Science.gov

Sample records for pike esox lucius

  1. Northern pike (Esox lucius) collagen: Extraction, characterization and potential application.

    PubMed

    Kozlowska, J; Sionkowska, A; Skopinska-Wisniewska, J; Piechowicz, K

    2015-11-01

    Acid soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) from the scales of northern pike (Esox lucius) were extracted and characterized. It was the first time that this species was used as sources of collagen. FT-IR and amino acid analysis results revealed the presence of collagen. Glycine accounts for one-third of its amino acid residues and specific for collagen amino acid - hydroxyproline - is present in isolated protein. The content of imino acid: proline and hydroxyproline in ASC and PSC was similar (12.5% Pro and 6.5% Hyp). Both ASC and PSC were type I collagen. The denaturation temperature of ASC and PSC were 28.5 and 27°C, respectively. Thin collagen films were obtained by casting of collagen solution onto glass plates. The surface properties of ASC and PSC films were different - the surface of ASC collagen film was more polar and less rough than PSC and we can observe the formation of collagen fibrils after solvent evaporation. ASC films showed much higher tensile properties than PSC. The obtained results suggest that northern pike scales have potential as an alternative source of collagen for use in various fields.

  2. Mechanical suppression of northern pike (Esox lucius) populations in small Arizona reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuzmenko, Yuliya; Spesiviy, Timofy; Bonar, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduced populations of northern pike Esox lucius have provided angling opportunities in the western United States (McMahon and Bennett 1996). However, the northern pike is a voracious piscivore and its large size, high fecundity, and broad physiological tolerance make it capable of drastically altering ecosystems it invades (Marchetti et al. 2004). Indeed, predation by northern pike has been shown to significantly alter fish community structure and put native fishes at a higher extinction risk (He and Kitchell 1990, Findlay et al. 2000). Predation by northern pike is viewed as a significant threat to native stocks of salmonids in Washington, British Columbia, and California (McMahon and Bennett 1996, California Department of Fish and Game [CDFG] 2003).

  3. Age-dependent accumulation of (137)Cs by pike Esox lucius in the Yenisei River.

    PubMed

    Zotina, T A; Trofimova, E A; Dementyev, D V; Bolsunovsky, A Ya

    2016-05-01

    Age-dependent accumulation of (137)Cs in the muscles and bodies of the pike Esox lucius (aged two to seven years) inhabiting a section of the Yenisei River polluted with artificial radionuclides has been studied. The content of (137)Cs in muscles varied from 0.5 to 7.0 Bq/kg of fresh weight. The maximum content of the radionuclide has been found in juveniles. The content of (137)Cs in pike muscles and body decreased considerably with age. The high content of (137)Cs in the muscles of juveniles is probably a consequence of their higher intensity of feeding as compared to older individuals, which is due to the intense growth of juveniles. PMID:27411826

  4. Mercury elimination rates for adult northern pike Esox lucius: evidence for a sex effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Blanchfield, Paul J.; Hrenchuk, Lee E.; Van Walleghem, Jillian L. A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of sex on mercury elimination in fish by monitoring isotope-enriched mercury concentrations in the muscle tissue of three adult female and three adult male northern pike Esox lucius, which had accumulated the isotope-enriched mercury via a whole-lake manipulation and were subsequently moved to a clean lake. Mercury elimination rates for female and male northern pike were estimated to be 0.00034 and 0.00073 day−1, respectively. Thus, males were capable of eliminating mercury at more than double the rate than that of females. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first documentation of mercury elimination rates varying between the sexes of fish. This sex difference in elimination rates should be taken into account when comparing mercury accumulation between the sexes of fish from the same population. Further, our findings should eventually lead to an improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for mercury elimination in vertebrates.

  5. Biomarkers of contaminant exposure in northern pike (Esox lucius) from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Myers, M.S.; Gross, T.S.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a larger investigation, northern pike (n = 158; Esox lucius) were collected from ten sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska, to document biomarkers and their correlations with organochlorine pesticide (total p,p'-DDT, total chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and elemental contaminant (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium, and zinc) concentrations. A suite of biomarkers including somatic indices, hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, vitellogenin concentrations, steroid hormone (17B- ustradiol and 16-kebtestosteront) concentrations, splenic macrophage aggregates (MAs), oocyte atresia, and other microscopic anomalies in various tissues were documented in YRB pike. Mean condition factor (0.50 to 0.68), hepatosomatic index (1.00% to 3.56%), and splenosomatic index (0.09% to 0.18%) were not anomalous at any site nor correlated with any contaminant concentration. Mean EROD activity (0.71 to 17.51 pmol/min/mg protein) was similar to basal activity levels previously measured in pike and was positively correlated with selenium concentrations (r = 0.88, P < 0.01). Vitellogenin concentrations in female (0.09 to 5.32 mg/mL) and male (0.01 mg/mL in male pike from multiple sites indicated exposure to estrogenic compounds. Mean steroid hormone concentrations and percent oocyte atresia were not anomalous in pike from any YRB site. Few site differences were significant for mean MA density (1.86 to 6.42 MA/mm2), size (812 to 1481 ??m2), and tissue occupied (MA-%; 0.24% to 0.75%). A linear regression between MA-% and total PCBs was significant, although PCB concentrations were generally low in YRB pike (???63 ng/g), and MA-% values in female pike (0.24% to 0.54%) were lower than in male pike (0.32% to 0.75%) at similar PCB concentrations. Greater numbers of MAs were found as zinc concentrations increased in YRB female pike, but it is unlikely that this is a causative relationship

  6. 'Soft' harness for external attachment of large radio transmitters to northern pike (Esox lucius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herke, S.W.; Moring, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a 'soft' harness for dorsally attaching large, external radio transmitters to northern pike (Esox lucius). The key harness component was a soft, flexible, thick-walled tubing that prevented tissue abrasion by the attachment lines which passed through the tubing. Six field-tagged fish (1.5-7.5 kg) were monitored for 45-115 days before tracking was terminated. Tracking patterns of fish indicated no apparent effect of these large, external transmitters on movement behavior; further, the transmitters did not appear to entangle the fish in vegetation. One fish with its transmitter still secure was recaptured after 54 days, and there was minimal tissue erosion under the transmitter. With minor improvements for the attachment lines and the transmitter saddle, the method is suitable for externally attaching large telemetry transmitters to fish.

  7. Hematological parameters associated with parasitism in pike, Esox lucius caught from Anzali wetland.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Farzin Jamalzad; Khara, Hossein; Rohi, Javad Daghigh; Sayadborani, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    This study involved 120 pike, Esox lucius, captured from Anzali wetland. Parasite fauna were identified in captured fish. Also, changes of haematological parameters were compared both infected and uninfected fish. Parasitological inspections revealed the following infestations: Skin: Lernea cyprinacea, Argulus foliaceus (Crustacean) and Tricodina sp. (Ciliatea). Gill: Dactylogyrus sp. (Digenea) and Tetraonchus monenteron (Monogenea). Eye: Diplostomum spathaceum (Digenea). Gut: Eustrongylides exises, Rhipdocotyle illense, Raphidascaris acus (Nematode), Corynosoma Strumosum (Acanthocephala). Most prevalence and intensity were related to Eustrongylides exises and Rhipdocotyle illense. Following haematological parameters were evaluated: haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils. Significant difference was found for MCV between infected and uninfected fish. PMID:26064009

  8. Pike Esox lucius as an emerging model organism for studies in ecology and evolutionary biology: a review.

    PubMed

    Forsman, A; Tibblin, P; Berggren, H; Nordahl, O; Koch-Schmidt, P; Larsson, P

    2015-08-01

    The pike Esox lucius is a large, long-lived, iteroparous, top- predator fish species with a circumpolar distribution that occupies a broad range of aquatic environments. This study reports on a literature search and demonstrates that the publication rate of E. lucius research increases both in absolute terms and relative to total scientific output, and that the focus of investigation has changed over time from being dominated by studies on physiology and disease to being gradually replaced by studies on ecology and evolution. Esox lucius can be exploited as a model in future research for identifying causes and consequences of phenotypic and genetic variation at the levels of individuals, populations and species as well as for investigating community processes.

  9. Genetic structure of pike (Esox lucius) reveals a complex and previously unrecognized colonization history of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Pedreschi, Debbi; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Caffrey, Joe; O’Grady, Martin; Mariani, Stefano; Phillimore, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Aim We investigated genetic variation of Irish pike populations and their relationship with European outgroups, in order to elucidate the origin of this species to the island, which is largely assumed to have occurred as a human-mediated introduction over the past few hundred years. We aimed thereby to provide new insights into population structure to improve fisheries and biodiversity management in Irish freshwaters. Location Ireland, Britain and continental Europe. Methods A total of 752 pike (Esox lucius) were sampled from 15 locations around Ireland, and 9 continental European sites, and genotyped at six polymorphic microsatellite loci. Patterns and mechanisms of population genetic structure were assessed through a diverse array of methods, including Bayesian clustering, hierarchical analysis of molecular variance, and approximate Bayesian computation. Results Varying levels of genetic diversity and a high degree of population genetic differentiation were detected. Clear substructure within Ireland was identified, with two main groups being evident. One of the Irish populations showed high similarity with British populations. The other, more widespread, Irish strain did not group with any European population examined. Approximate Bayesian computation suggested that this widespread Irish strain is older, and may have colonized Ireland independently of humans. Main conclusions Population genetic substructure in Irish pike is high and comparable to the levels observed elsewhere in Europe. A comparison of evolutionary scenarios upholds the possibility that pike may have colonized Ireland in two ‘waves’, the first of which, being independent of human colonization, would represent the first evidence for natural colonization of a non-anadromous freshwater fish to the island of Ireland. Although further investigations using comprehensive genomic techniques will be necessary to confirm this, the present results warrant a reappraisal of current management strategies

  10. Fish Community Responses to the Establishment of a Piscivore, Northern Pike (Esox lucius), in a Nebraska Sandhill Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBates, T.J.; Paukert, C.P.; Willis, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) was first documented in West Long Lake, Nebraska, in 1998 when two pike <380 mm were collected. In 2002, a Peterson mark-recapture population estimate on northern pike revealed density and standing stock (i.e., biomass) estimates of 35.8 fish/ha (95% CI= ?? 8.8) and 22.0 kg/ha (95% CI= ?? 5.4), respectively. Consequently, West Long Lake was sampled in 2002 to compare relative abundance, size structure, and growth of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) prior to and after the establishment of a high-density northern pike population. Bluegill, largemouth bass, and yellow perch relative abundances were significantly lower in 2002 than 1998. Similarly, size structures of all three species were significantly different between years. Size structure declined for both bluegill and yellow perch, and increased for largemouth bass. Growth was significantly higher for bluegill, largemouth bass, and yellow perch in 2002 than 1998. While the fish community changes were expected with the establishment of northern pike, they occurred in a relatively short time period (i.e., four years).

  11. Post-glacial dispersal patterns of Northern pike inferred from an 8800 year old pike (Esox cf. lucius) skull from interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooller, Matthew J.; Gaglioti, Benjamin; Fulton, Tara L.; Lopez, Andres; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-07-01

    The biogeography of freshwater fish species during and after late-Pleistocene glaciations relate to how these species are genetically organized today, and the management of these often disjunct populations. Debate exists concerning the biogeography and routes of dispersal for Northern pike (Esox lucius) after the last glaciation. A hypothesis to account for the relatively low modern genetic diversity for E. lucius is post-glacial radiation from refugia, including lakes from within the un-glaciated portions of eastern Beringia. We report the remains of a Northern pike (E. cf. lucius) skull, including bones, teeth, bone collagen and ancient DNA. The remains were preserved at a depth of between 440 and 446 cm in a 670 cm long core of sediment from Quartz Lake, which initiated at ˜11,200 cal yr BP in interior Alaska. A calibrated accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon age of the collagen extracted from the preserved bones indicated that the organism was dated to 8820 cal yr BP and is bracketed by AMS values from analyses of terrestrial plant macrofossils, avoiding any potential aquatic reservoir effect that could have influenced the radiocarbon age of the bones. Scanning electron microscope images of the specimen show the hinged tooth anatomy typically of E. lucius. Molar C:N (3.5, 1σ = 0.1) value of the collagen from the specimen indicated well-preserved collagen and its mean stable nitrogen isotope value is consistent with the known predatory feeding ecology of E. lucius. Ancient DNA in the bones showed that the specimen was identical to modern E. lucius. Our record of E. lucius from interior Alaska is consistent with a biogeographic scenario involving rapid dispersal of this species from glacial refugia in the northern hemisphere after the last glaciation.

  12. Assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology in juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) inhabiting lakes downstream of a uranium mill.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jocelyn M; Janz, David M

    2009-05-17

    Lakes receiving effluent from the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan contain elevated trace metals, some of which are associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and tissues causing oxidative stress. The potential for oxidative stress was assessed in juvenile (age 1+) northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from two exposure (high and low) and one reference lake near the Key Lake operation. The concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized glutathione and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione in liver and kidney did not differ significantly among pike collected from exposure and reference lakes, with the exception of low exposure pike kidney that had significantly greater oxidized glutathione and ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione. The concentrations of by-products of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenal) were significantly greater in kidney of pike collected from the reference lake compared to both exposure lakes. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase in liver was greater in pike collected from the high exposure lake compared to the reference lake. Histopathological evaluations revealed greater pathology in reference lake pike as indicated by a greater number of pyknotic and fragmented nuclei and dilated tubules as well as a thickening of Bowman's capsule in kidney, and as a thickening of the primary filament epithelial padding in gills. In liver, hepatocyte morphology, including transsectional area and degree of vacuolation, differed among lakes without any clear signs of pathology. Trace metal analyses of muscle showed that eight elements (arsenic, cobalt, copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium, thallium, and uranium) were significantly elevated in pike collected from both exposure lakes compared to reference. These results provide only limited evidence of oxidative stress in exposure pike tissues and no evidence of histopathology despite indications that trace metals, most

  13. The mechanical power output and hydromechanical efficiency of northern pike (Esox lucius) fast-starts

    PubMed

    Frith; Blake

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical power output and hydrodynamic efficiency of northern pike, Esox lucius, during acceleration from rest (fast-start) are calculated from hydrodynamic theory for two kinematic patterns, C-starts (used in escape) and S-starts (used in prey capture). The Weihs model is employed and modified to calculate the mechanical power produced by a fish during a fast-start. A term is included for the power required to accelerate body sections laterally. Lateral deceleration of fish body sections and their associated added mass are expressed as an active process requiring energy expenditure or as a passive process requiring no energy expenditure. In addition, two methods of calculating useful power (the power used to accelerate the virtual mass of the fish, i.e. fish body mass + longitudinal added mass, in the direction of motion), one derived from the Weihs model and the second by summing the changes in kinetic energy of the virtual mass of the fish during a fast-start, are compared and found to give similar estimates of useful power (not significantly different; differences average 22 %). Comparisons of the kinematics and performance of C- and S-starts reveal that C-starts are consistently terminated after two tail flips (stages 1 and 2) whereas S-starts continue for 3­6 tail flips (stages 3­6). In addition, acceleration during C-starts is more rapid and velocities are higher (2.3­2.8 m s-1) than during S-starts (0.8­1.8 m s-1) over the first 100 ms. However, the peak velocities achieved during S-starts and C-starts are similar over the duration of a fast-start. The superior acceleration rates achieved during the initial stages of a C-start can be explained, in part, by the use of greater maximum angles of attack, higher lateral and perpendicular velocities and larger maximum forces by the caudal fin. Hydrodynamic efficiencies for fast-starts range from 0.16 to 0.39, values that are lower than those observed during either burst-and-coast or steady swimming

  14. Potential of Environmental DNA to Evaluate Northern Pike (Esox lucius) Eradication Efforts: An Experimental Test and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunker, Kristine J.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Massengill, Robert L.; Olsen, Jeffrey B.; Russ, Ora L.; Wenburg, John K.; Antonovich, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Determining the success of invasive species eradication efforts is challenging because populations at very low abundance are difficult to detect. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has recently emerged as a powerful tool for detecting rare aquatic animals; however, detectable fragments of DNA can persist over time despite absence of the targeted taxa and can therefore complicate eDNA sampling after an eradication event. This complication is a large concern for fish eradication efforts in lakes since killed fish can sink to the bottom and slowly decay. DNA released from these carcasses may remain detectable for long periods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of eDNA sampling to detect invasive Northern pike (Esox lucius) following piscicide eradication efforts in southcentral Alaskan lakes. We used field observations and experiments to test the sensitivity of our Northern pike eDNA assay and to evaluate the persistence of detectable DNA emitted from Northern pike carcasses. We then used eDNA sampling and traditional sampling (i.e., gillnets) to test for presence of Northern pike in four lakes subjected to a piscicide-treatment designed to eradicate this species. We found that our assay could detect an abundant, free-roaming population of Northern pike and could also detect low-densities of Northern pike held in cages. For these caged Northern pike, probability of detection decreased with distance from the cage. We then stocked three lakes with Northern pike carcasses and collected eDNA samples 7, 35 and 70 days post-stocking. We detected DNA at 7 and 35 days, but not at 70 days. Finally, we collected eDNA samples ~ 230 days after four lakes were subjected to piscicide-treatments and detected Northern pike DNA in 3 of 179 samples, with a single detection at each of three lakes, though we did not catch any Northern pike in gillnets. Taken together, we found that eDNA can help to inform eradication efforts if used in conjunction with multiple lines of inquiry and sampling

  15. Potential of environmental DNA to evaluate Northern pike (Esox lucius) eradication efforts: An experimental test and case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunker, Kristine J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Massengill, Robert L.; Olsen, Jeffrey B.; Russ, Ora L.; Wenburg, John K.; Antonovich, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Determining the success of invasive species eradication efforts is challenging because populations at very low abundance are difficult to detect. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has recently emerged as a powerful tool for detecting rare aquatic animals; however, detectable fragments of DNA can persist over time despite absence of the targeted taxa and can therefore complicate eDNA sampling after an eradication event. This complication is a large concern for fish eradication efforts in lakes since killed fish can sink to the bottom and slowly decay. DNA released from these carcasses may remain detectable for long periods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of eDNA sampling to detect invasive Northern pike (Esox lucius) following piscicide eradication efforts in southcentral Alaskan lakes. We used field observations and experiments to test the sensitivity of our Northern pike eDNA assay and to evaluate the persistence of detectable DNA emitted from Northern pike carcasses. We then used eDNA sampling and traditional sampling (i.e., gillnets) to test for presence of Northern pike in four lakes subjected to a piscicide-treatment designed to eradicate this species. We found that our assay could detect an abundant, free-roaming population of Northern pike and could also detect low-densities of Northern pike held in cages. For these caged Northern pike, probability of detection decreased with distance from the cage. We then stocked three lakes with Northern pike carcasses and collected eDNA samples 7, 35 and 70 days post-stocking. We detected DNA at 7 and 35 days, but not at 70 days. Finally, we collected eDNA samples ~ 230 days after four lakes were subjected to piscicide-treatments and detected Northern pike DNA in 3 of 179 samples, with a single detection at each of three lakes, though we did not catch any Northern pike in gillnets. Taken together, we found that eDNA can help to inform eradication efforts if used in conjunction with multiple lines of inquiry and sampling

  16. Potential of Environmental DNA to Evaluate Northern Pike (Esox lucius) Eradication Efforts: An Experimental Test and Case Study.

    PubMed

    Dunker, Kristine J; Sepulveda, Adam J; Massengill, Robert L; Olsen, Jeffrey B; Russ, Ora L; Wenburg, John K; Antonovich, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Determining the success of invasive species eradication efforts is challenging because populations at very low abundance are difficult to detect. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has recently emerged as a powerful tool for detecting rare aquatic animals; however, detectable fragments of DNA can persist over time despite absence of the targeted taxa and can therefore complicate eDNA sampling after an eradication event. This complication is a large concern for fish eradication efforts in lakes since killed fish can sink to the bottom and slowly decay. DNA released from these carcasses may remain detectable for long periods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of eDNA sampling to detect invasive Northern pike (Esox lucius) following piscicide eradication efforts in southcentral Alaskan lakes. We used field observations and experiments to test the sensitivity of our Northern pike eDNA assay and to evaluate the persistence of detectable DNA emitted from Northern pike carcasses. We then used eDNA sampling and traditional sampling (i.e., gillnets) to test for presence of Northern pike in four lakes subjected to a piscicide-treatment designed to eradicate this species. We found that our assay could detect an abundant, free-roaming population of Northern pike and could also detect low-densities of Northern pike held in cages. For these caged Northern pike, probability of detection decreased with distance from the cage. We then stocked three lakes with Northern pike carcasses and collected eDNA samples 7, 35 and 70 days post-stocking. We detected DNA at 7 and 35 days, but not at 70 days. Finally, we collected eDNA samples ~ 230 days after four lakes were subjected to piscicide-treatments and detected Northern pike DNA in 3 of 179 samples, with a single detection at each of three lakes, though we did not catch any Northern pike in gillnets. Taken together, we found that eDNA can help to inform eradication efforts if used in conjunction with multiple lines of inquiry and sampling

  17. {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in wild perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius)

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, G.; Liewenborg, B.; Balk, L.

    1995-12-31

    Several previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between high concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants and elevated levels of aromatic/hydrophobic DNA adduct levels in the liver of benthic fish species. In the present study DNA adducts was analyzed in coastal populations of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Fish were sampled from four different sites in a gradient from a heavily industrialized area at the Swedish Baltic coast. For comparison, fish were also caught in a reference area with no main industries and comparatively low levels of contaminants of anthropogenic origin. DNA was extracted from liver and several extrahepatic tissues and DNA adducts were analyzed by the nuclease PI version of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay. The autoradiograms derived from DNA of fish from the contaminated sites showed several adduct spots not visible on the autoradiograms derived from fish from the reference area. Total adduct levels were significantly elevated in several tissues in fish from contaminated sites compared to the reference area. Species and tissue-specific differences in adduct levels and the use of {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts as a biomarker to monitor the presence and effects of genotoxic chemicals in the aquatic environment are discussed.

  18. Quantifying selection differentials caused by recreational fishing: development of modeling framework and application to reproductive investment in pike (Esox lucius)

    PubMed Central

    Arlinghaus, Robert; Matsumura, Shuichi; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Methods for quantifying selection pressures on adaptive traits affected by size-selective fishing are still scarce, and none have as yet been developed for recreational fishing. We present an ecologically realistic age-structured model specifically tailored to recreational fishing that allows estimating selection differentials on adaptive life-history traits. The model accounts for multiple ecological feedbacks, which result in density-dependent and frequency-dependent selection. We study selection differentials on annual reproductive investment under size-selective exploitation in a highly demanded freshwater recreational fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius L.). We find that recreational angling mortality exerts positive selection differentials on annual reproductive investment, in agreement with predictions from life-history theory. The strength of selection increases with the intensity of harvesting. We also find that selection on reproductive investment can be reduced by implementing simple harvest regulations such as minimum-size limits. The general, yet computationally simple, methods introduced here allow evaluating and comparing selection pressures on adaptive traits in other fish populations and species, and thus have the potential to become a tool for evolutionary impact assessment of harvesting. PMID:25567885

  19. Landscape variability explains spatial pattern of population structure of northern pike (Esox lucius) in a large fluvial system

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet-Cauchon, Geneviève; Mingelbier, Marc; Lecomte, Frédéric; Bernatchez, Louis

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies have been investigating the influence of contemporary environmental factors on population genetic structure, but few have addressed the issue of spatial patterns in the variable intensity of factors influencing the extent of population structure, and particularly so in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we document the landscape genetics of northern pike (Esox lucius), based on the analysis of nearly 3000 individuals from 40 sampling sites using 22 microsatellites along the Lake Ontario – St. Lawrence River system (750 km) that locally presents diverse degrees of interannual water level variation. Genetic structure was globally very weak (FST = 0.0208) but spatially variable with mean level of differentiation in the upstream section of the studied area being threefold higher (FST = 0.0297) than observed in the downstream sector (FST = 0.0100). Beside interannual water level fluctuation, 19 additional variables were considered and a multiple regression on distance matrices model (R2 = 0.6397, P < 0.001) revealed that water masses (b = 0.3617, P < 0.001) and man-made dams (b = 0.4852, P < 0.005) reduced genetic connectivity. Local level of interannual water level stability was positively associated to the extent of genetic differentiation (b = 0.3499, P < 0.05). As water level variation impacts on yearly quality and localization of spawning habitats, our study illustrates how temporal variation in local habitat availability, caused by interannual water level fluctuations, may locally decrease population genetic structure by forcing fish to move over longer distances to find suitable habitat. This study thus represents one of the rare examples of how environmental fluctuations may influence spatial variation in the extent of population genetic structure within a given species. PMID:25614787

  20. Length-weight relationship of northern pike, Esox lucius, from East Harbor, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Edward H.; Clark, Clarence F.

    1965-01-01

    The northern pike is one of Ohio's largest game fish but is well known to comparatively few anglers. Large numbers of the big fish spawn in the Ohio marshes adjacent to Lake Erie. Movements related to spawning reach a peak in late March or early April. Later the spawning population disperses and is seldom represented in catches by experimental gear or by anglers. The short period of availability was used to obtain life history information in March of 1951 through 1953. No comprehensive length-weight data for this species have previously been published from this area. East Harbor is a sandspit pond separated from Lake Erie by a large sand bar. Waters and fish populations of the harbor and lake can mix freely through a permanent connecting channel. The larger part of the 850 surface acres of the harbor is normally less than 8 feet deep. The male northern pike averaged 20.5 inches in length and ranged from 13.5 to 28.5 inches. The conspicuously larger females averaged 26.0 inches and ranged from 15.5 to 37.5 inches.

  1. Fine-scale oscillatory banding in otoliths from arctic charr (Salveninus alpinus) and pike (Esox lucius)

    SciTech Connect

    Meldrum, A.; Halden, N.M.

    1997-12-31

    Transmission electron microscopy of otoliths from the inner ear of arctic charr and pike has revealed the presence of fine banding on the scale of several nanometers. The thickness of the bands was observed to vary in different portions of the sample, and some areas were not banded. EDS analysis could not detect chemical differences within the bands, but electron diffraction showed that the crystallographic orientation of the bands is related by a lattice mismatch. Previously, banding on the scale of 50 to 100 microns was observed by SEM in otoliths from arctic charr and was attributed to seasonal variations in growth. The fine-scale banding observed in this study, however, is unlikely to represent a daily variation. Electron diffraction from the pike samples shows that the material is composed of CaCO{sub 3} having the both the vaterite and aragonite structure, and hydrous CaCO{sub 3} was also observed. The large-scale banding previously identified by SEM was not observed in the TEM despite attempts to intersect the boundaries of the micron-sized layers. The interaction of the electron beam with the sample material was investigated by conducting several electron-irradiation experiments. The electron beam was observed to interact strongly with the sample and caused the precipitation of cubic CaO from the calcium carbonate matrix. Bright-field imaging showed the development of fine grained ({approximately} 5 nm) randomly oriented crystallites which accumulated with increasing electron dose. These initial results suggest that the precipitation of CaO is not driven by electron-beam beating. Previously, a similar phase-change phenomenon has been observed in hydroxyapatite from dental enamel. Other Ca-bearing biominerals may therefore also be expected to be sensitive to electron irradiation.

  2. Uptake and distribution of (/sup 3/H)benzo(a)pyrene in the Northern pike (Esox lucius). Examination by whole-body autoradiography and scintillation counting

    SciTech Connect

    Balk, L.; Meijer, J.; DePierre, J.W.; Appelgren, L.E.

    1984-07-01

    The uptake and distribution of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene in Northern pike (Esox lucius) were investigated by whole body autoradiography and scintillation counting. (/sup 3/H)Benzo(a)pyrene was administered either in the diet or in the water. The uptake and distribution of this compound and its metabolites were followed from 10 hr to 21 days after the initial exposure. The autoradiography patterns observed here with both routes of administration suggest, as expected, that benzo(a)pyrene is taken up through the gastrointestinal system and the gills, metabolized in the liver, and excreted in the urine and bile. Other findings indicate that the gills may not be a major route of excretion for benzo(a)pyrene and its metabolites in the Northern pike; that benzo(a)pyrene may be taken up from the water directly into the skin of this fish; that benzo(a)pyrene and its metabolites are heterogeneously distributed in the kidney of the Northern pike; and that very little radioactivity accumulates in the adipose tissue. With scintillation counting, uptake of radioactivity from the water was found to occur rapidly in all organs, reaching a plateau in most cases after about 0.8 days. The concentrations of radioactivity in different organs ranged between 50 (many organs) and 80,000 (gallbladder + bile) times that found in the surrounding water.

  3. Investigation of parasites of pikes (Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1785) from Chamkhale River, Anzali and Amirkelayeh wetlands, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sadrinejad, Ali; Khara, Hossein; Gudarzi, Majid

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the health status, the parasite diversity and abundance were studied in three pike populations. For this purpose, totally 90 fish were caught from three natural habitats of pike including Chamkhale River, Anzali and Amirkelayeh wetlands, Iran. After biometry and age determination, fish were dissected and parasites were investigated in intestine, gill and eye. According to results, five parasite species were identified in whole body of pikes including Eustrongylides exises, Raphidascaris acus and Triaeophorus crassus in intestine, Tetraonchus monenteron in gill and Diplostomum spathaceum in eye. The highest values of quantitative indices of parasite population [i.e. incidence percent (86.66 %), mean intensity (60.83 ± 39.92), mean abundance (58.14 ± 34.6) and abundance range (1-232)] were recorded for T. monenteron in all three sampling regions. The lowest values of these quantitative indices were found for D. spathaceum, E. exises and Tetraonchus crassus in Anzali wetland, Chamkhale River and Amirkelayeh wetland respectively. In 2, 3 and 4 years old pikes, T. monenteron had the highest values of quantitative indices of parasite population. In conclusion, our results showed that Anzali wetland have more parasite pollution compared to other sampling regions. This may be due to the more rapid eutrophication in this wetland compared to Amirkelayeh wetland and Chamkhale River. PMID:27605833

  4. The Genome and Linkage Map of the Northern Pike (Esox lucius): Conserved Synteny Revealed between the Salmonid Sister Group and the Neoteleostei

    PubMed Central

    Rondeau, Eric B.; Minkley, David R.; Leong, Jong S.; Messmer, Amber M.; Jantzen, Johanna R.; von Schalburg, Kristian R.; Lemon, Craig; Bird, Nathan H.; Koop, Ben F.

    2014-01-01

    The northern pike is the most frequently studied member of the Esociformes, the closest order to the diverse and economically important Salmoniformes. The ancestor of all salmonids purportedly experienced a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, making salmonid species ideal for studying the early impacts of genome duplication while complicating their use in wider analyses of teleost evolution. Studies suggest that the Esociformes diverged from the salmonid lineage prior to the WGD, supporting the use of northern pike as a pre-duplication outgroup. Here we present the first genome assembly, reference transcriptome and linkage map for northern pike, and evaluate the suitability of this species to provide a representative pre-duplication genome for future studies of salmonid and teleost evolution. The northern pike genome sequence is composed of 94,267 contigs (N50 = 16,909 bp) contained in 5,688 scaffolds (N50 = 700,535 bp); the total scaffolded genome size is 878 million bases. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that over 96% of the protein-coding genome is present in the genome assembly. The reference transcriptome was constructed from 13 tissues and contains 38,696 transcripts, which are accompanied by normalized expression data in all tissues. Gene-prediction analysis produced a total of 19,601 northern pike-specific gene models. The first-generation linkage map identifies 25 linkage groups, in agreement with northern pike's diploid karyotype of 2N = 50, and facilitates the placement of 46% of assembled bases onto linkage groups. Analyses reveal a high degree of conserved synteny between northern pike and other model teleost genomes. While conservation of gene order is limited to smaller syntenic blocks, the wider conservation of genome organization implies the northern pike exhibits a suitable approximation of a non-duplicated Protacanthopterygiian genome. This dataset will facilitate future studies of esocid biology and empower ongoing examinations

  5. Reproductive status and lipid content as factors in PCB, DDT and HCH contamination of a population of pike (Esox lucius L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, P.; Okla, L.; Collvin, L. )

    1993-05-01

    Levels of persistent pollutants, including PCBs, [Sigma]DDT, and [gamma]-hexachlorocyclohexane, were examined in a pike population inhabiting a eutrophic lake in southern Scandinavia. For females, levels of persistent pollutants decreased linearly with age, weight, or length. This decline was ascribed to the seasonal elimination of the lipophilic pollutants in roe, which contained up to 10 times higher fat levels compared to muscle and over 10 times the amounts of pollutants. Male pike contained higher levels of pollutants than females, probably due to the lower elimination via gonadal products, as germinal tissue constitutes only 2% of the male total body weight and has a lower fat content than ovaries. Female germinal tissue can account for as much as 15% of the body weight. No major fat deposits other than those in germinal tissue were found in pike, which also had a low muscle fat content, suggesting that the importance of roe elimination in removing pollutants may be greater in pike than in salmonids. Uptake of persistent pollutants can vary greatly within a species, owing to differences in sex, age, and so forth, as well as between species, owing to differences in fat deposition strategies.

  6. The effects of season on fatty acid composition and ω3/ω6 ratios of northern pike ( Esox lucius L., 1758) muscle lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, Ramazan; Bulut, Sait; Konuk, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of season on fatty acid composition, total lipids, and ω3/ω6 ratios of northern pike muscle lipids in Kizilirmak River (Kirikkale, Turkey) were investigated. A total of 35 different fatty acids were determined in gas chromatography. Among these, palmitic, oleic, and palmitoleic acids had the highest proportion. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid. There were more PUFAs than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in all seasons. Similarly, the percentages of ω3 fatty acids were higher than those of total ω6 fatty acids in the fatty acid composition. ω3/ω6 ratios were calculated as 1.53, 1.32, 1.97, and 1.71 in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Overall, we found that the fatty acid composition and ω3/ω6 fatty acid ratio in the muscle of northern pike were significantly influenced by season.

  7. Molecular and Phenotypic Evidence of a New Species of Genus Esox (Esocidae, Esociformes, Actinopterygii): The Southern Pike, Esox flaviae

    PubMed Central

    Lucentini, Livia; Puletti, Maria Elena; Ricciolini, Claudia; Gigliarelli, Lilia; Fontaneto, Diego; Lanfaloni, Luisa; Bilò, Fabiana; Natali, Mauro; Panara, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    We address the taxonomic position of the southern European individuals of pike, performing a series of tests and comparisons from morphology, DNA taxonomy and population genetics parameters, in order to support the hypothesis that two species of pike, and not only one, exist in Europe. A strong relationship emerged between a northern genotype supported by COI, Cytb, AFLP and specific fragments, and a phenotype with round spot skin colour pattern and a large number of scales in the lateral line, clearly separated from a southern genotype with other skin colour pattern and a low number of scales in the lateral line. DNA taxonomy, based on a coalescent approach (GMYC) from phylogenetic reconstructions on COI and Cytb together with AFLP admixture analysis, supported the existence of two independently evolving entities. Such differences are not simply due to geographic distances, as northern European samples are more similar to Canadian and Chinese samples than the southern Europe ones. Thus, given that the differences between the two groups of European pike are significant at the phenotypic, genotypic and geographical levels, we propose the identification of two pike species: the already known northern pike (Esox lucius) and the southern pike (E. flaviae n.sp.). The correct identification of these two lineages as independent species should give rise to a ban on the introduction of northern pikes in southern Europe for recreational fishing, due to potential problems of hybridisation. PMID:22164201

  8. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals and Microelements in Silver Bream (Brama brama L.), Northern Pike (Esox lucius L.), Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) From Tisza River, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Štrbac, Snežana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Jovančićević, Branimir; Simonović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in liver, gills, gonads, and brain of four ecologically different fish species in Serbia: piscivorous northern pike, benthivorous sterlet and silver bream, and omnivorous common carp. Fish were caught at four sites along the stretch of the River Tisza in the Pannonian part of Serbia during October 2010. Results revealed that heavy metals and microelements with the highest values in fish samples were Fe, Al, and Zn. The highest concentration of heavy metals and microelements was recorded in omnivorous common carp, and organs that most intensively accumulated the greatest number of metals were liver and gills, whereas the locality did not exert a marked impact on level of bioaccumulation.

  9. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and total mercury in two fish species (Esox lucius and Carassius auratus) in Anzali Wetland, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sakizadeh, Mohammad; Esmaeili Sari, Abas; Abdoli, Asghar; Bahramifar, Nader; Hashemi, Seyed Hossein

    2012-05-01

    The Anzali Wetland is one of the most important ecosystems in the north of Iran, and parts of it were registered as a Ramsar site in 1975. However, even though, due to many problems, including eutrophication produced by inflow of excess nutrients and organic materials, the wetland was also listed on the Montreux Record indicating the need to take urgent remedial action. This study was conducted to study the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total mercury (THg) in two fish species (Esox lucius and Carassius auratus) as bio-indicators of the ecosystem condition in eastern part of Anzali Wetland. The sampling was carried out in six different periods between years 2009 and 2010. The results showed that the amounts of PCBs in the muscle of northern pike were below the detection limit of gas chromatography, whereas the average concentration in goldfish was 0.449 mg/kg wet weight. Some possible reasons for the higher levels of PCBs in goldfish in comparison with pike have been discussed. No significant (p < 0.05) correlation was observed between PCBs and biological factors (weight, length, lipid content) for both species. On the other hand, the mean concentration of THg in the muscle of pike and goldfish were 182.22 and 75.27 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Although these concentrations were below US-EPA criterion for human consumption (0.3 mg/kg), it pointed up a significant deterioration of the ecosystem condition during the past years. Finally, statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between THg with weight and an insignificant correlation with length for pike specimens.

  10. Salmo salar and Esox lucius full-length cDNA sequences reveal changes in evolutionary pressures on a post-tetraploidization genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Salmonids are one of the most intensely studied fish, in part due to their economic and environmental importance, and in part due to a recent whole genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. This duplication greatly impacts species diversification, functional specialization, and adaptation. Extensive new genomic resources have recently become available for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), but documentation of allelic versus duplicate reference genes remains a major uncertainty in the complete characterization of its genome and its evolution. Results From existing expressed sequence tag (EST) resources and three new full-length cDNA libraries, 9,057 reference quality full-length gene insert clones were identified for Atlantic salmon. A further 1,365 reference full-length clones were annotated from 29,221 northern pike (Esox lucius) ESTs. Pairwise dN/dS comparisons within each of 408 sets of duplicated salmon genes using northern pike as a diploid out-group show asymmetric relaxation of selection on salmon duplicates. Conclusions 9,057 full-length reference genes were characterized in S. salar and can be used to identify alleles and gene family members. Comparisons of duplicated genes show that while purifying selection is the predominant force acting on both duplicates, consistent with retention of functionality in both copies, some relaxation of pressure on gene duplicates can be identified. In addition, there is evidence that evolution has acted asymmetrically on paralogs, allowing one of the pair to diverge at a faster rate. PMID:20433749

  11. Introduced northern pike consumption of salmonids in Southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Dupuis, Aaron W; Shields, Patrick A; Dunker, Kristine J.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of introduced northern pike (Esox lucius) on salmonid populations have attracted much attention because salmonids are popular subsistence, sport and commercial fish. Concern over the predatory effects of introduced pike on salmonids is especially high in Southcentral Alaska, where pike were illegally introduced to the Susitna River basin in the 1950s. We used pike abundance, growth, and diet estimates and bioenergetics models to characterise the realised and potential consumptive impacts that introduced pike (age 2 and older) have on salmonids in Alexander Creek, a tributary to the Susitna River. We found that juvenile salmonids were the dominant prey item in pike diets and that pike could consume up to 1.10 metric tons (realised consumption) and 1.66 metric tons (potential consumption) of juvenile salmonids in a summer. Age 3–4 pike had the highest per capita consumption of juvenile salmonids, and age 2 and age 3–4 pike had the highest overall consumption of juvenile salmonid biomass. Using historical data on Chinook salmon and pike potential consumption of juvenile salmonids, we found that pike consumption of juvenile salmonids may lead to collapsed salmon stocks in Alexander Creek. Taken together, our results indicate that pike consume a substantial biomass of juvenile salmonids in Alexander Creek and that coexistence of pike and salmon is unlikely without management actions to reduce or eliminate introduced pike.

  12. Development of new microsatellite loci and multiplex reactions for muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloss, Brian L.; Franckowiak, R.P.; Murphy, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    The muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) is a valued fisheries species throughout its native range. Numerous studies have documented performance and phenotypic differences among muskellunge populations, but genetic markers for assessment have been lacking. We characterized 14 microsatellite loci and developed five multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Successful amplification of northern pike (Esox lucius) was observed for seven loci. These microsatellites will be useful for analysing population structure, performance characteristics of propagated strains, and helping to develop and monitor hatchery management guidelines for muskellunge. ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Morphological and molecular evidence of three species of pikes Esox spp. (Actinopterygii, Esocidae) in France, including the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Denys, Gaël Pierre Julien; Dettai, Agnès; Persat, Henri; Hautecœur, Mélyne; Keith, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    This integrative taxonomy study of French pikes compares morphological characters and molecular sequence data (mitochondrial COI and nuclear Plagl2 genes). In addition to the expected E. lucius, DNA sequences and morphology both support a new species in France, E. aquitanicus sp. nov. from the Charente to the Adour drainages. It is characterized by a color pattern of sides with narrow 1-1.5-scale-wide oblique vertical bands, conferring it a marbled coat, a snout only 0.9 times larger than the postorbital length, an anal fin basis 1.1-1.2 times larger than the caudal peduncle length, 101 to 121 lateral scales, 53 to 57 vertebrae, as well as 24 diagnostic sites in the COI gene and 3 in the Plagl2 gene. Partial COI sequences (131 bp) from modern and historical specimens indicate also the presence of E. cisalpinus and E. lucius during the 19th century in Lake Geneva. Morphological and molecular data points to a possible hybridization between E. lucius with both other local pike species, representing a risk for them. Their endangerment status should be evaluated rapidly in order to take conservation measures. PMID:25242691

  14. Introduced northern pike predation on salmonids in southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Ivey, Sam S.; Dunker, Kristine J.; Gross, Jackson A.

    2013-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) are opportunistic predators that can switch to alternative prey species after preferred prey have declined. This trophic adaptability allows invasive pike to have negative effects on aquatic food webs. In Southcentral Alaska, invasive pike are a substantial concern because they have spread to important spawning and rearing habitat for salmonids and are hypothesised to be responsible for recent salmonid declines. We described the relative importance of salmonids and other prey species to pike diets in the Deshka River and Alexander Creek in Southcentral Alaska. Salmonids were once abundant in both rivers, but they are now rare in Alexander Creek. In the Deshka River, we found that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) dominated pike diets and that small pike consumed more of these salmonids than large pike. In Alexander Creek, pike diets reflected the distribution of spawning salmonids, which decrease with distance upstream. Although salmonids dominated pike diets in the lowest reach of the stream, Arctic lamprey (Lampetra camtschatica) and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) dominated pike diets in the middle and upper reaches. In both rivers, pike density did not influence diet and pike consumed smaller prey items than predicted by their gape-width. Our data suggest that (1) juvenile salmonids are a dominant prey item for pike, (2) small pike are the primary consumers of juvenile salmonids and (3) pike consume other native fish species when juvenile salmonids are less abundant. Implications of this trophic adaptability are that invasive pike can continue to increase while driving multiple species to low abundance.

  15. Historical Analysis of Genetic Variation Reveals Low Effective Population Size in a Northern Pike (Esox Lucius) Population

    PubMed Central

    Miller, L. M.; Kapuscinski, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    Effective population size (N(e)) of a natural fish population was estimated from temporal changes in allele frequencies at seven microsatellite loci. Use of a historical collection of fish scales made it possible to increase the precision of estimates by increasing the time interval between samples and to use an equation developed for discrete generations without correcting for demographic parameters. Estimates of N(e) for the time intervals 1961-1977 and 1977-1993 were 35 and 72, respectively. For the entire interval, 1961-1993, the estimate of N(e) was 48 when based on a weighted mean derived from the above two estimates or 125 when calculated from 1961 and 1993 samples only. Corresponding ratios of effective size to adult census size ranged from 0.03 to 0.14. An N(e) of 48 over a 32-year period would imply that this population lost as much as 8% of its heterozygosity in that time. Results suggest the potential for using genetic methods based on microsatellite loci data to compare historical trends in N(e) with population dynamic parameters. Such comparisons will help to evaluate the relationship between genetic diversity and long-term persistence of natural populations. PMID:9383067

  16. Ecology, evolution, and management strategies of northern pike populations in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Per; Tibblin, Petter; Koch-Schmidt, Per; Engstedt, Olof; Nilsson, Jonas; Nordahl, Oscar; Forsman, Anders

    2015-06-01

    Baltic Sea populations of the northern pike (Esox lucius) have declined since the 1990s, and they face additional challenges due to ongoing climate change. Pike in the Baltic Sea spawn either in coastal bays or in freshwater streams and wetlands. Pike recruited in freshwater have been found to make up about 50 % of coastal pike stocks and to show natal homing, thus limiting gene flow among closely located spawning sites. Due to natal homing, sub-populations appear to be locally adapted to their freshwater recruitment environments. Management actions should therefore not involve mixing of individuals originating from different sub-populations. We offer two suggestions complying with this advice: (i) productivity of extant freshwater spawning populations can be boosted by modifying wetlands such that they promote spawning and recruitment; and (ii) new sub-populations that spawn in brackish water can potentially be created by transferring fry and imprinting them on seemingly suitable spawning environments. PMID:26022327

  17. Ecology, evolution, and management strategies of northern pike populations in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Per; Tibblin, Petter; Koch-Schmidt, Per; Engstedt, Olof; Nilsson, Jonas; Nordahl, Oscar; Forsman, Anders

    2015-06-01

    Baltic Sea populations of the northern pike (Esox lucius) have declined since the 1990s, and they face additional challenges due to ongoing climate change. Pike in the Baltic Sea spawn either in coastal bays or in freshwater streams and wetlands. Pike recruited in freshwater have been found to make up about 50 % of coastal pike stocks and to show natal homing, thus limiting gene flow among closely located spawning sites. Due to natal homing, sub-populations appear to be locally adapted to their freshwater recruitment environments. Management actions should therefore not involve mixing of individuals originating from different sub-populations. We offer two suggestions complying with this advice: (i) productivity of extant freshwater spawning populations can be boosted by modifying wetlands such that they promote spawning and recruitment; and (ii) new sub-populations that spawn in brackish water can potentially be created by transferring fry and imprinting them on seemingly suitable spawning environments.

  18. Phototaxis of larval and juvenile northern pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zigler, S.J.; Dewey, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Age- Phi northern pike Esox lucius prefer vegetated habitats that are difficult to sample with standard towed gears. Light traps can be effective for sampling larval fishes in dense vegetation, given positive phototaxis of fish. We evaluated the phototactic response of young northern pike by comparing the catches of larvae and juveniles obtained with plexiglass traps deployed with a chemical light stick versus traps deployed without a light source (controls) in a laboratory raceway and in a vegetated pond. In the laboratory tests, catches of protolarvae and mesolarvae in lighted traps were 11-35 times greater than catches in control traps. The catches of juvenile northern pike in field and laboratory experiments were 3-15 times greater in lighted traps than in control traps, even though the maximum body width of the larger juveniles was similar to the width of the entrance slots of the traps (5 mm). Larval and juvenile northern pike were photopositive; thus, light traps should effectively sample age-0 northern pike for at least 6 weeks after hatching.

  19. Population characteristics and ecological role of northern pike in shallow natural lakes in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.P.; Willis, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Northern pike Esox lucius were sampled in Nebraska's Sandhill lakes during 1998 and 1999 to determine population characteristics and their influence on the fish community in these shallow, warm lakes at the southwestern edge of this species' natural range. Density-dependent growth, size structure, and condition were not evident in the northern pike populations sampled. Relative abundance of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides was positively related to size structure of yellow perch Perca flavescens and bluegills Lepomis macrochirus when northen pike were absent. When northern pike and largemouth bass populations were sympatric, these relationships were less evident. Population size structure of yellow perch was lower in lakes with northern pike, but decreased size structure was not evident for bluegills. Northern pike growth decreased with July bottom water temperature, which ranged from 20??C to 25??C. Recruitment patterns of northern pike in the Sandhill lakes appeared to be lake-specific, strong and weak year-classes occurring in the same year among different populations. Northern pike in these shallow, warm lakes act as a top-down predator and appear to structure fish communities predominated by largemouth bass and panfish. Biologists managing warmwater Midwestern lakes thus should consider the effect of northern pike on fish communities.

  20. Comparing catch orientation among Minnesota walleye, northern pike, and bass anglers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the catch orientations of Minnesota walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) anglers. Results were derived from 2009, 2010, and 2012 surveys of anglers targeting these different species. Consistent with previous research, we identified four dimensions of anglers’ catch orientation: (a) catching something, (b) catching big fish, (c) catching many fish, and (d) keeping fish. Walleye anglers were the most motivated to keep fish, while northern pike anglers were more oriented toward catching big fish. Largemouth bass anglers, and to a lesser extent smallmouth bass anglers, were also oriented toward catching big fish. Bass anglers reported the lowest interest in keeping fish. An orientation to keep fish was negatively related to more restrictive management actions, regardless of species. A stronger orientation to catch big fish was associated with support for increased harvest restrictions only for northern pike and smallmouth bass.

  1. Impacts of Northern Pike on stocked Rainbow Trout in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheibel, Natalie C.; Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Davis, Jacob L.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of nonnative Northern Pike Esox lucius in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota, has prompted concern among biologists about the influence of this species on the lake’s intensively managed salmonid fisheries. Ancedotal information suggests that catch rates of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have declined while mean size and abundance of Northern Pike has increased, although quantitative information on diet and growth of the Northern Pike population is lacking. To address potential interactions between Northern Pike and Rainbow Trout, we assessed size-dependent predation by Northern Pike on Rainbow Trout and determined the relative energetic contribution of stocked Rainbow Trout to Northern Pike growth using bioenergetics modeling. Stable isotopes combined with traditional diet analyses revealed that smaller Northern Pike (<600 mm TL) consumed primarily centrarchids and Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax, and Rainbow Trout contributed less than 10% to their annual energy consumption. In contrast, larger Northern Pike (≥600 mm TL) consumed primarily Rainbow Trout, which accounted for 56% of their annual energy consumption. Combining estimates of Northern Pike predation with production costs of catchable-size Rainbow Trout revealed that annual economic losses ranged from US$15,259 to $24,801 per year. Over its lifespan, an age-10 Northern Pike was estimated to consume ~117 Rainbow Trout worth approximately $340. Thus, Northern Pike predation substantially influences salmonid management initiatives and is likely a primary factor contributing to reduced Rainbow Trout abundance and return to anglers in Pactola Reservoir. Strategies for reducing Northern Pike predation on Rainbow Trout include increasing the size of stocked fish or altering the timing and spatial distribution of stocking events.

  2. Population structure and dynamics of northern pike and smallmouth bass in Coeur d’Alene Lake, Idaho.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walrath, John D.; Quist, Michael; Firehammer, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous species have been introduced to Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho over the last century, but minimal research has been completed to understand their population dynamics. The objective of this study was to describe the population demographics and dynamics of northern pike (Esox lucius) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), two important nonnative sport fishes in the system to provide information that will assist with guiding management decisions. The oldest northern pike was age 7 and the oldest smallmouth bass was age 11. Populations of both species exhibited very stable recruitment with a recruitment coefficient of determination of 0.99 for northern pike and 0.98 for smallmouth bass. Total annual mortality was estimated as 66% for northern pike and 42% for smallmouth bass. Growth of northern pike in Coeur d'Alene Lake was comparable to the 50–75th percentiles of growth exhibited by lentic northern pike populations across North America. Northern pike in Coeur d'Alene Lake were most similar to populations in the north-central and northeast United States with fast growth rates and short life spans. In contrast, smallmouth bass grew slowly and generally fell within the 5th percentile of lentic smallmouth bass populations in North America. Smallmouth bass in Coeur d'Alene Lake were similar to other populations in northern regions of the United States displaying slow growth rates with high longevity. Results of this study provide important insight on nonnative northern pike and smallmouth bass population dynamics.

  3. Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in northern boreal lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soupir, Craig A.; Brown, Michael L.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.

    2000-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic environments that they occupy; however, limited information exists on species interactions in the northern reaches of largemouth bass distribution. We investigated the seasonal food habits of allopatric and sympatric assemblages of largemouth bass and northern pike in six interior lakes within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Percentages of empty stomachs were variable for largemouth bass (38-54%) and northern pike (34.7-66.7%). Fishes (mainly yellow perch, Perca flavescens) comprised greater than 60% (mean percent mass, MPM) of the northern pike diet during all seasons in both allopatric and sympatric assemblages. Aquatic insects (primarily Odonata and Hemiptera) were important in the diets of largemouth bass in all communities (0.0-79.7 MPM). Although largemouth bass were observed in the diet of northern pike, largemouth bass apparently did not prey on northern pike. Seasonal differences were observed in the proportion of aquatic insects (P = 0.010) and fishes (P = 0.023) in the diets of northern pike and largemouth bass. Based on three food categories, jackknifed classifications correctly classified 77 and 92% of northern pike and largemouth bass values, respectively. Percent resource overlap values were biologically significant (greater than 60%) during at least one season in each sympatric assemblage, suggesting some diet overlap.

  4. Use of electronarcosis to immobilize juvenile and adult northern pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, M.K.; Yanke, E.A.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    Electronarcosis, the immobilization of a fish after an electric current has been applied and discontinued, is a potential alternative to chemical anesthetics. Successful narcosis was defined as the immobilization of a fish for 1-15 min without causing physical damage. In the laboratory, AC successfully narcotized juvenile (13-19-cm standard length, SL) northern pike (Esox lucius) at selected voltages; however, AC voltages that produced narcosis or resulted in physical damage were variable and unpredictable. In contrast, 60-90-V pulsed DC (PDC) for 10-60 s successfully narcotized juvenile pike without inducing physical damage. Duration of narcosis was directly related to voltage and inversely related to fish length. In the hatchery, sexually mature northern pike (45-97 cm SL), collected from the Mississippi River, were successfully narcotized by 60-V PDC for 10 s. Duration of narcosis was unrelated to fish length or sex, and averaged 58 plus or minus 7 s (mean plus or minus SE). This allowed sufficient time to collect eggs or milt. All fish were swimming upright within 3 min after treatment, and no mortalities were observed over the next 24 h. Survival of eggs from fertilization to eye- up did not significantly differ between eggs collected from electronarcotized adults and adults anesthetized with MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate). Electronarcosis represents a possible alternative to chemical anesthetics for immobilizing northern pike broodstock without an apparent impact on egg survival.

  5. Age, growth, and food of northern pike in eastern Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfert, David R.; Miller, Terence J.

    1978-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) from eastern Lake Ontario were sampled with gill nets and trap nets in 1972-1973. Fish of age-groups IV, V, and VI were predominant in the catch. Although males were slightly longer after the 1st yr of life, females gained a 25-mm advantage in the 2nd yr and a 30-mm advantage in the 3rd yr. In later years, the increments of growth of males and females were similar. All males were mature after 2 yr and females after 3 yr. The stomachs of northern pike contained only fish; the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) was the principal forage species consumed. Electivity indexes for alewives, white perch (Morone americana), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens), the three most common species in the diet, indicated a positive selection for alewives that increased from June to October during a period when the relative abundance of alewives steadily decreased.

  6. Trophic ecology of northern pike and their effect on conservation of westslope cutthroat trout.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walrath, John D.; Quist, Michael; Firehammer, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi in Coeur d’Alene Lake, Idaho, have declined in recent years; predation by Northern Pike Esox lucius, a nonnative sport fish, is thought to be a causative mechanism. The goal of this study was to describe the seasonal food habits of Northern Pike and determine their influence on Westslope Cutthroat Trout in Coeur d’Alene Lake by using a bioenergetics modeling approach. Fish were sampled monthly from March 2012 to May 2013 using pulsed-DC electrofishing and experimental gillnetting in four bays. Northern Pike catch rates from electrofishing were generally low but increased slightly each season and were highest in the southern portion of the lake; catch rates from gillnetting were approximately 50% higher during the two spring sampling periods compared with the summer and fall. Seasonal growth and food habits of 695 Northern Pike (TL = 16.2–108.0 cm; weight = 24–9,628 g) were analyzed. Diets primarily consisted of kokanee O. nerka, Westslope Cutthroat Trout, and Yellow PerchPerca flavescens. Results of a bioenergetics model estimated that Westslope Cutthroat Trout represented approximately 2–30% of the biomass consumed by age-1–4 Northern Pike. Total Westslope Cutthroat Trout biomass consumed by Northern Pike (2008–2011 year-classes) across all seasons sampled was estimated to be 1,231 kg (95% CI = 723–2,396 kg), and the total number consumed was 5,641 (95% CI = 3,311–10,979). The highest occurrence of Westslope Cutthroat Trout in Northern Pike diets was observed during spring. Thus, reducing Northern Pike predation on Westslope Cutthroat Trout would be one tool worth considering for conserving Westslope Cutthroat Trout populations in Coeur d’Alene Lake.

  7. Growth, condition, diet, and consumption rates of northern pike in three Arizona reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinders, J.M.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) introductions are controversial in the western United States due to suspected impacts they might have on established sport fisheries and potential illegal introductions. Tbree Arizona reservoirs, Parker Canyon Lake, Upper Lake Mary and Long Lake were sampled to examine the diet, consumption dynamics, and growth of northern pike. Northern pike diets varied by season and reservoir. In Parker Canyon Lake, diets were dominated by rainbow trout in winter and spring and bluegill and green sunfish in the fall. In Long Lake the northern pike ate crayfish in spring and early summer and switched to young of the year common carp in summer and fall. Black crappie, golden shiners, and crayfish were the major prey in Upper Lake Mary during spring, but they switched to stocked rainbow trout in the fall. Northern pike growth was in the high range of growth reported throughout the United States. Estimated northern pike specific consumption rate (scr) of rainbow trout (g/g/d ?? 10-6) was greatest in Upper Lake Mary (scr = 329.1 ?? 23.7 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where stocked fingerling (280 mm TL) rainbow trout stocked in Long Lake (scr = 1.4 ?? 0.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) and Parker Canyon Lake (scr = 287.2 ?? 15.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where catchable-sized rainbow trout were stocked. Managers should consider the cost-benefits of stocking fish >200 mm TL in lakes containing northern pike. ?? Copyright by the North American Lake Management Society 2008.

  8. First detection of pike fry-like rhabdovirus in barbel and spring viraemia of carp virus in sturgeon and pike in aquaculture in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vicenova, Monika; Reschova, Stanislava; Pokorova, Dagmar; Hulova, Jana; Vesely, Tomas

    2011-06-16

    Rapid antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of cell cultures with organ homogenate from fish, collected from farms with a predominance of common carp or in natural aquaculture in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2008, identified piscine vesiculovirus in 27 of 178 samples. Using reverse transcription semi-nested PCR, targeting a 550 nucleotide region of the glycoprotein (G) gene, piscine vesiculovirus was confirmed in 23 of the 27 organ samples diagnosed by ELISA as infected. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from 18 isolates from common carp Cyprinus carpio (family Cyprinidae), 2 isolates from northern pike Esox lucius (family Esocidae), and 1 isolate each from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii (family Acipenseridae), common barbel Barbus barbus (family Cyprinidae), and koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi (family Cyprinidae). The sequences (based on 401 nucleotides) clustered into 2 genogroups. The majority of isolates (n = 22), including those from sturgeon and pike, grouped with the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) Genogroup I and Subgroup Id. The 22 isolates could be further subdivided into 2 groups: Id1 (n = 20) and Id2 (n = 2). A marker (a non-conservative nucleotide substitution) for the Id1 SVCV group was identified. It was specifically found in all sequences of Id1 isolates when testing SVCV originating from different countries. The remaining isolate from barbel, was classified in the pike fry-like rhabdovirus Genogroup IV. This is the first confirmation of natural SVCV infection in sturgeon and pike, and pike fry-like rhabdovirus infection in barbel. In the case of the pike fry-like rhabdovirus, this is also its first identification in the Czech Republic. According to the presence/absence of evident clinical signs of rhabdoviral disease in the 3 infected hosts, only the sturgeon seemed to be susceptible to the monitored rhabdovirus.

  9. Residue depletion of oxytetracycline from fillet tissues of northern pike and walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernardy, Jeffry A.; Vue, Chue; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Stehly, Guy R.; Gingerich, William H.; Moore, Allen

    2003-01-01

    The broad-spectrum antibacterial drug oxytetracycline (OTC) is used in the U.S. to treat certain diseases in salmonids and catfish. This study was conducted to support an extension of the OTC label to include all cool-water fish species cultured at U.S. public aquaculture facilities by satisfying human food safety requirements. Juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius; mean weight: 117 g) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum; mean weight: 59 g) were fed OTC-medicated diets near the maximum legal treatment rate (82.7 mg OTC-HCl/kg fish/day for 10 days) and near the lower limit of the water temperature range for most disease outbreaks in these species (14 and 16 °C, respectively). Two trials were conducted simultaneously with northern pike, one using commercially medicated feed and the other using on-site OTC top-coated feed. A third trial was performed with walleye using on-site OTC top-coated feed. Fillet tissues were collected and OTC free base (OTC-base) concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The maximum mean OTC-base concentrations in the fillet tissue were 319 ng/g in northern pike (skinless) and 721 ng/g in walleye (skin-on), both well below the current tolerance limit of 2000 ng/g OTC-base. The log-linear loss of OTC-base from the fillet tissues was monophasic, with terminal phase half-lives of 5.9 days in northern pike fed commercial medicated feed, 6.7 days in northern pike fed top-coated feed, and 10.5 days in walleye fed top-coated feed. The data supported a zero withdrawal time in juvenile northern pike and walleye fed OTC at the approved dose level for 10 days at water temperatures down to 14 and 16 °C respectively.

  10. Using bioenergetics modeling to estimate consumption of native juvenile salmonids by nonnative northern pike in the Upper Flathead River System, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, C.C.; Bennett, D.H.; Kirk, Steinhorst R.; Marotz, B.; Boyer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative northern pike Esox lucius have created recreational fisheries in many waters in the United States and Canada, yet many studies have shown that introduced northern pike may alter the composition and structure of fish communities through predation. We estimated the abundance of nonnative northern pike (2002-2003) and applied food habits data (1999-2003) to estimate their annual consumption of native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi juveniles in the upper Flathead River system, Montana. Population estimates were generally consistent among years and ranged from 1,200 to 1,300 individuals. Westslope cutthroat trout were present in the diet of younger (???600 mm) and older (>600 mm) northern pike during all seasons and bull trout were found only in larger northern pike during all seasons but summer. Bioenergetics modeling estimated that the northern pike population annually consumed a total of 8.0 metric tons (mt) of fish flesh; the highest biomass was composed of cyprinids (4.95 mt) followed by whitefishes Prosopium spp. (1.02 mt), bull trout (0.80 mt), westslope cutthroat trout (0.68 mt), yellow perch Perca flavescens (0.41 mt),1 and other fishes (centrarchids and cottids; 0.14 mt). Numerically, the northern pike population consumed more than 342,000 fish; cyprinids and catostomids comprised approximately 82% of prey fish (278,925), whereas over 13,000 westslope cutthroat trout and nearly 3,500 bull trout were eaten, comprising about 5% of the prey consumed. Our results suggest that predation by introduced northern pike is contributing to the lower abundance of native salmonids in the system and that a possible benefit might accrue to native salmonids by reducing these predatory interactions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  11. Multiple isotope analyses of the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus reveal peculiarities in consumer-diet discrimination patterns.

    PubMed

    Behrmann-Godel, J; Yohannes, E

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies of dietary isotope discrimination have led to the general expectation that a consumer will exhibit enriched stable isotope levels relative to its diet. Parasite-host systems are specific consumer-diet pairs in which the consumer (parasite) feeds exclusively on one dietary source: host tissue. However, the small numbers of studies previously carried out on isotopic discrimination in parasite-host (ΔXP-HT) systems have yielded controversial results, showing some parasites to be isotopically depleted relative to their food source, while others are enriched or in equilibrium with their hosts. Although the mechanism for these deviations from expectations remains to be understood, possible influences of specific feeding niche or selection for only a few nutritional components by the parasite are discussed. ΔXP-HT for multiple isotopes (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) were measured in the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus and two of its life-cycle fish hosts, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius, within which T. nodulosus occupies different feeding locations. Variability in the value of ΔXP-HT calculated for the parasite and its different hosts indicates an influence of feeding location on isotopic discrimination. In perch liver ΔXP-HT was relatively more negative for all three stable isotopes. In pike gut ΔXP-HT was more positive for δ13C, as expected in conventional consumer-diet systems. For parasites feeding on pike gut, however, the δ15N and δ34S isotope values were comparable with those of the host. We discuss potential causes of these deviations from expectations, including the effect of specific parasite feeding niches, and conclude that ΔXP-HT should be critically evaluated for trophic interactions between parasite and host before general patterns are assumed.

  12. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  13. Residue depletion of oxytetracycline from fillet tissues of northern pike and walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernardy, J.A.; Vue, C.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.; Moore, A.

    2003-01-01

    Iowa Department of Natural Resources Fisheries Bureau,Rathbun Research,15053 Hatchery Place,Moravia, IA 52571-8933,USA The broad-spectrum antibacterial drug oxytetracycline (OTC) is used in the U.S. to treat certain diseases in salmonids and catfish. This study was conducted to support an extension of the OTC label to include all cool-water fish species cultured at U.S. public aquaculture facilities by satisfying human food safety requirements. Juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius; mean weight: 117 g) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum; mean weight: 59 g) were fed OTC-medicated diets near the maximum legal treatment rate (82.7 mg OTC-HCl/kg fish/day for 10 days) and near the lower limit of the water temperature range for most disease outbreaks in these species (14 and 16??C, respectively). Two trials were conducted simultaneously with northern pike, one using commercially medicated feed and the other using on-site OTC top-coated feed. A third trial was performed with walleye using on-site OTC top-coated feed. Fillet tissues were collected and OTC free base (OTC-base) concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The maximum mean OTC-base concentrations in the fillet tissue were 319 ng/g in northern pike (skinless) and 721 ng/g in walleye (skin-on), both well below the current tolerance limit of 2000 ng/g OTC-base. The log-linear loss of OTC-base from the fillet tissues was monophasic, with terminal phase half-lives of 5.9 days in northern pike fed commercial medicated feed, 6.7 days in northern pike fed top-coated feed, and 10.5 days in walleye fed top-coated feed. The data supported a zero withdrawal time in juvenile northern pike and walleye fed OTC at the approved dose level for 10 days at water temperatures down to 14 and 16??C respectively. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Northern pike bycatch in an inland commercial hoop net fishery: effects of water temperature and net tending frequency on injury, physiology, and survival

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Raby, Graham D.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Haxton, Tim; Smokorowski, Karen; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    In lakes and rivers of eastern Ontario (Canada) commercial fishers use hoop nets to target a variety of fishes, but incidentally capture non-target (i.e., bycatch) gamefish species such as northern pike (Esox lucius). Little is known about the consequences of bycatch in inland commercial fisheries, making it difficult to identify regulatory options. Regulations that limit fishing during warmer periods and that require frequent net tending have been proposed as possible strategies to reduce bycatch mortality. Using northern pike as a model, we conducted experiments during two thermal periods (mid-April: 14.45 ± 0.32 °C, and late May: 17.17 ± 0.08 °C) where fish were retained in nets for 2 d and 6 d. A ‘0 d’ control group consisted of northern pike that were angled, immediately sampled and released. We evaluated injury, physiological status and mortality after the prescribed net retention period and for the surviving fish used radio telemetry with manual tracking to monitor delayed post-release mortality. Our experiments revealed that injury levels, in-net mortality, and post-release mortality tended to increase with net set duration and at higher temperatures. Pike exhibited signs of chronic stress and starvation following retention, particularly at higher temperatures. Total mortality rates were negligible for the 2 d holding period at 14 °C, 14% for 6 d holding at 14 °C, 21% for 2 d holding at 17 °C, and 58% for 6 d holding at 17 °C. No mortality was observed in control fish. Collectively, these data reveal that frequent net tending, particularly at warmer temperatures, may be useful for conserving gamefish populations captured as bycatch in inland hoop net fisheries.

  15. Year-class formation of upper St. Lawrence River northern pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, B.M.; Farrell, J.M.; Underwood, H.B.; Smith, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Variables associated with year-class formation in upper St. Lawrence River northern pike Esox lucius were examined to explore population trends. A partial least-squares (PLS) regression model (PLS 1) was used to relate a year-class strength index (YCSI; 1974-1997) to explanatory variables associated with spawning and nursery areas (seasonal water level and temperature and their variability, number of ice days, and last day of ice presence). A second model (PLS 2) incorporated four additional ecological variables: potential predators (abundance of double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and yellow perch Perca flavescens), female northern pike biomass (as a measure of stock-recruitment effects), and total phosphorus (productivity). Trends in adult northern pike catch revealed a decline (1981-2005), and year-class strength was positively related to catch per unit effort (CPUE; R2 = 0.58). The YCSI exceeded the 23-year mean in only 2 of the last 10 years. Cyclic patterns in the YCSI time series (along with strong year-classes every 4-6 years) were apparent, as was a dampening effect of amplitude beginning around 1990. The PLS 1 model explained over 50% of variation in both explanatory variables and the dependent variable, YCSI first-order moving-average residuals. Variables retained (N = 10; Wold's statistic ??? 0.8) included negative YCSI associations with high summer water levels, high variability in spring and fall water levels, and variability in fall water temperature. The YCSI exhibited positive associations with high spring, summer, and fall water temperature, variability in spring temperature, and high winter and spring water level. The PLS 2 model led to positive YCSI associations with phosphorus and yellow perch CPUE and a negative correlation with double-crested cormorant abundance. Environmental variables (water level and temperature) are hypothesized to regulate northern pike YCSI cycles, and dampening in YCSI magnitude may be related to a

  16. The effects of pulse pressure from seismic water gun technology on Northern Pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gross, Jackson A.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Shields, Patrick A; Fox, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of sound pressure pulses generated from a water gun for controlling invasive Northern Pike Esox lucius. Pulse pressures from two sizes of water guns were evaluated for their effects on individual fish placed at a predetermined random distance. Fish mortality from a 5,620.8-cm3 water gun (peak pressure source level = 252 dB referenced to 1 μP at 1 m) was assessed every 24 h for 168 h, and damage (intact, hematoma, or rupture) to the gas bladder, kidney, and liver was recorded. The experiment was replicated with a 1,966.4-cm3 water gun (peak pressure source level = 244 dB referenced to 1 μP at 1 m), but fish were euthanized immediately. The peak sound pressure level (SPLpeak), peak-to-peak sound pressure level (SPLp-p), and frequency spectrums were recorded, and the cumulative sound exposure level (SELcum) was subsequently calculated. The SPLpeak, SPLp-p, and SELcum were correlated, and values varied significantly by treatment group for both guns. Mortality increased and organ damage was greater with decreasing distance to the water gun. Mortality (31%) by 168 h was only observed for Northern Pike exhibiting the highest degree of organ damage. Mortality at 72 h and 168 h postexposure was associated with increasing SELcum above 195 dB. The minimum SELcum calculated for gas bladder rupture was 199 dB recorded at 9 m from the 5,620.8-cm3 water gun and 194 dB recorded at 6 m from the 1,966.4-cm3water gun. Among Northern Pike that were exposed to the large water gun, 100% of fish exposed at 3 and 6 m had ruptured gas bladders, and 86% exposed at 9 m had ruptured gas bladders. Among fish that were exposed to pulse pressures from the smaller water gun, 78% exhibited gas bladder rupture. Results from these initial controlled experiments underscore the potential of water guns as a tool for controlling Northern Pike.

  17. Pike Parvalbumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Parvalbumins are found in the muscles, endocrine glands, skin cells, and some neurons of vertebrates, but the role they play for musculature is not yet understood. Researchers are exploring theories of a correlation between parvalbumin concentration levels and the relaxation speed of mammalian muscles after contraction. An ultra-high resolution structure was achieved from samples grown on STS-83 and in July 1997, during STS-94, PCAM produced the largest crystals of pike parvalbumin grown to date. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter of New Century Pharmaceuticals.

  18. Testing for Local Adaptation to Spawning Habitat in Sympatric Subpopulations of Pike by Reciprocal Translocation of Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, Hanna; Nordahl, Oscar; Tibblin, Petter; Larsson, Per

    2016-01-01

    We tested for local adaption in early life-history traits by performing a reciprocal translocation experiment with approximately 2,500 embryos of pike (Esox lucius) divided in paired split-family batches. The experiment indicated local adaptation in one of the two subpopulations manifested as enhanced hatching success of eggs in the native habitat, both when compared to siblings transferred to a non-native habitat, and when compared to immigrant genotypes from the other subpopulation. Gene-by-environment effects on viability of eggs and larvae were evident in both subpopulations, showing that there existed genetic variation allowing for evolutionary responses to divergent selection, and indicating a capacity for plastic responses to environmental change. Next, we tested for differences in female life-history traits. Results uncovered that females from one population invested more resources into reproduction and also produced more (but smaller) eggs in relation to their body size compared to females from the other population. We suggest that these females have adjusted their reproductive strategies as a counter-adaptation because a high amount of sedimentation on the eggs in that subpopulations spawning habitat might benefit smaller eggs. Collectively, our findings point to adaptive divergence among sympatric subpopulations that are physically separated only for a short period during reproduction and early development—which is rare. These results illustrate how combinations of translocation experiments and field studies of life-history traits might infer about local adaptation and evolutionary divergence among populations. Local adaptations in subdivided populations are important to consider in management and conservation of biodiversity, because they may otherwise be negatively affected by harvesting, supplementation, and reintroduction efforts targeted at endangered populations. PMID:27139695

  19. Pikes Peak, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunstein, Craig; Quesenberry, Carol; Davis, John; Jackson, Gene; Scott, Glenn R.; D'Erchia, Terry D.; Swibas, Ed; Carter, Lorna; McKinney, Kevin; Cole, Jim

    2006-01-01

    For 200 years, Pikes Peak has been a symbol of America's Western Frontier--a beacon that drew prospectors during the great 1859-60 Gold Rush to the 'Pikes Peak country,' the scenic destination for hundreds of thousands of visitors each year, and an enduring source of pride for cities in the region, the State of Colorado, and the Nation. November 2006 marks the 200th anniversary of the Zebulon M. Pike expedition's first sighting of what has become one of the world's most famous mountains--Pikes Peak. In the decades following that sighting, Pikes Peak became symbolic of America's Western Frontier, embodying the spirit of Native Americans, early explorers, trappers, and traders who traversed the vast uncharted wilderness of the Western Great Plains and the Southern Rocky Mountains. High-quality printed paper copies of this poster are available at no cost from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey (1-888-ASK-USGS).

  20. Physics Integration KErnels (PIKE)

    2014-07-31

    Pike is a software library for coupling and solving multiphysics applications. It provides basic interfaces and utilities for performing code-to-code coupling. It provides simple “black-box” Picard iteration methods for solving the coupled system of equations including Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel solvers. Pike was developed originally to couple neutronics and thermal fluids codes to simulate a light water nuclear reactor for the Consortium for Simulation of Light-water Reactors (CASL) DOE Energy Innovation Hub. The Pike library containsmore » no physics and just provides interfaces and utilities for coupling codes. It will be released open source under a BSD license as part of the Trilinos solver framework (trilinos.org) which is also BSD. This code provides capabilities similar to other open source multiphysics coupling libraries such as LIME, AMP, and MOOSE.« less

  1. Physics Integration KErnels (PIKE)

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, Roger

    2014-07-31

    Pike is a software library for coupling and solving multiphysics applications. It provides basic interfaces and utilities for performing code-to-code coupling. It provides simple “black-box” Picard iteration methods for solving the coupled system of equations including Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel solvers. Pike was developed originally to couple neutronics and thermal fluids codes to simulate a light water nuclear reactor for the Consortium for Simulation of Light-water Reactors (CASL) DOE Energy Innovation Hub. The Pike library contains no physics and just provides interfaces and utilities for coupling codes. It will be released open source under a BSD license as part of the Trilinos solver framework (trilinos.org) which is also BSD. This code provides capabilities similar to other open source multiphysics coupling libraries such as LIME, AMP, and MOOSE.

  2. 7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  3. 76 FR 27304 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands (PSICC) at 2840...

  4. 76 FR 2331 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands (PSICC) at...

  5. 75 FR 78675 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands (PSICC) at...

  6. 78 FR 48646 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... at the Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and Comanche...

  7. 76 FR 30903 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands (PSICC) at...

  8. 76 FR 9540 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands (PSICC) at...

  9. 75 FR 51749 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands (PSICC) at 2840...

  10. 75 FR 65609 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... Supervior's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and Comanche National...

  11. 77 FR 50459 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... will be held at the Supervisor's Office of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron...

  12. Core Values, Education and Research: A Response to Mark Pike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Sara; Allington, Daniel; Simmons, Katy; Jones, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to the article by Mark Pike, which appeared in the "Oxford Review of Education" in December 2010. Pike's article focuses on Trinity Academy, one of four academies in the Emmanuel Schools Foundation (ESF): it is not a faith school, but sponsored by a Christian faith-based and business-oriented…

  13. Pharyngeal Fricatives, and Pike's "Fricative" and "Frictional" Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprigg, R. K.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of pharyngeal fricatives in Arabic looks at voiced and voiceless varieties within the context of K. L. Pike's classifications. Pike treated pharyngeal fricatives as standing apart from others, including a number of oral fricatives and one glottal fricative in a category he called "frictionals." Later, however, he distinguished the…

  14. 77 FR 38761 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposal rule; dismissal. SUMMARY: The Audio Division dismisses the petition...

  15. Effects of E-SOx technology on ESP performance. Final report, Aug-Nov 90

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, G.H.; Gooch, J.P.; Faulkner, M.G.

    1992-10-01

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the E-SOx process at Ohio Edison's Burger Station. Adequate sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal and acceptable particulate emission levels from the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) were the prime objectives of the investigation. The report describes limited ESP performance testing under both baseline and E-SOx conditions. The ESP data collected under E-SOx conditions, which give the required 50% SO2 removal, show evidence of ESP performance dominated by factors not represented in existing versions of ESP performance models. These analyses and other considerations indicate that the factors which dominate under the conditions tested are a combination of instantaneous reentrainment of low resistivity ash/sorbent particles and deagglomeration of slurry residues within the ESP. These observations may be important to other sorbent injection processes as well as to E-SOx. Improvement of the gas velocity and temperature distributions at the ESP inlet improved the ESP performance, but performance was still dominated by the reentrainment process and was therefore lower than mathematical model predictions.

  16. Trianchoratus longianchoratus sp. n. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae: Heteronchocleidinae) from Channa lucius (Osteichthyes: Channidae) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, W B; Lim, L H S

    2009-09-01

    One new and three previously described species of Trianchoratus Price et Berry, 1966 were collected from the gills of Channa lucius (Cuvier) and Channa striata (Bloch) from the Bukit Merah Reservoir, Perak and Endau-Rompin, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. They are Trianchoratus longianchoratus sp.n., T. malayensis Lim, 1986 and T. pahangensis Lim, 1986 from C. lucius, and T. ophicephali Lim, 1986 from C. striata. The new species differs from the Trianchoratus species hitherto described from channids and anabantoids in having two ventral anchors with a long curved inner root and one dorsal anchor with a curved inner root and lacking an outer root. A table summarizing the known species of heteronchocleidins (Trianchoratus, Eutrianchoratus and Heteronchocleidus) and Sundanonchus reported from fish hosts of different families (Channidae, Helostomatidae, Anabantidae and Osphronemidae) is provided. PMID:19827361

  17. 77 FR 2242 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications....415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa... preamble, the Federal Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART...

  18. 77 FR 64792 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications....415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications... preamble, the Federal Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART...

  19. Downtown Hancock, Maryland (L to R): National Pike, Western Maryland ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Downtown Hancock, Maryland (L to R): National Pike, Western Maryland Rail Trail (milepost 115), C&O Canal, and Potomac River, looking east. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  20. 76 FR 30903 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... Kachina Dr., Pueblo, Colorado. Written comments should be sent to Barbara Timock, PSICC, 2840 Kachina Dr., Pueblo, CO 81008. Comments may also be sent via e-mail to btimock@fs.fed.us , or via facsimile to...

  1. Behavior of fish predators and their prey: habitat choice between open water and dense vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Stein, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    Behavior of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, and northern pike, Esox lucius, foraging on fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, or bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, was quantified in pools with 50% cover (half the pool had artificial stems at a density of 1000 stems m−2). Both predators spent most of their time in the vegetation. Largemouth bass searched for bluegills and ambushed minnows, whereas the relatively immobile northern pike ambushed all prey. Minnows were closer to predators and were captured more frequently than bluegills. Even when minnows dispersed, they moved continually and eventually wandered within striking distance of a predator. Bluegills dispersed in the cover with predators. Bass captured the few bluegills that strayed into the open and pike captured those that approached too closely in the cover. The ability of predators to capture prey while residing in habitats containing patches of dense cover may explain their residence in areas often considered to be poor ones for foraging.

  2. Winter movements of four fish species near a thermal plume in northern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.J.; Winter, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Four fish species were studied during the winter of 1975 to compare their winter movements near the thermal plume of a power plant. Seventeen yellow perch (Perca flavescens), six northern pike (Esox lucius), three walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum), and two largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were equipped with radio frequency transmitters. The spatial distributions differed among species. Only the largemouth bass confined their movements to heated water areas. The yellow perch, which was of particular interest, do not seem to be attracted to warm winter waters, and thus locate themselves in the peripheral areas of the discharge bay and fail to reproduce. This finding is contrary to those of previous studies.

  3. New host and locality record for Triaenophorus crassus forel (Cestoda: pseudophyllidea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uzmann, J.R.; Hesselholt, M.N.

    1957-01-01

    The adult form of Triaenophorus crassus Forel, 1868 (= T. robustus Olsson, 1893; = T. tricuspidatus morpha megadentatus Wardle, 1932) occurs as an intestinal parasite in the pike, Esox lucius L., a holarctic species of wide distribution. Preliminary life-history stages include procercoid development in copepods of the genus Cyclops followed by plerocercoid development in the musculature of a variety of coregonid and salmonid fishes. The unsightly appearance of even moderate plerocercoid infections is often sufficient to render fish unacceptable for human consumption. In the prairie provinces of Canada the incidence and intensity of T. crassus infections in the commercially important whitefishes constitute a serious economic problem.

  4. METHYLMERCURY BIOACCUMULATION DEPENDENCE ON NORTHERN PIKE AGE AND SIZE IN TWENTY MINNESOTA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury accumulation in northern pike muscle tissue (fillets) was found to be directly related to fish age and size. Measurements were made on 173 individual northern pike specimens from twenty lakes across Minnesota. Best fit regressions of mercury fillet concentration (wet wt.)...

  5. A radiation briefer's guide to the PIKE Model

    SciTech Connect

    Steadman, Jr, C R

    1990-03-01

    Gamma-radiation-exposure estimates to populations living immediately downwind from the Nevada Test Site have been required for many years by the US Department of Energy (DOE) before each containment-designed nuclear detonation. A highly unlikely worst-case'' scenario is utilized which assumes that there will be an accidental massive venting of radioactive debris into the atmosphere shortly after detonation. The Weather Service Nuclear Support Office (WSNSO) has supplied DOE with such estimates for the last 25 years using the WSNSO Fallout Scaling Technique (FOST), which employs a worst-case analog event that actually occurred in the past. The PIKE Model'' is the application of the FOST using the PIKE nuclear event as the analog. This report, which is primarily intended for WSNSO meteorologists who derive radiation estimates, gives a brief history of the model,'' presents the mathematical, radiological, and meteorological concepts upon which it is based, states its limitations, explains it apparent advantages over more sophisticated models, and details how it is used operationally. 10 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Groundwater-Quality Assessment, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Pike County, a 545 square-mile area in northeastern Pennsylvania, has experienced the largest relative population growth of any county in the state from 1990 to 2000 and its population is projected to grow substantially through 2025. This growing population may result in added dependence and stresses on water resources, including the potential to reduce the quantity and degrade the quality of groundwater and associated stream base flow with changing land use. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the county and is derived primarily from fractured-rock aquifers (shales, siltstones, and sandstones) and some unconsolidated glacial deposits that are recharged locally from precipitation. The principal land uses in the county as of 2005 were public, residential, agricultural, hunt club/private recreational, roads, and commercial. The public lands cover a third of the county and include national park, state park, and other state lands, much of which are forested. Individual on-site wells and wastewater disposal are common in many residential areas. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District, began a study to provide current information on groundwater quality throughout the county that will be helpful for water-resource planning. The countywide reconnaissance assessment of groundwater quality documents current conditions with existing land uses and may serve as a baseline of groundwater quality for future comparison. Twenty wells were sampled in 2007 throughout Pike County to represent groundwater quality in the principal land uses (commercial, high-density and moderate-density residential with on-site wastewater disposal, residential in a sewered area, pre-development, and undeveloped) and geologic units (five fractured-rock aquifers and one glacial unconsolidated aquifer). Analyses selected for the groundwater samples were intended to identify naturally occurring constituents from the aquifer or

  7. Winter movements of four fish species near a thermal plume in northern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.J.; Winter, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    During winter 1975, 17 yellow perch (Perca flavescens), 6 northern pike (Esox lucius), 3 walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum), and 2 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were equipped with radio frequency transmitters to compare their winter movements near the thermal plume of a power plant. The mean home range sizes, in hectares, were northern pike 19.0; yellow perch 13.4; largemouth bass 3.7; walleye 2.2. Northern pike and yellow perch had mean home range sizes larger than the discharge area. Mean water depths at fish locations were as follows: largemouth bass 0.8 m; northern pike 1.2 m; yellow perch 1.6 m; walleye 3.5 m. Largemouth bass preferred the warmest locations near the discharge point. Yellow perch were most often located in the peripheral areas of the discharge bay while walleyes were most often located in the deeper center area. Northern pike moved over the entire discharge area. All species except largemouth bass moved freely between discharge-affected and unaltered waters. The average numbers of movements per individual per week between heated and unheated areas were the following: northern pike 0.8; yellow perch 1.2; walleye 1.1; largemouth bass, 0.

  8. Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Håkan; Brodersen, Jakob; Brönmark, Christer

    2007-01-01

    Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators, such as pike itself. Here, we demonstrate that deep-bodied crucian carp attain higher speed, acceleration and turning rate during anti-predator responses than shallow-bodied crucian carp. Therefore, a predator-induced morphology in crucian carp enhances their escape locomotor performance. The deep-bodied carp also show higher percentage of muscle mass. Therefore, their superior performance in escape swimming may be due to a combination of higher muscle power and higher thrust. PMID:17971327

  9. Behavioural interaction between fish predators and their prey: effects of plant density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Stein, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    Prey-specific anti-predatory behaviour under different degrees of structural complexity determines foraging success of predators. The behaviour of piscivorous fish (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides and northern pike, Esox lucius) and their prey (bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas) were quantified in 60-min experiments in laboratory pools (2 multiplied by 4 m in diameter, 0 multiplied by 5 m deep) with artificial vegetation at densities of 0, 50, 250, and 1000 stems/m2. Largemouth bass switched predatory tactics from searching to ambushing as plant density increased whereas northern pike always used ambushing. At high plant density, both predators captured minnows, but not bluegills. Bluegills modified their behaviour more than minnows in response to predators, thereby avoiding predation at high plant densities. Structural complexity alone did not always provide refuge for prey; prey must use the structure to avoid predators. Predators may seek vegetated areas if appropriate, vulnerable prey are present.

  10. Fishery survey and related limnological conditions of Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, W.W.; LaBaugh, J.W.; Freeberg, M.H.; Dowling, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), yellow perch (Perca flavescens) rock bass (Amploplites rupestris), black crappie (Pomozis nigromaculatus), and northern pike (Esox lucius) were found in Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota, during a fishery survey of the lake in late August 1982. The most abundant fish were the bluegills. These fish live in the large littoral zone of the lake; this zone underlies 55% of the surface area of the lake. The most ubiquitous benthic invertebrate in the littoral zone (amphipods) and the most abundant benthic invertebrate (chironomid larvae) were major food sources for the bluegill. Other organisms found in the stomach contents of fish collected in this survey were zooplankton, gastropods, Diptera larvae, odonates, terrestrial insects, and other fish. Daphnia were the only zooplankters of a diverse plankton community that were found in stomach contents. The abundance of fish other than bluegill was typical for a system in which northern pike is the major predator.

  11. Androgenesis and homozygous gynogenesis in muskellunge (Esox masquinongy): evaluation using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, F; Dabrowski, K

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on denucleation of eggs and investigate the heat-shock conditions for diploidization for induction of androgenesis in muskellunge, Esox masquinongy. Several egg incubation media, including saline, Ringer's solution, and Ringer's solution supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA), were found suitable to maintain the egg fertility as high as in muskellunge ovarian fluid. The optimal doses of UV radiation were 660-1320 J/m2, at which 100% haploid larvae were produced at a hatching rate of 22.5 +/- 2.8%. UV irradiation at low doses (165-330 J/m2) generated abnormal larvae, which were morphologically identical to haploids. Using a flow cytometry method, it was found that cellular DNA content of these larvae was close to that of diploids but significantly lower in value and had a wider distribution (expressed as coefficient of variation) than that of control fish. This suggested that a low dose of UV irradiation might cause gene mutations, alteration of chromosomal conformation and fragmentation, but did not prevent maternal DNA from participating in mitotic division. Interference of maternal DNA residues could be another reason for the poor viability of androgenetic fish. A high dose of UV radiation (1980 J/m2) caused development of severely deformed embryos, indicating that UV radiation also damaged molecules in the eggs other than the denucleation. Our results suggest that classic color and allozyme markers might not be sufficient to prove a complete androgenesis. In order to optimize time and duration of shock for induced diploidization, we investigated the heat-shock conditions for inhibiting the first mitotic cleavage through induction of homozygous gynogenesis. We found that heat-shock treatment at 31 degrees C for 9 min starting at 1.4 tau 0 (a dimensionless factor describing progress in embryo development) after fertilization produced the highest percentage of diploids at

  12. Muskie Lunacy: does the lunar cycle influence angler catch of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    PubMed

    Vinson, Mark R; Angradi, Ted R

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge.

  13. Muskie Lunacy: Does the Lunar Cycle Influence Angler Catch of Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Mark R.; Angradi, Ted R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge. PMID:24871329

  14. Muskie lunacy: does the lunar cycle influence angler catch of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vinson, Mark R.; Angradi, Ted R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge.

  15. Disrupting the PIKE-A/Akt interaction inhibits glioblastoma cell survival, migration, invasion and colony formation

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Q; He, K; Liu, X; Pham, C; Meyerkord, C; Fu, H; Ye, K

    2013-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) amplicon is frequently amplified in numerous human cancers including gliomas. PIKE-A, a proto-oncogene that is one of the important components of the CDK4 amplicon, binds to and enhances the kinase activity of Akt, thereby promoting cancer progression. To define the roles of the PIKE-A/Akt interaction in glioblastoma multiform (GBM) progression, we used biochemical protein/protein interaction (PPI) assays and live cell fluorescence-based protein complementation assays to search for small peptide antagonist from these proteins that were able to block their interaction. Here, we show that disruption of the interaction between PIKE-A and Akt by the small peptides significantly reduces glioblastoma cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion. Disruption of PIKE-A/Akt association potently suppressed GBM cell proliferation and sensitized the cells to two clinical drugs that are currently used to treat GBM. Interestingly, GBM cells containing the CDK4 amplicon were more responsive to the inhibition of the PIKE-A/Akt interaction than GBM cells lacking this amplicon. Taken together, our findings provide proof-of-principle that blocking a PPI that is essential for cancer progression provides a valuable strategy for therapeutic discovery. PMID:22450747

  16. Selenium concentrations in the Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius): relationship with flows in the upper Colorado River.

    PubMed

    Osmundson, B C; May, T W; Osmundson, D B

    2000-05-01

    A Department of the Interior (DOI) irrigation drainwater study of the Uncompahgre Project area and the Grand Valley in western Colorado revealed high selenium concentrations in water, sediment, and biota samples. The lower Gunnison River and the Colorado River in the study area are designated critical habitat for the endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus). Because of the endangered status of these fish, sacrificing individuals for tissue residue analysis has been avoided; consequently, little information existed regarding selenium tissue residues. In 1994, muscle plugs were collected from a total of 39 Colorado pikeminnow captured at various Colorado River sites in the Grand Valley for selenium residue analysis. The muscle plugs collected from 16 Colorado pikeminnow captured at Walter Walker State Wildlife Area (WWSWA) contained a mean selenium concentration of 17 microg/g dry weight, which was over twice the recommended toxic threshold guideline concentration of 8 microg/g dry weight in muscle tissue for freshwater fish. Because of elevated selenium concentrations in muscle plugs in 1994, a total of 52 muscle plugs were taken during 1995 from Colorado pikeminnow staging at WWSWA. Eleven of these plugs were from fish previously sampled in 1994. Selenium concentrations in 9 of the 11 recaptured fish were significantly lower in 1995 than in 1994. Reduced selenium in fish may in part be attributed to higher instream flows in 1995 and lower water selenium concentrations in the Colorado River in the Grand Valley. In 1996, muscle plugs were taken from 35 Colorado squawfish captured at WWSWA, and no difference in mean selenium concentrations were detected from those sampled in 1995. Colorado River flows during 1996 were intermediate to those measured in 1994 and 1995. PMID:10787099

  17. Selenium concentrations in the Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius): Relationship with flows in the upper Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osmundson, B.C.; May, T.W.; Osmundson, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    A Department of the Interior (DOI) irrigation drainwater study of the Uncompahgre Project area and the Grand Valley in western Colorado revealed high selenium concentrations in water, sediment, and biota samples. The lower Gunnison River and the Colorado River in the study area are designated critical habitat for the endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus). Because of the endangered status of these fish, sacrificing individuals for tissue residue analysis has been avoided; consequently, little information existed regarding selenium tissue residues. In 1994, muscle plugs were collected from a total of 39 Colorado pikeminnow captured at various Colorado River sites in the Grand Valley for selenium residue analysis. The muscle plugs collected from 16 Colorado pikeminnow captured at Walter Walker State Wildlife Area (WWSWA) contained a mean selenium concentration of 17 ??g/g dry weight, which was over twice the recommended toxic threshold guideline concentration of 8 ??g/g dry weight in muscle tissue for freshwater fish. Because of elevated selenium concentrations in muscle plugs in 1994, a total of 52 muscle plugs were taken during 1995 from Colorado pikeminnow staging at WWSWA. Eleven of these plugs were from fish previously sampled in 1994. Selenium concentrations in 9 of the 11 recaptured fish were significantly lower in 1995 than in 1994. Reduced selenium in fish may in part be attributed to higher instream flows in 1995 and lower water selenium concentrations in the Colorado River in the Grand Valley. In 1996, muscle plugs were taken from 35 Colorado squawfish captured at WWSWA, and no difference in mean selenium concentrations were detected from those sampled in 1995. Colorado River flows during 1996 were intermediate to those measured in 1994 and 1995.

  18. HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA IS ON PIKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA IS ON PIKE STREET FACING SOUTHWEST. ATTACHED STRUCTURE AT RIGHT OF VIEW IS ETR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-36-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Aquatic assessment of the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site, Corinth, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Argue, Denise M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Kiah, Richard G.; Besser, John M.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Levitan, Denise M.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site in Corinth, Orange County, Vermont, includes the Eureka, Union, and Smith mines along with areas of downstream aquatic ecosystem impairment. The site was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004. The mines, which operated from about 1847 to 1919, contain underground workings, foundations from historical structures, several waste-rock piles, and some flotation tailings. The mine site is drained to the northeast by Pike Hill Brook, which includes several wetland areas, and to the southeast by an unnamed tributary that flows to the south and enters Cookville Brook. Both brooks eventually drain into the Waits River, which flows into the Connecticut River. The aquatic ecosystem at the site was assessed using a variety of approaches that investigated surface-water quality, sediment quality, and various ecological indicators of stream-ecosystem health. The degradation of surface-water quality is caused by elevated concentrations of copper, and to a lesser extent cadmium, with localized effects caused by aluminum, iron, and zinc. Copper concentrations in surface waters reached or exceeded the USEPA national recommended chronic water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life in all of the Pike Hill Brook sampling locations except for the location farthest downstream, in half of the locations sampled in the tributary to Cookville Brook, and in about half of the locations in one wetland area located in Pike Hill Brook. Most of these same locations also contained concentrations of cadmium that exceeded the chronic water-quality criteria. In contrast, surface waters at background sampling locations were below these criteria for copper and cadmium. Comparison of hardness-based and Biotic Ligand Model (BLM)-based criteria for copper yields similar results with respect to the extent or number of stations impaired for surface waters in the affected area. However, the BLM

  20. "This I Suffered in the Short Space of my Life". The Epitaph for Lucius Minicius Anthimianus (CIG 3272; Peek GVn 1166).

    PubMed

    Graumann, Lutz A; Horstmanshoff, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Herewith we present an interdisciplinary study of the metrical funerary inscription from the third century CE (CIG 3272; Peek GV 1166). This emotional Greek epitaph reports the short life (from birth to death) of the 4 year old Lucius Minicius Anthimianus. This is the first detailed study since the dissertation by Klitsch (1976). The inscription presents an ideal case for a truly interdisciplinary study of the patient-history, in that its interpretation involves the study of Greek literature and linguistics, epigraphy, social and religious history, and ancient medicine. It also offers ample opportunity to show the contradictions inherent in proposing retrospective diagnosis, without neglecting the relevant information modern medicine has to offer for the interpretation of this case history. We argue that Lucius' father was most probably a physician, that the text of the inscription stems from expert knowledge of ancient medicine and that the traditional retrospective diagnosis of this case, tuberculosis, is an untenable hypothesis. PMID:26946673

  1. "This I Suffered in the Short Space of my Life". The Epitaph for Lucius Minicius Anthimianus (CIG 3272; Peek GVn 1166).

    PubMed

    Graumann, Lutz A; Horstmanshoff, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Herewith we present an interdisciplinary study of the metrical funerary inscription from the third century CE (CIG 3272; Peek GV 1166). This emotional Greek epitaph reports the short life (from birth to death) of the 4 year old Lucius Minicius Anthimianus. This is the first detailed study since the dissertation by Klitsch (1976). The inscription presents an ideal case for a truly interdisciplinary study of the patient-history, in that its interpretation involves the study of Greek literature and linguistics, epigraphy, social and religious history, and ancient medicine. It also offers ample opportunity to show the contradictions inherent in proposing retrospective diagnosis, without neglecting the relevant information modern medicine has to offer for the interpretation of this case history. We argue that Lucius' father was most probably a physician, that the text of the inscription stems from expert knowledge of ancient medicine and that the traditional retrospective diagnosis of this case, tuberculosis, is an untenable hypothesis.

  2. PCB patterns in herring and pike with special regard to co-planar congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Alsberg, T.; Wit, C. de; Eriksson, U.; Jaernberg, U.; Bignert, A.; Olsson, M.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigates the patterns of PCB in two aquatic organisms, herring and pike. The aim is to establish a basis for a model for estimating the levels of co-planar PCBs from the concentrations of nonplanar congeners. The chosen fish populations reflect differences in species, age, habitat (locations) and time of catch, as well as differences in total PCB concentrations. More stable patterns would be presumed, the more homogeneous the population. Herring were sampled at two locations, one in the Bothnian Bay (Harufjaerden) and one in the Southern Baltic (Utlaengan). Two age classes were sampled at each location, 2- and 6-year olds, respectively at Utlaengan, and 2- and 5-year olds, respectively at Harufjaerden. Pike were sampled from Lake Bolmen in southern Sweden in 1992, and pike from the same location but sampled in 1971 were taken from the specimen bank. Ten individuals per population were analyzed. Thirteen PCB congeners were determined, namely PCBs 28, 52, 77, 101, 105, 118, 126, 1 38, 153, 156, 157, 169, 180, thus including the seven PCBs that are measured in the national monitoring program, in addition to three monoortho and three non-ortho PCBs. Regarding the possibility of creating a model for calculating the concentrations of the planar PCBs from those of the non-planar, the results look promising for PCB-126 and PCB-169, whereas PCB-77 shows a lower correlation to the non-planar congeners.

  3. Aquatic assessment of the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site, Corinth, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Argue, Denise M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Kiah, Richard G.; Besser, John M.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Levitan, Denise M.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site in Corinth, Orange County, Vermont, includes the Eureka, Union, and Smith mines along with areas of downstream aquatic ecosystem impairment. The site was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004. The mines, which operated from about 1847 to 1919, contain underground workings, foundations from historical structures, several waste-rock piles, and some flotation tailings. The mine site is drained to the northeast by Pike Hill Brook, which includes several wetland areas, and to the southeast by an unnamed tributary that flows to the south and enters Cookville Brook. Both brooks eventually drain into the Waits River, which flows into the Connecticut River. The aquatic ecosystem at the site was assessed using a variety of approaches that investigated surface-water quality, sediment quality, and various ecological indicators of stream-ecosystem health. The degradation of surface-water quality is caused by elevated concentrations of copper, and to a lesser extent cadmium, with localized effects caused by aluminum, iron, and zinc. Copper concentrations in surface waters reached or exceeded the USEPA national recommended chronic water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life in all of the Pike Hill Brook sampling locations except for the location farthest downstream, in half of the locations sampled in the tributary to Cookville Brook, and in about half of the locations in one wetland area located in Pike Hill Brook. Most of these same locations also contained concentrations of cadmium that exceeded the chronic water-quality criteria. In contrast, surface waters at background sampling locations were below these criteria for copper and cadmium. Comparison of hardness-based and Biotic Ligand Model (BLM)-based criteria for copper yields similar results with respect to the extent or number of stations impaired for surface waters in the affected area. However, the BLM

  4. Fish introductions reveal the temperature dependence of species interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Catherine L.; Öhlund, Gunnar; Englund, Göran

    2014-01-01

    A major area of current research is to understand how climate change will impact species interactions and ultimately biodiversity. A variety of environmental conditions are rapidly changing owing to climate warming, and these conditions often affect both the strength and outcome of species interactions. We used fish distributions and replicated fish introductions to investigate environmental conditions influencing the coexistence of two fishes in Swedish lakes: brown trout (Salmo trutta) and pike (Esox lucius). A logistic regression model of brown trout and pike coexistence showed that these species coexist in large lakes (more than 4.5 km2), but not in small, warm lakes (annual air temperature more than 0.9–1.5°C). We then explored how climate change will alter coexistence by substituting climate scenarios for 2091–2100 into our model. The model predicts that brown trout will be extirpated from approximately half of the lakes where they presently coexist with pike and from nearly all 9100 lakes where pike are predicted to invade. Context dependency was critical for understanding pike–brown trout interactions, and, given the widespread occurrence of context-dependent species interactions, this aspect will probably be critical for accurately predicting climate impacts on biodiversity. PMID:24307673

  5. Potential direct and indirect effects of climate change on a shallow natural lake fish assemblage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breeggemann, Jason J.; Kaemingk, Mark A.; DeBates, T.J.; Paukert, Craig P.; Krause, J.; Letvin, Alexander P.; Stevens, Tanner M.; Willis, David W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Much uncertainty exists around how fish communities in shallow lakes will respond to climate change. In this study, we modelled the effects of increased water temperatures on consumption and growth rates of two piscivores (northern pike [Esox lucius] and largemouth bass [Micropterus salmoides]) and examined relative effects of consumption by these predators on two prey species (bluegill [Lepomis macrochirus] and yellow perch [Perca flavescens]). Bioenergetics models were used to simulate the effects of climate change on growth and food consumption using predicted 2040 and 2060 temperatures in a shallow Nebraska Sandhill lake, USA. The patterns and magnitude of daily and cumulative consumption during the growing season (April–October) were generally similar between the two predators. However, growth of northern pike was always reduced (−3 to −45% change) compared to largemouth bass that experienced subtle changes (4 to −6% change) in weight by the end of the growing season. Assuming similar population size structure and numbers of predators in 2040–2060, future consumption of bluegill and yellow perch by northern pike and largemouth bass will likely increase (range: 3–24%), necessitating greater prey biomass to meet future energy demands. The timing of increased predator consumption will likely shift towards spring and fall (compared to summer), when prey species may not be available in the quantities required. Our findings suggest that increased water temperatures may affect species at the edge of their native range (i.e. northern pike) and a potential mismatch between predator and prey could exist.

  6. PERCHLORATE TROPHIC TRANSFER INCREASES TISSUE CONCENTRATIONS ABOVE AMBIENT WATER EXPOSURE ALONE IN A PREDATORY FISH

    PubMed Central

    Furin, Christoff G.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Hagedorn, Birgit; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined effects of varying concentrations of the environmental contaminant perchlorate in northern pike (Esox lucius) based on exposure in water and/or from prey (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus). Routes of exposure to pike were through contaminated water at 0, 10 or 100 mg/L perchlorate for 49 days and/or through feeding one stickleback per day over 14 days that were previously maintained in water at 0, 10 or 100 mg/L perchlorate. Both water and food significantly contributed to pike tissue concentrations of perchlorate as compared to controls, but, as expected for a water-soluble contaminant, perchlorate did not biomagnify from prey to predatory fish. Pike gastrointestinal tissue retained significantly more perchlorate than other tissues combined. Route of exposure and concentration of perchlorate in various media are important to consider in risk assessment when evaluating uptake and tissue concentration of perchlorate because significantly higher tissue concentrations may result from combined prey and water exposures than from prey or water exposures alone in a concentration dependent manner. PMID:24188192

  7. Coexistence of behavioural types in an aquatic top predator: a response to resource limitation?

    PubMed

    Kobler, Alexander; Klefoth, Thomas; Mehner, Thomas; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2009-10-01

    Intra-population variation in behaviour unrelated to sex, size or age exists in a variety of species. The mechanisms behind behavioural diversification have only been partly understood, but density-dependent resource availability may play a crucial role. To explore the potential coexistence of different behavioural types within a natural fish population, we conducted a radio telemetry study, measuring habitat use and swimming activity patterns of pike (Esox lucius), a sit-and-wait predatory fish. Three behavioural types co-occurred in the study lake. While two types of fish only selected vegetated littoral habitats, the third type opportunistically used all habitats and increased its pelagic occurrence in response to decreasing resource biomasses. There were no differences in size, age or lifetime growth between the three behavioural types. However, habitat-opportunistic pike were substantially more active than the other two behavioural types, which is energetically costly. The identical growth rates exhibited by all behavioural types indicate that these higher activity costs of opportunistic behaviour were compensated for by increased prey consumption in the less favourable pelagic habitat resulting in approximately equal fitness of all pike groups. We conclude that behavioural diversification in habitat use and activity reduces intraspecific competition in preferred littoral habitats. This may facilitate the emergence of an ideal free distribution of pike along resource gradients. PMID:19609567

  8. Fine scale habitat use by age-1 stocked muskellunge and wild northern pike in an upper St. Lawrence River bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrell, John M.; Kapuscinski, Kevin L.; Underwood, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Radio telemetry of stocked muskellunge (n = 6) and wild northern pike (n = 6) was used to track late summer and fall movements from a common release point in a known shared nursery bay to test the hypothesis that age-1 northern pike and stocked muskellunge segregate and have different habitat affinities. Water depth, temperature, substrate and aquatic vegetation variables were estimated for each muskellunge (n = 103) and northern pike (n = 131) position and nested ANOVA comparisons by species indicated differences in habitat use. Muskellunge exhibited a greater displacement from the release point and used habitat in shallower water depths (mean = 0.85 m, SE = 0.10) than northern pike (mean = 1.45 m, SE = 0.08). Both principal components analysis (PCA) and principal components ordination (PCO) were used to interpret underlying gradients relative to fish positions in two-dimensional space. Our analysis indicated that a separation of age-1 northern pike and muskellunge occurred 7 d post-release. This first principal component explained 48% of the variation in habitat use. Northern pike locations were associated with deeper habitats that generally had softer silt substrates and dense submersed vegetation. Muskellunge locations post-acclimation showed greater association with shallower habitats containing firmer sandy and clay substrates and emergent vegetation. The observed differences in habitat use suggest that fine-scale ecological separation occurred between these stocked muskellunge and wild northern pike, but small sample sizes and potential for individual variation limit extension of these conclusions. Further research is needed to determine if these patterns exist between larger samples of fishes over a greater range of habitats.

  9. Effect of boat noise and angling on lake fish behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, L; Baktoft, H; Jepsen, N; Aarestrup, K; Berg, S; Skov, C

    2014-06-01

    The effects of disturbances from recreational activities on the swimming speed and habitat use of roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius were explored. Disturbances were applied for 4 h as (1) boating in short intervals with a small outboard internal combustion engine or (2) boating in short intervals combined with angling with artificial lures between engine runs. The response of the fish species was evaluated by high-resolution tracking using an automatic acoustic telemetry system and transmitters with sub-minute burst rates. Rutilus rutilus swimming speed was significantly higher during disturbances [both (1) and (2)] with an immediate reaction shortly after the engine started. Perca fluviatilis displayed increased swimming activity during the first hour of disturbance but not during the following hours. Swimming activity of E. lucius was not significantly different between disturbance periods and the same periods on days without disturbance (control). Rutilus rutilus increased their use of the central part of the lake during disturbances, whereas no habitat change was observed in P. fluviatilis and E. lucius. No difference in fish response was detected between the two types of disturbances (boating with and without angling), indicating that boating was the primary source of disturbance. This study highlights species-specific responses to recreational boating and may have implications for management of human recreational activities in lakes. PMID:24813930

  10. Effect of boat noise and angling on lake fish behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, L; Baktoft, H; Jepsen, N; Aarestrup, K; Berg, S; Skov, C

    2014-06-01

    The effects of disturbances from recreational activities on the swimming speed and habitat use of roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius were explored. Disturbances were applied for 4 h as (1) boating in short intervals with a small outboard internal combustion engine or (2) boating in short intervals combined with angling with artificial lures between engine runs. The response of the fish species was evaluated by high-resolution tracking using an automatic acoustic telemetry system and transmitters with sub-minute burst rates. Rutilus rutilus swimming speed was significantly higher during disturbances [both (1) and (2)] with an immediate reaction shortly after the engine started. Perca fluviatilis displayed increased swimming activity during the first hour of disturbance but not during the following hours. Swimming activity of E. lucius was not significantly different between disturbance periods and the same periods on days without disturbance (control). Rutilus rutilus increased their use of the central part of the lake during disturbances, whereas no habitat change was observed in P. fluviatilis and E. lucius. No difference in fish response was detected between the two types of disturbances (boating with and without angling), indicating that boating was the primary source of disturbance. This study highlights species-specific responses to recreational boating and may have implications for management of human recreational activities in lakes.

  11. Distribution and food habits of young-of-the-year fishes in a backwater lake of the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.; Huston, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution patterns and food habits of young-of-the-year (YOY) fishes in a lentic area adjacent to the main channel of Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River were studied. Habitats sampled grouped distinctly based on percent composition and abundance of YOY fishes with those having submergent vegetation dominated by a number of important sport species. In late spring, the grouping of stations depended on the presence or absence of newly transformed northern pike (Esox lucius). In early summer, stations did not differ as distinctly in composition, but in total abundance of young. Those stations with submergent vegetation had total catches which were more than double those elsewhere. By late summer, submergent and mixed vegetation stations formed a distinct assemblage influenced by the preponderance of three species of sunfishes. (DBO).

  12. Allometric scaling of intraspecific space use

    PubMed Central

    Gozlan, Rodolphe E.

    2016-01-01

    Allometric scaling relationships enable exploration of animal space-use patterns, yet interspecific studies cannot address many of the underlying mechanisms. We present the first intraspecific study of home range (HR) allometry relative to energetic requirements over several orders of magnitude of body mass, using as a model the predatory fish, pike Esox lucius. Analogous with interspecific studies, we show that space use increases more rapidly with mass (exponent = 1.08) than metabolic scaling theories predict. Our results support a theory that suggests increasing HR overlap with body mass explains many of these differences in allometric scaling of HR size. We conclude that, on a population scale, HR size and energetic requirement scale allometrically, but with different exponents. PMID:26979558

  13. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and Their Effects on Fish in the Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Tim S.; Myers, Mark S.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    This project collected, examined, and analyzed 217 fish representing three species at 10 stations in the U.S. portion of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) from May to October 2002. Four sampling sites were located on the Yukon River; two were located on the Porcupine River, and one site was on each of the Ray, Tanana, Tolavana, and Innoko Rivers. Norther pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) were weighed and measured, and examined in the field for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were collected and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorines and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

  14. Causes and consequences of intra-specific variation in vertebral number

    PubMed Central

    Tibblin, Petter; Berggren, Hanna; Nordahl, Oscar; Larsson, Per; Forsman, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in vertebral number is taxonomically widespread. Much scientific attention has been directed towards understanding patterns of variation in vertebral number among individuals and between populations, particularly across large spatial scales and in structured environments. However, the relative role of genes, plasticity, selection, and drift as drivers of individual variation and population differentiation remains unknown for most systems. Here, we report on patterns, causes and consequences of variation in vertebral number among and within sympatric subpopulations of pike (Esox lucius). Vertebral number differed among subpopulations, and common garden experiments indicated that this reflected genetic differences. A QST-FST comparison suggested that population differences represented local adaptations driven by divergent selection. Associations with fitness traits further indicated that vertebral counts were influenced both by stabilizing and directional selection within populations. Overall, our study enhances the understanding of adaptive variation, which is critical for the maintenance of intraspecific diversity and species conservation. PMID:27210072

  15. Predicting change in fish mercury concentrations following reservoir impoundment.

    PubMed

    Therriault, T W; Schneider, D C

    1998-01-01

    Fish mercury concentrations frequently increase after impoundment of a reservoir. Soil flooding releases organic matter and nutrients, providing food to bacterial communities that methylate inorganic mercury. Methylation and bioaccumulation are the primary pathways for mercury accumulation in fish. We investigated if changes in fish mercury concentrations could be predicted from the change in reservoir size. Data for three fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from reservoirs in northern Manitoba and northern Quebec were used to evaluate four simple models of change in mercury with change in flooded area. For three additional fish species, all primary carnivores, the preferred model consisted of a single exponential enrichment term. This model successfully predicted two cases not used in model development-one with a large change in area and one with a small change in area. Models with good predictive skill can be developed when the underlying dynamics are known. PMID:15093096

  16. Allometric scaling of intraspecific space use.

    PubMed

    Rosten, Carolyn M; Gozlan, Rodolphe E; Lucas, Martyn C

    2016-03-01

    Allometric scaling relationships enable exploration of animal space-use patterns, yet interspecific studies cannot address many of the underlying mechanisms. We present the first intraspecific study of home range (HR) allometry relative to energetic requirements over several orders of magnitude of body mass, using as a model the predatory fish, pike Esox lucius. Analogous with interspecific studies, we show that space use increases more rapidly with mass (exponent = 1.08) than metabolic scaling theories predict. Our results support a theory that suggests increasing HR overlap with body mass explains many of these differences in allometric scaling of HR size. We conclude that, on a population scale, HR size and energetic requirement scale allometrically, but with different exponents. PMID:26979558

  17. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental contaminants and their effects on fish in the Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Tim S.; Myers, Mark S.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    This project collected, examined, and analyzed 217 fish representing three species at 10 stations in the U.S. portion of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) from May to October 2002. Four sampling sites were located on the Yukon River; two were located on the Porcupine River, and one site was on each of the Ray, Tanana, Tolavana, and Innoko Rivers. Norther pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) were weighed and measured, and examined in the field for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were collected and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorines and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

  18. Low-flow study of the Pike River Basin, Racine and Kenosha counties, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, Stephen J.

    1976-01-01

    The low-flow characteristics of the Pike River basin, Racine and Kenosha Counties were studied to determine the feasibility of Public Law 566 watershed-protection practices. Two seepage runs, one in October 1973, and the other in September 1974, showed that most of the low flow is combined treated-sewage and industrial cooling-water discharge. This effluent was 4.66 cubic feet per second (1.3 cubic metres per second) on September 19, 1974, and discharged into the headwaters of the Pike River; near the mouth the discharge was essentially the same. During drought this effluent could be lost gradually by evapotranspiration and by seepage to the ground-water reservoir. The Q7,2 discharge estimate near the mouth is 0.0 cubic foot per second. Water temperatures October 25-26, 1973, ranged from 9.5 to 16 degrees Celsius, whereas those for. September 19-20, 1974, ranged from 10 to 22 degrees Celsius. Dissolved oxygen October 25-26, 1973, ranged from 4 to 13.5 milligrams per litre; for September 19-20, 1974, the range was from 6.0 to 12.5 milligrams per litre. Specific conductance October 25-26, 1973, ranged from 480 to 1,350 micromhos; for September 19-20, 1974, the range was from 380 to 1,400 micromhos.

  19. Assessment of the water balance over France using regionalized Turc-Pike formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Lay, Matthieu; Garçon, Rémy; Gailhard, Joël; Garavaglia, Federico

    2016-04-01

    With extensive use of hydrological models over a wide range of hydro-climatic contexts, bias in hydro-climatic data may lead to unreliable models and thus hydrological forecasts and projections. This issue is particularly pregnant when considering mountainous areas with great uncertainties on precipitations, or when considering complex unconservative catchments (e.g. karstic systems). The Turc-Pike water balance formula, analogous to the classical Budyko formula, is a simple and efficient mathematical formulation relating long-term average streamflow to long-term average precipitation and potential evaporation. In this study, we propose to apply this framework to assess and eventually adjust the water-balance before calibrating an operational hydrologic model (MORDOR model). Considering a large set of 350 french catchments, the Turc-Pike formula is regionalized based on ecohydrologic criterions to handle various hydro-climatic contexts. This interannual regional model is then applied to assess the water-balance over numerous catchments and various conditions, such as karstic, snow-driven or glaciarized and even anthropized catchments. Results show that it is possible to obtain pretty realistic corrections of meteorological inputs (precipitations, temperature or potential evaporation) or hydrologic surface (or runoff). These corrections can often be confirmed a posteriori by exogenous information. Positive impacts on hydrologic model's calibration are also demonstrated. This methodology is now operational for hydrologic applications at EDF (Electricité de France, French electric utility company), and therefore applied on hundreds of catchments.

  20. Assessment of the Water Balance Over France Using Regionalized Turc-Pike Formula for Operational Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LE Lay, M.; Garcon, R.; Gailhard, J.; Garavaglia, F.

    2015-12-01

    With extensive use of hydrological models over a wide range of hydro-climatic contexts, bias in hydro-climatic data may lead to unreliable models and thus hydrological forecasts and projections. This issue is particularly pregnant when considering mountainous areas with great uncertainties on precipitations, or when considering complex unconservative catchments (e.g. karstic systems). The Turc-Pike water balance formula, analogous to the classical Budyko formula, is a simple and efficient mathematical formulation relating long-term average streamflow to long-term average precipitation and potential evaporation. In this study, we propose to apply this framework to assess and eventually adjust the water-balance before calibrating an operational hydrologic model (MORDOR model). Considering a large set of 350 french catchments, the Turc-Pike formula is regionalized based on ecohydrologic criterions to handle various hydro-climatic contexts. This interannual regional model is then applied to assess the water-balance over numerous catchments and various conditions, such as karstic, snow-driven or glaciarized and even anthropized catchments. Results show that it is possible to obtain pretty realistic corrections of meteorological inputs (precipitations, temperature or potential evaporation) or hydrologic surface (or runoff). These corrections can often be confirmed a posteriori by exogenous information. Positive impacts on hydrologic model's calibration are also demonstrated. This methodology is now operational for hydrologic applications at EDF (Electricité de France, French electric utility company), and therefore applied on hundreds of catchments.

  1. Optimisation of high bar circling technique for consistent performance of a triple piked somersault dismount.

    PubMed

    Hiley, Michael J; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2008-01-01

    The dismount from the high bar is one of the most spectacular skills performed in Men's Artistic Gymnastics. Hiley and Yeadon [2005. Maximal dismounts from high bar. Journal of Biomechanics 38, 2221-2227] optimised the technique in the backward giant circle prior to release using a computer simulation model to show that a gymnast could generate sufficient linear and angular momentum to perform a triple piked backward somersault dismount with a sufficiently large release window (the period of time during which the gymnast could release the bar and successfully complete the dismount). In the present study, it was found that when the timing of the actions at the hip and shoulder joints from the optimum simulation were perturbed by 30ms the resulting simulation could no longer meet the criteria for sufficient aerial rotation and release window. Since it is to be expected that a gymnast's technique can cope with small errors in timing for consistent performance, a requirement of robustness to timing perturbations should be included within the optimisation process. When the technique in the backward giant circle was optimised to be robust to 30ms perturbations, it was found that sufficient linear and angular momentum for a triple piked dismount could be achieved with a realistic release window. PMID:18402965

  2. Mineralogy and provenance of clays in miarolitic cavities of the Pikes Peak Batholith, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Clay samples from 105 cavities within miarolitic granitic pegmatites throughout the Pikes Peak batholith, in Colorado, were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Smectite (beidellite), illite, and kaolinite were found within the cavities. Calculation of crystallite-thickness distribution (CTD), mean thickness of the crystallites, and variance in crystallite thickness, as deduced from XRD patterns, allowed a determination of provenance and mode of formation for illite and smectite. Authigenic miarolitic-cavity illite and smectite show lognormal CTDs and larger mean thicknesses of crystallites than do their soil-derived counterparts; non-lognormal illite in a cavity results from mixing of cavity and soil illite. Analysis of mean thickness and thickness variance shows that crystal growth of illite is initiated by a nucleation event of short duration, followed by surface-controlled kinetics. Crystallization of the miarolitic cavity clays is presumed to occur by neoformation from hydrothermal fluids. The assessment of provenance allows a determination of regional and local distributions of clay minerals in miarolitic cavities within the Pikes Peak batholith.

  3. Pikes Peak Library District, Final Performance Report for Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) Title VI, Library Literacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Susan; Maio, Jean

    This final performance report for the Pikes Peak Library District literacy project begins with a section that provides quantitative data. The next section compares actual accomplishments to the project goal and related objectives for 1993: to reduce obstacles to success of students enrolled in the Right To Read program through student…

  4. 76 FR 71124 - Caddo Valley Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pike and Clark Counties, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Caddo Valley Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Pike and Clark Counties, AR On October 27, 2011, Caddo Valley Railroad Company (CVRR) filed with the...

  5. 76 FR 71125 - Caddo Valley Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Clark, Pike, and Montgomery Counties, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Caddo Valley Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Clark, Pike, and Montgomery Counties, AR Caddo Valley Railroad Company (CVRR) has filed a verified notice of exemption...

  6. Integration of seismic methods with reservoir simulation, Pikes Peak heavy oil field, Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ying

    The Pikes Peak heavy oil field has been operated by Husky Energy Ltd since 1981. Steam injection has been successfully employed to increase production. Efforts in geophysics and reservoir engineering have been made to improve interpretations in the mapping of reservoir conditions. This dissertation developed tools and a working flow for integrating the analysis of time-lapse seismic surveys with reservoir simulation, and applied them to the Pikes Peak field. Two time-lapse 2D seismic lines acquired in February 1991 and March 2000 in the eastern part of the field were carefully processed to produce wavelet and structure matched final sections. Reservoir simulation based on the field reservoir production history was carried out. It provided independent complementary information for the time-lapse seismic analysis. A rock physics procedure based on Gassmann's equation and Batzle and Wang's empirical relationship successfully linked the reservoir engineering to the seismic method. Based on the resultant seismic models, synthetic seismic sections were generated as the analogy of field seismic sections. The integrated interpretation for the Pikes Peak reservoir drew the following conclusions: The areas with a gas saturation difference, between two compared time steps, have seismic differences. Thicker gas zones correspond with large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir and larger traveltime delays in the seismic section. The thin gas zones only induce large reflectivity changes on the top of the reservoir, and do not have large time delays below the reservoir zone. High temperature regions also correlate with areas having large seismic energy differences. High temperature with thick gas (steam and methane) zones may be evidence for steam existence. The seismic differences at locations far from the production zone are due to the lower pressure that causes solution gas to evolve from the oil. Pressure changes propagate much faster (˜20 m in one month) than

  7. Contributions of year-classes of blue pike to the commercial fishery of Lake Erie, 1943-59

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, John W.

    1967-01-01

    The blue pike (Stizostedion vitreum glaucum) contributed about 12.7 million lb annually to the commercial production of fish in Lake Erie in 1915-59. Production averaged about 27% of the total for all species; in some years it exceeded 50%. The catch fluctuated greatly and was featured by a series of seven 'highs' and 'lows' during the 45-year period. The landings ranged between 2 million and 26 million lb; periods of peak production were 5 to 9 years apart. A sharp decline in the catch started in 1957. The take of 79,000 lb in 1959 was the lowest on record to that time. Age and size compositions of the catch were determined from samples of blue pike taken from commercial landings in the fall, 1943-59. Peaks in production in that period were attributed to a few strong year-classes separated by several weak year-classes. Of the 20 year-classes represented in the samples, those of 1944 and 1949 were by far the strongest; together they contributed 42% (by weight) of the fall blue pike production in 1943-59. The strength of the 1939 and 1940 year-classes was moderate and the 1954 year-class was the last one of any importance. The other 15 year-classes were weak. The 1957-59 decline in production was accompanied by a marked increase in rate of growth. Blue pike in age-group III weighed nearly eight times more and were 7.7 inches longer in 1959 than in 1951. Landings after 1958 consisted of only a few large fish. The collapse of the fishery forced blue pike fishermen either to fish for less valuable species or to discontinue operation.

  8. Temperature dependence of predation depends on the relative performance of predators and prey.

    PubMed

    Öhlund, Gunnar; Hedström, Per; Norman, Sven; Hein, Catherine L; Englund, Göran

    2015-01-22

    The temperature dependence of predation rates is a key issue for understanding and predicting the responses of ecosystems to climate change. Using a simple mechanistic model, we demonstrate that differences in the relative performances of predator and prey can cause strong threshold effects in the temperature dependence of attack rates. Empirical data on the attack rate of northern pike (Esox lucius) feeding on brown trout (Salmo trutta) confirm this result. Attack rates fell sharply below a threshold temperature of +11°C, which corresponded to a shift in relative performance of pike and brown trout with respect to maximum attack and escape swimming speeds. The average attack speed of pike was an order of magnitude lower than the escape speed of brown trout at 5°C, but approximately equal at temperatures above 11°C. Thresholds in the temperature dependence of ecological rates can create tipping points in the responses of ecosystems to increasing temperatures. Thus, identifying thresholds is crucial when predicting future effects of climate warming.

  9. Age, growth, and maturity of thirteen species of fish from Lake Oahe during the early years of impoundment, 1963-68

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, William R.

    1974-01-01

    The body-scale relation, calculated length, length-weight relation, age at maturity, and sex ratio of 13 major species collected in Lake Oahe from 1963 to 1968 with trap nets and bottom trawls are described. Eight species grew at a faster rate than has been recorded in other Missouri River reservoirs: goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), white bass (Morone chrysops), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), white crappie (Pomoxis annularis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens). Four species grew at rates similar to those recorded from other Missouri River reservoirs: carp (Cyprinus carpio), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), northern pike (Esox lucius), and sauger (Stizostedion canadense). One species -- river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio) -- grew slower than in other waters. Growth generally was excellent for all major species in the early years of impoundment (1959-62) but then declined. Species showing the greatest decline in growth from 1962 to 1967 were goldeye, bigmouth buffalo, sauger, walleye, northern pike, and freshwater drum. As growth rate decreased, age at sexual maturity increased for northern pike, carp, river carpsucker, bigmouth buffalo, and freshwater drum. Although inundation of new lands was associated with rapid growth of fishes in the early years of impoundment, water level fluctuations during the growing season had no discernible effect on growth rate. Increased average reservoir depth, which decreased the amount of littoral area, was associated with decreased fish growth.

  10. Suggested nomenclature change and new reference locality for Dequeen Formation, Pike County, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, T.L.; Landry, R.J.

    1983-09-01

    The DeQueen Formation of the Trinity Group, Comanchean Cretaceous, crops out in southwestern Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. The outcrop, located in the Highland gypsum quarry of Pike County, southwestern Arkansas, is described in detail in this paper and presented as a reference locality. Data from the locality provide the basis for a nomenclature change from the DeQueen Limestone Member to the DeQueen Formation. The formation consists of 64.23% clastic sediments, 24.72% gypsum, and 11.05% limestone. Hopper salt casts, ripple marks, scattered pyrite and marcasite nodules, celestite, and chickenwire gypsum can also be found. The DeQueen Formation is underlain by clays and the Ultima Thule Gravel lentil, while the top is unconformably overlain by Upper Cretaceous Tokio gravels. The general paleoenvironment represents a normally low-energy subtidal environment ranging from brackish to normal to hypersaline waters in a lagoonal setting that shallows upward.

  11. A ribonuclease protection assay can distinguish spring viremia of carp virus from pike fry rhabdovirus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahne, W.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Thirteen rhabdovirus isolates from 10 teleost fish species as well as reference strains of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) and pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV) cross-reacted in an indirect immunofluorescence assay and were thus indistinguishable by this method. A ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) using a super(32)P-labeled RNA probe made from a cloned copy of the full length SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene was able to discriminate clearly between the type strains of SVCV and PFRV and among the 13 rhabdovirus isolates. Results for the RPA were generally in agreement with standard serum neutralisation assays; however, the RPA was also able to detect genomic differences between isolates of SVCV. These results have implications for fish disease control programs for SVCV.

  12. Predator odor recognition and antipredatory response in fish: does the prey know the predator diel rhythm?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylönen, Hannu; Kortet, Raine; Myntti, Janne; Vainikka, Anssi

    2007-01-01

    We studied in a laboratory experiment using stream tanks if two percid prey fish, the perch ( Perca fluviatilis) and the ruffe ( Gymnocephalus cernuus), can recognize and respond to increased predation risk using odors of two piscivores, the pike ( Esox lucius) and the burbot ( Lota lota). Burbot is night-active most of the year but pike hunts predominantly visually whenever there is enough light. Perch is a common day-active prey of pike and dark-active ruffe that of burbot. We predicted that besides recognizing the predator odors, the prey species would respond more strongly to odors of the predator which share the same activity pattern. Both perch and ruffe clearly responded to both predator fish odors. They decreased movements and erected the spiny dorsal fins. Fin erection showed clearly the black warning ornamentation in the fin and thus erected fin may function besides as mechanical defense also as warning ornament for an approaching predator. No rapid escape movements were generally observed. Both perch and ruffe responded more strongly to pike odor than to burbot. There were no clear differences in response between day and night. In conclusion, we were able to verify clear predator odor recognition by both prey fish. Both perch and ruffe responded to both predator odors and it seemed that pike forms a stronger threat for both prey species. Despite of diel activity differences both perch and ruffe used the same antipredatory strategies, but the day-active perch seemed to have a more flexible antipredatory behavior by responding more strongly to burbot threat during the night when burbot is active.

  13. Pathogens trigger top-down climate forcing on ecosystem dynamics.

    PubMed

    Edeline, Eric; Groth, Andreas; Cazelles, Bernard; Claessen, David; Winfield, Ian J; Ohlberger, Jan; Asbjørn Vøllestad, L; Stenseth, Nils C; Ghil, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Evaluating the effects of climate variation on ecosystems is of paramount importance for our ability to forecast and mitigate the consequences of global change. However, the ways in which complex food webs respond to climate variations remain poorly understood. Here, we use long-term time series to investigate the effects of temperature variation on the intraguild-predation (IGP) system of Windermere (UK), a lake where pike (Esox lucius, top predator) feed on small-sized perch (Perca fluviatilis) but compete with large-sized perch for the same food sources. Spectral analyses of time series reveal that pike recruitment dynamics are temperature controlled. In 1976, expansion of a size-truncating perch pathogen into the lake severely impacted large perch and favoured pike as the IGP-dominant species. This pathogen-induced regime shift to a pike-dominated IGP apparently triggered a temperature-controlled trophic cascade passing through pike down to dissolved nutrients. In simple food chains, warming is predicted to strengthen top-down control by accelerating metabolic rates in ectothermic consumers, while pathogens of top consumers are predicted to dampen this top-down control. In contrast, the local IGP structure in Windermere made warming and pathogens synergistic in their top-down effects on ecosystem functioning. More generally, our results point to top predators as major mediators of community response to global change, and show that size-selective agents (e.g. pathogens, fishers or hunters) may change the topological architecture of food webs and alter whole ecosystem sensitivity to climate variation. PMID:26910776

  14. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Iodophor Disinfection of Walleye and Northern Pike Eggs to Eliminate Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle-Lau, M.T.; Phillips, K.A.; Gaikowski, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSv) is a serious fish pathogen that has been responsible for large-scale fish kills in the Great Lakes since 2005. It causes high mortality and resulting outbreaks have severe economic consequences for aquaculture. Iodophor disinfection of salmonid eggs is a standard hatchery practice to reduce the risk of pathogen transfer during gamete collection ('spawning') operations and is thus a leading candidate for reducing VHSv transmission during and after spawning of nonsalmonid fishes. However, before it is incorporated by hatcheries during nonsalmonid fish spawning efforts, its safety and effectiveness needs to be evaluated. The USGS Fact Sheet 2009-3107, 'Evaluation of the Efficacy of Iodophor Disinfection of Walleye and Northern Pike Eggs to Eliminate Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus' presents the results of a study to assess the effectiveness of iodophor disinfection for eliminating VHSv (strain IVb) from fertilized eggs of walleye and northern pike intentionally challenged with VHSv following egg fertilization. Walleye and northern pike egg survival (hatch) following iodophor egg disinfection also was assessed.

  15. Movement of ground water in coal-bearing rocks near Fishtrap Lake in Pike County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Eight test holes were core-drilled from various altitudes in a typical coal-bearing sequence rocks of Pennsylvania age in Pike County, eastern Kentucky. Vertical fractures were common in cores from shallow depths, but became less common or absent toward the bottom of two test holes drilled 400 and 291 ft deep. Most fractures readily injected water, and near the bottoms of the two deep holes, coal beds accepted water in the non-fractured rocks. Rhodamin-WT dye was injected in a 61-ft deep ridge-top well on October 24, 1985 and was detected in varying concentrations in water samples taken from all down-gradient piezometers at the study site on November 7, 1985. The presence of dye in down-gradient piezometers indicated that groundwater in the Eastern Kentucky coal field can move from areas of higher head to areas of lower head. The movement probably occurs in a stair-step fashion through a complex system of near-vertical fractures, and laterally through permeable rocks, which probably are the coal beds. This suggests that land uses on ridges could affect the quality of water from wells or springs at lower altitudes on hillsides or in the valley bottoms even though separated by a thick interval of rocks that include beds of low primary permeability. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Performance of Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt Medium for Group B Streptococcus Screening in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Gavena, Angela Andréia França; Silva, Flávia Teixeira Ribeiro; Moreira, Ricardo Castanho; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; de Pádua, Rúbia Andreia Faleiros; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), which commonly colonizes the female genital tract and rectum, can cause infections in newborns with varying severity, possibly leading to death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt (HPTH) medium performance for GBS screening in pregnant women. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 556 pregnant women, of which 496 were at 35-37 weeks of gestation and 60 were at ≥ 38 weeks of gestation. The study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in northern Paraná, Brazil. Vaginal and anorectal clinical specimens from each pregnant woman were plated on sheep blood agar (SBA) and seeded on HPTH medium and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 496 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, 141 (28.4%) were positive for GBS, based on the combination of the three culture media and clinical specimens. The GBS colonization rates that were detected by each medium were 22.2% for HPTH medium, 21.2% for SBA, and 13.1% for Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 60 pregnant women at ≥ 38 weeks of gestation, seven (11.7%) were positive for GBS. These results demonstrate that HPTH medium and SBA were more sensitive than Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth for GBS screening in pregnant women and good GBS recovery in culture, indicating that the two media should be used together for vaginal and anorectal specimens. PMID:25881083

  17. Evaluation of the Berea sandstone formation in eastern Pike County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Frantz, J.H. Jr. ); Luffel, D. ); Kubik, W. )

    1993-08-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has been sponsoring a cooperative well program with Ashland Exploration, Inc., (AEI) during the past two years targeting the Devonian Shale and Berea sandstone formations in Pike County of eastern Kentucky. Operators typically complete both the shales and Berea in one well bore in this area. This presentation summarizes the research results of the Berea cooperative well, the COOP 2 (Ashland FMC 80). The specific objectives of the Berea evaluation in the COOP 2 were to develop an integrated reservoir description for stimulation design and predicting long-term well performance, identify geologic production controls, determine the in-situ stress profile, and develop Berea log interpretation models for gas porosity and stress. To satisfy these objectives, data were collected and analyzed from 146 ft of whole core, open-hole geophysical logs, including formation microscanner and digital sonic, in-situ stress measurements, and prefracture production and pressure transient tests. In addition, data from a minifracture, a fracture stimulation treatment, and postfracture performance tests were analyzed. The authors determined the integrated reservoir/hydraulic fracture descriptions from analyzing the data collected in the open- and cased-hole, in addition to the log interpretation models developed to accurately predict gas porosity and stress profiles. Results can be applied by operators to better understand the Berea reservoir in the study area, predict well performance, and design completion procedures and stimulation treatments. The methodology can also be applied to other tight-gas sand formations.

  18. Hydrologic investigation of Powell Marsh and its relation to Dead Pike Lake, Vilas County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohelski, James T.; Rose, William J.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water levels measured in piezometers installed along a flow path indicated that ground-water flow primarily is horizontal in the marsh and moves upward in the vicinity of a ditch where it discharges. Flow from Vista Pond is downward to the ground-water system but eventually also discharges upward to the ditches. Based on analyses of water samples from piezometers, the ditch, and Vista Pond, it was shown that dissolved iron is transported in the ground water. When ground water is discharged, iron and manganese react with dissolved oxygen, then precipitates, and forms the oxyhydroxide floc present in the Powell Marsh ditches. The processes involved in the transport and floc formation are not unique to the ditches, but are an expected outcome where discharging ground water and oxygenated surface water meet. Therefore, although floc formed in the ditches would no longer be available for transport if ditches were removed, it is likely that the floc formation would be redirected to the near-shore areas of Dead Pike Lake where increased groundwater discharge is expected.

  19. A complete chitinolytic system in the atherinopsid pike silverside Chirostoma estor: gene expression and activities.

    PubMed

    Pohls, P; González-Dávalos, L; Mora, O; Shimada, A; Varela-Echavarria, A; Toledo-Cuevas, E M; Martínez-Palacios, C A

    2016-06-01

    The expression and digestive activity of pike silverside Chirostoma estor endogenous chitinases were analysed in samples from four life stages: whole eggs; larvae; juvenile intestine and hepatopancreas and adult intestine and hepatopancreas. A chitinase cDNA was cloned and partially sequenced (GenBank accession number: FJ785521). It was highly homologous to non-acidic chitinase sequences from other fish species, suggesting that it is a chitotriosidase. Quantitative PCR showed that this chitinase was expressed throughout the life span of C. estor, with maximum expression in the hepatopancreas of juveniles. Chitotriosidase and chitobiosidase activities were found at all life stages, along with a very high level of N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAGase). The chitotriosidase activity could be encoded by the cloned complementary (c)DNA, although additional chitinase genes may be present. The chitotriosidase activity appeared to be transcriptionally regulated only at the juvenile stage. The expression and activity of chitinases tended to increase from the early to juvenile stages, suggesting that these variables are stimulated by chitin-rich live food. Nevertheless, the feeding of juvenile and adult fish with both live food and a balanced commercial diet seemed to provoke significant reductions in pancreatic NAGase secretion and/or synthesis in the gut. Moreover, all chitinase activities were lower in adults, probably reflecting a higher intake and use of the balanced diet. The observation of chitotriosidase and chitobiosidase activities together with a very high NAGase activity suggest the presence of a complete and compensatory chitinolytic chitinase system that enables this stomachless short-gut fish species to use chitin as an energy substrate. These novel findings suggest that dietary inclusions of chitin-rich ingredients or by-products might reduce the farming costs of C. estor without impairing performance. PMID:27161769

  20. Isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus from muskellunge, Esox masquinongy (Mitchill), in Lake St Clair, Michigan, USA reveals a new sublineage of the North American genotype

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elsayed, E.; Faisal, M.; Thomas, M.; Whelan, G.; Batts, W.; Winton, J.

    2006-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from muskellunge, Esox masquinongy (Mitchill), caught from the NW portion of Lake St Clair, Michigan, USA in 2003. Affected fish exhibited congestion of internal organs; the inner wall of the swim bladder was thickened and contained numerous budding, fluid-filled vesicles. A virus was isolated using fish cell lines inoculated with a homogenate of kidney and spleen tissues from affected fish. Focal areas of cell rounding and granulation appeared as early as 24 h post-inoculation and expanded rapidly to destroy the entire cell sheet by 96 h. Electron microscopy revealed virions that were 170-180 nm in length by 60-70 nm in width having a bullet-shaped morphology typical of rhabdoviruses. The virus was confirmed as VHSV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis of the entire nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes revealed the virus was a member of the North American genotype of VHSV; however, the isolate was sufficiently distinct to be considered a separate sublineage, suggesting its origin may have been from marine species inhabiting the eastern coastal areas of the USA or Canada. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Research results from the Ashland Exploration, Inc., Ford Motor Company 80 (COOP 2) well, Pike County, KY. Topical report, October 1991-November 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Frantz, J.H.; Lancaster, D.E.

    1993-04-01

    The report summarizes the work performed on the Ashland Exploration, Inc. (AEI) Ford Motor Company 80 (COOP 2) well in Pike County, KY. The COOP 2 was the second well in a three-well research project being conducted by GRI in eastern Kentucky targeting both the Devonian Shales and the Berea Sand; the FMC 80 focused on the Berea. The primary objective of the research was to use and transfer technologies developed in GRI`s Tight Gas Sands and Gas Shales programs to evaluate the Berea in Pike Co., KY.

  2. Mercury trends in predatory fish in Great Slave Lake: the influence of temperature and other climate drivers.

    PubMed

    Evans, Marlene; Muir, Derek; Brua, Robert B; Keating, Jonathan; Wang, Xiaowa

    2013-11-19

    Here we report on trends in mercury (Hg) concentrations in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), burbot (Lota lota), and northern pike (Esox lucius) from Great Slave Lake, located in the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB) and investigate how climate factors may be influencing these trends. Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot increased significantly over the early 1990s to 2012 in the two major regions of the lake; no trend was evident for northern pike over 1999-2012. Temporal variations in Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot were similar with respect to timing of peaks and troughs. Inclusion of climate variables based on annual means, particularly temperature, improved explanatory power for variations in Hg over analyses based only on year and fish length; unexpectedly, the temperature coefficient was negative. Climate analyses based on growing season means (defined as May-September) had less explanatory power suggesting that trends were more strongly associated with colder months within the year. Inclusion of the Pacific/North American index improved explanatory power for the lake trout model suggesting that trends may have been affected by air circulation patterns. Overall, while our study confirmed previously reported trends of Hg increase in burbot in the MRB, we found no evidence that these trends were directly driven by increasing temperatures and productivity.

  3. Diet dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA 1995-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Diets of adults of six important piscivorous fish species, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, northern pike Esox lucius, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, and yellow perch Perca flavescens were quantified in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA from May to October in 1995-1997. Forty-one prey taxa were found in the diets of these species, including 19 species of fish. The most important prey taxa overall were yellow perch, amphipods and dipterans. Diets of northern pike and walleye were dominated by yellow perch. Largemouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and black bullhead Ameiurus melas. Smallmouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and crayfish. Black crappie and yellow perch diets were dominated by invertebrates, primarily amphipods and dipterans. There were pronounced differences in diets among species, among size classes within species and over time. Most of the dominant prey taxa we documented in the diets of piscivorous species were in accordance with previous studies, but a few deviated significantly from expectations. Many of the temporal diet changes were asynchronous among piscivorous species and size classes, suggesting different responses to common prey resources over time.

  4. Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (Benzocaine): efficacy as an anesthetic for five species of freshwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Gilderhus, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (benzocaine) was tested for its efficacy as an anesthetic for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii, brown trout (Salmo truttas, northern pike (Esox lucius). carp (Cyprinus carpio), and largemouth bass (Mieropterus salmoidesi. Since benzocaine is not water soluble, it was applied with acetone as a carrier. Concentrations of 100 to 200 mg!l were required for large adult northern pike, compared with 50 to 100 mg/l for small fish. Rates of sedation and recovery were slower in cold water than in warm water. Water hardness had little influence on the activity of benzocaine. Fish were anesthetized faster and recovered more slowly in acid than in alkaline water. Benzocaine produced deep anesthesia, but concentrations that rendered the fish handleable within 5 min were generally not safe for exposures longer than 15 min. Concentrations of benzocaine efficacious for fish were not acutely toxic to eggs of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshauiytschas, rainbow trout, brown trout, or lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Benzocaine is not registered for fishery use and is neither more effective nor safer than the registered anesthetic, tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222l.

  5. Long-term trends in the St. Marys River open water fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Fielder, David G.; Godby, Neal; Bowen, Anjanette; O'Connor, Lisa; Parrish, Josh; Greenwood, Susan; Chong, Stephen; Wright, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We examined trends in species composition and abundance of the St. Marys River fish community. Abundance data were available approximately once every six years from 1975 through 2006, and size and age data were available from 1995 through 2006. We also compared survey data in 2006 with results of a concurrent creel survey that year, as well as data from prior surveys spanning a 69 year time frame. The St. Marys River fish community was best characterized as a coolwater fish community with apparent little variation in species composition, and only slight variation in overall fish abundance since 1975. However, we did find recent trends in abundance among target species sought by anglers: centrarchids increased, percids appeared stable, and both northern pike Esox lucius and cisco Coregonus artedii declined. Survey results suggested that walleye (Sander vitreus) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) experienced moderate exploitation but benefited from recent strong recruitment and faster growth. Mechanisms underlying declines of northern pike and cisco were not clear; reduced abundance could have resulted from high exploitation, variation in recruitment, or a combination of both factors. Despite these challenges, the St. Marys River fish community appears remarkably stable. We suggest that managers insure that creel surveys occur simultaneously with assessments, but periodic gill net surveys may no longer provide adequate data in support of recent, more complex management objectives. While additional surveys would add costs, more frequent data might ensure sustainability of a unique fish community that supports a large proportion of angler effort on Lake Huron.

  6. Behavioural Syndrome in a Solitary Predator Is Independent of Body Size and Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Nyqvist, Marina J.; Gozlan, Rodolphe E.; Cucherousset, Julien; Britton, J. Robert

    2012-01-01

    Models explaining behavioural syndromes often focus on state-dependency, linking behavioural variation to individual differences in other phenotypic features. Empirical studies are, however, rare. Here, we tested for a size and growth-dependent stable behavioural syndrome in the juvenile-stages of a solitary apex predator (pike, Esox lucius), shown as repeatable foraging behaviour across risk. Pike swimming activity, latency to prey attack, number of successful and unsuccessful prey attacks was measured during the presence/absence of visual contact with a competitor or predator. Foraging behaviour across risks was considered an appropriate indicator of boldness in this solitary predator where a trade-off between foraging behaviour and threat avoidance has been reported. Support was found for a behavioural syndrome, where the rank order differences in the foraging behaviour between individuals were maintained across time and risk situation. However, individual behaviour was independent of body size and growth in conditions of high food availability, showing no evidence to support the state-dependent personality hypothesis. The importance of a combination of spatial and temporal environmental variation for generating growth differences is highlighted. PMID:22363687

  7. Transmission of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea) to Fredericella sultana (Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata) by various fish species.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Daniel S; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2008-04-01

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a myxozoan parasite of salmonids and freshwater bryozoans, which causes proliferative kidney disease (PKD) in the fish host. To test which fish species are able to transmit T. bryosalmonae to bryozoans, an infection experiment was conducted with 5 PKD-sensitive fish species from different genera. Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, brown trout Salmo trutta, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, grayling Thymallus thymallus and northern pike Esox lucius were cohabitated with T. bryosalmonae-infected Fredericella sultana colonies and then subsequently cohabitated with statoblast-reared parasite free Bryozoa. Statoblasts from infected colonies were tested by PCR to detect cryptic stages of T. bryosalmonae, which may indicate vertical transmission of the parasite. In this study, brown trout and brook trout were able to infect Bryozoa, while there was no evidence that rainbow trout and grayling were able to do so. Few interstitial kidney stages of the parasite were detected by immunohistochemistry in brown trout and brook trout, while rainbow trout and grayling showed marked proliferation of renal interstitial tissue and macrophages with numerous parasite cells. Intraluminal stages in the kidney tubules were only detected in brown trout and rainbow trout. In contrast to previous observations, pike was not susceptible to PKD in these trials according to the results of T. bryosalmonae-specific PCR. No DNA of T. bryosalmonae was detected in any statoblast.

  8. Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Smith, Michael E.; Cott, Peter A.; Hanna, Bruce W.; MacGillivray, Alexander O.; Austin, Melanie E.; Mann, David A.

    2005-06-01

    Seismic airguns produce considerable amounts of acoustic energy that have the potential to affect marine life. This study investigates the effects of exposure to a 730 in.3 airgun array on hearing of three fish species in the Mackenzie River Delta, the northern pike (Esox lucius), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), and lake chub (Couesius plumbeus). Fish were placed in cages in the 1.9 m of water and exposed to five or 20 airgun shots, while controls were placed in the same cage but without airgun exposure. Hearing in both exposed and control fish were then tested using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Threshold shifts were found for exposed fish as compared to controls in the northern pike and lake chub, with recovery within 24 hours of exposure, while there was no threshold shift in the broad whitefish. It is concluded that these three species are not likely to be substantially impacted by exposure to an airgun array used in a river seismic survey. Care must be taken, however, in extrapolation to other species and to fishes exposed to airguns in deeper water or where the animals are exposed to a larger number of airgun shots over a longer period of time. .

  9. Lake and watershed influences on the distribution of elemental contaminants in the Rideau Canal System, a UNESCO world heritage site.

    PubMed

    Stuyt, Shannon S M; Chapman, E Emily V; Campbell, Linda M

    2015-08-01

    Watershed-specific variables such as sediment particle size distribution, water depth, sedimentation rate, focusing factors, and catchment area to lake area ratio can affect the distribution of trace element contaminants to lakes. The aim of this study was to investigate sources of metals to three headwater lakes and to quantify effects of watershed-specific variables on spatial and temporal trends of trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, K, Ni, Pb, Rb, and Zn) in sediments and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish. Surface sediment and water samples were used to characterize spatial patterns, while sediment cores were collected to portray temporal trends. Historical trends of Hg in northern pike (Esox lucius) were assessed in relation to paleolimnological trends of sediment Hg concentrations. Similarity in timing of sediment peak trace element concentrations for the lakes suggests large-scale, atmospheric sources. The lake with highest catchment area-to-lake area ratio was consistently associated with highest sediment elemental concentrations and displayed significant correlations between increased sediment Hg concentrations and decreased pike tissue concentrations over time. This suggests that catchment area-to-lake area ratio is an important factor influencing the concentration of atmospherically derived contaminants within lake sediments and their transfer through the food web.

  10. Surface-Water Hydrology and Quality at the Pike Hill Superfund Site, Corinth, Vermont, October 2004 to December 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrology and quality of surface water in and around the Pike Hill Brook watershed, in Corinth, Vermont, was studied from October 2004 to December 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Pike Hill was mined intermittently for copper from 1847 to 1919 and the site is known to be contributing trace elements and acidity to Pike Hill Brook and an unnamed tributary to Cookville Brook. The site has been listed as a Superfund site since 2004. Streamflow, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature were measured continuously and monthly at three sites on Pike Hill Brook to determine the variation in these parameters over an annual cycle. Synoptic water-quality sampling was done at 10 stream sites in October 2004, April 2005, and June 2005 and at 13 stream sites in August 2005 to characterize the quality of surface water in the watershed on a seasonal and spatial basis, as well as to assess the effects of wetlands on water quality. Samples for analysis of benthic macroinvertebrate populations were collected at 11 stream sites in August 2005. Water samples were analyzed for 5 major ions and 32 trace elements. Concentrations of trace elements at sites in the Pike Hill Brook watershed exceeded USEPA National Recommended Water Quality Criteria acute and chronic toxicity standards for aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc. Concentrations of copper exceeded the chronic criteria in an unnamed tributary to Cookville Brook in one sample. Concentrations of sulfate, calcium, aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc decreased with distance from a site directly downstream from the mine (site 1), as a result of dilution and through sorption and precipitation of the trace elements. Maximum concentrations of aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc were observed during spring snowmelt. Concentrations of sulfate, calcium, cadmium, copper, and zinc, and instantaneous loads of calcium and aluminum were

  11. Mineralogical and geochemical evolution of micas from miarolitic pegmatites of the anorogenic pikes peak batholith, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Cerny, P.; Jackson, L.L.; Sherman, David M.; Eby, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    A suite of 29 micas from miarolitic pegmatites associated with granitic units of the anorogenic Pikes Peak batholith (1.08-1.02 Ga), Colorado range in composition, and follow in paragenetic sequence, from 1M siderophyllite (N = 1), and 3T or 2M1 lithian biotite (N = 5) to 1M zinnwaldite (N = 20) and 1M ferroan lepidolite (N = 1). Locally, 1M (?) phlogopite (N = 1) and ferroan 2M1 muscovite (N = 1) are also present. Pervasive, late-stage hydrothermal alteration along with possible supergene weathering of many of these micas produced vermiculite. Additionally, some vugs and cavities were filled with chlorite and/or smectite. Early crystallized micas form tapered columnar crystals in graphic pegmatite, growing toward, and adjacent to the miarolitic cavity zone which contains the later crystallized micas. Principal associated minerals are quartz, microcline perthite (mostly amazonite), and albite, with local topaz or fluorite, and rarely tourmaline (schorl-elbaite). Progressively younger micas of the main crystallization sequence display increasing Si, Li, F, and Al/Ga, and decreasing total Fe, Mg, and octahedral occupancy. The zinc content of all micas is considerably elevated, whereas Mn, Rb, Cs, and Sc are moderate and T1 is very low. Early siderophyllite and lithian biotite show a narrow range of FeO/Fe2O3 (5.6-8.0), whereas later zinnwaldite is much more variable (2.4-40.3). Annite of the host granite and early graphic pegmatite is compositionally homogeneous, but most mica crystals from cavities show remarkable compositional and abrupt, sharp and distinct color zoning. Most cavity-grown zinnwaldite crystals show a decrease, from core to rim, in total Fe and Mg, whereas Si, Li and F increase and Mn, Rb, Cs and Na are essentially constant. A few to more than 100 color zones have been identified in some mica crystals. The zones are well correlated with the Ti content (<0.2 wt. % TiO2 colorless, 0.4-0.6 wt.% TiO2 red-brown). The total Fe content may or may not

  12. Geochemistry, petrology, and palynology of the Pond Creek coal bed, northern Pike and southern Martin counties, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Eble, C.F.; Clark, W.L.

    2005-01-01

    The geochemistry, petrology, and palynology of the Duckmantian-age Pond Creek coal bed were investigated in northern Pike and southern Martin counties, eastern Kentucky. The coal bed exhibits significant vertical variation in the investigated geochemical parameters, with many diagenetic overprints of the original geochemistry. Included in the range of geochemical signatures are the presence of elements, particularly TiO2 and Zr, suggesting the detrital influences at the time of deposition of a low-vitrinite durain; a high CaO zone with elevated B/Be, both suggesting marine influence, in a lithotype in the middle of the coal bed; and the postdepositional emplacement of pyrite in the uppermost lithotype. Individual lithotypes, each representing distinct depositional environments, all complicated to some degree by diagentic overprints, comprise the complex history of the coal bed. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Huffmanela hamo sp. n. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae: Huffmanelinae) from the dagger-tooth pike conger Muraenesox cinereus off Japan.

    PubMed

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Iwaki, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    Huffmanela hamo sp. n. is described from eggs only, which were found in black spots in the somatic musculature of a dagger-tooth pike conger, Muraenesox cinereus (Forsskål), caught off Japan. The eggs are 66-77 microm (mean 72 microm) in length and 33-38 microm (mean 35 microm) in width. The surface of the eggs is smooth and bears neither envelope nor filaments. The species is distinguished from other members of the genus by the dimensions of its eggs and the characteristics of their surface. This is the first species of Huffmanela Moravec, 1987 to be described from an anguilliform fish, and the twentieth nominal species in the genus. Similar black spots with eggs were reported four times in ten years from this fish caught off Japan; although eggs could not be examined, it is likely that the same species was involved in all cases.

  14. Micas from the Pikes Peak batholith and its cogenetic granitic pegmatites, Colorado: Optical properties, composition, and correlation with pegmatite evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.; Foord, E.E.

    1998-01-01

    Optical properties are presented for 66 samples of mica covering the range from annite ??? biotite ??? zinnwaldite ??? ferroan lepidolite and ferroan muscovite from occurrences of granitic pegmatite (NYF type) throughout the Pikes Peak batholith (PPB) in Colorado. Chemical composition was determined for 34 of these samples. The optical data are correlated with composition, mode of occurrence, and relation to pegmatite paragenesis. Optical properties of the trioctahedral micas show a consistent trend of decreasing ?? index of refraction, from an average of 1.693 in annite of the host granite to 1.577 in zinnwaldite and ferroan lepidolite of the miarolitic cavities, which correlates with a progressively decreasing content of Fe. A comparison of optical and compositional data for micas from localities throughout the PPB indicates a variation in geochemical evolution among pegmatites of different districts, and between the Pikes Peak Granite and its late satellite plutons. Analyses of mica samples taken from cross-sections through individual pegmatites reveal a decrease in index of refraction and total iron that unambiguously document a progressive geochemical evolution within a given pegmatite. Such data, in addition to field evidence, indicate that micas enclosed within massive quartz are paragenetically older than those within miarolitic cavities; minerals within miarolitic cavities represent the final stages of primary crystallization. A general model of pegmatite paragenesis is proposed that hypothesizes formation of miarolitic cavities as a consequence of pegmatite configuration and inclination, as well as early crystallization of massive quartz that confines the silicate melt and volatile phase, resulting in closed-system crystallization with a concomitant increase in pressure, consequent episodic cavity-rupture events, and corresponding changes in mica composition.

  15. Mercury in fishes of Alaska, with emphasis on subsistence species.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Stephen C; Duffy, Lawrence K

    2007-11-15

    In the north, the presence of mercury (Hg) in food leading to chronic exposure is a scientific, economic and political issue. Guidelines have been established for the safe consumption of fish containing Hg, however, adherence to these guidelines must be weighed against the health benefits of consuming fish, such as from the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Alaskan Natives generally consume much more fish than the national average. This review summarizes and synthesizes the significant amount of data that has been generated on Hg in Alaska fish, particularly those consumed by Alaskans. Also included are a review of the benefits of eating fish, human health concerns relating to Hg toxicity and various risk assessment guidelines for food consumption. Emphasis was placed on methylmercury (MeHg), the most toxic form to humans. Hg concentrations were examined in 17 freshwater fish species and 24 anadromous and marine fish species, for a total of 2,692 specimens. For freshwater fish the greatest database was on northern pike (Esox lucius). For anadromous and marine fish the greatest database was on Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) and the five species of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). Overall, most fish had muscle Hg concentrations of < or =1 mg kg(-1) (wet wt.), within the USFDA's Action Level and Alaska's guideline for safe concentrations of MeHg in edible fish. Pacific salmon, the most commonly consumed fish group, had exceptionally low (< or =0.1 mg kg(-1)) Hg concentrations. Pacific halibut muscle Hg content was less than 0.3 mg kg(-1). Northern pike, a piscivorous (fish-eating) and long-lived fish, contained the highest muscle Hg values, often exceeding the state's guidelines for food consumption. A discussion of the safe consumption level for pike is included. PMID:17825359

  16. Occurrence and attempted mitigation of carbon dioxide in a home constructed on reclaimed coal-mine spoil, Pike County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Bret A.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years carbon dioxide intrusion has become recognized as a potentially serious health threat where homes are constructed on or near reclaimed surface coal mines. When carbon dioxide invades the living space of a home, it can collect near the floor, displace the oxygen there, and produce an oxygen-deficient environment. In this investigation, several lines of inquiry were pursued to determine the environmental factors that most influence carbon dioxide intrusion at a Pike County, Ind., home where this phenomenon is known to occur. It was found that carbon dioxide intrusion events at the home are most closely tied to rapid drops in barometric pressure and rainfall. Other researchers have shown that windy conditions and periods of cold weather also can contribute to soil-gas intrusion to structures. From this, a conceptual model was developed to illustrate the influence of these four meteorological conditions. Additionally, three mitigation methods-block-wall depressurization, block-wall and sub-slab depressurization, and block-wall and sub-slab pressurization-were applied successively to the study-site home, and environmental data were collected to evaluate the effectiveness of each mitigation method. In each case, it was found that these methods did not ensure a safe environment when meteorological conditions were favorable for carbon dioxide intrusion.

  17. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-427-1613, Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, P.

    1985-08-01

    Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for formaldehyde at the Pikes Peak Dialysis Center, Colorado Springs, Colorado in August, 1984 and February, 1985. The evaluation was requested by a representative of the Center to determine if there was a health hazard due to formaldehyde. Eight employees were interviewed. The ventilation systems were investigated. Personal protective clothing was inspected. Breathing-zone samples contained 0 28 to 1.0 (mg/m/sup 3/) formaldehyde. The OSHA standard for formaldehyde is 3.7 mg/m/sup 3/. Area formaldehyde concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 0.75 mg/m/sup 3/. Health complaints reported included sore throat, congestion, cough, and eye, nose and throat irritation. Most of the complaints originated from employees in the formalin mixing, reuse sterilization, and dialysis unit packing sections. The exhaust system in the reuse sterilization area was not working efficiently. A variety of personal protective clothing was available including lab coats, protective goggles, aprons, respirators, and gloves. The author concludes that a health hazard from formaldehyde exposure exists at the facility. Recommendations include improving local exhaust ventilation in areas where formaldehyde is used extensively, avoiding skin and eye contact with formaldehyde, and training and educating employees in safe work practices.

  18. [Indigenous microflora associated with the tegument of Triaenophorus nodulosus (Cestoda) and the intestine of its pike host].

    PubMed

    Korneva, Zh V; Plotnikov, A O

    2006-01-01

    Investigations of the indigenous microflora associated with the mucous intestines of fish and its cestode parasites have been for the first time carried out using the methods of transmission and scanning electron microscopy. New data on the bacterial biodiversity in the cestode and its fish host are obtained. Nanobacteria and spirochaetes are for the first time revealed in a fish host together with the previously known bacteria forming the intestinal microflora of fish. Spirochaetes were shown to be associated with the intestines of a pike host only, while nanobacteria cover abundantly the surface of the apical parts of the intestinal microvilli and the apical parts of the microtriches in the cestode tegument. The similarity of the bacterial floras associated with the apical surface of the parasite tegument and the intestine of the host should be noted. At the same time, deeper bacterial communities represented by obligate symbionts are specific. Thus, there is a normal indigenous microflora in cestodes, associated with the tegumental surface. This symbiotic microflora has specific morphological features and provides the balance of relations in the parasite-host system. PMID:17285757

  19. Reduced expression of E-cadherin and p120-catenin and elevated expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE are associated with aggressiveness of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Liao, Liyan; Shrestha, Chandrama; Ji, Shangli; Chen, Ying; Peng, Jian; Wang, Larry; Liao, Eryuan; Xie, Zhongjian

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most lethal malignant tumors. The cadherin/catenin cell-cell adhesion complex plays a major role in cancer development and progression. p120-catenin (p120) is a cytoplasmic molecule closely associated with E-cadherin which activates phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1). Our previous studies indicate that activation of PLC-γ1 plays a critical role in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced migration and proliferation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) is highly expressed in SCC cells and mediates EGFR-dependent SCC cell proliferation. Our current study was to determine whether the expression of E-cadherin, p120, PLC-γ1, and PIKE, is associated with OSCC. To address this issue, we assessed levels and localization of E-cadherin, p120, PLC-γ1, and PIKE in specimen of 92 patients with OSCC by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the expression of E-cadherin, and p120 negatively correlated with the tumor differentiation and the expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE positively correlated with the tumor differentiation. The expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE in OSCC stage T3 + T4 or in OSCC with lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than that in OSCC stage T1 + T2 or in OSCC without lymph node metastasis. The expression of p120 positively correlated with levels of E-cadherin but negatively correlated with levels of PLC-γ1 and PIKE in OSCC. These data indicate that increased expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE and decreased expression of E-cadherin and p120 are associated with the aggressiveness of OSCC.

  20. Two-dimensional simulation of the June 11, 2010, flood of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreational Area, Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    In the early morning hours of June 11, 2010, substantial flooding occurred at Albert Pike Recreation Area in the Ouachita National Forest of west-central Arkansas, killing 20 campers. The U.S. Forest Service needed information concerning the extent and depth of flood inundation, the water velocity, and flow paths throughout Albert Pike Recreation Area for the flood and for streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The two-dimensional flow model Fst2DH, part of the Federal Highway Administration’s Finite Element Surface-water Modeling System, and the graphical user interface Surface-water Modeling System (SMS) were used to perform a steady-state simulation of the flood in a 1.5-mile reach of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreation Area. Peak streamflows of the Little Missouri River and tributary Brier Creek served as inputs to the simulation, which was calibrated to the surveyed elevations of high-water marks left by the flood and then used to predict flooding that would result from streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The simulated extent of the June 11, 2010, flood matched the observed extent of flooding at Albert Pike Recreation Area. The mean depth of inundation in the camp areas was 8.5 feet in Area D, 7.4 feet in Area C, 3.8 feet in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 12.5 feet in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. The mean water velocity was 7.2 feet per second in Area D, 7.6 feet per second in Area C, 7.2 feet per second in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 7.6 feet per second in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. A sensitivity analysis indicated that varying the streamflow of the Little Missouri River had the greatest effect on simulated water-surface elevation, while varying the streamflow of tributary Brier Creek had the least effect. Simulated water-surface elevations were lower than those modeled by the U.S. Forest Service using the standard-step method, but the

  1. Experimental transmission of VHSV genotype IVb by predation.

    PubMed

    Getchell, Rodman G; Cornwell, Emily R; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Wong, Po Ting; Coffee, Laura L; Wooster, Gregory A; Bowser, Paul R

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary surveillance of wild baitfish during the 2006 viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVb (VHSV IVb) outbreaks indicated Emerald Shiners Notropis atherinoides and Bluntnose Minnow Pimephales notatus were infected with high levels of VHSV without showing clinical signs of disease. The movement and use of baitfish was recognized as the most probable vector for the introduction of VHSV to inland waters, such as Conesus Lake and Skaneateles Lake in New York, Budd Lake in Michigan, and Little Lake Butte des Morts and Lake Winnebago in Wisconsin. While numerous government agencies implemented restrictions to stop the movement of potentially infected baitfish into new waters and prevent the spread of VHSV IVb, until now, studies to investigate whether these initial introductions were by an oral route of infection have not occurred. Our studies identified infected Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas as suitable vectors for transmitting VHSV IVb when fed to Tiger Muskellunge ( ♂ Northern Pike Esox lucius × ♀ Muskellunge Esox masquinongy) during laboratory trials. Six of 16 Tiger Muskellunge were infected with VHSV IVb after consumption of infected Fathead Minnows when assayed with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and viral isolation in cell culture. Weekly sampling of water and feces from these Tiger Muskellunge individually reared showed intermittent shedding of VHSV IVb. Those exposed to similarly VHSV IVb-inoculated fathead minnows by cohabitation only became infected in 1 case out of 16. A similar trial of 12 Tiger Muskellunge fed Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus that survived a VHSV IVb immersion challenge did not result in infection. Overall, our findings imply that consumption of infected wild baitfish may be a risk factor for introduction of VHSV. PMID:23998650

  2. Recommendations for a Barrier Island Breach Management Plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    4. Economic costs and benefits of artificial closure. This report for breach management presents protocols which specify when breach closures within the FIIS might be desirable and necessary, as well as provides recommendations for structural breach closure engineering operations which are indented to minimize negative impacts to the natural wilderness values and cultural resources within the FIIS, particularly the Otis Pike Wilderness Area. The goal of the plan is to strike a balance between protecting natural resources and allowing natural processes to operate and avoiding loss of life and excessive property damage.

  3. Species-specific mercury bioaccumulation in a diverse fish community.

    PubMed

    Donald, David B; Wissel, Björn; Anas, M U Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Mercury bioaccumulation models developed for fish provide insight into the sources and transfer of Hg within ecosystems. Mercury concentrations were assessed for 16 fish species of the western reach of Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan, Canada. For top predators (northern pike, Esox Lucius; walleye, Sander vitreum), Hg concentrations were positively correlated to δ(15)N, and δ(15)N to fish age, suggesting that throughout life these fish fed on organisms with increasingly higher trophic values and Hg concentrations. However, fish mass and/or age were the principal parameters related to Hg concentrations for most species. For 9 common species combined, individual variation in Hg concentration was explained in declining order of importance by fish mass, trophic position (δ(15)N), and fish age. Delta (15)N value was not the leading variable related to Hg concentration for the assemblage, probably because of the longevity of lower--trophic-level species (3 species ≥ 20 yr), substantial overlap in Hg concentration and δ(15)N values for large-bodied fish up to 3000 g, and complex relationships between Hg concentration and δ(15)N among species. These results suggest that the quantity of food (and Hg) consumed each year and converted to fish mass, the quantity of Hg bioaccumulated over years and decades, and trophic position were significant determinants of Hg concentration in Lake Diefenbaker fish.

  4. Description of the Microsporidian Parasite, Heterosporis sutherlandae n. sp., Infecting Fish in the Great Lakes Region, USA

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Nicholas B. D.; Mor, Sunil K.; Armién, Aníbal G.; Pelican, Katharine M.; Goyal, Sagar M.

    2015-01-01

    Heterosporosis is an increasingly important microsporidian disease worldwide, impacting wild and farmed raised fishes in both marine and freshwater environments. A previously undescribed species (Heterosporis sp.), with widespread distribution in the Great Lakes region, was the subject of this study. Three angler-caught fish were submitted to the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory from 2009–2010 with lesions caused by intracellular proliferation of parasitic spores, resulting in destruction and eventual widespread necrosis of the host skeletal muscles. Mature ovoid (5.8 x 3.5μm) spores of a microsporidian parasite, consistent with the genus Heterosporis, were observed by light and electron microscopy. Molecular identification was performed using primer walking to obtain a near-complete rRNA gene sequence (~3,600 bp). A unique species of Heterosporis was identified, demonstrating less than 96% sequence identity to other published Heterosporis sp. on the basis of partial rRNA gene sequence analysis. Heterosporis sutherlandae n. sp. (formerly Heterosporis sp.) was identified in yellow perch (Perca flavescens), northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Sander vitreus) from inland lakes in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Previous research suggests this species may be even more widespread in the Great Lakes region and should be reexamined using molecular techniques to better understand the distribution of this novel species. PMID:26244983

  5. Shoreline development and degradation of coastal fish reproduction habitats.

    PubMed

    Sundblad, Göran; Bergström, Ulf

    2014-12-01

    Coastal development has severely affected habitats and biodiversity during the last century, but quantitative estimates of the impacts are usually lacking. We utilize predictive habitat modeling and mapping of human pressures to estimate the cumulative long-term effects of coastal development in relation to fish habitats. Based on aerial photographs since the 1960s, shoreline development rates were estimated in the Stockholm archipelago in the Baltic Sea. By combining shoreline development rates with spatial predictions of fish reproduction habitats, we estimated annual habitat degradation rates for three of the most common coastal fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius), Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). The results showed that shoreline constructions were concentrated to the reproduction habitats of these species. The estimated degradation rates, where a degraded habitat was defined as having ≥3 constructions per 100 m shoreline, were on average 0.5 % of available habitats per year and about 1 % in areas close to larger population centers. Approximately 40 % of available habitats were already degraded in 2005. These results provide an example of how many small construction projects over time may have a vast impact on coastal fish populations.

  6. Organic priority pollutants in nearshore fish from 14 Lake Michigan tributaries and embayments, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Camanzo, J.; Rice, C.P.; Jude, D.J.; Rossmann, R.

    1987-01-01

    Composite, nearshore, whole fish samples of selected species, collected in fall 1983 from 13 Lake Michigan tributaries and Grand Traverse Bay, were analyzed for a wide range of pesticides and priority pollutants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study was carried out to identify existing source areas for known and previously unrecognized toxic substances. The authors strategy was to analyze those resident fish with the highest likely levels of contaminant. All fish analyzed exceeded the 2 mg/kg FDA action levels for PCBs, while 50% of the samples exceeded the DDTr IJC objective of 1 mg/kg. St. Joseph River common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carried the heaviest contaminant burden of all fish examined for PCBs (27.6 mg/kg), DDTr (10.2 kg/mg), and toxaphene (3.3 mg/kg); chlordane levels (0.85 mg/kg) were second highest to those in Kalamazoo River common carp (0.87 mg/kg). Concentrations of PCBs, toxaphene, DDT, DDE, and other pesticides were higher in bottom-feeding fish, such as common carp, than in top predators, e.g., northern pike (Esox lucius). Bottom feeders are relatively fatty fish, and live and feed near contaminated sediments, which increases their potential to bioaccumulate fat-soluble contaminants. Pesticides were also present in elevated concentrations in fish from sites with higher industrial and agricultural development. 31 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  7. [Effect of the heart electric stimulation on repolarization of fish and amphibian ventricular myocardium].

    PubMed

    Azarov, Ia É; Kibler, N A; Vaĭshnoraĭte, M A; Tsvetkova, A S; Kharin, S N; Vitiazev, V A; Shmakov, D N

    2013-01-01

    By the method of synchronous multielectrode cartography (24-unipolar leads), distribution of durations and time of end of repolarization were studied on ventricular epicardium of pikes (Esox lucius) and frogs (Rana esculenta) and in ventricular intramural layers of toads (Bufo bufo) at the ectopic heart excitation. The time of arrival of the excitation wave and of the end of repolarization in each lead was determined from the minimum of time derivative of potential at the period of the QRS complex and by minimum of the T wave, respectively. It has been established that at the ventricle electrostimulation, alongside with deceleration and a change of sequence of the myocardium activation, there occurs redistribution of local repolarization durations: in areas of late activation the repolarization being longer than in zones of early activation (p < 0.05). At stimulation, the apicobasal gradient of repolarization is predominantly changed due to electrophysiological processes in the apical areas. In all studied species. at ectopical excitation of the heart ventricle the sequence of its repolarization repeats the depolarization sequence due to delay of activation (in fish) and redistribution of repolarization durations (in amphibians).

  8. System for maintaining sediment suspensions during larval fish studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chilton, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    A new system was developed for maintaining suspensions of inorganic solids during laboratory studies on early life stages of fish. Microfine bentonite was successfully held in suspension in specially constructed units during a 21-d fishless test, a 28-d experiment with juvenile green sunfish (lepomis cyanellus), and four shorter experiments (5-9 d) with four species of larval fishes, white sucker (catostomus commersoni), northern pike (esox lucius), channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus), and walleye (stizostedion vitreum). Each experiment on larval fish was conducted until the yolk-sac had been absorbed. Concentrations of bentonite ranged from 0 to 728 mg/l. Each unit consisted of a holding chamber set in a stainless steel bowl and two submersible pumps that recirculated the suspension. Turbidity readings remained nearly constant throughout each experiment. Because the turbidity of suspensions was well correlated with bentonite concentration (r2 = 0.989) And easy to measure, turbidity was used as an indicator of concentration. The system is inexpensive, easy to assemble, and does not require a diluter system to maintain constant concentrations of suspended material.

  9. Biology of Amur sleeper (Perccottus glehni) in the Delta of the Selenga River, Buryatia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litvinov, Alexander G.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1996-01-01

    We determined the fecundity, growth, diet, and density of the Amur sleeper (Perccottus glehni) in the Selenga River Delta on Lake Baikal during 1986-1991 to better understand how this invading exotic will affect Baikal's endemic fishes. We also compared the Amur sleeper's diet with that of other fishes living in the delta. The largest Amur sleepers were about 200 mm long and weighed 200 g; the oldest were age 7. All females were mature at age 2. Fecundity ranged from 884 eggs at age 1 to 37,056 eggs at age 7. Highest densities of Amur sleepers were found in oxbow lakes where densities sometimes exceeded 4,000 fish per ha. The bulk of the diet of Amur sleeper age 2 and older was chironomids, fish, and fish eggs. Chironomids were also important in the diet of the commercially valuable Siberian roach (Rutilus rutilus lacustris) and Siberian dace (Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis). Thus the Amur sleeper may cause population declines of these important endemic fishes through resource competition and predation on their juvenile life stages. However, Amur sleepers were the species of fish most frequently eaten by Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius). So, maintaining vigorous populations of these two predators may well be an effective strategy for limiting the size of Amur sleeper populations.

  10. Description of the Microsporidian Parasite, Heterosporis sutherlandae n. sp., Infecting Fish in the Great Lakes Region, USA.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Nicholas B D; Mor, Sunil K; Armién, Aníbal G; Pelican, Katharine M; Goyal, Sagar M

    2015-01-01

    Heterosporosis is an increasingly important microsporidian disease worldwide, impacting wild and farmed raised fishes in both marine and freshwater environments. A previously undescribed species (Heterosporis sp.), with widespread distribution in the Great Lakes region, was the subject of this study. Three angler-caught fish were submitted to the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory from 2009-2010 with lesions caused by intracellular proliferation of parasitic spores, resulting in destruction and eventual widespread necrosis of the host skeletal muscles. Mature ovoid (5.8 x 3.5 μm) spores of a microsporidian parasite, consistent with the genus Heterosporis, were observed by light and electron microscopy. Molecular identification was performed using primer walking to obtain a near-complete rRNA gene sequence (~3,600 bp). A unique species of Heterosporis was identified, demonstrating less than 96% sequence identity to other published Heterosporis sp. on the basis of partial rRNA gene sequence analysis. Heterosporis sutherlandae n. sp. (formerly Heterosporis sp.) was identified in yellow perch (Perca flavescens), northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Sander vitreus) from inland lakes in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Previous research suggests this species may be even more widespread in the Great Lakes region and should be reexamined using molecular techniques to better understand the distribution of this novel species.

  11. The interactions of abiotic and biotic factors influencing perch Perca fluviatilis and roach Rutilus rutilus populations in small acidified boreal lakes.

    PubMed

    Linløkken, A N; Hesthagen, T

    2011-08-01

    Four small, acidified boreal lakes, all sustaining populations of perch Perca fluviatilis, roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius, were studied in four successive years. Three lakes were moderately acidified (mean pH of 5·61-5·83), while the fourth was more acidic (mean pH of 5·16) and had a sparse population of R. rutilus. Perca fluviatilis density was higher in this lake (1004 ha(-1)) than in the other three (355-717 ha(-1)), where R. rutilus dominated in terms of numbers (981-2185 ha(-1)). Large, potentially predatory, P. fluviatilis were most abundant in the lake with clearest water, and these seemed to have a negative effect on P. fluviatilis density. Perca fluviatilis mean mass was negatively correlated with R. rutilus biomass and was highest in the most acidic lake with the sparse R. rutilus and the highest P. fluviatilis density. Perca fluviatilis mass correlated positively with pH in two lakes (with the highest fish biomass), suggesting that low pH affected P. fluviatilis mass negatively. Perca fluviatilis growth correlated positively with summer (July to August) air temperature in the lake with sparse R. rutilus, thus differing from P. fluviatilis and R. rutilus growth in the other three lakes. The mean age of P. fluviatilis was generally lower than that of R. rutilus and was lowest in the two lakes with the highest fish biomass, indicating that adult mortality was affected by density-induced factors.

  12. Evaluation of the toxicity and efficacy of hydrogen peroxide treatments on eggs of warm and cool water fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Howe, G.E.; Schreier, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    The use of hydrogen peroxide in aquaculture is growing and there is a need to develop fundamental guidelines to effectively treat diseased fish. The safety (toxicity) of hydrogen peroxide treatments was determined on eggs of representative warm- and coolwater fish species. Eggs of northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), yellow perch (Pel ca flavescens), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were cultured in egg jars or aquaria. Treatments were initiated with non-eyed eggs and continued until all viable eggs had hatched. Eggs were treated daily for 15 min Monday through Friday with either 0, 500, 1000, 3000, or 6000 mu l l(-1) of hydrogen peroxide. For all species, the mean percent hatch was greater in eggs treated with 1000 mu l l(-1) hydrogen peroxide for 15 min than in the untreated controls. Common carp, lake sturgeon, and paddlefish were the least sensitive to hydrogen peroxide with percent hatch ranging from 40 to 48% in the 6000 mu l l(-1) hydrogen peroxide treatment. Fungal infections reduced or eliminated the hatch in most controls whereas nearly all treated eggs remained free of infection; hydrogen peroxide inhibited fungal infections on fish eggs. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolutionary divergence of adult body size and juvenile growth in sympatric subpopulations of a top predator in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Tibblin, Petter; Forsman, Anders; Koch-Schmidt, Per; Nordahl, Oscar; Johannessen, Peter; Nilsson, Jonas; Larsson, Per

    2015-07-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that different selective regimes may contribute to divergent evolution of body size and growth rate among populations, but most studies have focused on allopatric populations. Here, we studied five sympatric subpopulations of anadromous northern pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea subjected to allopatric habitats for a short period of their life cycle due to homing behavior. We report differences in adult body size among subpopulations that were in part due to variation in growth rate. Body size of emigrating juveniles also differed among subpopulations, and differences remained when individuals were reared in a common environment, thus indicating evolutionary divergence among subpopulations. Furthermore, a QST-FST comparison indicated that differences had evolved due to divergent selection rather than genetic drift, possibly in response to differences in selective mortality among spawning habitats during the allopatric life stage. Adult and juvenile size were negatively correlated across subpopulations, and reconstruction of growth trajectories of adult fishes suggested that body size differences developed gradually and became accentuated throughout the first years of life. These results represent rare evidence that sympatric subpopulations can evolve differences in key life-history traits despite being subjected to allopatric habitats during only a very short fraction of their life.

  14. Long-term phyto-, ornitho- and ichthyophenological time-series analyses in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahas, Rein

    This study analyzes a long-term phenological time series for the impact assessment of climate changes on Estonian nature and for the methodological study of the possible limitations of using phenological time series for climate trend analyses. These limiting factors can influence the results of studies more than the real impact of climate changes, which may have a much smaller numeric value. The 132-year series of the arrival of the skylark (Alauda arvensis) and the white wagtail (Motacilla alba), the 78-year series of the blossoming of the wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), the bird cherry (Padus racemosa), apple trees (Malus domestica) and lilacs (Syringa vulgaris), and the 44-year series of the spawning of pike (Esox lucius) and bream (Abramis brama) were studied at three selected observation points in Estonia. The study of the phenological time series shows that Estonian springs have, on the basis of the database, advanced 8 days on average over the last 80-year period; the last 40-year period has warmed even faster.

  15. Bioaccumulation of selenium from coal fly ash and associated environmental hazards in a freshwater fish community

    SciTech Connect

    Besser, J.; Giesy, J.; Brown, R.; Herdt, T.; Dawson, G.

    1995-12-31

    Bioaccumulation of Se by fish from Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake, Michigan, which receive inputs of Se from a coal fly-ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se toxicity to fish and wildlife. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving Se inputs from fly ash disposal ponds were significantly greater than concentrations in fish from upstream sites, which were near normal background concentrations. Se bioaccumulation differed substantially among fish species, especially in the most contaminated site, where whole-body Se concentrations for the five species analyzed ranged from 1.4 to 3.8 {micro}g/g (wet wt.). The top predator in the community, northern pike (Esox lucius), had Se concentrations less than those in likely prey species. Among lower-order consumers, Se concentrations were greater in limnetic species (spottail shiner, Notropis hudsonius, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens), than in benthic species (white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris). Se concentrations in tissues of fish from the lower Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake approached, but did not exceed lowest observable effect concentrations (LOAECs) for Se in tissues of sensitive fish species. However, Se concentrations in several fish species exceeded LOAECs for dietary Se exposure of sensitive species of birds and mammals, suggesting that consumption of fish in these areas may pose a hazard to piscivorous wildlife.

  16. Interrenal dysfunction in fish from contaminated sites: In vivo and in vitro assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hontela, A.

    1998-01-01

    Cortisol, synthesized in the interrenal cells of teleost head kidney, has a major role in the physiologic response to physical and chemical stressors. Plasma levels of cortisol increase in physiologically competent fish acutely exposed to stressors such as cadmium or mercury. The effects of chronic low level exposures are less well understood. The author has diagnosed an endocrine impairment characterized by a reduced capacity to elevate plasma cortisol levels in response to an acute standardized capture stress in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and in northern pike (Esox lucius) sampled at sites contaminated by mixtures of pollutants (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls), by heavy metals, or by bleached kraft mill effluent. The studies with fish, as well as with amphibians at contaminated sites, demonstrated that low level chronic exposures impair secretion of corticosteroids. The author has developed new tests for assessment of the functional integrity of teleost and amphibian interrenal tissue using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge, in vivo and in vitro. The reduced ability to respond to ACTH indicates that the normal neuroendocrine response to stressors may be disrupted and that the ability to cope with biotic and abiotic stressors in the environment may be significantly reduced in the impaired animals.

  17. Mercury in Fish Collected Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico: 1991--2004.

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Fresquez

    2004-10-15

    Small amounts of mercury (Hg) may exist in some canyon drainage systems within Los Alamos National Laboratory lands as a result of past discharges of untreated effluents. This paper reports on the concentrations of Hg in muscle (fillets) of various types of fish species collected downstream of LANL's influence from 1991 through 2004. The mean Hg concentration in fish from Cochiti reservoir (0.22 {micro}g/g wet weight), which is located downstream of LANL, was similar to fish collected from a reservoir upstream of LANL (Abiquiu) (0.26 {micro}g/g wet weight). Mercury concentrations in fish collected from both reservoirs exhibited significantly (Abiquiu = p < 0.05 and Cochiti = p < 0.10) decreasing trends over time. Predator fish like the northern pike (Esox lucius) contained significantly higher concentrations of Hg (0.39 {micro}g/g wet weight) than bottom-feeding fish like the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) (0.10 {micro}g/g wet weight).

  18. A bioenergetics modeling evaluation of top-down control of ruffe in the St. Louis River, western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, Kathleen R.; Selgeby, James H.; McDonald, Michael E.

    1998-01-01

    Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), were accidentally introduced into the St. Louis River estuary, western Lake Superior, in the mid 1980s and it was feared that they might affect native fish through predation on eggs and competition for forage and habitat. In an effort to control the abundance of ruffe and limit dispersal, a top-down control strategy using predators was implemented in 1989. We used bioenergetics modeling to examine the efficacy of top-down control in the St. Louis River from 1991 to 1994. Five predators--northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens)--were modeled to determine their consumption of ruffe and four other native prey species-spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus). Although predators ate as much as 47% of the ruffe biomass in 1 year, they were not able to halt the increase in ruffe abundance. The St. Louis River is an open system that allows predators to move freely out of the system, and the biomass of managed predators did not increase. A selectivity index showed all five predators selected the native prey and avoided ruffe. The St. Louis River has several predator and prey species creating many complex predator-prey interactions; and top-down control of ruffe by the predators examined in this study did not occur.

  19. Effects of climate change on trait-based dynamics of a top predator in freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Vindenes, Yngvild; Edeline, Eric; Ohlberger, Jan; Langangen, Oystein; Winfield, Ian J; Stenseth, Nils C; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2014-02-01

    Predicted universal responses of ectotherms to climate warming include increased maximum population growth rate and changes in body size through the temperature-size rule. However, the mechanisms that would underlie these predicted responses are not clear. Many studies have focused on proximate mechanisms of physiological processes affecting individual growth. One can also consider ultimate mechanisms involving adaptive explanations by evaluating temperature effects on different vital rates across the life history and using the information in a population dynamical model. Here, we combine long-term data for a top predator in freshwater ecosystems (pike; Esox lucius) with a stochastic integral projection model to analyze concurrent effects of temperature on vital rates, body size, and population dynamics. As predicted, the net effect of warming on population growth rate (fitness) is positive, but the thermal sensitivity of this rate is highly size- and vital rate-dependent. These results are not sensitive to increasing variability in temperature. Somatic growth follows the temperature-size rule, and our results support an adaptive explanation for this response. The stable length structure of the population shifts with warming toward an increased proportion of medium-sized but a reduced proportion of small and large individuals. This study highlights how demographic approaches can help reveal complex underlying mechanisms for population responses to warming.

  20. Historical and Contemporary Patterns of Mercury in a Hydroelectric Reservoir and Downstream Fishery: Concentration Decline in Water and Fishes.

    PubMed

    Green, Derek J; Duffy, Mark; Janz, David M; McCullum, Kevin; Carrière, Gary; Jardine, Timothy D

    2016-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination can pose risks to human and animal health as well as commercial fisheries. Reservoir construction in riverine systems produces flooded conditions amenable to Hg(II)-methylating bacteria, which can transform this relatively benign environmental contaminant into the bioaccumulative, environmentally relevant, and neurotoxic methyl-Hg (MeHg). Hg concentrations ([Hg]) in fishes from reservoirs can take decades to decrease to pre-dam levels, but less is known about Hg exported downstream and its dynamics within downstream fish populations. We examined and compared the multidecadal rates of biotic [Hg] decrease and contemporary factors affecting [Hg] in fish collected from a hydroelectric reservoir (Tobin Lake) and a related downstream fishery (Cumberland Lake) along the Saskatchewan River, Canada. Rates of [Hg] decrease were considered in four species-northern pike (Esox lucius), sauger (Sander canadensis), goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), and walleye (S. vitreus)-all of which showed a significant decrease over time (p < 0.001) and are now lower than Health Canada consumption guidelines (0.5 μg/g). Rates of decrease ranged from 0.5 to 3.9 %/year and were similar between sites in the cases of northern pike and sauger. Contemporary factors affecting [Hg] in walleye collected downstream include fish length (p < 0.001), fish age (p < 0.001), and trophic magnification through the food web (p < 0.001), and relationships between [Hg] and trophic level in predatory and prey fish are now similar to those found in non-Hg-inundated systems at a similar latitude. Together, these results suggest connected contamination between the two sites and delineate the timeline during which [Hg] in a variety of fish species decreased to nontoxic levels in both locations. PMID:27272416

  1. Historical and Contemporary Patterns of Mercury in a Hydroelectric Reservoir and Downstream Fishery: Concentration Decline in Water and Fishes.

    PubMed

    Green, Derek J; Duffy, Mark; Janz, David M; McCullum, Kevin; Carrière, Gary; Jardine, Timothy D

    2016-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination can pose risks to human and animal health as well as commercial fisheries. Reservoir construction in riverine systems produces flooded conditions amenable to Hg(II)-methylating bacteria, which can transform this relatively benign environmental contaminant into the bioaccumulative, environmentally relevant, and neurotoxic methyl-Hg (MeHg). Hg concentrations ([Hg]) in fishes from reservoirs can take decades to decrease to pre-dam levels, but less is known about Hg exported downstream and its dynamics within downstream fish populations. We examined and compared the multidecadal rates of biotic [Hg] decrease and contemporary factors affecting [Hg] in fish collected from a hydroelectric reservoir (Tobin Lake) and a related downstream fishery (Cumberland Lake) along the Saskatchewan River, Canada. Rates of [Hg] decrease were considered in four species-northern pike (Esox lucius), sauger (Sander canadensis), goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), and walleye (S. vitreus)-all of which showed a significant decrease over time (p < 0.001) and are now lower than Health Canada consumption guidelines (0.5 μg/g). Rates of decrease ranged from 0.5 to 3.9 %/year and were similar between sites in the cases of northern pike and sauger. Contemporary factors affecting [Hg] in walleye collected downstream include fish length (p < 0.001), fish age (p < 0.001), and trophic magnification through the food web (p < 0.001), and relationships between [Hg] and trophic level in predatory and prey fish are now similar to those found in non-Hg-inundated systems at a similar latitude. Together, these results suggest connected contamination between the two sites and delineate the timeline during which [Hg] in a variety of fish species decreased to nontoxic levels in both locations.

  2. Fish status survey of Nordic lakes: effects of acidification, eutrophication and stocking activity on present fish species composition.

    PubMed

    Tammi, Jouni; Appelberg, Magnus; Beier, Ulrika; Hesthagen, Trygve; Lappalainen, Antti; Rask, Martti

    2003-03-01

    The status of fish populations in 3821 lakes in Norway, Sweden and Finland was assessed in 1995-1997. The survey lakes were chosen by stratified random sampling from all (126 482) Fennoscandian lakes > or = 0.04 km2. The water chemistry of the lakes was analyzed and information on fish status was obtained by a postal inquiry. Fish population losses were most frequent in the most highly acidified region of southern Norway and least common in eastern Fennoscandia. According to the inquiry results, the number of lost stocks of brown trout (Salmo trutta), roach (Rutilus rutilus), Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) was estimated to exceed 10000. The number of stocks of these species potentially affected by the low alkalinity of lake water was estimated to exceed 11000. About 3300 lakes showed high total phosphorus (> 25 microg L(-1)) and cyprinid dominance in eastern Fennoscandia, notably southwestern Finland. This survey did not reveal any extinction of fish species due to eutrophication. One-third of the lakes had been artificially stocked with at least one new species, most often brown trout, whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus s.l.), Arctic char, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), pike-perch (Stizostedion lucioperca), grayling (Thymallus thymallus), pike (Esox lucius), bream (Abramis brama), tench (Tinca tinca) and European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). The number of artificially manipulated stocks of these species in Fennoscandian lakes was estimated to exceed 52000. Hence, the number of fish species occurring in Nordic lakes has recently been changed more by stockings than by losses of fish species through environmental changes such as acidification.

  3. Cross-species comparison of relative potencies and relative sensitivities of fishes to dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in vitro.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Bryanna K; Doering, Jon A; Beitel, Shawn C; Wiseman, Steve; Raine, Jason C; Hecker, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Dioxin-like compounds of varying toxicities are found in complex mixtures. The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach was developed based on the potency of a dioxin-like compound relative to the potency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to streamline risk assessment. One limitation of the TEF approach is uncertainty regarding differences in the relative potency of dioxin-like compounds among different species. Relative potencies among fishes are limited, relative to relative potencies among birds and mammals, and TEFs for fishes are based entirely on the model species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). An in vitro liver explant assay was used to characterize species-specific responses with regard to up-regulation of CYP1A transcript after exposure to 6 dioxin-like compounds in rainbow trout, white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Differences in sensitivities were observed among species after exposure to dioxin-like compounds. The relative potencies developed from liver explants of rainbow trout were comparable to relative potencies developed from embryo toxicity assays. Differences in relative potencies between species with the least and greatest relative potencies were up to 40-fold. To compare relative potencies among species, concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in fish eggs in the Fraser River and in Lake Ontario were used to calculate toxic equivalency quotients (TEQs) determined from TEFs or TCDD equivalents determined from relative potencies. The TEQs underestimated TCDD equivalents for white sturgeon, lake sturgeon, and northern pike, indicating uncertainty in application of TEFs to diverse fishes.

  4. Non-dioxin-like PCBs in ten different fish species from the Danube river in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Janković, Saša; Curčić, Marijana; Radičević, Tatjana; Stefanović, Srđan; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Durgo, Ksenija; Antonijević, Biljana

    2011-10-01

    This work has been developed to examine the level of non-dioxin-like (ndl) PCBs (28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) in (a) ten different freshwater fish species from the Danube river, (b) two sampling points: up and downstream of the industrial zone of the city of Pancevo (ecological hot spot in Serbia) and (c) two time points i.e., in 2001 and 2006. Obtained results would serve to analyse spatial, temporal and congener profile characteristics of ndl PCBs cumulated in fish tissues due to environmental pollution. Sixty-four samples of the following species were collected: wels (Silirus glanus), pike (Esox lucius), bream (Abramis brama), crucian carp (Carassius carassius), pike pearch (Stizostedion lucioperca), barbel (Barbus barbus), tench (Tinca tinca), sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). Gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector was used for analysis of ndl PCBs. Total ndl PCBs content in upstream samples ranged from 2.7 to 98.1 ng/g and from 4.9 to 68.3 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. During the 5 years, ndl PCBs content increased significantly in downstream samples i.e., ndl PCBs varied from 13.7 to 46.1 ng/g and from 14.4 to 107.2 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. PCBs 138 and 180 were predominant congeners in 2001, while in 2006 the most abundant PCB congeners were 138 and 153. In 2006, the presence of PCB 28 and PCB 52 has indicated a recent contamination event. Data on continual monitoring of PCBs in all relevant environmental compartments together with appropriate biomonitoring data are expected to give comprehensive insight into the fate and behaviour profile of these contaminants. PMID:21161586

  5. Evaluation of Common Angling-Induced Sources of Epithelial Damage for Popular Freshwater Sport Fish using Fluorescein

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Cooke, Steven J.

    2011-05-01

    Angling is a popular recreational activity across the globe and a large proportion of fish captured by anglers are released due to voluntary or mandatory catch-and-release practices. The handling associated with hook removal and return of the fish to their environment can cause physical damage to the epidermal layer of the fish which may affect the condition and survival of released fish. This study investigated possible sources of epithelial damage associated with several different handling methods (i.e. landing net types, interactions with different boat floor surfaces, tournament procedures) commonly used in recreational angling for two popular freshwater sport fish species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Epithelial damage was examined using fluorescein, a non-toxic dye, which has been shown to detect latent epithelial damage. Northern pike exhibited extensive epithelial damage after exposure to several of the induced treatments (i.e., interaction with a carpeted surface, knotted nylon net, and line rolling) but relatively little epithelial damage when exposed to others (i.e., knotless rubber nets, smooth boat surfaces, or lip gripping devices). Largemouth bass did not show significant epithelial damage for any of the treatments, with the exception of fish caught in a semi-professional live release tournament. The detection of latent injuries using fluorescein can be an important management tool as it provides visual examples of potential damage that can be caused by different handling methods. Such visualizations can be used to encourage fish friendly angler behaviour and enhance the survival and welfare of released fish. It can also be used to test new products that are intended to or claim to reduce injury to fish that are to be released. Future research should evaluate the relationship between different levels of epithelial damage and mortality across a range of environmental conditions.

  6. mGluR5 stimulating Homer–PIKE formation initiates icariin induced cardiomyogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells by activating reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Limin; Huang, Yujie; Zhang, Yingying; Zhao, Qingwei; Zheng, Bei; Lou, Yijia; Zhu, Danyan

    2013-06-10

    Icariin (ICA) has been reported to facilitate cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells; however, the mechanism by which ICA induced cardiomyogenesis has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, an underlying signaling network including metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), Homer, phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Enhancer (PIKE), phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) was investigated in ICA induced cardiomyogenesis. Our results showed that the co-expression of mGluR5 together with α-actinin or Troponin T in embryoid bodies (EBs) treated with ICA was elevated to 10.86% and 9.62%, compared with the case in the control (4.04% and 3.45%, respectively). Exposure of EBs to ICA for 2 h remarkably increased the dimeric form of mGluR5, which was inhibited by small interfering RNA targeting mGluR5 (si-mGluR5). Moreover, the extracellular glutamate concentration in ICA treatment medium was elevated to 28.9±3.5 μM. Furthermore, the activation of mGluR5 by ICA triggered the formation of Homer–PIKE complex and activated PI3K, stimulating ROS generation and NF-κB nuclear translocation. Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 blocked ICA induced cardiomyogenesis via repressing mGluR5 pathway, reducing ROS and NF-κB activation. These results revealed that the inducible mechanisms of ICA were related to activate mGluR5 pathway. -- Highlights: • ICA increased mGluR5 expression in cardiac differentiation of ES cells. • ICA enhanced the glutamate level and the receptor mGluR5 dimerization, stimulating the formation of Homer–PIKE complex. • Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 inhibited ICA induced ROS generation and NF-κB nuclear translocation.

  7. Geohydrology of, and nitrogen and chloride in, the glacial aquifer, Milford-Matamoras area, Pike County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The glacial aquifer that underlies the Routes 209 and 6 corridor between Milford and Matamoras, Pa., is one of the most productive in Pike County. The aquifer is comprised of unconsolidated glacial outwash and kame-terrace deposits that lie within a glacially carved valley now occupied by the Delaware River. Most businesses and residences along this narrow, 7-mile-long corridor rely on individual wells for water supply and septic systems for waste-water disposal. A study of nutrients and chloride in ground water in the glacial aquifer was conducted to determine the effect of these constituents contributed from septic systems and road runoff on ground-water quality. Sources of nutrients and chloride in the recharge zone upgradient of the aquifer include road and parking-lot runoff, septic systems, and precipitation. Nitrate and chloride from these sources can infiltrate and move in the direction of ground-water flow in the saturated zone of the aquifer. A water-table map based on 29 water levels measured in August 1991 indicates that the direction of ground-water flow is from the edges of the valley toward t he Delaware River but is nearly parallel to the Delaware River in the central area of the valley. The average concentrations of nitrogen and chloride in recharge and total annual loads of nitrogen and chloride to ground water were estimated for six areas with different population densities. These estimates assumed a recharge rate to the glacial aquifer of 20 inches per year and a 15 percent loss of chloride and nitrogen in the atmospheric precipitation to surface runoff. The estimated average concentration of nitrogen in recharge ranged from 2.5 to 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter), which corresponds to a total annual load of nitrogen as ammonium released from septic tanks and present in precipitation was oxidized to nitrate as the dominant nitrogen species in ground water. Contributions of nitrogen from septic tanks were greater than contributions from runoff

  8. Water quality, hydrology, and the effects of changes in phosphorus loading to Pike Lake, Washington County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on inlet-to-outlet short-circuiting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, William J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Mergener, Elizabeth A.

    2004-01-01

    Simulations using water-quality models within the Wisconsin Lake Model Suite (WiLMS) indicated Pike Lake's response to 13 different phosphorus-loading scenarios. These scenarios included a base 'normal' year (2000) for which lake water quality and loading were known, six different percentage increases or decreases in phosphorus loading from controllable sources, and six different loading scenarios corresponding to specific management actions. Model simulations indicate that a 50-percent reduction in controllable loading sources would be needed to achieve a mesotrophic classification with respect to phosphorus, chlorophyll a, and Secchi depth (an index of water clarity). Model simulations indicated that short-circuiting of phosphorus from the inlet to the outlet was the main reason the water quality of the lake is good relative to the amount of loading from the Rubicon River and that changes in the percentage of inlet-to-outlet short-circuiting have a significant influence on the water quality of the lake.

  9. Research results from the Ashland Exploration, Inc. Ford Motor Company 78 (ed) well, Pike County, Kentucky. Topical report, April 1992-December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, C.W.; Frantz, J.H.; Lancaster, D.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes the work performed on the Ashland Exploration, Inc. Ford Motor Company 78 (Experimental Development (ED)) Well, in Pike County, KY. The ED well was the third well drilled in a research project conducted by GRI in eastern Kentucky targeting both the Devonian Shales and Berea Sandstone. Both the Shales and Berea were completed and tested in the ED well. The primary objective of the ED well was to apply what was learned from studying the Shalers in COOP 1 (first well drilled) and the Berea in COOP 2 (second well drilled) to both the Shales and the Berea in the ED well. Additionally, the ED well was used to evaluate the impact of different stimulation treatments on Shales production. Research in the ED well brings to a close GRI`s extensive field-based research program in the Appalachian Basin over the last ten years.

  10. Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was

  11. Petrology and geochemistry of late-stage intrusions of the A-type, mid-Proterozoic Pikes Peak batholith (Central Colorado, USA): Implications for petrogenetic models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Noblett, J.; Wobus, R.A.; Unruh, D.; Douglass, J.; Beane, R.; Davis, C.; Goldman, S.; Kay, G.; Gustavson, B.; Saltoun, B.; Stewart, J.

    1999-01-01

    The ~1.08 Ga anorogenic, A-type Pikes Peak batholith (Front Range, central Colorado) is dominated by coarse-grained, biotite ?? amphibole syenogranites and minor monzogranites, collectively referred to as Pikes Peak granite (PPG). The batholith is also host to numerous small, late-stage plutons that have been subdivided into two groups (e.g. Wobus, 1976. Studies in Colorado Field Geology, Colorado School of Mines Professional Contributions, Colorado): (1) a sodic series (SiO2= ~44-78 wt%; K/Na=0.32-1.36) composed of gabbro, diabase, syenite/quartz syenite and fayalite and sodic amphibole granite; and (2) a potassic series (SiO2= ~ 70-77 wt%; K/Na=0.95-2.05), composed of biotite granite and minor quartz monzonite. Differences in major and trace element and Nd isotopic characteristics for the two series indicate different petrogenetic histories. Potassic granites of the late-stage intrusions appear to represent crustal anatectic melts derived from tonalite sources, based on comparison of their major element compositions with experimental melt products. In addition, Nd isotopic characteristics of the potassic granites [??(Nd)(1.08 Ga) = -0.2 to -2.7] overlap with those for tonalites/granodiorites [ca 1.7 Ga Boulder Creek intrusions; ??(Nd)(1.08 Ga) = -2.4 to -3.6] exposed in the region. Some of the partial melts evolved by fractionation dominated by feldspar. The late-stage potassic granites share geochemical characteristics with most of the PPG, which is also interpreted to have an anatectic origin involving tonalitic crust. The origin of monzogranites associated with the PPG remains unclear, but mixing between granitic and mafic or intermediate magmas is a possibility. Syenites and granites of the sodic series cannot be explained as crustal melts, but are interpreted as fractionation products of mantle-derived mafic magmas with minor crustal input. High temperature and low oxygen fugacity estimates (e.g. Frost et al., 1988. American Mineralogist 73, 727-740) support

  12. Estimated probabilities and volumes of postwildfire debris flows—A prewildfire evaluation for the Pikes Peak area, El Paso and Teller Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, John G.; Ruddy, Barbara C.; Verdin, Kristine L.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast-moving, high-density slurries of water, sediment, and debris that can have enormous destructive power. Although debris flows, triggered by intense rainfall or rapid snowmelt on steep hillsides covered with erodible material, are a common geomorphic process in some unburned areas, a wildfire can transform conditions in a watershed with no recent history of debris flows into conditions that pose a substantial hazard to residents, communities, infrastructure, aquatic habitats, and water supply. The location, extent, and severity of wildfire and the subsequent rainfall intensity and duration cannot be known in advance; however, hypothetical scenarios based on empirical debris-flow models are useful planning tools for conceptualizing potential postwildfire debris flows. A prewildfire study to determine the potential for postwildfire debris flows in the Pikes Peak area in El Paso and Teller Counties, Colorado, was initiated in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities. The study was conducted to provide a relative measure of which subwatersheds might constitute the most serious potential debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall.

  13. GGAP2/PIKE-A directly activates both the Akt and NF-κB pathways and promotes prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yi; Wang, Jianghua; Li, Rile; Ayala, Gustavo; Ittmann, Michael; Liu, Mingyao

    2009-01-01

    GGAP2/PIKE-A is a GTP-binding protein which can enhance Akt activity. Increased activation of the AKT and NF-κB pathways have been identified as critical steps in cancer initiation and progression in a variety of human cancers. We have found significantly increased expression GGAP2 in the majority of human prostate cancers and GGAP2 expression increases Akt activation in prostate cancer cells. Thus increased GGAP2 expression is a common mechanism for enhancing the activity of the Akt pathway in prostate cancers. In addition, we have found that activated Akt can bind and phosphorylate GGAP2 at serine 629, which enhances GTP binding by GGAP2. Phosphorylated GGAP2 can bind the p50 subunit of NF-κB and enhances NF-κB transcriptional activity. When expressed in prostate cancer cells, GGAP2 enhances proliferation, foci formation and tumor progression in vivo. Thus increased GGAP2 expression, which is present in three quarters of human prostate cancers, can activate two critical pathways that have been linked to prostate cancer initiation and progression. PMID:19176382

  14. Predation on ruffe by native fishes of the St. Louis River Estuary, Lake Superior, 1989-1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogle, Derek H.; Selgeby, James H.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Newman, Raymond M.; Henry, Mary G.

    1996-01-01

    The ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus, an exotic Eurasian percid, recently became established in the St. Louis River estuary, Lake Superior, after accidental introduction. Management actions (catch regulations and stockings) were enacted in 1989 to increase the density of top-level predators in the estuary, and thus to increase predation on ruffe. We conducted a field and laboratory study to determine if, and to what extent, native piscivores consume ruffe. Stomachs of 3,669 predators were examined in 1989–1991. Ruffe occurred in 6.7% of burbot Lota lota, 5.8% of bullheads Ictalurus spp., 4.7% of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, 2.6% of northern pike Esox lucius, 2.6% of black crappiesPomoxis nigromaculatus, and 1.3% of yellow perch Perca flavescens (4.5% after 1989) captured during the 3-year study. No ruffe were found in 967 stomachs of walleyesStizostedion vitreum examined. Ruffe were 22.7%, of the diet (by weight) of bullheads (during the only year bullheads were captured) and 0.1–17.9% of the diet of northern pike. Ruffe were 0.9–24.5% of the diet of smallmouth bass that contained fish, 1.5–6.9% of yellow perch that contained fish, and 0.0–10.9% of black crappies that contained fish. Most ruffe eaten were age-0 or small age- 1 fish. In the laboratory, walleyes that were first fed soft-rayed prey or that were also offered soft-rayed prey consumed very few ruffe, whereas walleyes that were first fed spiny-rayed yellow perch or were also offered yellow perch consumed about equal numbers of ruffe and yellow perch. Northern pike and burbot consumed about equal numbers of ruffe and yellow perch in the laboratory. It is unlikely that predation will effectively control the initial expansion of ruffe in other areas of the Great Lakes because native predators initially consume few ruffe, especially if more preferred soft-rayed prey are available.

  15. The Pikes Peak batholith, Colorado front range, and a model for the origin of the gabbro-anorthosite-syenite-potassic granite suite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, F.; Wones, D.R.; Sharp, W.N.; Desborough, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    This study of the Pikes Peak batholith includes the mineralogy and petrology of quartz syenite at West Creek and of fayalite-bearing and fayalite-free biotite granite near Mount Rosa; major element chemistry of the batholith; comparisons with similar postorogenic, intracratonic, sodic to potassic intrusives; and genesis of the batholith. The batholith is elongate in plan, 50 by 100 km, composite, and generally subalkalic. It was emplaced at shallow depth 1,040 m. y. ago, sharply transects its walls and may have breached its roof. Biotite granite and biotite-hornblende granite are predominant; quartz syenite, fayalite granite and riebeckite granite are present in minor amounts. Fayalite-bearing and fayalite-free quartz syenite, fayalite-biotite granite and riebeckite granite show a well-defined sodic differentiation trend; the less sodic fayalite-free granites exhibit a broader compositional range and no sharp trends. Crystallization was largely at PH2O < Ptotal; PH2O approached Ptotal only at late stages. Aplite residual to fayalite-free biotite granite in the north formed at about 1,500 bars, or 5 km depth. Feldspar assemblages indicate late stages of crystallization at about 720??C. In the south ilmenite and manganian fayalite indicate fO2 of 10-17 or 10-18 bars. Biotite and fayalite compositions and the 'granite minimum' imply completion of crystallization at about 700??C and 1,500 bars. Nearby fayalite-free biotite granite crystallized at higher water fugacity. All types of syenite and granite contain 5-6% K2O through a range of SiO2 of 63-76%. Average Na2O percentages in quartz syenite are 6.2, fayalite granite 4.2, and fayalite-free granite 3.3 MgO contents are low, 0.03-0.4%; FeO averages 1.9-2.5%. FeO/Fe2O3 ratios are high. Fluorine ranges from 0.3 to 0.6%. The Pikes Peak intrusives are similar in mode of emplacement, composition, and probably genesis to rapakivi intrusives of Finland, the Younger Granites of Nigeria, Cape Ann Granite and Beverly Syenite

  16. Water-quality data for the Ohio River from New Cumberland Dam to Pike Island Dam, West Virginia and Ohio, June-November 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Kimberly F.; Faulkenburg, C.W.; Chambers, D.B.; Waldron, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains water-quality data for the Ohio River, collected during the summer and fall of 1992, from river mile 51.1 (3.3 miles upstream from New Cumberland Dam) to river mile 84.0 (0.2 miles upstream from Pike Island Dam). The data were collected to assess the effects of hydropower development on water quality. Water quality was determined by a combination of repeated synoptic field measurements and laboratory analyses. Synoptic measurements were made along a longitudinal transect with 18 mid-channel sampling sites; cross-sectional transects of water quality were measured at 5 of these sites. Water-quality measurements also were made at two sites located on the back-channel (Ohio) side of Browns Island. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and specific conductance were measured at each longitudinal-transect and back-channel sampling site. Longitudinal-transect and back-channel stations were sampled at three depths (about 3.3 feet below the surface of the water, middle of the water column, and near the bottom of the river). Cross-sectional transects consisted of three or four detailed vertical pro- files of the same characteristics. Water samples were collected from three depths at the mid-channel vertical profile in each cross-sectional transect and were analyzed for concentrations of phyto- plankton photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Estimates of the depth of light penetration (Secchi disk transparency) were made at pigment-sampling locations whenever light and river-surface conditions were appropriate. Synoptic sampling usually was completed in 12 hours or less and was repeated seven times between June 25 and November 6, 1992.

  17. Chronic toxicity of un-ionized ammonia to early life-stages of endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) compared to the surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Fairchild, J F; Allert, A L; Sappington, L C; Waddell, B

    2005-10-01

    Ammonia-contaminated groundwater enters the Upper Colorado River from beneath the abandoned Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Pile near Moab, Utah. This reach of the Upper Colorado River was designated as critical habitat for four endangered fish species because it is one of the few existing areas with known spawning and rearing habitats. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3) concentrations frequently exceed 1.00 mg/L in backwaters adjacent to the tailings pile, which exceeds the Utah 30-d average chronic water quality criterion for un-ionized ammonia (0.07 mg/L NH3; temperature 20 degrees C; pH 8.2) by a factor of more than 10. However, there is little published information regarding the sensitivity of endangered fishes to ammonia. We conducted 28-d static renewal studies with post-swim-up larvae to determine the relative sensitivity of Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and the standard surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to NH3. Chronic values (ChVs) for mortality and growth were determined as the geometric mean of the no observed effect concentration and the lowest observed effect concentration based on analysis of variance. The ChVs for growth of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.40, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. The ChVs for mortality of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.70, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. Therefore, the ChVs for mortality and growth were similar for fathead minnow and razorback sucker; however, the ChV for growth was lower than the ChV for mortality for Colorado pikeminnow. Maximum likelihood regression was used to calculate 28-d lethal concentrations (LCx) for each species. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for fathead minnow were 0.69, 0.42, and 0.13 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for Colorado pikeminnow were 0.76, 0.61, and 0.38 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for

  18. Chronic toxicity of un-ionized ammonia to early life-stages of endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) compared to the surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, J.F.; Allert, A.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Waddell, B.

    2005-01-01

    Ammonia-contaminated groundwater enters the Upper Colorado River from beneath the abandoned Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Pile near Moab, Utah. This reach of the Upper Colorado River was designated as critical habitat for four endangered fish species because it is one of the few existing areas with known spawning and rearing habitats. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3) concentrations frequently exceed 1.00 mg/L in backwaters adjacent to the tailings pile, which exceeds the Utah 30-d average chronic water quality criterion for un-ionized ammonia (0.07 mg/L NH3; temperature 20??C; pH 8.2) by a factor of more than 10. However, there is little published information regarding the sensitivity of endangered fishes to ammonia. We conducted 28-d static renewal studies with post-swim-up larvae to determine the relative sensitivity of Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and the standard surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to NH3. Chronic values (ChVs) for mortality and growth were determined as the geometric mean of the no observed effect concentration and the lowest observed effect concentration based on analysis of variance. The ChVs for growth of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.40, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. The ChVs for mortality of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.70, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. Therefore, the ChVs for mortality and growth were similar for fathead minnow and razorback sucker; however, the ChV for growth was lower than the ChV for mortality for Colorado pikeminnow. Maximum likelihood regression was used to calculate 28-d lethal concentrations (LCx) for each species. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for fathead minnow were 0.69, 0.42, and 0.13 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for Colorado pikeminnow were 0.76, 0.61, and 0.38 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for razorback

  19. Chronic toxicity of un-ionized ammonia to early life-stages of endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) compared to the surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Fairchild, J F; Allert, A L; Sappington, L C; Waddell, B

    2005-10-01

    Ammonia-contaminated groundwater enters the Upper Colorado River from beneath the abandoned Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Pile near Moab, Utah. This reach of the Upper Colorado River was designated as critical habitat for four endangered fish species because it is one of the few existing areas with known spawning and rearing habitats. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3) concentrations frequently exceed 1.00 mg/L in backwaters adjacent to the tailings pile, which exceeds the Utah 30-d average chronic water quality criterion for un-ionized ammonia (0.07 mg/L NH3; temperature 20 degrees C; pH 8.2) by a factor of more than 10. However, there is little published information regarding the sensitivity of endangered fishes to ammonia. We conducted 28-d static renewal studies with post-swim-up larvae to determine the relative sensitivity of Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and the standard surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to NH3. Chronic values (ChVs) for mortality and growth were determined as the geometric mean of the no observed effect concentration and the lowest observed effect concentration based on analysis of variance. The ChVs for growth of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.40, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. The ChVs for mortality of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.70, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. Therefore, the ChVs for mortality and growth were similar for fathead minnow and razorback sucker; however, the ChV for growth was lower than the ChV for mortality for Colorado pikeminnow. Maximum likelihood regression was used to calculate 28-d lethal concentrations (LCx) for each species. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for fathead minnow were 0.69, 0.42, and 0.13 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for Colorado pikeminnow were 0.76, 0.61, and 0.38 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for

  20. Microwave-assisted double insert vapour-phase digestion of organic samples.

    PubMed

    Eilola, Keijo; Perämäki, Paavo

    2009-02-23

    A microwave-assisted double insert multimode vapour-phase digestion method was developed for the digestion of organic samples. The experimental set-up was based on a third generation-type teflon microwave vessel, equipped with an automatic pressure regulating type vessel cover. A borosilicate glass holder insert, containing a smaller quartz sample insert, was fitted inside the vessel. Sulphuric acid was added to the holder insert as a microwave absorbing and temperature transferring liquid, which transferred heat to the sample insert (into which the sample was weighed) and charred the sample material. Oxidation of the sample material was carried out simultaneously with charring using nitric acid vapour, which was generated by the 1:1 (v/v) sulphuric acid-nitric acid mixture located in the bottom of the microwave vessel. This set-up generated high digestion efficiency, without any of the interferences normally associated with direct sulphuric acid usage. The method was used for determining the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Zn and Fe in certified organic reference materials using ICP-OES instrumentation. The certified organic reference materials were NRCC DOLT-2 dogfish liver, NIST-SRM 1577b bovine liver and IRMM VDA cadmium in polyethylene No. 001 and No. 004. The results were in good agreement with the certified values, forepart from Cd. For Cd the results were lower than the certified values due to volatilization losses. Sample materials that could not be digested by an earlier procedure were completely digested during a single-step, 30 min digestion. The tested sample materials included certified reference materials, 3-nitrobenzoic acid (3-NBA) and pike (Esox lucius) muscle. The residual carbon concentrations in the digestion solutions were below the detection limit of the TOC instrument. This type of digestion method is described here for the first time in the literature. PMID:19185121

  1. Bioaccumulation of metals in sediments, fish and plant from Tisza river (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štrbac, Snežana; Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Vasić, Nebojša; Jovančićević, Branimir; Simonović, Predrag

    2014-05-01

    In the aquatic environments metals originate from various natural and anthropogenic sources. The purpose of the study was to assess the bioaccumulation level of metals in sediments fish and common reed at four different localities of the Tisza River stretch in Serbia. For purpose of this study concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were determined in sediment, common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. 1841) and four ecologically different fish species (piscivorous northern pike (Esox lucius L.), benthivorous sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) silver bream (Brama brama L.), omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)). Analysis of metals was carried out for liver, gills, brain, testicles and ovaries in fish and in the rhizome, stem and leaves of the common reed and sediment fraction <0,0063mm. The concentrations of metals have been assessed using the Inductively Coupled Plasma - optical emission spectrometry. Obtained results revealed that Al and Fe had the highest concentrations in sediment, fish and common reed samples. The research proved a strong positive correlation between the concentrations of all metals in the sediment, fish and common reed. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in omnivorous common carp Cyprinus carpio, and organs that the most intensively accumulated the greatest number of them were liver and gills. Accumulated metals in the common reed were not distributed evenly, but there are target organs for bioaccumulation. Concentrations in below-ground organs were usually higher than above-ground organs, and the general decreasing trend of element content was rhizome>leaves>stems. Obtained results indicate that the location does not have impact to the level of bioaccumulation. On the basis of this research the under-ground organ (rhizome) of common reed, liver and gills and omnivorous fish species could be recommended as environmental indicators for the presence of metals during

  2. Late Pleistocene fishes of the Tennessee River Basin: an analysis of a late Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2) in Colbert County, Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Stephen J; Ebersole, Jun A; Dickinson, William C; Ciampaglio, Charles N

    2016-01-01

    The Tennessee River Basin is considered one of the most important regions for freshwater biodiversity anywhere on the globe. The Tennessee River Basin currently includes populations of at least half of the described contemporary diversity of extant North American freshwater fishes, crayfish, mussel, and gastropod species. However, comparatively little is known about the biodiversity of this basin from the Pleistocene Epoch, particularly the late Pleistocene (∼10,000 to 30,000 years B.P.) leading to modern Holocene fish diversity patterns. The objective of this study was to describe the fish assemblages of the Tennessee River Basin from the late Pleistocene using a series of faunas from locales throughout the basin documented from published literature, unpublished reports, and an undocumented fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2, Colbert County, AL). Herein we discuss 41 unequivocal taxa from 10 late Pleistocene localities within the basin and include a systematic discussion of 11 families, 19 genera, and 24 identifiable species (28 unequivocal taxa) specific to the Bell Cave locality. Among the described fauna are several extirpated (e.g., Northern Pike Esox lucius, Northern Madtom Noturus stigmosus) and a single extinct (Harelip Sucker Moxostoma lacerum) taxa that suggest a combination of late Pleistocene displacement events coupled with more recent changes in habitat that have resulted in modern basin diversity patterns. The Bell Cave locality represents one of the most intact Pleistocene freshwater fish deposits anywhere in North America. Significant preservational, taphonomic, sampling, and identification biases preclude the identification of additional taxa. Overall, this study provides a detailed look into paleo-river ecology, as well as freshwater fish diversity and distribution leading up to the contemporary biodiversity patterns of the Tennessee River Basin and Mississippi River Basin as a whole.

  3. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans in fish downstream from a Ky-5 manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, M; Verta, M; Lehtoranta, J; Kiviranta, H; Vartiainen, T

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were studied in seven fish species, burbot (Lota lota), pike (Esox lucius), perch (Perca fluviatilis), pikeperch (Stizopedion lucioperca), bream (Abramis brama), salmon (Salmo salar) and Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) in River Kymijoki and its estuary polluted by Ky-5 manufacturing. The fish were caught at 14 localities along the river and its estuary. The selected species represent different trophic levels and/or inhabit different environments. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were low, in most samples below 1 pg g(-1) ITEQ (NATO/CCMS 1988) fresh weight (fw) in muscle, except salmon and Baltic herring. These two species graze at the open sea and consequently accumulate contaminants at a large area in the Baltic Sea. The lipid content in salmon and Baltic herring was an order of magnitude higher than in other species. PCDD/Fs in fish muscle showed only slightly elevated levels in the Kymijoki area and its estuary as compared to the levels in the same species in Finnish freshwaters and sea areas. The concentration of the main impurities of the fungicide Ky-5 was higher in the Kymijoki River downstream the Ky-5 manufacturing place compared to the up-stream locations. The PCDD/F concentrations in fish liver and spawn were 10-100 times higher than the concentration in muscle, because of the much higher lipid concentrations of these organes. Consequently, the tolerable daily intake values could be as much as 100 times smaller (M. Korhonen, M. Verta, T. Vartiainen, Organohalog. Comp. 32 (1997) 305-310; P. Mikkelson, J. Paasivirta, H. Kiviranta, Organohalog. Comp. 39 (1998) 59-62).

  4. Late Pleistocene fishes of the Tennessee River Basin: an analysis of a late Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2) in Colbert County, Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Stephen J; Ebersole, Jun A; Dickinson, William C; Ciampaglio, Charles N

    2016-01-01

    The Tennessee River Basin is considered one of the most important regions for freshwater biodiversity anywhere on the globe. The Tennessee River Basin currently includes populations of at least half of the described contemporary diversity of extant North American freshwater fishes, crayfish, mussel, and gastropod species. However, comparatively little is known about the biodiversity of this basin from the Pleistocene Epoch, particularly the late Pleistocene (∼10,000 to 30,000 years B.P.) leading to modern Holocene fish diversity patterns. The objective of this study was to describe the fish assemblages of the Tennessee River Basin from the late Pleistocene using a series of faunas from locales throughout the basin documented from published literature, unpublished reports, and an undocumented fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2, Colbert County, AL). Herein we discuss 41 unequivocal taxa from 10 late Pleistocene localities within the basin and include a systematic discussion of 11 families, 19 genera, and 24 identifiable species (28 unequivocal taxa) specific to the Bell Cave locality. Among the described fauna are several extirpated (e.g., Northern Pike Esox lucius, Northern Madtom Noturus stigmosus) and a single extinct (Harelip Sucker Moxostoma lacerum) taxa that suggest a combination of late Pleistocene displacement events coupled with more recent changes in habitat that have resulted in modern basin diversity patterns. The Bell Cave locality represents one of the most intact Pleistocene freshwater fish deposits anywhere in North America. Significant preservational, taphonomic, sampling, and identification biases preclude the identification of additional taxa. Overall, this study provides a detailed look into paleo-river ecology, as well as freshwater fish diversity and distribution leading up to the contemporary biodiversity patterns of the Tennessee River Basin and Mississippi River Basin as a whole. PMID:26855876

  5. Consumption dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    At Spirit Lake, one of Iowa's most important fisheries, walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) is one of the most popular species with anglers. Despite a century of walleye stocking and management in Spirit Lake, walleye growth rate, size structure, and angler harvest continue to decline. Our purpose was to determine the magnitude and dynamics of walleye population consumption relative to those of other piscivorous species in Spirit Lake, which would allow managers to judge the feasibility of increasing the abundance, growth rate, and size structure of the walleye population. We quantified food consumption by the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake over a 3-year period. Data on population dynamics, diet, energy density, and water temperature from 1995 to 1997 were used in bioenergetics models to estimate total consumption by walleye, yellow perch Perca flavescens, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, and northern pike Esox lucius. Estimated annual consumption by the piscivorous community varied roughly fourfold, ranging from 154,752 kg in 1995 to 662,776 kg in 1997. Walleyes dominated total consumption, accounting for 68, 73, and 90% (1995-1997, respectively) of total food consumption. Walleyes were also the dominant consumers of fish, accounting for 76, 86, and 97% of piscivorous consumption; yellow perch followed, accounting for 16% of piscivorous consumption in 1995 and 12% in 1996. Yellow perch were the predominant fish prey species in all 3 years, accounting for 68, 52, and 36% of the total prey consumed. Natural reproduction is weak, so high walleye densities are maintained by intensive stocking. Walleye stocking drives piscivorous consumption in Spirit Lake, and yearly variation in the cannibalism of stocked walleye fry may be an important determinant of walleye year-class strength and angler success. Reducing walleye stocking intensity, varying stocking

  6. Survival of cool and warm freshwater fish following chloramine-T exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Larson, W.J.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Chloramine-T is presently available in the USA to control mortalities associated with bacterial gill disease or external columnaris only through an Investigational New Animal Drug Permit authorized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Its US approval hinges on FDA's acceptance of several key data, including those describing animal safety. Chloramine-T is presently applied in US aquaculture, by permit only, once daily on consecutive or alternate days for 1??h at 10 to 20??mg/L to control mortalities associated with bacterial gill disease or external columnaris. Our objective was to determine the safety of chloramine-T bath exposures at multiples of the proposed maximum treatment concentration (i.e., 0, 20, 60, 100, and 200??mg/L) administered on four consecutive days at 20????C to lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, northern pike Esox lucius, and walleye Sander vitreum, or at 27????C to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. All fish were tested as five to eight week old fry except for walleye and channel catfish which were tested as both fry and fingerling (fingerlings were at least four weeks older than the fry tested). Walleye and channel catfish were selected to evaluate the effects of life stage (fry vs. fingerling), temperature (walleye - 15, 20, or 25????C; channel catfish - 22, 27, or 32????C), exposure duration (60 vs. 180??min), and water chemistry (walleye only - reconstituted soft water vs. well water). Except for channel catfish fry, survival was significantly reduced only when fish were treated at 100 or 200??mg/L. Channel catfish fry survival was significantly reduced when exposed at 60??mg/L for 180??min at 27????C. Based on our mortality data, chloramine-T administered once daily for 60??min on four consecutive days at concentrations of up to 20??mg/L is not likely to adversely affect survival of cool or warmwater fish cultured in freshwater. Crown Copyright ?? 2007.

  7. Prevalence of Diphyllobothrium latum (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) plerocercoids in fish species from four Italian lakes and risk for the consumers.

    PubMed

    Gustinelli, Andrea; Menconi, Vasco; Prearo, Marino; Caffara, Monica; Righetti, Marzia; Scanzio, Tommaso; Raglio, Annibale; Fioravanti, Maria Letizia

    2016-10-17

    In recent years there has been a re-emergence of diphyllobothriasis by Diphyllobothrium latum (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) in Italy, France and Switzerland, where in the past this fish-borne zoonosis was widespread and then virtually disappeared. A change in eating habits such as the consumption of raw/undercooked freshwater fish, has led to an increased risk for consumers of ingesting infective larvae of D. latum. A survey on the factors responsible for the re-emergence of human diphyllobothriasis in Italy was carried out from March 2013 to December 2014. The aim of this study was to assess the diffusion of D. latum plerocercoids in the fish populations of the sub-alpine lakes of Maggiore, Como, Iseo and Garda, updating the scarce historical data and assessing a preliminary "risk level" of the lacustrine environments and fish species under investigation. A total of 2228 fish belonging to 5 species, 690 from Lake Maggiore, 500 from Lake Como, 655 from Lake Iseo and 383 from Lake Garda were submitted to parasitological examination. The presence of D. latum plerocercoid larvae was detected in 6.6%, 25.4% and 7.6% of perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lakes Maggiore, Como and Iseo respectively. The parasite was also present in pike (Esox lucius) with prevalence values ranging from 71.4 to 84.2% and in 3.6-3.8% of burbot (Lota lota) from Lakes Iseo and Como. Fish from Lake Garda were negative as well as sampled whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) and shad (Alosa fallax lacustris). The results of this survey showed a widespread presence of D. latum plerocercoid larvae in Maggiore, Como and Iseo fish populations. Urban fecal contamination of water is still a key issue to be resolved, together with the improvement of communication with consumers regarding the best dietary habits and the most effective processes of parasite inactivation, required for the consumption of raw/undercooked fish caught in high-risk areas.

  8. Late Pleistocene fishes of the Tennessee River Basin: an analysis of a late Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2) in Colbert County, Alabama, USA

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Jun A.; Dickinson, William C.; Ciampaglio, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    The Tennessee River Basin is considered one of the most important regions for freshwater biodiversity anywhere on the globe. The Tennessee River Basin currently includes populations of at least half of the described contemporary diversity of extant North American freshwater fishes, crayfish, mussel, and gastropod species. However, comparatively little is known about the biodiversity of this basin from the Pleistocene Epoch, particularly the late Pleistocene (∼10,000 to 30,000 years B.P.) leading to modern Holocene fish diversity patterns. The objective of this study was to describe the fish assemblages of the Tennessee River Basin from the late Pleistocene using a series of faunas from locales throughout the basin documented from published literature, unpublished reports, and an undocumented fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2, Colbert County, AL). Herein we discuss 41 unequivocal taxa from 10 late Pleistocene localities within the basin and include a systematic discussion of 11 families, 19 genera, and 24 identifiable species (28 unequivocal taxa) specific to the Bell Cave locality. Among the described fauna are several extirpated (e.g., Northern Pike Esox lucius, Northern Madtom Noturus stigmosus) and a single extinct (Harelip Sucker Moxostoma lacerum) taxa that suggest a combination of late Pleistocene displacement events coupled with more recent changes in habitat that have resulted in modern basin diversity patterns. The Bell Cave locality represents one of the most intact Pleistocene freshwater fish deposits anywhere in North America. Significant preservational, taphonomic, sampling, and identification biases preclude the identification of additional taxa. Overall, this study provides a detailed look into paleo-river ecology, as well as freshwater fish diversity and distribution leading up to the contemporary biodiversity patterns of the Tennessee River Basin and Mississippi River Basin as a whole. PMID:26855876

  9. Natural, social, economical and political influences on fisheries: a review of the transitional area of the Polish waters of the Vistula Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Psuty, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    A 60 year (1948-2007) dataset gathered by Polish researchers working on the Vistula Lagoon fish assemblages and fisheries has shown this stressed transitional environment to be always been dominated by a few highly abundant fish species. During this period, the surrounding countries Poland and Russia (Kaliningrad) were transformed from centrally-planned economies with fixed prices to free market systems. The organization of the fishery evolved from one in which the majority of the fishing effort was expended by cooperatives, to one which was characterized by individual economic activity. The fishing gear deployed also evolved from cotton to monofilament, as well as from large sailing vessels with small-sized pair trawls to fyke nets targeting eel (Anguilla anguilla) and pound nets targeting herring (Clupea harengus). Small-sized gillnets targeting perch (Perca fluviatilis) grew in popularity as eel and pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) catches decreased. Cooperation between Polish and Russian fishery managers began in 1952 with the aim of implementing joint agreements to establish protection guidelines. The substantial nutrient loads into the lagoon in 1970 and 1980 put very large pressure on the environment, and contributed to the loss of macrophytes as well as the development of non-commercial fish populations. One of the consequences of these changes was the rapid growth of a black cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) breeding colony. These multi-faceted changes are considered to be the factors that have influenced the exploitation of fish assemblages in the Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon. The most evident change in the fish assemblage structure during the study period was the permanent decrease in the basin's top predators--pike (Esox lucius) and pikeperch. Eel stocking was initiated in 1970 following a crucial decline in yield from natural recruitment, and stocking was successful in increasing eel abundance.

  10. Predicting future changes in Muskegon River Watershed game fish distributions under future land cover alteration and climate change scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steen, Paul J.; Wiley, Michael J.; Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Future alterations in land cover and climate are likely to cause substantial changes in the ranges of fish species. Predictive distribution models are an important tool for assessing the probability that these changes will cause increases or decreases in or the extirpation of species. Classification tree models that predict the probability of game fish presence were applied to the streams of the Muskegon River watershed, Michigan. The models were used to study three potential future scenarios: (1) land cover change only, (2) land cover change and a 3°C increase in air temperature by 2100, and (3) land cover change and a 5°C increase in air temperature by 2100. The analysis indicated that the expected change in air temperature and subsequent change in water temperatures would result in the decline of coldwater fish in the Muskegon watershed by the end of the 21st century while cool- and warmwater species would significantly increase their ranges. The greatest decline detected was a 90% reduction in the probability that brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis would occur in Bigelow Creek. The greatest increase was a 276% increase in the probability that northern pike Esox lucius would occur in the Middle Branch River. Changes in land cover are expected to cause large changes in a few fish species, such as walleye Sander vitreus and Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, but not to drive major changes in species composition. Managers can alter stream environmental conditions to maximize the probability that species will reside in particular stream reaches through application of the classification tree models. Such models represent a good way to predict future changes, as they give quantitative estimates of the n-dimensional niches for particular species.

  11. Prevalence of Diphyllobothrium latum (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) plerocercoids in fish species from four Italian lakes and risk for the consumers.

    PubMed

    Gustinelli, Andrea; Menconi, Vasco; Prearo, Marino; Caffara, Monica; Righetti, Marzia; Scanzio, Tommaso; Raglio, Annibale; Fioravanti, Maria Letizia

    2016-10-17

    In recent years there has been a re-emergence of diphyllobothriasis by Diphyllobothrium latum (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) in Italy, France and Switzerland, where in the past this fish-borne zoonosis was widespread and then virtually disappeared. A change in eating habits such as the consumption of raw/undercooked freshwater fish, has led to an increased risk for consumers of ingesting infective larvae of D. latum. A survey on the factors responsible for the re-emergence of human diphyllobothriasis in Italy was carried out from March 2013 to December 2014. The aim of this study was to assess the diffusion of D. latum plerocercoids in the fish populations of the sub-alpine lakes of Maggiore, Como, Iseo and Garda, updating the scarce historical data and assessing a preliminary "risk level" of the lacustrine environments and fish species under investigation. A total of 2228 fish belonging to 5 species, 690 from Lake Maggiore, 500 from Lake Como, 655 from Lake Iseo and 383 from Lake Garda were submitted to parasitological examination. The presence of D. latum plerocercoid larvae was detected in 6.6%, 25.4% and 7.6% of perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lakes Maggiore, Como and Iseo respectively. The parasite was also present in pike (Esox lucius) with prevalence values ranging from 71.4 to 84.2% and in 3.6-3.8% of burbot (Lota lota) from Lakes Iseo and Como. Fish from Lake Garda were negative as well as sampled whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) and shad (Alosa fallax lacustris). The results of this survey showed a widespread presence of D. latum plerocercoid larvae in Maggiore, Como and Iseo fish populations. Urban fecal contamination of water is still a key issue to be resolved, together with the improvement of communication with consumers regarding the best dietary habits and the most effective processes of parasite inactivation, required for the consumption of raw/undercooked fish caught in high-risk areas. PMID:27491055

  12. Comparative toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to seven freshwater fish species during early life-stage development

    SciTech Connect

    Elonen, G.E.; Spehar, R.L.; Holcombe, G.W.; Johnson, R.D.; Fernandez, J.D.; Erickson, R.J.; Tietge, J.E.; Cook, P.M.

    1998-03-01

    The toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), lake herring (Coregonus artedii), medaka (Oryzias latipes), white sucker (Catastomus commersoni), northern pike (Esox lucius), and zebrafish (Danio danio) were observed during early life-stage development after waterborne exposure of fertilized eggs. Species sensitivity based on TCDD-C{sub egg} (TCDD concentration in eggs) was determined by effects observed over a 32-d period for all species except lake herring in which a 100-d period was used. Signs of TCDD toxicity, including edema, hemorrhaging, and craniofacial malformations were essentially identical to those observed in salmonids following TCDD egg exposure and preceded or accompanied mortality most often during the period from hatch through swim-up. The no-observed-effect concentrations and lowest-observed-effect concentrations, based on significant decreases in survival and growth as compared to the controls, ranged from 175 and 270 pg/g for lake herring to 424 and 2,000 pg/g for zebrafish, respectively. Shapes of concentration-response curves, expressed as TCDD-C{sub egg} versus percent mortality, were similar for all species and were consistently steep suggesting that the mechanism of action of TCDD is the same among these species. The LC{sub egg}50s ranged from 539 pg/g for the fathead minnow to 2,610 pg/g for zebrafish. Comparisons of LC{sub egg}50s indicate that the tested species were approximately 8 to 38 times less sensitive to TCDD than lake trout, the most sensitive species evaluated to date. When LC{sub egg}50s are normalized to the fraction lipid in eggs (LC{sub egg,f}50s), the risk to early life stage survival for the species tested ranges from 16- to 180-fold less than for lake trout.

  13. Water-quality data for the Ohio River from New Cumberland Dam to Pike Island Dam, West Virginia and Ohio, May-October 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.F.; Messinger, Terence; Waldron, M.C.; Faulkenburg, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains water-quality data for the Ohio River from river mile 51.1 (3.3 miles upstream from New Cumberland Dam) to river mile 84.0 (0.2 miles upstream from Pike Island Dam) that were collected during the summer and fall of 1993. The data were collected to establish the water quality of the Ohio River and to use in assessing the proposed effects of hydropower development on the water quality of the Ohio River. Water quality was determined by a combination of repeated synoptic field measurements, continuous-record monitoring, and laboratory analyses. Synoptic measurements were made along a longitudinal transect with 18 mid-channel sampling sites; cross-sectional transects of water-quality measurements were made at 5 of these sites. Water-quality measurements also were made at two sites located on the back-channel (Ohio) side of Browns Island. At each longitudinal-transect and back-channel sampling site, measurements were made of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen conentration. Longitudinal-transect and back-channel stations were sampled at four depths (at the surface, about 3.3 feet below the surface, middle of the water column, and near the bottom of the river). Cross-sectional transects consisted of three to four detailed vertical profiles of the same characteristics. Water samples were collected from three depths at the mid-channel vertical profile in each cross-sectional transect and were analyzed for concentrations of phytoplankton photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Estimates of the depth of light penetration (Secchi-disk transparency) were made at pigment-sampling locations whenever light and river-surface conditions were appropriate. Synoptic sampling usually was completed in 12 hours or less and was repeated 10 times from May through October 1993. Continuous-record monitoring of water quality consisted of hourly measurements of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen

  14. Comparative analysis of selected biomechanic characteristics between a support backward swing and support swing for the 1 1/4 straddle-piked forward salto on the parallel bars.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Edvard; Kolar, Katarina Andlovic; Stuhec, Stanko

    2002-01-01

    The aim of our research was to study the relationships between performance variables in a support backward swing (SBS), which was used as a progressive step in the learning procedure for a 1 1/4 straddle-piked front somersault and the swing prior to a 1 1/4 straddle-piked front somersault from support to bent arm support on the parallel bars (5/4S). Mitja Petkovsek, parallel bars gold medallist at the 2000 EC in Bremen, performed these elements. Kinematic analysis involved CMAS software (Praha, 1993), and the Suskana body segment model that has 17 points and 15 segments. Kinetic variables were estimated using 2D IMGIM software, which has 8 points and 6 segments (Colja and Cuk, 1994). The results indicated that some kinematic aspects of the two types of swings were similar but there were important differences in kinetic aspects of the motion. During the swing for the 5/4S, force and torque were higher than in the SBS. PMID:14658136

  15. Fitness consequences of early life conditions and maternal size effects in a freshwater top predator.

    PubMed

    Vindenes, Yngvild; Langangen, Øystein; Winfield, Ian J; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

    2016-05-01

    Conditions experienced in early life stages can be an important determinant of individual life histories. In fish, environmental conditions are known to affect early survival and growth, but recent studies have also emphasized maternal effects mediated by size or age. However, the relative sensitivity of the mean fitness (population growth rate λ) to different early life impacts remains largely unexplored. Using a female-based integral projection model (IPM) parameterized from unique long-term demographic data for pike (Esox lucius), we evaluated the relative fitness consequences of different early life impacts, including (i) maternal effects of length on egg weight, potentially affecting offspring (first year) survival, and (ii) effects of temperature on offspring growth and survival. Of the seven vital rates defining the model, offspring survival could not be directly estimated and four scenarios were defined for this rate. Elasticity analyses of the IPM were performed to calculate (i) the total contribution from different lengths to the elasticity of λ to the projection kernel, and (ii) the elasticity of λ to underlying variables of female current length, female offspring length at age 1, and temperature. These elasticities were decomposed into contributions from different vital rates across length. Egg weight increased with female length, as expected, but the effect leveled off for the largest females. However, λ was largely insensitive to this effect, even when egg weight was assumed to have a strong effect on offspring survival. In contrast, λ was sensitive to early temperature conditions through growth and survival. Among mature females, the total elasticity of λ to the projection kernel generally increased with length. The results were robust to a wide range of assumptions. These results suggest that environmental conditions experienced in early life represent a more important driver of mean population growth and fitness of pike than maternal effects

  16. Can natural variability trigger effects on fish and fish habitat as defined in environment Canada's metal mining environmental effects monitoring program?

    PubMed

    Mackey, Robin; Rees, Cassandra; Wells, Kelly; Pham, Samantha; England, Kent

    2013-01-01

    The Metal Mining Effluent Regulations (MMER) took effect in 2002 and require most metal mining operations in Canada to complete environmental effects monitoring (EEM) programs. An "effect" under the MMER EEM program is considered any positive or negative statistically significant difference in fish population, fish usability, or benthic invertebrate community EEM-defined endpoints. Two consecutive studies with the same statistically significant differences trigger more intensive monitoring, including the characterization of extent and magnitude and investigation of cause. Standard EEM study designs do not require multiple reference areas or preexposure sampling, thus results and conclusions about mine effects are highly contingent on the selection of a near perfect reference area and are at risk of falsely labeling natural variation as mine related "effects." A case study was completed to characterize the natural variability in EEM-defined endpoints during preexposure or baseline conditions. This involved completing a typical EEM study in future reference and exposure lakes surrounding a proposed uranium (U) mine in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Moon Lake was sampled as the future exposure area as it is currently proposed to receive effluent from the U mine. Two reference areas were used: Slush Lake for both the fish population and benthic invertebrate community surveys and Lake C as a second reference area for the benthic invertebrate community survey. Moon Lake, Slush Lake, and Lake C are located in the same drainage basin in close proximity to one another. All 3 lakes contained similar water quality, fish communities, aquatic habitat, and a sediment composition largely comprised of fine-textured particles. The fish population survey consisted of a nonlethal northern pike (Esox lucius) and a lethal yellow perch (Perca flavescens) survey. A comparison of the 5 benthic invertebrate community effect endpoints, 4 nonlethal northern pike population effect endpoints

  17. Simultaneous determination of substituted diphenylamine antioxidants and benzotriazole ultra violet stabilizers in blood plasma and fish homogenates by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhe; Peart, Thomas E; Cook, Cyril J; De Silva, Amila O

    2016-08-26

    Analytical methods were developed for the determination of eight substituted diphenylamines (SDPAs) and six benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BZT-UVs) in blood plasma and fish homogenate matrices. Liquid-liquid extraction by methyl tert-butyl ether and denaturation by KOH following silica gel packed column clean-up was employed for blood plasma preparation. For the fish homogenate samples, ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction combined with automated gel permeation chromatography and silica gel packed column clean-up was used. The target compounds were determined by optimized ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode. The method limits of quantification (MLOQs) of the 14 analytes ranged from 0.002 to 1.5ngg(-1) and 0.001 to 2.3ngg(-1) (wet weight, w.w.) for blood plasma and fish homogenate, respectively. The total recoveries of the target compounds varied from 61% to 100% (mean 77±9%). Eleven targets including monobutyl- (C4), dibutyl- (C4C4), monooctyl- (C8), monobutyl monooctyl- (C4C8), dioctyl-(C8C8), monononyl- (C9), dinonly-(C9C9) and 4,4'-bis(α,α-dimethylbenzyl)-(diAMS) DPAs, as well as 2-(2H-Benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)phenol (UV234), 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-(5-chloro-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl) phenol (UV327) and 2-(2H-Benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-di-tert-pentylphenol (UV328) were identified in the environmental biota samples, with concentrations in the range of pike (Esox lucius) plasma and white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) homogenate, respectively. This is the first report of an analytical method development for SDPAs in biotic matrices and BZT-UVs in blood plasma samples.

  18. Determination of moderately polar arsenolipids and mercury speciation in freshwater fish of the River Elbe (Saxony, Germany).

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Abad, Uriel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Mothes, Sibylle; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Piechotta, Christian; Mattusch, Jürgen; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic and mercury are frequent contaminants in the environment and care must be taken to limit their entrance into the food chain. The toxicity of both elements strongly depends upon their speciation. Total amounts of As and Hg as well as their species were analyzed in muscle and liver of 26 fishes of seven freshwater fish species caught in the River Elbe. The median concentrations of As were 162 μg kg(-1) w.w. in liver and 92 μg kg(-1) w.w. in muscle. The median concentrations of total Hg were 241 μg kg(-1) w.w. in liver and 256 μg kg(-1) w.w. in muscle. While this level of Hg contamination of the freshwater fish in the River Elbe is significantly lower than 20 years ago, it exceeds the recommended environmental quality standard of 20 μg Hg kg(-1) w.w. by a factor of 5-50. However, the European maximum level of 500 μg Hg kg(-1) for fish for human consumption is rarely exceeded. Arsenic-containing fatty acids and hydrocarbons were determined and partially identified in methanolic extracts of the fish by HPLC coupled in parallel to ICP-MS (element specific detection) and ESI-Q-TOF-MS (molecular structure detection). While arsenobetaine was the dominant As species in the fish, six arsenolipids were detected and identified in the extracts of liver tissue in common bream (Abramis brama), ide (Leuciscus idus), asp (Aspius aspius) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Four arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFA) and two arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHC) are reported in freshwater fish for the first time. With respect to mercury the more toxic MeHg(+) was the major species in muscle tissue (>90% of total Hg) while in liver Hg(2+) and MeHg(+) were of equal importance. The results show the high relevance of element speciation in addition to the determination of total element concentrations to correctly assess the burden of these two elements in fish.

  19. Determination of moderately polar arsenolipids and mercury speciation in freshwater fish of the River Elbe (Saxony, Germany).

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Abad, Uriel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Mothes, Sibylle; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Piechotta, Christian; Mattusch, Jürgen; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic and mercury are frequent contaminants in the environment and care must be taken to limit their entrance into the food chain. The toxicity of both elements strongly depends upon their speciation. Total amounts of As and Hg as well as their species were analyzed in muscle and liver of 26 fishes of seven freshwater fish species caught in the River Elbe. The median concentrations of As were 162 μg kg(-1) w.w. in liver and 92 μg kg(-1) w.w. in muscle. The median concentrations of total Hg were 241 μg kg(-1) w.w. in liver and 256 μg kg(-1) w.w. in muscle. While this level of Hg contamination of the freshwater fish in the River Elbe is significantly lower than 20 years ago, it exceeds the recommended environmental quality standard of 20 μg Hg kg(-1) w.w. by a factor of 5-50. However, the European maximum level of 500 μg Hg kg(-1) for fish for human consumption is rarely exceeded. Arsenic-containing fatty acids and hydrocarbons were determined and partially identified in methanolic extracts of the fish by HPLC coupled in parallel to ICP-MS (element specific detection) and ESI-Q-TOF-MS (molecular structure detection). While arsenobetaine was the dominant As species in the fish, six arsenolipids were detected and identified in the extracts of liver tissue in common bream (Abramis brama), ide (Leuciscus idus), asp (Aspius aspius) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Four arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFA) and two arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHC) are reported in freshwater fish for the first time. With respect to mercury the more toxic MeHg(+) was the major species in muscle tissue (>90% of total Hg) while in liver Hg(2+) and MeHg(+) were of equal importance. The results show the high relevance of element speciation in addition to the determination of total element concentrations to correctly assess the burden of these two elements in fish. PMID:26552521

  20. Predation by Northern Pikeminnow and tiger muskellunge on juvenile salmonids in a high–head reservoir: Implications for anadromous fish reintroductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorel, Mark H.; Hansen, Adam G.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Wilson, Andrew C.; Lowery, Erin D.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of reintroducing anadromous salmonids into reservoirs above high-head dams is affected by the suitability of the reservoir habitat for rearing and the interactions of the resident fish with introduced fish. We evaluated the predation risk to anadromous salmonids considered for reintroduction in Merwin Reservoir on the North Fork Lewis River in Washington State for two reservoir use-scenarios: year-round rearing and smolt migration. We characterized the role of the primary predators, Northern Pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis and tiger muskellunge (Northern Pike Esox lucius × Muskellunge E. masquinongy), by using stable isotopes and stomach content analysis, quantified seasonal, per capita predation using bioenergetics modeling, and evaluated the size and age structures of the populations. We then combined these inputs to estimate predation rates of size-structured population units. Northern Pikeminnow of FL ≥ 300 mm were highly cannibalistic and exhibited modest, seasonal, per capita predation on salmonids, but they were disproportionately much less abundant than smaller, less piscivorous, conspecifics. The annual predation on kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka (in biomass) by a size-structured unit of 1,000 Northern Pikeminnow having a FL ≥ 300 mm was analogous to 16,000–40,000 age-0 spring Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha rearing year-round, or 400–1,000 age-1 smolts migrating April–June. The per capita consumption of salmonids by Northern Pikeminnow having a FL ≥ 200 mm was relatively low, due in large part to spatial segregation during the summer and the skewed size distribution of the predator population. Tiger muskellunge fed heavily on Northern Pikeminnow, other nonsalmonids, and minimally on salmonids. In addition to cannibalism within the Northern Pikeminnow population, predation by tiger muskellunge likely contributed to the low recruitment of larger (more piscivorous) Northern Pikeminnow, thereby decreasing the risk of predation to

  1. Environmental contaminants in fish and their associated risk to piscivorous wildlife in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Echols, K.R.; May, T.W.; Orazio, C.E.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants were measured in northern pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) from 10 sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) during 2002. Contaminant concentrations were compared to historical YRB data and to toxicity thresholds for fish and piscivorous wildlife from the scientific literature. A risk analysis was conducted to screen for potential hazards to piscivorous wildlife for contaminants that exceeded literature-based toxicity thresholds. Concentrations of total DDT (sum of p,p???-homologs; 1.09-13.6 ng/g), total chlordane (0.67-7.5 ng/g), dieldrin (<0.16-0.6 ng/g), toxaphene (<11-34 ng/g), total PCBs (<20-87 ng/g), TCDD-EQ (???1.7 pg/g), arsenic (0.03-1.95 ??g/g), cadmium (<0.02-0.12 ??g/g), copper (0.41-1.49 ??g/g), and lead (<0.21-0.27 ??g/g) did not exceed toxicity thresholds for growth and reproduction in YRB fish. Concentrations of mercury (0.08-0.65 ??g/g), selenium (0.23-0.85 ??g/g), and zinc (11-56 ??g/g) exceeded toxicity thresholds in one or more samples and were included in the risk analysis for piscivorous wildlife. No effect hazard concentrations (NEHCs) and low effect hazard concentrations (LEHCs), derived from literature-based toxicity reference values and avian and mammalian life history parameters, were calculated for mercury, selenium, and zinc. Mercury concentrations in YRB fish exceeded the NEHCs for all bird and small mammal models, which indicated that mercury concentrations in fish may represent a risk to piscivorous wildlife throughout the YRB. Low risk to piscivorous wildlife was associated with selenium and zinc concentrations in YRB fish. Selenium and zinc concentrations exceeded the NEHCs and LEHCs for only the small bird model. These results indicate that mercury should continue to be monitored and assessed in Alaskan fish and wildlife. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  2. Assessment of the sensitivity of three North American fish species to disruptors of steroidogenesis using in vitro tissue explants.

    PubMed

    Beitel, Shawn C; Doering, Jon A; Patterson, Sarah E; Hecker, Markus

    2014-07-01

    There is concern regarding exposure of aquatic organisms to chemicals that interfere with the endocrine system. One critical mechanism of endocrine disruption is impairment of steroidogenesis that can lead to altered hormone levels, altered or delayed sexual development, and ultimately reproductive failure. With the current large gap in knowledge and a high degree of uncertainty regarding the sensitivity of fishes native to northern ecosystems to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the aim of this study was to develop an in vitro gonadal explant assay enabling the assessment of EDCs on sex-steroid production in wild fish species native to North America. Northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Sander vitreus), and white sucker (Catostomus commeroni) were sampled from a reference location in Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan, Canada, at spawn and multiple post-spawn time points. Gonads were excised and immediately exposed for 24h to a model inducer (forskolin) or inhibitor (prochloraz) of steroidogenesis in L-15 supplemented media. Furthermore, seasonal profiles of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17-β estradiol (E2) concentrations were characterized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to quantify hormone concentrations in plasma and media. The seasonal profile of plasma hormones was significantly correlated with basal in vitro hormone production. Gonad tissue exposed to forskolin showed a concentration-dependent increase in E2 and a general increase in 11-KT. Gonad tissue exposed to prochloraz resulted in a decrease of concentrations of 11-KT and E2. These results illustrated that gonadal tissue is undergoing steroidogenesis in an in vitro setting that is comparable to in vivo hormone profiles, and which is responsive to chemical exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. The seasonal time point during which gonad explants were excised and exposed had an impact on the potency and magnitude of responses, resulting in a seasonal effect on sensitivity

  3. Assessment of the sensitivity of three North American fish species to disruptors of steroidogenesis using in vitro tissue explants.

    PubMed

    Beitel, Shawn C; Doering, Jon A; Patterson, Sarah E; Hecker, Markus

    2014-07-01

    There is concern regarding exposure of aquatic organisms to chemicals that interfere with the endocrine system. One critical mechanism of endocrine disruption is impairment of steroidogenesis that can lead to altered hormone levels, altered or delayed sexual development, and ultimately reproductive failure. With the current large gap in knowledge and a high degree of uncertainty regarding the sensitivity of fishes native to northern ecosystems to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the aim of this study was to develop an in vitro gonadal explant assay enabling the assessment of EDCs on sex-steroid production in wild fish species native to North America. Northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Sander vitreus), and white sucker (Catostomus commeroni) were sampled from a reference location in Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan, Canada, at spawn and multiple post-spawn time points. Gonads were excised and immediately exposed for 24h to a model inducer (forskolin) or inhibitor (prochloraz) of steroidogenesis in L-15 supplemented media. Furthermore, seasonal profiles of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17-β estradiol (E2) concentrations were characterized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to quantify hormone concentrations in plasma and media. The seasonal profile of plasma hormones was significantly correlated with basal in vitro hormone production. Gonad tissue exposed to forskolin showed a concentration-dependent increase in E2 and a general increase in 11-KT. Gonad tissue exposed to prochloraz resulted in a decrease of concentrations of 11-KT and E2. These results illustrated that gonadal tissue is undergoing steroidogenesis in an in vitro setting that is comparable to in vivo hormone profiles, and which is responsive to chemical exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. The seasonal time point during which gonad explants were excised and exposed had an impact on the potency and magnitude of responses, resulting in a seasonal effect on sensitivity

  4. Simultaneous determination of substituted diphenylamine antioxidants and benzotriazole ultra violet stabilizers in blood plasma and fish homogenates by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhe; Peart, Thomas E; Cook, Cyril J; De Silva, Amila O

    2016-08-26

    Analytical methods were developed for the determination of eight substituted diphenylamines (SDPAs) and six benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BZT-UVs) in blood plasma and fish homogenate matrices. Liquid-liquid extraction by methyl tert-butyl ether and denaturation by KOH following silica gel packed column clean-up was employed for blood plasma preparation. For the fish homogenate samples, ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction combined with automated gel permeation chromatography and silica gel packed column clean-up was used. The target compounds were determined by optimized ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode. The method limits of quantification (MLOQs) of the 14 analytes ranged from 0.002 to 1.5ngg(-1) and 0.001 to 2.3ngg(-1) (wet weight, w.w.) for blood plasma and fish homogenate, respectively. The total recoveries of the target compounds varied from 61% to 100% (mean 77±9%). Eleven targets including monobutyl- (C4), dibutyl- (C4C4), monooctyl- (C8), monobutyl monooctyl- (C4C8), dioctyl-(C8C8), monononyl- (C9), dinonly-(C9C9) and 4,4'-bis(α,α-dimethylbenzyl)-(diAMS) DPAs, as well as 2-(2H-Benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)phenol (UV234), 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-(5-chloro-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl) phenol (UV327) and 2-(2H-Benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-di-tert-pentylphenol (UV328) were identified in the environmental biota samples, with concentrations in the range of pike (Esox lucius) plasma and white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) homogenate, respectively. This is the first report of an analytical method development for SDPAs in biotic matrices and BZT-UVs in blood plasma samples. PMID:27425756

  5. Summary and interpretation of dye-tracer tests to investigate the hydraulic connection of fractures at a ridge-and-valley-wall site near Fishtrap Lake, Pike County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    Dye-tracer tests were done during 1985-92 to investigate the hydraulic connection between fractures in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata at a ridge-and-valley-wall site near Fishtrap Lake, Pike County, Ky. Fluorescent dye was injected into a core hole penetrating near-surface and mining- induced fractures near the crest of the ridge. The rate and direction of migration of dye in the subsurface were determined by measuring the relative concentration of dye in water samples collected from piezometers completed in conductive fracture zones and fractured coal beds at various stratigraphic horizons within the ridge. Dye-concentration data and water-level measurements for each piezometer were plotted as curves on dye- recovery hydrographs. The dye-recovery hydrographs were used to evaluate trends in the fluctuation of dye concentrations and hydraulic heads in order to identify geologic and hydrologic factors affecting the subsurface transport of dye. The principal factors affecting the transport of dye in the subsurface hydrologic system were determined to be (1) the distribution, interconnection, and hydraulic properties of fractures; (2) hydraulic-head conditions in the near-fracture zone at the time of dye injection; and (3) subsequent short- and long-term fluctuations in recharge to the hydrologic system. In most of the dye-tracer tests, dye-recovery hydrographs are characterized by complex, multipeaked dye-concentration curves that are indicative of a splitting of dye flow as ground water moved through fractures. Intermittent dye pulses (distinct upward spikes in dye concentration) mark the arrivals of dye-labeled water to piezometers by way of discrete fracture-controlled flow paths that vary in length, complexity, and hydraulic conductivity. Dye injections made during relatively high- or increasing-head conditions resulted in rapid transport of dye (within several days or weeks) from near-surface fractures to piezometers. Injections made during relatively low- or

  6. Impact of Wildfire on Levels of Mercury in Forested Watershed Systems - Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Cannon, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury to remote lakes in mid-continental and eastern North America has increased approximately threefold since the mid-1800s (Swain and others, 1992; Fitzgerald and others, 1998; Engstrom and others, 2007). As a result, concerns for human and wildlife health related to mercury contamination have become widespread. Despite an apparent recent decline in atmospheric deposition of mercury in many areas of the Upper Midwest (Engstrom and Swain, 1997; Engstrom and others, 2007), lakes in which fish contain levels of mercury deemed unacceptable for human consumption and possibly unacceptable for fish-consuming wildlife are being detected with increasing frequency. In northern Minnesota, Voyageurs National Park (VNP) (fig. 1) protects a series of southern boreal lakes and wetlands situated on bedrock of the Precambrian Canadian Shield. Mercury contamination has become a significant resource issue within VNP as high concentrations of mercury in loons, bald eagle eaglets, grebes, northern pike, and other species of wildlife and fish have been found. The two most mercury-contaminated lakes in Minnesota, measured as methylmercury in northern pike (Esox lucius), are in VNP. Recent multidisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research demonstrated that the bulk of the mercury in lake waters, soils, and fish in VNP results from atmospheric deposition (Wiener and others, 2006). The study by Wiener and others (2006) showed that the spatial distribution of mercury in watershed soils, lake waters, and age-1 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) within the Park was highly variable. The majority of factors correlated for this earlier study suggested that mercury concentrations in lake waters and age-1 yellow perch reflected the influence of ecosystem processes that affected within-lake microbial production and abundance of methylmercury (Wiener and others, 2006), while the distribution of mercury in watershed soils seemed to be partially dependent on forest

  7. Pike National Historic Trail Study Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Bennet, Michael F. [D-CO

    2013-03-12

    07/31/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-93. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Pikes Peak Model for Training in Professional Geropsychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Bob G.; Karel, Michele J.; Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Qualls, Sara H.; Duffy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The aging of the population will increase demand for psychological services for older adults, which challenges the profession of psychology to provide those services. In response to that challenge, professional geropsychology has been developing over the past few decades to meet current and prepare for anticipated future demand. The development of…

  9. Modification by UV radiation of the surface of thin films based on collagen extracted from fish scales.

    PubMed

    Sionkowska, Alina; Kozłowska, Justyna; Lazare, Sylvain

    2014-06-01

    Collagen was extracted from fish scales (Esox lucius) through demineralization process. Thin films by solvent evaporation from collagen extracted from fish scales were prepared. The surface of thin films made of fish scales collagen was modified by ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation with the wavelength λ = 254 nm. The amino acid composition of the Esox lucius scale collagen was analyzed before and after UV-irradiation by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography. The surface properties of films were investigated using the technique of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and by means of contact angle measurements allowing the calculation of surface free energy. Measurements of the contact angle for diiodomethane (D) and glycerol (G) on the surface of fish collagen films were made and surface free energy was calculated. The structure of collagen before and after UV-irradiation was studied using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. It was found that after UV-irradiation the amount of all amino acids present in collagen molecule decreased. It was found also that the contact angle and the surface free energy were altered by UV-irradiation of collagen film. AFM showed that the surface roughness of collagen films was also altered by UV-irradiation. UV-irradiation caused the decrease of surface roughness due to photochemical processes, which occurred in the top layer of collagen film. The formation of collagen fibrils after solvent evaporation was observed using AFM. The diameter of collagen fibrils was bigger for irradiated collagen film than the diameter of collagen fibrils before UV-irradiation.

  10. The Mirror Has Two Faces: Contradictory Reflections of Donkeys in Western Literature from Lucius to Balthazar

    PubMed Central

    Bough, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary I argue that cultural representations of donkeys arise from the contradictory philosophies that underpin western society. Donkeys have invariable been used symbolically in a negative way in early western literature which has affected our ongoing attitudes towards them: used as allegories for human nature, their own remains largely hidden. Tracing literary representations of donkeys reveals not only their conflicting origins but also how they developed over time. Understanding how these representations have affected our treatment of donkeys may lead to a better appreciation of the actual animals. Abstract How we represent animals both reflects our attitudes towards them and affects our treatment of them. The donkey has lived alongside humans, bearing their burdens since the time of their domestication over 10,000 years ago. Despite this, they have invariably enjoyed a low status in human cultures, received little appreciation and been treated harshly. We view some animals as being more worthy than others and represent them accordingly: donkeys have been ridiculed and derided. Literary representations of donkeys from the fables of Ancient Greece to contemporary iconic texts are explored to follow the donkey through the human imaginary. These representations derive from two main, conflicting sources, Greek literature and the Bible. Examining these cultural representations may lead towards a greater understanding of the way they affect the actual animal and lead to a greater understanding of that animal and, ultimately, to better treatment of them. PMID:26486214

  11. The invisible fish: hydrodynamic constraints for predator-prey interaction in fossil fish Saurichthys compared to recent actinopterygians.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Ilja; Pacholak, Steffen; Licht, Martin; Schneider, Jörg W; Brücker, Christoph; Brandt, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Recent pike-like predatory fishes attack prey animals by a quick strike out of rest or slow movement. This fast-start behaviour includes a preparatory, a propulsive and a final phase, and the latter is crucial for the success of the attack. To prevent prey from escape, predators tend to minimise the duration of the interaction and the disturbance caused to surrounding water in order to not be detected by the prey's lateral line sensory system. We compared the hydrodynamic properties of the earliest fossil representative of the pike-like morphotype, the Triassic actinopterygian Saurichthys, with several recent pike-like predators by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Rainbow trout has been used as a control example of a fish with a generalist body shape. Our results show that flow disturbance produced by Saurichthys was low and similar to that of the recent forms Belone and Lepisosteus, thus indicative of an effective ambush predator. Drag coefficients are low for all these fishes, but also for trout, which is a good swimmer over longer distances but generates considerable disturbance of flow. Second-highest flow disturbance values are calculated for Esox, which compensates the large disturbance with its extremely high acceleration performance (i.e. attacks at high speeds) and the derived teleostean protrusible mouth that allows prey catching from longer distances compared to the other fishes. We show CFD modelling to be a useful tool for palaeobiological reconstruction of fossil fishes, as it allows quantification of impacts of body morphology on a hypothesised lifestyle. PMID:26603471

  12. The invisible fish: hydrodynamic constraints for predator-prey interaction in fossil fish Saurichthys compared to recent actinopterygians

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Ilja; Pacholak, Steffen; Licht, Martin; Schneider, Jörg W.; Brücker, Christoph; Brandt, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent pike-like predatory fishes attack prey animals by a quick strike out of rest or slow movement. This fast-start behaviour includes a preparatory, a propulsive and a final phase, and the latter is crucial for the success of the attack. To prevent prey from escape, predators tend to minimise the duration of the interaction and the disturbance caused to surrounding water in order to not be detected by the prey's lateral line sensory system. We compared the hydrodynamic properties of the earliest fossil representative of the pike-like morphotype, the Triassic actinopterygian Saurichthys, with several recent pike-like predators by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Rainbow trout has been used as a control example of a fish with a generalist body shape. Our results show that flow disturbance produced by Saurichthys was low and similar to that of the recent forms Belone and Lepisosteus, thus indicative of an effective ambush predator. Drag coefficients are low for all these fishes, but also for trout, which is a good swimmer over longer distances but generates considerable disturbance of flow. Second-highest flow disturbance values are calculated for Esox, which compensates the large disturbance with its extremely high acceleration performance (i.e. attacks at high speeds) and the derived teleostean protrusible mouth that allows prey catching from longer distances compared to the other fishes. We show CFD modelling to be a useful tool for palaeobiological reconstruction of fossil fishes, as it allows quantification of impacts of body morphology on a hypothesised lifestyle. PMID:26603471

  13. Lateral variation in geochemistry, petrology, and palynology in the Elswick coal bed, Pike County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Eble, C.F.

    2007-01-01

    The Middle Pennsylvanian/Langsettian (Westphalian A) Elswick coal bed, correlative to the Upper Banner of Virginia, is a rare example of a mined high-sulfur (> 2%) coal in Eastern Kentucky, a region known for low-sulfur coals. To characterize lateral variation in the geochemistry, petrography, and palynology of the Elswick coal bed, three sites were sampled along a southeast-northwest transect within a single mine. At the southeastern site, the lower 101??cm of the 116-cm thick coal is dull, generally dominated by durain and dull clarain. While all benches at this site fit within the previously-defined "mixed palynoflora - moderate/low vitrinite group," suggesting a stressed environment of deposition, the palynology of the benches of the dull interval show greater diversity than might be expected just from the petrology. Lithology is generally similar between the sites, but each site has some differences in the petrology. Overall, the coal bed shows significant lateral variation in properties at the mine scale, some of which can be attributed to the gain or loss of upper and lower lithologies, either through an actual physical merging or through the change in character of lithotypes. Sulfur content varies between the three sites examined for this study. Site 3, located in the northwestern portion of the study area is characterized by a strikingly high sulfur zone (7.45%) in the middle of the coal bed, a feature missing at the other sites. Pyrite and marcasite, in a mid-seam lithotype at the northwestern site (site 3), show signs of overgrowths, indicating multiple generations of sulfide emplacement. The high-sulfur site 3 lithologies all have massive overgrowths of euhedral and framboidal pyrite, fracture- and cleat-fill pyrite, and sulfide emplacement in fusinite lumens. Sulfur is high throughout the mine area, but variations are evident in the extent of secondary growth of sulfides. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. What Would a Socially Just Education System Look like?: Saving the Minnows from the Pike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reay, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This paper first draws on the political philosophy of R.H. Tawney to outline some universal principles for the provision of socially just education. It then moves onto a more pragmatic approach, analysing where the injustices lie in contemporary British education and outlining policies and practices that are socially just, not in an instrumental…

  15. Ground- and surface-water interactions involving an abandoned underground coal mine in Pike County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.; Sjogren, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Several highwall pits of an abandoned surface mine in the Springfield Coal Member (Pennsylvanian) are currently occupied by ponds with a total area of approximately 2.3 x 10{sup 4} m{sup 2}. These ponds are adjacent to an abandoned underground mine (Patoka Valley Coal and Coke Company No. 1 Mine) in the same coalbed. The mine underlies about 0.3 km{sup 2} and contains approximately 4 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of flooded voids. Monitoring of water levels in wells that are screened in the mine and of the levels of adjacent ponds reveal that average hourly levels vary in unison across a range of less than one meter. The mean potentiometric level of the mine-aquifer, the neighboring ponds, and an artesian spring that issues through the outcrop of the coalbed, are at elevations of about 163 m above sea level. Long-term monitoring and a field experiment that involved pumping of a pond indicated that the mine was connected to two of the ponds and served to recharge, rather than discharge, the ponds. The monitoring and field experiment also allowed determination of the mine aquifers barometric efficiency (0.3) and its storativity (2 x 10{sup -3}) . A water-balance calculation indicates that the average recharge rate of the mine is about 0.1 mm/day.

  16. Successful conversion of the Pikes Peak viscous-oil cyclic steam project to steamdrive

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.A.; Stevens, L.G.; Watt, B.J. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes conversion from steam stimulation to steamdrive in a high-viscosity oil reservoir. Field testing of operating strategies helped to develop conversion and operating criteria. The successful steamdrive performance was attributed to reservoir preheating and injector/producer interwell communication that were established during cyclic operations. Steam drag and gravity drainage are the main recovery mechanisms.

  17. Factors Affecting Antioxidant Response in Fish from a Long-term Mercury-Contaminated Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Sevcikova, M; Modra, H; Blahova, J; Dobsikova, R; Kalina, J; Zitka, O; Kizek, R; Svobodova, Z

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate antioxidant defence and oxidative damage in organs (liver, gills, kidney, and brain) of five fish species (Aspius aspius, Esox lucius, Sander lucioperca, Abramis brama, Rutilus rutilus) from the long-term mercury-contaminated Skalka Reservoir in the Czech Republic. Special emphasis was placed on a comprehensive assessment of the factors that may affect the antioxidant response to mercury in fish. Antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase) did not significantly respond to mercury contamination. Levels of the analysed enzymes and oxidative damage to lipids were predominantly determined by a separate organ factor or species factor, or by the combination of both (p < 0.001). Levels of total glutathione and the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio were influenced by mercury contamination in combination with their specific organ distribution (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that species and type of organ alone or in combination are more important factors than chronic exposure to mercury contamination with respect to effects on antioxidant defence in fish under field conditions. Our findings suggest that the main antioxidant defensive mechanism in fish from the studied long-term mercury contaminated site was the inter-tissue distribution of glutathione.

  18. Factors Affecting Antioxidant Response in Fish from a Long-term Mercury-Contaminated Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Sevcikova, M; Modra, H; Blahova, J; Dobsikova, R; Kalina, J; Zitka, O; Kizek, R; Svobodova, Z

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate antioxidant defence and oxidative damage in organs (liver, gills, kidney, and brain) of five fish species (Aspius aspius, Esox lucius, Sander lucioperca, Abramis brama, Rutilus rutilus) from the long-term mercury-contaminated Skalka Reservoir in the Czech Republic. Special emphasis was placed on a comprehensive assessment of the factors that may affect the antioxidant response to mercury in fish. Antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase) did not significantly respond to mercury contamination. Levels of the analysed enzymes and oxidative damage to lipids were predominantly determined by a separate organ factor or species factor, or by the combination of both (p < 0.001). Levels of total glutathione and the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio were influenced by mercury contamination in combination with their specific organ distribution (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that species and type of organ alone or in combination are more important factors than chronic exposure to mercury contamination with respect to effects on antioxidant defence in fish under field conditions. Our findings suggest that the main antioxidant defensive mechanism in fish from the studied long-term mercury contaminated site was the inter-tissue distribution of glutathione. PMID:26276034

  19. Skeletal elements within teleost eyes and a discussion of their homology.

    PubMed

    Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Hall, Brian K

    2006-11-01

    Scleral ossicles and scleral cartilages form part of the craniofacial skeleton of many vertebrates. Some vertebrates, including all birds and most reptiles, but excluding most mammals, have scleral cartilages as well as scleral ossicles supporting their eyes. The teleost equivalent of these elements has received little attention in the literature. From radiographic and whole-mount analyses of over 400 individuals from 376 teleost species, we conclude that the teleost scleral skeletal elements (ossicles and cartilage) differ significantly from those of reptiles (including birds). Scleral ossicles in teleosts have different developmental origins, different positions within the eyeball, and different relationships with the scleral cartilaginous element than those in reptiles. From whole-mount staining of a growth series of four species of teleost (Danio rerio, Salmo salar, Esox lucius, and Alosa pseudoharengus), we interpret the development of these elements and show that they arise from within an Alcian blue-staining cartilaginous ring that develops around the eye earlier in development. We present possible scenarios on the evolution of these scleral skeletal elements from a common gnathostome ancestor, and consider that teleost scleral skeletal elements may not be homologous to those in reptiles. Our study indicates that homology cannot be assumed for these elements, despite the fact that they share the same name, scleral ossicles. PMID:17051547

  20. 78 FR 29318 - Pike and San Isabel National Forests and Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands, Colorado and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ..., Colorado and Kansas, Oil and Gas Leasing Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA...-lease oil and gas ] development that is reasonably foreseeable as a consequence of conducting a leasing... available for oil and gas leasing; what stipulations need to be attached to oil and gas leasing for...

  1. Geophysical investigations of near-surface materials and groundwater quality at abandoned mine land site No. 1087, Pike County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Spindler, K.M.; Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1998-12-31

    Reclamation of Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Site No. 1087 (Midwestern) includes extensive use of coal-combustion byproducts such as fly ash and fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) as fill and cover materials. Prior to reclamation, a deposit of coarse-grained pyritic refuse in the central part of the site was the primary source for acidic mine drainage. The FSS tends to have a low permeability, so it was applied over the refuse to serve as a barrier to vertical recharge and thereby inhibit generation and mobilization of additional acidity. Repeated post-reclamation measurements of soil-water content using a neutron moisture gauge provide evidence that vertical recharge is, in fact, not occurring through the FSS. However, a previously existing plume of acidic water extends beyond the area of the refuse into adjacent areas of disturbed overburden (spoil). Electrical resistivity profiles using the offset Wenner method were used to delineate the horizontal extent of the refuse and to quantify spatial variability of groundwater chemistry within the refuse and adjacent spoil. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to precisely determine the thickness and extent of the FSS layer and its relation to the refuse and to the surrounding plume of acidic water. Together, these techniques provide a complete three-dimensional representation of the FSS, refuse, spoil, and plume of acidic groundwater.

  2. Utilization of surface-coal-mine waste water for construction of a northern pike spawning/rearing marsh

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, R.W.; Elser, A.A.; Lenhart, T.

    1984-04-01

    As the limited water resources of the western United States are developed for agricultural and industrial uses, there is an ever-increasing need to utilize waste water to its fullest potential. This report describes one example where waste water from an energy development site (coal mine operation) was used to enhance the fisheries of an adjacent reservoir. The details of this report provide an example of what considerations may be necessary for similar projects; illustrate potential problem areas in the planning, construction and operation of such a project; and stimulate ideas for developing other innovative uses of waste water for fish and wildlife habitat enhancement.

  3. Estimates of long-term suspended-sediment loads in Bay Creek at Nebo, Pike County, Illinois, 1940-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lazaro, Timothy R.; Fitzgerald, Kathleen K.; Frost, Leonard R.

    1984-01-01

    Five years of daily suspended-sediment discharges (1968, 1969, 1975, 1976, and 1980) for Bay Creek at Nebo, Illinois, computed from once- or twice-weekly samples (more often during storm events), were used to develop transport equations that can be used to estimate long-term suspended-sediment discharges from long-term water-discharge records. Discharge was divided into three groups based on changes in slope on a graph of logarithms of water discharge versus suspended-sediment discharge. Two subgroups were formed within each of the three groups by determining whether the flow was steady or increasing, or was decreasing. Seasonality was accounted for by introducing day of the year in sine and cosine functions. The suspended-sediment load estimated from the equations for the 5 years was 77.3 percent of that computed from daily sediment- and water-discharge records for those years. The mean annual suspended-sediment load for 41 years of estimated loads was 359 ,500 tons, which represents a yield of about 3.5 tons per acre from the Bay Creek drainage basin. (USGS)

  4. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species in Fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France.

    PubMed

    Certad, Gabriela; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Gantois, Nausicaa; Hammouma-Ghelboun, Ourida; Pottier, Muriel; Guyot, Karine; Benamrouz, Sadia; Osman, Marwan; Delaire, Baptiste; Creusy, Colette; Viscogliosi, Eric; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Aliouat-Denis, Cecile Marie; Follet, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in a wide range of vertebrates including humans, is increasingly recognized as a parasite of a diverse range of wildlife species. However, little data are available regarding the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in wild aquatic environments, and more particularly in edible freshwater fish. To evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. in fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France, 41 entire fish and 100 fillets (cuts of fish flesh) were collected from fishery suppliers around the lake. Nested PCR using degenerate primers followed by sequence analysis was used. Five fish species were identified as potential hosts of Cryptosporidium: Salvelinus alpinus, Esox lucius, Coregonus lavaretus, Perca fluviatilis, and Rutilus rutilus. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was found in 15 out of 41 fish (37%), distributed as follows: 13 (87%) C. parvum, 1 (7%) C. molnari, and 1 (7%) mixed infection (C. parvum and C. molnari). C. molnari was identified in the stomach, while C. parvum was found in the stomach and intestine. C. molnari was also detected in 1 out of 100 analyzed fillets. In order to identify Cryptosporidium subtypes, sequencing of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) was performed. Among the C. parvum positive samples, three gp60 subtypes were identified: IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, and IIaA17G2R1. Histological examination confirmed the presence of potential developmental stages of C. parvum within digestive epithelial cells. These observations suggest that C. parvum is infecting fish, rather than being passively carried. Since C. parvum is a zoonotic species, fish potentially contaminated by the same subtypes found in terrestrial mammals would be an additional source of infection for humans and animals, and may also contribute to the contamination of the environment with this parasite. Moreover, the risk of human transmission is strengthened by the

  5. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species in Fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France

    PubMed Central

    Certad, Gabriela; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Gantois, Nausicaa; Hammouma-Ghelboun, Ourida; Pottier, Muriel; Guyot, Karine; Benamrouz, Sadia; Osman, Marwan; Delaire, Baptiste; Creusy, Colette; Viscogliosi, Eric; Aliouat-Denis, Cecile Marie; Follet, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in a wide range of vertebrates including humans, is increasingly recognized as a parasite of a diverse range of wildlife species. However, little data are available regarding the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in wild aquatic environments, and more particularly in edible freshwater fish. To evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. in fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France, 41 entire fish and 100 fillets (cuts of fish flesh) were collected from fishery suppliers around the lake. Nested PCR using degenerate primers followed by sequence analysis was used. Five fish species were identified as potential hosts of Cryptosporidium: Salvelinus alpinus, Esox lucius, Coregonus lavaretus, Perca fluviatilis, and Rutilus rutilus. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was found in 15 out of 41 fish (37%), distributed as follows: 13 (87%) C. parvum, 1 (7%) C. molnari, and 1 (7%) mixed infection (C. parvum and C. molnari). C. molnari was identified in the stomach, while C. parvum was found in the stomach and intestine. C. molnari was also detected in 1 out of 100 analyzed fillets. In order to identify Cryptosporidium subtypes, sequencing of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) was performed. Among the C. parvum positive samples, three gp60 subtypes were identified: IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, and IIaA17G2R1. Histological examination confirmed the presence of potential developmental stages of C. parvum within digestive epithelial cells. These observations suggest that C. parvum is infecting fish, rather than being passively carried. Since C. parvum is a zoonotic species, fish potentially contaminated by the same subtypes found in terrestrial mammals would be an additional source of infection for humans and animals, and may also contribute to the contamination of the environment with this parasite. Moreover, the risk of human transmission is strengthened by the

  6. Fish Manoeuvres and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kiran; Pedley, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    The extraordinary manoeuvrability observed in many fish is attributed to their inherent flexibility, which might be enhanced by the use of appendages like fins. The aim of this work is to understand the role of morphological adaptations, such as body shape and deployment of median fins, on manoeuvrability and internal body dynamics. The 3d vortex lattice numerical method was employed to analyse the hydrodynamics for arbitrary body planforms of infinitesimal thickness. The internal structure of the body due to the combined skeletal system and soft tissue, is represented as an active Euler-Bernoulli beam, in which the time-dependent bending moment distribution is calculated from body inertia and the hydrodynamic pressure difference across the body. C-turns are the manoeuvre of choice for this work and the response for three different species of fish are examined. Angelfish(Pterophyllum eimekei), pike (Esox sp) and tuna (Thunnus albacares) were chosen for their differences in body profile, median fin use and manoeuvrability. Net direction change and bending moment response to prescribed backbone flexure are calculated and used to interpret the influence of body profile on manoeuvrability and muscle work done. Internal stresses may be computed from anatomical data on muscle fibre distribution and recruitment. To the future, it is intended to extend this work to other typical manoeuvres, such as fast starts for which muscle activation patterns have been measured quite widely.

  7. 10 CFR 2.305 - Service of documents, methods, proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852, Attention: Rulemakings and..., Enforcement & Administration, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville MD 20852-0001; by...

  8. 10 CFR 2.305 - Service of documents, methods, proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852, Attention: Rulemakings and..., Enforcement & Administration, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville MD 20852-0001; by...

  9. 21 CFR 1271.22 - How and where do I register and submit an HCT/P list?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (HFM-775), Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852-1448, Attention... Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852-1448, Attention: Tissue Establishment...

  10. A reconnaissance spatial and temporal assessment of methane and inorganic constituents in groundwater in bedrock aquifers, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    The June 2013 samples were also analyzed for radium-226 and age-dating dissolved gases. Activities of radium-226 ranged from 0.041 to 0.29 pCi/L in water samples from the six wells and were less than the drinking-water standard of 5 pCi/L for combined radium-226 and radium-228. Age-dating of groundwater using a method based on the presence of anthropogenic gases (chlorofluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride) released into the atmosphere yielded estimated recharge dates for water from these six wells that ranged from the 1940s to early 2000s. The oldest water was in samples from wells that had the highest methane concentrations and the youngest water was in samples from a continuously pumped 300-foot deep production well.

  11. Pre-test geological and geochemical evaluation of the Caprock, St. Peter Sandstone and formation fluids, Yakley Field, Pike County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    The goal of these studies is to ensure long-term stable containment of air in the underground reservoirs used in conjunction with compressed air energy storage (CAES) plants. The specific objective is to develop stability criteria and engineering guidelines for designing CAES reservoirs in each of the three major reservoir types, including aquifers, salt cavities, and mined hard rock caverns. This document characterizes the geologic nature of porous media constituents native to the aquifer field test site near Pittsfield, Illinois. The geologic samples were subjected to geochemical evaluations to determine anticipated responses to cyclic air injection, heating and moisture - conditions typical of an operating CAES reservoir. This report documents the procedures used and results obtained from these analyses.

  12. A reconnaissance spatial and temporal assessment of methane and inorganic constituents in groundwater in bedrock aquifers, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Analytical results for 4 of the 20 wells sampled monthly for 1 year ending June 2013 in order to assess temporal variability in groundwater quality show that concentrations of major ions generally varied by less than 20 percent, with most differences less than 4 mg/L. Concentrations of methane varied by less than 1 μg/L (0.001 mg/L) in samples from three wells with low methane and by as muc

  13. Social learning in a high-risk environment: incomplete disregard for the 'minnow that cried pike' results in culturally transmitted neophobia.

    PubMed

    Crane, Adam L; Mathiron, Anthony G E; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2015-08-01

    Many prey species rely on conspecifics to gather information about unknown predation threats, but little is known about the role of varying environmental conditions on the efficacy of social learning. We examined predator-naive minnows that had the opportunity to learn about predators from experienced models that were raised in either a low- or high-risk environment. There were striking differences in behaviour among models; high-risk models showed a weaker response to the predator cue and became neophobic in response to the control cue (a novel odour, NO). Observers that were previously paired with low-risk models acquired a strong antipredator response only to the predator cue. However, observers that interacted with high-risk models, displayed a much weaker response to the predator odour and a weak neophobic response to the NO. This is the first study reporting such different outcomes of social learning under different environmental conditions, and suggests high-risk environments promote the cultural transmission of neophobia more so than social learning. If such a transfer can be considered similar to secondary traumatization in humans, culturally transmitted neophobia in minnows may provide a good model system for understanding more about the social ecology of fear disorders.

  14. 10 CFR 9.35 - Duplication fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 9.21 at the NRC Public Document Room (PDR), One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F23... at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. (1) Sizes up to...

  15. 10 CFR 9.35 - Duplication fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 9.21 at the NRC Public Document Room (PDR), One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F23... at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. (1) Sizes up to...

  16. Front elevation of highlift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front elevation of high-lift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called U.S. Route 29 or Columbia Pike) is in foreground. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  17. 40 CFR 81.304 - Arkansas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Johnson County Logan County Madison County Marion County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk... County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk County Scott County Searcy County Stone County... County Marion County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk County Scott County Searcy...

  18. 78 FR 7428 - Notice of Proposed Administrative Cashout Agreement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; In Re: The Miller Salvage Superfund Site, Latham, Pike County... Salvage Superfund Site (``Site'') in Latham, Pike County, Ohio. Subject to review and comment by the... should reference the Miller Salvage Superfund Site, Latham, Pike County, Ohio and EPA Docket No....

  19. A bill to authorize the Secretary of Agriculture to accept the quitclaim, disclaimer, and relinquishment of a railroad right-of-way within and adjacent to Pike National Forest in El Paso County, Colorado.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Bennet, Michael F. [D-CO

    2012-04-24

    04/24/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.4073, which became Public Law 112-250 on 1/10/2013. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Proterometra epholkos sp. n. (Digenea: Azygiidae) from Terrapin Creek, Alabama, USA: molecular characterization of life cycle, redescription of Proterometra albacauda, and updated lists of host and geographic locality records for Proterometra spp. in North America.

    PubMed

    Womble, Matthew R; Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-02-01

    localities and hosts concomitant with neotype designations. P. macrostoma seems a repository for conspicuous, furcocystocercous cercariae shed from freshwater prosobranchs in eastern North American rivers and streams. The specific epithet "pinguis" associated with specimens purportedly infecting Esox lucius and deposited by JF Mueller is a nomen nudum. Proterometra guangzhouensis, Proterometra sillagae, Proterometra brachyuran, and Proterometra lamellorchis are incertae sedis. Significant barriers to characterizing biodiversity and distributions (host range and geographic distribution) of Proterometra spp. comprise a paucity of data on adult morphology, dubious species-level identification or a lack of information regarding prosobranch hosts, lack of molecular data for putative comparisons among fluke 'strains' and species as well as between cercariae and adults, lack of consistency in terminology, and indeterminate homology for key morphological features. Uncertainty about the providence and identity of, or absence of, accessioned museum materials of P. macrostoma, Proterometra catenaria, and P. hodgesiana together represent another fundamental problem. The present study comprises the first description of a new species of Proterometra in nearly 20years, first report of a species of the genus from the Coosa River (Mobile-Tensaw River Basin) and from these host species, and first use of molecular sequence data to elucidate a life cycle for a species of Proterometra.

  1. 76 FR 66323 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ...., Fagatogo, 11000789 GEORGIA Crawford County Hawkins, Col. Benjamin, Gravesite, Benjamin Hawkins Rd., Roberta... Wilson Pike, Franklin, 88000299 Russwurm, John S., House, (Williamson County MRA) Spann Town Rd. \\1/...

  2. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 30, 1940. BRICKWORK DETAIL - NORTHWEST ELEVATION - Colonel William Whitley House, Stanford-Crab Orchard Pike, Stanford, Lincoln County, KY

  3. 78 FR 55749 - Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and personal information...; Council Business Matters. Place: National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, C...

  4. 76 FR 70483 - Gettysburg National Military Park Advisory Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    .... ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bob Kirby, Superintendent, Gettysburg National Military Park, 1195... Commission, 1195 Baltimore Pike, Suite 100, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 17325. Dated: November 1, 2011....

  5. 77 FR 16316 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00044

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ...: Jefferson, Switzerland. Kentucky: Bourbon, Clark, Fleming, Gallatin, Henry, Lewis, Nicholas, Owen, Pike... unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) Joseph P. Loddo,...

  6. 78 FR 34701 - Illinois Disaster Number IL-00041

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ...: Primary Counties: (Physical Damage and Economic Injury Loans): Brown, Calhoun, Clark, Douglas, Henry, Pike... 59002 and 59008) Joseph P. Loddo, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. BILLING CODE...

  7. 77 FR 52379 - Disaster Declaration #13239 and #13240; OHIO Disaster # H-00030

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Adams, Allen, Athens, Auglaize, Belmont, Champaign..., Perry, Pickaway, Pike, Putnam, Shelby, Van Wert, Washington. The Interest Rates are: Percent...

  8. 29 CFR 1410.3 - Individual access requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Floyd, Harrison, Crawford, Perry, Spencer, DuBois, Pike, Gibson, Posey, Vanderburgh, and Warrick); Ohio...; Nebraska; Kansas; Iowa; Missouri (the counties of Atchinson, Nodaway, Worth, Harrison, Mercer,...

  9. 78 FR 4424 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the competence of individual investigators, the... competence of individual investigators. Place: Hilton Washington/Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike,...

  10. 77 FR 29678 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Molecular Neurobiology, Section on Directed Gene Transfer, Section on Functional Neuroanatomy, and the Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Place: Hilton Washington/Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD...

  11. Electrogenic sulfur oxidation in a northern saltmarsh (St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada).

    PubMed

    Rao, Alexandra; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Neumeier, Urs

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of porewater O2, pH, and H2S microprofiles in intact sediment cores collected in a northern saltmarsh in the St. Lawrence Estuary (Quebec, Canada) revealed the occurrence of electrogenic sulfur oxidation (e-SOx) by filamentous "cable" bacteria in submerged marsh pond sediments in the high marsh. In summer, the geochemical fingerprint of e-SOx was apparent in intact cores, while in fall, cable bacteria were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and the characteristic geochemical signature of e-SOx was observed only upon prolonged incubation. In exposed, unvegetated creek bank sediments sampled in the low marsh in summer, cable bacteria developed only in repacked cores of sieved (500 μm), homogenized sediments. These results suggest that e-SOx is suppressed by the activity of macrofauna in exposed, unvegetated marsh sediments. A reduced abundance of benthic invertebrates may promote e-SOx development in marsh ponds, which are dominant features of subarctic saltmarshes as in the St. Lawrence Estuary. PMID:27104296

  12. Identity: A Complex Structure for Researching Students' Academic Behavior in Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Hodge, Lynn Liao

    2011-01-01

    This article is a response to Pike and Dunne's research. The focus of their analysis is on reflections of studying science post-16. Pike and Dunne draw attention to under enrollments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, in particular, in the field of physics, chemistry and biology in the United Kingdom. We provide an…

  13. 40 CFR 81.304 - Arkansas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... County Newton County Pike County Polk County Scott County Searcy County Stone County Van Buren County... Johnson County Logan County Madison County Marion County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County...

  14. 40 CFR 81.304 - Arkansas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... Johnson County Logan County Madison County Marion County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk... County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk County Scott County Searcy County Stone...

  15. 40 CFR 81.304 - Arkansas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Johnson County Logan County Madison County Marion County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk... County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk County Scott County Searcy County Stone County.... Montgomery County Unclassifiable/Attainment. Nevada County Unclassifiable/Attainment. Newton...

  16. Wither the Fruited Plain: The Long Expedition and the Description of the "Great American Desert"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Kevin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The view from Pikes Peak is breathtaking. In the summer of 1893, Katherine Lee Bates sat on the summit of Pikes Peak, inspired by the panorama to pen the words to "America the Beautiful." Her poem was set to the tune "Materna" by Samuel Augustus Ward two years later to become one of our nation's most beloved anthems. Many educated Americans in the…

  17. 78 FR 4469 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    .... The last biweekly notice was published on January 8, 2013 (78 FR 1267). ADDRESSES: You may access..., One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. B. Submitting Comments Please... the NRC's PDR, located at One White Flint North, Room O1-F21, 11555 Rockville Pike (first...

  18. 78 FR 15736 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...R6ES@fws.gov (email). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) prohibits..., subject to the requirements of the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a) and Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C... (Acipenser transmontanus), bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus Lucius),...

  19. Liquid-free CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in low-permeability reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Mazza, R.L.; Gehr, J.B.

    1995-06-01

    After 16 months of production, CO{sub 2}/sand fractured wells in the Pike County, Kentucky, study area produce 2.0 times more gas than nitrogen gas treated wells and produce 21.9 MMcf additional gas per well. After 16 months of production, CO{sub 2}/sand fractured wells in the Pike County, Kentucky, study area produce 4.4 times more gas than nitrogen foam treated wells and produce 33.1 MMcf additional gas per well. For the Pike County, Kentucky, study area, payout times for the incremental cost of stimulation is estimated conservatively at less than 9 months. Both groups of wells in the Pike County, Kentucky, study area show consistent relative Production improvements compared to the overall study area results.

  20. Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine To use the sharing features on ... MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

  1. American Society of Human Genetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Researchers Say October 20, 2016 Researchers Explore How Zika Infection Causes Microcephaly October 19, 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics, Incorporated 9650 Rockville Pike • Bethesda, Maryland 20814 ...

  2. 76 FR 61403 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... on the Fuel Cycle Oversight Program (Public Meeting). (Contact: Margie Kotzalas, 301-492-3550.) This..., 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. STATUS: Public and Closed. Week of October 3, 2011...

  3. 5. DETAIL OF MUD INFILL (MIXED WITH STRAW), LATHS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF MUD INFILL (MIXED WITH STRAW), LATHS AND STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS (CORNER POST, SILL AND STUD), SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EAST SIDE OF ORIGINAL SECTION. - Thomas Threlkeld House, Benson Pike, Shelbyville, Shelby County, KY

  4. 76 FR 16733 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Indian Head, 4072 N Jackson Road, Suite 101, Indian Head, MD. NSA-PHILADELPHIA, Building 27D, 700 Robbins Avenue, Philadelphia, PA. NSA--MECHANICSBURG, Building 112, 5450 Carlisle Pike, Mechanicsburg, PA....

  5. Genes Tied to Red Hair, Pale Skin Greatly Raise Melanoma Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of health and patient information at Cancer Research UK, said in the news release. "It also underlines ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 13 ...

  6. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey W. S. Stewart, Photographer Sept.14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey W. S. Stewart, Photographer Sept.14, 1936 SMOKE HOUSE (EAST ELEVATION) BELIEVED TO HAVE BEEN USED AS BLOCK HOUSE - Thomas Cooch House, 961 Old Baltimore Pike, Newark, New Castle County, DE

  7. About Maggie's Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmens, Carol E.

    1982-01-01

    Describes "Maggie's Place," the library computer system of the Pikes Peak Library District, Colorado Springs, Colorado, noting its use as an electronic card catalog and community information file, accessibility by home users and library users, and terminal considerations. (EJS)

  8. 77 FR 58203 - AER Energy Resources, Inc.; Alto Group Holdings, Inc.; Bizrocket.Com Inc.; Fox Petroleum, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... The Pike Productions Inc.; Mobile Star Corp.; SavWatt USA Inc.; Scorpex Inc.; Silver Dragon Resources... concerning the company's operations and the accuracy of its financial statements. 9. Mobile Star Corp. is...

  9. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 29, 1940. SUNDIAL With motto: 'Look to your laws rather than progenitors for inheritance.' - Samuel Taylor House, Chatham Pike, Harrodsburg, Mercer County, KY

  10. Genetics Home Reference: thanatophoric dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Miller-Dieker syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: GLUT1 deficiency syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  15. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Feb. 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Feb. 3, 1934 FIREPLACE AND PANELING (LIVING ROOM SOUTHEAST) - Colonel William Whitley House, Stanford-Crab Orchard Pike, Stanford, Lincoln County, KY

  16. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... intolerance) and can lead to an unusual walking style (gait), frequent falls, and joint deformities (contractures) in ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: tubular aggregate myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... weakness may also lead to an unusual walking style (gait). Some people with this condition develop joint ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  18. 77 FR 58900 - Mississippi Disaster #MS-00060

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... State of Mississippi (FEMA- 4081-DR), dated 09/11/2012. Incident: Hurricane Isaac. Incident Period: 08..., Jefferson, Jefferson Davis, Lamar, Lawrence, Lincoln, Marion, Newton, Pearl River, Perry, Pike, Smith,...

  19. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF KEIM FARMHOUSE (at left of photo; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF KEIM FARMHOUSE (at left of photo; the structure at right is the Keim Stone Cabin, HABS No. PA-1041). - Keim House, West of Lobachsville (Pike Township), Lobachsville, Berks County, PA

  20. 77 FR 54600 - Ohio; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... State of Ohio have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Adams, Allen, Athens..., Muskingum, Noble, Paulding, Perry, Pickaway, Pike, Putnam, Shelby, Van Wert, and Washington Counties...

  1. 77 FR 69638 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ...: The Holiday Inn Express, 1775 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: David H. Weinberg..., 301-435-6973, David.Weinberg@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos....

  2. 77 FR 69641 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Express, 1775 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: David H. Weinberg, Ph.D., Scientific..., David.Weinberg@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.864,...

  3. 6. West side, details of west truss web and floorbeam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West side, details of west truss web and floor-beam bracing by steel plates and steel rod; looking northeast - Bridge No. 92101, Spanning Pike River at County Highway 373, Embarrass, St. Louis County, MN

  4. 10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville...

  5. 10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville...

  6. 10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville...

  7. 77 FR 69662 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... collection on August 14, 2012 (77 FR 48555). 1. Type of submission, new, revision, or extension: Extension. 2..., Room O-1F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. The OMB...

  8. 10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville...

  9. 10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville...

  10. 78 FR 14561 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Express, 1775 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: David H. Weinberg, Ph.D., Scientific..., Contraception and Infertility Loan Repayment Program, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: FOXG1 syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: task-specific focal dystonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Parkes Weber syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Tourette syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: GM2-gangliosidosis, AB variant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: hypermanganesemia with dystonia, polycythemia, and cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Tay-Sachs disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: dystonia 6

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Friedreich ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset primary dystonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: progressive familial heart block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: GM1 gangliosidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  13. 75 FR 29588 - Notice of Availability of the Models for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ..., Revision 1, is available in the Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS) under Accession... Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. NRC's Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS... Control'' AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: As part...

  14. Haz-Map: Information on Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Occupational Diseases High Risk Jobs Non-Occupational Activities Industries Job Tasks Processes Symptoms/Findings Customer Service: tehip@teh.nlm.nih.gov Specialized Information Services U.S.National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

  15. 7. Underside of span, details of deck, stringers, floor beams, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Underside of span, details of deck, stringers, floor beams, bottom-lateral bracing, and north abutment; looking north - Bridge No. 92101, Spanning Pike River at County Highway 373, Embarrass, St. Louis County, MN

  16. View of the main stairway in the highlift pumping station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the main stairway in the high-lift pumping station, looking from the second floor landing to the ground floor. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  17. Interior of dam, showing one of the ten bays, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of dam, showing one of the ten bays, looking west through arched openings along the center of the dam. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  18. Detail of wall in highlift pumping station with Armstrong "Corkoustic" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of wall in high-lift pumping station with Armstrong "Corkoustic" cladding and glazed brick. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  19. View of former preliminary sedimentation basin, looking east from south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of former preliminary sedimentation basin, looking east from south side of low-lift pumping station. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  20. 18. Photocopy of photograph (original print in Chester County Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of photograph (original print in Chester County Historical Society, West Chester, Pennsylvania) Circa 1905, photographer unknown SOUTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE - Barnes-Brinton House, 630 Baltimore Pike (U.S. Route 1), Chadds Ford, Delaware County, PA

  1. 10. Ned Goode, Photographer April 1959 FIRST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Ned Goode, Photographer April 1959 FIRST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, NORTHEAST CORNER, SHOWING CLOSET WITH WINDOW AND SEAT - Barnes-Brinton House, 630 Baltimore Pike (U.S. Route 1), Chadds Ford, Delaware County, PA

  2. 12. Ned Goode, Photographer April 1959 SECOND FLOOR, WEST ROOM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Ned Goode, Photographer April 1959 SECOND FLOOR, WEST ROOM, SOUTHWEST CORNER, SHOWING CLOSET AND GRILLWORK - Barnes-Brinton House, 630 Baltimore Pike (U.S. Route 1), Chadds Ford, Delaware County, PA

  3. 21 CFR 1271.22 - How and where do I register and submit an HCT/P list?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Procedures for Registration and...: Tissue Establishment Registration Coordinator; (2) By contacting any Food and Drug Administration... Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852-1448, Attention: Tissue Establishment...

  4. 21 CFR 1271.22 - How and where do I register and submit an HCT/P list?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Procedures for Registration and...: Tissue Establishment Registration Coordinator; (2) By contacting any Food and Drug Administration... Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852-1448, Attention: Tissue Establishment...

  5. MedlinePlus: Wilms' Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: Multilocular Cystic Nephroma: A Systematic ... MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

  6. Keep Your Kidneys Clear: Kicking Kidney Stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF—450 kb) Hey, Parents: It’s a Noisy Planet Keep Your Kidneys Clear Keep Your Kidneys Clear ... Pike Bethesda, Maryland 20892 Department of Health and Human Services Office of Communications and Public Liaison

  7. 75 FR 39283 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Pike, Room O-1 F21, Rockville, MD 20852. OMB clearance requests are available at the NRC worldwide Web... the NRC home page site for 60 days after the signature date of this notice. Comments and...

  8. 15. Photocopy from Futhey and Cope's History of Chester County, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy from Futhey and Cope's History of Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1881, facing page 27 VIEW OF FARM - Joseph Jackson House, Old Baltimore Pike (London Grove Township), West Grove, Chester County, PA

  9. Interactions between predator- and diet-induced phenotypic changes in body shape of crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Jens; Johansson, Frank; Söderlund, Tony

    2006-02-22

    Predator cues and diet, when studied separately, have been shown to affect body shape of organisms. Previous studies show that the morphological responses to predator absence/presence and diet may be similar, and hence could confound the interpretation of the causes of morphological differences found between groups of individuals. In this study, we simultaneously examined the effect of these two factors on body shape and performance in crucian carp in a laboratory experiment. Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) developed a shallow body shape when feeding on zooplankton prey and a deep body shape when feeding on benthic chironomids. In addition, the presence of chemical cues from a pike predator affected body shape, where a shallow body shape was developed in the absence of pike and a deep body shape was developed in the presence of pike. Foraging activity was low in the presence of pike cues and when chironomids were given as prey. Our results thereby suggest that the change in body shape could be indirectly mediated through differences in foraging activity. Finally, the induced body shape changes affected the foraging efficiency, where crucians raised on a zooplankton diet or in the absence of pike cues had a higher foraging success on zooplankton compared to crucian raised on a chironomid diet or in the presence of pike. These results suggest that body changes in response to predators can be associated with a cost, in terms of competition for resources. PMID:16615209

  10. Seneca's contribution to astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pljakić, Branislava

    2002-04-01

    In this paper is shown the work of Lucius Anaeus Seneca "Natural Questiones", Book 7th relating to comets from 1st to 14th as well as 24th chapter. Although Seneca was not an astronomer he reached some very interesting conclusions. Besides that he introduces us in his work to the knowledge which had been gained before him as well as to the then obtained fallacies.

  11. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Muskellunge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, Mark F.; Solomon, R. Charles

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the muskellunge (Esox masquinongy Mitchell). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  12. Protein Information and Knowledge Extractor: Discovering biological information from proteomics data.

    PubMed

    Medina-Aunon, J Alberto; Paradela, Alberto; Macht, Marcus; Thiele, Herbert; Corthals, Garry; Albar, Juan Pablo

    2010-09-01

    One of the main goals in proteomics is to solve biological and molecular questions regarding a set of identified proteins. In order to achieve this goal, one has to extract and collect the existing biological data from public repositories for every protein and afterward, analyze and organize the collected data. Due to the complexity of this task and the huge amount of data available, it is not possible to gather this information by hand, making it necessary to find automatic methods of data collection. Within a proteomic context, we have developed Protein Information and Knowledge Extractor (PIKE) which solves this problem by automatically accessing several public information systems and databases across the Internet. PIKE bioinformatics tool starts with a set of identified proteins, listed as the most common protein databases accession codes, and retrieves all relevant and updated information from the most relevant databases. Once the search is complete, PIKE summarizes the information for every single protein using several file formats that share and exchange the information with other software tools. It is our opinion that PIKE represents a great step forward for information procurement and drastically reduces manual database validation for large proteomic studies. It is available at http://proteo.cnb.csic.es/pike.

  13. The impact of electrogenic sulfide oxidation on elemental cycling and solute fluxes in coastal sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Alexandra M. F.; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Hidalgo-Martinez, Silvia; Meysman, Filip J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous sulfide oxidizing cable bacteria are capable of linking the oxidation of free sulfide in deep anoxic layers of marine sediments to the reduction of oxygen or nitrate in surface sediments by conducting electrons over centimeter-scale distances. Previous studies have shown that this newly discovered microbial process, referred to as electrogenic sulfide oxidation (e-SOx), may alter elemental cycling in sediments, but the nature and rates of the resulting biogeochemical transformations and their influence on benthic-pelagic coupling remain largely unknown. Here we quantify changes in sediment geochemistry and solute fluxes at the sediment-water interface as e-SOx develops and declines over time in laboratory incubations of organic-rich sediments from a seasonally hypoxic coastal basin (Marine Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands). Our results show that e-SOx enhanced sediment O2 consumption and acidified subsurface sediment, resulting in the dissolution of calcium carbonate and iron sulfide minerals in deeper sediment horizons and the associated accumulation of dissolved iron, manganese, and calcium in porewater. Remobilized Fe diffusing upward was reoxidized at the sediment-water interface, producing an amorphous Fe oxide crust, while dissolved Fe diffusing downward was reprecipitated in the form of FeS as it encountered the free sulfide horizon. The development of e-SOx enhanced the diffusive release of dissolved Mn at the sediment-water interface, capped the phosphate efflux, generated a buildup of organic matter in surface sediments, and strongly stimulated the release of alkalinity from the sediment. About 75% of this alkalinity production was associated with net CaCO3 dissolution, while the remaining 25% was attributed to a pumping mechanism that transfers alkalinity from anodic H2S oxidation (an alkalinity sink) in deeper sediments to cathodic O2 reduction (an alkalinity source) near the sediment-water interface. The resulting sediment alkalinity

  14. Videotape Recording of Narcotic Addicts in Group Therapy: The Analysis of Communicational and Interactive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soloway, Irv

    An approach to the study of drug sub-culture groups and a model for predictive research in the identification and isolation of heroin addicts are developed in this thesis. The basic methodologies employed are the linguistic methods of Kenneth Pike and Claude Levi-Strauss for use in the analysis of social phenomena. Communicative mechanisms by…

  15. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  16. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  17. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  18. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  19. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF... RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during their spawning season except for propagation purposes....

  20. 77 FR 1089 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings AGENCY: Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission DATES: Week of January 9, 2012. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. Status: Public and Closed. Additional...

  1. 78 FR 60919 - In the Matter of Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess and Transfer Items Containing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... under 10 CFR 73.61 (72 FR 4945; February 2, 2007). In addition, individuals who have a favorably decided... be filed in accordance with the NRC's E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007). The E-Filing... Security, M/S: T-4-D-8, Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  2. Using Citizen Science beyond Teaching Science Content: A Strategy for Making Science Relevant to Students' Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Lynda L.

    2011-01-01

    I respond to Pike and Dunne by exploring the utilization of citizen science in science education. Their results indicate that students fail to pursue science beyond the secondary level, in part, because of prior educational experiences with science education. Students lack motivation to pursue degrees and careers in science because they feel…

  3. 78 FR 65008 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Evolutionary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ...) will hold a meeting on November 6, 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The..., presenters should provide the DFO with a CD containing each presentation at least thirty minutes before the... published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012 (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas...

  4. 77 FR 2572 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... February 8, 2012, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting will be open to... with a CD containing each presentation at least thirty minutes before the meeting. Electronic... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127-64128). If attending this meeting, please enter through the One White...

  5. 76 FR 11525 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting..., presenters should provide the DFO with a CD containing each presentation at least thirty minutes before the... published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038- 65039). Detailed meeting agendas...

  6. 76 FR 67232 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    .... EPR) will hold a meeting on November 14-15, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville... with a CD containing each presentation at least thirty minutes before the meeting. Electronic... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available...

  7. 78 FR 47803 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ..., 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting will be open to public..., presenters should provide the DFO with a CD containing each presentation at least thirty minutes before the... published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas...

  8. 78 FR 65007 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... November 6, 2013, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The meeting will be open to public... electronic copy cannot be provided within this timeframe, presenters should provide the DFO with a CD..., (77 FR 64146- 64147). Information regarding changes to the agenda, whether the meeting has...

  9. 78 FR 47803 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS): Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... September 4, 2013, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The meeting will be open to public... electronic copy cannot be provided within this timeframe, presenters should provide the DFO with a CD..., (77 FR 64146- 64147). Information regarding changes to the agenda, whether the meeting has...

  10. 76 FR 32241 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ..., 2011, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting will be open to public... cannot be provided within this timeframe, presenters should provide the DFO with a CD containing each... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-...

  11. 76 FR 11524 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ..., 2011, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting will be open to public... cannot be provided within this timeframe, presenters should provide the DFO with a CD containing each... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR...

  12. 78 FR 20958 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... April 23, 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting will be open... cannot be provided within this timeframe, presenters should provide the DFO with a CD containing each... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR...

  13. 77 FR 31045 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ..., 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting will be open to public... electronic copy cannot be provided within this timeframe, presenters should provide the DFO with a CD..., (76 FR 64126- 64127). Information regarding changes to the agenda, whether the meeting has...

  14. 75 FR 67784 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... 1, 2010, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting will be open to... timeframe, presenters should provide the DFO with a CD containing each presentation at least thirty minutes... were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed...

  15. 77 FR 73059 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ..., 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting will be open to public... the DFO with a CD containing each presentation at least thirty minutes before the meeting. Electronic... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available...

  16. 77 FR 16082 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... 11, 2012, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting will be open to... electronic copy cannot be provided within this timeframe, presenters should provide the DFO with a CD..., (76 FR 64126- 64127). Information regarding changes to the agenda, whether the meeting has...

  17. 75 FR 65037 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... November 17, 2010, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting will be open... timeframe, presenters should provide the DFO with a CD containing each presentation at least thirty minutes... were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed...

  18. Gene differences between third-chromosome inversions of Drosophila pseudobscura.

    PubMed

    Prakash, S

    1976-12-01

    Associations of alleles of the acid phosphatase-3 locus with the different third-chromosome inversions from different populations of D. pseudoobscura are described. We observe only the allele AP-3(1.0) in the Standard and Arrowhead inversions and the allele AP-3.98 in the Santa Cruz, Treeline, Cuernavaca and the Pikes Peak arrangements. The Chiricahua gene arrangement is polymorphic.

  19. The effects of different predator species on antipredator behavior in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botham, M. S.; Kerfoot, C. J.; Louca, V.; Krause, J.

    2006-09-01

    Different types of predators often elicit different antipredator responses in a common type of prey. Alternatively, some prey species may adopt a general response, which provides limited protection from many different types of predator. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is faced with a wide range of different predators throughout its range and is known to display varying levels of antipredator behavior depending on the predator assemblage. Pike cichlids, Crenicichla frenata, are regarded as the primary aquatic guppy predator in streams in the northern mountain range in Trinidad. As such, they are seen to be responsible for many of the differences in morphology, life history traits, and behavior between guppy populations from areas with few predators and those from areas with many pike cichlids. In this study we investigated how guppies responded when faced with different predator species using three common aquatic predators. We exposed shoals of ten guppies to one out of four treatments: no predator (control), pike cichlid, acara cichlid ( Aequidens pulcher), and wolf fish ( Hoplias malabaricus); and we made behavioral observations on both focal individuals and the shoal as a whole. Guppies showed significantly greater levels of predator inspection and shoaling behavior, foraged less, spent more time in the surface water, and stayed in significantly larger shoals when faced with pike cichlids than in other treatments. We discuss these results in the context of multiple predator effects.

  20. 76 FR 13629 - Revised Draft Guidance for Industry on User Fee Waivers, Reductions, and Refunds for Drug and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... of Dockets Management between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m., Monday through Friday. IV. Electronic Access Persons...://www.regulations.gov . Submit written comments to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food... Stephen Ripley, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, 1401 Rockville Pike, suite 200N,...

  1. 77 FR 27099 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, [NRC-2012- 0002]. DATE: Weeks of May 7, 14, 21, 28, June 4, 11, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  2. 76 FR 59174 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the N.S. Savannah; License NS-1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Environmental Protection, Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management Programs, U.S... at its Savannah River site in South Carolina. There is no longer any special nuclear material (SNM... computers located at the NRC's PDR, O 1 F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  3. 76 FR 30404 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ..., 2010 (74 FR 65038-65039). Wednesday, June 8, 2011, Conference Room T2-B1, 11545 Rockville Pike... October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038- 65039). In accordance with those procedures, oral or written views may be... Guides DG-1261, ``Conducting Periodic Testing for Breakaway Oxidation Behavior,'' DG-1262, ``Testing...

  4. 76 FR 72001 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Susquehanna to Roseland 500-kilovolt Transmission Line

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ....gov , and can be viewed at the following locations: Eastern Monroe Public Library, 1002 North Ninth Street, Stroudsburg, PA 18360. Easton Area Public Library, 515 Church Street, Easton, PA 18042. Kemp Library East Stroudsburg University, Normal Street, East Stroudsburg, PA 18301. Pike County Public...

  5. 77 FR 49780 - Southern Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... of meeting. SUMMARY: The Southern Montana Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Columbus, Montana..., September 13, 2012 from 9:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Columbus Fire Hall, 944 East Pike Avenue Columbus, MT 59019. Written comments may be submitted as described...

  6. Non-Discriminatory Discrimination: An Overview of the Discrimination Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasman, Zachary D.; Clark, R. Theodore, Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Surveys the objectives of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the court decisions and complex administrative regulations which have followed from it, focusing on the cases of Griggs vs. Duke Power Co., Johnson vs. Pike Corp. of America, and Long vs. Ford Motor Co. (JM)

  7. 76 FR 22934 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will hold a meeting on May 11, 2011, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038- 65039)....

  8. 76 FR 71609 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will hold a meeting on December 14, 2011, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127-...

  9. 76 FR 55717 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will hold a meeting on September 20, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-...

  10. 76 FR 32240 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems (DI&C) will hold a meeting on June 7, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  11. How to Measure the Radius of the Earth on Your Beach Vacation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Zachary H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a method for determining the distance to the horizon which leads to determining the radius of the Earth. The article answers two interesting science questions: (1) Can you see the state of Kansas from Pike's Peak in Colorado? and (2) Can you see two sunsets in one day on the Keys of Florida? (MVL)

  12. 45 CFR 5.31 - Designation of authorized officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... records, except as follows: (i) CDC and ATSDR Freedom of Information Officer. If the records you seek are... Registry, only the Director, Office of Public Affairs, CDC, who also is the CDC and ATSDR Freedom of... Health, Building 31, Room 2B39, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, Tel: (301) 496-5633...

  13. The Use of Solid Aluminum Heat Transfer Devices in Organic Chemistry Laboratory Instruction and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodwig, Siegfried N.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a practical and attractive alternative to the sand bath used in the microscale procedures developed by Mayo, Pike, and Butcher. Urges the organic chemistry teaching community to continue towards complete conversion to microscale techniques. Presents the use of aluminum devices in the microlaboratory. (MVL)

  14. 76 FR 59449 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... FR 65038-65039). Thursday, October 6, 2011, Conference Room T2-B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville... and participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR... Force Report Regarding the Events at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Site in Japan (Open)--The Committee...

  15. 75 FR 42758 - National Institutes of Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, C Wing, 6th Floor, Conference Room 10, Bethesda,...

  16. Anglo and Latin: The Cultural Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucklin, L. Brice

    Commentary on cultural differences between the Anglo-American and Spanish-American cultures focuses on food, role playing, division of labor, and the concept of making "-etic" and "-emic" distinctions in culture study. Reference is made analagously to the work of Kenneth Pike, to Howard Nostrand's remarks on Eskimo culture, and to Americo Castro's…

  17. 78 FR 59040 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... 20814. Contact Person: Brian R. Pike, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific...

  18. 77 FR 64815 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Institute of Child Health & Human Development, including consideration of personnel qualifications and... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, Room 2A46... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child...

  19. 78 FR 33691 - Distribution of Source Material to Exempt Persons and to General Licensees and Revision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ...: Discussion The NRC's Distribution of Source Material Rule (78 FR 32310; May 29, 2013) amended the NRC's..., 2011, the NRC published the draft ] interim staff guidance in the Federal Register (76 FR 1100) for... Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gary Comfort, Office of...

  20. Taking a Bike Ride? Don't Forget Your Helmet

    MedlinePlus

    ... on: Sports Safety Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Sports Safety About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us ... Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  1. Now Hear This: Wind Noise Can Pose Threat to Cyclists

    MedlinePlus

    ... on: Sports Safety Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Sports Safety About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us ... Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  2. The Football Injuries Most Likely to End an NFL Career

    MedlinePlus

    ... on: Sports Injuries Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Sports Injuries About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us ... Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  3. Deliverable 2.4.4 -- Evaluation and single-well models for the demonstration wells, Class 1

    SciTech Connect

    Deo, Milind; Morgan Craig D.

    2000-07-12

    Two single-well models were developed for Michelle Ute and Malnar Pike wells. The perforated intervals span thousands of feet in both the wells. Geological properties were calculated for all the perforated beds. The information was used to develop models for these two wells. These were comprehensive models since they took into account all the perforated beds.

  4. 21 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Elements To Be Considered in Developing a Two-Way Alert System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING... Good Manufacturing Practices Pt. 26, Subpt. A, App. E Appendix E to Subpart A of Part 26—Elements To Be... Quality (HFM-600), 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, phone: 301-827-6190, fax: 301-594-1944....

  5. Temperature dependent characteristics of intestinal glycyl-L-leucine dipeptidase in boreal zone fish.

    PubMed

    Gelman, A; Kuz'mina, V; Drabkin, V; Glatman, L

    2003-10-01

    Three kinds of boreal zone fish were investigated for gastrointestinal glycyl-L-leucine (GL) dipeptide cleaving activity as a function of feeding stage and seasonal changes. The enzyme activity tested in the perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) intestine increased steadily during digestion and rapidly disappeared after completion. The temperature characteristics and the seasonal changes in dipeptide cleaving activity in pike perch (Stizostedion lucioperca L.) and bream (Abramis brama L.) were studied. In summer, the maximal activities in the pike perch and the bream were found at temperatures of 40 and 30 degrees C, respectively. In winter, the temperature of maximal activity in pike perch fell to only 30 degrees C, whereas no changes were observed in bream. The activation energies in bream and pike perch were several times lower in winter than in summer. Seasonal changes in the dipeptide cleaving activity at low temperature relative to that at the temperature of maximal activity were found. At high temperatures, the stability of the enzyme decreases in winter and increases in summer, but in the presence of a substrate the thermal stability of the enzyme increases both in winter and in summer. In our experiments, we found that in these fish, GL dipeptidase was unstable at 0 and -10 degrees C.

  6. 76 FR 45239 - PPL Holtwood, LLC; Notice of Application for Amendment of License, and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... Sands Springs beach access area on the south side of Lake Wallenpaupack in Pike County, Pennsylvania. g... White Sands Springs to install four new docks, accommodating 128 slips, to its existing single dock, 12 slip, residential community marina. The additional slips would serve the residents of the White...

  7. 75 FR 29769 - Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    .... Name of Subcommittee: Health Care Technology and Decision Sciences. Date: June 15-17, 2010 (Open from 8... Wisconsin Avenue, 1 Bethesda Metro Center, Conference Room TBD, Bethesda, Maryland 20814. 4. Name of... Center, 1750 Rockville Pike, Conference Room TBD, Rockville, Maryland 20850. Contact Person:...

  8. Sexual Harassment in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truax, Anne; And Others

    1989-01-01

    An article and three responses on sexual harassment in higher education are presented: "Sexual Harassment in Higher Education: What We've Learned" (Anne Truax); "Who Is Responsible for Sexual Harassment?" (Barbara G. Taylor); "The Feminist-Unionist Dilemma" (Sherna Berger Gluck); and "Sexual Harassment and Academic Power" (Loralee MacPike). (MLW)

  9. 75 FR 69686 - Advisory Committee on Training in Primary Care Medicine and Dentistry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20910, which was published in the Federal Register on October 19, 2010, FR Doc. 2010-26205 (75 FR 64318). Dated: November 8, 2010. Robert Hendricks, Director, Division of Policy and... Care Medicine and Dentistry AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  10. 78 FR 58570 - Environmental Assessment; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Big Rock Point

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... PDR, Room O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. FOR FURTHER... County, on the northern shore of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. In a letter dated July 30, 2007 (ADAMS...) requirements in Sec. Sec. 50.47 and 50.54, and Aapendix E of 10 CFR part 50 (76 FR 72560; November 23,...

  11. Mentoring for Professional Geropsychology within a Doctoral Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Bob G.

    2011-01-01

    Mentoring in doctoral programs in professional psychology has its roots in mentoring in science programs of all types. Professional psychology in general may suffer from conflating mentoring with clinical supervision. Using the Pikes Peak Model competencies as a framework, mentoring in attitudes, knowledge, and skills related to professional…

  12. 75 FR 1661 - Disaster Declaration # 12008 and # 12009; Alabama Disaster # AL-00028

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Storms and Flooding. Incident Period: 12/12/2009 through 12/18/2009. Effective Date: 12/31/2009. Physical... the President's major disaster declaration on 12/31/2009, Private Non- Profit organizations that..., Crenshaw, Dale, Escambia, Geneva, Henry, Pike. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage:...

  13. Creating a Responsive Website: PPLD Friends--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklyn, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The Friends of the Pikes Peak Library District (PPLD) had a legacy website that was remotely hosted and maintained by a volunteer. They wanted a more significant presence on PPLD.org and an easier interface with which to update information. The developers decided to create a new Friends site in Drupal, using RWD, CSS3, and HTML5. The plan was to…

  14. Is Rogerian Rhetoric Really Rogerian?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ede, Lisa

    The Rogerian argument, as described by Young, Baker, and Pike in "Rhetoric: Discovery and Change," misrepresents Carl Rogers's own principles. Addressing the need for improved interpersonal communication both within and outside of therapy, Rogers describes three conditions for "listening with understanding": congruence, or nondirective listening;…

  15. 76 FR 30205 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...: Weeks of May 23, 30, June 6, 13, 20, 27, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. STATUS: Public and closed. Week of May 23, 2011 Friday, May 27, 2011 9 a.m... 30, 2011--Tentative Thursday, June 2, 2011 9:30 a.m. Briefing on Human Capital and Equal...

  16. 76 FR 17460 - SUNSHINE FEDERAL REGISTER NOTICE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...: Weeks of March 28, April 4, 11, 18, 25, May 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, June 6, 13, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. STATUS: Public and Closed. Week of March 28, 2011 Tuesday, March 29, 2011 9 a.m. Briefing on Small Modular Reactors (Public Meeting); (Contact:...

  17. 76 FR 55718 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Related to the March 11, 2011, Earthquake and Tsunami Events in Fukushima, Japan (Tentative) b. Nuclear...: Week of September 5, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. STATUS: Public and Closed. ADDITIONAL ITEMS TO BE CONSIDERED: Week of September 5, 2011...

  18. Marie Zimmermann Farm, U.S. Route 209, 5 Miles Southwest of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Marie Zimmermann Farm, U.S. Route 209, 5 Miles Southwest of Milford. The property is defined at its northern boundary by Zimmermann Road and at the west by Long Meadow Road. The east boundary of the parcel is the edge of the Delaware River. The south edge of the parcel is irregularly oriented east-to-west. , Milford, Pike County, PA

  19. Teacher Practices in a High Performing, Appalachian Rural High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estep, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory case study was to identify, investigate, and describe factors that contributed to the academic success of Phelps High School, a rural, isolated, Appalachian high school in Pike County Kentucky. The academic index of the school in 2000 was 48% and in a six year period the academic index of the school improved to 94%.…

  20. The Experimental State of Mind in Elicitation: Illustrations from Tonal Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Kristine M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates how an "experimental state of mind", i.e. principles of experimental design, can inform hypothesis generation and testing in structured fieldwork elicitation. The application of these principles is demonstrated with case studies in toneme discovery. Pike's classic toneme discovery procedure is shown to be a special…

  1. 76 FR 9668 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order....C. 4001 et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR... Unincorporated Areas of downstream of Bee Creek Pike County. Road (River Mile 38.9). Approximately 0.59 mile...

  2. 75 FR 43425 - Distribution of Source Material to Exempt Persons and to General Licensees and Revision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... comments, contact us directly at 301-415-1677. Hand-deliver comments to: 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville... collections by the methods indicated in the Paperwork Reduction Act Statement. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Possession and Use of Source Material Under Sec. 40.22 A.5 Revision of Exemption for Thorium Lenses...

  3. 76 FR 37852 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... portion of this session may be closed in order to discuss and protect information designed as proprietary.... [Note: A portion of this session may be closed in order to discuss and protect information designed as... FR 65038-65039). Wednesday, July 13, 2011, Conference Room T2-B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  4. 77 FR 13155 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    .../polls and facsimiles. Submit, by May 4, 2012, comments that address the following questions: 1. Is the... Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. OMB clearance requests are available at the NRC's Web site: http... page site for 60 days after the signature date of this notice. Comments submitted in writing or...

  5. 77 FR 54615 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Regulations (10 CFR). Submit, by November 5, 2012, comments that address the following questions: 1. Is the... Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. OMB clearance requests are available at the NRC's Web site: http://www.nrc.gov/public-involve/doc-comment/omb/ . The document will be available on the NRC's home...

  6. 77 FR 54616 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ..., by November 5, 2012, comments that address the following questions: 1. Is the proposed collection of... Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. OMB clearance requests are available at the NRC's Web site: http://www.nrc.gov/public-involve/doc-comment/omb/ . The document will be available on the NRC's home...

  7. Reading Research on Core Values, Christian Ethos and School Transformation at England's Most Improved Academy: A Reply to Bragg, Allington, Simmons and Jones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's reply to the comments of Bragg, Allington, Simmons and Jones to his article "Transaction and transformation at Trinity" (Pike, 2010) wherein he reported a case study of Trinity Academy, which serves a former mining community and social priority area near Doncaster in South Yorkshire. In 2008, just before the…

  8. Brain-Computer Interfaces: A Gentle Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graimann, Bernhard; Allison, Brendan; Pfurtscheller, Gert

    Stardate 3012.4: The U.S.S. Enterprise has been diverted from its original course to meet its former captain Christopher Pike on Starbase 11. When Captain Jim Kirk and his crew arrive, they find out that Captain Pike has been severely crippled by a radiation accident. As a consequence of this accident Captain Pike is completely paralyzed and confined to a wheelchair controlled by his brain waves. He can only communicate through a light integrated into his wheelchair to signal the answers "yes" or "no". Commodore Mendez, the commander of Starbase 11, describes the condition of Captain Pike as follows: "He is totally unable to move, Jim. His wheelchair is constructed to respond to his brain waves. He can turn it, move it forwards, backwards slightly. Through a flashing light he can say 'yes' or 'no'. But that's it, Jim. That is as much as the poor ever can do. His mind is as active as yours and mine, but it's trapped in a useless vegetating body. He's kept alive mechanically. A battery driven heart. …"

  9. Is the Russian /y/ an Allophone of /i/?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaskacz, Bohdan

    Reasons for the structural or functional classification of the Russian /y/ as an allophone of /i/ are explained in this article. Theory countering this classification, proposed by L.V. Scherba and L.R. Zinder, is also presented. Additionally, comments by Kenneth Pike support the author's criticism of the structuralist approach to the problem. (RL)

  10. 77 FR 14405 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: All participants must register... the contact person by May 9, 2012. If you need special accommodations due to a disability, please contact Kimberly Franklin (see Contact Person) at least 7 days in advance. Interested persons may...

  11. 75 FR 3263 - Sunshine Act; Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act; Meeting Notice Agency Holding The Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission Date: Weeks of January 18, 25, and February 1, 8, 15, 22, 2010. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. Status:...

  12. 78 FR 32476 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    .... Until 5:00 p.m. The Subcommittee will review and discuss all cyber security-related initiatives at the... published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and... Flint North building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD. After registering with security,...

  13. Teach Them All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike County Board of Education, Troy, AL.

    Six social studies units for teachers of elementary and secondary students are presented. The document, written by various authors, is one component of the Pike County, Alabama, ethnic studies inservice training project. Objectives of the units are to help students develop an awareness and understanding of differing cultures and customs. Topics…

  14. 75 FR 16203 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on EPR; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on EPR; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on the U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) will hold a meeting on April 20-21, 2010, at 11545 Rockville Pike, T2-...

  15. 76 FR 12992 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... 60.13 or 60.15 of 36 CFR part 60, written comments are being accepted concerning the significance of... and S Rd 70th, Nebraska City, 11000102 Phelps County Brenstrom Farmstead, 10417 Westside Rd, Overton... City, 11000100 Sumner County Douglass--Clark House, Long Hollow Pike at Lower Station Camp Creek...

  16. 76 FR 65516 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... and Human Development Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Institute of Child Health & Human Development, including consideration of personnel qualifications and... National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, Room...

  17. 75 FR 71449 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Child Health & Human Development, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, Room 2A50,...

  18. 10 CFR 110.44 - Physical security standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Physical security standards. 110.44 Section 110.44 Energy... approved by the Director of the Office of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... inspection at the NRC library, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738, telephone,...

  19. 10 CFR 110.44 - Physical security standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical security standards. 110.44 Section 110.44 Energy... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... at the NRC library, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. A copy is available...

  20. 10 CFR 110.44 - Physical security standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Physical security standards. 110.44 Section 110.44 Energy... approved by the Director of the Office of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... inspection at the NRC library, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738, telephone,...

  1. 10 CFR 110.44 - Physical security standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Physical security standards. 110.44 Section 110.44 Energy... approved by the Director of the Office of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... inspection at the NRC library, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738, telephone,...

  2. 10 CFR 110.44 - Physical security standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Physical security standards. 110.44 Section 110.44 Energy... approved by the Director of the Office of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... inspection at the NRC library, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738, telephone,...

  3. 78 FR 45960 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Jefferson City, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... Department of Natural Resources professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Sac & Fox Nation, Oklahoma; Sac & Fox of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska; and the Sac & Fox Tribe of the... University of Missouri-Columbia. The area of Pike County, MO, was ceded by the Sauk and Fox in a series...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 300 - Access to DLA Records

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Broad Street, Columbus, OH 43218-3990, Fax: 614-692-4385, Email: dscc.efoia@dla.mil—Maritime and land... Services, 5450 Carlisle Pike, Bldg 9, P.O. Box 2020, Mechanicsburg, PA 17055-0788, Fax: 717-605-3999,...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 1285 - Gaining Access to DLA Records

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... DLA Systems Automation Center, Attn: DSAC-E, P.O. Box 1605, Columbus, OH 43216-5002. DLA... Center, Attn: DCSC-WXA, 3990 E. Broad Street, Columbus, OH 43216-5000. Defense Electronics Supply Center, Attn: DESC-WXA, 1507 Wilmington Pike, Dayton, OH 45444-5252. Defense Fuel Supply Center, Attn:...

  6. 76 FR 46856 - Qualification of Connection Assemblies for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ..., 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. NRC's Agencywide Documents Access and Management System... for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes a method that the NRC considers acceptable for... and after a design-basis event. ADDRESSES: You can access publicly available documents related to...

  7. 77 FR 12312 - Electronic Submission of Nonclinical Study Data; Notice of Pilot Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Administration (FDA) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) is announcing an invitation to... evaluate SEND and determine if it facilitates the submission process of nonclinical study data related to... Evaluation and Research (HFM-25), Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD...

  8. 75 FR 10254 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... AGENCY Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability Responsible Agency: Office of Federal... Environmental Impact Statements Filed 02/22/2010 Through 02/26/2010 Pursuant to 40 CFR 1506.9. ] EIS No... Update the Stream Impacts, Oakland City to Washington, (IN-64 to US 50), Gibson, Pike and...

  9. 78 FR 13359 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings Pursuant... individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE, including... Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892....

  10. 78 FR 36552 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting... Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892. Time: November 15... Library of Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20892-7968, 301-496-4253,...

  11. 77 FR 37684 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings Pursuant... individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Library of Medicine, including... Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892....

  12. 77 FR 37684 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings... Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892. Time... Library of Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20892-7968, 301-496-4253,...

  13. 75 FR 80831 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... the National Library of Medicine and the discussions would likely significantly frustrate... Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894....

  14. 76 FR 14037 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting... applications. Place: National Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike..., National Library of Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20892-7968,...

  15. 76 FR 48873 - National Library of Medicine Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Notice of Meetings Pursuant to... intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE, including consideration of... Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892. Closed: September...

  16. 78 FR 5475 - Pennsylvania; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford..., Cameron, Dauphin, Forest, Franklin, Fulton, Huntingdon, Juniata, Monroe, Northampton, Pike,...

  17. 77 FR 1940 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings Pursuant... individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Library of Medicine, including... Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892. Closed: April...

  18. 76 FR 16431 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to... the National Library of Medicine and the discussions would likely to significantly frustrate... of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894....

  19. 76 FR 77239 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings... Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892. Time: March 2, 2012... Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20892-7968, (301) 496-4253,...

  20. 76 FR 78672 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings Pursuant... indexed by the National Library of Medicine and the discussions would likely to significantly frustrate... Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894....

  1. 77 FR 17488 - National Library of Medicine Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Notice of Meetings Pursuant to... the National Library of Medicine and the discussions would likely to significantly frustrate... of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894....

  2. 76 FR 54778 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Meetings Pursuant... indexed by the National Library of Medicine and the discussions would likely to significantly frustrate... Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894....

  3. 75 FR 80512 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting... applications. Place: National Library of Medicine, Building 38, 2nd Floor, Board Room, 8600 Rockville Pike..., National Library of Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20892-7968,...

  4. Outbuilding at end of lowlift pumping station parking lot. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Outbuilding at end of low-lift pumping station parking lot. Note the concrete wall and light standard base, which are remnants of the former preliminary sedimentation basin. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  5. Rear semicircular section of the highlift pumping station basement with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear semi-circular section of the high-lift pumping station basement with remnants of the piping systems and suction wells at rear wall. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  6. East elevation of lowlift pumping station, looking west. Former preliminary ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East elevation of low-lift pumping station, looking west. Former preliminary sedimentation basin is in foreground. High-lift pumping station is in background. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  7. Parking lot at rear of lowlift pumping station that sits ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Parking lot at rear of low-lift pumping station that sits on former preliminary sedimentation basin. The concrete pads adjacent to the low-lift pumping station contained the "Aer-O-Mix" aerators. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  8. 78 FR 69432 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Cancer Panel, Special Assistant to the Director, NCI Center for Cancer Research, 9000 Rockville Pike... Research; 93.394, Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Research; 93.395, Cancer Treatment Research; 93.396, Cancer Biology Research; 93.397, Cancer Centers Support; 93.398, Cancer Research Manpower; 93.399,......

  9. Westward view of (L to R) B&O Railroad (in West ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Westward view of (L to R) B&O Railroad (in West Virginia), Potomac River, C&O Canal (wide basin), Western Maryland Rail Trail, I-70, and US 40 (National Pike), milepost 112 vicinity. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  10. 76 FR 53967 - Carolina Power & Light, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Notice of Consideration of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ..., publicly available documents at the NRC's PDR, O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike... Electric Plant (Robinson), Unit 2, Robinson Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations, and Crystal River... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process...

  11. 76 FR 53972 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit No. 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit No. 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of..., publicly available documents at the NRC's PDR, O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike... Facility Operating License No. DPR-72 for Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear generating Plant (CR-3),...

  12. 76 FR 54261 - Carolina Power & Light; H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; HBRSEP Independent Spent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... NRC's PDR, O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. ] NRC's..., and Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant. Progress Energy would merge with Duke Energy... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process...

  13. 76 FR 66332 - Florida Power Corporation; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Facility Operating License No. DPR-72 for the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant located in..., 2011 (76 FR 37848). However, by letter dated September 7, 2011, the licensee withdrew the proposed...), located at One White Flint North, Public File Area O1 F21, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor),...

  14. 28 CFR 16.2 - Public reading rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Board of Immigration Appeals)—in Suite 2400, 5107 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Virginia; (6) Federal Bureau of Investigation—at the J. Edgar Hoover Building, 935 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC; (7... areas at the locations listed below: (1) Bureau of Prisons—on the Seventh Floor, 500 First Street,...

  15. Migrant Children in Alabama. A Survey to Identify Children of Migrant Workers and Certain Former Migrant Workers in Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Univ., Tuscaloosa. Coll. of Education.

    A 1-year study was completed in August of 1969 by the University of Alabama on procedures to identify the children of migrant workers and of former migrant workers in 6 school systems in Alabama (Blount, Cullman, Pike, and Washington County School Systems and Demopolis and Elba City School Systems). The report of this study (1) includes detailed…

  16. 77 FR 50087 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... of the Secretary Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Reserve Forces Policy... Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB) will take place. DATES: Wednesday, September 5, 2012, from 8 a.m. to 4... (Facsimile), RFPB@osd.mil . Mailing address is Reserve Forces Policy Board, 5113 Leesburg Pike, Suite...

  17. 75 FR 25302 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on ESBWR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ..., (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on ESBWR The ACRS Subcommittee on ESBWR will hold a meeting on May 18-19, 2010, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  18. 76 FR 27102 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... Water Reactor (ESBWR) will hold a meeting on May 26, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville... License Application (COLA) referencing the ESBWR design. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by...

  19. 78 FR 58322 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 which was published in the Federal Register on August 16, 2013, 78 FR 50065... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis...

  20. Rogerian Rhetoric: Pedagogy and the Ethos of Seduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Byron

    In "Rhetoric, Discovery and Change" (1970), R. Young, A. Becker, and K. Pike took Carl Rogers' empathetic approach out of the context of one-on-one therapy and put it into the writing classroom. They proposed the now standard formulaic structure of argumentation which emphasizes a strong thesis up front, a detailed account of the opposing…

  1. 78 FR 22593 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Hampshire Pike, Columbia, Tennessee. The public may comment on any agenda item or subject at a public... meeting will be called to order to consider the agenda items listed below. On-site registration will be... will address the Board first. TVA management will answer questions from the news media following...

  2. A Rural Communities Response to Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Peter J.

    The upward economic flux of Pike County is having a dramatic impact on the traditional morals and values held by the established community. Drug availability has increased proportionately with improved highway systems, accessibility of money, and increasing numbers of youth with their own cars. Although 75% of the population live in isolated…

  3. MedlinePlus: Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: A Prospective Study of Sudden Cardiac Death ... Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  4. MedlinePlus: Sexual Problems in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: A 'magic bullet' for a lackluster libido? ... Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  5. MedlinePlus: Baby Health Checkup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: Contingent Screening for Small by Weight for ... Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  6. MedlinePlus: Erectile Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study of ... Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  7. MedlinePlus: Heart Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: Effect of a Cerebral Protection Device on ... Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  8. Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research. Volume X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, John C., Ed.

    This collection of nine papers addresses theory and research in higher education. The papers include: (1) "Student Learning at Metropolitan Universities" (George D. Kuh and others); (2) "Applications of Generalizability Theory in Higher Education Assessment Research" (Gary R. Pike); (3) Policy Models and Policy Instruments in Higher Education: The…

  9. Biogeochemical environments of streambed-sediment pore waters with and without arsenic enrichment in a sedimentary rock terrain, New Jersey Piedmont, USA.

    PubMed

    Mumford, A C; Barringer, J L; Reilly, P A; Eberl, D D; Blum, A E; Young, L Y

    2015-02-01

    Release of arsenic (As) from sedimentary rocks has resulted in contamination of groundwater in aquifers of the New Jersey Piedmont Physiographic Province, USA; the contamination also may affect the quality of the region's streamwater to which groundwater discharges. Biogeochemical mechanisms involved in the release process were investigated in the streambeds of Six Mile Run and Pike Run, tributaries to the Millstone River in the Piedmont. At Six Mile Run, streambed pore water and shallow groundwater were low or depleted in oxygen, and contained As at concentrations greater than 20 μg/L. At Pike Run, oxidizing conditions were present in the streambed, and the As concentration in pore water was 2.1 μg/L. The 16S rRNA gene and the As(V) respiratory reductase gene, arrA, were amplified from DNA extracted from streambed pore water at both sites and analyzed, revealing that distinct bacterial communities that corresponded to the redox conditions were present at each site. Anaerobic enrichment cultures were inoculated with pore water from gaining reaches of the streams with acetate and As(V). As(V) was reduced by microbes to As(III) in enrichments with Six Mile Run pore water and groundwater, whereas no reduction occurred in enrichments with Pike Run pore water. Cloning and sequencing of the arrA gene indicated 8 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at Six Mile Run and 11 unique OTUs at Pike Run, which may be representative of the arsenite oxidase gene arxA. Low-oxygen conditions at Six Mile Run have favored microbial As reduction and release, whereas release was inhibited by oxidizing conditions at Pike Run.

  10. Biogeochemical environments of streambed-sediment pore waters withand without arsenic enrichment in a sedimentary rock terrain, New Jersey Piedmont, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mumford, Adam C.; Barringer, Julia L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Blum, Alex E.; Young, Lily Y.

    2015-01-01

    Release of arsenic (As) from sedimentary rocks has resulted in contamination of groundwater in aquifers of the New Jersey Piedmont Physiographic Province, USA; the contamination also may affect the quality of the region's streamwater to which groundwater discharges. Biogeochemical mechanisms involved in the release process were investigated in the streambeds of Six Mile Run and Pike Run, tributaries to the Millstone River in the Piedmont. At Six Mile Run, streambed pore water and shallow groundwater were low or depleted in oxygen, and contained As at concentrations greater than 20μg/L. At Pike Run, oxidizing conditions were present in the streambed, and the As concentration in pore water was 2.1μg/L. The 16S rRNA gene and the As(V) respiratory reductase gene, arrA, were amplified from DNA extracted from streambed pore water at both sites and analyzed, revealing that distinct bacterial communities that corresponded to the redox conditions were present at each site. Anaerobic enrichment cultures were inoculated with pore water from gaining reaches of the streams with acetate and As(V). As(V) was reduced by microbes to As(III) in enrichments with Six Mile Run pore water and groundwater, whereas no reduction occurred in enrichments with Pike Run pore water. Cloning and sequencing of the arrA gene indicated 8 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at Six Mile Run and 11 unique OTUs at Pike Run, which may be representative of the arsenite oxidase gene arxA. Low-oxygen conditions at Six Mile Run have favored microbial As reduction and release, whereas release was inhibited by oxidizing conditions at Pike Run.

  11. Biogeochemical environments of streambed-sediment pore waters with and without arsenic enrichment in a sedimentary rock terrain, New Jersey Piedmont, USA.

    PubMed

    Mumford, A C; Barringer, J L; Reilly, P A; Eberl, D D; Blum, A E; Young, L Y

    2015-02-01

    Release of arsenic (As) from sedimentary rocks has resulted in contamination of groundwater in aquifers of the New Jersey Piedmont Physiographic Province, USA; the contamination also may affect the quality of the region's streamwater to which groundwater discharges. Biogeochemical mechanisms involved in the release process were investigated in the streambeds of Six Mile Run and Pike Run, tributaries to the Millstone River in the Piedmont. At Six Mile Run, streambed pore water and shallow groundwater were low or depleted in oxygen, and contained As at concentrations greater than 20 μg/L. At Pike Run, oxidizing conditions were present in the streambed, and the As concentration in pore water was 2.1 μg/L. The 16S rRNA gene and the As(V) respiratory reductase gene, arrA, were amplified from DNA extracted from streambed pore water at both sites and analyzed, revealing that distinct bacterial communities that corresponded to the redox conditions were present at each site. Anaerobic enrichment cultures were inoculated with pore water from gaining reaches of the streams with acetate and As(V). As(V) was reduced by microbes to As(III) in enrichments with Six Mile Run pore water and groundwater, whereas no reduction occurred in enrichments with Pike Run pore water. Cloning and sequencing of the arrA gene indicated 8 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at Six Mile Run and 11 unique OTUs at Pike Run, which may be representative of the arsenite oxidase gene arxA. Low-oxygen conditions at Six Mile Run have favored microbial As reduction and release, whereas release was inhibited by oxidizing conditions at Pike Run. PMID:25130624

  12. Arnold Gesell and the maturation controversy.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Thomas C

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the work of Arnold Lucius Gesell and argues that he not only paved the way for contemporary research in motor development, but that he and colleagues anticipated fundamental issues about growth that must be addressed by psychologists and neuroscientists who are committed to the advancement of developmental science. Arnold Lucius Gesell was a pioneer in developmental psychology when the field was in its infancy. He worked diligently for the rights of physically and mentally handicapped children to receive special education that would enable them to find gainful employment. Gesell's writings in books and popular magazines increased public awareness of and support for preschool education and better foster care for orphans. Despite these achievements, many of his successors have questioned his views about infant development. Developmental psychologists have criticized Gesell for proposing a stage theory of infant growth that has fallen into disfavor among contemporary researchers. His conception of development as a maturational process has been challenged for allegedly reducing complex behavioral, perceptual, and learning processes to genetic factors. The author rejects this overly simplistic interpretation and contends that Gesell's work continues to stand the test of time.

  13. Arnold Gesell and the maturation controversy.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Thomas C

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the work of Arnold Lucius Gesell and argues that he not only paved the way for contemporary research in motor development, but that he and colleagues anticipated fundamental issues about growth that must be addressed by psychologists and neuroscientists who are committed to the advancement of developmental science. Arnold Lucius Gesell was a pioneer in developmental psychology when the field was in its infancy. He worked diligently for the rights of physically and mentally handicapped children to receive special education that would enable them to find gainful employment. Gesell's writings in books and popular magazines increased public awareness of and support for preschool education and better foster care for orphans. Despite these achievements, many of his successors have questioned his views about infant development. Developmental psychologists have criticized Gesell for proposing a stage theory of infant growth that has fallen into disfavor among contemporary researchers. His conception of development as a maturational process has been challenged for allegedly reducing complex behavioral, perceptual, and learning processes to genetic factors. The author rejects this overly simplistic interpretation and contends that Gesell's work continues to stand the test of time. PMID:17549936

  14. The geologic story of the Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    For more than half a century after Lewis and Clark crossed the country in 1805-6, the Great Plains was the testing ground of frontier America here America grew to maturity (fig. 1). In 1805-7, explorer Zebulon Pike crossed the southcentral Great Plains, following the Arkansas River from near Great Bend, Kans., to the Rocky Mountains. In later years, Santa Fe traders, lured by the wealth of New Mexican trade, followed Pike's path as far as Bents Fort, Colo., where they turned southwestward away from the river route. Those pioneers who later crossed the plains on the Oregon Trail reached the Platte River near the place that would become Kearney, Nebr., by a nearly direct route from Independence, Mo., and followed the Platte across the central part of the Great Plains.

  15. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pajak, Paul; Bradshaw, William H.; DeSantos, Joseph M.; Darling, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Existing aquatic habitat in the lower Flathead River and its tributaries was assessed for its relationship to the present size, distribution, and maintenance of all salmonid species, northern pike, and largemouth bass populations. The objectives were to assess how and to what extent hydroelectric development and operation affects the quality and quantity of aquatic habitat in the lower Flathead River and its tributaries and life stages of existing trout, pike, and largemouth bass populations, evaluate the potential for increasing quality habitat, and thus game fish production, through mitigation, and develop an array of fisheries management options to mitigate the impacts of present hydroelectric operations, demonstrating under each management option how fish populations would benefit and hydroelectric generation capabilities would be modified.

  16. Using a bank of predatory fish samples for bioindication of radioactive contamination of aquatic food chains in the area affected by the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Kryshev, I I; Ryabov, I N; Sazykina, T G

    1993-11-01

    From the analysis of experimental data on radioactive contamination of various fish, it is suggested that predatory fish specimens can be used as bioindicators of radionuclide accumulation in reservoir food chains of the Chernobyl emergency area. The increased content of cesium radionuclides were detected in the muscle tissue of predatory fish collected in various regions of the Chernobyl emergency area. In most of the water bodies studied, maximum contamination levels of predatory fish by radionuclides of cesium occurred in 1987-1988, whereas in 'nonpredatory' fish the concentration of cesium was maximum, as a rule, in the first year following the accident. The exposure doses of fish of various ecological groups and ages are estimated. The exposure doses of various population groups, using fish from contaminated water bodies, are also estimated. When forming the environmental data bank for the Chernobyl accident zone it is suggested that perch, pike-perch and pike be used as bioindicators of radioactive contamination of food chains.

  17. 76 FR 29770 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... provisions set forth in sections 552b(c)(4) and 552b(c)(6), Title 5 U.S.C., as amended. The grant... Washington DC/Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Bratin K. Saha, PhD... for Behavioral Research In Cancer Control (R03). Date: July 7, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda:...

  18. Inventory of forest and rangeland resources, including forest stress. [Black Hills, Manitou, Colorado, and Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, R. C.; Weber, F. P.; Driscoll, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Road systems being developed within the Manitou, Colorado area for human habitation are readily discernible on the S192 normal-color photographs. These are dirt roads, some of which are about 20 feet wide. These data should provide the District Ranger of the Pike National Forest required information on the size and extent of these developing areas, information which he does not now have but is required for total management of the District.

  19. Altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface, May and June 1993, and change in water level 1983-93, in the carbonate rocks of East Whiteland and Charlestown townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McManus, B.C.; Sloto, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    A map showing ground-water levels in the carbonate rocks of northern Chester County, Pa., was constructed on the basis of water levels in 51 wells measured in May and June 1993. The area studied underlies parts of East Whiteland and Charlestown Townships. Water-level altitudes range from about 413 feet above sea level on Phoenixville Pike to 130 feet above sea level along Route 29.

  20. Remote sensing applications to hydrology in Minnesota. [Rice Creek watershed and St. Paul-Minneapolis metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D.; Skaggs, R.

    1975-01-01

    Development of low lying southeastern shore of Pike Lake is described as part of the Rice Creek watershed study. Several small wetlands in Arden Hills, Minnesota were incorporated into the drainage plans as pollutant and nutrient sinks rather than being infilled. Lake water quality in the St. Paul-Minneapolis metropolitan area was analyzed using Landsat images. In the same urban area, the inventory and seasonal change of the open water were also studied.