (P < 0.001); 750 PU/kg increased P digestibility 27.3% (from 34.6 to 61.9%, P < 0.001), whereas 300 PU increased it 13.8% (from 33.4 to 47.2%, P < 0.001). In an experiment conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of VIR on gut microbial profile, pigs (24 gilts and 8 barrows; mean BW = 29.1 +/- 0.50 kg) were fed a simple corn-soybean meal diet for 16 wk with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of VIR (0 and 11 mg/kg) addition and 0.15% dicalcium phosphate deletion. The long-term feeding of VIR in both the control diet and the diet with a marginally reduced P level resulted in a change in ileal microbial profile. A positive numerical increment in the number of phytate-utilizing bacteria was observed in both the normal and P-deleted diets (log unit increments of 12.4 and 17.2% over the respective controls, P = 0.13) when VIR was added. The addition of VIR also tended to affect lactobacilli populations (main effect, P = 0.11; interaction, P = 0.02); VIR decreased lactobacilli in the normal-P diet but did not affect this bacterial

  9. Ileal amino acid digestibility in canola meals from yellow- and black-seeded Brassica napus and Brassica juncea fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Trindade Neto, M A; Opepaju, F O; Slominski, B A; Nyachoti, C M

    2012-10-01

    Twelve ileal cannulated pigs (30.9 ± 2.7 kg) were used to determine the apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of protein and AA in canola meals (CM) derived from black- (BNB) and yellow-seeded (BNY) Brassica napus canola and yellow-seeded Brassica juncea (BJY). The meals were produced using either the conventional pre-press solvent extraction process (regular meal) or a new, vacuum-assisted cold process of meal de-solventization (white flakes) to provide 6 different meals. Six cornstarch-based diets containing 35% canola meal as the sole source of protein in a 3 (variety) × 2 (processing) factorial arrangement were randomly allotted to pigs in a 6 × 7 incomplete Latin square design to have 6 replicates per diet. A 5% casein diet was fed to estimate endogenous AA losses. Canola variety and processing method interacted for the AID of DM (P = 0.048), N (P = 0.010), and all AA (P < 0.05), except for Arg, Lys, Phe, Asp, Glu, and Pro. Canola variety affected or tended to affect the AID of most AA but had no effect on the AID of Lys, Met, Val, Cys, and Pro, whereas processing method had an effect on only Lys and Asp and tended to affect the AID of Thr, Gly and Ser. The effects of canola variety, processing method, and their interaction on the SID values for N and AA followed a similar pattern as for AID values. For the white flakes, SID of N in BJY (74.2%) was lower than in BNY and BNB, whose values averaged 78.5%; however, among the regular meals, BJY had a greater SID value for N than BNY and BNB (variety × processing, P = 0.015). For the white flakes, the SID of Ile (86.4%), Leu (87.6%), Lys (88.9%), Thr (87.6%) and Val (84.2%) in BNB were greater than BNY and BJY. Opposite results were observed for the regular processing, with SID of Lys (84.1%), Met (89.5%), Thr (84.1%), and Val (83.6%) being greater in BJY, followed by BNB and BNY(variety × processing, P < 0.057). The SID of Met was greatest for the white flakes (90.2%) but least for the

  10. Domestic Pigs Have Low Susceptibility to H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Lipatov, Aleksandr S.; Kwon, Yong Kuk; Sarmento, Luciana V.; Lager, Kelly M.; Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L.; Swayne, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic reassortment of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) with currently circulating human influenza A strains is one possibility that could lead to efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Domestic pigs which are susceptible to infection with both human and avian influenza A viruses are one of the natural hosts where such reassortment events could occur. Virological, histological and serological features of H5N1 virus infection in pigs were characterized in this study. Two- to three-week-old domestic piglets were intranasally inoculated with 106 EID50 of A/Vietnam/1203/04 (VN/04), A/chicken/Indonesia/7/03 (Ck/Indo/03), A/Whooper swan/Mongolia/244/05 (WS/Mong/05), and A/Muscovy duck/Vietnam/ 209/05 (MDk/VN/05) viruses. Swine H3N2 and H1N1 viruses were studied as a positive control for swine influenza virus infection. The pathogenicity of the H5N1 HPAI viruses was also characterized in mouse and ferret animal models. Intranasal inoculation of pigs with H5N1 viruses or consumption of infected chicken meat did not result in severe disease. Mild weight loss was seen in pigs inoculated with WS/Mong/05, Ck/Indo/03 H5N1 and H1N1 swine influenza viruses. WS/Mong/05, Ck/Indo/03 and VN/04 viruses were detected in nasal swabs of inoculated pigs mainly on days 1 and 3. Titers of H5N1 viruses in nasal swabs were remarkably lower compared with those of swine influenza viruses. Replication of all four H5N1 viruses in pigs was restricted to the respiratory tract, mainly to the lungs. Titers of H5N1 viruses in the lungs were lower than those of swine viruses. WS/Mong/05 virus was isolated from trachea and tonsils, and MDk/VN/05 virus was isolated from nasal turbinate of infected pigs. Histological examination revealed mild to moderate bronchiolitis and multifocal alveolitis in the lungs of pigs infected with H5N1 viruses, while infection with swine influenza viruses resulted in severe tracheobronchitis and bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Pigs had low

  11. 75 FR 70289 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... COMMISSION Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China... coated paper suitable for high-quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses (``certain coated paper... Tariff Schedule of the United States, that the U.S. Department of Commerce has determined...

  12. Niacin Increases Adiponectin and Decreases Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wanders, Desiree; Graff, Emily C.; White, B. Douglas; Judd, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity. Materials and Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD) and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2−/− (niacin receptor−/−) mice. Results Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2−/− mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription) in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion). However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice. Conclusions Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner. PMID:23967184

  13. Coffee consumption attenuates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in rats fed on high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Morakinyo, A O; Adekunbi, D A; Dada, K A; Adegoke, O A

    2013-12-20

    Several epidemiological evidences indicate that consumption of coffee is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) however; there is dearth of experimental data to support these observations. Given that associations do not necessarily infer causality, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of coffee consumption on glucose regulation, T2DM and the probable mechanisms of action, using an animal model. The effect of coffee (2-fold dilution) by oral gavage on normal and high sucrose-solution (HSS) fed (30 % w/v) rats was evaluated. The results showed that consumption of coffee significantly increase glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity (p<0.05) along with significant improvement in SOD and GSH activities. In addition, lipid indices such as TG and LDL as well as the lipid peroxidation marker (MDA) were markedly reduced (p<0.05) in rats fed with coffee compared with that of the HSS fed rats. These findings suggest that coffee consumption improves insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance in HSS-fed rat possibly via inhibition of oxidative stress.

  14. Alteration of Loperamide-Induced Prostate Relaxation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Sheng-Lung; Chung, Hsien-Hui; Chen, I-Hung; Tong, Yat-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the change of loperamide-induced prostate relaxation in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Materials and Methods. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: (1) control rats fed with normal chow and (2) rats fed with HFD for 6 months. The prostate was removed for histology study. Isolated prostate strips were hung in organ bath and precontracted with 1 μmol/L phenylephrine or 50 mmol/L KCl. The relaxation responses to loperamide 0.1 to 10 μmol/L were recorded. Western blotting analyses were performed for prostate μ-opioid receptors (MOR) and ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel proteins: sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) and inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir) 6.2 subunits. Results. Body weight, prostate weight, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol, as well as systolic blood pressure, were significantly increased in the HFD rats. Histology showed prostatic hyperplasia in the HFD rat prostate. Prostatic relaxation induced by loperamide was markedly reduced in HFD when compared to the control. Protein expressions of MOR, SUR, and Kir 6.2 were decreased in HFD-fed rats. Conclusion. Loperamide-induced prostate relaxation is decreased in HFD rats due to reduced MOR and KATP channel expressions. PMID:25506071

  15. Impact of prolonged leucine supplementation on protein synthesis and lean growth in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Daniel A; Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Hernandez-Garcia, Adriana; Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa A

    2015-09-15

    Most low-birth weight infants experience extrauterine growth failure due to reduced nutrient intake as a result of feeding intolerance. The objective of this study was to determine whether prolonged enteral leucine supplementation improves lean growth in neonatal pigs fed a restricted protein diet. Neonatal pigs (n = 14-16/diet, 5 days old, 1.8 ± 0.3 kg) were fed by gastric catheter a whey-based milk replacement diet with either a high protein (HP) or restricted protein (RP) content or RP supplemented with leucine to the same level as in the HP diet (RPL). Pigs were fed 40 ml·kg body wt(-1)·meal(-1) every 4 h for 21 days. Feeding the HP diet resulted in greater total body weight and lean body mass compared with RP-fed pigs (P < 0.05). Masses of the longissimus dorsi muscle, heart, and kidneys were greater in the HP- than RP-fed pigs (P < 0.05). Body weight, lean body mass, and masses of the longissimus dorsi, heart, and kidneys in pigs fed the RPL diet were intermediate to RP- and HP-fed pigs. Protein synthesis and mTOR signaling were increased in all muscles with feeding (P < 0.05); leucine supplementation increased mTOR signaling and protein synthesis rate in the longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05). There was no effect of diet on indices of protein degradation signaling in any tissue (P > 0.05). Thus, when protein intake is chronically restricted, the capacity for leucine supplementation to enhance muscle protein accretion in neonatal pigs that are meal-fed milk protein-based diets is limited.

  16. Determination of energy and amino acid digestibility in growing pigs fed corn distillers' dried grains with solubles containing different lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ping; Zhu, Zhengpeng; Dong, Bing; Zang, Jianjun; Gong, Limin

    2011-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to estimate the digestibility of energy, nitrogen and amino acids (AA) in growing pigs fed diets containing one of five corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), including three normal oil DDGS (NO-DDGS) and two low oil DDGS (LO-DDGS) samples. Exp. 1 was conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) content. Six growing barrows (initial body weight [BW]: 35.1 +/- 2.2 kg) were allotted to a 6 x 6 Latin square design, with six periods and six diets. One diet was a corn soybean meal basal diet and the other five diets were based on corn, soybean meal and 28.8% DDGS. The average DE and ME values for the three NO-DDGS samples were 16.0 and 14.9 MJ/kg dry matter (DM). These values were 9 and 13% greater than the LO-DDGS values of 14.7 and 13.2 MJ/kg DM respectively. Exp. 2 was conducted to determine and compare apparent (AID) and standardised (SID) ileal digestibility for crude protein and AA in the five DDGS samples. Six growing barrows (initial BW, 32.2 +/- 1.9 kg) fitted with a simple T-cannula were allotted to a 6 x 6 Latin square design with six periods and six diets. Five of the diets were based on the five DDGS samples, and the remaining one diet was nitrogen-free diet based on cornstarch and sucrose. Titanium dioxide (0.1%) was used as inert marker. The results of the experiment showed the largest variation among the different samples in AID and SID for lysine (from 41.8 to 65.8% and 53.8 to 73.9% respectively) and threonine (from 54.3 to 73.8% and 65.2 to 79.5% respectively). Also, among the indispensable AA, the SID values for arginine, histidine, threonine and tryptophan observed in LO-DDGS were not different from the values derived from NO-DDGS. In conclusion, LO-DDGS may have decreased energy compared with NO-DDGS because of its lower fat content. However, oil removal during the production of DDGS may not affect amino acid digestibility.

  17. A high density recombination map of the pig reveals a correlation between sex-specific recombination and GC content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The availability of a high-density SNP chip and a reference genome sequence of the pig have enabled the construction of a high-density linkage map. A high density linkage map is an essential tool for the further fine-mapping of QTL for a variety of traits in the pig and for a better und...

  18. High cell density fed-batch fermentations for lipase production: feeding strategies and oxygen transfer.

    PubMed

    Salehmin, M N I; Annuar, M S M; Chisti, Y

    2013-11-01

    This review is focused on the production of microbial lipases by high cell density fermentation. Lipases are among the most widely used of the enzyme catalysts. Although lipases are produced by animals and plants, industrial lipases are sourced almost exclusively from microorganisms. Many of the commercial lipases are produced using recombinant species. Microbial lipases are mostly produced by batch and fed-batch fermentation. Lipases are generally secreted by the cell into the extracellular environment. Thus, a crude preparation of lipases can be obtained by removing the microbial cells from the fermentation broth. This crude cell-free broth may be further concentrated and used as is, or lipases may be purified from it to various levels. For many large volume applications, lipases must be produced at extremely low cost. High cell density fermentation is a promising method for low-cost production: it allows a high concentration of the biomass and the enzyme to be attained rapidly and this eases the downstream recovery of the enzyme. High density fermentation enhances enzyme productivity compared with the traditional submerged culture batch fermentation. In production of enzymes, a high cell density is generally achieved through fed-batch operation, not through perfusion culture which is cumbersome. The feeding strategies used in fed-batch fermentations for producing lipases and the implications of these strategies are discussed. Most lipase-producing microbial fermentations require oxygen. Oxygen transfer in such fermentations is discussed.

  19. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soymilk on Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Maki; Hirahata, Rie; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2012-01-01

    The effect of fermented soymilk on rats fed a high cholesterol diet was investigated to clarify the cholesterol-lowering function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7 weeks were fed a control diet (1% cholesterol, high cholesterol diet), high cholesterol diet containing 11.7% fermented soymilk diet (5% soy protein as final concentration, F-5), or high cholesterol diet containing 23.4% fermented soymilk diet (10% soy protein as final concentration, F-10) for 5 weeks. The liver weight and fat mass were decreased by the ingestion of fermented soymilk. The hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the F-5 and F-10 groups were significantly lowered compared to those in the control group. The plasma total cholesterol level of the F-10 group was significantly decreased. The expression of SREBP-2, a cholesterol synthesis-related gene, was significantly decreased in liver of the F-5 group, but the expression of CYP7a1, a cholesterol catabolism-related gene, was significantly increased. These results suggest that fermented soymilk can modulate the cholesterol metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. PMID:23112918

  20. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid profile and liver histology in laboratory rats fed high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Kostogrys, Renata B; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effect of CLA on serum lipid profile, plasma malondialdehyde and liver histology in Wistar rats fed high-fructose diet. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 21 days. The experimental diets were: I, Control; II, Fructose (63.2% of fructose); and III, CLA+Fructose (1% CLA and 63.2% of fructose). The experimental treatments had no effect on body weight of the rats. The LDL+VLDL cholesterol, TG and liver weight were significantly increased in animals fed Fructose. MDA concentrations were significantly increased in rats fed Fructose diet but CLA+Fructose diet had no effect on this marker. In the same line, the histological examination of the livers showed a series of morphological alterations, notably hepatic steatosis in animals fed high-fructose diet. No signs of the steatosis in rats fed CLA+Fructose diet were observed. In conclusion, CLA in high-fructose diet, decreases serum LDL+VLDL and TG and plasma MDA concentrations as well as liver weight and liver cholesterol, thus opposing the effects of high-fructose diet and showing a potential antiatherogenic effect. Similarly, dietary CLA fed at 1% level (w/w) in high-fructose diet, prevented steatosis observed histologically in livers of rats fed high-fructose diets.

  1. Impaired lipid and glucose homeostasis in hexabromocyclododecane-exposed mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Rie; Koike, Eiko; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Yamamoto, Megumi; Takano, Hirohisa

    2014-03-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is an additive flame retardant used in the textile industry and in polystyrene foam manufacturing. Because of its lipophilicity and persistency, HBCD accumulates in adipose tissue and thus has the potential of causing metabolic disorders through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the association between HBCD and obesity remains unclear. We investigated whether exposure to HBCD contributes to initiation and progression of obesity and related metabolic dysfunction in mice fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD (62.2 kcal% fat) or a ND and treated orally with HBCD (0, 1.75, 35, or 700 μg/kg body weight) weekly from 6 to 20 weeks of age. We examined body weight, liver weight, blood biochemistry, histopathological changes, and gene expression profiles in the liver and adipose tissue. In HFD-fed mice, body and liver weight were markedly increased in mice treated with the high (700 μg/kg) and medium (35 μg/kg) doses of HBCD compared with vehicle. This effect was more prominent in the high-dose group. These increases were paralleled by increases in random blood glucose and insulin levels and enhancement of microvesicular steatosis and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. HBCD-treated HFD-fed mice also had increased mRNA levels of Pparg (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) in the liver and decreased mRNA levels of Glut4 (glucose transporter 4) in adipose tissue compared with vehicle-treated HFD-fed mice. Our findings suggest that HBCD may contribute to enhancement of diet-induced body weight gain and metabolic dysfunction through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis, resulting in accelerated progression of obesity. Yanagisawa R, Koike E, Win-Shwe TT, Yamamoto M, Takano H. 2014. Impaired lipid and glucose homeostasis in hexabromocyclododecane-exposed mice fed a high-fat diet. Environ Health Perspect 122:277-283; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307421.

  2. Impaired Lipid and Glucose Homeostasis in Hexabromocyclododecane-Exposed Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Eiko; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Yamamoto, Megumi; Takano, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is an additive flame retardant used in the textile industry and in polystyrene foam manufacturing. Because of its lipophilicity and persistency, HBCD accumulates in adipose tissue and thus has the potential of causing metabolic disorders through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the association between HBCD and obesity remains unclear. Objectives: We investigated whether exposure to HBCD contributes to initiation and progression of obesity and related metabolic dysfunction in mice fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD (62.2 kcal% fat) or a ND and treated orally with HBCD (0, 1.75, 35, or 700 μg/kg body weight) weekly from 6 to 20 weeks of age. We examined body weight, liver weight, blood biochemistry, histopathological changes, and gene expression profiles in the liver and adipose tissue. Results: In HFD-fed mice, body and liver weight were markedly increased in mice treated with the high (700 μg/kg) and medium (35 μg/kg) doses of HBCD compared with vehicle. This effect was more prominent in the high-dose group. These increases were paralleled by increases in random blood glucose and insulin levels and enhancement of microvesicular steatosis and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. HBCD-treated HFD-fed mice also had increased mRNA levels of Pparg (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) in the liver and decreased mRNA levels of Glut4 (glucose transporter 4) in adipose tissue compared with vehicle-treated HFD-fed mice. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HBCD may contribute to enhancement of diet-induced body weight gain and metabolic dysfunction through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis, resulting in accelerated progression of obesity. Citation: Yanagisawa R, Koike E, Win-Shwe TT, Yamamoto M, Takano H. 2014. Impaired lipid and glucose homeostasis in hexabromocyclododecane-exposed mice fed a high-fat diet. Environ Health

  3. Oxidized Cholesteryl Esters and Phospholipids in Zebrafish Larvae Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Longhou; Harkewicz, Richard; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Wiesner, Philipp; Choi, Soo-Ho; Almazan, Felicidad; Pattison, Jennifer; Deer, Elena; Sayaphupha, Tiffany; Dennis, Edward A.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miller, Yury I.

    2010-01-01

    A novel hypercholesterolemic zebrafish model has been developed to study early events of atherogenesis. This model utilizes optically transparent zebrafish larvae, fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD), to monitor processes of vascular inflammation in live animals. Because lipoprotein oxidation is an important factor in the development of atherosclerosis, in this study, we characterized the oxidized lipid milieu in HCD-fed zebrafish larvae. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we show that feeding an HCD for only 2 weeks resulted in up to 70-fold increases in specific oxidized cholesteryl esters, identical to those present in human minimally oxidized LDL and in murine atherosclerotic lesions. The levels of oxidized phospholipids, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-oxovaleroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and of various lysophosphatidylcholines were also significantly elevated. Moreover, lipoproteins isolated from homogenates of HCD-fed larvae induced cell spreading as well as ERK1/2, Akt, and JNK phosphorylation in murine macrophages. Removal of apoB-containing lipoproteins from the zebrafish homogenates with an anti-human LDL antibody, as well as reducing lipid hydroperoxides with ebselen, resulted in inhibition of macrophage activation. The TLR4 deficiency in murine macrophages prevented their activation with zebrafish lipoproteins. Using biotinylated homogenates of HCD-fed larvae, we demonstrated that their components bound to murine macrophages, and this binding was effectively competed by minimally oxidized LDL but not by native LDL. These data provide evidence that molecular lipid determinants of proatherogenic macrophage phenotypes are present in large quantities in hypercholesterolemic zebrafish larvae and support the use of the HCD-fed zebrafish as a valuable model to study early events of atherogenesis. PMID:20710028

  4. Glucocorticoids inhibited hypothalamic target of rapamycin in high fat diet-fed chicks.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Wang, X; Jiao, H; Zhao, J; Lin, H

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted with broiler chicks exposed to dexamethasone (DEX) to explore its effects on hypothalamic target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling and regulating appetite in diets containing different energy levels. At 5 d age, 48 chicks were divided into one of 4 groups: high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) and intracerebroventricular (ICV) injected with either dexamethasone (DEX; 4 μg/2 μL) or saline at 10 d age. The results showed that DEX significantly inhibited gene expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts (CART), melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and inhibited the protein level of the phospho-TOR compared with the control in HFD-fed chicks (P<0.05) but not in LFD-fed chicks (P>0.05). After DEX treatment, hypothalamic agouti-related peptide levels were decreased significantly in HFD-fed chicks (P<0.05) but not in LFD-fed chicks (P>0.05). Compared to the control, DEX-treated chicks did not present any significant changes in neuropeptide Y gene expression with either HFD or LFD (P>0.05), but pro-opiomelanocortin levels were depressed by ICV DEX treatment with both diets (P<0.05). In conclusion, glucocorticoids (GC) downregulated hypothalamic gene expression of CART, CRH, and MC4R in HFD-fed chicks, suggesting that the regulatory network formed by these genes is associated with the appetite control during stress. The TOR pathway may be involved in the regulation of GC on appetite-related genes. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Adipose tissue chromium and vanadium disbalance in high-fat fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Kwan, Olga V; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the current study is to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content and adipose tissue dysfunction in a model of diet-induced obesity. A total of 26 female Wistar rats were fed either standard or high-fat diet (31.6% of fat from total caloric content) for 3 months. High-fat-feeding resulted in 21 and 33% decrease in adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content, respectively. No change was seen in hair chromium or vanadium levels. Statistical analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of adipose tissue Cr and V with animal morphometric parameters and adipocyte size. Significant inverse dependence was observed between adipose tissue Cr and V and serum leptin and proinflammatory cytokines' levels. At the same time, adipose tissue Cr and V levels were characterized by positive correlation between serum adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio. Adipose tissue Cr and V were inversely correlated (p<0.05) with insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) levels. Cr and V concentrations were not correlated with serum glucose in either high-fat fed or control rats; however, both serum glucose and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in high-fat fed, compared to control, rats. The results allow to hypothesize that impairment of adipose tissue Cr and V content plays a certain role in the development of adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction in obesity.

  6. Highly efficient generation of GGTA1 biallelic knockout inbred mini-pigs with TALENs.

    PubMed

    Xin, Jige; Yang, Huaqiang; Fan, Nana; Zhao, Bentian; Ouyang, Zhen; Liu, Zhaoming; Zhao, Yu; Li, Xiaoping; Song, Jun; Yang, Yi; Zou, Qingjian; Yan, Quanmei; Zeng, Yangzhi; Lai, Liangxue

    2013-01-01

    Inbred mini-pigs are ideal organ donors for future human xenotransplantations because of their clear genetic background, high homozygosity, and high inbreeding endurance. In this study, we chose fibroblast cells from a highly inbred pig line called Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI) as donor nuclei for nuclear transfer, combining with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and successfully generated α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) gene biallelic knockout (KO) pigs. To validate the efficiency of TALEN vectors, in vitro-transcribed TALEN mRNAs were microinjected into one-cell stage parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos. The efficiency of indel mutations at the GGTA1-targeting loci was as high as 73.1% (19/26) among the parthenogenetic blastocysts. TALENs were co-transfected into porcine fetal fibroblasts of BMI with a plasmid containing neomycin gene. The targeting efficiency reached 89.5% (187/209) among the survived cell clones after a 10 d selection. More remarkably 27.8% (58/209) of colonies were biallelic KO. Five fibroblast cell lines with biallelic KO were chosen as nuclear donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Three miniature piglets with biallelic mutations of the GGTA1 gene were achieved. Gal epitopes on the surface of cells from all the three biallelic KO piglets were completely absent. The fibroblasts from the GGTA1 null piglets were more resistant to lysis by pooled complement-preserved normal human serum than those from wild-type pigs. These results indicate that a combination of TALENs technology with SCNT can generate biallelic KO pigs directly with high efficiency. The GGTA1 null piglets with inbred features created in this study can provide a new organ source for xenotransplantation research.

  7. High prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pig cheeks.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Maijala, Riitta; Korkeala, Hannu

    2014-10-01

    Samples from pork cuts for minced meat and cheeks from processing plants and a slaughterhouse, and modified atmosphere (MA) packaged pork from retail were studied to estimate the prevalence of pathogenic, i.e. virulence plasmid bearing, Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pork, as well as to quantify pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in pork cuts. Pathogenic (virF-positive) Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 17 pig cheeks (23%) but not from any of the MA-packaged 54 retail pork samples and only from one of the 155 pork cut (0.6%). Most (16/17) of the cheek samples were contaminated with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 and one with bioserotype 2/O:9. No Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. The prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was clearly higher (39%) in 155 pork cuts when studied with nested PCR targeting yadA on the virulence plasmid pYV although the contamination level was low varying between 0.1 and 1.6 MPN/g. Raw pork cuts and especially pig cheeks may serve as possible sources for yersiniosis caused by pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adipokine production in mice fed high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study compared high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats with various levels of linoleic acid (18:2n6, LA) and a-linolenic acid (18:3n3, ALA) on adipokine production in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week old mice were fed AIN93G diet (15% of energy from corn oil, control) or ...

  9. High fat diet-fed obese rats are highly sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-09-15

    Often, chemotherapy by doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is limited due to life threatening cardiotoxicity in patients during and posttherapy. Recently, we have shown that moderate diet restriction remarkably protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This cardioprotection is accompanied by decreased cardiac oxidative stress and triglycerides and increased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and upregulated JAK/STAT3 pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether a physiological intervention by feeding 40% high fat diet (HFD), which induces obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), sensitizes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. A LD{sub 10} dose (8 mg doxorubicin/kg, ip) administered on day 43 of the HFD feeding regimen led to higher cardiotoxicity, cardiac dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and 80% mortality in the obese (OB) rats in the absence of any significant renal or hepatic toxicity. Doxorubicin toxicokinetics studies revealed no change in accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the normal diet-fed (ND) and OB hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that OB rats are sensitized due to: (1) higher oxyradical stress leading to upregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) downregulation of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-{alpha}, (3) decreased plasma adiponectin levels, (4) decreased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation (666.9 {+-} 14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ND versus 400.2 {+-} 11.8 nmol/min/g heart in OB), (5) decreased mitochondrial AMP-{alpha}2 protein kinase, and (6) 86% drop in cardiac ATP levels accompanied by decreased ATP/ADP ratio after doxorubicin administration. Decreased cardiac erythropoietin and increased SOCS3 further downregulated the cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese rats are highly sensitized to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by substantially downregulating cardiac mitochondrial ATP generation, increasing oxidative stress and downregulating

  10. Telmisartan improves insulin resistance and modulates adipose tissue macrophage polarization in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Fujisaka, Shiho; Usui, Isao; Kanatani, Yukiko; Ikutani, Masashi; Takasaki, Ichiro; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Bukhari, Agussalim; Yamazaki, Yu; Suzuki, Hikari; Senda, Satoko; Aminuddin, Aminuddin; Nagai, Yoshinori; Takatsu, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Masashi; Tobe, Kazuyuki

    2011-05-01

    Diet-induced obesity is reported to induce a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophages from an antiinflammatory M2 state to a proinflammatory M1 state. Telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist, reportedly has more beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity than other angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers. In this study, we studied the effects of telmisartan on the adipose tissue macrophage phenotype in high-fat-fed mice. Telmisartan was administered for 5 wk to high-fat-fed C57BL/6 mice. Insulin sensitivity, macrophage infiltration, and the gene expressions of M1 and M2 markers in visceral adipose tissues were then examined. An insulin- or a glucose-tolerance test showed that telmisartan treatment improved insulin resistance, decreasing the body weight gain, visceral fat weight, and adipocyte size without affecting the amount of energy intake. Telmisartan reduced the mRNA expression of CD11c and TNF-α, M1 macrophage markers, and significantly increased the expressions of M2 markers, such as CD163, CD209, and macrophage galactose N-acetyl-galactosamine specific lectin (Mgl2), in a quantitative RT-PCR analysis. A flow cytometry analysis showed that telmisartan decreased the number of M1 macrophages in visceral adipose tissues. In conclusion, telmisartan improves insulin sensitivity and modulates adipose tissue macrophage polarization to an antiinflammatory M2 state in high-fat-fed mice.

  11. Renoprotective and antioxidant effects of Saururus chinensis Baill in rats fed a high-fructose diet

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ha-Neul; Park, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kang, Min-Jung; Jeong, Soo-Mi; Kim, Hyeon Hoe

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the preventive effect of Saururus chinensis Baill against renal damage induced by a high-fructose diet in rats. The rats (n = 30) were fed either a cornstarch-based (65%), high-fructose (65%), or high-fructose (64.5%) diet with 0.5% S. chinensis Baill extract for 10 weeks. Twenty-four hour urine collections were obtained and the animals were sacrificed after an overnight fast. Serum urea and creatinine and urine albumin were measured using colorimetric methods, and creatinine clearance was determined. In addition, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the kidney were determined. Kidney samples were also examined histologically. The fructose-fed rats showed renal dysfunction, indicated by decreased creatinine clearance, increased albumin in the urine, and increased urea and creatinine in the serum. These renal function parameters were comparable to control levels in rats that consumed S. chinensis Baill. Fructose consumption increased renal TBARS and reduced GSH and SOD activity, whereas these levels were near-normal in the rats consuming S. chinensis Baill. The kidneys of fructose-fed rats showed glomerular basement membrane thickening, mesangial matrix expansion, and tubule dilation. These pathological changes were not seen in the rats that consumed S. chinensis Baill. Therefore, S. chinensis Baill effectively alleviated fructose-induced renal damage in these rats, at least partially due to antioxidant activity. PMID:21994532

  12. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Jung; Choi, Deok Ho; Cho, Guk Hyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-08-06

    Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL) seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). EAL-I (100 mg·kg-1/day), EAL-II (200 mg·kg-1/day), and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg-1/day) groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  13. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL) seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). Method EAL-I (100 mg·kg−1/day), EAL-II (200 mg·kg−1/day), and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg−1/day) groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Results Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation. PMID:22866890

  14. Optimization of high solids fed-batch saccharification of sugarcane bagasse based on system viscosity changes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunyun; Xu, Jingliang; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Xie, Jun

    2015-10-10

    Viscosity trends in alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) slurries undergoing high solids fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis were measured for a range of solids loading from 15% to 36%. Solids liquefaction times were related to system viscosity changes. The viscosity decreased quickly for low solids loading, and increased with increasing solids content. Fed-batch hydrolysis was initiated with 15% solids loading, and an additional 8%, 7% and 6% were successively added after the system viscosity decreased to stable values to achieve a final solids content of 36%. Two enzyme-adding modes with 8.5FPU/g solid were investigated. The batch mode with all enzyme being added at the beginning of the reaction produced the highest yields, with approximately 231.7g/L total sugars and 134.9g/L glucose being obtained after 96h with nearly 60% of the final glucan conversion rate. This finding indicates that under the right conditions, the fed-batch strategy might be a plausible way to produce high sugars under high solids.

  15. Troxerutin reverses fibrotic changes in the myocardium of high-fat high-fructose diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Radika, Mutulur Krishnamoorthy; Priyadarshini, Emayavaramban; Bhavani, Krishnamurthy; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2015-09-01

    A previous study from our laboratory showed that troxerutin (TX) provides cardioprotection by mitigating lipid abnormalities in a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed mice model of metabolic syndrome (MS). The present study aims to investigate the reversal effect of TX on the fibrogenic changes in the myocardium of HFFD-fed mice. Adult male Mus musculus mice were grouped into four and fed either control diet or HFFD for 60 days. Each group was divided into two, and the mice were either treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o) from the 16th day. HFFD-fed mice showed marked changes in the electrocardiographic data. Increased levels of myocardial superoxide, p22phox subunit of NADPH oxidase, transforming growth factor (TGF), smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-9 and -2, and decreased levels of tissue inhibitors of MMPs-1 and -2 were observed. Furthermore, degradation products of troponin I and myosin light chain-1 were observed in the myocardium by immunoblotting. Rise in collagen was observed by hydroxyproline assay, while fibrotic changes were noticed by histology and Western blotting. Hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and myocardial calcium accumulation were also observed in HFFD-fed mice. TX treatment exerted cardioprotective and anti-fibrotic effects in HFFD-fed mice by improving cardiac contractile function, reducing superoxide production and by favorably modifying the fibrosis markers. These findings suggest that TX could be cardioprotective through its antioxidant and antifibrogenic actions. This new finding could pave way for translation studies to human MS.

  16. Dietary krill oil supplementation reduces hepatic steatosis, glycemia, and hypercholesterolemia in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Tandy, Sally; Chung, Rosanna W S; Wat, Elaine; Kamili, Alvin; Berge, Kjetil; Griinari, Mikko; Cohn, Jeffrey S

    2009-10-14

    Krill oil (KO) is rich in n-3 fatty acids that are present in phospholipids rather than in triglycerides. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary KO on cardiometabolic risk factors in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice (n = 6-10 per group) were fed for 8 weeks either: (1) a nonpurified chow diet (N); (2) a high-fat semipurified diet containing 21 wt % buttermilk + 0.15 wt % cholesterol (HF); (3) HF supplemented with 1.25 wt % KO (HFKO1.25); (4) HF with 2.5 wt % KO (HFKO2.5); or (5) HF with 5 wt % KO (HFKO5.0). Dietary KO supplementation caused a significant reduction in liver wt (i.e., hepatomegaly) and total liver fat (i.e., hepatic steatosis), due to a dose-dependent reduction in hepatic triglyceride (mean +/- SEM: 35 +/- 6, 47 +/- 4, and 51 +/- 5% for HFKO1.25, -2.5, and -5.0 vs HF, respectively, P < 0.001) and cholesterol (55 +/- 5, 66 +/- 3, and 71 +/- 3%, P < 0.001). Serum cholesterol levels were reduced by 20 +/- 3, 29 +/- 4, and 29 +/- 5%, and blood glucose was reduced by 36 +/- 5, 34 +/- 6, and 42 +/- 6%, respectively. Serum adiponectin was increased in KO-fed animals (HF vs HFKO5.0: 5.0 +/- 0.2 vs 7.5 +/- 0.6 microg/mL, P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that dietary KO is effective in improving metabolic parameters in mice fed a high-fat diet, suggesting that KO may be of therapeutic value in patients with the metabolic syndrome and/or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  17. Fecal excretion pattern of bile acids in rats fed high fat diets and neomycin in induced colon tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Panda, S K; Broitman, S A

    1999-09-06

    Neomycin augments colon tumorigenesis in 1,2 - dimethylhydrazine treated rats fed polyunsaturated fat diet and decreases fecal cholic acid excretion, while it inhibits tumorigenesis with increased cholic acid and decreased deoxycholic acid excretions in rats fed high cholesterol diet. Participation of other fecal bile acids seems to be insignificant in relation to colon carcinogenesis.

  18. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Karen B; Kennelly, John P; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J; Jacobs, René L

    2016-09-23

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  19. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen B.; Kennelly, John P.; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J.; Jacobs, René L.

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293

  20. Elimination and Concentration Correlations between Edible Tissues and Biological Fluids and Hair of Ractopamine in Pigs and Goats Fed with Ractopamine-Medicated Feed.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lingli; Shi, Jingfei; Pan, Yuanhu; Wang, Liye; Chen, Dongmei; Xie, Shuyu; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-03-09

    Ractopamine (RAC), a β-adrenergic leanness-enhancing agent, endangers the food safety of animal products because of overdosing and illegal use in food animals. Excretion and residue depletion of RAC in pigs and goats were investigated to determine a representative biological fluid or surface tissue for preslaughter monitoring. After a single oral gavage of RAC, 64-67% of the dose was excreted from the urine of pigs and goats within 12-24 h. RAC persisted the longest in the hair of pigs and goats but depleted rapidly in the plasma, muscle, and fat. Urine and hair were excellent for predicting RAC residues in edible tissues of pigs, whereas plasma and urine were satisfactory body fluids for the prediction of RAC concentrations in edible tissues of goats. These data provided a simple and economical preslaughter living monitoring method for the illegal use and violative residue of RAC in food animals.

  1. Unexpectedly high allelic diversity at the KIT locus causing dominant white color in the domestic pig.

    PubMed Central

    Pielberg, G; Olsson, C; Syvänen, A C; Andersson, L

    2002-01-01

    Mutations in KIT encoding the mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (MGF) are responsible for coat color variation in domestic pigs. The dominant white phenotype is caused by two mutations, a gene duplication and a splice mutation in one of the copies leading to skipping of exon 17. Here we applied minisequencing and pyrosequencing for quantitative analysis of the number of copies with the splice form. An unexpectedly high genetic diversity was revealed in white pigs. We found four different KIT alleles in a small sample of eight Large White females used as founder animals in a wild boar intercross. A similar number of KIT alleles was found in commercial populations of white Landrace and Large White pigs. We provide evidence for at least two new KIT alleles in pigs, both with a triplication of the gene. The results imply that KIT alleles with the duplication are genetically unstable and new alleles are most likely generated by unequal crossing over. This study provides an improved method for genotyping the complicated Dominant white/KIT locus in pigs. The results also suggest that some alleles may be associated with negative pleiotropic effects on other traits. PMID:11805065

  2. A diet rich in leafy vegetable fiber improves cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ezz El-Arab, A M

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic effect of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) was studied in high-cholesterol fed rats. The animals were fed diets supplemented with cholesterol (0.25%) for 4 weeks. Leaf vegetable diet produced an important hypocholesterolemic action: it led to a significant lowering (p<0.05) of cholesterol in the plasma and liver, as well as of the atherogenic index and a significant increase (p<0.05) in cecal short chain fatty acids, with respect to the control group. Concurrently, total fecal neutral sterols in the excretion increased (p<0.05) and apparent absorption of dietary cholesterol was significantly depressed (-58%). The consumption of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) with a hypercholesterolemic diet improved the lipidemic profile and increased excretion of the total cholesterol end-products.

  3. Global Transcriptomic Profiling of Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fatty Heart Induced by Long-Term High-Energy Diet in Bama Miniature Pigs.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jihan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Xin, Leilei; Kong, Siyuan; Chen, Yaoxing; Yang, Shulin; Li, Kui

    2015-01-01

    A long-term high-energy diet affects human health and leads to obesity and metabolic syndrome in addition to cardiac steatosis and hypertrophy. Ectopic fat accumulation in the heart has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for heart disorders, but the molecular mechanism of heart disease remains largely unknown. Bama miniature pigs were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) for 23 months. These pigs developed symptoms of metabolic syndrome and showed cardiac steatosis and hypertrophy with a greatly increased body weight (2.73-fold, P<0.01), insulin level (4.60-fold, P<0.01), heart weight (1.82-fold, P<0.05) and heart volume (1.60-fold, P<0.05) compared with the control pigs. To understand the molecular mechanisms of cardiac steatosis and hypertrophy, nine pig heart cRNA samples were hybridized to porcine GeneChips. Microarray analyses revealed that 1,022 genes were significantly differentially expressed (P<0.05, ≥1.5-fold change), including 591 up-regulated and 431 down-regulated genes in the HFHSD group relative to the control group. KEGG analysis indicated that the observed heart disorder involved the signal transduction-related MAPK, cytokine, and PPAR signaling pathways, energy metabolism-related fatty acid and oxidative phosphorylation signaling pathways, heart function signaling-related focal adhesion, axon guidance, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and actin cytoskeleton signaling pathways, inflammation and apoptosis pathways, and others. Quantitative RT-PCR assays identified several important differentially expressed heart-related genes, including STAT3, ACSL4, ATF4, FADD, PPP3CA, CD74, SLA-8, VCL, ACTN2 and FGFR1, which may be targets of further research. This study shows that a long-term, high-energy diet induces obesity, cardiac steatosis, and hypertrophy and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of hypertrophy and fatty heart to facilitate further research.

  4. Global Transcriptomic Profiling of Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fatty Heart Induced by Long-Term High-Energy Diet in Bama Miniature Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jihan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Xin, Leilei; Kong, Siyuan; Chen, Yaoxing; Yang, Shulin; Li, Kui

    2015-01-01

    A long-term high-energy diet affects human health and leads to obesity and metabolic syndrome in addition to cardiac steatosis and hypertrophy. Ectopic fat accumulation in the heart has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for heart disorders, but the molecular mechanism of heart disease remains largely unknown. Bama miniature pigs were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD) for 23 months. These pigs developed symptoms of metabolic syndrome and showed cardiac steatosis and hypertrophy with a greatly increased body weight (2.73-fold, P<0.01), insulin level (4.60-fold, P<0.01), heart weight (1.82-fold, P<0.05) and heart volume (1.60-fold, P<0.05) compared with the control pigs. To understand the molecular mechanisms of cardiac steatosis and hypertrophy, nine pig heart cRNA samples were hybridized to porcine GeneChips. Microarray analyses revealed that 1,022 genes were significantly differentially expressed (P<0.05, ≥1.5-fold change), including 591 up-regulated and 431 down-regulated genes in the HFHSD group relative to the control group. KEGG analysis indicated that the observed heart disorder involved the signal transduction-related MAPK, cytokine, and PPAR signaling pathways, energy metabolism-related fatty acid and oxidative phosphorylation signaling pathways, heart function signaling-related focal adhesion, axon guidance, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and actin cytoskeleton signaling pathways, inflammation and apoptosis pathways, and others. Quantitative RT-PCR assays identified several important differentially expressed heart-related genes, including STAT3, ACSL4, ATF4, FADD, PPP3CA, CD74, SLA-8, VCL, ACTN2 and FGFR1, which may be targets of further research. This study shows that a long-term, high-energy diet induces obesity, cardiac steatosis, and hypertrophy and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of hypertrophy and fatty heart to facilitate further research. PMID:26161779

  5. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Senthil A; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively. IO reduced plasma concentrations of free fatty acids by 26·2 % and TAG by 75·8 % in HIO rats. IO increased faecal output by 93·2 %, faecal lipid excretion by 37·9 % and weight of caecum by 23·4 % and colon by 41·5 % in HIO rats. IO improved ileal morphology by reducing inflammation and improving the density of crypt cells in HIO rats. IO attenuated H diet-induced increases in abdominal fat pads (C 275 (sem 19), CIO 264 (sem 40), H 688 (sem 55), HIO 419 (sem 32) mg/mm tibial length), fasting blood glucose concentrations (C 4·5 (sem 0·1), CIO 4·2 (sem 0·1), H 5·2 (sem 0·1), HIO 4·3 (sem 0·1) mmol/l), systolic blood pressure (C 124 (sem 2), CIO 118 (sem 2), H 152 (sem 2), HIO 123 (sem 3) mmHg), left ventricular diastolic stiffness (C 22·9 (sem 0·6), CIO 22·9 (sem 0·5), H 27·8 (sem 0·5), HIO 22·6 (sem 1·2)) and plasma alanine transaminase (C 29·6 (sem 2·8), CIO 32·1 (sem 3·0), H 43·9 (sem 2·6), HIO 33·6 (sem 2·0) U/l). IO attenuated H-induced increases in inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver, lipid droplets in the liver and plasma lipids as well as impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. These results suggest that increasing soluble fibre intake with IO improves signs of the metabolic syndrome by decreasing gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid uptake.

  6. Increased Aβ pathology in aged Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Nizari, Shereen; Carare, Roxana O; Hawkes, Cheryl A

    2016-02-25

    Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes, obesity and premature death in adult offspring. Mid-life diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia are risk factors for the development of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). A key pathogenic feature of AD is the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high fat diet feeding during early life on Aβ pathology in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Female mice were fed a standard (C) or high fat (HF) diet before mating and during gestation and lactation. At weaning, male offspring were fed a C diet. Significantly higher levels of guanidine-soluble Aβ and plaque loads were observed in the hippocampi of 11-month old Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a HF diet. Changes in the extracellular matrix led to increased retention of Aβ within the parenchyma. These data support a role for maternal and gestational health on the health of the aged brain and pathologies associated with AD and may provide a novel target for both the prevention and treatment of AD.

  7. Increased Aβ pathology in aged Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Nizari, Shereen; Carare, Roxana O.; Hawkes, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes, obesity and premature death in adult offspring. Mid-life diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia are risk factors for the development of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A key pathogenic feature of AD is the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high fat diet feeding during early life on Aβ pathology in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Female mice were fed a standard (C) or high fat (HF) diet before mating and during gestation and lactation. At weaning, male offspring were fed a C diet. Significantly higher levels of guanidine-soluble Aβ and plaque loads were observed in the hippocampi of 11-month old Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a HF diet. Changes in the extracellular matrix led to increased retention of Aβ within the parenchyma. These data support a role for maternal and gestational health on the health of the aged brain and pathologies associated with AD and may provide a novel target for both the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:26911528

  8. Effects of dietary true digestible calcium to phosphorus ratio on growth performance and efficiency of calcium and phosphorus use in growing pigs fed corn and soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Fan, M Z; Archbold, T

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine effects of dietary true fecal digestible Ca to true digestible P ratio on growth performance and efficiency of Ca and P use in growing pigs fed corn (Triticum aestivum)-soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM)-based diets. Experiment 1 was carried out to measure true fecal digestibility of Ca and P as well as the fecal endogenous outputs of these nutrients associated with a corn and SBM-based diet in 12 Yorkshire growing pigs with an average initial BW of 23.2 ± 0.6 kg by the substitution method. True fecal digestibility values (%; n = 6) of Ca (53.6 ± 12.7) and P (43.8 ± 16.7) as well as the fecal endogenous outputs (g/kg DMI; n = 12) of Ca (0.91 ± 0.20) and P (1.31 ± 0.15) associated with the diets were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted with 36 Yorkshire barrows of an average initial BW of 24.2 ± 0.6 kg and the pigs were fed 6 diets according to a completely randomized block design. The 6 diets were corn and SBM based with diet 1 containing 0.2% true digestible Ca and 0.3% true digestible P and were formulated to contain 6 total Ca to total P ratios based on analyzed dietary Ca and P contents (diet 1, 0.6:1; diet 2, 0.7:1; diet 3, 0.8:1; diet 4, 1.3:1; diet 5, 1.0:1; and diet 6, 1.3:1) by supplementing gradient levels of limestone with a constant dietary P content for meeting the recommended requirement. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had no effects (P > 0.05) on ADG. No differences (P > 0.05) in ADFI were observed between the other diets except the lower ADFI (P < 0.05) in diet 3 compared with diet 2. However, G:F was higher (P < 0.05) in diet 2 compared with diets 5 and 6. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had consistent effects on true fecal P digestibility and retention with much lower values (P < 0.05) observed in diet 5 in comparison with the other diets. In summary, true fecal digestible Ca to P ratios of 0.9:1 to 1.0:1 were associated with optimal responses in both G:F as well as true fecal P

  9. Urinary signature of pig carcasses with boar taint by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Cristina C; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Deceuninck, Yoann; Gicquiau, Audrey; Chevillon, Patrick; Bonneau, Michel; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    Boar taint is an offensive odour that can occur while cooking pork or pork products and is identified in some uncastrated male pigs that have reached puberty. It is widely held that boar taint is the result of the accumulation in back fat of two malodorous compounds: androstenone and skatole. The purpose of this study is to assess a mass spectrometry-based metabolomics strategy to investigate the metabolic profile of urine samples from pig carcasses presenting low (untainted) and high (tainted) levels of androstenone and skatole in back fat. Urine samples were analysed by LC-ESI(+)-HRMS. Discrimination between tainted and untainted animals was observed by the application of multivariate statistical analysis, which allowed candidate urinary biomarkers to be highlighted. These urinary metabolites were positively correlated to androstenone and skatole levels in back fat. Therefore, the study suggests that the measurement of these urinary metabolites might provide information with regard to androstenone and skatole levels in live pigs.

  10. Yogurt protects against growth retardation in weanling rats fed diets high in phytic acid

    PubMed Central

    Gaetke, Lisa M.; McClain, Craig J.; Toleman, C. Jean; Stuart, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the affects of adding yogurt to animal diets which were high in phytic acid (PA) and adequate in zinc (38 μg Zn/g). The PA:Zn molar ratio was 60:1. Zinc status was determined by documenting growth and measuring the zinc concentration in bone (tibia) and plasma. For 25 days, 6 groups (n=6) of Sprague-Dawley weanling rats were fed one of the following AIN-76 diets. Half of the diets contained PA. Four of the diets contained yogurt with either active or heat-treated (inactive) cultures added at 25% of the diet. Diets: (without PA) 1) AIN, 2) AIN with active yogurt, 3) AIN and inactive yogurt; and (with PA) 4) AIN with PA, 5) AIN with PA plus active yogurt, and 6) AIN with PA plus inactive yogurt. Body weight, weight gain, and zinc concentration in bone and plasma were measured, and feed efficiency ratio (FER) was calculated. Rats fed diets with PA and yogurt had normal growth compared to the control group. Growth retardation was evident in the group fed the diet with PA and no yogurt. This group had significantly lower body weight compared to all other groups (p<0.05). Rats fed diets with PA, with or without yogurt, had significantly lower zinc concentration in bone and plasma (p<0.05). Adding yogurt to diets high in PA resulted in normal growth in weanling rats, however, zinc concentration in bone and plasma was still sub-optimal. PMID:19269152

  11. Effect of telmisartan on the therapeutic efficacy of pitavastatin in high-fat diet induced dyslipidemic guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cuihuan; Fang, Dailong; Chen, Xi; Xinyue, Li; Nie, Yu; Xie, Yafei; Ma, Yu; Deng, Senyi; Zhang, Zhi; Song, Xiangrong

    2015-09-05

    Angiotensin II-receptor blockers (ARBs), similar to HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), could improve lipid metabolism abnormalities. There might be some cross-talking pathways between statins and ARBs to produce additive beneficial effects on lipid metabolism in dyslipidemia. However, few studies investigate the effects of ARBs on the therapeutic efficacy of statins in dyslipidemia. The present study was designed to systematically evaluate the effects of telmisartan on the therapeutic efficacy of pitavastatin on lowering lipid level and reducing fat deposition by employing a dyslipidemia model, guinea pigs. 48 Male guinea pigs fed with high-fat diet were randomly grouped and treated with vehicle, telmisartan, pitavastatin or telmisartan/pitavastatin combinations. After treatment for eight weeks, telmisartan could significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy of pitavastatin by extremely reducing body weight gain, weight of adipose tissue and adipocyte size. However, telmisartan/pitavastatin combinations could not further improve lipid levels on the basis of pitavastain, though single telmisartan markedly decreased triglyceride (TG) and slightly increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Moreover, telmisartan/pitavastatin combinations significantly upregulated the gene expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-δ, but no effects on the expression of PPAR-α/γ, leptin and adiponectin compared to monotherapy. Taken together, our studies provided new evidences that telmisartan has an additive beneficial influence on decreasing fat deposition and weight gain through PPAR-δ pathway but cannot enhance the therapeutic efficacy of pitavastatin on lowering lipid levels. The combinational administration of telmisartan and pitavastatin could be a potential therapeutic strategy for dyslipidemia related obesity and worthy of further investigation in obese animal models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  12. Intestinal Mucosal Triacylglycerol Accumulation Secondary to Decreased Lipid Secretion in Obese and High Fat Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Douglass, John D.; Malik, Nashmia; Chon, Su-Hyoun; Wells, Kevin; Zhou, Yin Xiu; Choi, Andrew S.; Joseph, Laurie B.; Storch, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The ectopic deposition of fat in liver and muscle during obesity is well established, however surprisingly little is known about the intestine. We used the ob/ob mouse and C57BL6/J mice fed a high fat (HF) diet to examine the effects of obesity and the effects of HF feeding, respectively, on intestinal mucosal triacylglycerol (TG) accumulation. Male C57BL6/J (wild-type, WT) mice were fed low fat (LF; 10% kcal as fat) or HF (45%) diets, and ob/ob mice were fed the LF diet, for 3 weeks. In this time frame, the WT–HF mice did not become obese, enabling independent examination of effects of the HF diet and effects of obesity. Analysis of intestinal lipid extracts from fed and fasted animals demonstrated that the mucosa, like other tissues, accumulates excess lipid. In the fed state, mucosal triacylglycerol (TG) levels were threefold and fivefold higher in the WT–HF and ob/ob mice, respectively, relative to the WT–LF mice. In the fasted state, mucosa from ob/ob mice had threefold higher TG levels relative to WT–LF mucosa. q-PCR analysis of mucosal mRNA from fed state mice showed alterations in the expression of several genes related to both anabolic and catabolic lipid metabolism pathways in WT–HF and ob/ob mice relative to WT–LF controls. Fewer changes were found in mucosal samples from the fasted state animals. Remarkably, oral fat tolerance tests showed a striking reduction in the plasma appearance of an oral fat load in the ob/ob and WT–HF mice compared to WT–LF. Overall, the results demonstrate that the intestinal mucosa accumulates excess TG during obesity. Changes in the expression of lipid metabolic and transport genes, as well as reduced secretion of dietary lipid from the mucosal cells into the circulation, may contribute to the TG accumulation in intestinal mucosa during obesity. Moreover, even in the absence of frank obesity, HF feeding leads to a large decrease in the rate of intestinal lipid secretion. PMID:22375121

  13. Effect of vaccination of pigs against experimental infection with high and low virulence Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strains.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, I; Maes, D; Vranckx, K; Calus, D; Pasmans, F; Haesebrouck, F

    2011-02-17

    This study investigated the infection pattern and lung lesion development in pigs caused by a low and highly virulent Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain at 4 and 8 weeks (w) post infection (PI). It also determined the efficacy of a commercial inactivated whole-cell vaccine against infection with each one of these M. hyopneumoniae strains. Ninety piglets free of M. hyopneumoniae were selected, and 40 of them were randomly vaccinated during their first week of life. At weaning, all piglets were allocated to 10 different groups and housed in pens with absolute filters. At 4 weeks of age, pigs were inoculated intratracheally with either a highly virulent M. hyopneumoniae strain, a low virulent strain or with sterile culture medium. Half of all animals were euthanized at 4 w PI, while the remaining half was euthanized at 8 w PI. Coughing was assessed daily, and lung lesions, immunofluorescence (IF), bacteriological analysis and nested PCR were assessed after necropsy. It was demonstrated that contrary to the highly virulent strain, the low virulent strain required more than 4 weeks PI (commonly accepted as the standard infection model) to reach maximum clinical symptoms. Vaccination significantly reduced clinical symptoms, macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions in pigs infected with the highly virulent strain. This effect was more pronounced at 4 than at 8 weeks PI. Protective efficacy was also observed in pigs infected with the low virulent strain, but the effect was less pronounced than on the highly virulent strain.

  14. Wheat bran reduces concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets fed to pigs, but energy values in wheat bran determined by the difference procedure are not different from values estimated from a linear regression procedure.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, N W; Liu, D W; Li, D F; Stein, H H

    2016-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine effects on DE, ME, and NE for growing pigs of adding 15 or 30% wheat bran to a corn-soybean meal diet and to compare values for DE, ME, and NE calculated using the difference procedure with values obtained using linear regression. Eighteen barrows (54.4 ± 4.3 kg initial BW) were individually housed in metabolism crates. The experiment had 3 diets and 6 replicate pigs per diet. The control diet contained corn, soybean meal, and no wheat bran. Two additional diets were formulated by mixing 15 or 30% wheat bran with 85 or 70% of the control diet, respectively. The experimental period lasted 15 d. During the initial 7 d, pigs were adapted to their experimental diets and housed in metabolism crates and fed 573 kcal ME/kg BW per day. On d 8, metabolism crates with the pigs were moved into open-circuit respiration chambers for measurement of O consumption and CO and CH production. The feeding level was the same as in the adaptation period, and feces and urine were collected during this period. On d 13 and 14, pigs were fed 225 kcal ME/kg BW per day, and pigs were then fasted for 24 h to obtain fasting heat production. Results of the experiment indicated that the apparent total tract digestibility of DM, GE, crude fiber, ADF, and NDF linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05) as wheat bran inclusion increased in the diets. The daily O consumption and CO and CH production by pigs fed increasing concentrations of wheat bran linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05), resulting in a linear decrease ( ≤ 0.05) in heat production. The DE (3,454, 3,257, and 3,161 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively), ME (3,400, 3,209, and 3,091 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively), and NE (1,808, 1,575, and 1,458 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively) of diets decreased (linear, ≤ 0.05) as wheat bran inclusion increased

  15. High resolution nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of pig knees at 4.7 T.

    PubMed

    Robinson, E M; Mackenzie, I S; Freemont, A; Jasani, M K

    1988-01-01

    We present images of the pig knee joint which illustrate the resolution that is easily obtainable in high field (4.7 T) NMR imaging. We also describe a variant of the birdcage resonator which utilizes a novel tuning mechanism of simple construction.

  16. Domestic pigs have low susceptibility to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background. Genetic reassortment of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) with currently circulating human influenza A strains is one possibility that could lead to efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Domestic pigs which are susceptible to infection with both human and avian ...

  17. Effect of pectin feeding on obesity development and duodenal alkaline phosphatase activity in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high-fat/high-energy diet.

    PubMed

    Šefčíková, Z; Raček, L

    2016-06-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate whether pectin feeding would affect the small intestinal function and whether these changes would lead to obesity prevention in rats fed with high-fat diet. Three groups of weaned male rats (ad lib. fed; rats fed with diet containing 15% w/w of citrus pectin; restrictedly pair-fed rats) were fed with either a standard diet (9.5% fat) or a high-fat diet (30% fat) for 10 days. Results Our results revealed that pectin feeding led to significant decreases in body weight, energy intake and fat pad weight in rats fed with the standard as well as high-fat diet. Moreover, compared to the restrictedly pair-fed rats, in both groups of rats fed with the diet containing pectin, significant decrease in duodenal alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity was observed in histochemically stained cryostat sections. In contrast, despite their lower energy intake, restrictedly pair-fed rats showed similar fat pad deposition accompanied by unchanged values of AP activity in comparison to the controls. Conclusions Our findings indicate that daily pectin consumption could be beneficial in suppressing body weight gain and reducing probability of obesity risk in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

  18. Antihyperlipidemic effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S; Kuzmanov, K; Mihova, V; Krasnaliev, I; Borisova, P; Belcheva, A

    2007-03-01

    Aronia melanocrpa fruit juice (AMFJ) used in our experiment was very rich in phenolic substances (709.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 ml juice). Anthocyanins (106.8 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 ml juice) were the main flavonoid group. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of AMFJ on plasma lipids and lipoprotein profile, and histopathology of liver and aorta in rats with dietary-induced hyperlipidemia. AMFJ was administered by gavage for 30 days at doses of 5, 10 and 20 ml/kg body weight to rats fed a standard diet (SD) or a 4% cholesterol-containing diet (4% ChD). The 4% ChD caused a significant elevation of plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG). AMFJ did not significantly influence plasma lipids in rats fed the SD and significantly hindered the elevation of plasma TC, LDL-C and TG in rats fed the 4% ChD. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were not significantly influenced either by the 4% ChD or by AMFJ. Neither the cholesterol feeding, nor AMFJ treatment induced any histopathological changes in rat liver and aorta. In conclusion, AMFJ showed an antihyperlipidemic effect in rats with hyperlipidemia and could be valuable in reducing this factor of cardiovascular risk.

  19. Effects of Puerarin on Lipid Accumulation and Metabolism in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guodong; Lin, Lezhen; Zhong, Shusheng; Zhang, Qingfeng; Li, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT) weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), carnitine acyltransferase (CAT) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2) was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:25822741

  20. Possible effects of Phil