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Sample records for pike esox lucius

  1. Early life migration patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius.

    PubMed

    Rohtla, M; Vetemaa, M; Urtson, K; Soesoo, A

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the movement patterns of Baltic Sea pike Esox lucius in Matsalu Bay, Estonia, using otolith microchemistry. Migration patterns of E. lucius were remarkably diverse, but distinct groups were evident. Of the E. lucius analysed (n = 28), 82% hatched in fresh water and 74% of them left this biotope during the first growth season.

  2. Prey capture of pike Esox lucius larvae in turbid water.

    PubMed

    Salonen, M; Engström-Ost, J

    2010-06-01

    Pike Esox lucius larvae captured fewer calanoid and cyclopoid copepods in turbid than in clear water, whereas no differences were detected in feeding rates on Daphnia longispina. Decreased capture of copepods may lead to lower growth and survival of E. lucius larvae in turbid areas, in particular, if cladocerans are scarce.

  3. Trophic flexibility and opportunism in pike Esox lucius.

    PubMed

    Pedreschi, D; Mariani, S; Coughlan, J; Voigt, C C; O'Grady, M; Caffrey, J; Kelly-Quinn, M

    2015-10-01

    The first comprehensive investigation of pike Esox lucius trophic ecology in a region (Ireland) where they have long been thought to be a non-native species is presented. Diet was investigated across habitat types (lake, river and canal) through the combined methods of stable-isotope and stomach content analyses. Variations in niche size, specialization and the timing of the ontogenetic dietary switch were examined, revealing pronounced opportunism and feeding plasticity in E. lucius, along with a high occurrence of invertivory (up to 60 cm fork length, LF ) and a concomitant delayed switch to piscivory. Furthermore, E. lucius were found to primarily prey upon the highly available non-native roach Rutilus rutilus, which may alleviate predation pressure on brown trout Salmo trutta, highlighting the complexity of dynamic systems and the essential role of research in informing effective management.

  4. Morphological study of the northern pike (Esox lucius) tongue.

    PubMed

    Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Rahmati-holasoo, Hooman; Fayyaz, Sahel; Zargar, Ashkan

    2015-09-01

    The northern pike (Esox lucius) is a fresh water species belonging to the Esocidae family. It is a carnivorous fish feeding mostly on invertebrates and fishes. Due to the scantiness of relevant literature regarding the morphology of the tongue in fish we carried out this study with the aim of providing information on the dorsal surface morphology and histological structures of the tongue in E. lucius. The tongues of five E. lucius were examined using light- and scanning electron- microscopy (SEM) techniques. The SEM studies revealed the presence of numerous teeth, longitudinal mucosal strands and scattered taste buds spread on the tongue surface. Histological studies using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the musculature was not visible in the tongue of E. lucius. The tongue is composed of mucosa, and submucosa supported by osteocartilagionous skeleton. The mucosa consists of several layers of unicellular mucous cells interrupted by numerous teeth. The derivation of teeth from the underlying bronchial skeleton was visible in longitudinal section. The scattered taste buds with a typical onion shape were also present. Overall, the morphological features of the E. lucius tongue together suggested its mechanical and sensory roles. The findings of this study together with morphological and physiological data from other fishes contribute to the knowledge of the nutrition and feeding behavior in aquaculture species.

  5. Northern pike (Esox lucius) collagen: Extraction, characterization and potential application.

    PubMed

    Kozlowska, J; Sionkowska, A; Skopinska-Wisniewska, J; Piechowicz, K

    2015-11-01

    Acid soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) from the scales of northern pike (Esox lucius) were extracted and characterized. It was the first time that this species was used as sources of collagen. FT-IR and amino acid analysis results revealed the presence of collagen. Glycine accounts for one-third of its amino acid residues and specific for collagen amino acid - hydroxyproline - is present in isolated protein. The content of imino acid: proline and hydroxyproline in ASC and PSC was similar (12.5% Pro and 6.5% Hyp). Both ASC and PSC were type I collagen. The denaturation temperature of ASC and PSC were 28.5 and 27°C, respectively. Thin collagen films were obtained by casting of collagen solution onto glass plates. The surface properties of ASC and PSC films were different - the surface of ASC collagen film was more polar and less rough than PSC and we can observe the formation of collagen fibrils after solvent evaporation. ASC films showed much higher tensile properties than PSC. The obtained results suggest that northern pike scales have potential as an alternative source of collagen for use in various fields.

  6. Ovarian alterations in wild northern pike Esox lucius females.

    PubMed

    Zarski, Daniel; Rechulicz, Jacek; Krejszeff, Sławomir; Czarkowski, Tomasz K; Stańczak, Katarzyna; Palińska, Katarzyna; Gryzińska, Magdalena; Targońska, Katarzyna; Kozłowski, Krzysztof; Mamcarz, Andrzej; Hliwa, Piotr

    2013-09-24

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of macroscopically visible ovary alterations in 2 populations of northern pike Esox lucius L. originating from lakes in the Mazurian Lake District (NE Poland). The alterations were characterised by ovary tissue that was morphologically malformed, in part or in whole, and contained immature oocytes, i.e. trophoplastic or previtellogenic oocytes instead of vitellogenic oocytes. These alterations were found only in the ovaries, and no morphological alterations of the testes were noted. Macroscopic and histological analyses were carried out in order to classify the observed alterations in the ovaries. Three types of alterations were identified in which morphological malformations as well as histological investigation of the ovaries were considered. An analysis of the size and age of the fish in relation to the occurrence of alterations as well as of the macroscopic and histological nature of the alteration types was made. The data obtained revealed no lake or age dependency of the observed alterations. Based on the results obtained, we suggest that the presence of endocrine disruptors in the environment or/and genetic factors could be responsible for these kinds of gonad anomalies. However, our results did not allow us to determine the aetiology of the alterations.

  7. Foraging success of juvenile pike Esox lucius depends on visual conditions and prey pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, M; Hylander, S; Ranåker, L; Nilsson, P A; Brönmark, C

    2011-07-01

    Young-of-the-year pike Esox lucius foraging on copepods experienced different foraging success depending on prey pigmentation in water visually degraded by brown colouration or algae. Both attack rate and prey consumption rate were higher for E. lucius foraging on transparent prey in brown water, whereas the opposite was true in algal turbid water. Pigments in copepod prey may have a cryptic function in brown water instead of a photo-protective function even if prey-size selectivity was stronger than selection based on pigmentation in juvenile E. lucius.

  8. Altered energetics and parasitism in juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) inhabiting metal-mining contaminated lakes.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jocelyn M; Janz, David M

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate possible factors that could be contributing to altered bioenergetics of juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) living in lakes receiving effluent from the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Although glycogen and triglycerides stores in liver and muscle were significantly greater in pike from exposure lakes compared to the reference, triglycerides stores of aquatic insects and spottail shiners that are prey items of juvenile pike showed no overall differences among lakes. Measures of parasitism, on the other hand, were negatively correlated with pike bioenergetics thereby reflecting a possible energetic cost of parasitism on reference lake fishes. The degree of infection, as measured by the abundance and biomass of intestinal parasites and the abundance of monogeneans on pike gills, was greatest in reference fishes and intermediate in low-exposure pike, whereas high-exposure fishes harbored no parasites.

  9. Age and growth of pike (Esox lucius) in Chivyrkui Bay, Lake Baikal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owens, Randall W.; Pronin, Nikolai M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe age and growth of pike (Esox lucius) in Lake Baikal. Pike were collected with gill nets and by angling in Chivyrkui Bay in late July-early August 1993 and by gill nets in June 1995. Total length (mm), weight (g), and sex were recorded and scales and cleithra were collected for aging. In 1993, pike, ages 1 to 3, ranged in length from 331 to 810 mm and in 1995 , pike, ages 2 to 10, ranged in length from 365 to 1,111 mm but only three percent were age 7 or older. Most growth in length occurred during the first two years of life. The length-weight relation for pike from Chivyrkui Bay was similar to that of pike from the St. Lawrence River. Calculated total length of pike from Lake Baikal equalled or exceeded the lengths of pike from lakes Erie or Ontario. Good agreement was found between ages from cleithra and from scales. Lengths at age in June 1995 (N=108) varied widely among pike. Females were generally larger than males at a given age among fish age-3 and older. When compared with the circumpolar growth standard, based on the von Bertalanffy growth curve, growth of Lake Baikal pike exceeded all other Asian populations, and equalled or exceeded many other northern hemisphere populations.

  10. Spatial genetic structure of northern pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Laikre, Linda; Miller, Loren M; Palmé, Anna; Palm, Stefan; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Thoresson, Gunnar; Ryman, Nils

    2005-06-01

    The genetic relationships among 337 northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from the coastal zone of the central Baltic region and the Finnish islands of Aland were analysed using five microsatellite loci. Spatial structure was delineated using both traditional F-statistics and individually based approaches including spatial autocorrelation analysis. Our results indicate that the observed genotypic distribution is incompatible with that of a single, panmictic population. Isolation by distance appears important for shaping the genetic structure of pike in this region resulting in a largely continuous genetic change over the study area. Spatial autocorrelation analysis (Moran's I) of individual pairwise genotypic data show significant positive genetic correlation among pike collected within geographical distances of less than c. 100-150 km (genetic patch size). We suggest that the genetic patch size may be used as a preliminary basis for identifying management units for pike in the Baltic Sea.

  11. Mechanical suppression of northern pike (Esox lucius) populations in small Arizona reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuzmenko, Yuliya; Spesiviy, Timofy; Bonar, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduced populations of northern pike Esox lucius have provided angling opportunities in the western United States (McMahon and Bennett 1996). However, the northern pike is a voracious piscivore and its large size, high fecundity, and broad physiological tolerance make it capable of drastically altering ecosystems it invades (Marchetti et al. 2004). Indeed, predation by northern pike has been shown to significantly alter fish community structure and put native fishes at a higher extinction risk (He and Kitchell 1990, Findlay et al. 2000). Predation by northern pike is viewed as a significant threat to native stocks of salmonids in Washington, British Columbia, and California (McMahon and Bennett 1996, California Department of Fish and Game [CDFG] 2003).

  12. Mixed mesodermal and mesenchymal origin of myotomal muscles in pike (Esox lucius: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Kacperczyk, A; Daczewska, M

    2006-02-01

    During the myotomal myogenesis in pike (Esox lucius) two phases of muscle differentiation can be distinguished. In the first phase, the somite cells-derived stock, the primary myoblasts (of mesodermal origin), fuse to form multinucleate myotubes. Participation of myotomal cells of mesodermal origin is insufficient for further muscle development. In the second stage mesenchymal cells migrate, via myosepts, into the myotome between myotubes. Immunocytochemical detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (marker of S phase of cell cycle) showed their mitotic activity. Transmission electron microscope analysis revealed that the differentiation of these cells depends on their position. Cells remaining in the myosepts develop into fibroblasts and produce collagen fibres, while those that have migrated into the myotomes transform into secondary myoblasts. Mesenchymal cells in the studied species are believed to participate in hypertrophy and hyperplasy of muscle fibres. Thus the muscle fibres in pike (E. lucius) are of mesodermal-mesenchymal origin.

  13. Age-dependent accumulation of (137)Cs by pike Esox lucius in the Yenisei River.

    PubMed

    Zotina, T A; Trofimova, E A; Dementyev, D V; Bolsunovsky, A Ya

    2016-05-01

    Age-dependent accumulation of (137)Cs in the muscles and bodies of the pike Esox lucius (aged two to seven years) inhabiting a section of the Yenisei River polluted with artificial radionuclides has been studied. The content of (137)Cs in muscles varied from 0.5 to 7.0 Bq/kg of fresh weight. The maximum content of the radionuclide has been found in juveniles. The content of (137)Cs in pike muscles and body decreased considerably with age. The high content of (137)Cs in the muscles of juveniles is probably a consequence of their higher intensity of feeding as compared to older individuals, which is due to the intense growth of juveniles.

  14. Mercury elimination rates for adult northern pike Esox lucius: evidence for a sex effect.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Blanchfield, Paul J; Hrenchuk, Lee E; Van Walleghem, Jillian L A

    2014-08-01

    We examined the effect of sex on mercury elimination in fish by monitoring isotope-enriched mercury concentrations in the muscle tissue of three adult female and three adult male northern pike Esox lucius, which had accumulated the isotope-enriched mercury via a whole-lake manipulation and were subsequently moved to a clean lake. Mercury elimination rates for female and male northern pike were estimated to be 0.00034 and 0.00073 day(-1), respectively. Thus, males were capable of eliminating mercury at more than double the rate than that of females. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first documentation of mercury elimination rates varying between the sexes of fish. This sex difference in elimination rates should be taken into account when comparing mercury accumulation between the sexes of fish from the same population. Further, our findings should eventually lead to an improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for mercury elimination in vertebrates.

  15. Mercury elimination rates for adult northern pike Esox lucius: evidence for a sex effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Blanchfield, Paul J.; Hrenchuk, Lee E.; Van Walleghem, Jillian L. A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of sex on mercury elimination in fish by monitoring isotope-enriched mercury concentrations in the muscle tissue of three adult female and three adult male northern pike Esox lucius, which had accumulated the isotope-enriched mercury via a whole-lake manipulation and were subsequently moved to a clean lake. Mercury elimination rates for female and male northern pike were estimated to be 0.00034 and 0.00073 day−1, respectively. Thus, males were capable of eliminating mercury at more than double the rate than that of females. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first documentation of mercury elimination rates varying between the sexes of fish. This sex difference in elimination rates should be taken into account when comparing mercury accumulation between the sexes of fish from the same population. Further, our findings should eventually lead to an improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for mercury elimination in vertebrates.

  16. Selective exploitation of large pike Esox lucius--effects on mercury concentrations in fish populations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Borgstrøm, Reidar; Huitfeldt, Jørgen Sinkaberg; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav

    2008-07-25

    The present study outlines two main trends of mercury transfer patterns through the fish community: 1) the Hg concentrations increase with increase in the trophic level, with top predators having the highest concentrations, and 2) a fast growth rate may dilute the concentrations of Hg in fish muscle tissue (growth biodilution). In 2004, an extensive reduction in number of large pike (Esox lucius L.), was initiated by selective gillnet fishing in Lake Arungen, Norway, in order to increase the pike recruitment due to an expected reduction in cannibalism. In this connection, total mercury (THg) concentrations in the fish community were studied both before (2003) and after (2005) the removal of large pike. The delta(15)N signatures and stomach content analyses indicated that pike and perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) occupied the highest trophic position, while roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)) was at the lower level, and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.) at the lowest. The piscivores, pike and perch, had the highest concentrations of THg. The biomagnification rate of THg through the food web in the fish community was 0.163 (per thousand delta(15)N), with the highest uptake rate (0.232) in perch. A significant decrease in THg concentrations was found in all fish species in 2005 compared to 2003. Removal of the top predators in an Hg contaminated lake might thus be an important management tool for reducing Hg levels in fish, thereby reducing health risk to humans.

  17. Biomarkers of contaminant exposure in Northern Pike (Esox lucius) from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hinck, J E; Blazer, V S; Denslow, N D; Myers, M S; Gross, T S; Tillitt, D E

    2007-05-01

    As part of a larger investigation, northern pike (n = 158; Esox lucius) were collected from ten sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska, to document biomarkers and their correlations with organochlorine pesticide (total p,p'-DDT, total chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and elemental contaminant (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium, and zinc) concentrations. A suite of biomarkers including somatic indices, hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, vitellogenin concentrations, steroid hormone (17B- ustradiol and 16-kebtestosteront) concentrations, splenic macrophage aggregates (MAs), oocyte atresia, and other microscopic anomalies in various tissues were documented in YRB pike. Mean condition factor (0.50 to 0.68), hepatosomatic index (1.00% to 3.56%), and splenosomatic index (0.09% to 0.18%) were not anomalous at any site nor correlated with any contaminant concentration. Mean EROD activity (0.71 to 17.51 pmol/min/mg protein) was similar to basal activity levels previously measured in pike and was positively correlated with selenium concentrations (r = 0.88, P < 0.01). Vitellogenin concentrations in female (0.09 to 5.32 mg/mL) and male (<0.0005 to 0.097 mg/mL) pike were not correlated with any contaminant, but vitellogenin concentrations >0.01 mg/mL in male pike from multiple sites indicated exposure to estrogenic compounds. Mean steroid hormone concentrations and percent oocyte atresia were not anomalous in pike from any YRB site. Few site differences were significant for mean MA density (1.86 to 6.42 MA/mm(2)), size (812 to 1481 microm(2)), and tissue occupied (MA-%; 0.24% to 0.75%). A linear regression between MA-% and total PCBs was significant, although PCB concentrations were generally low in YRB pike (< or =63 ng/g), and MA-% values in female pike (0.24% to 0.54%) were lower than in male pike (0.32% to 0.75%) at similar PCB concentrations. Greater numbers of MAs were found as

  18. Mercury toxicity in livers of northern pike (Esox lucius) from Isle Royale, USA.

    PubMed

    Drevnick, Paul E; Roberts, Aaron P; Otter, Ryan R; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Klaper, Rebecca; Oris, James T

    2008-04-01

    Many laboratory studies have documented that mercury can be toxic to fish, but it is largely unknown if mercury is toxic to fish in their natural environments. The objective of our study was to investigate the toxic effects of mercury on northern pike (Esox lucius) at Isle Royale, Michigan. In 124 northern pike from eight inland lakes, concentrations of total mercury in skin-on fillets ranged from 0.069 to 0.622 microg/g wet mass (wet wt). Concentrations of total mercury in livers increased exponentially compared with concentrations in fillets, to a maximum of 3.1 microg/g wet wt. Methylmercury constituted a majority of the mercury in livers with total mercury concentrations <0.5 microg/g wet wt, but declined to 28-51% of the mercury in livers with total mercury concentrations >0.5 microg/g wet wt. Liver color (absorbance at 400 nm) varied among northern pike and was positively related to liver total mercury concentration. The pigment causing variation in liver color was identified as lipofuscin, which results from lipid peroxidation of membranous organelles. An analysis of covariance revealed lipofuscin accumulation was primarily associated with mercury exposure, and this association obscured any normal accumulation from aging. We also documented decreased lipid reserves in livers and poor condition factors of northern pike with high liver total mercury concentrations. Our results suggest (i) northern pike at Isle Royale are experiencing toxicity at concentrations of total mercury common for northern pike and other piscivorous fish elsewhere in North America and (ii) liver color may be useful for indicating mercury exposure and effects in northern pike at Isle Royale and possibly other aquatic ecosystems and other fish species.

  19. Biomarkers of contaminant exposure in northern pike (Esox lucius) from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Myers, M.S.; Gross, T.S.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a larger investigation, northern pike (n = 158; Esox lucius) were collected from ten sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska, to document biomarkers and their correlations with organochlorine pesticide (total p,p'-DDT, total chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and elemental contaminant (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium, and zinc) concentrations. A suite of biomarkers including somatic indices, hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, vitellogenin concentrations, steroid hormone (17B- ustradiol and 16-kebtestosteront) concentrations, splenic macrophage aggregates (MAs), oocyte atresia, and other microscopic anomalies in various tissues were documented in YRB pike. Mean condition factor (0.50 to 0.68), hepatosomatic index (1.00% to 3.56%), and splenosomatic index (0.09% to 0.18%) were not anomalous at any site nor correlated with any contaminant concentration. Mean EROD activity (0.71 to 17.51 pmol/min/mg protein) was similar to basal activity levels previously measured in pike and was positively correlated with selenium concentrations (r = 0.88, P < 0.01). Vitellogenin concentrations in female (0.09 to 5.32 mg/mL) and male (0.01 mg/mL in male pike from multiple sites indicated exposure to estrogenic compounds. Mean steroid hormone concentrations and percent oocyte atresia were not anomalous in pike from any YRB site. Few site differences were significant for mean MA density (1.86 to 6.42 MA/mm2), size (812 to 1481 ??m2), and tissue occupied (MA-%; 0.24% to 0.75%). A linear regression between MA-% and total PCBs was significant, although PCB concentrations were generally low in YRB pike (???63 ng/g), and MA-% values in female pike (0.24% to 0.54%) were lower than in male pike (0.32% to 0.75%) at similar PCB concentrations. Greater numbers of MAs were found as zinc concentrations increased in YRB female pike, but it is unlikely that this is a causative relationship

  20. Biogenic amines formation in high-pressure processed pike flesh (Esox lucius) during storage.

    PubMed

    Křížek, Martin; Matějková, Kateřina; Vácha, František; Dadáková, Eva

    2014-05-15

    The effects of vacuum packaging followed by high pressure processing on the shelf-life of fillets of pike (Esox lucius) were examined. Samples were pressure-treated at 300 and 500 MPa and stored at 3.5 and 12 °C for up to 70 days. The content of eight biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and phenylethylamine) were determined. Putrescine showed very good correspondence with the level of applied pressure and organoleptic properties. Polyamines spermidine and spermine did not show statistically significant changes with the level of applied pressure and the time of storage. Increased cadaverine and tyramine contents were found in samples with good sensory signs, stored for longer time and/or kept at 12 °C, thus indicating the loss of freshness. Tryptamine and phenylethylamine were not detected in pressure-treated samples kept at 3.5 °C. Histamine was not detected in samples of good quality.

  1. 'Soft' harness for external attachment of large radio transmitters to northern pike (Esox lucius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herke, S.W.; Moring, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a 'soft' harness for dorsally attaching large, external radio transmitters to northern pike (Esox lucius). The key harness component was a soft, flexible, thick-walled tubing that prevented tissue abrasion by the attachment lines which passed through the tubing. Six field-tagged fish (1.5-7.5 kg) were monitored for 45-115 days before tracking was terminated. Tracking patterns of fish indicated no apparent effect of these large, external transmitters on movement behavior; further, the transmitters did not appear to entangle the fish in vegetation. One fish with its transmitter still secure was recaptured after 54 days, and there was minimal tissue erosion under the transmitter. With minor improvements for the attachment lines and the transmitter saddle, the method is suitable for externally attaching large telemetry transmitters to fish.

  2. DDT in northern pike (Esox lucius) from the Richelieu River, Québec, Canada, 1974-75.

    PubMed

    Boileau, S; Baril, M; Alary, J G

    1979-12-01

    Concentrations of DDT, TDE, DDE, and sigma DDT were determined in homogenized whole fish samples of 129 northern pike (Esox lucius). These fish were netted between June 1974 and June 1975 in the first 10 km of the Richelieu River flowing in Canadian territory. Two years after the banning of DDT, sigma DDT levels ranged from 0.2 ppm fresh body weight in two-year-old specimens to 1.5 ppm in a six-year-old pike. Residues increased greatly with age, and significant seasonal variations in the sigma DDT levels were found in five- and six-year-old pike.

  3. Temporal change estimation of mercury concentrations in northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in Swedish lakes.

    PubMed

    Åkerblom, Staffan; Nilsson, Mats; Yu, Jun; Ranneby, Bo; Johansson, Kjell

    2012-02-01

    Adequate temporal trend analysis of mercury (Hg) in freshwater ecosystems is critical to evaluate if actions from the human society have affected Hg concentrations ([Hg]) in fresh water biota. This study examined temporal change in [Hg] in Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) in Swedish freshwater lakes between 1994 and 2006. To achieve this were lake-specific, multiple-linear-regression models used to estimate pike [Hg], including indicator variables representing time and fish weight and their interactions. This approach permitted estimation of the direction and magnitude of temporal changes in 25 lakes selected from the Swedish national database on Hg in freshwater biota. A significant increase was found in 36% of the studied lakes with an average increase in pike [Hg] of 3.7±6.7% per year that was found to be positively correlated with total organic carbon. For lakes with a significant temporal change the dataset was based on a mean of 30 fish, while for lakes with no temporal change it was based on a mean of 13 fish.

  4. Susceptibility of pike Esox lucius to a panel of Ranavirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Ariel, Ellen

    2009-02-25

    In order to study the pathogenicity of ranaviruses to a wild European freshwater fish species, pike Esox lucius fry were challenged with the following Ranavirus isolates: epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), European sheatfish virus (ESV), European catfish virus (ECV), pike-perch iridovirus (PPIV), New Zealand eel virus (NZeelV) and frog virus 3 (FV3). The fry were infected using bath challenge at 12 and 22 degrees C. Significant mortalities were observed at 12 degrees C for EHNV, ESV, PPIV and NZeelV. Background mortality was too high in the experiments performed at 22 degrees C for any conclusions about viral pathogenicity at this temperature to be drawn. Viruses could be re-isolated from samples from all challenged groups, and their presence in infected tissue was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry. The findings suggest that pike fry are susceptible to EHNV, ESV, PPIV and NZeelV and can be a vector for ECV and FV3. Statistical analysis of the factors associated with positive virus re-isolation showed that the number of fish in the sample influenced the outcome of virus re-isolation. Moreover, the likelihood of positive virus re-isolation significantly differed among the 6 viral isolates. The temperature from where the sample was taken and the number of days after infection were not associated with the probability of a positive virus re-isolation.

  5. Pike Esox lucius as an emerging model organism for studies in ecology and evolutionary biology: a review.

    PubMed

    Forsman, A; Tibblin, P; Berggren, H; Nordahl, O; Koch-Schmidt, P; Larsson, P

    2015-08-01

    The pike Esox lucius is a large, long-lived, iteroparous, top- predator fish species with a circumpolar distribution that occupies a broad range of aquatic environments. This study reports on a literature search and demonstrates that the publication rate of E. lucius research increases both in absolute terms and relative to total scientific output, and that the focus of investigation has changed over time from being dominated by studies on physiology and disease to being gradually replaced by studies on ecology and evolution. Esox lucius can be exploited as a model in future research for identifying causes and consequences of phenotypic and genetic variation at the levels of individuals, populations and species as well as for investigating community processes.

  6. Larval deformities associated with selenium accumulation in northern pike (Esox lucius) exposed to metal mining effluent.

    PubMed

    Muscatello, Jorgelina R; Bennett, Pamela M; Himbeault, Kevin T; Belknap, Andrew M; Janz, David M

    2006-10-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate selenium toxicosis in larval northern pike (Esox lucius) originating from reproductively mature pike collected downstream of a uranium milling operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Eggs were obtained from female pike collected from a reference site and three sites representing an exposure gradient (approximately 2, 10, and 15 km downstream of effluent discharge). Embryos were incubated following a two-way (crossover) analysis of variance experimental design that allowed discrimination between effects due to maternal transfer to eggs and effects due to site water exposure in the developing embryos. The major finding of this study was a significant increase in the frequencies of individual deformities (skeletal curvatures, craniofacial deformities, and fin deformities) and edema in fry originating from high and medium exposure site females (mean selenium concentrations of 48.23 and 31.28 microg/g egg dry weight and 38.27 and 16.58 microg/g muscle dry weight, respectively) compared to reference site females. Selenium concentrations resulting in a 20% increase in total deformities above background levels (EC20S) were 33.55 and 21.54 micro/g dry weight in eggs and muscle, respectively. Mathematical conversion of the egg- and muscle-derived relationships to whole body selenium levels resulted in similar EC20S of 15.56 and 17.72 microg/g dry weight, respectively. These relationships between tissue selenium levels and larval deformities suggest that northern pike are within the same range of sensitivity to selenium as the majority of warm water (e.g., centrarchids and cyprinids) and cold water (e.g., salmonids) fish species studied to date.

  7. Genetic structure of pike (Esox lucius) reveals a complex and previously unrecognized colonization history of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Pedreschi, Debbi; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Caffrey, Joe; O’Grady, Martin; Mariani, Stefano; Phillimore, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Aim We investigated genetic variation of Irish pike populations and their relationship with European outgroups, in order to elucidate the origin of this species to the island, which is largely assumed to have occurred as a human-mediated introduction over the past few hundred years. We aimed thereby to provide new insights into population structure to improve fisheries and biodiversity management in Irish freshwaters. Location Ireland, Britain and continental Europe. Methods A total of 752 pike (Esox lucius) were sampled from 15 locations around Ireland, and 9 continental European sites, and genotyped at six polymorphic microsatellite loci. Patterns and mechanisms of population genetic structure were assessed through a diverse array of methods, including Bayesian clustering, hierarchical analysis of molecular variance, and approximate Bayesian computation. Results Varying levels of genetic diversity and a high degree of population genetic differentiation were detected. Clear substructure within Ireland was identified, with two main groups being evident. One of the Irish populations showed high similarity with British populations. The other, more widespread, Irish strain did not group with any European population examined. Approximate Bayesian computation suggested that this widespread Irish strain is older, and may have colonized Ireland independently of humans. Main conclusions Population genetic substructure in Irish pike is high and comparable to the levels observed elsewhere in Europe. A comparison of evolutionary scenarios upholds the possibility that pike may have colonized Ireland in two ‘waves’, the first of which, being independent of human colonization, would represent the first evidence for natural colonization of a non-anadromous freshwater fish to the island of Ireland. Although further investigations using comprehensive genomic techniques will be necessary to confirm this, the present results warrant a reappraisal of current management strategies

  8. Endocrine (sexual) disruption is not a prominent feature in the pike (Esox lucius), a top predator, living in English waters.

    PubMed

    Vine, Emma; Shears, Jan; van Aerle, Ronny; Tyler, Charles R; Sumpter, John P

    2005-06-01

    The high incidence of intersex roach (Rutilus rutilus) in some United Kingdom rivers that has been associated with exposure to sewage treatment works (STWs) effluent led us to hypothesize that top predator fish also may be affected by estrogenic chemicals, because they are likely to bioaccumulate lipophilic compounds through a predator-prey relationship. To investigate this possibility, pike (Esox lucius) were sampled both upstream and downstream of STWs and then examined for total estrogenic activity of their bile, as measured using a yeast-based estrogen assay to determine the degree of recent exposure of the pike to estrogens and vitellogenin induction, and for possible disruption of sexual development, as measured using histological analysis of the gonads. No evidence of severe disruption was found in the sampled fish, which came from 16 sampling sites that were representative of English rivers. However, 14% of pike were intersex, of which 15 of 16 showed patches of male germ cells among predominantly female gonadal tissue. The incidence of masculinization was independent of whether the pike had been sampled upstream or downstream of STWs. Although pike are gonochoristic, it is not known if this masculinization of presumptive female pike is normal or, instead, indicative of endocrine disruption. Vitellogenin concentrations were not elevated in male pike at sites either upstream or downstream of STWs. The results suggest that sexual disruption is not common in pike, a fish at the top of the food chain in the freshwaters of England.

  9. [Taxonomic characteristics and physiological properties of microorganisms from the gut of pike (Esox lucius)].

    PubMed

    Izveskova, G I; Nemtseva, N V; Plotnikov, A O

    2008-01-01

    The taxonomic composition and distribution of microorganisms differing in the degree of association with the intestinal mucosa of the pike (Lucius lucius) has been studied. Microorgansism of the families Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Vibrionaceae dominate in the gut microflora. Numerically prevailing bacterial species are characterized by high proteolytic and amylolytic enzyme activities as well as by high persistence accounted for by antilysozyme and antihistone activities. The results of this study show that Hafnia alvei, Yersinia ruckeri, Vibrio vulnificus, V. furnissii, Aeromonas salmonicida, and Shewanella putrefaciens may be regarded as normal components of the pike gut microflora.

  10. Visibility conditions and diel period affect small-scale spatio-temporal behaviour of pike Esox lucius in the absence of prey and conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, P A; Baktoft, H; Boel, M; Meier, K; Jacobsen, L; Rokkjaer, E M; Clausen, T; Skov, C

    2012-05-01

    Pike Esox lucius in the absence of prey and conspecifics were shown to have the highest habitat-change activity during dusk and to decrease preference for complex habitats in turbid water. As the behaviours indicate routine responses in the absence of behavioural interactions, E. lucius spatio-temporal distributions should be directly affected and thereby more easily assessed and avoided by prey, with potential consequences for encounter rates.

  11. Post-glacial dispersal patterns of Northern pike inferred from an 8800 year old pike (Esox cf. lucius) skull from interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooller, Matthew J.; Gaglioti, Benjamin; Fulton, Tara L.; Lopez, Andres; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-07-01

    The biogeography of freshwater fish species during and after late-Pleistocene glaciations relate to how these species are genetically organized today, and the management of these often disjunct populations. Debate exists concerning the biogeography and routes of dispersal for Northern pike (Esox lucius) after the last glaciation. A hypothesis to account for the relatively low modern genetic diversity for E. lucius is post-glacial radiation from refugia, including lakes from within the un-glaciated portions of eastern Beringia. We report the remains of a Northern pike (E. cf. lucius) skull, including bones, teeth, bone collagen and ancient DNA. The remains were preserved at a depth of between 440 and 446 cm in a 670 cm long core of sediment from Quartz Lake, which initiated at ˜11,200 cal yr BP in interior Alaska. A calibrated accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon age of the collagen extracted from the preserved bones indicated that the organism was dated to 8820 cal yr BP and is bracketed by AMS values from analyses of terrestrial plant macrofossils, avoiding any potential aquatic reservoir effect that could have influenced the radiocarbon age of the bones. Scanning electron microscope images of the specimen show the hinged tooth anatomy typically of E. lucius. Molar C:N (3.5, 1σ = 0.1) value of the collagen from the specimen indicated well-preserved collagen and its mean stable nitrogen isotope value is consistent with the known predatory feeding ecology of E. lucius. Ancient DNA in the bones showed that the specimen was identical to modern E. lucius. Our record of E. lucius from interior Alaska is consistent with a biogeographic scenario involving rapid dispersal of this species from glacial refugia in the northern hemisphere after the last glaciation.

  12. Fish Community Responses to the Establishment of a Piscivore, Northern Pike (Esox lucius), in a Nebraska Sandhill Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBates, T.J.; Paukert, C.P.; Willis, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) was first documented in West Long Lake, Nebraska, in 1998 when two pike <380 mm were collected. In 2002, a Peterson mark-recapture population estimate on northern pike revealed density and standing stock (i.e., biomass) estimates of 35.8 fish/ha (95% CI= ?? 8.8) and 22.0 kg/ha (95% CI= ?? 5.4), respectively. Consequently, West Long Lake was sampled in 2002 to compare relative abundance, size structure, and growth of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) prior to and after the establishment of a high-density northern pike population. Bluegill, largemouth bass, and yellow perch relative abundances were significantly lower in 2002 than 1998. Similarly, size structures of all three species were significantly different between years. Size structure declined for both bluegill and yellow perch, and increased for largemouth bass. Growth was significantly higher for bluegill, largemouth bass, and yellow perch in 2002 than 1998. While the fish community changes were expected with the establishment of northern pike, they occurred in a relatively short time period (i.e., four years).

  13. Assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology in juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius) inhabiting lakes downstream of a uranium mill.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jocelyn M; Janz, David M

    2009-05-17

    Lakes receiving effluent from the Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan contain elevated trace metals, some of which are associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and tissues causing oxidative stress. The potential for oxidative stress was assessed in juvenile (age 1+) northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from two exposure (high and low) and one reference lake near the Key Lake operation. The concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized glutathione and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione in liver and kidney did not differ significantly among pike collected from exposure and reference lakes, with the exception of low exposure pike kidney that had significantly greater oxidized glutathione and ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione. The concentrations of by-products of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenal) were significantly greater in kidney of pike collected from the reference lake compared to both exposure lakes. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase in liver was greater in pike collected from the high exposure lake compared to the reference lake. Histopathological evaluations revealed greater pathology in reference lake pike as indicated by a greater number of pyknotic and fragmented nuclei and dilated tubules as well as a thickening of Bowman's capsule in kidney, and as a thickening of the primary filament epithelial padding in gills. In liver, hepatocyte morphology, including transsectional area and degree of vacuolation, differed among lakes without any clear signs of pathology. Trace metal analyses of muscle showed that eight elements (arsenic, cobalt, copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium, thallium, and uranium) were significantly elevated in pike collected from both exposure lakes compared to reference. These results provide only limited evidence of oxidative stress in exposure pike tissues and no evidence of histopathology despite indications that trace metals, most

  14. Rhipidocotyle fennica (Digenea: Bucephalidae) from Anodonta anatina and pike Esox lucius in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Stunžėnas, Virmantas; Petkevičiūtė, Romualda; Stanevičiūtė, Gražina; Binkienė, Rasa

    2014-10-01

    Ribosomal DNA sequences of Rhipidocotyle sp. adults from Esox lucius were shown to be identical to sequences of larval Rhipidocotyle fennica, occurring in Anodonta anatina in Lake Vilkokšnis, Lithuania. Morphological features and host specificity of this adult worm correspond with that, determinate in the first description of R. fennica in Finland. These data give the first evidence that a viable population of R. fennica exists in east central Europe. Bucephalus polymorphus which was reported in unionids in all previous publications is probably R. fennica.

  15. Potential of Environmental DNA to Evaluate Northern Pike (Esox lucius) Eradication Efforts: An Experimental Test and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunker, Kristine J.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Massengill, Robert L.; Olsen, Jeffrey B.; Russ, Ora L.; Wenburg, John K.; Antonovich, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Determining the success of invasive species eradication efforts is challenging because populations at very low abundance are difficult to detect. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has recently emerged as a powerful tool for detecting rare aquatic animals; however, detectable fragments of DNA can persist over time despite absence of the targeted taxa and can therefore complicate eDNA sampling after an eradication event. This complication is a large concern for fish eradication efforts in lakes since killed fish can sink to the bottom and slowly decay. DNA released from these carcasses may remain detectable for long periods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of eDNA sampling to detect invasive Northern pike (Esox lucius) following piscicide eradication efforts in southcentral Alaskan lakes. We used field observations and experiments to test the sensitivity of our Northern pike eDNA assay and to evaluate the persistence of detectable DNA emitted from Northern pike carcasses. We then used eDNA sampling and traditional sampling (i.e., gillnets) to test for presence of Northern pike in four lakes subjected to a piscicide-treatment designed to eradicate this species. We found that our assay could detect an abundant, free-roaming population of Northern pike and could also detect low-densities of Northern pike held in cages. For these caged Northern pike, probability of detection decreased with distance from the cage. We then stocked three lakes with Northern pike carcasses and collected eDNA samples 7, 35 and 70 days post-stocking. We detected DNA at 7 and 35 days, but not at 70 days. Finally, we collected eDNA samples ~ 230 days after four lakes were subjected to piscicide-treatments and detected Northern pike DNA in 3 of 179 samples, with a single detection at each of three lakes, though we did not catch any Northern pike in gillnets. Taken together, we found that eDNA can help to inform eradication efforts if used in conjunction with multiple lines of inquiry and sampling

  16. Potential of Environmental DNA to Evaluate Northern Pike (Esox lucius) Eradication Efforts: An Experimental Test and Case Study.

    PubMed

    Dunker, Kristine J; Sepulveda, Adam J; Massengill, Robert L; Olsen, Jeffrey B; Russ, Ora L; Wenburg, John K; Antonovich, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Determining the success of invasive species eradication efforts is challenging because populations at very low abundance are difficult to detect. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has recently emerged as a powerful tool for detecting rare aquatic animals; however, detectable fragments of DNA can persist over time despite absence of the targeted taxa and can therefore complicate eDNA sampling after an eradication event. This complication is a large concern for fish eradication efforts in lakes since killed fish can sink to the bottom and slowly decay. DNA released from these carcasses may remain detectable for long periods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of eDNA sampling to detect invasive Northern pike (Esox lucius) following piscicide eradication efforts in southcentral Alaskan lakes. We used field observations and experiments to test the sensitivity of our Northern pike eDNA assay and to evaluate the persistence of detectable DNA emitted from Northern pike carcasses. We then used eDNA sampling and traditional sampling (i.e., gillnets) to test for presence of Northern pike in four lakes subjected to a piscicide-treatment designed to eradicate this species. We found that our assay could detect an abundant, free-roaming population of Northern pike and could also detect low-densities of Northern pike held in cages. For these caged Northern pike, probability of detection decreased with distance from the cage. We then stocked three lakes with Northern pike carcasses and collected eDNA samples 7, 35 and 70 days post-stocking. We detected DNA at 7 and 35 days, but not at 70 days. Finally, we collected eDNA samples ~ 230 days after four lakes were subjected to piscicide-treatments and detected Northern pike DNA in 3 of 179 samples, with a single detection at each of three lakes, though we did not catch any Northern pike in gillnets. Taken together, we found that eDNA can help to inform eradication efforts if used in conjunction with multiple lines of inquiry and sampling

  17. Potential of environmental DNA to evaluate Northern pike (Esox lucius) eradication efforts: An experimental test and case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunker, Kristine J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Massengill, Robert L.; Olsen, Jeffrey B.; Russ, Ora L.; Wenburg, John K.; Antonovich, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Determining the success of invasive species eradication efforts is challenging because populations at very low abundance are difficult to detect. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has recently emerged as a powerful tool for detecting rare aquatic animals; however, detectable fragments of DNA can persist over time despite absence of the targeted taxa and can therefore complicate eDNA sampling after an eradication event. This complication is a large concern for fish eradication efforts in lakes since killed fish can sink to the bottom and slowly decay. DNA released from these carcasses may remain detectable for long periods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of eDNA sampling to detect invasive Northern pike (Esox lucius) following piscicide eradication efforts in southcentral Alaskan lakes. We used field observations and experiments to test the sensitivity of our Northern pike eDNA assay and to evaluate the persistence of detectable DNA emitted from Northern pike carcasses. We then used eDNA sampling and traditional sampling (i.e., gillnets) to test for presence of Northern pike in four lakes subjected to a piscicide-treatment designed to eradicate this species. We found that our assay could detect an abundant, free-roaming population of Northern pike and could also detect low-densities of Northern pike held in cages. For these caged Northern pike, probability of detection decreased with distance from the cage. We then stocked three lakes with Northern pike carcasses and collected eDNA samples 7, 35 and 70 days post-stocking. We detected DNA at 7 and 35 days, but not at 70 days. Finally, we collected eDNA samples ~ 230 days after four lakes were subjected to piscicide-treatments and detected Northern pike DNA in 3 of 179 samples, with a single detection at each of three lakes, though we did not catch any Northern pike in gillnets. Taken together, we found that eDNA can help to inform eradication efforts if used in conjunction with multiple lines of inquiry and sampling

  18. Spatial analysis of Cd and Pb in the Pike (Esox lucius) from Western Anzali wetlands of Iran.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, R; Esmaili-Sari, A; Mohammadi, J; Riyahi Bakhtiari, A; Savabieasfahani, M

    2013-04-01

    Geostatistical studies are used to estimate pollution burden in aquatic ecosystems and to plan large-scale control programs to protect these environments. Geostatistical studies allow us to predicted pollutant concentrations for areas that have not been sampled. This is done by taking into account the spatial correlations between estimated and sampled points and by minimizing the variance of estimation error. The use of geostatistical techniques in biomonitoring of fish species can illuminate extent and source of pollution, thereby providing an effective tool for developing intervention strategies to protect such environments. This study investigates the spatial distribution patterns of cadmium and lead in the Pike (Esox lucius). Fish were captured in the western parts of the Anzali wetlands located on the Caspian Sea in Iran. The muscle tissue of Anzali Pike had 5 ± 0.25 and 168 ± 18.4 (ng/g dw) cadmium and lead, respectively. Positive relationships were detected between Pike's length and weight (r = 0.85, p < 0.05), length and age (r = 0.35, p < 0.05), and muscle cadmium and lead (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). By contrast, there was a negative relationship between lead levels and weight in Pike (r = -0.36, p < 0.05). For both metals, the resulting metal concentration maps indicated higher pollutant concentrations in the southeast parts of the study area. Considerable boat traffic activity and agricultural activity contribute to the pollution in these areas, undermining the integrity of local habitat for fish survival and reproduction.

  19. Between-population similarity in intestinal parasite community structure of pike (Esox lucius)--effects of distance and historical connections.

    PubMed

    Karvonen, Anssi; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2009-06-01

    The effect of geographical distance on similarity in parasite communities of freshwater fish has received considerable attention in recent years, and it has become evident that these apparently simple relationships are influenced by, among other things, colonization ability of parasites and degree of connectivity between the populations. In the present paper, we explored qualitative and quantitative similarity in the intestinal parasite communities of pike (Esox lucius) in a particular system where previously interconnected groups of lakes became isolated ca. 8,400 yr ago. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find differences in similarity between the lake groups or a negative effect of distance among the populations. This supports the role of common ancestral colonization events and shows that no significant loss of species has occurred during the past 8,000 yr. However, the communities were dominated by a single parasite species, the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus. The exclusion of this species from the data had a significant negative impact on the community similarities and also revealed a negative relationship between distance and quantitative similarity. This suggests that patterns of community organization may be obscured by a single dominant species. We also highlight the need for further studies in different systems and host species, as well as detailed reanalysis of existing data sets, to unravel the controversy in the relationship between distance and similarity in parasite communities.

  20. {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in wild perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius)

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, G.; Liewenborg, B.; Balk, L.

    1995-12-31

    Several previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between high concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants and elevated levels of aromatic/hydrophobic DNA adduct levels in the liver of benthic fish species. In the present study DNA adducts was analyzed in coastal populations of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Fish were sampled from four different sites in a gradient from a heavily industrialized area at the Swedish Baltic coast. For comparison, fish were also caught in a reference area with no main industries and comparatively low levels of contaminants of anthropogenic origin. DNA was extracted from liver and several extrahepatic tissues and DNA adducts were analyzed by the nuclease PI version of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay. The autoradiograms derived from DNA of fish from the contaminated sites showed several adduct spots not visible on the autoradiograms derived from fish from the reference area. Total adduct levels were significantly elevated in several tissues in fish from contaminated sites compared to the reference area. Species and tissue-specific differences in adduct levels and the use of {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts as a biomarker to monitor the presence and effects of genotoxic chemicals in the aquatic environment are discussed.

  1. Landscape variability explains spatial pattern of population structure of northern pike (Esox lucius) in a large fluvial system

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet-Cauchon, Geneviève; Mingelbier, Marc; Lecomte, Frédéric; Bernatchez, Louis

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies have been investigating the influence of contemporary environmental factors on population genetic structure, but few have addressed the issue of spatial patterns in the variable intensity of factors influencing the extent of population structure, and particularly so in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we document the landscape genetics of northern pike (Esox lucius), based on the analysis of nearly 3000 individuals from 40 sampling sites using 22 microsatellites along the Lake Ontario – St. Lawrence River system (750 km) that locally presents diverse degrees of interannual water level variation. Genetic structure was globally very weak (FST = 0.0208) but spatially variable with mean level of differentiation in the upstream section of the studied area being threefold higher (FST = 0.0297) than observed in the downstream sector (FST = 0.0100). Beside interannual water level fluctuation, 19 additional variables were considered and a multiple regression on distance matrices model (R2 = 0.6397, P < 0.001) revealed that water masses (b = 0.3617, P < 0.001) and man-made dams (b = 0.4852, P < 0.005) reduced genetic connectivity. Local level of interannual water level stability was positively associated to the extent of genetic differentiation (b = 0.3499, P < 0.05). As water level variation impacts on yearly quality and localization of spawning habitats, our study illustrates how temporal variation in local habitat availability, caused by interannual water level fluctuations, may locally decrease population genetic structure by forcing fish to move over longer distances to find suitable habitat. This study thus represents one of the rare examples of how environmental fluctuations may influence spatial variation in the extent of population genetic structure within a given species. PMID:25614787

  2. Landscape variability explains spatial pattern of population structure of northern pike (Esox lucius) in a large fluvial system.

    PubMed

    Ouellet-Cauchon, Geneviève; Mingelbier, Marc; Lecomte, Frédéric; Bernatchez, Louis

    2014-10-01

    A growing number of studies have been investigating the influence of contemporary environmental factors on population genetic structure, but few have addressed the issue of spatial patterns in the variable intensity of factors influencing the extent of population structure, and particularly so in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we document the landscape genetics of northern pike (Esox lucius), based on the analysis of nearly 3000 individuals from 40 sampling sites using 22 microsatellites along the Lake Ontario - St. Lawrence River system (750 km) that locally presents diverse degrees of interannual water level variation. Genetic structure was globally very weak (F ST = 0.0208) but spatially variable with mean level of differentiation in the upstream section of the studied area being threefold higher (F ST = 0.0297) than observed in the downstream sector (F ST = 0.0100). Beside interannual water level fluctuation, 19 additional variables were considered and a multiple regression on distance matrices model (R (2)  = 0.6397, P < 0.001) revealed that water masses (b = 0.3617, P < 0.001) and man-made dams (b = 0.4852, P < 0.005) reduced genetic connectivity. Local level of interannual water level stability was positively associated to the extent of genetic differentiation (b = 0.3499, P < 0.05). As water level variation impacts on yearly quality and localization of spawning habitats, our study illustrates how temporal variation in local habitat availability, caused by interannual water level fluctuations, may locally decrease population genetic structure by forcing fish to move over longer distances to find suitable habitat. This study thus represents one of the rare examples of how environmental fluctuations may influence spatial variation in the extent of population genetic structure within a given species.

  3. Effects of osmolality on sperm morphology, motility and flagellar wave parameters in Northern pike (Esox lucius L.).

    PubMed

    Alavi, S M Hadi; Rodina, Marek; Viveiros, Ana T M; Cosson, Jacky; Gela, David; Boryshpolets, Sergei; Linhart, Otomar

    2009-07-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) spermatozoa are uniflagellated cells differentiated into a head without acrosome, a midpiece and a flagellar tail region flanked by a fin structure. Total, flagellar, head and midpiece lengths of spermatozoa were measured and show mean values of 34.5, 32.0, 1.32, 1.17 microm, respectively, with anterior and posterior widths of the midpiece measuring 0.8 and 0.6 microm, respectively. The osmolality of seminal plasma ranged from 228 to 350 mOsmol kg(-1) (average: 283.88+/-33.05). After triggering of sperm motility in very low osmolality medium (distilled water), blebs appeared along the flagellum. At later periods in the motility phase, the tip of the flagellum became curled into a loop shape which resulted in a shortening of the flagellum and a restriction of wave development to the proximal part (close to head). Spermatozoa velocity and percentage of motile spermatozoa decreased rapidly as a function of time postactivation and depended on the osmolality of activation media (P<0.05). In general, the greatest percentage of motile spermatozoa and highest spermatozoa velocity were observed between 125 and 235 mOsmol kg(-1). Osmolality above 375 mOsmol kg(-1) inhibited the motility of spermatozoa. After triggering of sperm motility in activation media, beating waves propagated along the full length of flagella, while waves appeared dampened during later periods in the motility phase, and were absent at the end of the motility phase. By increasing osmolality, the velocity of spermatozoa reached the highest value while wave length, amplitude, number of waves and curvatures also were at their highest values. This study showed that sperm morphology can be used for fish classification. Sperm morphology, in particular, the flagellar part showed several changes during activation in distilled water. Sperm motility of pike is inhibited due to high osmolality in the seminal plasma. Osmolality of activation medium affects the percentage of motile

  4. Pike Esox Lucius Distribution and Feeding Comparisons in Natural and Historically Channelized River Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovs, Kaspars

    2016-12-01

    During the last century a large portion of small and medium-sized rivers in Latvia were channelized, hydroelectric power stations were also built, which led to changes in the hydrodynamic conditions, geomorphological structure, as well as a change in the fish fauna. Fish are an integral part of any community in natural or man-made bodies of water. They actively participate in maintaining the system, balancing/equilibrium, energy, substance transformation and biomass production. They are able to influence other organisms in the ecosystem in which they live. The aim of the paper "Pike distribution and feeding comparisons in natural and historically channelized river sections" is to find out what pike feed on in different environments in Latvian rivers, such as natural and straightened river sections, as well as what main factors determine the composition of their food. Several points were assessed during the course of the study: the impact of environmental conditions on the feeding habits and the distribution of pike; the general feeding habits of predators in Latvian rivers; the feeding differences of predators in natural and straightened river sections; and lastly, rhithral and pothamal habitats were compared. The study was based on data from 2014 and 2015 on fish fauna monitoring. During the study, 347 pike were collected from 136 plots using electrofishing method.

  5. Length-weight relationship of northern pike, Esox lucius, from East Harbor, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Edward H.; Clark, Clarence F.

    1965-01-01

    The northern pike is one of Ohio's largest game fish but is well known to comparatively few anglers. Large numbers of the big fish spawn in the Ohio marshes adjacent to Lake Erie. Movements related to spawning reach a peak in late March or early April. Later the spawning population disperses and is seldom represented in catches by experimental gear or by anglers. The short period of availability was used to obtain life history information in March of 1951 through 1953. No comprehensive length-weight data for this species have previously been published from this area. East Harbor is a sandspit pond separated from Lake Erie by a large sand bar. Waters and fish populations of the harbor and lake can mix freely through a permanent connecting channel. The larger part of the 850 surface acres of the harbor is normally less than 8 feet deep. The male northern pike averaged 20.5 inches in length and ranged from 13.5 to 28.5 inches. The conspicuously larger females averaged 26.0 inches and ranged from 15.5 to 37.5 inches.

  6. Fine-scale oscillatory banding in otoliths from arctic charr (Salveninus alpinus) and pike (Esox lucius)

    SciTech Connect

    Meldrum, A.; Halden, N.M.

    1997-12-31

    Transmission electron microscopy of otoliths from the inner ear of arctic charr and pike has revealed the presence of fine banding on the scale of several nanometers. The thickness of the bands was observed to vary in different portions of the sample, and some areas were not banded. EDS analysis could not detect chemical differences within the bands, but electron diffraction showed that the crystallographic orientation of the bands is related by a lattice mismatch. Previously, banding on the scale of 50 to 100 microns was observed by SEM in otoliths from arctic charr and was attributed to seasonal variations in growth. The fine-scale banding observed in this study, however, is unlikely to represent a daily variation. Electron diffraction from the pike samples shows that the material is composed of CaCO{sub 3} having the both the vaterite and aragonite structure, and hydrous CaCO{sub 3} was also observed. The large-scale banding previously identified by SEM was not observed in the TEM despite attempts to intersect the boundaries of the micron-sized layers. The interaction of the electron beam with the sample material was investigated by conducting several electron-irradiation experiments. The electron beam was observed to interact strongly with the sample and caused the precipitation of cubic CaO from the calcium carbonate matrix. Bright-field imaging showed the development of fine grained ({approximately} 5 nm) randomly oriented crystallites which accumulated with increasing electron dose. These initial results suggest that the precipitation of CaO is not driven by electron-beam beating. Previously, a similar phase-change phenomenon has been observed in hydroxyapatite from dental enamel. Other Ca-bearing biominerals may therefore also be expected to be sensitive to electron irradiation.

  7. Bioenergetics and growth of young-of the-year northern pike (Esox lucius) and burbot (Lota lota) exposed to metal mining effluent.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Pamela M; Janz, David M

    2007-09-01

    We hypothesized that exposure to metal mining effluent would reduce the ability of young-of-the-year fishes to accumulate energy reserves to survive the overwinter period (known as "winter stress syndrome") in a Canadian boreal forest watershed. Northern pike (Esox lucius) and burbot (Lota lota) were collected immediately before and after winter from a reference lake and two lakes receiving effluent. Unexpectedly, total body lipid and triglyceride, and liver triglyceride levels were greater in effluent-exposed pike and burbot in both fall and spring. However, there were no lake or season differences in growth indices of length, weight, muscle RNA/DNA ratio, or muscle protein levels in pike. In addition, total lipids and triglycerides in burbot were greater in spring compared to fall, while no seasonal differences were observed in pike, suggesting that burbot continued to feed during winter. Findings do not support the winter stress syndrome hypothesis and suggest possible direct and indirect effects of metal mining effluent on lipid dynamics of juvenile fishes.

  8. Fluence rate or cumulative dose? Vulnerability of larval northern pike (Esox lucius) to ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Vehniäinen, E-R; Häkkinen, Jani M; Oikari, Aimo O J

    2007-01-01

    Newly hatched larvae of northern pike were exposed in the laboratory to four fluence rates of ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 290-400 nm) over three different time periods, resulting in total doses ranging from 3.0 +/- 0.2 to 63.0 +/- 4.4 kJ.m(-2). Mortality and behavior of the larvae were followed for 8-12 days, and growth measured at the end of the experiment. Also, the principle of reciprocity-that the UVR-induced mortality depends on the cumulative dose, independent of fluence rate-was tested. Fluence rates higher than 1480 +/- 150 mW.m(-2) caused mortality and growth retardation. The highest fluence rate (3040 +/- 210 mW.m(-2)) caused 100% mortality in 5 days. All fluence rates caused behavioral disorders, which led to death at fluence rates higher than 1480 mW.m(-2). Reciprocity failure occurred with the lowest and highest dose (550 +/- 45 and 3040 +/- 210 mW.m(-2), respectively). The results show that fluence rate is of primary importance when assessing the UVR-related risk.

  9. Investigation of first year biotic and abiotic influences on the recruitment of pike Esox lucius over 48 years in Windermere, UK.

    PubMed

    Paxton, C G M; Winfield, I J; Fletcher, J M; George, D G; Hewitt, D P

    2009-07-01

    Estimated pike Esox lucius recruitment varied by a factor of 16 for females from 1944 to 1991 and by a factor of 27 for males from 1943 to 1990 in Windermere, a temperate, mesotrophic U.K. lake. No significant stock-recruitment relationships were found, but analysis with general additive models (GAMs) revealed that early autumnal water temperature, strength and direction of the North Atlantic Oscillation displacement (corresponding to different climatic conditions in winter) and zooplankton abundance but above all, late summer water temperature were important explanatory variables over the entire time series. Female recruitment was also influenced by young-of-the-year winter temperature. There was no evidence that perch Perca fluviatilis year-class strength, lake level or the summer position of the Gulf Stream influenced recruitment. The fitted models explained up to c. 65% of the overall observed variation between years.

  10. Uptake and distribution of (/sup 3/H)benzo(a)pyrene in the Northern pike (Esox lucius). Examination by whole-body autoradiography and scintillation counting

    SciTech Connect

    Balk, L.; Meijer, J.; DePierre, J.W.; Appelgren, L.E.

    1984-07-01

    The uptake and distribution of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene in Northern pike (Esox lucius) were investigated by whole body autoradiography and scintillation counting. (/sup 3/H)Benzo(a)pyrene was administered either in the diet or in the water. The uptake and distribution of this compound and its metabolites were followed from 10 hr to 21 days after the initial exposure. The autoradiography patterns observed here with both routes of administration suggest, as expected, that benzo(a)pyrene is taken up through the gastrointestinal system and the gills, metabolized in the liver, and excreted in the urine and bile. Other findings indicate that the gills may not be a major route of excretion for benzo(a)pyrene and its metabolites in the Northern pike; that benzo(a)pyrene may be taken up from the water directly into the skin of this fish; that benzo(a)pyrene and its metabolites are heterogeneously distributed in the kidney of the Northern pike; and that very little radioactivity accumulates in the adipose tissue. With scintillation counting, uptake of radioactivity from the water was found to occur rapidly in all organs, reaching a plateau in most cases after about 0.8 days. The concentrations of radioactivity in different organs ranged between 50 (many organs) and 80,000 (gallbladder + bile) times that found in the surrounding water.

  11. Environmental factors regulate the effects of roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius on perch Perca fluviatilis populations in small boreal forest lakes.

    PubMed

    Olin, M; Vinni, M; Lehtonen, H; Rask, M; Ruuhijärvi, J; Saulamo, K; Ala-Opas, P

    2010-04-01

    In this study of 18 small boreal forest lakes, the effects of abiotic and biotic factors (roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius) on various population variables of perch Perca fluviatilis were examined. As a single variable, the gillnet catch per unit effort (CPUE) of R. rutilus was negatively related to the mean mass of small (< 200 mm) and the growth rate of young (1-2 years) P. fluviatilis. The mean mass of large (> or = 200 mm) P. fluviatilis was the highest at intermediate CPUE of R. rutilus. Redundancy analysis including environmental factors and P. fluviatilis population variables suggested that 'predation-productivity-humus' gradient affected P. fluviatilis populations by decreasing the CPUE and mean mass of small individuals but increasing these variables of large individuals. The CPUE of R. rutilus and lake area had a negative effect on small and a positive effect on large P. fluviatilis growth rate. In small boreal forest lakes, P. fluviatilis populations are affected by the partially opposite forces of competition by R. rutilus and predation by E. lucius, and the intensity of these interactions is regulated by several environmental factors.

  12. Perfluoroalkylphosphinic Acids in Northern Pike (Esox lucius), Double-Crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), and Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Relation to Other Perfluoroalkyl Acids.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Amila O; Spencer, Christine; Ho, Ki Chung D; Al Tarhuni, Mohammed; Go, Christopher; Houde, Magali; de Solla, Shane R; Lavoie, Raphael A; King, Laura E; Muir, Derek C G; Fair, Patricia A; Wells, Randall S; Bossart, Gregory D

    2016-10-18

    Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids (PFPIAs) are perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that are used for their surfactant properties in a variety of applications, resulting in their presence in environmental waters; however, they have not been widely studied in biota. A survey of PFPIAs was conducted in fish, dolphins, and birds from various locations in North America. Northern pike (Esox lucius) were collected at two locations in 2011 near Montréal Island in the St. Lawrence River, Canada, double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) were collected from bird colonies in the Great Lakes in 2010-2012, and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Sarasota Bay, FL and Charleston Harbor, SC were sampled in 2004-2009. PFPIAs had a detection frequency of 100% in all animals. This is the first report of PFPIAs in fish, dolphin, and bird plasma. Total PFPIA levels (mean ± standard deviation, 1.87 ± 2.17 ng/g wet weight (ww), range of 0.112-15.3 ng/g ww) were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCA) and perfluoroalkanesulfonates (PFSA) in the same samples. The predominant congeners were 6:8 PFPIA (cormorants and pike) and 6:6 PFPIA (dolphins). Total PFPIAs in cormorants from Hamilton Harbour (5.02 ± 2.80 ng/g ww) were statistically higher than in other areas and taxonomic groups. The ubiquity of PFPIAs warrants further research on sources and effects of these unique compounds.

  13. Metabolic enzymes activity and histomorphology in the liver of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting a mineral contaminated lake.

    PubMed

    Churova, Maria V; Murzina, Svetlana A; Meshcheryakova, Olga V; Nemova, Nina N

    2014-12-01

    The effects of wastewater from a mining and ore-dressing mill on fish in Lake Kostomukshskoe, which is used as a cesspool of circulating water and for storage of industrial wastes produced by the Kostomuksha mining and ore-dressing mill in northwest Russia, were studied. The lake is characterized by heavy mineralization, high pH, elevated levels of K(+), Li(+), SO4 (2-), NO(2-), Cl(-), Li, Mn, and Ni, and the presence of a fine-dispersed mechanical suspension. To assess the impact of contamination on fish and determine the mechanisms of their adaptation, we investigated the biochemical indices and histology of the liver of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting Lake Kostomukshskoe, downstream Lake Koyvas (64° 47' 30° 59'), and Lake Kamennoe, which is located in a nature preserve and has not been affected by anthropogenic activity (64° 28' 30° 13'). Changes were detected in the activity of metabolic enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase (COX), lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) in the liver. Specifically, the COX activity in the liver of both fish species from the contaminated lake decreased, indicating a low level of aerobic metabolism. Lipid infiltration was the most visible and widespread change observed in the liver of both fish species; therefore, it can be considered a marker of such long-term contamination. Lesions in pike liver demonstrated a wider range of severity than in those of whitefish. In summary, metabolic enzyme activity and histomorphology of the liver of whitefish and pike differed among lakes in a species-specific manner. The changes in enzyme activity and histomorphological alterations in fish that were observed can be applied for evaluation of freshwater systems that may be subjected to mineral pollution.

  14. Assessment of larval deformities and selenium accumulation in northern pike (Esox lucius) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to metal mining effluent.

    PubMed

    Muscatello, Jorgelina R; Janz, David M

    2009-03-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations in northern Saskatchewan (Canada) release effluents with elevated levels of certain trace metals and metalloids, including selenium. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the presence of selenium-induced deformities in northern pike (Esox lucius) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) larvae originating from adults collected downstream of a uranium mine. Eggs were fertilized in the field and incubated in the laboratory following a two-way (crossover) analysis-of-variance experimental design to discriminate effects from maternal transfer versus those from exposure to site water in the developing embryos. Selenium concentrations in northern pike and white sucker eggs (8.02 and 4.89 microg/g dry wt, respectively; mean +/- standard error throughout) from the exposure site were approximately two- to threefold higher than reference (2.35 +/- 0.20 and 1.94 +/- 0.25 microg/g dry wt, respectively). Among all evaluated deformities (skeletal curvatures, craniofacial deformities, fin deformities, and edema), only edema in white sucker fry from the exposure site was slightly elevated ( approximately 3%) compared to reference. The occurrence of edema, however, can be associated with factors other than selenium (e.g., other metals and organic compounds). Both fish species displayed strong linear relationships between the selenium concentrations in eggs and other tissues (muscle, liver, kidney, and bone), suggesting that selenium concentrations in eggs could be predicted from selenium concentrations in adult tissues. The lack of a clear, toxic response in the present study is in agreement with selenium thresholds for early life-stage deformities reported in other studies, with egg selenium concentrations in northern pike and white sucker collected at the exposure site being less than the 10 microg/g (dry wt) threshold associated with the presence of deformities.

  15. Investigation of parasites of pikes (Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1785) from Chamkhale River, Anzali and Amirkelayeh wetlands, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sadrinejad, Ali; Khara, Hossein; Gudarzi, Majid

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the health status, the parasite diversity and abundance were studied in three pike populations. For this purpose, totally 90 fish were caught from three natural habitats of pike including Chamkhale River, Anzali and Amirkelayeh wetlands, Iran. After biometry and age determination, fish were dissected and parasites were investigated in intestine, gill and eye. According to results, five parasite species were identified in whole body of pikes including Eustrongylides exises, Raphidascaris acus and Triaeophorus crassus in intestine, Tetraonchus monenteron in gill and Diplostomum spathaceum in eye. The highest values of quantitative indices of parasite population [i.e. incidence percent (86.66 %), mean intensity (60.83 ± 39.92), mean abundance (58.14 ± 34.6) and abundance range (1-232)] were recorded for T. monenteron in all three sampling regions. The lowest values of these quantitative indices were found for D. spathaceum, E. exises and Tetraonchus crassus in Anzali wetland, Chamkhale River and Amirkelayeh wetland respectively. In 2, 3 and 4 years old pikes, T. monenteron had the highest values of quantitative indices of parasite population. In conclusion, our results showed that Anzali wetland have more parasite pollution compared to other sampling regions. This may be due to the more rapid eutrophication in this wetland compared to Amirkelayeh wetland and Chamkhale River.

  16. The effect of hatching time on the bioenergetics of northern pike (Esox lucius) larvae from a single egg batch during the endogenous feeding period.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Awatef; Jaworski, Andrzej; Kamler, Ewa; Gardeur, Jean-Noël; Teletchea, Fabrice; Ayadi, Habib; Fontaine, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Size, caloric value and chemical composition were measured separately in the progeny of two northern pike (Esox lucius) females at 3-day intervals during the endogenous feeding period from hatching to final yolk resorption. Tissue, yolk and entire larvae were analysed separately in three groups of larvae that hatched at different times (between 88 and 106 degree-days post-fertilization). An integrated approach with the Gompertz model was used to compute the yolk conversion efficiency and time to maximum tissue size in early, mid and late hatched larvae. At hatching, unresorbed yolk of early hatched larvae contained more energy (39.20 J) and more protein (0.99 mg) compared to the yolk of larvae that hatched later (38.13 J and 0.92 mg protein for late hatched larvae, p < 0.05). In contrast, a significant reduction in tissue weight (-0.7 mg DW) and protein content (-0.5 mg) was found in early hatched larvae compared to those which hatched later (p < 0.05). Between days 9 and 12 post-hatching (108 and 144 degree-days post-hatching), close to the final yolk resorption, late hatched larvae stopped growing and their tissue began to be resorbed. This tissue resorption time was delayed in early hatched larvae which presented at the end of the experiment a greater tissue weight than late hatched ones. Yolk conversion efficiency in term of energy from hatching to complete yolk resorption stage was significantly higher for early and mid hatched larvae (51%) compared to late hatched ones (44%) (p = 0.004). Furthermore, the time to maximum tissue size was found to be negatively related to hatching time which implies that early hatched larvae take longer time to switch from one developmental stage to the next. The maximum tissue dry weight and energy content were found to be reached at approximately the same age post-fertilization for both early hatched and late hatched larvae, suggesting that the principal steps in a fish's lifespan are better correlated with time of

  17. UV-B exposure causes DNA damage and changes in protein expression in northern pike (Esox lucius) posthatched embryos.

    PubMed

    Vehniäinen, Eeva-Riikka; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Oikari, Aimo

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing anthropogenically caused ozone depletion and climate change has increased the amount of biologically harmful UV-B radiation, which is detrimental to fish in embryonal stages. The effects of UV-B radiation on the levels and locations of DNA damage manifested as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and p53 protein in newly hatched embryos of pike were examined. Pike larvae were exposed in the laboratory to current and enhanced doses of UV-B radiation. UV-B exposure caused the formation of CPDs in a fluence rate-dependent manner, and the CPDs were found deeper in the tissues with increasing fluence rates. UV-B radiation induced HSP70 in epidermis, and caused plausible p53 activation in the brain and epidermis of some individuals. Also at a fluence rate occurring in nature, the DNA damage in the brain and eyes of pike and changes in protein expression were followed by severe behavioral disorders, suggesting that neural molecular changes were associated with functional consequences.

  18. Pathogenicity of the gill artery worm Philometra obturans (Nematoda) in northern pike (Esox lucius) in southwest Finland.

    PubMed

    Kåll, S; Fagerholm, H P; Sarvala, J

    2004-02-01

    The pathogenicity of female Philometra obturans (Prenant, 1886) was investigated. Fish samples were taken in May and June 2001 from Lake Littoistenjärvi, in southwest Finland. The intensity of infection varied between 1 and 4 worms, these being found in the afferent artery of the 2 outermost gill arches. The prevalence was 33.9% (n = 59). Host condition and tissue reactions were investigated through dissection and analysis of histopathology. The parasites obstructed the gill arteries, and the arterial wall was stretched around intact worms. Hypertrophy of the arterial wall was observed, especially when only disintegrating remains of the parasites were present. Infected pike were in a poorer condition after catch, transportation, and holding in aquaria and thus less tolerant to stress than uninfected pike. This was correlated with the number of infected gill arteries (P < 0.05). The results show that infection with this nematode has a detrimental effect on the host when combined with environmental or physiological stress and may result in host mortality.

  19. Four decades of opposing natural and human-induced artificial selection acting on Windermere pike (Esox lucius).

    PubMed

    Carlson, Stephanie M; Edeline, Eric; Asbjørn Vøllestad, L; Haugen, Thrond O; Winfield, Ian J; Fletcher, Janice M; Ben James, J; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2007-06-01

    The ability of natural selection to drive local adaptation has been appreciated ever since Darwin. Whether human impacts can impede the adaptive process has received less attention. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying natural selection and harvest selection acting on a freshwater fish (pike) over four decades. Across the time series, directional natural selection tended to favour large individuals whereas the fishery targeted large individuals. Moreover, non-linear natural selection tended to favour intermediate sized fish whereas the fishery targeted intermediate sized fish because the smallest and largest individuals were often not captured. Thus, our results unequivocally demonstrate that natural selection and fishery selection often acted in opposite directions within this natural system. Moreover, the two selective factors combined to produce reduced fitness overall and stronger stabilizing selection relative to natural selection acting alone. The long-term ramifications of such human-induced modifications to adaptive landscapes are currently unknown and certainly warrant further investigation.

  20. Mitochondrial genome of Esox flaviae (Southern pike): announcement and comparison with other Esocidae.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Andrea; Fontaneto, Diego; Natali, Mauro; Lucentini, Livia

    2016-07-01

    Pikes are fish species belonging to order Esociformes, family Esocidae, genus Esox. Species of the genus Esox are common, large, and economically important for food and fishing activities. Recently, a new species, southern pike E. flaviae, was described for a well-studied area such as Italy, using also two mtDNA markers: cox1 and cytb. A scant number of remnant populations of the species persist in Italy, threatened by habitat loss and degradation and by competition and possible hybridization with E. lucius, massively and recurrently stocked to sustain angling pressure. The availability of new mtDNA markers will possibly contribute to the conservation of the species. Currently, whole mitogenome information for the genus is available only for E. lucius and for E. reichertii. The aim of the present paper is to report novel mitogenomic information for southern pike.

  1. Mercury elimination by a top predator, Esox lucius.

    PubMed

    Van Walleghem, Jillian L A; Blanchfield, Paul J; Hrenchuk, Lee E; Hintelmann, Holger

    2013-05-07

    Top-level piscivores are highly sought after for consumption in freshwater fisheries, yet these species contain the highest levels of the neurotoxin monomethylmercury (MMHg) and therefore present the greatest concern for MMHg exposure to humans. The slow elimination of MMHg is one factor that contributes to high levels of this contaminant in fish; however, little quantitative information exists on elimination rates by top predators in nature. We determined rates of MMHg elimination in northern pike (Esox lucius) by transferring fish that had naturally accumulated isotope-enriched MMHg (spike MMHg) through a whole-lake Hg loading study to a different lake. Over a period of ~7 y, pike were periodically recaptured and a small amount of muscle tissue was extracted using a nonlethal biopsy. Spike total mercury (THg) persisted in muscle tissue throughout the entire study despite discontinuing exposure upon transfer to the new lake. Spike THg burdens increased for the first ~460 d, followed by a decline to 65% of original burden levels over the next 200 d, and subsequently reached a plateau near original burden levels for the remainder of the study. We estimated the half-life of muscle THg to be 3.3 y (1193 d), roughly 1.2- to 2.7-fold slower than predicted by current elimination models. We advocate for further long-term field studies that examine kinetics of MMHg in fish to better inform predictive models estimating the recovery of MMHg-contaminated fisheries.

  2. Stocking impact and temporal stability of genetic composition in a brackish northern pike population (Esox lucius L.), assessed using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples.

    PubMed

    Larsen, P F; Hansen, M M; Nielsen, E E; Jensen, L F; Loeschcke, V

    2005-08-01

    During the last decade, brackish northern pike populations in Denmark have been subject to stocking programmes, using nonindigenous pike from freshwater lakes, in order to compensate for drastic population declines. The present study was designed to investigate the genetic impact of stocking freshwater pike into a brackish pike population in Stege Nor, Denmark. We analysed polymorphism at eight microsatellite loci in samples representing the indigenous Stege Nor population prior to stocking (ie from 1956 to 1957), along with a sample of the contemporary Stege Nor population and samples from the three populations used for stocking. Despite large numbers of stocked fry, the results from both individual and population level admixture analyses demonstrated extremely poor performance and <1% introgression of stocked freshwater pike into the brackish pike population. Furthermore, pairwise F(ST) estimates between samples demonstrated close genetic relationship among temporal samples from Stege Nor, indicating temporal stability over the last 45 years. We also estimated the effective population size (N(e)) of pike in Stege Nor and applied a test for recent population bottlenecks. The harmonic mean of N(e) was relatively high (>250), but there were indications of bottlenecks in all samples and populations. We ascribe this finding to historical rather than recent bottlenecks, possibly dating back to founder events associated with postglacial recolonisation.

  3. Spatial relations of mercury contents in Pike (Esox lucius) and sediments concentration of the Anzali wetland, along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, Iran.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio

    2014-07-15

    In recent decades, the Anzali wetland has been threatened and destroyed by environmental pollution from several sources. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible relationships between mercury concentrations in Pike and their respective sediments within the assumed multiple activity center scales of Pike (100, 250 and 500 m in radius). To gain a better understanding spatial distribution pattern of Hg in sediments and to pursue the main purpose of this study, kriging (geostatistic spatial interpolation method) was applied. Poor relationships were found between mercury concentrations of Pike and sediments within the assumed multiple activity center scales of Pike. The mercury sediment influence diminished with the increasing radii of assumed activity centers. The results of the present study indicate that fish and sediment mercury concentrations in western parts of the Anzali wetland were low in comparison with the concentrations reported in the literature from other regions.

  4. The genome and linkage map of the northern pike (Esox lucius): conserved synteny revealed between the salmonid sister group and the Neoteleostei.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, Eric B; Minkley, David R; Leong, Jong S; Messmer, Amber M; Jantzen, Johanna R; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Lemon, Craig; Bird, Nathan H; Koop, Ben F

    2014-01-01

    The northern pike is the most frequently studied member of the Esociformes, the closest order to the diverse and economically important Salmoniformes. The ancestor of all salmonids purportedly experienced a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, making salmonid species ideal for studying the early impacts of genome duplication while complicating their use in wider analyses of teleost evolution. Studies suggest that the Esociformes diverged from the salmonid lineage prior to the WGD, supporting the use of northern pike as a pre-duplication outgroup. Here we present the first genome assembly, reference transcriptome and linkage map for northern pike, and evaluate the suitability of this species to provide a representative pre-duplication genome for future studies of salmonid and teleost evolution. The northern pike genome sequence is composed of 94,267 contigs (N50 = 16,909 bp) contained in 5,688 scaffolds (N50 = 700,535 bp); the total scaffolded genome size is 878 million bases. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that over 96% of the protein-coding genome is present in the genome assembly. The reference transcriptome was constructed from 13 tissues and contains 38,696 transcripts, which are accompanied by normalized expression data in all tissues. Gene-prediction analysis produced a total of 19,601 northern pike-specific gene models. The first-generation linkage map identifies 25 linkage groups, in agreement with northern pike's diploid karyotype of 2N = 50, and facilitates the placement of 46% of assembled bases onto linkage groups. Analyses reveal a high degree of conserved synteny between northern pike and other model teleost genomes. While conservation of gene order is limited to smaller syntenic blocks, the wider conservation of genome organization implies the northern pike exhibits a suitable approximation of a non-duplicated Protacanthopterygiian genome. This dataset will facilitate future studies of esocid biology and empower ongoing examinations of the

  5. The Genome and Linkage Map of the Northern Pike (Esox lucius): Conserved Synteny Revealed between the Salmonid Sister Group and the Neoteleostei

    PubMed Central

    Rondeau, Eric B.; Minkley, David R.; Leong, Jong S.; Messmer, Amber M.; Jantzen, Johanna R.; von Schalburg, Kristian R.; Lemon, Craig; Bird, Nathan H.; Koop, Ben F.

    2014-01-01

    The northern pike is the most frequently studied member of the Esociformes, the closest order to the diverse and economically important Salmoniformes. The ancestor of all salmonids purportedly experienced a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, making salmonid species ideal for studying the early impacts of genome duplication while complicating their use in wider analyses of teleost evolution. Studies suggest that the Esociformes diverged from the salmonid lineage prior to the WGD, supporting the use of northern pike as a pre-duplication outgroup. Here we present the first genome assembly, reference transcriptome and linkage map for northern pike, and evaluate the suitability of this species to provide a representative pre-duplication genome for future studies of salmonid and teleost evolution. The northern pike genome sequence is composed of 94,267 contigs (N50 = 16,909 bp) contained in 5,688 scaffolds (N50 = 700,535 bp); the total scaffolded genome size is 878 million bases. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that over 96% of the protein-coding genome is present in the genome assembly. The reference transcriptome was constructed from 13 tissues and contains 38,696 transcripts, which are accompanied by normalized expression data in all tissues. Gene-prediction analysis produced a total of 19,601 northern pike-specific gene models. The first-generation linkage map identifies 25 linkage groups, in agreement with northern pike's diploid karyotype of 2N = 50, and facilitates the placement of 46% of assembled bases onto linkage groups. Analyses reveal a high degree of conserved synteny between northern pike and other model teleost genomes. While conservation of gene order is limited to smaller syntenic blocks, the wider conservation of genome organization implies the northern pike exhibits a suitable approximation of a non-duplicated Protacanthopterygiian genome. This dataset will facilitate future studies of esocid biology and empower ongoing examinations

  6. Reproductive status and lipid content as factors in PCB, DDT and HCH contamination of a population of pike (Esox lucius L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, P.; Okla, L.; Collvin, L. )

    1993-05-01

    Levels of persistent pollutants, including PCBs, [Sigma]DDT, and [gamma]-hexachlorocyclohexane, were examined in a pike population inhabiting a eutrophic lake in southern Scandinavia. For females, levels of persistent pollutants decreased linearly with age, weight, or length. This decline was ascribed to the seasonal elimination of the lipophilic pollutants in roe, which contained up to 10 times higher fat levels compared to muscle and over 10 times the amounts of pollutants. Male pike contained higher levels of pollutants than females, probably due to the lower elimination via gonadal products, as germinal tissue constitutes only 2% of the male total body weight and has a lower fat content than ovaries. Female germinal tissue can account for as much as 15% of the body weight. No major fat deposits other than those in germinal tissue were found in pike, which also had a low muscle fat content, suggesting that the importance of roe elimination in removing pollutants may be greater in pike than in salmonids. Uptake of persistent pollutants can vary greatly within a species, owing to differences in sex, age, and so forth, as well as between species, owing to differences in fat deposition strategies.

  7. The effects of season on fatty acid composition and ω3/ω6 ratios of northern pike ( Esox lucius L., 1758) muscle lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, Ramazan; Bulut, Sait; Konuk, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of season on fatty acid composition, total lipids, and ω3/ω6 ratios of northern pike muscle lipids in Kizilirmak River (Kirikkale, Turkey) were investigated. A total of 35 different fatty acids were determined in gas chromatography. Among these, palmitic, oleic, and palmitoleic acids had the highest proportion. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid. There were more PUFAs than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in all seasons. Similarly, the percentages of ω3 fatty acids were higher than those of total ω6 fatty acids in the fatty acid composition. ω3/ω6 ratios were calculated as 1.53, 1.32, 1.97, and 1.71 in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Overall, we found that the fatty acid composition and ω3/ω6 fatty acid ratio in the muscle of northern pike were significantly influenced by season.

  8. The contribution of ventricular apicobasal and transmural repolarization patterns to the development of the T wave body surface potentials in frogs (Rana temporaria) and pike (Esox lucius).

    PubMed

    Vaykshnorayte, Marina A; Azarov, Jan E; Tsvetkova, Alena S; Vityazev, Vladimir A; Ovechkin, Alexey O; Shmakov, Dmitry N

    2011-05-01

    The study aimed at the simultaneous determination of the transmural and apicobasal differences in the repolarization timing and the comparison of the contributions of these two repolarization gradients to the development of the body surface T wave potentials in animals with the single heart ventricle (fishes and amphibians). Unipolar potentials were measured on the body surface, epicardium and in the intramural (subepicardial, Epi; midmyocardial; and subendocardial, Endo) ventricular layers of 9 pike and 8 frogs. Activation times, repolarization times and activation-recovery intervals were determined. A transmural gradient in repolarization durations in frogs (Endo>Epi, P<0.024) corresponds to the gradient in repolarization times. No significant transmural difference in repolarization duration is observed in pike that produces a repolarization sequence from Endo to Epi (Endopike and frogs.

  9. Molecular and phenotypic evidence of a new species of genus Esox (Esocidae, Esociformes, Actinopterygii): the southern pike, Esox flaviae.

    PubMed

    Lucentini, Livia; Puletti, Maria Elena; Ricciolini, Claudia; Gigliarelli, Lilia; Fontaneto, Diego; Lanfaloni, Luisa; Bilò, Fabiana; Natali, Mauro; Panara, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    We address the taxonomic position of the southern European individuals of pike, performing a series of tests and comparisons from morphology, DNA taxonomy and population genetics parameters, in order to support the hypothesis that two species of pike, and not only one, exist in Europe. A strong relationship emerged between a northern genotype supported by COI, Cytb, AFLP and specific fragments, and a phenotype with round spot skin colour pattern and a large number of scales in the lateral line, clearly separated from a southern genotype with other skin colour pattern and a low number of scales in the lateral line. DNA taxonomy, based on a coalescent approach (GMYC) from phylogenetic reconstructions on COI and Cytb together with AFLP admixture analysis, supported the existence of two independently evolving entities. Such differences are not simply due to geographic distances, as northern European samples are more similar to Canadian and Chinese samples than the southern Europe ones. Thus, given that the differences between the two groups of European pike are significant at the phenotypic, genotypic and geographical levels, we propose the identification of two pike species: the already known northern pike (Esox lucius) and the southern pike (E. flaviae n.sp.). The correct identification of these two lineages as independent species should give rise to a ban on the introduction of northern pikes in southern Europe for recreational fishing, due to potential problems of hybridisation.

  10. Behaviour in a standardized assay, but not metabolic or growth rate, predicts behavioural variation in an adult aquatic top predator Esox lucius in the wild.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, K L; Monk, C T; Polverino, G; Alós, J; Nakayama, S; Staaks, G; Mehner, T; Arlinghaus, R

    2016-04-01

    This study tested for links among behaviour, state and life-history variables as predicted by the pace-of-life hypothesis in adult pike Esox lucius. First, a standardized open-field behavioural assay was developed to assess individual behaviour of wild-captured adult E. lucius. Behaviour within the standardized assay predicted swimming behaviour in the lake, providing an ecological validation of the assay. There was no relationship between standardized behaviour and any of the life-history and state variables, including metabolism, body condition, juvenile growth rate and adult growth rate in contrast to predictions from the pace-of-life hypothesis. This study demonstrates that it is possible to assess ecologically relevant behavioural variation in a large-bodied top predator using a standard open-field assay, but it is noteworthy that this standardized behaviour is not systematically related to standard metabolism or growth.

  11. [Ecological and Biochemical Aspects of Parasite-Host Interactions in Transformed Aquatic Bodies: A Case Study of the Cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus and Its Host, the Northern Pike Esox lucius].

    PubMed

    Vysotskaya, R U; Krupnova, M Yu; Ieshko, E P; Anikieva, L V; Lebedeva, D I

    2015-01-01

    The lysosomal enzyme activities of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus and its host, the pike, in-aquatic bodies with different degrees of technogenic transformation (Northern Karelia, Russia) have been studied. As has been shown, iron-ore waste causes an increase in the acid phosphatase, nuclease, and beta-galactosidase activities of the host and a decrease in its beta-glucosidase and cathepsin D activities. As a rule, the changes in the same cestode enzyme activities are the opposite. With a decrease in the technogenic load, most of the studied characteristics display the trend of approaching the corresponding values observed in a clean lake. It is assumed that the host plays a leading role in the biochemical adaptation of the parasite and its host to mineral environmental pollution.

  12. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals and Microelements in Silver Bream (Brama brama L.), Northern Pike (Esox lucius L.), Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) From Tisza River, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Štrbac, Snežana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Jovančićević, Branimir; Simonović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in liver, gills, gonads, and brain of four ecologically different fish species in Serbia: piscivorous northern pike, benthivorous sterlet and silver bream, and omnivorous common carp. Fish were caught at four sites along the stretch of the River Tisza in the Pannonian part of Serbia during October 2010. Results revealed that heavy metals and microelements with the highest values in fish samples were Fe, Al, and Zn. The highest concentration of heavy metals and microelements was recorded in omnivorous common carp, and organs that most intensively accumulated the greatest number of metals were liver and gills, whereas the locality did not exert a marked impact on level of bioaccumulation.

  13. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and total mercury in two fish species (Esox lucius and Carassius auratus) in Anzali Wetland, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sakizadeh, Mohammad; Esmaeili Sari, Abas; Abdoli, Asghar; Bahramifar, Nader; Hashemi, Seyed Hossein

    2012-05-01

    The Anzali Wetland is one of the most important ecosystems in the north of Iran, and parts of it were registered as a Ramsar site in 1975. However, even though, due to many problems, including eutrophication produced by inflow of excess nutrients and organic materials, the wetland was also listed on the Montreux Record indicating the need to take urgent remedial action. This study was conducted to study the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total mercury (THg) in two fish species (Esox lucius and Carassius auratus) as bio-indicators of the ecosystem condition in eastern part of Anzali Wetland. The sampling was carried out in six different periods between years 2009 and 2010. The results showed that the amounts of PCBs in the muscle of northern pike were below the detection limit of gas chromatography, whereas the average concentration in goldfish was 0.449 mg/kg wet weight. Some possible reasons for the higher levels of PCBs in goldfish in comparison with pike have been discussed. No significant (p < 0.05) correlation was observed between PCBs and biological factors (weight, length, lipid content) for both species. On the other hand, the mean concentration of THg in the muscle of pike and goldfish were 182.22 and 75.27 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Although these concentrations were below US-EPA criterion for human consumption (0.3 mg/kg), it pointed up a significant deterioration of the ecosystem condition during the past years. Finally, statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between THg with weight and an insignificant correlation with length for pike specimens.

  14. Salmo salar and Esox lucius full-length cDNA sequences reveal changes in evolutionary pressures on a post-tetraploidization genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Salmonids are one of the most intensely studied fish, in part due to their economic and environmental importance, and in part due to a recent whole genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. This duplication greatly impacts species diversification, functional specialization, and adaptation. Extensive new genomic resources have recently become available for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), but documentation of allelic versus duplicate reference genes remains a major uncertainty in the complete characterization of its genome and its evolution. Results From existing expressed sequence tag (EST) resources and three new full-length cDNA libraries, 9,057 reference quality full-length gene insert clones were identified for Atlantic salmon. A further 1,365 reference full-length clones were annotated from 29,221 northern pike (Esox lucius) ESTs. Pairwise dN/dS comparisons within each of 408 sets of duplicated salmon genes using northern pike as a diploid out-group show asymmetric relaxation of selection on salmon duplicates. Conclusions 9,057 full-length reference genes were characterized in S. salar and can be used to identify alleles and gene family members. Comparisons of duplicated genes show that while purifying selection is the predominant force acting on both duplicates, consistent with retention of functionality in both copies, some relaxation of pressure on gene duplicates can be identified. In addition, there is evidence that evolution has acted asymmetrically on paralogs, allowing one of the pair to diverge at a faster rate. PMID:20433749

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of Esox reichertii (Amur pike).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The whole mitochondrial genome of Esox reichertii (fish) was first sequenced and characterized. It was determined to be 16,909 bp long, which contains the control region (CR), the origin of light-strand replication (OL), 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal genes and 13 protein-coding genes. Overall base composition of the complete mitochondrial DNA was 28.65% A, 28.67% T, 27.28% C and 15.41% G, with 57.32%AT.

  16. Gill reaction to pollutants from the Tamiš River in three freshwater fish species, Esox lucius L. 1758, Sander lucioperca (L. 1758) and Silurus glanis L. 1758: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lujić, J; Matavulj, M; Poleksić, V; Rašković, B; Marinović, Z; Kostić, D; Miljanović, B

    2015-04-01

    The study evaluated the effects of waterborne pollutants from the Tamiš River on gill histology and possible differences in gill reaction patterns between three freshwater fish species, pike Esox lucius L. 1758, pike-perch Sander lucioperca (L. 1758) and wels catfish Silurus glanis L. 1758 from the Tamiš River. Gills from analysed fish species showed moderate to intense histopathological alterations. The most frequent progressive alteration was hyperplasia of epithelium, whereas the most frequent regressive alteration was epithelial lifting. Circulatory disturbances were most often manifested in the form of hyperaemia. During comparative analysis, differences in gill indices, reaction and alteration indices, as well as in gill and filament prevalence between analysed species, were observed. Although all analysed fish species did show both progressive and regressive alterations, there was a significant difference in the level of expression of these reaction patterns. Gill index obtained for pike clearly stands out as the lowest. Wels catfish showed the highest progressive reaction index, significantly higher in comparison with the other two species (P < 0.05), while pike-perch showed the highest regressive reaction index, also significantly higher in comparison with the other species (P < 0.001). These results may implicate species-specific gill reactions and thus present a useful tool for better understanding toxic mechanisms of various pollutants.

  17. Introduced northern pike consumption of salmonids in Southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Dupuis, Aaron W; Shields, Patrick A; Dunker, Kristine J.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of introduced northern pike (Esox lucius) on salmonid populations have attracted much attention because salmonids are popular subsistence, sport and commercial fish. Concern over the predatory effects of introduced pike on salmonids is especially high in Southcentral Alaska, where pike were illegally introduced to the Susitna River basin in the 1950s. We used pike abundance, growth, and diet estimates and bioenergetics models to characterise the realised and potential consumptive impacts that introduced pike (age 2 and older) have on salmonids in Alexander Creek, a tributary to the Susitna River. We found that juvenile salmonids were the dominant prey item in pike diets and that pike could consume up to 1.10 metric tons (realised consumption) and 1.66 metric tons (potential consumption) of juvenile salmonids in a summer. Age 3–4 pike had the highest per capita consumption of juvenile salmonids, and age 2 and age 3–4 pike had the highest overall consumption of juvenile salmonid biomass. Using historical data on Chinook salmon and pike potential consumption of juvenile salmonids, we found that pike consumption of juvenile salmonids may lead to collapsed salmon stocks in Alexander Creek. Taken together, our results indicate that pike consume a substantial biomass of juvenile salmonids in Alexander Creek and that coexistence of pike and salmon is unlikely without management actions to reduce or eliminate introduced pike.

  18. [Glutathione S-transferase of alpha class from pike liver].

    PubMed

    Borvinskaia, E V; Smirnov, L P; Nemova, N N

    2013-01-01

    In this study, glutathione S-transferase (GST) was isolated from the liver of pike Esox lucius, which was homogenous according to SDS-PAGE and isoelectrofocusing. It is a homodimer with subunits mass 25235.36 Da (according to HPLC-MS/MS) and pI about 6.4. Substrate specificity, thermostability, some kinetic characteristics and optimum pH were determined. The enzyme was identified as Alpha class GST.

  19. Development of new microsatellite loci and multiplex reactions for muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloss, Brian L.; Franckowiak, R.P.; Murphy, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    The muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) is a valued fisheries species throughout its native range. Numerous studies have documented performance and phenotypic differences among muskellunge populations, but genetic markers for assessment have been lacking. We characterized 14 microsatellite loci and developed five multiplex polymerase chain reactions. Successful amplification of northern pike (Esox lucius) was observed for seven loci. These microsatellites will be useful for analysing population structure, performance characteristics of propagated strains, and helping to develop and monitor hatchery management guidelines for muskellunge. ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Morphological and molecular evidence of three species of pikes Esox spp. (Actinopterygii, Esocidae) in France, including the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Denys, Gaël Pierre Julien; Dettai, Agnès; Persat, Henri; Hautecœur, Mélyne; Keith, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    This integrative taxonomy study of French pikes compares morphological characters and molecular sequence data (mitochondrial COI and nuclear Plagl2 genes). In addition to the expected E. lucius, DNA sequences and morphology both support a new species in France, E. aquitanicus sp. nov. from the Charente to the Adour drainages. It is characterized by a color pattern of sides with narrow 1-1.5-scale-wide oblique vertical bands, conferring it a marbled coat, a snout only 0.9 times larger than the postorbital length, an anal fin basis 1.1-1.2 times larger than the caudal peduncle length, 101 to 121 lateral scales, 53 to 57 vertebrae, as well as 24 diagnostic sites in the COI gene and 3 in the Plagl2 gene. Partial COI sequences (131 bp) from modern and historical specimens indicate also the presence of E. cisalpinus and E. lucius during the 19th century in Lake Geneva. Morphological and molecular data points to a possible hybridization between E. lucius with both other local pike species, representing a risk for them. Their endangerment status should be evaluated rapidly in order to take conservation measures.

  1. Introduced northern pike predation on salmonids in southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Ivey, Sam S.; Dunker, Kristine J.; Gross, Jackson A.

    2013-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) are opportunistic predators that can switch to alternative prey species after preferred prey have declined. This trophic adaptability allows invasive pike to have negative effects on aquatic food webs. In Southcentral Alaska, invasive pike are a substantial concern because they have spread to important spawning and rearing habitat for salmonids and are hypothesised to be responsible for recent salmonid declines. We described the relative importance of salmonids and other prey species to pike diets in the Deshka River and Alexander Creek in Southcentral Alaska. Salmonids were once abundant in both rivers, but they are now rare in Alexander Creek. In the Deshka River, we found that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) dominated pike diets and that small pike consumed more of these salmonids than large pike. In Alexander Creek, pike diets reflected the distribution of spawning salmonids, which decrease with distance upstream. Although salmonids dominated pike diets in the lowest reach of the stream, Arctic lamprey (Lampetra camtschatica) and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) dominated pike diets in the middle and upper reaches. In both rivers, pike density did not influence diet and pike consumed smaller prey items than predicted by their gape-width. Our data suggest that (1) juvenile salmonids are a dominant prey item for pike, (2) small pike are the primary consumers of juvenile salmonids and (3) pike consume other native fish species when juvenile salmonids are less abundant. Implications of this trophic adaptability are that invasive pike can continue to increase while driving multiple species to low abundance.

  2. Historical analysis of genetic variation reveals low effective population size in a northern pike (Esox lucius) population.

    PubMed

    Miller, L M; Kapuscinski, A R

    1997-11-01

    Effective population size (Ne) of a natural fish population was estimated from temporal changes in allele frequencies at seven microsatellite loci. Use of a historical collection of fish scales made it possible to increase the precision of estimates by increasing the time interval between samples and to use an equation developed for discrete generations without correcting for demographic parameters. Estimates of Ne for the time intervals 1961-1977 and 1977-1993 were 35 and 72, respectively. For the entire interval, 1961-1993, the estimate of Ne was 48 when based on a weighted mean derived from the above two estimates or 125 when calculated from 1961 and 1993 samples only. Corresponding ratios of effective size to adult census size ranged from 0.03 to 0.14. An Ne of 48 over a 32-year period would imply that this population lost as much as 8% of its heterozygosity in that time. Results suggest the potential for using genetic methods based on microsatellite loci data to compare historical trends in Ne with population dynamic parameters. Such comparisons will help to evaluate the relationship between genetic diversity and long-term persistence of natural populations.

  3. Historical Analysis of Genetic Variation Reveals Low Effective Population Size in a Northern Pike (Esox Lucius) Population

    PubMed Central

    Miller, L. M.; Kapuscinski, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    Effective population size (N(e)) of a natural fish population was estimated from temporal changes in allele frequencies at seven microsatellite loci. Use of a historical collection of fish scales made it possible to increase the precision of estimates by increasing the time interval between samples and to use an equation developed for discrete generations without correcting for demographic parameters. Estimates of N(e) for the time intervals 1961-1977 and 1977-1993 were 35 and 72, respectively. For the entire interval, 1961-1993, the estimate of N(e) was 48 when based on a weighted mean derived from the above two estimates or 125 when calculated from 1961 and 1993 samples only. Corresponding ratios of effective size to adult census size ranged from 0.03 to 0.14. An N(e) of 48 over a 32-year period would imply that this population lost as much as 8% of its heterozygosity in that time. Results suggest the potential for using genetic methods based on microsatellite loci data to compare historical trends in N(e) with population dynamic parameters. Such comparisons will help to evaluate the relationship between genetic diversity and long-term persistence of natural populations. PMID:9383067

  4. Phototaxis of larval and juvenile northern pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zigler, S.J.; Dewey, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Age- Phi northern pike Esox lucius prefer vegetated habitats that are difficult to sample with standard towed gears. Light traps can be effective for sampling larval fishes in dense vegetation, given positive phototaxis of fish. We evaluated the phototactic response of young northern pike by comparing the catches of larvae and juveniles obtained with plexiglass traps deployed with a chemical light stick versus traps deployed without a light source (controls) in a laboratory raceway and in a vegetated pond. In the laboratory tests, catches of protolarvae and mesolarvae in lighted traps were 11-35 times greater than catches in control traps. The catches of juvenile northern pike in field and laboratory experiments were 3-15 times greater in lighted traps than in control traps, even though the maximum body width of the larger juveniles was similar to the width of the entrance slots of the traps (5 mm). Larval and juvenile northern pike were photopositive; thus, light traps should effectively sample age-0 northern pike for at least 6 weeks after hatching.

  5. Population characteristics and ecological role of northern pike in shallow natural lakes in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.P.; Willis, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Northern pike Esox lucius were sampled in Nebraska's Sandhill lakes during 1998 and 1999 to determine population characteristics and their influence on the fish community in these shallow, warm lakes at the southwestern edge of this species' natural range. Density-dependent growth, size structure, and condition were not evident in the northern pike populations sampled. Relative abundance of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides was positively related to size structure of yellow perch Perca flavescens and bluegills Lepomis macrochirus when northen pike were absent. When northern pike and largemouth bass populations were sympatric, these relationships were less evident. Population size structure of yellow perch was lower in lakes with northern pike, but decreased size structure was not evident for bluegills. Northern pike growth decreased with July bottom water temperature, which ranged from 20??C to 25??C. Recruitment patterns of northern pike in the Sandhill lakes appeared to be lake-specific, strong and weak year-classes occurring in the same year among different populations. Northern pike in these shallow, warm lakes act as a top-down predator and appear to structure fish communities predominated by largemouth bass and panfish. Biologists managing warmwater Midwestern lakes thus should consider the effect of northern pike on fish communities.

  6. Comparing catch orientation among Minnesota walleye, northern pike, and bass anglers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the catch orientations of Minnesota walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) anglers. Results were derived from 2009, 2010, and 2012 surveys of anglers targeting these different species. Consistent with previous research, we identified four dimensions of anglers’ catch orientation: (a) catching something, (b) catching big fish, (c) catching many fish, and (d) keeping fish. Walleye anglers were the most motivated to keep fish, while northern pike anglers were more oriented toward catching big fish. Largemouth bass anglers, and to a lesser extent smallmouth bass anglers, were also oriented toward catching big fish. Bass anglers reported the lowest interest in keeping fish. An orientation to keep fish was negatively related to more restrictive management actions, regardless of species. A stronger orientation to catch big fish was associated with support for increased harvest restrictions only for northern pike and smallmouth bass.

  7. Impacts of Northern Pike on stocked Rainbow Trout in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheibel, Natalie C.; Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Davis, Jacob L.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of nonnative Northern Pike Esox lucius in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota, has prompted concern among biologists about the influence of this species on the lake’s intensively managed salmonid fisheries. Ancedotal information suggests that catch rates of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have declined while mean size and abundance of Northern Pike has increased, although quantitative information on diet and growth of the Northern Pike population is lacking. To address potential interactions between Northern Pike and Rainbow Trout, we assessed size-dependent predation by Northern Pike on Rainbow Trout and determined the relative energetic contribution of stocked Rainbow Trout to Northern Pike growth using bioenergetics modeling. Stable isotopes combined with traditional diet analyses revealed that smaller Northern Pike (<600 mm TL) consumed primarily centrarchids and Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax, and Rainbow Trout contributed less than 10% to their annual energy consumption. In contrast, larger Northern Pike (≥600 mm TL) consumed primarily Rainbow Trout, which accounted for 56% of their annual energy consumption. Combining estimates of Northern Pike predation with production costs of catchable-size Rainbow Trout revealed that annual economic losses ranged from US$15,259 to $24,801 per year. Over its lifespan, an age-10 Northern Pike was estimated to consume ~117 Rainbow Trout worth approximately $340. Thus, Northern Pike predation substantially influences salmonid management initiatives and is likely a primary factor contributing to reduced Rainbow Trout abundance and return to anglers in Pactola Reservoir. Strategies for reducing Northern Pike predation on Rainbow Trout include increasing the size of stocked fish or altering the timing and spatial distribution of stocking events.

  8. Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in northern boreal lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soupir, Craig A.; Brown, Michael L.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.

    2000-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic environments that they occupy; however, limited information exists on species interactions in the northern reaches of largemouth bass distribution. We investigated the seasonal food habits of allopatric and sympatric assemblages of largemouth bass and northern pike in six interior lakes within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Percentages of empty stomachs were variable for largemouth bass (38-54%) and northern pike (34.7-66.7%). Fishes (mainly yellow perch, Perca flavescens) comprised greater than 60% (mean percent mass, MPM) of the northern pike diet during all seasons in both allopatric and sympatric assemblages. Aquatic insects (primarily Odonata and Hemiptera) were important in the diets of largemouth bass in all communities (0.0-79.7 MPM). Although largemouth bass were observed in the diet of northern pike, largemouth bass apparently did not prey on northern pike. Seasonal differences were observed in the proportion of aquatic insects (P = 0.010) and fishes (P = 0.023) in the diets of northern pike and largemouth bass. Based on three food categories, jackknifed classifications correctly classified 77 and 92% of northern pike and largemouth bass values, respectively. Percent resource overlap values were biologically significant (greater than 60%) during at least one season in each sympatric assemblage, suggesting some diet overlap.

  9. Population structure and dynamics of northern pike and smallmouth bass in Coeur d’Alene Lake, Idaho.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walrath, John D.; Quist, Michael; Firehammer, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous species have been introduced to Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho over the last century, but minimal research has been completed to understand their population dynamics. The objective of this study was to describe the population demographics and dynamics of northern pike (Esox lucius) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), two important nonnative sport fishes in the system to provide information that will assist with guiding management decisions. The oldest northern pike was age 7 and the oldest smallmouth bass was age 11. Populations of both species exhibited very stable recruitment with a recruitment coefficient of determination of 0.99 for northern pike and 0.98 for smallmouth bass. Total annual mortality was estimated as 66% for northern pike and 42% for smallmouth bass. Growth of northern pike in Coeur d'Alene Lake was comparable to the 50–75th percentiles of growth exhibited by lentic northern pike populations across North America. Northern pike in Coeur d'Alene Lake were most similar to populations in the north-central and northeast United States with fast growth rates and short life spans. In contrast, smallmouth bass grew slowly and generally fell within the 5th percentile of lentic smallmouth bass populations in North America. Smallmouth bass in Coeur d'Alene Lake were similar to other populations in northern regions of the United States displaying slow growth rates with high longevity. Results of this study provide important insight on nonnative northern pike and smallmouth bass population dynamics.

  10. The ideal free pike: 50 years of fitness-maximizing dispersal in Windermere.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Thrond O; Winfield, Ian J; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn; Fletcher, Janice M; James, J Ben; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2006-12-07

    The ideal free distribution (IFD) theory is one of the most influential theories in evolutionary ecology. It predicts how animals ought to distribute themselves within a heterogeneous habitat in order to maximize lifetime fitness. We test the population level consequence of the IFD theory using 40-year worth data on pike (Esox lucius) living in a natural lake divided into two basins. We do so by employing empirically derived density-dependent survival, dispersal and fecundity functions in the estimation of basin-specific density-dependent fitness surfaces. The intersection of the fitness surfaces for the two basins is used for deriving expected spatial distributions of pike. Comparing the derived expected spatial distributions with 50 years data of the actual spatial distribution demonstrated that pike is ideal free distributed within the lake. In general, there was a net migration from the less productive north basin to the more productive south basin. However, a pike density-manipulation experiment imposing shifting pike density gradients between the two basins managed to switch the net migration direction and hence clearly demonstrated that the Windermere pike choose their habitat in an ideal free manner. Demonstration of ideal free habitat selection on an operational field scale like this has never been undertaken before.

  11. Use of electronarcosis to immobilize juvenile and adult northern pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, M.K.; Yanke, E.A.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    Electronarcosis, the immobilization of a fish after an electric current has been applied and discontinued, is a potential alternative to chemical anesthetics. Successful narcosis was defined as the immobilization of a fish for 1-15 min without causing physical damage. In the laboratory, AC successfully narcotized juvenile (13-19-cm standard length, SL) northern pike (Esox lucius) at selected voltages; however, AC voltages that produced narcosis or resulted in physical damage were variable and unpredictable. In contrast, 60-90-V pulsed DC (PDC) for 10-60 s successfully narcotized juvenile pike without inducing physical damage. Duration of narcosis was directly related to voltage and inversely related to fish length. In the hatchery, sexually mature northern pike (45-97 cm SL), collected from the Mississippi River, were successfully narcotized by 60-V PDC for 10 s. Duration of narcosis was unrelated to fish length or sex, and averaged 58 plus or minus 7 s (mean plus or minus SE). This allowed sufficient time to collect eggs or milt. All fish were swimming upright within 3 min after treatment, and no mortalities were observed over the next 24 h. Survival of eggs from fertilization to eye- up did not significantly differ between eggs collected from electronarcotized adults and adults anesthetized with MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate). Electronarcosis represents a possible alternative to chemical anesthetics for immobilizing northern pike broodstock without an apparent impact on egg survival.

  12. Trophic ecology of northern pike and their effect on conservation of westslope cutthroat trout.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walrath, John D.; Quist, Michael; Firehammer, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi in Coeur d’Alene Lake, Idaho, have declined in recent years; predation by Northern Pike Esox lucius, a nonnative sport fish, is thought to be a causative mechanism. The goal of this study was to describe the seasonal food habits of Northern Pike and determine their influence on Westslope Cutthroat Trout in Coeur d’Alene Lake by using a bioenergetics modeling approach. Fish were sampled monthly from March 2012 to May 2013 using pulsed-DC electrofishing and experimental gillnetting in four bays. Northern Pike catch rates from electrofishing were generally low but increased slightly each season and were highest in the southern portion of the lake; catch rates from gillnetting were approximately 50% higher during the two spring sampling periods compared with the summer and fall. Seasonal growth and food habits of 695 Northern Pike (TL = 16.2–108.0 cm; weight = 24–9,628 g) were analyzed. Diets primarily consisted of kokanee O. nerka, Westslope Cutthroat Trout, and Yellow PerchPerca flavescens. Results of a bioenergetics model estimated that Westslope Cutthroat Trout represented approximately 2–30% of the biomass consumed by age-1–4 Northern Pike. Total Westslope Cutthroat Trout biomass consumed by Northern Pike (2008–2011 year-classes) across all seasons sampled was estimated to be 1,231 kg (95% CI = 723–2,396 kg), and the total number consumed was 5,641 (95% CI = 3,311–10,979). The highest occurrence of Westslope Cutthroat Trout in Northern Pike diets was observed during spring. Thus, reducing Northern Pike predation on Westslope Cutthroat Trout would be one tool worth considering for conserving Westslope Cutthroat Trout populations in Coeur d’Alene Lake.

  13. Does the zooplankton prey availability limit the larval habitats of pike in the Baltic Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallasvuo, Meri; Salonen, Maiju; Lappalainen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate whether the availability of suitable zooplankton prey limits the distribution of the coastal larval areas of pike ( Esox lucius) in two archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea and (2) compare the availability of zooplankton prey in spring between different types of coastal littoral habitat. According to the results, reed belt habitats formed by Phragmites australis constitute hot spots for zooplankton prey in the coastal ecosystem. During the spring, reed-covered shores of the inner archipelago maintained more than 10 times higher densities of copepods and cladocerans, the preferred prey for larval pike, compared to the other studied shores. Temperature conditions were also most favourable in the reed belt habitat. Thus, the reed belts of the inner and middle archipelago were shown to form the best habitat for larval pike in the coastal area of the northern Baltic Sea, and this was also the only habitat where pike larvae were found. Our results suggest that the poor survival and recruitment of pike in the outer archipelago, however, cannot exclusively be explained by sub-optimal feeding conditions of the larvae. There are also other important factors, presumably connected to the exposure to the open sea, that affect the distribution of the pike larvae. Our results, however, highlight the importance of sheltered coastal reed belt shores as reproduction habitat for spring-spawning fish in the northern Baltic Sea. Further, this study disproves the assumption that the seaweed bladder wrack ( Fucus vesiculosus) forms a reproduction habitat for pike in the coastal area.

  14. Growth, condition, diet, and consumption rates of northern pike in three Arizona reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinders, J.M.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) introductions are controversial in the western United States due to suspected impacts they might have on established sport fisheries and potential illegal introductions. Tbree Arizona reservoirs, Parker Canyon Lake, Upper Lake Mary and Long Lake were sampled to examine the diet, consumption dynamics, and growth of northern pike. Northern pike diets varied by season and reservoir. In Parker Canyon Lake, diets were dominated by rainbow trout in winter and spring and bluegill and green sunfish in the fall. In Long Lake the northern pike ate crayfish in spring and early summer and switched to young of the year common carp in summer and fall. Black crappie, golden shiners, and crayfish were the major prey in Upper Lake Mary during spring, but they switched to stocked rainbow trout in the fall. Northern pike growth was in the high range of growth reported throughout the United States. Estimated northern pike specific consumption rate (scr) of rainbow trout (g/g/d ?? 10-6) was greatest in Upper Lake Mary (scr = 329.1 ?? 23.7 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where stocked fingerling (280 mm TL) rainbow trout stocked in Long Lake (scr = 1.4 ?? 0.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) and Parker Canyon Lake (scr = 287.2 ?? 15.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where catchable-sized rainbow trout were stocked. Managers should consider the cost-benefits of stocking fish >200 mm TL in lakes containing northern pike. ?? Copyright by the North American Lake Management Society 2008.

  15. High sensitivity of northern pike larvae to UV-B but no UV-photoinduced toxicity of retene.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Jani; Vehniäinen, Eeva; Oikari, Aimo

    2004-03-10

    In order to investigate whether increased UV-B radiation is a risk factor, a series of acute laboratory experiments was conducted with larval stages of the northern pike (Esox lucius L.), hatching in Nordic waters in May. Further, a comparative investigation on the acute phototoxicity of retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene), a PAH compound recently revealed to posses UV-B-induced phototoxicity in larval coregonids, was conducted with pike larvae. In semi-static experiment, larvae were pre-exposed to retene (3, 9, 30 and 82 microg/g), with relevant controls, for 24 h and then irradiated for 3 h once a day (two consecutive days) with three UV-B doses (CIE-weighted 1.0, 1.8 or 2.7 kJ/m2 per day) or with visible light only. In 3 days, the UV-B exposure alone increased mortality by 10-20% in all applied dose rates. Retene (up to 82 microg/l) had no direct UV-B-induced toxicity in pike. However, pike larvae were very sensitive to UV-B even in low doses, indicated as severe neurobehavioral disorders. Monitoring of pike with the neurobehavioral syndrome revealed substantial late mortality. As UV-B had no influence on CYP1A content in larval pike, retene (9-82 microg/l) induced this protein substantially with and without UV-B. In pike, the applied UV-B radiation and water retene alone both decreased HSP70 concentrations. Neither UV nor retene changed SOD activity significantly. Overall, data on pike suggest that only a minor increase in ambient UV-B coming to the earth's surface may cause lethal effects to larval fish.

  16. First detection of pike fry-like rhabdovirus in barbel and spring viraemia of carp virus in sturgeon and pike in aquaculture in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vicenova, Monika; Reschova, Stanislava; Pokorova, Dagmar; Hulova, Jana; Vesely, Tomas

    2011-06-16

    Rapid antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of cell cultures with organ homogenate from fish, collected from farms with a predominance of common carp or in natural aquaculture in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2008, identified piscine vesiculovirus in 27 of 178 samples. Using reverse transcription semi-nested PCR, targeting a 550 nucleotide region of the glycoprotein (G) gene, piscine vesiculovirus was confirmed in 23 of the 27 organ samples diagnosed by ELISA as infected. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from 18 isolates from common carp Cyprinus carpio (family Cyprinidae), 2 isolates from northern pike Esox lucius (family Esocidae), and 1 isolate each from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii (family Acipenseridae), common barbel Barbus barbus (family Cyprinidae), and koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi (family Cyprinidae). The sequences (based on 401 nucleotides) clustered into 2 genogroups. The majority of isolates (n = 22), including those from sturgeon and pike, grouped with the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) Genogroup I and Subgroup Id. The 22 isolates could be further subdivided into 2 groups: Id1 (n = 20) and Id2 (n = 2). A marker (a non-conservative nucleotide substitution) for the Id1 SVCV group was identified. It was specifically found in all sequences of Id1 isolates when testing SVCV originating from different countries. The remaining isolate from barbel, was classified in the pike fry-like rhabdovirus Genogroup IV. This is the first confirmation of natural SVCV infection in sturgeon and pike, and pike fry-like rhabdovirus infection in barbel. In the case of the pike fry-like rhabdovirus, this is also its first identification in the Czech Republic. According to the presence/absence of evident clinical signs of rhabdoviral disease in the 3 infected hosts, only the sturgeon seemed to be susceptible to the monitored rhabdovirus.

  17. Comparison of mercury and methylmercury in northern pike and Arctic grayling from western Alaska rivers.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Stephen C; Zhang, Xiaoming; Naidu, A Sathy; Kelley, John J; Dasher, Doug; Duffy, Lawrence K

    2003-01-01

    In western Alaska, mercury (Hg) could be a potential health risk to people whose diet is primarily fish-based. In 2000, total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were examined in northern pike (Esox lucius) and Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) from two watersheds in western Alaska, the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers. Whitefish (Coregonus sp.) were also examined from the Kuskokwim River. Pike from the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers had mean concentrations of THg in muscle of 1.506 and 0.628 mg/kg wet wt, respectively. The mean concentrations of THg in grayling muscle from these rivers were 0.264 and 0.078 mg/kg, respectfully. Whitefish had a mean THg concentration in muscle of 0.032 mg/kg. MeHg, in pike and grayling constituted nearly 100% of the THg concentrations; the proportion was less in whitefish. A significant positive correlation between Hg levels and fish length was also found. Generally, there were no changes in Hg concentrations in pike or grayling over the last several years. Only pike from theYukon River had THg concentrations that exceeded the USFDA action level for human consumption of edible fish (1 mg/kg). Human hazard index for pike was > or = 1 for both adults and children, indicating a potential for toxic concern, especially among children. Further studies are needed to determine the environmental and human health impacts associated with these Hg concentrations in western Alaska, especially in the context of potentially increased consumption of resident fishes when anadromous salmon catches are reduced.

  18. Residue depletion of oxytetracycline from fillet tissues of northern pike and walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernardy, Jeffry A.; Vue, Chue; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Stehly, Guy R.; Gingerich, William H.; Moore, Allen

    2003-01-01

    The broad-spectrum antibacterial drug oxytetracycline (OTC) is used in the U.S. to treat certain diseases in salmonids and catfish. This study was conducted to support an extension of the OTC label to include all cool-water fish species cultured at U.S. public aquaculture facilities by satisfying human food safety requirements. Juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius; mean weight: 117 g) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum; mean weight: 59 g) were fed OTC-medicated diets near the maximum legal treatment rate (82.7 mg OTC-HCl/kg fish/day for 10 days) and near the lower limit of the water temperature range for most disease outbreaks in these species (14 and 16 °C, respectively). Two trials were conducted simultaneously with northern pike, one using commercially medicated feed and the other using on-site OTC top-coated feed. A third trial was performed with walleye using on-site OTC top-coated feed. Fillet tissues were collected and OTC free base (OTC-base) concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The maximum mean OTC-base concentrations in the fillet tissue were 319 ng/g in northern pike (skinless) and 721 ng/g in walleye (skin-on), both well below the current tolerance limit of 2000 ng/g OTC-base. The log-linear loss of OTC-base from the fillet tissues was monophasic, with terminal phase half-lives of 5.9 days in northern pike fed commercial medicated feed, 6.7 days in northern pike fed top-coated feed, and 10.5 days in walleye fed top-coated feed. The data supported a zero withdrawal time in juvenile northern pike and walleye fed OTC at the approved dose level for 10 days at water temperatures down to 14 and 16 °C respectively.

  19. Trophic transfer of cyanobacterial toxins from zooplankton to planktivores: consequences for pike larvae and mysid shrimps.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Miina; Reinikainen, Marko; Spoof, Lisa; Meriluoto, Jussi A O; Sivonen, Kaarina; Viitasalo, Markku

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentially harmful effects of zooplankton preexposed to cyanobacteria on two planktivorous animals: a fish larva (pike, Esox lucius) and a mysid shrimp (Neomysis integer). The planktivores were fed zooplankton from a natural community that had been preexposed to cell-free extract or to purified toxin (nodularin) of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena, and the growth, feeding, and pellet production of the planktivores, as well as the toxin content of the pellets, were measured. In addition, radiolabeled nodularin ((3)H-dihydronodularin) was used in separate experiments to measure the vector transfer of nodularin from zooplankton to their predators. During 11-day exposures, dissolved nodularin was transferred to pike larvae and N. integer via zooplankton at very low rates of accumulation. Treatment with N. spumigena extract decreased the ingestion and feces production rates of pike larvae. With purified nodularin alone, no such effect could be observed. No effect on molting cycle length, fecal pellet production, C:N ratio, or growth of N. integer was detected. The results suggest that dissolved cyanobacterial toxins released during bloom decay can have a negative impact on feeding and, hence, on the growth of fish larvae via zooplankton, even without direct contact between cyanobacteria and the fish.

  20. Using bioenergetics modeling to estimate consumption of native juvenile salmonids by nonnative northern pike in the Upper Flathead River System, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, C.C.; Bennett, D.H.; Kirk, Steinhorst R.; Marotz, B.; Boyer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative northern pike Esox lucius have created recreational fisheries in many waters in the United States and Canada, yet many studies have shown that introduced northern pike may alter the composition and structure of fish communities through predation. We estimated the abundance of nonnative northern pike (2002-2003) and applied food habits data (1999-2003) to estimate their annual consumption of native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi juveniles in the upper Flathead River system, Montana. Population estimates were generally consistent among years and ranged from 1,200 to 1,300 individuals. Westslope cutthroat trout were present in the diet of younger (???600 mm) and older (>600 mm) northern pike during all seasons and bull trout were found only in larger northern pike during all seasons but summer. Bioenergetics modeling estimated that the northern pike population annually consumed a total of 8.0 metric tons (mt) of fish flesh; the highest biomass was composed of cyprinids (4.95 mt) followed by whitefishes Prosopium spp. (1.02 mt), bull trout (0.80 mt), westslope cutthroat trout (0.68 mt), yellow perch Perca flavescens (0.41 mt),1 and other fishes (centrarchids and cottids; 0.14 mt). Numerically, the northern pike population consumed more than 342,000 fish; cyprinids and catostomids comprised approximately 82% of prey fish (278,925), whereas over 13,000 westslope cutthroat trout and nearly 3,500 bull trout were eaten, comprising about 5% of the prey consumed. Our results suggest that predation by introduced northern pike is contributing to the lower abundance of native salmonids in the system and that a possible benefit might accrue to native salmonids by reducing these predatory interactions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  1. Relationship of young-of-the-year northern pike to aquatic vegetation types in backwaters of the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.; Huston, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    The association of young-of-the-year northern pike (Esox lucius) with different aquatic plant types (e.g., submerged, emergent, floating) was studied to evaluate the impacts of a potential loss of backwaters on available fish nursery habitats in the upper Mississippi River. Eight biweekly collections were made at each of six representative lentic habitats in Navigation Pool 7. In the spring, average catches of northern pike from areas with submerged vegetation were nearly three times greater than from areas with emergent vegetation, and more than 10 times greater than from an area with no vegetation. This pattern was consistent until late summer, when the young became more common in the more highly oxygenated, less heavily vegetated waters. Food and growth were examined as possible indicators for the selection of areas with submerged vegetation over other habitats. Food varied among fish in the different vegetation types; however, no significant patterns of improved growth or condition were apparent. Young northern pike apparently were successful, opportunistic feeders. Although preference for habitats with submerged vegetation was seemingly not related to food, the overall production of young was clearly best in these habitats.

  2. Multiple isotope analyses of the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus reveal peculiarities in consumer-diet discrimination patterns.

    PubMed

    Behrmann-Godel, J; Yohannes, E

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies of dietary isotope discrimination have led to the general expectation that a consumer will exhibit enriched stable isotope levels relative to its diet. Parasite-host systems are specific consumer-diet pairs in which the consumer (parasite) feeds exclusively on one dietary source: host tissue. However, the small numbers of studies previously carried out on isotopic discrimination in parasite-host (ΔXP-HT) systems have yielded controversial results, showing some parasites to be isotopically depleted relative to their food source, while others are enriched or in equilibrium with their hosts. Although the mechanism for these deviations from expectations remains to be understood, possible influences of specific feeding niche or selection for only a few nutritional components by the parasite are discussed. ΔXP-HT for multiple isotopes (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) were measured in the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus and two of its life-cycle fish hosts, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius, within which T. nodulosus occupies different feeding locations. Variability in the value of ΔXP-HT calculated for the parasite and its different hosts indicates an influence of feeding location on isotopic discrimination. In perch liver ΔXP-HT was relatively more negative for all three stable isotopes. In pike gut ΔXP-HT was more positive for δ13C, as expected in conventional consumer-diet systems. For parasites feeding on pike gut, however, the δ15N and δ34S isotope values were comparable with those of the host. We discuss potential causes of these deviations from expectations, including the effect of specific parasite feeding niches, and conclude that ΔXP-HT should be critically evaluated for trophic interactions between parasite and host before general patterns are assumed.

  3. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  4. Residue depletion of oxytetracycline from fillet tissues of northern pike and walleye

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernardy, J.A.; Vue, C.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.; Moore, A.

    2003-01-01

    Iowa Department of Natural Resources Fisheries Bureau,Rathbun Research,15053 Hatchery Place,Moravia, IA 52571-8933,USA The broad-spectrum antibacterial drug oxytetracycline (OTC) is used in the U.S. to treat certain diseases in salmonids and catfish. This study was conducted to support an extension of the OTC label to include all cool-water fish species cultured at U.S. public aquaculture facilities by satisfying human food safety requirements. Juvenile northern pike (Esox lucius; mean weight: 117 g) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum; mean weight: 59 g) were fed OTC-medicated diets near the maximum legal treatment rate (82.7 mg OTC-HCl/kg fish/day for 10 days) and near the lower limit of the water temperature range for most disease outbreaks in these species (14 and 16??C, respectively). Two trials were conducted simultaneously with northern pike, one using commercially medicated feed and the other using on-site OTC top-coated feed. A third trial was performed with walleye using on-site OTC top-coated feed. Fillet tissues were collected and OTC free base (OTC-base) concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The maximum mean OTC-base concentrations in the fillet tissue were 319 ng/g in northern pike (skinless) and 721 ng/g in walleye (skin-on), both well below the current tolerance limit of 2000 ng/g OTC-base. The log-linear loss of OTC-base from the fillet tissues was monophasic, with terminal phase half-lives of 5.9 days in northern pike fed commercial medicated feed, 6.7 days in northern pike fed top-coated feed, and 10.5 days in walleye fed top-coated feed. The data supported a zero withdrawal time in juvenile northern pike and walleye fed OTC at the approved dose level for 10 days at water temperatures down to 14 and 16??C respectively. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Northern pike bycatch in an inland commercial hoop net fishery: effects of water temperature and net tending frequency on injury, physiology, and survival

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Raby, Graham D.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Haxton, Tim; Smokorowski, Karen; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    In lakes and rivers of eastern Ontario (Canada) commercial fishers use hoop nets to target a variety of fishes, but incidentally capture non-target (i.e., bycatch) gamefish species such as northern pike (Esox lucius). Little is known about the consequences of bycatch in inland commercial fisheries, making it difficult to identify regulatory options. Regulations that limit fishing during warmer periods and that require frequent net tending have been proposed as possible strategies to reduce bycatch mortality. Using northern pike as a model, we conducted experiments during two thermal periods (mid-April: 14.45 ± 0.32 °C, and late May: 17.17 ± 0.08 °C) where fish were retained in nets for 2 d and 6 d. A ‘0 d’ control group consisted of northern pike that were angled, immediately sampled and released. We evaluated injury, physiological status and mortality after the prescribed net retention period and for the surviving fish used radio telemetry with manual tracking to monitor delayed post-release mortality. Our experiments revealed that injury levels, in-net mortality, and post-release mortality tended to increase with net set duration and at higher temperatures. Pike exhibited signs of chronic stress and starvation following retention, particularly at higher temperatures. Total mortality rates were negligible for the 2 d holding period at 14 °C, 14% for 6 d holding at 14 °C, 21% for 2 d holding at 17 °C, and 58% for 6 d holding at 17 °C. No mortality was observed in control fish. Collectively, these data reveal that frequent net tending, particularly at warmer temperatures, may be useful for conserving gamefish populations captured as bycatch in inland hoop net fisheries.

  6. The effects of pulse pressure from seismic water gun technology on Northern Pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gross, Jackson A.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Shields, Patrick A; Fox, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of sound pressure pulses generated from a water gun for controlling invasive Northern Pike Esox lucius. Pulse pressures from two sizes of water guns were evaluated for their effects on individual fish placed at a predetermined random distance. Fish mortality from a 5,620.8-cm3 water gun (peak pressure source level = 252 dB referenced to 1 μP at 1 m) was assessed every 24 h for 168 h, and damage (intact, hematoma, or rupture) to the gas bladder, kidney, and liver was recorded. The experiment was replicated with a 1,966.4-cm3 water gun (peak pressure source level = 244 dB referenced to 1 μP at 1 m), but fish were euthanized immediately. The peak sound pressure level (SPLpeak), peak-to-peak sound pressure level (SPLp-p), and frequency spectrums were recorded, and the cumulative sound exposure level (SELcum) was subsequently calculated. The SPLpeak, SPLp-p, and SELcum were correlated, and values varied significantly by treatment group for both guns. Mortality increased and organ damage was greater with decreasing distance to the water gun. Mortality (31%) by 168 h was only observed for Northern Pike exhibiting the highest degree of organ damage. Mortality at 72 h and 168 h postexposure was associated with increasing SELcum above 195 dB. The minimum SELcum calculated for gas bladder rupture was 199 dB recorded at 9 m from the 5,620.8-cm3 water gun and 194 dB recorded at 6 m from the 1,966.4-cm3water gun. Among Northern Pike that were exposed to the large water gun, 100% of fish exposed at 3 and 6 m had ruptured gas bladders, and 86% exposed at 9 m had ruptured gas bladders. Among fish that were exposed to pulse pressures from the smaller water gun, 78% exhibited gas bladder rupture. Results from these initial controlled experiments underscore the potential of water guns as a tool for controlling Northern Pike.

  7. Year-class formation of upper St. Lawrence River northern pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, B.M.; Farrell, J.M.; Underwood, H.B.; Smith, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Variables associated with year-class formation in upper St. Lawrence River northern pike Esox lucius were examined to explore population trends. A partial least-squares (PLS) regression model (PLS 1) was used to relate a year-class strength index (YCSI; 1974-1997) to explanatory variables associated with spawning and nursery areas (seasonal water level and temperature and their variability, number of ice days, and last day of ice presence). A second model (PLS 2) incorporated four additional ecological variables: potential predators (abundance of double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and yellow perch Perca flavescens), female northern pike biomass (as a measure of stock-recruitment effects), and total phosphorus (productivity). Trends in adult northern pike catch revealed a decline (1981-2005), and year-class strength was positively related to catch per unit effort (CPUE; R2 = 0.58). The YCSI exceeded the 23-year mean in only 2 of the last 10 years. Cyclic patterns in the YCSI time series (along with strong year-classes every 4-6 years) were apparent, as was a dampening effect of amplitude beginning around 1990. The PLS 1 model explained over 50% of variation in both explanatory variables and the dependent variable, YCSI first-order moving-average residuals. Variables retained (N = 10; Wold's statistic ??? 0.8) included negative YCSI associations with high summer water levels, high variability in spring and fall water levels, and variability in fall water temperature. The YCSI exhibited positive associations with high spring, summer, and fall water temperature, variability in spring temperature, and high winter and spring water level. The PLS 2 model led to positive YCSI associations with phosphorus and yellow perch CPUE and a negative correlation with double-crested cormorant abundance. Environmental variables (water level and temperature) are hypothesized to regulate northern pike YCSI cycles, and dampening in YCSI magnitude may be related to a

  8. Causes and consequences of repeatability, flexibility and individual fine-tuning of migratory timing in pike.

    PubMed

    Tibblin, Petter; Forsman, Anders; Borger, Tobias; Larsson, Per

    2016-01-01

    Many organisms undertake migrations between foraging and breeding habitats and while it is assumed that reproductive timing affects fitness, little is known about the degree of individual consistency, and about the causes and consequences of individual variation in migratory timing in organisms other than birds. Here, we report on a 6-year mark-recapture study, including 2048 individuals, of breeding migration in anadromous pike (Esox lucius), an iteroparous top-predatory fish that displays homing behaviour. By repeated sampling across years at a breeding site, we first quantify individual variation both within and between breeding events and then investigate phenotypic correlates and fitness consequences of arrival timing to the breeding site. Our data demonstrate that males arrive before females, that large males arrive later than small males, that the timing of breeding migration varies among years and that individuals are consistent in their timing across years relative to other individuals in the population. Furthermore, data on return rates indicate that arrival time is under stabilizing viability selection, and that individuals who are more flexible in their timing of arrival during the first reproductive years survive longer compared with less flexible individuals. Finally, longitudinal data demonstrate that individuals consistently fine-tune their arrival timing across years, showing that the timing of arrival to breeding sites is influenced by experience. These findings represent rare evidence of how between- and within-individual variations in migratory timing across breeding events are correlated with phenotypic and fitness traits in an ecologically important keystone species. Our results emphasize the importance of considering variation in migratory timing both between and within individuals in studies investigating the fitness consequences of migratory behaviour and have implications for future management.

  9. Pike Parvalbumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Parvalbumins are found in the muscles, endocrine glands, skin cells, and some neurons of vertebrates, but the role they play for musculature is not yet understood. Researchers are exploring theories of a correlation between parvalbumin concentration levels and the relaxation speed of mammalian muscles after contraction. An ultra-high resolution structure was achieved from samples grown on STS-83 and in July 1997, during STS-94, PCAM produced the largest crystals of pike parvalbumin grown to date. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter of New Century Pharmaceuticals.

  10. Testing for Local Adaptation to Spawning Habitat in Sympatric Subpopulations of Pike by Reciprocal Translocation of Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, Hanna; Nordahl, Oscar; Tibblin, Petter; Larsson, Per

    2016-01-01

    We tested for local adaption in early life-history traits by performing a reciprocal translocation experiment with approximately 2,500 embryos of pike (Esox lucius) divided in paired split-family batches. The experiment indicated local adaptation in one of the two subpopulations manifested as enhanced hatching success of eggs in the native habitat, both when compared to siblings transferred to a non-native habitat, and when compared to immigrant genotypes from the other subpopulation. Gene-by-environment effects on viability of eggs and larvae were evident in both subpopulations, showing that there existed genetic variation allowing for evolutionary responses to divergent selection, and indicating a capacity for plastic responses to environmental change. Next, we tested for differences in female life-history traits. Results uncovered that females from one population invested more resources into reproduction and also produced more (but smaller) eggs in relation to their body size compared to females from the other population. We suggest that these females have adjusted their reproductive strategies as a counter-adaptation because a high amount of sedimentation on the eggs in that subpopulations spawning habitat might benefit smaller eggs. Collectively, our findings point to adaptive divergence among sympatric subpopulations that are physically separated only for a short period during reproduction and early development—which is rare. These results illustrate how combinations of translocation experiments and field studies of life-history traits might infer about local adaptation and evolutionary divergence among populations. Local adaptations in subdivided populations are important to consider in management and conservation of biodiversity, because they may otherwise be negatively affected by harvesting, supplementation, and reintroduction efforts targeted at endangered populations. PMID:27139695

  11. Pikes Peak, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunstein, Craig; Quesenberry, Carol; Davis, John; Jackson, Gene; Scott, Glenn R.; D'Erchia, Terry D.; Swibas, Ed; Carter, Lorna; McKinney, Kevin; Cole, Jim

    2006-01-01

    For 200 years, Pikes Peak has been a symbol of America's Western Frontier--a beacon that drew prospectors during the great 1859-60 Gold Rush to the 'Pikes Peak country,' the scenic destination for hundreds of thousands of visitors each year, and an enduring source of pride for cities in the region, the State of Colorado, and the Nation. November 2006 marks the 200th anniversary of the Zebulon M. Pike expedition's first sighting of what has become one of the world's most famous mountains--Pikes Peak. In the decades following that sighting, Pikes Peak became symbolic of America's Western Frontier, embodying the spirit of Native Americans, early explorers, trappers, and traders who traversed the vast uncharted wilderness of the Western Great Plains and the Southern Rocky Mountains. High-quality printed paper copies of this poster are available at no cost from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey (1-888-ASK-USGS).

  12. Physics Integration KErnels (PIKE)

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, Roger

    2014-07-31

    Pike is a software library for coupling and solving multiphysics applications. It provides basic interfaces and utilities for performing code-to-code coupling. It provides simple “black-box” Picard iteration methods for solving the coupled system of equations including Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel solvers. Pike was developed originally to couple neutronics and thermal fluids codes to simulate a light water nuclear reactor for the Consortium for Simulation of Light-water Reactors (CASL) DOE Energy Innovation Hub. The Pike library contains no physics and just provides interfaces and utilities for coupling codes. It will be released open source under a BSD license as part of the Trilinos solver framework (trilinos.org) which is also BSD. This code provides capabilities similar to other open source multiphysics coupling libraries such as LIME, AMP, and MOOSE.

  13. 7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  14. Pike International, LLC et al. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pike International LLC, et al. (the Company) is located in New Haven, Connecticut. The Complaint involves the lease of, and renovation activities conducted at, property constructed prior to 1978, located in New Haven, Connecticut.

  15. 76 FR 30903 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Forest Service Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... of the Pike & San Isabel National Forests, Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands (PSICC) at...

  16. PIKE is essential for oligodendroglia development and CNS myelination.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chi Bun; Liu, Xia; Zhao, Lixia; Liu, Guanglu; Lee, Chi Wai; Feng, Yue; Ye, Keiqang

    2014-02-04

    Oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and myelin development are complex events regulated by numerous signal transduction factors. Here, we report that phosphoinositide-3 kinase enhancer L (PIKE-L) is required for OL development and myelination. PIKE-L expression is up-regulated when oligodendrocyte progenitor cells commit to differentiation. Conversely, depleting phosphoinositide-3 kinase enhancer (PIKE) expression by shRNA prevents oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation. In both conventional PIKE knockout (PIKE(-/-)) and OL-specific PIKE knockout mice, the number of OLs is reduced in the corpus callosum. PIKE(-/-) OLs also display defects when forming myelin sheath on neuronal axons during neonatal development, which is partially rescued when PTEN is ablated. In addition, Akt/mTOR signaling is impaired in OL-enriched tissues of the PIKE(-/-) mutant, leading to reduced expression of critical proteins for myelin development and hypomyelination. Moreover, myelin repair of lysolecithin-induced lesions is delayed in PIKE(-/-) brain. Thus, PIKE plays pivotal roles to advance OL development and myelinogenesis through Akt/mTOR activation.

  17. Final Environmental Assessment: Installation of Digital Airport Surveillance Radar at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-11

    northern pike (Esox lucius), white sucker (Catostomus commersonii), rock bass (Ambloplites sp.), black bullhead (Ameiurus melas), and channel...sedimentary sandstones, siltstones, and shales (Paleozoic and Mesozoic era) overlying igneous and metamorphic granites, schists, and greenstones (Precambrian...Air Base Wing 460 Steen Blvd Grand Forks AFB, ND 58205 Charles W. Murphy, Chairman Standing Rock Sioux Tribe POBoxD Fort Yates, ND 58538 Dear

  18. Pharyngeal Fricatives, and Pike's "Fricative" and "Frictional" Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprigg, R. K.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of pharyngeal fricatives in Arabic looks at voiced and voiceless varieties within the context of K. L. Pike's classifications. Pike treated pharyngeal fricatives as standing apart from others, including a number of oral fricatives and one glottal fricative in a category he called "frictionals." Later, however, he…

  19. Core Values, Education and Research: A Response to Mark Pike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Sara; Allington, Daniel; Simmons, Katy; Jones, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to the article by Mark Pike, which appeared in the "Oxford Review of Education" in December 2010. Pike's article focuses on Trinity Academy, one of four academies in the Emmanuel Schools Foundation (ESF): it is not a faith school, but sponsored by a Christian faith-based and business-oriented…

  20. The PIKE homolog Centaurin gamma regulates developmental timing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gündner, Anna Lisa; Hahn, Ines; Sendscheid, Oliver; Aberle, Hermann; Hoch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositide-3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) proteins encoded by the PIKE/CENTG1 gene are members of the gamma subgroup of the Centaurin superfamily of small GTPases. They are characterized by their chimeric protein domain architecture consisting of a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a GTPase-activating (GAP) domain, Ankyrin repeats as well as an intrinsic GTPase domain. In mammals, three PIKE isoforms with variations in protein structure and subcellular localization are encoded by the PIKE locus. PIKE inactivation in mice results in a broad range of defects, including neuronal cell death during brain development and misregulation of mammary gland development. PIKE -/- mutant mice are smaller, contain less white adipose tissue, and show insulin resistance due to misregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin receptor/Akt signaling. here, we have studied the role of PIKE proteins in metabolic regulation in the fly. We show that the Drosophila PIKE homolog, ceng1A, encodes functional GTPases whose internal GAP domains catalyze their GTPase activity. To elucidate the biological function of ceng1A in flies, we introduced a deletion in the ceng1A gene by homologous recombination that removes all predicted functional PIKE domains. We found that homozygous ceng1A mutant animals survive to adulthood. In contrast to PIKE -/- mouse mutants, genetic ablation of Drosophila ceng1A does not result in growth defects or weight reduction. Although metabolic pathways such as insulin signaling, sensitivity towards starvation and mobilization of lipids under high fed conditions are not perturbed in ceng1A mutants, homozygous ceng1A mutants show a prolonged development in second instar larval stage, leading to a late onset of pupariation. In line with these results we found that expression of ecdysone inducible genes is reduced in ceng1A mutants. Together, we propose a novel role for Drosophila Ceng1A in regulating ecdysone signaling-dependent second to third instar

  1. 77 FR 38761 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposal rule; dismissal. SUMMARY: The Audio Division dismisses the petition...

  2. 77 FR 2242 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications....415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa... preamble, the Federal Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART...

  3. 77 FR 64792 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications....415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications... preamble, the Federal Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART...

  4. 75 FR 65609 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... (PSICC) at 2840 Kachina Dr., Pueblo, Colorado. Written comments should be sent to Barbara Timock, PSICC, 2840 Kachina Dr., Pueblo, CO 81008. Comments may also be sent via e-mail to btimock@fs.fed.us , or...

  5. 77 FR 50459 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... of meetings. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... Comanche National Grasslands (PSICC) at 2840 Kachina Dr., Pueblo, Colorado. Written comments should be sent to Barbara Timock, PSICC, 2840 Kachina Dr., Pueblo, CO 81008. Comments may also be sent via email...

  6. 76 FR 30903 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... Kachina Dr., Pueblo, Colorado. Written comments should be sent to Barbara Timock, PSICC, 2840 Kachina Dr., Pueblo, CO 81008. Comments may also be sent via e-mail to btimock@fs.fed.us , or via facsimile to...

  7. 76 FR 9540 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... Kachina Dr., Pueblo, Colorado. Written comments should be sent to Barbara Timock, PSICC, 2840 Kachina Dr., Pueblo, CO 81008. Comments may also be sent via e-mail to btimock@fs.fed.us , or via facsimile to...

  8. 78 FR 48646 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... of meetings. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... Grasslands (PSICC) at 2840 Kachina Dr., Pueblo, Colorado. Written comments should be sent to Barbara Timock, PSICC, 2840 Kachina Dr., Pueblo, CO 81008. Comments may also be sent via email to btimock@fs.fed.us ,...

  9. 75 FR 78675 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... Kachina Dr., Pueblo, Colorado. Written comments should be sent to Barbara Timock, PSICC, 2840 Kachina Dr., Pueblo, CO 81008. Comments may also be sent via e-mail to btimock@fs.fed.us , or via facsimile to...

  10. 76 FR 2331 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... Kachina Dr., Pueblo, Colorado. Written comments should be sent to Barbara Timock, PSICC, 2840 Kachina Dr., Pueblo, CO 81008. Comments may also be sent via e-mail to btimock@fs.fed.us , or via facsimile to...

  11. 76 FR 27304 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado... Dr., Pueblo, Colorado. Written comments should be sent to Barbara Timock, PSICC, 2840 Kachina Dr., Pueblo, CO 81008. Comments may also be sent via e-mail to btimock@fs.fed.us , or via facsimile to...

  12. General Lucius D. Clay: A Case Study of Strategic Leadership and Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-05

    developmental positions that prepared him to create and implement a strategic vision and to lead the effort to establ ish post-war Germany. A review of mi l...military history and biporaph’ is invaluable in this regard. ( emphasis added) [I] It is in that spirit that this study of General Lucius D. Clay has...those general officers in positions as high as corps commanders. ;t this level the leader has less direct control and influence over subordinates. Work

  13. Involvement of PIKE in icariin induced cardiomyocyte differentiation from murine embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Limin; Zheng, Bei; Tang, Leilei; Huang, Yujie; Zhu, Danyan

    2014-03-01

    Icariin (ICA) has demonstrated to induce cardiomyocyte differentiation from murine embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro, however, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) was involved in ICA induced cardiomyocyte differentiation of ES cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) of PIKE was applied to investigate the role of PIKE in ICA induced cardiomyocyte differentiation. The cardiomyocytes derived from ES cells were verified using immunofluorescence. The expressions of Troponin T, PIKE, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) were detected by western blot. The change of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was estimated using the fluorescent dye 2', 7' - dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. The results showed that PIKE expression increased during cardiomyocyte differentiation. ICA markedly enhanced PIKE and PI3K expression in a time-dependent manner. Knockdown of PIKE by siRNAs blocked the differentiation of ES cells into cardiomyocytes expressing alpha-actinin for cardiac sarcomeric structures. Moreover, reduced ROS generation and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation were responsible for the inhibitory effect of si-PIKE. In conclusion, PIKE was involved in ICA induced cardiomyocyte differentiation, and ROS generation and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation were associated with PIKE activation.

  14. Behavior of fish predators and their prey: habitat choice between open water and dense vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Stein, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    Behavior of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, and northern pike, Esox lucius, foraging on fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, or bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, was quantified in pools with 50% cover (half the pool had artificial stems at a density of 1000 stems m−2). Both predators spent most of their time in the vegetation. Largemouth bass searched for bluegills and ambushed minnows, whereas the relatively immobile northern pike ambushed all prey. Minnows were closer to predators and were captured more frequently than bluegills. Even when minnows dispersed, they moved continually and eventually wandered within striking distance of a predator. Bluegills dispersed in the cover with predators. Bass captured the few bluegills that strayed into the open and pike captured those that approached too closely in the cover. The ability of predators to capture prey while residing in habitats containing patches of dense cover may explain their residence in areas often considered to be poor ones for foraging.

  15. New host and locality record for Triaenophorus crassus forel (Cestoda: pseudophyllidea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uzmann, J.R.; Hesselholt, M.N.

    1957-01-01

    The adult form of Triaenophorus crassus Forel, 1868 (= T. robustus Olsson, 1893; = T. tricuspidatus morpha megadentatus Wardle, 1932) occurs as an intestinal parasite in the pike, Esox lucius L., a holarctic species of wide distribution. Preliminary life-history stages include procercoid development in copepods of the genus Cyclops followed by plerocercoid development in the musculature of a variety of coregonid and salmonid fishes. The unsightly appearance of even moderate plerocercoid infections is often sufficient to render fish unacceptable for human consumption. In the prairie provinces of Canada the incidence and intensity of T. crassus infections in the commercially important whitefishes constitute a serious economic problem.

  16. METHYLMERCURY BIOACCUMULATION DEPENDENCE ON NORTHERN PIKE AGE AND SIZE IN TWENTY MINNESOTA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury accumulation in northern pike muscle tissue (fillets) was found to be directly related to fish age and size. Measurements were made on 173 individual northern pike specimens from twenty lakes across Minnesota. Best fit regressions of mercury fillet concentration (wet wt.)...

  17. Genome Sequence of a Ranavirus Isolated from Pike-Perch Sander lucioperca

    PubMed Central

    Holopainen, Riikka; Steckler, Natalie K.; Claytor, Sieara C.; Ariel, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The pike-perch iridovirus (PPIV) was isolated in Finland from apparently healthy pike-perch fingerlings during routine disease surveillance. Our phylogenomic analysis revealed that PPIV is the first fish member of a clade of ranaviruses previously described from European and Chinese amphibians. PMID:27856591

  18. A radiation briefer's guide to the PIKE Model

    SciTech Connect

    Steadman, Jr, C R

    1990-03-01

    Gamma-radiation-exposure estimates to populations living immediately downwind from the Nevada Test Site have been required for many years by the US Department of Energy (DOE) before each containment-designed nuclear detonation. A highly unlikely worst-case'' scenario is utilized which assumes that there will be an accidental massive venting of radioactive debris into the atmosphere shortly after detonation. The Weather Service Nuclear Support Office (WSNSO) has supplied DOE with such estimates for the last 25 years using the WSNSO Fallout Scaling Technique (FOST), which employs a worst-case analog event that actually occurred in the past. The PIKE Model'' is the application of the FOST using the PIKE nuclear event as the analog. This report, which is primarily intended for WSNSO meteorologists who derive radiation estimates, gives a brief history of the model,'' presents the mathematical, radiological, and meteorological concepts upon which it is based, states its limitations, explains it apparent advantages over more sophisticated models, and details how it is used operationally. 10 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Fyn-phosphorylated PIKE-A binds and inhibits AMPK signaling, blocking its tumor suppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Qi, Q; Chan, C B; Zhou, W; Chen, J; Luo, H R; Appin, C; Brat, D J; Ye, K

    2016-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase, a key regulator of energy homeostasis, has a critical role in metabolic disorders and cancers. AMPK is mainly regulated by cellular AMP and phosphorylation by upstream kinases. Here, we show that PIKE-A binds to AMPK and blocks its tumor suppressive actions, which are mediated by tyrosine kinase Fyn. PIKE-A directly interacts with AMPK catalytic alpha subunit and impairs T172 phosphorylation, leading to repression of its kinase activity on the downstream targets. Mutation of Fyn phosphorylation sites on PIKE-A, depletion of Fyn, or pharmacological inhibition of Fyn blunts the association between PIKE-A and AMPK, resulting in loss of its inhibitory effect on AMPK. Cell proliferation and oncogenic assays demonstrate that PIKE-A antagonizes tumor suppressive actions of AMPK. In human glioblastoma samples, PIKE-A expression inversely correlates with the p-AMPK levels, supporting that PIKE-A negatively regulates AMPK activity in cancers. Thus, our findings provide additional layer of molecular regulation of the AMPK signaling pathway in cancer progression.

  20. Ultrastructural features of Glisson's capsule and the overlying mesothelium in rat, monkey and pike liver.

    PubMed

    Chapman, G B; Eagles, D A

    2007-10-01

    Samples from the liver of a male rat (Sprague-Dawley), a monkey (Macacus rhesus), and a longnose gar pike (Lepisosteus osseus) were studied in a transmission electron microscope to provide cytological and histological information about structures previously poorly documented in the literature. Glisson's capsule consisted of dense, irregular connective tissue of typical Type-I collagen fibrils. The capsule was formed by a single stratum of fibroblasts in the rat and in the pike, but by one or two strata of fibroblasts in the monkey. In the rat, but not in the monkey or pike, fibroblast processes interdigitated with processes from the hepatocytes. In the pike, fibroblast processes extended toward both mesothelium and hepatocytes. In some areas of the rat and pike, mesothelial cells had desmosomal connections and microvillous projections into the peritoneal cavity. Marginated heterochromatin was more abundant in the rat and monkey. The mesothelium was discontinuous in the rat and monkey but, in areas of discontinuity, the capsular surface was covered by a basal lamina, often barely perceptible beneath mesothelial cells of the rat and monkey, but prominent in the pike. In the pike, the mesothelium had numerous pinocytotic vesicles on both peritoneal and capsular surfaces.

  1. Body downsizing caused by non-consumptive social stress severely depresses population growth rate.

    PubMed

    Edeline, Eric; Haugen, Thrond O; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Claessen, David; Winfield, Ian J; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2010-03-22

    Chronic social stress diverts energy away from growth, reproduction and immunity, and is thus a potential driver of population dynamics. However, the effects of social stress on demographic density dependence remain largely overlooked in ecological theory. Here we combine behavioural experiments, physiology and population modelling to show in a top predator (pike Esox lucius) that social stress alone may be a primary driver of demographic density dependence. Doubling pike density in experimental ponds under controlled prey availability did not significantly change prey intake by pike (i.e. did not significantly change interference or exploitative competition), but induced a neuroendocrine stress response reflecting a size-dependent dominance hierarchy, depressed pike energetic status and lowered pike body growth rate by 23 per cent. Assuming fixed size-dependent survival and fecundity functions parameterized for the Windermere (UK) pike population, stress-induced smaller body size shifts age-specific survival rates and lowers age-specific fecundity, which in Leslie matrices projects into reduced population rate of increase (lambda) by 37-56%. Our models also predict that social stress flattens elasticity profiles of lambda to age-specific survival and fecundity, thus making population persistence more dependent on old individuals. Our results suggest that accounting for non-consumptive social stress from competitors and predators is necessary to accurately understand, predict and manage food-web dynamics.

  2. Body downsizing caused by non-consumptive social stress severely depresses population growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Edeline, Eric; Haugen, Thrond O.; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Claessen, David; Winfield, Ian J.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Vøllestad, L. Asbjørn

    2010-01-01

    Chronic social stress diverts energy away from growth, reproduction and immunity, and is thus a potential driver of population dynamics. However, the effects of social stress on demographic density dependence remain largely overlooked in ecological theory. Here we combine behavioural experiments, physiology and population modelling to show in a top predator (pike Esox lucius) that social stress alone may be a primary driver of demographic density dependence. Doubling pike density in experimental ponds under controlled prey availability did not significantly change prey intake by pike (i.e. did not significantly change interference or exploitative competition), but induced a neuroendocrine stress response reflecting a size-dependent dominance hierarchy, depressed pike energetic status and lowered pike body growth rate by 23 per cent. Assuming fixed size-dependent survival and fecundity functions parameterized for the Windermere (UK) pike population, stress-induced smaller body size shifts age-specific survival rates and lowers age-specific fecundity, which in Leslie matrices projects into reduced population rate of increase (λ) by 37–56%. Our models also predict that social stress flattens elasticity profiles of λ to age-specific survival and fecundity, thus making population persistence more dependent on old individuals. Our results suggest that accounting for non-consumptive social stress from competitors and predators is necessary to accurately understand, predict and manage food-web dynamics. PMID:19923130

  3. Characterization of the complete genome sequence of pike fry rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Lian; Liu, Hong; Liu, Zong-Xiao; He, Jun-Qiang; Gao, Long-Ying; Shi, Xiu-Jie; Jiang, Yu-Lin

    2009-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV), consisting of 11,097 nucleotides, was determined. The genome contains five genes, encoding the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) protein in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5'. 3' leader- and 5' trailer-sequences in the PFRV genome show inverse complementarity. The PFRV proteins share the highest homology to the proteins of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV), ranging from 55.3 to 91.4%. Phylogenetic analysis of the five proteins showed that PFRV clusters with SVCV and is closely related to the mammalian vesiculoviruses, 903/87, STRV and SCRV.

  4. Relation between trophic position and mercury accumulation among fishes from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, G.R.; Lenhart, T.E.; Gregory, R.W.

    1980-06-01

    Concentrations of total mercury were determined in muscle tissue from northern pike (Esox lucius), sauger (Stizostedion canadense), walleye (S. vitreum), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), and white crappie (P. annularis) collected from the Tongue River Reservoir, Montana, prior to extensive surface coal-mine development in the region. Mercury concentrations in fish flesh increased with fish size and age; larger individuals of all five species exceeded the US Food and Drug Administration's mercury concentration guideline of 0.5 ..mu..g/g. The rate of mercury accumulation was faster in the piscivorous species (northern pike, saugers, and walleyes) than in the planktivores (black crappies and white crappies). Differences in mercury uptake rates among the various species appeared to be directly related to the quantity of mercury eaten; results are discussed in relation to published models of mercury accumulation by fishes.

  5. Fishery survey and related limnological conditions of Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, W.W.; LaBaugh, J.W.; Freeberg, M.H.; Dowling, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), yellow perch (Perca flavescens) rock bass (Amploplites rupestris), black crappie (Pomozis nigromaculatus), and northern pike (Esox lucius) were found in Williams Lake, Hubbard County, Minnesota, during a fishery survey of the lake in late August 1982. The most abundant fish were the bluegills. These fish live in the large littoral zone of the lake; this zone underlies 55% of the surface area of the lake. The most ubiquitous benthic invertebrate in the littoral zone (amphipods) and the most abundant benthic invertebrate (chironomid larvae) were major food sources for the bluegill. Other organisms found in the stomach contents of fish collected in this survey were zooplankton, gastropods, Diptera larvae, odonates, terrestrial insects, and other fish. Daphnia were the only zooplankters of a diverse plankton community that were found in stomach contents. The abundance of fish other than bluegill was typical for a system in which northern pike is the major predator.

  6. Behavioural interaction between fish predators and their prey: effects of plant density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Stein, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    Prey-specific anti-predatory behaviour under different degrees of structural complexity determines foraging success of predators. The behaviour of piscivorous fish (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides and northern pike, Esox lucius) and their prey (bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas) were quantified in 60-min experiments in laboratory pools (2 multiplied by 4 m in diameter, 0 multiplied by 5 m deep) with artificial vegetation at densities of 0, 50, 250, and 1000 stems/m2. Largemouth bass switched predatory tactics from searching to ambushing as plant density increased whereas northern pike always used ambushing. At high plant density, both predators captured minnows, but not bluegills. Bluegills modified their behaviour more than minnows in response to predators, thereby avoiding predation at high plant densities. Structural complexity alone did not always provide refuge for prey; prey must use the structure to avoid predators. Predators may seek vegetated areas if appropriate, vulnerable prey are present.

  7. Future distribution of Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus in Sweden under climate change: effects of temperature, lake size and species interactions.

    PubMed

    Hein, Catherine L; Ohlund, Gunnar; Englund, Göran

    2012-01-01

    Novel communities will be formed as species with a variety of dispersal abilities and environmental tolerances respond individually to climate change. Thus, models projecting future species distributions must account for species interactions and differential dispersal abilities. We developed a species distribution model for Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus, a freshwater fish that is sensitive both to warm temperatures and to species interactions. A logistic regression model using lake area, mean annual air temperature (1961-1990), pike Esox lucius and brown trout Salmo trutta occurrence correctly classified 95 % of 467 Swedish lakes. We predicted that Arctic char will lose 73 % of its range in Sweden by 2100. Predicted extinctions could be attributed both to simulated temperature increases and to projected pike invasions. The Swedish mountains will continue to provide refugia for Arctic char in the future and should be the focus of conservation efforts for this highly valued fish.

  8. Groundwater-Quality Assessment, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Pike County, a 545 square-mile area in northeastern Pennsylvania, has experienced the largest relative population growth of any county in the state from 1990 to 2000 and its population is projected to grow substantially through 2025. This growing population may result in added dependence and stresses on water resources, including the potential to reduce the quantity and degrade the quality of groundwater and associated stream base flow with changing land use. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the county and is derived primarily from fractured-rock aquifers (shales, siltstones, and sandstones) and some unconsolidated glacial deposits that are recharged locally from precipitation. The principal land uses in the county as of 2005 were public, residential, agricultural, hunt club/private recreational, roads, and commercial. The public lands cover a third of the county and include national park, state park, and other state lands, much of which are forested. Individual on-site wells and wastewater disposal are common in many residential areas. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District, began a study to provide current information on groundwater quality throughout the county that will be helpful for water-resource planning. The countywide reconnaissance assessment of groundwater quality documents current conditions with existing land uses and may serve as a baseline of groundwater quality for future comparison. Twenty wells were sampled in 2007 throughout Pike County to represent groundwater quality in the principal land uses (commercial, high-density and moderate-density residential with on-site wastewater disposal, residential in a sewered area, pre-development, and undeveloped) and geologic units (five fractured-rock aquifers and one glacial unconsolidated aquifer). Analyses selected for the groundwater samples were intended to identify naturally occurring constituents from the aquifer or

  9. Fish introductions reveal the temperature dependence of species interactions.

    PubMed

    Hein, Catherine L; Öhlund, Gunnar; Englund, Göran

    2014-01-22

    A major area of current research is to understand how climate change will impact species interactions and ultimately biodiversity. A variety of environmental conditions are rapidly changing owing to climate warming, and these conditions often affect both the strength and outcome of species interactions. We used fish distributions and replicated fish introductions to investigate environmental conditions influencing the coexistence of two fishes in Swedish lakes: brown trout (Salmo trutta) and pike (Esox lucius). A logistic regression model of brown trout and pike coexistence showed that these species coexist in large lakes (more than 4.5 km(2)), but not in small, warm lakes (annual air temperature more than 0.9-1.5°C). We then explored how climate change will alter coexistence by substituting climate scenarios for 2091-2100 into our model. The model predicts that brown trout will be extirpated from approximately half of the lakes where they presently coexist with pike and from nearly all 9100 lakes where pike are predicted to invade. Context dependency was critical for understanding pike-brown trout interactions, and, given the widespread occurrence of context-dependent species interactions, this aspect will probably be critical for accurately predicting climate impacts on biodiversity.

  10. α-Synuclein binds and sequesters PIKE-L into Lewy bodies, triggering dopaminergic cell death via AMPK hyperactivation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong Su; Zhang, Zhentao; Liu, Xia; Manfredsson, Fredric P; He, Li; Iuvone, P Michael; Cao, Xuebing; Sun, Yi E; Jin, Lingjing; Ye, Keqiang

    2017-01-31

    The abnormal aggregation of fibrillar α-synuclein in Lewy bodies plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating α-synuclein pathological effects are incompletely understood. Here we show that α-synuclein binds phosphoinositide-3 kinase enhancer L (PIKE-L) in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and sequesters it in Lewy bodies, leading to dopaminergic cell death via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) hyperactivation. α-Synuclein interacts with PIKE-L, an AMPK inhibitory binding partner, and this action is increased by S129 phosphorylation through AMPK and is decreased by Y125 phosphorylation via Src family kinase Fyn. A pleckstrin homology (PH) domain in PIKE-L directly binds α-synuclein and antagonizes its aggregation. Accordingly, PIKE-L overexpression decreases dopaminergic cell death elicited by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), whereas PIKE-L knockdown elevates α-synuclein oligomerization and cell death. The overexpression of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or α-synuclein induces greater dopaminergic cell loss and more severe motor defects in PIKE-KO and Fyn-KO mice than in wild-type mice, and these effects are attenuated by the expression of dominant-negative AMPK. Hence, our findings demonstrate that α-synuclein neutralizes PIKE-L's neuroprotective actions in synucleinopathies, triggering dopaminergic neuronal death by hyperactivating AMPK.

  11. Increased expression of the PI3K enhancer PIKE mediates deficits in synaptic plasticity and behavior in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gross, Christina; Chang, Chia-Wei; Kelly, Seth M; Bhattacharya, Aditi; McBride, Sean M J; Danielson, Scott W; Jiang, Michael Q; Chan, Chi Bun; Ye, Keqiang; Gibson, Jay R; Klann, Eric; Jongens, Thomas A; Moberg, Kenneth H; Huber, Kimberly M; Bassell, Gary J

    2015-05-05

    The PI3K enhancer PIKE links PI3K catalytic subunits to group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1/5) and activates PI3K signaling. The roles of PIKE in synaptic plasticity and the etiology of mental disorders are unknown. Here, we show that increased PIKE expression is a key mediator of impaired mGlu1/5-dependent neuronal plasticity in mouse and fly models of the inherited intellectual disability fragile X syndrome (FXS). Normalizing elevated PIKE protein levels in FXS mice reversed deficits in molecular and cellular plasticity and improved behavior. Notably, PIKE reduction rescued PI3K-dependent and -independent neuronal defects in FXS. We further show that PI3K signaling is increased in a fly model of FXS and that genetic reduction of the Drosophila ortholog of PIKE, CenG1A rescued excessive PI3K signaling, mushroom body defects, and impaired short-term memory in these flies. Our results demonstrate a crucial role of increased PIKE expression in exaggerated mGlu1/5 signaling causing neuronal defects in FXS.

  12. Needs Analysis for Designing an Information/Library Technician Curriculum for Pikes Peak Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alire, Camila A.

    1986-01-01

    Reports on the methods and findings of a study conducted by the Pikes Peak Community College to determine the need for a paraprofessional library training program. Examines library paraprofessionals' subject area interests, perceptions of job concerns and weaknesses, preferred class times, and biographical information on respondents. (DMM)

  13. Young, Becker, and Pike's "Rogerian" Rhetoric: A Twenty-Year Reassessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Doug

    1991-01-01

    Concludes that the Rogerian rhetoric of Richard Young, Alton Becker, and Kenneth Pike (as presented in their book "Rhetoric: Discovery and Change") shows its age by not being quite the epistemic rhetoric contemporary rhetoricians have come to require. Argues that the Rogerian insights can still provide a focus for a reformed rhetoric of…

  14. Concept and Reality: Managing Pikes Peak Library District's Community Resource and Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malyshev, Nina Alexis

    1988-01-01

    Describes the background of and the concept, and purpose of a local file in the Pikes Peak Library District's community resource and information system. The year established, scope and function, and sample records are reviewed for the nine files that currently comprise the system. (two references) (MES)

  15. Muskie lunacy: does the lunar cycle influence angler catch of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vinson, Mark R.; Angradi, Ted R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge.

  16. Muskie Lunacy: Does the Lunar Cycle Influence Angler Catch of Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Mark R.; Angradi, Ted R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge. PMID:24871329

  17. Muskie Lunacy: does the lunar cycle influence angler catch of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    PubMed

    Vinson, Mark R; Angradi, Ted R

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge.

  18. 76 FR 71125 - Caddo Valley Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Clark, Pike, and Montgomery Counties, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Montgomery Counties, AR Caddo Valley Railroad Company (CVRR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under... distance of 32.2 miles, in Clark, Pike, and Montgomery Counties, Ark. (the line).\\1\\ The line...

  19. Coexistence of behavioural types in an aquatic top predator: a response to resource limitation?

    PubMed

    Kobler, Alexander; Klefoth, Thomas; Mehner, Thomas; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2009-10-01

    Intra-population variation in behaviour unrelated to sex, size or age exists in a variety of species. The mechanisms behind behavioural diversification have only been partly understood, but density-dependent resource availability may play a crucial role. To explore the potential coexistence of different behavioural types within a natural fish population, we conducted a radio telemetry study, measuring habitat use and swimming activity patterns of pike (Esox lucius), a sit-and-wait predatory fish. Three behavioural types co-occurred in the study lake. While two types of fish only selected vegetated littoral habitats, the third type opportunistically used all habitats and increased its pelagic occurrence in response to decreasing resource biomasses. There were no differences in size, age or lifetime growth between the three behavioural types. However, habitat-opportunistic pike were substantially more active than the other two behavioural types, which is energetically costly. The identical growth rates exhibited by all behavioural types indicate that these higher activity costs of opportunistic behaviour were compensated for by increased prey consumption in the less favourable pelagic habitat resulting in approximately equal fitness of all pike groups. We conclude that behavioural diversification in habitat use and activity reduces intraspecific competition in preferred littoral habitats. This may facilitate the emergence of an ideal free distribution of pike along resource gradients.

  20. Potential direct and indirect effects of climate change on a shallow natural lake fish assemblage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breeggemann, Jason J.; Kaemingk, Mark A.; DeBates, T.J.; Paukert, Craig P.; Krause, J.; Letvin, Alexander P.; Stevens, Tanner M.; Willis, David W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Much uncertainty exists around how fish communities in shallow lakes will respond to climate change. In this study, we modelled the effects of increased water temperatures on consumption and growth rates of two piscivores (northern pike [Esox lucius] and largemouth bass [Micropterus salmoides]) and examined relative effects of consumption by these predators on two prey species (bluegill [Lepomis macrochirus] and yellow perch [Perca flavescens]). Bioenergetics models were used to simulate the effects of climate change on growth and food consumption using predicted 2040 and 2060 temperatures in a shallow Nebraska Sandhill lake, USA. The patterns and magnitude of daily and cumulative consumption during the growing season (April–October) were generally similar between the two predators. However, growth of northern pike was always reduced (−3 to −45% change) compared to largemouth bass that experienced subtle changes (4 to −6% change) in weight by the end of the growing season. Assuming similar population size structure and numbers of predators in 2040–2060, future consumption of bluegill and yellow perch by northern pike and largemouth bass will likely increase (range: 3–24%), necessitating greater prey biomass to meet future energy demands. The timing of increased predator consumption will likely shift towards spring and fall (compared to summer), when prey species may not be available in the quantities required. Our findings suggest that increased water temperatures may affect species at the edge of their native range (i.e. northern pike) and a potential mismatch between predator and prey could exist.

  1. Effect of boat noise and angling on lake fish behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, L; Baktoft, H; Jepsen, N; Aarestrup, K; Berg, S; Skov, C

    2014-06-01

    The effects of disturbances from recreational activities on the swimming speed and habitat use of roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius were explored. Disturbances were applied for 4 h as (1) boating in short intervals with a small outboard internal combustion engine or (2) boating in short intervals combined with angling with artificial lures between engine runs. The response of the fish species was evaluated by high-resolution tracking using an automatic acoustic telemetry system and transmitters with sub-minute burst rates. Rutilus rutilus swimming speed was significantly higher during disturbances [both (1) and (2)] with an immediate reaction shortly after the engine started. Perca fluviatilis displayed increased swimming activity during the first hour of disturbance but not during the following hours. Swimming activity of E. lucius was not significantly different between disturbance periods and the same periods on days without disturbance (control). Rutilus rutilus increased their use of the central part of the lake during disturbances, whereas no habitat change was observed in P. fluviatilis and E. lucius. No difference in fish response was detected between the two types of disturbances (boating with and without angling), indicating that boating was the primary source of disturbance. This study highlights species-specific responses to recreational boating and may have implications for management of human recreational activities in lakes.

  2. Molecular nutritional characteristics of vinasse pike eel (Muraenesox cinereus) during pickling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daian; Ye, Yangfang; Chen, Juanjuan; Zhan, Pingping; Lou, Yongjiang

    2017-06-01

    Vinasse pike eel (Muraenesox cinereus) is a traditional Chinese food with a characteristic flavour, taste, and nutritional composition. Its flavour is closely related to the molecular nutritional composition of this food pickled product. In this study, we characterised the changes in the nutritional composition of pike eel during vinasse pickling. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed 33 components in eel, e.g. a range of organic acids, amino acids, alcohols, and sugars. Multivariate data analysis further revealed that the nutritional composition of eel undergoes major changes during pickling, which were highlighted by the consumption of sucrose and creatine, the accumulation of a range of organic acids, alcohols, glucose, and creatinine, as well as in the fluctuation of some amino acids. The abundant sucrose, glutamate, creatine, and lactate could take an active part in the flavour formation of vinasse eel. This work provides insight into the nutritional characteristics of vinasse eel during pickling.

  3. Aquatic assessment of the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site, Corinth, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Argue, Denise M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Kiah, Richard G.; Besser, John M.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Levitan, Denise M.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund site in Corinth, Orange County, Vermont, includes the Eureka, Union, and Smith mines along with areas of downstream aquatic ecosystem impairment. The site was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004. The mines, which operated from about 1847 to 1919, contain underground workings, foundations from historical structures, several waste-rock piles, and some flotation tailings. The mine site is drained to the northeast by Pike Hill Brook, which includes several wetland areas, and to the southeast by an unnamed tributary that flows to the south and enters Cookville Brook. Both brooks eventually drain into the Waits River, which flows into the Connecticut River. The aquatic ecosystem at the site was assessed using a variety of approaches that investigated surface-water quality, sediment quality, and various ecological indicators of stream-ecosystem health. The degradation of surface-water quality is caused by elevated concentrations of copper, and to a lesser extent cadmium, with localized effects caused by aluminum, iron, and zinc. Copper concentrations in surface waters reached or exceeded the USEPA national recommended chronic water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life in all of the Pike Hill Brook sampling locations except for the location farthest downstream, in half of the locations sampled in the tributary to Cookville Brook, and in about half of the locations in one wetland area located in Pike Hill Brook. Most of these same locations also contained concentrations of cadmium that exceeded the chronic water-quality criteria. In contrast, surface waters at background sampling locations were below these criteria for copper and cadmium. Comparison of hardness-based and Biotic Ligand Model (BLM)-based criteria for copper yields similar results with respect to the extent or number of stations impaired for surface waters in the affected area. However, the BLM

  4. A Mechanical Fish to Emulate the Fast-Start Performance of Pike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chengcheng; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2010-11-01

    A northern pike is capable of achieving an instantaneous acceleration of 25g, far greater than that achieved by any manmade vehicle. In order to understand the secrets behind achieving such high accelerations, we have built a mechanical fish to emulate the motion of a pike, a fast-start specialist. A live pike bends its body into a C-shaped curve and then uncoils it very quickly to send a traveling wave along its body in order to achieve high acceleration. We have designed a mechanical fish whose motion is accurately controlled by servo motors, to emulate the fast-start by bending its body to a C-shape from its original straight position, and then back to its straight position. An earlier design of a mechanical fish, which could start from an initial C-shaped curve, shed two vortex rings downstream, resulting in a transfer of energy from the fish to water, and therefore, a reaction force from the fluid to the fish. A maximum acceleration of around 4g was achieved in that design. Our new design adds an additional motion to the sequence by first bending the fish from its straight position into a C-shaped curve. Furthermore, this new mechanical fish is designed to be adjustable in swimming pattern, tail shape, tail rigidity, and body rigidity, making it possible to study the influence of all of these parameters on the fast-start performance.

  5. PCB patterns in herring and pike with special regard to co-planar congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Alsberg, T.; Wit, C. de; Eriksson, U.; Jaernberg, U.; Bignert, A.; Olsson, M.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigates the patterns of PCB in two aquatic organisms, herring and pike. The aim is to establish a basis for a model for estimating the levels of co-planar PCBs from the concentrations of nonplanar congeners. The chosen fish populations reflect differences in species, age, habitat (locations) and time of catch, as well as differences in total PCB concentrations. More stable patterns would be presumed, the more homogeneous the population. Herring were sampled at two locations, one in the Bothnian Bay (Harufjaerden) and one in the Southern Baltic (Utlaengan). Two age classes were sampled at each location, 2- and 6-year olds, respectively at Utlaengan, and 2- and 5-year olds, respectively at Harufjaerden. Pike were sampled from Lake Bolmen in southern Sweden in 1992, and pike from the same location but sampled in 1971 were taken from the specimen bank. Ten individuals per population were analyzed. Thirteen PCB congeners were determined, namely PCBs 28, 52, 77, 101, 105, 118, 126, 1 38, 153, 156, 157, 169, 180, thus including the seven PCBs that are measured in the national monitoring program, in addition to three monoortho and three non-ortho PCBs. Regarding the possibility of creating a model for calculating the concentrations of the planar PCBs from those of the non-planar, the results look promising for PCB-126 and PCB-169, whereas PCB-77 shows a lower correlation to the non-planar congeners.

  6. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental contaminants and their effects on fish in the Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Tim S.; Myers, Mark S.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    This project collected, examined, and analyzed 217 fish representing three species at 10 stations in the U.S. portion of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) from May to October 2002. Four sampling sites were located on the Yukon River; two were located on the Porcupine River, and one site was on each of the Ray, Tanana, Tolavana, and Innoko Rivers. Norther pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) were weighed and measured, and examined in the field for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were collected and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorines and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

  7. Distribution and food habits of young-of-the-year fishes in a backwater lake of the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, L.E.; Huston, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution patterns and food habits of young-of-the-year (YOY) fishes in a lentic area adjacent to the main channel of Pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River were studied. Habitats sampled grouped distinctly based on percent composition and abundance of YOY fishes with those having submergent vegetation dominated by a number of important sport species. In late spring, the grouping of stations depended on the presence or absence of newly transformed northern pike (Esox lucius). In early summer, stations did not differ as distinctly in composition, but in total abundance of young. Those stations with submergent vegetation had total catches which were more than double those elsewhere. By late summer, submergent and mixed vegetation stations formed a distinct assemblage influenced by the preponderance of three species of sunfishes. (DBO).

  8. Causes and consequences of intra-specific variation in vertebral number

    PubMed Central

    Tibblin, Petter; Berggren, Hanna; Nordahl, Oscar; Larsson, Per; Forsman, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in vertebral number is taxonomically widespread. Much scientific attention has been directed towards understanding patterns of variation in vertebral number among individuals and between populations, particularly across large spatial scales and in structured environments. However, the relative role of genes, plasticity, selection, and drift as drivers of individual variation and population differentiation remains unknown for most systems. Here, we report on patterns, causes and consequences of variation in vertebral number among and within sympatric subpopulations of pike (Esox lucius). Vertebral number differed among subpopulations, and common garden experiments indicated that this reflected genetic differences. A QST-FST comparison suggested that population differences represented local adaptations driven by divergent selection. Associations with fitness traits further indicated that vertebral counts were influenced both by stabilizing and directional selection within populations. Overall, our study enhances the understanding of adaptive variation, which is critical for the maintenance of intraspecific diversity and species conservation. PMID:27210072

  9. Fine scale habitat use by age-1 stocked muskellunge and wild northern pike in an upper St. Lawrence River bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrell, John M.; Kapuscinski, Kevin L.; Underwood, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Radio telemetry of stocked muskellunge (n = 6) and wild northern pike (n = 6) was used to track late summer and fall movements from a common release point in a known shared nursery bay to test the hypothesis that age-1 northern pike and stocked muskellunge segregate and have different habitat affinities. Water depth, temperature, substrate and aquatic vegetation variables were estimated for each muskellunge (n = 103) and northern pike (n = 131) position and nested ANOVA comparisons by species indicated differences in habitat use. Muskellunge exhibited a greater displacement from the release point and used habitat in shallower water depths (mean = 0.85 m, SE = 0.10) than northern pike (mean = 1.45 m, SE = 0.08). Both principal components analysis (PCA) and principal components ordination (PCO) were used to interpret underlying gradients relative to fish positions in two-dimensional space. Our analysis indicated that a separation of age-1 northern pike and muskellunge occurred 7 d post-release. This first principal component explained 48% of the variation in habitat use. Northern pike locations were associated with deeper habitats that generally had softer silt substrates and dense submersed vegetation. Muskellunge locations post-acclimation showed greater association with shallower habitats containing firmer sandy and clay substrates and emergent vegetation. The observed differences in habitat use suggest that fine-scale ecological separation occurred between these stocked muskellunge and wild northern pike, but small sample sizes and potential for individual variation limit extension of these conclusions. Further research is needed to determine if these patterns exist between larger samples of fishes over a greater range of habitats.

  10. An evolutionary perspective on Elovl5 fatty acid elongase: comparison of Northern pike and duplicated paralogs from Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to produce physiologically critical LC-PUFA from dietary fatty acids differs greatly among teleost species, and is dependent on the possession and expression of fatty acyl desaturase and elongase genes. Atlantic salmon, as a result of a recently duplicated genome, have more of these enzymes than other fish. Recent phylogenetic studies show that Northern pike represents the closest extant relative of the preduplicated ancestral salmonid. Here we characterise a pike fatty acyl elongase, elovl5, and compare it to Atlantic salmon elovl5a and elovl5b duplicates. Results Phylogenetic analyses show that Atlantic salmon paralogs are evolving symmetrically, and they have been retained in the genome by purifying selection. Heterologous expression in yeast showed that Northern pike Elovl5 activity is indistinguishable from that of the salmon paralogs, efficiently elongating C18 and C20 substrates. However, in contrast to salmon, pike elovl5 was predominantly expressed in brain with negligible expression in liver and intestine. Conclusions We suggest that the predominant expression of Elovl5b in salmon liver and Elovl5a in salmon intestine is an adaptation, enabled by genome duplication, to a diet rich in terrestrial invertebrates which are relatively poor in LC-PUFA. Pike have retained an ancestral expression profile which supports the maintenance of PUFA in the brain but, due to a highly piscivorous LC-PUFA-rich diet, is not required in liver and intestine. Thus, the characterisation of elovl5 in Northern pike provides insights into the evolutionary divergence of duplicated genes, and the ecological adaptations of salmonids which have enabled colonisation of nutrient poor freshwaters. PMID:23597093

  11. Photoperiodic growth enhancement in a tropical batch spawning atherinopsid, pike silverside Chirostoma estor.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Chávez, C C; Tello-Ballinas, A; Fonseca-Madrigal, J; Ross, L G; Martínez-Palacios, C A

    2014-08-01

    The effect of photoperiod on growth and survival in early life was determined in the tropical batch spawning atherinopsid, pike silverside Chirostoma estor. The results demonstrate high sensitivity of newly hatched C. estor to photoperiod treatments up to 90 days post hatch shown by improved growth in mass (43%) under continuous illumination. This is accompanied by increased fat deposition, which suggests a critical interaction between different photoperiod-mediated mechanisms. A thorough understanding of these mechanisms can help to optimize the development of aquaculture of C. estor and similar species.

  12. [The internal cavities of pike alpha-parvalbumin probably contain water].

    PubMed

    Tishchenko, V M

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of hydrogen exchange of pike a-parvalbumin was investigated using the method of infrared spectroscopy (sensitive to the amide hydrogen atoms in the peptide) and radioisotope method (sensitive to all labile hydrogen atoms). Ultraslow exchangeable hydrogen atoms were found to be substantially less in the first case than in the second one. Taking into account that the internal cavities in the parvalbumin are formed by hydrophobic amino acid residues, devoid of labile hydrogen atoms, it is possible to make the most appropriate assumption, namely, these cavities contain water molecules, hydrogen atoms of which are ultraslow exchangeable.

  13. Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Himberg, M.; Harju, L.; Ek, P.; Lindroos, A.; Wiklund, T.; Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H.; Heselius, S.-J.; Hägerstrand, H.

    2014-01-01

    Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (˜3300 μg/g) was 2-3 times higher than that of perch and pike (˜1400 μg/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (˜450 μg/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (˜60 μg/g) than those of pike (˜30 μg/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely.

  14. Temperature dependence of predation depends on the relative performance of predators and prey.

    PubMed

    Öhlund, Gunnar; Hedström, Per; Norman, Sven; Hein, Catherine L; Englund, Göran

    2015-01-22

    The temperature dependence of predation rates is a key issue for understanding and predicting the responses of ecosystems to climate change. Using a simple mechanistic model, we demonstrate that differences in the relative performances of predator and prey can cause strong threshold effects in the temperature dependence of attack rates. Empirical data on the attack rate of northern pike (Esox lucius) feeding on brown trout (Salmo trutta) confirm this result. Attack rates fell sharply below a threshold temperature of +11°C, which corresponded to a shift in relative performance of pike and brown trout with respect to maximum attack and escape swimming speeds. The average attack speed of pike was an order of magnitude lower than the escape speed of brown trout at 5°C, but approximately equal at temperatures above 11°C. Thresholds in the temperature dependence of ecological rates can create tipping points in the responses of ecosystems to increasing temperatures. Thus, identifying thresholds is crucial when predicting future effects of climate warming.

  15. Age, growth, and maturity of thirteen species of fish from Lake Oahe during the early years of impoundment, 1963-68

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, William R.

    1974-01-01

    The body-scale relation, calculated length, length-weight relation, age at maturity, and sex ratio of 13 major species collected in Lake Oahe from 1963 to 1968 with trap nets and bottom trawls are described. Eight species grew at a faster rate than has been recorded in other Missouri River reservoirs: goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), white bass (Morone chrysops), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), white crappie (Pomoxis annularis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens). Four species grew at rates similar to those recorded from other Missouri River reservoirs: carp (Cyprinus carpio), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), northern pike (Esox lucius), and sauger (Stizostedion canadense). One species -- river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio) -- grew slower than in other waters. Growth generally was excellent for all major species in the early years of impoundment (1959-62) but then declined. Species showing the greatest decline in growth from 1962 to 1967 were goldeye, bigmouth buffalo, sauger, walleye, northern pike, and freshwater drum. As growth rate decreased, age at sexual maturity increased for northern pike, carp, river carpsucker, bigmouth buffalo, and freshwater drum. Although inundation of new lands was associated with rapid growth of fishes in the early years of impoundment, water level fluctuations during the growing season had no discernible effect on growth rate. Increased average reservoir depth, which decreased the amount of littoral area, was associated with decreased fish growth.

  16. Evidence to Support the Pike's Peak Model: The UA Geropsychology Education Program.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Tracy; Shah, Avani; Scogin, Forrest R; Allen, Rebecca S

    2013-05-01

    The University of Alabama's Graduate Geropsychology Education program (GGE) was conceived and implemented in the years prior to the design of the Pike's Peak Model (PPM) of geropsychology training. The GGE program provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the PPM, and this paper outlines the GGE program in the framework of the model. Three primary goals defined the GGE program: recruitment and retention of students in the geropsychology program, a doctoral level interdisciplinary class, and a set of clinical rotations in urban and rural sites. Outcomes were promising, indicating that geropsychology students were able to provide services with positive outcomes to underserved older adults in primary care settings and in a legal clinic, students from several disciplines rated the course very highly, and psychology students indicated that they were likely to continue in the field of geriatric care. Participating students have gone on to careers in geropsychology. Findings from this program support the design of the Pike's Peak Model, and provide support for broader implementation of similar training programs.

  17. Assessment of the Water Balance Over France Using Regionalized Turc-Pike Formula for Operational Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LE Lay, M.; Garcon, R.; Gailhard, J.; Garavaglia, F.

    2015-12-01

    With extensive use of hydrological models over a wide range of hydro-climatic contexts, bias in hydro-climatic data may lead to unreliable models and thus hydrological forecasts and projections. This issue is particularly pregnant when considering mountainous areas with great uncertainties on precipitations, or when considering complex unconservative catchments (e.g. karstic systems). The Turc-Pike water balance formula, analogous to the classical Budyko formula, is a simple and efficient mathematical formulation relating long-term average streamflow to long-term average precipitation and potential evaporation. In this study, we propose to apply this framework to assess and eventually adjust the water-balance before calibrating an operational hydrologic model (MORDOR model). Considering a large set of 350 french catchments, the Turc-Pike formula is regionalized based on ecohydrologic criterions to handle various hydro-climatic contexts. This interannual regional model is then applied to assess the water-balance over numerous catchments and various conditions, such as karstic, snow-driven or glaciarized and even anthropized catchments. Results show that it is possible to obtain pretty realistic corrections of meteorological inputs (precipitations, temperature or potential evaporation) or hydrologic surface (or runoff). These corrections can often be confirmed a posteriori by exogenous information. Positive impacts on hydrologic model's calibration are also demonstrated. This methodology is now operational for hydrologic applications at EDF (Electricité de France, French electric utility company), and therefore applied on hundreds of catchments.

  18. Assessment of the water balance over France using regionalized Turc-Pike formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Lay, Matthieu; Garçon, Rémy; Gailhard, Joël; Garavaglia, Federico

    2016-04-01

    With extensive use of hydrological models over a wide range of hydro-climatic contexts, bias in hydro-climatic data may lead to unreliable models and thus hydrological forecasts and projections. This issue is particularly pregnant when considering mountainous areas with great uncertainties on precipitations, or when considering complex unconservative catchments (e.g. karstic systems). The Turc-Pike water balance formula, analogous to the classical Budyko formula, is a simple and efficient mathematical formulation relating long-term average streamflow to long-term average precipitation and potential evaporation. In this study, we propose to apply this framework to assess and eventually adjust the water-balance before calibrating an operational hydrologic model (MORDOR model). Considering a large set of 350 french catchments, the Turc-Pike formula is regionalized based on ecohydrologic criterions to handle various hydro-climatic contexts. This interannual regional model is then applied to assess the water-balance over numerous catchments and various conditions, such as karstic, snow-driven or glaciarized and even anthropized catchments. Results show that it is possible to obtain pretty realistic corrections of meteorological inputs (precipitations, temperature or potential evaporation) or hydrologic surface (or runoff). These corrections can often be confirmed a posteriori by exogenous information. Positive impacts on hydrologic model's calibration are also demonstrated. This methodology is now operational for hydrologic applications at EDF (Electricité de France, French electric utility company), and therefore applied on hundreds of catchments.

  19. Mineralogy and provenance of clays in miarolitic cavities of the Pikes Peak Batholith, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Clay samples from 105 cavities within miarolitic granitic pegmatites throughout the Pikes Peak batholith, in Colorado, were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Smectite (beidellite), illite, and kaolinite were found within the cavities. Calculation of crystallite-thickness distribution (CTD), mean thickness of the crystallites, and variance in crystallite thickness, as deduced from XRD patterns, allowed a determination of provenance and mode of formation for illite and smectite. Authigenic miarolitic-cavity illite and smectite show lognormal CTDs and larger mean thicknesses of crystallites than do their soil-derived counterparts; non-lognormal illite in a cavity results from mixing of cavity and soil illite. Analysis of mean thickness and thickness variance shows that crystal growth of illite is initiated by a nucleation event of short duration, followed by surface-controlled kinetics. Crystallization of the miarolitic cavity clays is presumed to occur by neoformation from hydrothermal fluids. The assessment of provenance allows a determination of regional and local distributions of clay minerals in miarolitic cavities within the Pikes Peak batholith.

  20. 78 FR 29318 - Pike and San Isabel National Forests and Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands, Colorado and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Forest Service Pike and San Isabel National Forests and Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands... National Forests and Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands (PSICC) are initiating the preparation of an... protection of other resources; and what forest/ grasslands plan amendments to the 1984 PSICC Land...

  1. 76 FR 71124 - Caddo Valley Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pike and Clark Counties, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Caddo Valley Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Pike and Clark Counties, AR On October 27, 2011, Caddo Valley Railroad Company (CVRR) filed with the...

  2. Predator odor recognition and antipredatory response in fish: does the prey know the predator diel rhythm?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylönen, Hannu; Kortet, Raine; Myntti, Janne; Vainikka, Anssi

    2007-01-01

    We studied in a laboratory experiment using stream tanks if two percid prey fish, the perch ( Perca fluviatilis) and the ruffe ( Gymnocephalus cernuus), can recognize and respond to increased predation risk using odors of two piscivores, the pike ( Esox lucius) and the burbot ( Lota lota). Burbot is night-active most of the year but pike hunts predominantly visually whenever there is enough light. Perch is a common day-active prey of pike and dark-active ruffe that of burbot. We predicted that besides recognizing the predator odors, the prey species would respond more strongly to odors of the predator which share the same activity pattern. Both perch and ruffe clearly responded to both predator fish odors. They decreased movements and erected the spiny dorsal fins. Fin erection showed clearly the black warning ornamentation in the fin and thus erected fin may function besides as mechanical defense also as warning ornament for an approaching predator. No rapid escape movements were generally observed. Both perch and ruffe responded more strongly to pike odor than to burbot. There were no clear differences in response between day and night. In conclusion, we were able to verify clear predator odor recognition by both prey fish. Both perch and ruffe responded to both predator odors and it seemed that pike forms a stronger threat for both prey species. Despite of diel activity differences both perch and ruffe used the same antipredatory strategies, but the day-active perch seemed to have a more flexible antipredatory behavior by responding more strongly to burbot threat during the night when burbot is active.

  3. A ribonuclease protection assay can distinguish spring viremia of carp virus from pike fry rhabdovirus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahne, W.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Thirteen rhabdovirus isolates from 10 teleost fish species as well as reference strains of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) and pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV) cross-reacted in an indirect immunofluorescence assay and were thus indistinguishable by this method. A ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) using a super(32)P-labeled RNA probe made from a cloned copy of the full length SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene was able to discriminate clearly between the type strains of SVCV and PFRV and among the 13 rhabdovirus isolates. Results for the RPA were generally in agreement with standard serum neutralisation assays; however, the RPA was also able to detect genomic differences between isolates of SVCV. These results have implications for fish disease control programs for SVCV.

  4. Analyzing the fast-start performance of northern pike using a mechanical fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya; Feng, Chengcheng; Bonafilia, Brian; Costain, Andrew

    2011-11-01

    The northern pike is able to achieve an instantaneous acceleration of 245 m/s2 through a two-stage motion. In the first stage the fish curls its body into either a C-shaped or an S-shaped curve (preparatory stage), and in the second stage uncurls it very quickly (propulsive stage) generating high accelerations due to the vortices shed from its tail. We have built a mechanical fish, based on the body profile of a pike, which is capable of performing this two-stage fast-start motion. Movement is governed by servo motors, which pull on cables attached to certain ribs, bending the fish into a C- or an S-shape. The degree of bending and timing of strokes can be controlled, and the fish can perform either a propulsive stroke only or a full stroke consisting of both the preparatory stage and the propulsive stage. The mechanical fish is capable of achieving peak accelerations of around 4 m/s2. We use this fish in order to study the influence of various variables on the observed acceleration. Although the maximum accelerations observed in our mechanical fish are smaller than those of a live fish, the form of the measured acceleration signal as function of time is quite similar to that of a live fish. The hydrodynamic efficiencies are observed to be around 12%, and it is shown that the majority of the thrust is produced at the rear part of the mechanical fish--similarly to the live fish.

  5. Lamproglena hepseti n. sp. (Copepoda: Lernaeidae), a gill parasite of the African pike Hepsetus odoe (Bloch) from the Okavango River and Delta, Botswana.

    PubMed

    van As, Liesl L; van As, Jo G

    2007-05-01

    During surveys of the biodiversity of fish parasites in the Okavango River and Delta, Botswana, specimens of Lamproglena von Nordmann, 1832 were found associated with the African pike Hepsetus odoe (Bloch). This Lamproglena species distinctly differs from all known species based on morphological features, in particular the cephalothorax and the maxilliped; it is described as L. hepseti n. sp. and is specific to its host, the African pike.

  6. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Iodophor Disinfection of Walleye and Northern Pike Eggs to Eliminate Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle-Lau, M.T.; Phillips, K.A.; Gaikowski, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSv) is a serious fish pathogen that has been responsible for large-scale fish kills in the Great Lakes since 2005. It causes high mortality and resulting outbreaks have severe economic consequences for aquaculture. Iodophor disinfection of salmonid eggs is a standard hatchery practice to reduce the risk of pathogen transfer during gamete collection ('spawning') operations and is thus a leading candidate for reducing VHSv transmission during and after spawning of nonsalmonid fishes. However, before it is incorporated by hatcheries during nonsalmonid fish spawning efforts, its safety and effectiveness needs to be evaluated. The USGS Fact Sheet 2009-3107, 'Evaluation of the Efficacy of Iodophor Disinfection of Walleye and Northern Pike Eggs to Eliminate Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus' presents the results of a study to assess the effectiveness of iodophor disinfection for eliminating VHSv (strain IVb) from fertilized eggs of walleye and northern pike intentionally challenged with VHSv following egg fertilization. Walleye and northern pike egg survival (hatch) following iodophor egg disinfection also was assessed.

  7. Sequence microheterogeneity of parvalbumin pI 5.0 of pike: a mass spectrometric study.

    PubMed

    Permyakov, Sergei E; Karnoup, Anton S; Bakunts, Anush G; Permyakov, Eugene A

    2009-01-01

    Parvalbumin (PA) is a muscle and neuronal calcium-binding protein, the major fish and frog allergen. Its characteristic feature is the presence of multiple isoforms with significantly different amino acid sequences. Here we show that the major isoform of northern pike muscle PA (pI 5.0, alpha-PA) exhibits microheterogeneity of amino acid sequence. ESI Q-TOF mass-spectrometry (MS) analysis of alpha-PA sample showed the presence of two components with mass difference of 71 Da. Analysis of tryptic and endoproteinase Asp-N digests of alpha-PA by MALDI-TOF MS revealed peptides, corresponding to two different amino acid sequences. The sequence differences between variant proteins are limited to AB-domain and include substitutions K27A and L31K, and an extra Leu residue between K11 and K12. Since the affected residues comprise a cluster on the surface of PA, an involvement of the identified region into target recognition is suggested. The substitutions at positions 27 and 31 are located in the region of previously identified epitopes of parvalbumin relevant for PA-specific IgE and IgG binding, which suggests different immunoactivities of the variants. The found microheterogeneity of PA is suggested to be of importance for physiological adaptation of the propulsive musculature to developmental and/or environmental requirements and may contribute to PA allergenicity.

  8. Hydrologic investigation of Powell Marsh and its relation to Dead Pike Lake, Vilas County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohelski, James T.; Rose, William J.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water levels measured in piezometers installed along a flow path indicated that ground-water flow primarily is horizontal in the marsh and moves upward in the vicinity of a ditch where it discharges. Flow from Vista Pond is downward to the ground-water system but eventually also discharges upward to the ditches. Based on analyses of water samples from piezometers, the ditch, and Vista Pond, it was shown that dissolved iron is transported in the ground water. When ground water is discharged, iron and manganese react with dissolved oxygen, then precipitates, and forms the oxyhydroxide floc present in the Powell Marsh ditches. The processes involved in the transport and floc formation are not unique to the ditches, but are an expected outcome where discharging ground water and oxygenated surface water meet. Therefore, although floc formed in the ditches would no longer be available for transport if ditches were removed, it is likely that the floc formation would be redirected to the near-shore areas of Dead Pike Lake where increased groundwater discharge is expected.

  9. Performance of Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt Medium for Group B Streptococcus Screening in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Gavena, Angela Andréia França; Silva, Flávia Teixeira Ribeiro; Moreira, Ricardo Castanho; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; de Pádua, Rúbia Andreia Faleiros; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), which commonly colonizes the female genital tract and rectum, can cause infections in newborns with varying severity, possibly leading to death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt (HPTH) medium performance for GBS screening in pregnant women. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 556 pregnant women, of which 496 were at 35-37 weeks of gestation and 60 were at ≥ 38 weeks of gestation. The study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in northern Paraná, Brazil. Vaginal and anorectal clinical specimens from each pregnant woman were plated on sheep blood agar (SBA) and seeded on HPTH medium and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 496 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, 141 (28.4%) were positive for GBS, based on the combination of the three culture media and clinical specimens. The GBS colonization rates that were detected by each medium were 22.2% for HPTH medium, 21.2% for SBA, and 13.1% for Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 60 pregnant women at ≥ 38 weeks of gestation, seven (11.7%) were positive for GBS. These results demonstrate that HPTH medium and SBA were more sensitive than Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth for GBS screening in pregnant women and good GBS recovery in culture, indicating that the two media should be used together for vaginal and anorectal specimens. PMID:25881083

  10. Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Smith, Michael E.; Cott, Peter A.; Hanna, Bruce W.; MacGillivray, Alexander O.; Austin, Melanie E.; Mann, David A.

    2005-06-01

    Seismic airguns produce considerable amounts of acoustic energy that have the potential to affect marine life. This study investigates the effects of exposure to a 730 in.3 airgun array on hearing of three fish species in the Mackenzie River Delta, the northern pike (Esox lucius), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), and lake chub (Couesius plumbeus). Fish were placed in cages in the 1.9 m of water and exposed to five or 20 airgun shots, while controls were placed in the same cage but without airgun exposure. Hearing in both exposed and control fish were then tested using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Threshold shifts were found for exposed fish as compared to controls in the northern pike and lake chub, with recovery within 24 hours of exposure, while there was no threshold shift in the broad whitefish. It is concluded that these three species are not likely to be substantially impacted by exposure to an airgun array used in a river seismic survey. Care must be taken, however, in extrapolation to other species and to fishes exposed to airguns in deeper water or where the animals are exposed to a larger number of airgun shots over a longer period of time. .

  11. Temporal changes in mercury concentrations of large-bodied fishes in the boreal shield ecoregion of northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rex W K; Johnston, Thomas A; Gunn, John M; Bhavsar, Satyendra P

    2013-02-01

    Much of the mercury (Hg) in freshwater fish of the boreal shield ecoregion is believed to originate from atmospheric deposition. As such, declines in fish Hg concentrations would be expected in response to recent declines in atmospheric Hg deposition in this ecoregion. We compared recent (2005-2010) and historic (1974-1981) muscle total mercury concentrations ([THg], standardized to a fish body mass of 1 kg) in seven fish species (five piscivores, two benthivores) from 73 lakes in northern Ontario (Canada) using a paired-comparisons approach. The rate of bioaccumulation (i.e., slopes of log(e)[THg] vs log(e) total length relationship) increased for walleye (Sander vitreus) but did not change significantly for any other species. There was no significant decline in mean [THg] between recent and historic time periods for any species. In fact, recent mean [THg] were slightly higher (<0.08 ppm) than historic mean [THg] for all species, and this difference was significant for northern pike (Esox lucius). The magnitude of the temporal change in northern pike declined significantly from south to north over the study area but there were no discernible geographic patterns in the temporal change in [THg] for any other species. This study shows that [THg] of most large-bodied fish species in boreal shield lakes are not declining in response to the decline in atmospheric Hg deposition.

  12. Lake and watershed influences on the distribution of elemental contaminants in the Rideau Canal System, a UNESCO world heritage site.

    PubMed

    Stuyt, Shannon S M; Chapman, E Emily V; Campbell, Linda M

    2015-08-01

    Watershed-specific variables such as sediment particle size distribution, water depth, sedimentation rate, focusing factors, and catchment area to lake area ratio can affect the distribution of trace element contaminants to lakes. The aim of this study was to investigate sources of metals to three headwater lakes and to quantify effects of watershed-specific variables on spatial and temporal trends of trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, K, Ni, Pb, Rb, and Zn) in sediments and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish. Surface sediment and water samples were used to characterize spatial patterns, while sediment cores were collected to portray temporal trends. Historical trends of Hg in northern pike (Esox lucius) were assessed in relation to paleolimnological trends of sediment Hg concentrations. Similarity in timing of sediment peak trace element concentrations for the lakes suggests large-scale, atmospheric sources. The lake with highest catchment area-to-lake area ratio was consistently associated with highest sediment elemental concentrations and displayed significant correlations between increased sediment Hg concentrations and decreased pike tissue concentrations over time. This suggests that catchment area-to-lake area ratio is an important factor influencing the concentration of atmospherically derived contaminants within lake sediments and their transfer through the food web.

  13. The dependence on temperature and pH of the effects of zinc and copper on proteolytic activities of the digestive tract mucosa in piscivorous fish and their potential preys.

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, V V; Ushakova, N V

    2010-09-01

    The dependence of the effects of zinc and copper on the activities of proteinases of the stomach and intestinal mucosa on temperature and pH in four species of boreal piscivorous fish (pike Esox lucius, zander Zander lucioperca, perch Perca fluviatilis and burbot Lota lota) as well as in some of their potential preys (kilka Clupeonella cultriventris, ruff Gymnocephalus cernuus, perch and roach Rutilus rutilus) was investigated. Species-specific differences of the effects of these heavy metals upon the activities of proteinases depending on temperature and pH were demonstrated. It was revealed that the stomach mucosa proteinases were more tolerant to the effects of the studied factors than the intestinal mucosa proteinases, especially true for pike. The effects of the heavy metals on the whole body proteinases of the fishes' potential preys were mostly dependent on temperature than on pH. At pH 3.0, the negative action of zinc and copper on the fish digestive tract mucosa proteolytic activity to a considerable degree was compensated by the high activity of the hemoglobinlytic proteinases, probably, cathepsine D.

  14. Transmission of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea) to Fredericella sultana (Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata) by various fish species.

    PubMed

    Grabner, Daniel S; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2008-04-01

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a myxozoan parasite of salmonids and freshwater bryozoans, which causes proliferative kidney disease (PKD) in the fish host. To test which fish species are able to transmit T. bryosalmonae to bryozoans, an infection experiment was conducted with 5 PKD-sensitive fish species from different genera. Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, brown trout Salmo trutta, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, grayling Thymallus thymallus and northern pike Esox lucius were cohabitated with T. bryosalmonae-infected Fredericella sultana colonies and then subsequently cohabitated with statoblast-reared parasite free Bryozoa. Statoblasts from infected colonies were tested by PCR to detect cryptic stages of T. bryosalmonae, which may indicate vertical transmission of the parasite. In this study, brown trout and brook trout were able to infect Bryozoa, while there was no evidence that rainbow trout and grayling were able to do so. Few interstitial kidney stages of the parasite were detected by immunohistochemistry in brown trout and brook trout, while rainbow trout and grayling showed marked proliferation of renal interstitial tissue and macrophages with numerous parasite cells. Intraluminal stages in the kidney tubules were only detected in brown trout and rainbow trout. In contrast to previous observations, pike was not susceptible to PKD in these trials according to the results of T. bryosalmonae-specific PCR. No DNA of T. bryosalmonae was detected in any statoblast.

  15. Mercury trends in predatory fish in Great Slave Lake: the influence of temperature and other climate drivers.

    PubMed

    Evans, Marlene; Muir, Derek; Brua, Robert B; Keating, Jonathan; Wang, Xiaowa

    2013-11-19

    Here we report on trends in mercury (Hg) concentrations in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), burbot (Lota lota), and northern pike (Esox lucius) from Great Slave Lake, located in the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB) and investigate how climate factors may be influencing these trends. Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot increased significantly over the early 1990s to 2012 in the two major regions of the lake; no trend was evident for northern pike over 1999-2012. Temporal variations in Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot were similar with respect to timing of peaks and troughs. Inclusion of climate variables based on annual means, particularly temperature, improved explanatory power for variations in Hg over analyses based only on year and fish length; unexpectedly, the temperature coefficient was negative. Climate analyses based on growing season means (defined as May-September) had less explanatory power suggesting that trends were more strongly associated with colder months within the year. Inclusion of the Pacific/North American index improved explanatory power for the lake trout model suggesting that trends may have been affected by air circulation patterns. Overall, while our study confirmed previously reported trends of Hg increase in burbot in the MRB, we found no evidence that these trends were directly driven by increasing temperatures and productivity.

  16. Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (Benzocaine): efficacy as an anesthetic for five species of freshwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Gilderhus, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (benzocaine) was tested for its efficacy as an anesthetic for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii, brown trout (Salmo truttas, northern pike (Esox lucius). carp (Cyprinus carpio), and largemouth bass (Mieropterus salmoidesi. Since benzocaine is not water soluble, it was applied with acetone as a carrier. Concentrations of 100 to 200 mg!l were required for large adult northern pike, compared with 50 to 100 mg/l for small fish. Rates of sedation and recovery were slower in cold water than in warm water. Water hardness had little influence on the activity of benzocaine. Fish were anesthetized faster and recovered more slowly in acid than in alkaline water. Benzocaine produced deep anesthesia, but concentrations that rendered the fish handleable within 5 min were generally not safe for exposures longer than 15 min. Concentrations of benzocaine efficacious for fish were not acutely toxic to eggs of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshauiytschas, rainbow trout, brown trout, or lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Benzocaine is not registered for fishery use and is neither more effective nor safer than the registered anesthetic, tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222l.

  17. Diet dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA 1995-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Diets of adults of six important piscivorous fish species, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, northern pike Esox lucius, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, and yellow perch Perca flavescens were quantified in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA from May to October in 1995-1997. Forty-one prey taxa were found in the diets of these species, including 19 species of fish. The most important prey taxa overall were yellow perch, amphipods and dipterans. Diets of northern pike and walleye were dominated by yellow perch. Largemouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and black bullhead Ameiurus melas. Smallmouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and crayfish. Black crappie and yellow perch diets were dominated by invertebrates, primarily amphipods and dipterans. There were pronounced differences in diets among species, among size classes within species and over time. Most of the dominant prey taxa we documented in the diets of piscivorous species were in accordance with previous studies, but a few deviated significantly from expectations. Many of the temporal diet changes were asynchronous among piscivorous species and size classes, suggesting different responses to common prey resources over time.

  18. Long-term trends in the St. Marys River open water fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Fielder, David G.; Godby, Neal; Bowen, Anjanette; O'Connor, Lisa; Parrish, Josh; Greenwood, Susan; Chong, Stephen; Wright, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We examined trends in species composition and abundance of the St. Marys River fish community. Abundance data were available approximately once every six years from 1975 through 2006, and size and age data were available from 1995 through 2006. We also compared survey data in 2006 with results of a concurrent creel survey that year, as well as data from prior surveys spanning a 69 year time frame. The St. Marys River fish community was best characterized as a coolwater fish community with apparent little variation in species composition, and only slight variation in overall fish abundance since 1975. However, we did find recent trends in abundance among target species sought by anglers: centrarchids increased, percids appeared stable, and both northern pike Esox lucius and cisco Coregonus artedii declined. Survey results suggested that walleye (Sander vitreus) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) experienced moderate exploitation but benefited from recent strong recruitment and faster growth. Mechanisms underlying declines of northern pike and cisco were not clear; reduced abundance could have resulted from high exploitation, variation in recruitment, or a combination of both factors. Despite these challenges, the St. Marys River fish community appears remarkably stable. We suggest that managers insure that creel surveys occur simultaneously with assessments, but periodic gill net surveys may no longer provide adequate data in support of recent, more complex management objectives. While additional surveys would add costs, more frequent data might ensure sustainability of a unique fish community that supports a large proportion of angler effort on Lake Huron.

  19. X-ray scattering study of pike olfactory nerve: elastic, thermodynamic and physiological properties of the axonal membrane.

    PubMed

    Luzzati, Vittorio; Benoit, Evelyne; Charpentier, Gilles; Vachette, Patrice

    2004-10-08

    The effects of several agents, sugars, isotonic KCl, and a variety of drugs, on the structure of the axonal membranes of unmyelinated pike olfactory nerve have been studied by synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering experiments. The main effects of the sugars are: (i) to increase the electron density of the extra-axonal space and thereby yield the absolute scale of the electron density profile; (ii) to osmotically stress the membrane and thus yield its elastic modulus of area compressibility, since the related strain, thickness dilation, is directly determined by the X-ray scattering experiments. Exposure to isotonic KCl, a depolarizing agent, induces membrane thickness to increase. The energy liberated in this process is a function of the amplitude of the dilation and of the elastic modulus of the membrane. This energy turns out to be close to the thermal energy liberated by the pike olfactory nerve during the initial phase of action potential that has previously been measured by others. Electrical depolarization thus seems to be accompanied by a thickness dilation of the axonal membrane. Another effect of isotonic KCl is to induce a large fraction of the membranes to pair by tight apposition of their extra-axonal faces. Local anaesthetics and some drugs have the effect of altering membrane thickness. All these observations are interpreted in terms of a modulation of the conformational disorder of the hydrocarbon chains of the lipid molecules.

  20. The heat production associated with the passage of a single impulse in pike olfactory nerve fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, J V; Keynes, R D; Ritchie, J M; von Muralt, A

    1975-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the temperature changes associated with the passage of a single impulse in the non-myelinated fibres of the pike olfactory nerve. 2. The initial heat occurs in two phases: a burst of positive heat, followed by an evolution of negative heat. The positive and negative heats, and the net initial heat, are temperature-dependent. 3. At 0 degrees C the measured positive initial heat is 44.2 mucal/g.impulse; and the corresponding negative initial heat is 48.9 mucal/g.impulse. There is thus a net initial heat that is negative, of about 4.7 mucal/g.impulse. 4. The positive heat has a positive temperature coefficient, being increased by a factor of 1.86 when the temperature is rasied from 0 degrees C to 10 degrees C. 5. The negative initial heat also increases when the temperature is raised, but less than the positive initial heat. As a result, the net initial heat tends to become positive at higher temperatures. 6. Because of temporal dispersion of the action potential over the face of the thermopile, the observed temperature changes are smaller than those that occur at a single point in the nerve close to the stimulating cathode. The value of the positive heat at 0 degrees C corrected for temporal dispersion is estimated to be about 62 mucal/g.impulse: the corresponding value for the negative heat is about 67 mucal/g.impulse. 7. All records were analysed in terms of only two phases of initial heat (one positive, one negative). No analysis required four phases; but it is unclear whether this finding reflects a true absence of four phases, or merely the inability of the recording equipment to resolve them. 8. The positive heat seems to be derived from two sources. First, there is a dissipation of the free energy stored in the membrane capacity. Secondly, there is an evolution of heat corresponding with a decrease in entropy of the membrane dielectric with depolarization. PMID:1236946

  1. Surface-Water Hydrology and Quality at the Pike Hill Superfund Site, Corinth, Vermont, October 2004 to December 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrology and quality of surface water in and around the Pike Hill Brook watershed, in Corinth, Vermont, was studied from October 2004 to December 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Pike Hill was mined intermittently for copper from 1847 to 1919 and the site is known to be contributing trace elements and acidity to Pike Hill Brook and an unnamed tributary to Cookville Brook. The site has been listed as a Superfund site since 2004. Streamflow, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature were measured continuously and monthly at three sites on Pike Hill Brook to determine the variation in these parameters over an annual cycle. Synoptic water-quality sampling was done at 10 stream sites in October 2004, April 2005, and June 2005 and at 13 stream sites in August 2005 to characterize the quality of surface water in the watershed on a seasonal and spatial basis, as well as to assess the effects of wetlands on water quality. Samples for analysis of benthic macroinvertebrate populations were collected at 11 stream sites in August 2005. Water samples were analyzed for 5 major ions and 32 trace elements. Concentrations of trace elements at sites in the Pike Hill Brook watershed exceeded USEPA National Recommended Water Quality Criteria acute and chronic toxicity standards for aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc. Concentrations of copper exceeded the chronic criteria in an unnamed tributary to Cookville Brook in one sample. Concentrations of sulfate, calcium, aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc decreased with distance from a site directly downstream from the mine (site 1), as a result of dilution and through sorption and precipitation of the trace elements. Maximum concentrations of aluminum, iron, cadmium, copper, and zinc were observed during spring snowmelt. Concentrations of sulfate, calcium, cadmium, copper, and zinc, and instantaneous loads of calcium and aluminum were

  2. Isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus from muskellunge, Esox masquinongy (Mitchill), in Lake St Clair, Michigan, USA reveals a new sublineage of the North American genotype

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elsayed, E.; Faisal, M.; Thomas, M.; Whelan, G.; Batts, W.; Winton, J.

    2006-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from muskellunge, Esox masquinongy (Mitchill), caught from the NW portion of Lake St Clair, Michigan, USA in 2003. Affected fish exhibited congestion of internal organs; the inner wall of the swim bladder was thickened and contained numerous budding, fluid-filled vesicles. A virus was isolated using fish cell lines inoculated with a homogenate of kidney and spleen tissues from affected fish. Focal areas of cell rounding and granulation appeared as early as 24 h post-inoculation and expanded rapidly to destroy the entire cell sheet by 96 h. Electron microscopy revealed virions that were 170-180 nm in length by 60-70 nm in width having a bullet-shaped morphology typical of rhabdoviruses. The virus was confirmed as VHSV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis of the entire nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes revealed the virus was a member of the North American genotype of VHSV; however, the isolate was sufficiently distinct to be considered a separate sublineage, suggesting its origin may have been from marine species inhabiting the eastern coastal areas of the USA or Canada.

  3. Acute and chronic nitrite toxicity in juvenile pike-perch (Sander lucioperca) and its compensation by chloride.

    PubMed

    Wuertz, S; Schulze, S G E; Eberhardt, U; Schulz, C; Schroeder, J P

    2013-05-01

    Pike-perch Sander lucioperca is currently considered as one of the most promising candidates for production in freshwater recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). Here, due to the lack of studies on nitrite (NO(2)(-)) toxicity in pike-perch, a flow-through exposure at 0, 0.44, 0.88, 1.75, 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N was carried out to determine the acute and chronic toxicity over a period of 32 days. In juvenile pike-perch, 120 h LC(50) was 6.1mg/L NO(2)(-)-N and at ≥14 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N all fish had died within 24 h. Chronic exposure revealed a significant build up of NO(2)(-) in the plasma as well as in the muscles at ≥0.44 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N peaking in fish exposed to the highest concentration of 3.5 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N after 32 days. Still, due to high individual variation methemoglobin (MetHb) was only significantly increased (p<0.01) at 3.5 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N. No adverse effects on red blood cells (RBC) and hematocrit were observed in any of the treatments. In a second experiment, compensation of NO(2)(-) toxicity at increasing chloride concentrations (40 (freshwater), 65, 90, 140, 240, 440 mg/L Cl(-)) was observed at a constant exposure of 10 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N for 42 days. At ≥240 mg/L Cl(-), NO(2)(-) build-up in blood plasma and muscle was completely inhibited. At lower Cl(-) concentrations (≤140 mg/L), NO(2)(-) was significantly increased in plasma, but only insignificantly elevated in muscle due to high individual variation. MetHb was increased significantly difference only at 40 mg/L Cl(-) (freshwater control) compared to the control. Again, high individual variations were observed. As a conclusion, S. lucioperca is moderately sensitive towards NO(2)(-) and acceptable levels in RAS should hence not exceed 1.75 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N to avoid MetHb formation. However, based on the 120 h LC(50) and a factor of 0.01 according to Sprague (1971), a NO(2)(-) concentration of ≤0.061 mg/L NO(2)(-)-N is considered as "safe." Thereby, no NO(2)(-) should accumulate in

  4. Mineralogical and geochemical evolution of micas from miarolitic pegmatites of the anorogenic pikes peak batholith, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Cerny, P.; Jackson, L.L.; Sherman, David M.; Eby, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    A suite of 29 micas from miarolitic pegmatites associated with granitic units of the anorogenic Pikes Peak batholith (1.08-1.02 Ga), Colorado range in composition, and follow in paragenetic sequence, from 1M siderophyllite (N = 1), and 3T or 2M1 lithian biotite (N = 5) to 1M zinnwaldite (N = 20) and 1M ferroan lepidolite (N = 1). Locally, 1M (?) phlogopite (N = 1) and ferroan 2M1 muscovite (N = 1) are also present. Pervasive, late-stage hydrothermal alteration along with possible supergene weathering of many of these micas produced vermiculite. Additionally, some vugs and cavities were filled with chlorite and/or smectite. Early crystallized micas form tapered columnar crystals in graphic pegmatite, growing toward, and adjacent to the miarolitic cavity zone which contains the later crystallized micas. Principal associated minerals are quartz, microcline perthite (mostly amazonite), and albite, with local topaz or fluorite, and rarely tourmaline (schorl-elbaite). Progressively younger micas of the main crystallization sequence display increasing Si, Li, F, and Al/Ga, and decreasing total Fe, Mg, and octahedral occupancy. The zinc content of all micas is considerably elevated, whereas Mn, Rb, Cs, and Sc are moderate and T1 is very low. Early siderophyllite and lithian biotite show a narrow range of FeO/Fe2O3 (5.6-8.0), whereas later zinnwaldite is much more variable (2.4-40.3). Annite of the host granite and early graphic pegmatite is compositionally homogeneous, but most mica crystals from cavities show remarkable compositional and abrupt, sharp and distinct color zoning. Most cavity-grown zinnwaldite crystals show a decrease, from core to rim, in total Fe and Mg, whereas Si, Li and F increase and Mn, Rb, Cs and Na are essentially constant. A few to more than 100 color zones have been identified in some mica crystals. The zones are well correlated with the Ti content (<0.2 wt. % TiO2 colorless, 0.4-0.6 wt.% TiO2 red-brown). The total Fe content may or may not

  5. Determining exposure history of northern pike and walleye to tailings effluence using trace metal uptake in otoliths.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Lisa A; Halden, Norman M

    2010-03-01

    Determining the effects of mining activity on fish populations is complicated by the uncertainty of fish residency in an affected area. Otoliths are considered to be metabolically inert and can contain complete chemical records of environments in which individuals have lived. When coupled with the annular structure, otoliths provide temporal information to the history of exposure to pollutants. In this preliminary study, northern pike and walleye otoliths collected from two lakes adjacent to base metal mine tailings at Lynn Lake, Manitoba, Canada, were analyzed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine background levels of trace metals. The presence of overlapping Zn, Cu, and Pb peaks above background levels in some otoliths is interpreted as a record of elevated levels in the environment. These otoliths provided a record of the history of fish movement into and out of the affected area.

  6. Huffmanela hamo sp. n. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae: Huffmanelinae) from the dagger-tooth pike conger Muraenesox cinereus off Japan.

    PubMed

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Iwaki, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    Huffmanela hamo sp. n. is described from eggs only, which were found in black spots in the somatic musculature of a dagger-tooth pike conger, Muraenesox cinereus (Forsskål), caught off Japan. The eggs are 66-77 microm (mean 72 microm) in length and 33-38 microm (mean 35 microm) in width. The surface of the eggs is smooth and bears neither envelope nor filaments. The species is distinguished from other members of the genus by the dimensions of its eggs and the characteristics of their surface. This is the first species of Huffmanela Moravec, 1987 to be described from an anguilliform fish, and the twentieth nominal species in the genus. Similar black spots with eggs were reported four times in ten years from this fish caught off Japan; although eggs could not be examined, it is likely that the same species was involved in all cases.

  7. Geochemistry, petrology, and palynology of the Pond Creek coal bed, northern Pike and southern Martin counties, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Eble, C.F.; Clark, W.L.

    2005-01-01

    The geochemistry, petrology, and palynology of the Duckmantian-age Pond Creek coal bed were investigated in northern Pike and southern Martin counties, eastern Kentucky. The coal bed exhibits significant vertical variation in the investigated geochemical parameters, with many diagenetic overprints of the original geochemistry. Included in the range of geochemical signatures are the presence of elements, particularly TiO2 and Zr, suggesting the detrital influences at the time of deposition of a low-vitrinite durain; a high CaO zone with elevated B/Be, both suggesting marine influence, in a lithotype in the middle of the coal bed; and the postdepositional emplacement of pyrite in the uppermost lithotype. Individual lithotypes, each representing distinct depositional environments, all complicated to some degree by diagentic overprints, comprise the complex history of the coal bed. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Micas from the Pikes Peak batholith and its cogenetic granitic pegmatites, Colorado: Optical properties, composition, and correlation with pegmatite evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.; Foord, E.E.

    1998-01-01

    Optical properties are presented for 66 samples of mica covering the range from annite ??? biotite ??? zinnwaldite ??? ferroan lepidolite and ferroan muscovite from occurrences of granitic pegmatite (NYF type) throughout the Pikes Peak batholith (PPB) in Colorado. Chemical composition was determined for 34 of these samples. The optical data are correlated with composition, mode of occurrence, and relation to pegmatite paragenesis. Optical properties of the trioctahedral micas show a consistent trend of decreasing ?? index of refraction, from an average of 1.693 in annite of the host granite to 1.577 in zinnwaldite and ferroan lepidolite of the miarolitic cavities, which correlates with a progressively decreasing content of Fe. A comparison of optical and compositional data for micas from localities throughout the PPB indicates a variation in geochemical evolution among pegmatites of different districts, and between the Pikes Peak Granite and its late satellite plutons. Analyses of mica samples taken from cross-sections through individual pegmatites reveal a decrease in index of refraction and total iron that unambiguously document a progressive geochemical evolution within a given pegmatite. Such data, in addition to field evidence, indicate that micas enclosed within massive quartz are paragenetically older than those within miarolitic cavities; minerals within miarolitic cavities represent the final stages of primary crystallization. A general model of pegmatite paragenesis is proposed that hypothesizes formation of miarolitic cavities as a consequence of pegmatite configuration and inclination, as well as early crystallization of massive quartz that confines the silicate melt and volatile phase, resulting in closed-system crystallization with a concomitant increase in pressure, consequent episodic cavity-rupture events, and corresponding changes in mica composition.

  9. Microbiological properties and biogenic amines of whole pike-perch (Sander lucioperca, linnaeus 1758): a perspective on fish safety during postharvest handling practices and frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Ali; Jasour, Mohammad Sedigh

    2012-12-01

    The biogenic amines (tyramine, histamine, cadaverine, and puterscine) and microbiological properties (mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and Pseudomonas spp.) of whole pike-perch (Sander lucioperca) was investigated during 2 d prestorage icing and 90 d frozen storage (-24 °C). At the end of ice storage, a noticeable increase only was found for puterscine level (P < 0.05), and microbial loads of fish increased in comparison with fresh fish (P < 0.05). During the frozen storage, as time passed, a continuous increase of biogenic amines and decrease of bacterial load (except for Pseudomonas spp. at the last 30 d) was detected (P < 0.05). The total contents of biogenic amines ranged from 6.24 to 91.76 μg/g during the investigated period. Puterscine was the major amine detected in pike-perch and its concentration varied between 1.75 and 56.95 μg/g; due to a more step-wise increase it was a good quality indicator. At the end of storage, all of the obtained values are below the tolerable maximum amounts based on available regulations. Based on biogenic amines content and microbial load, it could be concluded that pike-perch can be consumed without any health risks after 2 d icing condition and 90 d frozen storage.

  10. Reduced expression of E-cadherin and p120-catenin and elevated expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE are associated with aggressiveness of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Liao, Liyan; Shrestha, Chandrama; Ji, Shangli; Chen, Ying; Peng, Jian; Wang, Larry; Liao, Eryuan; Xie, Zhongjian

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most lethal malignant tumors. The cadherin/catenin cell-cell adhesion complex plays a major role in cancer development and progression. p120-catenin (p120) is a cytoplasmic molecule closely associated with E-cadherin which activates phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1). Our previous studies indicate that activation of PLC-γ1 plays a critical role in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced migration and proliferation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) is highly expressed in SCC cells and mediates EGFR-dependent SCC cell proliferation. Our current study was to determine whether the expression of E-cadherin, p120, PLC-γ1, and PIKE, is associated with OSCC. To address this issue, we assessed levels and localization of E-cadherin, p120, PLC-γ1, and PIKE in specimen of 92 patients with OSCC by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the expression of E-cadherin, and p120 negatively correlated with the tumor differentiation and the expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE positively correlated with the tumor differentiation. The expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE in OSCC stage T3 + T4 or in OSCC with lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than that in OSCC stage T1 + T2 or in OSCC without lymph node metastasis. The expression of p120 positively correlated with levels of E-cadherin but negatively correlated with levels of PLC-γ1 and PIKE in OSCC. These data indicate that increased expression of PLC-γ1 and PIKE and decreased expression of E-cadherin and p120 are associated with the aggressiveness of OSCC.

  11. Experimental transmission of VHSV genotype IVb by predation.

    PubMed

    Getchell, Rodman G; Cornwell, Emily R; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Wong, Po Ting; Coffee, Laura L; Wooster, Gregory A; Bowser, Paul R

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary surveillance of wild baitfish during the 2006 viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus genotype IVb (VHSV IVb) outbreaks indicated Emerald Shiners Notropis atherinoides and Bluntnose Minnow Pimephales notatus were infected with high levels of VHSV without showing clinical signs of disease. The movement and use of baitfish was recognized as the most probable vector for the introduction of VHSV to inland waters, such as Conesus Lake and Skaneateles Lake in New York, Budd Lake in Michigan, and Little Lake Butte des Morts and Lake Winnebago in Wisconsin. While numerous government agencies implemented restrictions to stop the movement of potentially infected baitfish into new waters and prevent the spread of VHSV IVb, until now, studies to investigate whether these initial introductions were by an oral route of infection have not occurred. Our studies identified infected Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas as suitable vectors for transmitting VHSV IVb when fed to Tiger Muskellunge ( ♂ Northern Pike Esox lucius × ♀ Muskellunge Esox masquinongy) during laboratory trials. Six of 16 Tiger Muskellunge were infected with VHSV IVb after consumption of infected Fathead Minnows when assayed with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and viral isolation in cell culture. Weekly sampling of water and feces from these Tiger Muskellunge individually reared showed intermittent shedding of VHSV IVb. Those exposed to similarly VHSV IVb-inoculated fathead minnows by cohabitation only became infected in 1 case out of 16. A similar trial of 12 Tiger Muskellunge fed Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus that survived a VHSV IVb immersion challenge did not result in infection. Overall, our findings imply that consumption of infected wild baitfish may be a risk factor for introduction of VHSV.

  12. [Indigenous microflora associated with the tegument of Triaenophorus nodulosus (Cestoda) and the intestine of its pike host].

    PubMed

    Korneva, Zh V; Plotnikov, A O

    2006-01-01

    Investigations of the indigenous microflora associated with the mucous intestines of fish and its cestode parasites have been for the first time carried out using the methods of transmission and scanning electron microscopy. New data on the bacterial biodiversity in the cestode and its fish host are obtained. Nanobacteria and spirochaetes are for the first time revealed in a fish host together with the previously known bacteria forming the intestinal microflora of fish. Spirochaetes were shown to be associated with the intestines of a pike host only, while nanobacteria cover abundantly the surface of the apical parts of the intestinal microvilli and the apical parts of the microtriches in the cestode tegument. The similarity of the bacterial floras associated with the apical surface of the parasite tegument and the intestine of the host should be noted. At the same time, deeper bacterial communities represented by obligate symbionts are specific. Thus, there is a normal indigenous microflora in cestodes, associated with the tegumental surface. This symbiotic microflora has specific morphological features and provides the balance of relations in the parasite-host system.

  13. Occurrence and attempted mitigation of carbon dioxide in a home constructed on reclaimed coal-mine spoil, Pike County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Bret A.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years carbon dioxide intrusion has become recognized as a potentially serious health threat where homes are constructed on or near reclaimed surface coal mines. When carbon dioxide invades the living space of a home, it can collect near the floor, displace the oxygen there, and produce an oxygen-deficient environment. In this investigation, several lines of inquiry were pursued to determine the environmental factors that most influence carbon dioxide intrusion at a Pike County, Ind., home where this phenomenon is known to occur. It was found that carbon dioxide intrusion events at the home are most closely tied to rapid drops in barometric pressure and rainfall. Other researchers have shown that windy conditions and periods of cold weather also can contribute to soil-gas intrusion to structures. From this, a conceptual model was developed to illustrate the influence of these four meteorological conditions. Additionally, three mitigation methods-block-wall depressurization, block-wall and sub-slab depressurization, and block-wall and sub-slab pressurization-were applied successively to the study-site home, and environmental data were collected to evaluate the effectiveness of each mitigation method. In each case, it was found that these methods did not ensure a safe environment when meteorological conditions were favorable for carbon dioxide intrusion.

  14. Mercury in Fish Collected Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico: 1991--2004.

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Fresquez

    2004-10-15

    Small amounts of mercury (Hg) may exist in some canyon drainage systems within Los Alamos National Laboratory lands as a result of past discharges of untreated effluents. This paper reports on the concentrations of Hg in muscle (fillets) of various types of fish species collected downstream of LANL's influence from 1991 through 2004. The mean Hg concentration in fish from Cochiti reservoir (0.22 {micro}g/g wet weight), which is located downstream of LANL, was similar to fish collected from a reservoir upstream of LANL (Abiquiu) (0.26 {micro}g/g wet weight). Mercury concentrations in fish collected from both reservoirs exhibited significantly (Abiquiu = p < 0.05 and Cochiti = p < 0.10) decreasing trends over time. Predator fish like the northern pike (Esox lucius) contained significantly higher concentrations of Hg (0.39 {micro}g/g wet weight) than bottom-feeding fish like the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) (0.10 {micro}g/g wet weight).

  15. Fish communities in coastal freshwater ecosystems: the role of the physical and chemical setting

    PubMed Central

    Arend, Kristin K; Bain, Mark B

    2008-01-01

    Background We explored how embayment watershed inputs, morphometry, and hydrology influence fish community structure among eight embayments located along the southeastern shoreline of Lake Ontario, New York, USA. Embayments differed in surface area and depth, varied in their connections to Lake Ontario and their watersheds, and drained watersheds representing a gradient of agricultural to forested land use. Results We related various physicochemical factors, including total phosphorus load, embayment area, and submerged vegetation, to differences in fish species diversity and community relative abundance, biomass, and size structure both among and within embayments. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and centrarchids numerically dominated most embayment fish communities. Biomass was dominated by piscivorous fishes including brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), bowfin (Amia calva), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Phosphorus loading influenced relative biomass, but not species diversity or relative abundance. Fish relative abundance differed among embayments; within embayments, fish abundance at individual sampling stations increased significantly with submerged vegetative cover. Relative biomass differed among embayments and was positively related to total phophorus loading and embayment area. Fish community size structure, based on size spectra analysis, differed among embayments, with the frequency of smaller-bodied fishes positively related to percent vegetation. Conclusion The importance of total phosphorus loading and vegetation in structuring fish communities has implications for anthropogenic impacts to embayment fish communities through activities such as farming and residential development, reduction of cultural eutrophication, and shoreline development and maintenance. PMID:19114002

  16. Evolutionary divergence of adult body size and juvenile growth in sympatric subpopulations of a top predator in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Tibblin, Petter; Forsman, Anders; Koch-Schmidt, Per; Nordahl, Oscar; Johannessen, Peter; Nilsson, Jonas; Larsson, Per

    2015-07-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that different selective regimes may contribute to divergent evolution of body size and growth rate among populations, but most studies have focused on allopatric populations. Here, we studied five sympatric subpopulations of anadromous northern pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea subjected to allopatric habitats for a short period of their life cycle due to homing behavior. We report differences in adult body size among subpopulations that were in part due to variation in growth rate. Body size of emigrating juveniles also differed among subpopulations, and differences remained when individuals were reared in a common environment, thus indicating evolutionary divergence among subpopulations. Furthermore, a QST-FST comparison indicated that differences had evolved due to divergent selection rather than genetic drift, possibly in response to differences in selective mortality among spawning habitats during the allopatric life stage. Adult and juvenile size were negatively correlated across subpopulations, and reconstruction of growth trajectories of adult fishes suggested that body size differences developed gradually and became accentuated throughout the first years of life. These results represent rare evidence that sympatric subpopulations can evolve differences in key life-history traits despite being subjected to allopatric habitats during only a very short fraction of their life.

  17. Natal departure timing from spatially varying environments is dependent of individual ontogenetic status.

    PubMed

    Cucherousset, Julien; Paillisson, Jean-Marc; Roussel, Jean-Marc

    2013-08-01

    Natal departure timing represents one of the first crucial decisions for juveniles born in spatially varying environments that ultimately disappear, but our knowledge on its determinants is limited. The present study aimed at understanding the determinants of juvenile natal departure by releasing individually tagged juvenile pike (Esox lucius L.) with variable body size and trophic position in a temporary flooded grassland. Specifically, we investigated whether natal departure depends on individual competitive status ('competition hypothesis'), physiological tolerance to environmental conditions ('physiological hypothesis') or individual trophic position and the spatial heterogeneity of trophic resources ('trophic hypothesis'). The results indicated that departure timing was negatively correlated with body size at release, showing that the dominance status among competing individuals was not the main trigger of juvenile departure. A positive correlation between departure timing and individual body size at departure was observed, suggesting that inter-individual variability in physiological tolerance did not explain departure patterns. While individual growth performances were similar irrespective of the timing of natal departure, stable isotope analyses revealed that juveniles with higher trophic position departed significantly earlier than individuals with lower trophic position. Therefore, the trade-off driving the use of spatially varying environments was most likely dependent upon the benefits associated with energetic returns than the costs associated with inter-individual competition or physiological stress. This result highlighted how ontogeny, and particularly ontogenetic niche shift, can play a central role in juvenile's decision to depart from natal habitats in a predatory species.

  18. Natal departure timing from spatially varying environments is dependent of individual ontogenetic status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucherousset, Julien; Paillisson, Jean-Marc; Roussel, Jean-Marc

    2013-08-01

    Natal departure timing represents one of the first crucial decisions for juveniles born in spatially varying environments that ultimately disappear, but our knowledge on its determinants is limited. The present study aimed at understanding the determinants of juvenile natal departure by releasing individually tagged juvenile pike ( Esox lucius L.) with variable body size and trophic position in a temporary flooded grassland. Specifically, we investigated whether natal departure depends on individual competitive status (`competition hypothesis'), physiological tolerance to environmental conditions (`physiological hypothesis') or individual trophic position and the spatial heterogeneity of trophic resources (`trophic hypothesis'). The results indicated that departure timing was negatively correlated with body size at release, showing that the dominance status among competing individuals was not the main trigger of juvenile departure. A positive correlation between departure timing and individual body size at departure was observed, suggesting that inter-individual variability in physiological tolerance did not explain departure patterns. While individual growth performances were similar irrespective of the timing of natal departure, stable isotope analyses revealed that juveniles with higher trophic position departed significantly earlier than individuals with lower trophic position. Therefore, the trade-off driving the use of spatially varying environments was most likely dependent upon the benefits associated with energetic returns than the costs associated with inter-individual competition or physiological stress. This result highlighted how ontogeny, and particularly ontogenetic niche shift, can play a central role in juvenile's decision to depart from natal habitats in a predatory species.

  19. Shoreline development and degradation of coastal fish reproduction habitats.

    PubMed

    Sundblad, Göran; Bergström, Ulf

    2014-12-01

    Coastal development has severely affected habitats and biodiversity during the last century, but quantitative estimates of the impacts are usually lacking. We utilize predictive habitat modeling and mapping of human pressures to estimate the cumulative long-term effects of coastal development in relation to fish habitats. Based on aerial photographs since the 1960s, shoreline development rates were estimated in the Stockholm archipelago in the Baltic Sea. By combining shoreline development rates with spatial predictions of fish reproduction habitats, we estimated annual habitat degradation rates for three of the most common coastal fish species, northern pike (Esox lucius), Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). The results showed that shoreline constructions were concentrated to the reproduction habitats of these species. The estimated degradation rates, where a degraded habitat was defined as having ≥3 constructions per 100 m shoreline, were on average 0.5 % of available habitats per year and about 1 % in areas close to larger population centers. Approximately 40 % of available habitats were already degraded in 2005. These results provide an example of how many small construction projects over time may have a vast impact on coastal fish populations.

  20. Interrenal dysfunction in fish from contaminated sites: In vivo and in vitro assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hontela, A.

    1998-01-01

    Cortisol, synthesized in the interrenal cells of teleost head kidney, has a major role in the physiologic response to physical and chemical stressors. Plasma levels of cortisol increase in physiologically competent fish acutely exposed to stressors such as cadmium or mercury. The effects of chronic low level exposures are less well understood. The author has diagnosed an endocrine impairment characterized by a reduced capacity to elevate plasma cortisol levels in response to an acute standardized capture stress in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and in northern pike (Esox lucius) sampled at sites contaminated by mixtures of pollutants (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls), by heavy metals, or by bleached kraft mill effluent. The studies with fish, as well as with amphibians at contaminated sites, demonstrated that low level chronic exposures impair secretion of corticosteroids. The author has developed new tests for assessment of the functional integrity of teleost and amphibian interrenal tissue using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge, in vivo and in vitro. The reduced ability to respond to ACTH indicates that the normal neuroendocrine response to stressors may be disrupted and that the ability to cope with biotic and abiotic stressors in the environment may be significantly reduced in the impaired animals.

  1. A bioenergetics modeling evaluation of top-down control of ruffe in the St. Louis River, western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, Kathleen R.; Selgeby, James H.; McDonald, Michael E.

    1998-01-01

    Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus), were accidentally introduced into the St. Louis River estuary, western Lake Superior, in the mid 1980s and it was feared that they might affect native fish through predation on eggs and competition for forage and habitat. In an effort to control the abundance of ruffe and limit dispersal, a top-down control strategy using predators was implemented in 1989. We used bioenergetics modeling to examine the efficacy of top-down control in the St. Louis River from 1991 to 1994. Five predators--northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens)--were modeled to determine their consumption of ruffe and four other native prey species-spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus). Although predators ate as much as 47% of the ruffe biomass in 1 year, they were not able to halt the increase in ruffe abundance. The St. Louis River is an open system that allows predators to move freely out of the system, and the biomass of managed predators did not increase. A selectivity index showed all five predators selected the native prey and avoided ruffe. The St. Louis River has several predator and prey species creating many complex predator-prey interactions; and top-down control of ruffe by the predators examined in this study did not occur.

  2. Species-specific mercury bioaccumulation in a diverse fish community.

    PubMed

    Donald, David B; Wissel, Björn; Anas, M U Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Mercury bioaccumulation models developed for fish provide insight into the sources and transfer of Hg within ecosystems. Mercury concentrations were assessed for 16 fish species of the western reach of Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan, Canada. For top predators (northern pike, Esox Lucius; walleye, Sander vitreum), Hg concentrations were positively correlated to δ(15)N, and δ(15)N to fish age, suggesting that throughout life these fish fed on organisms with increasingly higher trophic values and Hg concentrations. However, fish mass and/or age were the principal parameters related to Hg concentrations for most species. For 9 common species combined, individual variation in Hg concentration was explained in declining order of importance by fish mass, trophic position (δ(15)N), and fish age. Delta (15)N value was not the leading variable related to Hg concentration for the assemblage, probably because of the longevity of lower--trophic-level species (3 species ≥ 20 yr), substantial overlap in Hg concentration and δ(15)N values for large-bodied fish up to 3000 g, and complex relationships between Hg concentration and δ(15)N among species. These results suggest that the quantity of food (and Hg) consumed each year and converted to fish mass, the quantity of Hg bioaccumulated over years and decades, and trophic position were significant determinants of Hg concentration in Lake Diefenbaker fish.

  3. System for maintaining sediment suspensions during larval fish studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chilton, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    A new system was developed for maintaining suspensions of inorganic solids during laboratory studies on early life stages of fish. Microfine bentonite was successfully held in suspension in specially constructed units during a 21-d fishless test, a 28-d experiment with juvenile green sunfish (lepomis cyanellus), and four shorter experiments (5-9 d) with four species of larval fishes, white sucker (catostomus commersoni), northern pike (esox lucius), channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus), and walleye (stizostedion vitreum). Each experiment on larval fish was conducted until the yolk-sac had been absorbed. Concentrations of bentonite ranged from 0 to 728 mg/l. Each unit consisted of a holding chamber set in a stainless steel bowl and two submersible pumps that recirculated the suspension. Turbidity readings remained nearly constant throughout each experiment. Because the turbidity of suspensions was well correlated with bentonite concentration (r2 = 0.989) And easy to measure, turbidity was used as an indicator of concentration. The system is inexpensive, easy to assemble, and does not require a diluter system to maintain constant concentrations of suspended material.

  4. Interrenal dysfunction in fish from contaminated sites: In vivo and in vitro studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hontela, A.

    1995-12-31

    An endocrine impairment characterized by a reduced capacity to elevate plasma cortisol levels in response to an acute standardized capture stress, has been previously diagnosed in yellow perch, Perca flavescens, and in northern pike, Esox lucius, from sites contaminated by mixtures of pollutants (heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs) or by BKME. The most recent studies were designed to (1) field validate this dysfunction usable as a marker of reduced physiological competence in fish; (2) demonstrate the impairment of the interrenal tissue in fish from sites located in a mining region in Abitibi; and (3) elucidate the physiological mechanisms underlying the impairment of the interrenal tissue in fish chronically exposed to xenobiotics. The responsiveness of the interrenal tissue to a standardized dose of ACTH1-39 was assessed in vivo in yellow perch from contaminated and reference sites maintained in experimental enclosures, as well as in vitro using complete growth medium in a perifusion system and in microplates. The results showed that the functional impairment of the internal tissue in fish exposed to xenobiotics is an exposure related phenomenon modulated by season. The functional tests with the interrenal tissue revealed that the responsiveness to ACTH is significantly reduced and that the synthesis of cortisol is disrupted, in fish from contaminated sites. Use of the functional ACTH-tests with the interrenal tissue of fish in environmental monitoring will be discussed.

  5. Towards the conservation of crucian carp Carassius carassius: understanding the extent and causes of decline within part of its native English range.

    PubMed

    Sayer, C D; Copp, G H; Emson, D; Godard, M J; Zięba, G; Wesley, K J

    2011-12-01

    The extent and causes of crucian carp Carassius carassius decline were assessed during an initial study of c. 25 ponds in north Norfolk, eastern England, U.K., which was then replicated (a validation study) on another c. 25 ponds in an adjacent area. Of these ponds, c. 40 are known to have contained C. carassius during the 1970s-1980s. In the initial and validation studies, C. carassius were found in only 11 of these ponds, yielding declines of 76% (five of 21 ponds) and 68% (six of 19 ponds), respectively (72% decline overall). Non-native cyprinids, including goldfish Carassius auratus and common carp Cyprinus carpio and their hybrids with C. carassius, were observed in 20% of the ponds. Causes of C. carassius local extinction from 21 ponds were confidently determined as desiccation due to drought, terrestrialization and habitat deterioration, hybridization and competition with non-native cyprinids, agricultural land reclamation and predation (after the introduction of pike Esox lucius). This study led to C. carassius being designated as a Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) species in the county of Norfolk, the first formal conservation designation for the species in the U.K. The C. carassius BAP plan aims to halt the decline of this much overlooked species through reintroductions and selective stocking of suitable ponds within the native range of the species.

  6. Bioaccumulation of selenium from coal fly ash and associated environmental hazards in a freshwater fish community

    SciTech Connect

    Besser, J.; Giesy, J.; Brown, R.; Herdt, T.; Dawson, G.

    1995-12-31

    Bioaccumulation of Se by fish from Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake, Michigan, which receive inputs of Se from a coal fly-ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se toxicity to fish and wildlife. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving Se inputs from fly ash disposal ponds were significantly greater than concentrations in fish from upstream sites, which were near normal background concentrations. Se bioaccumulation differed substantially among fish species, especially in the most contaminated site, where whole-body Se concentrations for the five species analyzed ranged from 1.4 to 3.8 {micro}g/g (wet wt.). The top predator in the community, northern pike (Esox lucius), had Se concentrations less than those in likely prey species. Among lower-order consumers, Se concentrations were greater in limnetic species (spottail shiner, Notropis hudsonius, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens), than in benthic species (white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris). Se concentrations in tissues of fish from the lower Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake approached, but did not exceed lowest observable effect concentrations (LOAECs) for Se in tissues of sensitive fish species. However, Se concentrations in several fish species exceeded LOAECs for dietary Se exposure of sensitive species of birds and mammals, suggesting that consumption of fish in these areas may pose a hazard to piscivorous wildlife.

  7. Evaluation of the toxicity and efficacy of hydrogen peroxide treatments on eggs of warm and cool water fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Howe, G.E.; Schreier, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    The use of hydrogen peroxide in aquaculture is growing and there is a need to develop fundamental guidelines to effectively treat diseased fish. The safety (toxicity) of hydrogen peroxide treatments was determined on eggs of representative warm- and coolwater fish species. Eggs of northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), yellow perch (Pel ca flavescens), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were cultured in egg jars or aquaria. Treatments were initiated with non-eyed eggs and continued until all viable eggs had hatched. Eggs were treated daily for 15 min Monday through Friday with either 0, 500, 1000, 3000, or 6000 mu l l(-1) of hydrogen peroxide. For all species, the mean percent hatch was greater in eggs treated with 1000 mu l l(-1) hydrogen peroxide for 15 min than in the untreated controls. Common carp, lake sturgeon, and paddlefish were the least sensitive to hydrogen peroxide with percent hatch ranging from 40 to 48% in the 6000 mu l l(-1) hydrogen peroxide treatment. Fungal infections reduced or eliminated the hatch in most controls whereas nearly all treated eggs remained free of infection; hydrogen peroxide inhibited fungal infections on fish eggs. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biology of Amur sleeper (Perccottus glehni) in the Delta of the Selenga River, Buryatia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litvinov, Alexander G.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1996-01-01

    We determined the fecundity, growth, diet, and density of the Amur sleeper (Perccottus glehni) in the Selenga River Delta on Lake Baikal during 1986-1991 to better understand how this invading exotic will affect Baikal's endemic fishes. We also compared the Amur sleeper's diet with that of other fishes living in the delta. The largest Amur sleepers were about 200 mm long and weighed 200 g; the oldest were age 7. All females were mature at age 2. Fecundity ranged from 884 eggs at age 1 to 37,056 eggs at age 7. Highest densities of Amur sleepers were found in oxbow lakes where densities sometimes exceeded 4,000 fish per ha. The bulk of the diet of Amur sleeper age 2 and older was chironomids, fish, and fish eggs. Chironomids were also important in the diet of the commercially valuable Siberian roach (Rutilus rutilus lacustris) and Siberian dace (Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis). Thus the Amur sleeper may cause population declines of these important endemic fishes through resource competition and predation on their juvenile life stages. However, Amur sleepers were the species of fish most frequently eaten by Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and northern pike (Esox lucius). So, maintaining vigorous populations of these two predators may well be an effective strategy for limiting the size of Amur sleeper populations.

  9. Two-dimensional simulation of the June 11, 2010, flood of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreational Area, Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    In the early morning hours of June 11, 2010, substantial flooding occurred at Albert Pike Recreation Area in the Ouachita National Forest of west-central Arkansas, killing 20 campers. The U.S. Forest Service needed information concerning the extent and depth of flood inundation, the water velocity, and flow paths throughout Albert Pike Recreation Area for the flood and for streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The two-dimensional flow model Fst2DH, part of the Federal Highway Administration’s Finite Element Surface-water Modeling System, and the graphical user interface Surface-water Modeling System (SMS) were used to perform a steady-state simulation of the flood in a 1.5-mile reach of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreation Area. Peak streamflows of the Little Missouri River and tributary Brier Creek served as inputs to the simulation, which was calibrated to the surveyed elevations of high-water marks left by the flood and then used to predict flooding that would result from streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The simulated extent of the June 11, 2010, flood matched the observed extent of flooding at Albert Pike Recreation Area. The mean depth of inundation in the camp areas was 8.5 feet in Area D, 7.4 feet in Area C, 3.8 feet in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 12.5 feet in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. The mean water velocity was 7.2 feet per second in Area D, 7.6 feet per second in Area C, 7.2 feet per second in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 7.6 feet per second in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. A sensitivity analysis indicated that varying the streamflow of the Little Missouri River had the greatest effect on simulated water-surface elevation, while varying the streamflow of tributary Brier Creek had the least effect. Simulated water-surface elevations were lower than those modeled by the U.S. Forest Service using the standard-step method, but the

  10. Recommendations for a Barrier Island Breach Management Plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    4. Economic costs and benefits of artificial closure. This report for breach management presents protocols which specify when breach closures within the FIIS might be desirable and necessary, as well as provides recommendations for structural breach closure engineering operations which are indented to minimize negative impacts to the natural wilderness values and cultural resources within the FIIS, particularly the Otis Pike Wilderness Area. The goal of the plan is to strike a balance between protecting natural resources and allowing natural processes to operate and avoiding loss of life and excessive property damage.

  11. Historical and Contemporary Patterns of Mercury in a Hydroelectric Reservoir and Downstream Fishery: Concentration Decline in Water and Fishes.

    PubMed

    Green, Derek J; Duffy, Mark; Janz, David M; McCullum, Kevin; Carrière, Gary; Jardine, Timothy D

    2016-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination can pose risks to human and animal health as well as commercial fisheries. Reservoir construction in riverine systems produces flooded conditions amenable to Hg(II)-methylating bacteria, which can transform this relatively benign environmental contaminant into the bioaccumulative, environmentally relevant, and neurotoxic methyl-Hg (MeHg). Hg concentrations ([Hg]) in fishes from reservoirs can take decades to decrease to pre-dam levels, but less is known about Hg exported downstream and its dynamics within downstream fish populations. We examined and compared the multidecadal rates of biotic [Hg] decrease and contemporary factors affecting [Hg] in fish collected from a hydroelectric reservoir (Tobin Lake) and a related downstream fishery (Cumberland Lake) along the Saskatchewan River, Canada. Rates of [Hg] decrease were considered in four species-northern pike (Esox lucius), sauger (Sander canadensis), goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), and walleye (S. vitreus)-all of which showed a significant decrease over time (p < 0.001) and are now lower than Health Canada consumption guidelines (0.5 μg/g). Rates of decrease ranged from 0.5 to 3.9 %/year and were similar between sites in the cases of northern pike and sauger. Contemporary factors affecting [Hg] in walleye collected downstream include fish length (p < 0.001), fish age (p < 0.001), and trophic magnification through the food web (p < 0.001), and relationships between [Hg] and trophic level in predatory and prey fish are now similar to those found in non-Hg-inundated systems at a similar latitude. Together, these results suggest connected contamination between the two sites and delineate the timeline during which [Hg] in a variety of fish species decreased to nontoxic levels in both locations.

  12. Comparison of the sensitivity of four native Canadian fish species to 17-α ethinylestradiol, using an in vitro liver explant assay.

    PubMed

    Beitel, Shawn C; Doering, Jon A; Eisner, Bryanna K; Hecker, Markus

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to environmental estrogens and other endocrine-active chemicals can impact reproduction of freshwater fishes. While extensive data exists regarding the effect of estrogens on standard laboratory species, little is known about the sensitivity of freshwater fishes native to North America to these compounds. Current testing strategies for the toxicological assessment of contaminants still rely heavily on studies with live animals, which poses increasing concerns from an economical and ethical perspective. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity of four native species, namely, northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Sander vitreus), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), to an environmental estrogen, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), using an in vitro tissue explant approach. Transcript abundances of vitellogenin (VTG) as well as the estrogen receptors (ER) α and β were used as the measuring endpoints as they represent well established biomarkers previously used to assess exposure to estrogens. Transcript abundance of VTG was upregulated in a concentration-dependent manner in each species. Liver explants of male walleye were found to have the greatest sensitivity to EE2, with a lowest observable effect concentration of 300 ng/L (1.0 nM) for VTG transcript abundance, with juvenile white sturgeon having the greatest magnitude of VTG transcript upregulation in exposed tissue (15-fold relative to control). Exposure of liver explants to EE2 resulted in no alteration in transcript abundance of ERβ, whereas upregulation of ERα was observed in northern pike only. Based on in vitro expression of VTG, the species tested were among the species with greatest sensitivity to environmental estrogens tested to date.

  13. Thermal and maternal environments shape the value of early hatching in a natural population of a strongly cannibalistic freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Thilo; Bekkevold, Dorte; Pohlmeier, Stefan; Wolter, Christian; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Hatching early in the season is often assumed to elevate fitness, particularly in cannibalistic fish in which size-dependent predation mortality is a major selective force. While the importance of the thermal environment for the growth of fish is undisputed, the relevance of maternal effects for offspring growth in the wild is largely unknown. Otoliths of 366 age-0 pike (Esox lucius L.) were sampled in a natural lake over three seasons. All offspring were assigned to more than 330 potential mothers using 16 informative microsatellites. We found temperature and past maternal environment (as represented by juvenile growth rate), but not female total length, to jointly contribute to explain within- and among-season size variation in juvenile pike. While there was no statistical evidence for maternal effects on offspring growth rate, fast female juvenile growth positively correlated with the offspring length in early summer. One mechanism could be related to fast-growing females spawning somewhat earlier in the season. However, the more likely mechanism emerging in our study was that fast-growing females could have been in better condition prior to spawning, in turn possibly producing higher numbers of high-quality eggs. Our study is among the few to reveal carry-over effects related to past maternal environments on offspring performance in a naturally reproducing fish stock. At the same time, our study underscores recent arguments that size-dependent maternal effects may not be expressed in the wild and that early hatching does not generally produce size advantages in light of stochastically varying temperature conditions.

  14. Investigations of mercury concentrations in walleye and other fish in the Athabasca River ecosystem with increasing oil sands developments.

    PubMed

    Evans, Marlene S; Talbot, André

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies have reported an increasing trend of mercury concentrations in walleye (Sander vitreus) from the Athabasca River, north eastern Alberta (Canada); these studies were based on three years of comparison and attributed the mercury increase to expanding oil sands developments in the region. In order to conduct a more comprehensive analysis of mercury trends in fish, we compiled an extensive database for walleye, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), northern pike (Esox lucius) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) using all available data obtained from provincial, federal, and industry-funded monitoring and other programs. Evidence for increasing trends in mercury concentrations were examined for each species by location and year also considering fish weight and length. In the immediate oil sands area of the Athabasca River, mercury concentrations decreased (p < 0.001) in walleye and lake whitefish over 1984-2011. In western Lake Athabasca and its delta, mercury concentrations decreased (p < 0.0001) in northern pike (1981-2009) although no trend was evident for walleye (1981-2005) and lake trout (1978-2009). Mercury concentrations in lake trout from Namur Lake, a small lake west of the oil sands area, were higher in 2007 than 2000 (p < 0.0001); it is difficult to ascribe this increase to an oil sands impact because similar increases in mercury concentrations have been observed in lake trout from similar sized lakes in the Northwest Territories. While mercury emissions rates have increased with oil sands development and the landscape become more disturbed, mercury concentrations remained low in water and sediments in the Athabasca River and its tributaries and similar to concentrations observed outside the development areas and in earlier decades. Our fish database was assembled from a series of studies that differed in study purpose, design, and analytical methods. Future monitoring programs investigating mercury trends in fish should be more rigorous

  15. Evaluation of Common Angling-Induced Sources of Epithelial Damage for Popular Freshwater Sport Fish using Fluorescein

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Cooke, Steven J.

    2011-05-01

    Angling is a popular recreational activity across the globe and a large proportion of fish captured by anglers are released due to voluntary or mandatory catch-and-release practices. The handling associated with hook removal and return of the fish to their environment can cause physical damage to the epidermal layer of the fish which may affect the condition and survival of released fish. This study investigated possible sources of epithelial damage associated with several different handling methods (i.e. landing net types, interactions with different boat floor surfaces, tournament procedures) commonly used in recreational angling for two popular freshwater sport fish species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Epithelial damage was examined using fluorescein, a non-toxic dye, which has been shown to detect latent epithelial damage. Northern pike exhibited extensive epithelial damage after exposure to several of the induced treatments (i.e., interaction with a carpeted surface, knotted nylon net, and line rolling) but relatively little epithelial damage when exposed to others (i.e., knotless rubber nets, smooth boat surfaces, or lip gripping devices). Largemouth bass did not show significant epithelial damage for any of the treatments, with the exception of fish caught in a semi-professional live release tournament. The detection of latent injuries using fluorescein can be an important management tool as it provides visual examples of potential damage that can be caused by different handling methods. Such visualizations can be used to encourage fish friendly angler behaviour and enhance the survival and welfare of released fish. It can also be used to test new products that are intended to or claim to reduce injury to fish that are to be released. Future research should evaluate the relationship between different levels of epithelial damage and mortality across a range of environmental conditions.

  16. Cross-species comparison of relative potencies and relative sensitivities of fishes to dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in vitro.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Bryanna K; Doering, Jon A; Beitel, Shawn C; Wiseman, Steve; Raine, Jason C; Hecker, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Dioxin-like compounds of varying toxicities are found in complex mixtures. The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach was developed based on the potency of a dioxin-like compound relative to the potency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to streamline risk assessment. One limitation of the TEF approach is uncertainty regarding differences in the relative potency of dioxin-like compounds among different species. Relative potencies among fishes are limited, relative to relative potencies among birds and mammals, and TEFs for fishes are based entirely on the model species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). An in vitro liver explant assay was used to characterize species-specific responses with regard to up-regulation of CYP1A transcript after exposure to 6 dioxin-like compounds in rainbow trout, white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Differences in sensitivities were observed among species after exposure to dioxin-like compounds. The relative potencies developed from liver explants of rainbow trout were comparable to relative potencies developed from embryo toxicity assays. Differences in relative potencies between species with the least and greatest relative potencies were up to 40-fold. To compare relative potencies among species, concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in fish eggs in the Fraser River and in Lake Ontario were used to calculate toxic equivalency quotients (TEQs) determined from TEFs or TCDD equivalents determined from relative potencies. The TEQs underestimated TCDD equivalents for white sturgeon, lake sturgeon, and northern pike, indicating uncertainty in application of TEFs to diverse fishes.

  17. mGluR5 stimulating Homer–PIKE formation initiates icariin induced cardiomyogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells by activating reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Limin; Huang, Yujie; Zhang, Yingying; Zhao, Qingwei; Zheng, Bei; Lou, Yijia; Zhu, Danyan

    2013-06-10

    Icariin (ICA) has been reported to facilitate cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells; however, the mechanism by which ICA induced cardiomyogenesis has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, an underlying signaling network including metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), Homer, phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Enhancer (PIKE), phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) was investigated in ICA induced cardiomyogenesis. Our results showed that the co-expression of mGluR5 together with α-actinin or Troponin T in embryoid bodies (EBs) treated with ICA was elevated to 10.86% and 9.62%, compared with the case in the control (4.04% and 3.45%, respectively). Exposure of EBs to ICA for 2 h remarkably increased the dimeric form of mGluR5, which was inhibited by small interfering RNA targeting mGluR5 (si-mGluR5). Moreover, the extracellular glutamate concentration in ICA treatment medium was elevated to 28.9±3.5 μM. Furthermore, the activation of mGluR5 by ICA triggered the formation of Homer–PIKE complex and activated PI3K, stimulating ROS generation and NF-κB nuclear translocation. Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 blocked ICA induced cardiomyogenesis via repressing mGluR5 pathway, reducing ROS and NF-κB activation. These results revealed that the inducible mechanisms of ICA were related to activate mGluR5 pathway. -- Highlights: • ICA increased mGluR5 expression in cardiac differentiation of ES cells. • ICA enhanced the glutamate level and the receptor mGluR5 dimerization, stimulating the formation of Homer–PIKE complex. • Knockdown of mGluR5 or inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 inhibited ICA induced ROS generation and NF-κB nuclear translocation.

  18. Geohydrology of, and nitrogen and chloride in, the glacial aquifer, Milford-Matamoras area, Pike County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The glacial aquifer that underlies the Routes 209 and 6 corridor between Milford and Matamoras, Pa., is one of the most productive in Pike County. The aquifer is comprised of unconsolidated glacial outwash and kame-terrace deposits that lie within a glacially carved valley now occupied by the Delaware River. Most businesses and residences along this narrow, 7-mile-long corridor rely on individual wells for water supply and septic systems for waste-water disposal. A study of nutrients and chloride in ground water in the glacial aquifer was conducted to determine the effect of these constituents contributed from septic systems and road runoff on ground-water quality. Sources of nutrients and chloride in the recharge zone upgradient of the aquifer include road and parking-lot runoff, septic systems, and precipitation. Nitrate and chloride from these sources can infiltrate and move in the direction of ground-water flow in the saturated zone of the aquifer. A water-table map based on 29 water levels measured in August 1991 indicates that the direction of ground-water flow is from the edges of the valley toward t he Delaware River but is nearly parallel to the Delaware River in the central area of the valley. The average concentrations of nitrogen and chloride in recharge and total annual loads of nitrogen and chloride to ground water were estimated for six areas with different population densities. These estimates assumed a recharge rate to the glacial aquifer of 20 inches per year and a 15 percent loss of chloride and nitrogen in the atmospheric precipitation to surface runoff. The estimated average concentration of nitrogen in recharge ranged from 2.5 to 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter), which corresponds to a total annual load of nitrogen as ammonium released from septic tanks and present in precipitation was oxidized to nitrate as the dominant nitrogen species in ground water. Contributions of nitrogen from septic tanks were greater than contributions from runoff

  19. Pike and salmon as sister taxa: detailed intraclade resolution and divergence time estimation of Esociformes + Salmoniformes based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Matthew A; López, J Andrés; Sado, Tetsuya; Miya, Masaki

    2013-11-01

    The increasing number of taxa and loci in molecular phylogenetic studies of basal euteleosts has brought stability in a controversial area. A key emerging aspect to these studies is a sister Esociformes (pike) and Salmoniformes (salmon) relationship. We evaluate mitochondrial genome support for a sister Esociformes and Salmoniformes hypothesis by surveying many potential outgroups for these taxa, employing multiple phylogenetic approaches, and utilizing a thorough sampling scheme. Secondly, we conduct a simultaneous divergence time estimation and phylogenetic inference in a Bayesian framework with fossil calibrations focusing on relationships within Esociformes+Salmoniformes. Our dataset supports a sister relationship between Esociformes and Salmoniformes; however the nearest relatives of Esociformes+Salmoniformes are inconsistent among analyses. Within the order Esociformes, we advocate for a single family, Esocidae. Subfamily relationships within Salmonidae are poorly supported as Salmoninae sister to Thymallinae+Coregoninae.

  20. Water quality, hydrology, and the effects of changes in phosphorus loading to Pike Lake, Washington County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on inlet-to-outlet short-circuiting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, William J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Mergener, Elizabeth A.

    2004-01-01

    Simulations using water-quality models within the Wisconsin Lake Model Suite (WiLMS) indicated Pike Lake's response to 13 different phosphorus-loading scenarios. These scenarios included a base 'normal' year (2000) for which lake water quality and loading were known, six different percentage increases or decreases in phosphorus loading from controllable sources, and six different loading scenarios corresponding to specific management actions. Model simulations indicate that a 50-percent reduction in controllable loading sources would be needed to achieve a mesotrophic classification with respect to phosphorus, chlorophyll a, and Secchi depth (an index of water clarity). Model simulations indicated that short-circuiting of phosphorus from the inlet to the outlet was the main reason the water quality of the lake is good relative to the amount of loading from the Rubicon River and that changes in the percentage of inlet-to-outlet short-circuiting have a significant influence on the water quality of the lake.

  1. Geochemical Characterization of Mine Waste, Mine Drainage, and Stream Sediments at the Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site, Orange County, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Kiah, Richard G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Adams, Monique; Anthony, Michael W.; Briggs, Paul H.; Jackson, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The Pike Hill Copper Mine Superfund Site in the Vermont copper belt consists of the abandoned Smith, Eureka, and Union mines, all of which exploited Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits. The site was listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List in 2004 due to aquatic ecosystem impacts. This study was intended to be a precursor to a formal remedial investigation by the USEPA, and it focused on the characterization of mine waste, mine drainage, and stream sediments. A related study investigated the effects of the mine drainage on downstream surface waters. The potential for mine waste and drainage to have an adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems, on drinking- water supplies, and to human health was assessed on the basis of mineralogy, chemical concentrations, acid generation, and potential for metals to be leached from mine waste and soils. The results were compared to those from analyses of other Vermont copper belt Superfund sites, the Elizabeth Mine and Ely Copper Mine, to evaluate if the waste material at the Pike Hill Copper Mine was sufficiently similar to that of the other mine sites that USEPA can streamline the evaluation of remediation technologies. Mine-waste samples consisted of oxidized and unoxidized sulfidic ore and waste rock, and flotation-mill tailings. These samples contained as much as 16 weight percent sulfides that included chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. During oxidation, sulfides weather and may release potentially toxic trace elements and may produce acid. In addition, soluble efflorescent sulfate salts were identified at the mines; during rain events, the dissolution of these salts contributes acid and metals to receiving waters. Mine waste contained concentrations of cadmium, copper, and iron that exceeded USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goals. The concentrations of selenium in mine waste were higher than the average composition of eastern United States soils. Most mine waste was

  2. Predation on ruffe by native fishes of the St. Louis River Estuary, Lake Superior, 1989-1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogle, Derek H.; Selgeby, James H.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Newman, Raymond M.; Henry, Mary G.

    1996-01-01

    The ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus, an exotic Eurasian percid, recently became established in the St. Louis River estuary, Lake Superior, after accidental introduction. Management actions (catch regulations and stockings) were enacted in 1989 to increase the density of top-level predators in the estuary, and thus to increase predation on ruffe. We conducted a field and laboratory study to determine if, and to what extent, native piscivores consume ruffe. Stomachs of 3,669 predators were examined in 1989–1991. Ruffe occurred in 6.7% of burbot Lota lota, 5.8% of bullheads Ictalurus spp., 4.7% of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, 2.6% of northern pike Esox lucius, 2.6% of black crappiesPomoxis nigromaculatus, and 1.3% of yellow perch Perca flavescens (4.5% after 1989) captured during the 3-year study. No ruffe were found in 967 stomachs of walleyesStizostedion vitreum examined. Ruffe were 22.7%, of the diet (by weight) of bullheads (during the only year bullheads were captured) and 0.1–17.9% of the diet of northern pike. Ruffe were 0.9–24.5% of the diet of smallmouth bass that contained fish, 1.5–6.9% of yellow perch that contained fish, and 0.0–10.9% of black crappies that contained fish. Most ruffe eaten were age-0 or small age- 1 fish. In the laboratory, walleyes that were first fed soft-rayed prey or that were also offered soft-rayed prey consumed very few ruffe, whereas walleyes that were first fed spiny-rayed yellow perch or were also offered yellow perch consumed about equal numbers of ruffe and yellow perch. Northern pike and burbot consumed about equal numbers of ruffe and yellow perch in the laboratory. It is unlikely that predation will effectively control the initial expansion of ruffe in other areas of the Great Lakes because native predators initially consume few ruffe, especially if more preferred soft-rayed prey are available.

  3. Petrology and geochemistry of late-stage intrusions of the A-type, mid-Proterozoic Pikes Peak batholith (Central Colorado, USA): Implications for petrogenetic models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Noblett, J.; Wobus, R.A.; Unruh, D.; Douglass, J.; Beane, R.; Davis, C.; Goldman, S.; Kay, G.; Gustavson, B.; Saltoun, B.; Stewart, J.

    1999-01-01

    The ~1.08 Ga anorogenic, A-type Pikes Peak batholith (Front Range, central Colorado) is dominated by coarse-grained, biotite ?? amphibole syenogranites and minor monzogranites, collectively referred to as Pikes Peak granite (PPG). The batholith is also host to numerous small, late-stage plutons that have been subdivided into two groups (e.g. Wobus, 1976. Studies in Colorado Field Geology, Colorado School of Mines Professional Contributions, Colorado): (1) a sodic series (SiO2= ~44-78 wt%; K/Na=0.32-1.36) composed of gabbro, diabase, syenite/quartz syenite and fayalite and sodic amphibole granite; and (2) a potassic series (SiO2= ~ 70-77 wt%; K/Na=0.95-2.05), composed of biotite granite and minor quartz monzonite. Differences in major and trace element and Nd isotopic characteristics for the two series indicate different petrogenetic histories. Potassic granites of the late-stage intrusions appear to represent crustal anatectic melts derived from tonalite sources, based on comparison of their major element compositions with experimental melt products. In addition, Nd isotopic characteristics of the potassic granites [??(Nd)(1.08 Ga) = -0.2 to -2.7] overlap with those for tonalites/granodiorites [ca 1.7 Ga Boulder Creek intrusions; ??(Nd)(1.08 Ga) = -2.4 to -3.6] exposed in the region. Some of the partial melts evolved by fractionation dominated by feldspar. The late-stage potassic granites share geochemical characteristics with most of the PPG, which is also interpreted to have an anatectic origin involving tonalitic crust. The origin of monzogranites associated with the PPG remains unclear, but mixing between granitic and mafic or intermediate magmas is a possibility. Syenites and granites of the sodic series cannot be explained as crustal melts, but are interpreted as fractionation products of mantle-derived mafic magmas with minor crustal input. High temperature and low oxygen fugacity estimates (e.g. Frost et al., 1988. American Mineralogist 73, 727-740) support

  4. Estimated probabilities and volumes of postwildfire debris flows—A prewildfire evaluation for the Pikes Peak area, El Paso and Teller Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, John G.; Ruddy, Barbara C.; Verdin, Kristine L.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast-moving, high-density slurries of water, sediment, and debris that can have enormous destructive power. Although debris flows, triggered by intense rainfall or rapid snowmelt on steep hillsides covered with erodible material, are a common geomorphic process in some unburned areas, a wildfire can transform conditions in a watershed with no recent history of debris flows into conditions that pose a substantial hazard to residents, communities, infrastructure, aquatic habitats, and water supply. The location, extent, and severity of wildfire and the subsequent rainfall intensity and duration cannot be known in advance; however, hypothetical scenarios based on empirical debris-flow models are useful planning tools for conceptualizing potential postwildfire debris flows. A prewildfire study to determine the potential for postwildfire debris flows in the Pikes Peak area in El Paso and Teller Counties, Colorado, was initiated in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities. The study was conducted to provide a relative measure of which subwatersheds might constitute the most serious potential debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall.

  5. Body burden contaminants in whole fish tissue and livers from the Slave River (NWT)

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, L.H.; Stephens, G.R.; Peddle, J.; Lafontaine, C.; Whittle, D.M.; Harbicht, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Slave River Environmental Monitoring Program was established in 1990 to assess whether the commercial and subsistence fisheries in the region were being impacted by downstream transport and subsequent bioaccumulation of contaminants in the fish. Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), northern pike (Esox lucius), burbot (Lota lota), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and longnose suckers (Catostomus catostomus) were collected in the Slave River at Fort Smith (NWT) and whole fish tissue was evaluated for contaminant accumulation. Due to their high lipid concentration and their importance as food source, burbot livers were also analyzed. A broad organochlorine scan was conducted for selected dioxins and furans, total PCB concentrations and individual congeners, pesticide residues such as DDT and its metabolites, dieldrin, lindane, mirex, and toxaphene. Also, PAHs, and various chlorinated phenolics such as chlorophenols, chlorocatechols, and chloroguaiacols were also examined. Although contaminants were detected in the fish, concentrations generally were minimal. Levels of total PCBs in whole fish tissue ranged from 0.006 to 0.08 mg/kg, while average concentrations in burbot livers were 0.23 mg/kg. The toxic dioxin isomer 2,3,7,8-TCDD was detected once in whole fish tissue (walleye) at levels of 0.86 pg/g, while concentrations in burbot livers ranged from 1.2 to 9.96 pg/g. Higher levels of TCDD (11.4 pg/g) were noted in fish caught at the reference site Chitty/Alexie Lake, although this body of water has no known sources of dioxins and furans. The presence of these compounds indicates a long-range transport and deposition mechanism. Toxaphene concentrations in fish averaged 0.3 mg/kg, while concentrations of p,p{prime}-DDE ranged from 0.001 to 0.008 mg/kg over the monitoring period. Levels of PAHs and chlorinated phenolics were generally below analytical detection limits, as were most of the pesticide residues.

  6. Transferability of predictive fish distribution models in two coastal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundblad, Göran; Härmä, Meri; Lappalainen, Antti; Urho, Lauri; Bergström, Ulf

    2009-06-01

    Species distribution modelling has emerged as a tool both for exploring niche theory and for producing distribution maps for management. To understand and predict potential effects of large scale habitat change there is a need for proper model validation and applicability also in unstudied areas. However, knowledge about factors influencing the transferability of distribution models, i.e. the accuracy of the models when applying them in a new geographical area, is limited. We have successfully modelled the larval distribution of two fish species, northern pike ( Esox lucius L.) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus L.), on a regional scale in the Baltic Sea using a few and easily measured environmental variables. When models were transferred from the training area to the testing area the models showed reasonable to very good discrimination (ROC 0.75 and 0.93) based on external validation using independent data separated also in time (1-2 years). The predicted larval distribution also overlapped with the distribution of young-of-the-year fish later in the season. Performance when reversing the transfer, by constructing the models in the testing area and predicting back to the original training area, was less successful. This discrepancy was species-specific and could be explained by differences in the species presence ranges along the predictor variables in the testing area compared to the training area. Our results illustrate how transferability success can be influenced by area-specific differences in the range of the predictor variables and show the necessity of validating model predictions properly.

  7. Bioaccumulation of metals in sediments, fish and plant from Tisza river (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štrbac, Snežana; Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Vasić, Nebojša; Jovančićević, Branimir; Simonović, Predrag

    2014-05-01

    In the aquatic environments metals originate from various natural and anthropogenic sources. The purpose of the study was to assess the bioaccumulation level of metals in sediments fish and common reed at four different localities of the Tisza River stretch in Serbia. For purpose of this study concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were determined in sediment, common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. 1841) and four ecologically different fish species (piscivorous northern pike (Esox lucius L.), benthivorous sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) silver bream (Brama brama L.), omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)). Analysis of metals was carried out for liver, gills, brain, testicles and ovaries in fish and in the rhizome, stem and leaves of the common reed and sediment fraction <0,0063mm. The concentrations of metals have been assessed using the Inductively Coupled Plasma - optical emission spectrometry. Obtained results revealed that Al and Fe had the highest concentrations in sediment, fish and common reed samples. The research proved a strong positive correlation between the concentrations of all metals in the sediment, fish and common reed. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in omnivorous common carp Cyprinus carpio, and organs that the most intensively accumulated the greatest number of them were liver and gills. Accumulated metals in the common reed were not distributed evenly, but there are target organs for bioaccumulation. Concentrations in below-ground organs were usually higher than above-ground organs, and the general decreasing trend of element content was rhizome>leaves>stems. Obtained results indicate that the location does not have impact to the level of bioaccumulation. On the basis of this research the under-ground organ (rhizome) of common reed, liver and gills and omnivorous fish species could be recommended as environmental indicators for the presence of metals during

  8. The effect of high pH on ion balance, nitrogen excretion and behaviour in freshwater fish from an eutrophic lake: a laboratory and field study.

    PubMed

    Scott, Dawn M; Lucas, Martyn C; Wilson, Rod W

    2005-06-01

    Slapton Ley is a freshwater hyper-eutrophic lake of two basins connected by a narrow channel. One part of the lake experiences summer blooms of cyanobacteria and poor water quality, including elevated water pH (maximum pH recorded=10.54), the other part is shaded by reed beds, and remains clear and neutral. This study used laboratory and field physiological measurements together with radio-tracking to investigate the potential impacts of alkaline pH on the physiology and behaviour of fish from Slapton Ley. Exposure of perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Slapton Ley to pH 9.50 water in the laboratory caused an immediate inhibition of sodium uptake and ammonia excretion to 34 and 32% of control levels, respectively. Net sodium balance recovered by day 3 of exposure whereas ammonia excretion only partially recovered to 60-70% of the control value from 8 h onwards. Urea excretion did not increase as a result of high pH exposure. Fish from the alkaline part of the lake (pH 9.90) had almost three-fold greater plasma ammonia compared to fish from neutral waters, indicating a pronounced disruption of ammonia excretion in the field. There was no significant disturbance to plasma sodium, chloride or total protein in fish sampled from the alkaline water of Slapton Ley. The radio-tracking provided no evidence of adult perch and pike (Esox lucius) trying to seek refuge from the alkaline conditions, despite having access to adjacent parts of the lake with neutral pH. It seems likely that there are advantages (e.g. better foraging, less predation) of withstanding the high pH conditions that outweigh the benefit of moving into more pH neutral parts of the lake.

  9. Mercury content in the trophic chain of the Tanew River, Poland, ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Wałkuska, Grazyna; Chałabis-Mazurek, Agnieszka; Szkoda, Józef

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic metal posing a hazard to water ecosystems. This investigation was aimed at determining Hg content in the Tanew River, Poland, and subsequent transfer to fish inhabiting this lake. The area studied included approximately a 50-km distance of the river, with 5 sampling locations selected. Samples of water and bottom sediments were collected from 10 sites along the river-bank zone for each location. At the same location, fish were caught and samples of coastal water plants were collected. Fish that were caught included the following species: chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), ide (Leuciscus idus), and roach (Rutilus rutilus). Dominanting species of water plants included reed-mace (Typha angustifolia), rigid hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum), and water knotweed (Polygonum amphibium). Mercury content in samples of water, bottom sediments, water plants, and fish tissues (muscles and gills) were determined by using a Mercury/MA-2000 system (NIC, Japan). The average Hg content in the waters of Tanew ranged between 1 and 5 microg/L, and in the bottom sediments ranged between 17 and 214 microg/kg dry weight, which are characteristic values for typical unpolluted areas. The highest Hg contamination of waters and bottom sediments was found where the Tanew estuary enters the San River. Mercury levels in fish from the Tanew delta appeared to be higher compared to other sampling sites. Data indicated that even if water environment is contaminated with Hg to a limited extent, fish accumulate this metal at higher levels, probably due to a bioaccumulation or bioconcentration factor.

  10. Microwave-assisted double insert vapour-phase digestion of organic samples.

    PubMed

    Eilola, Keijo; Perämäki, Paavo

    2009-02-23

    A microwave-assisted double insert multimode vapour-phase digestion method was developed for the digestion of organic samples. The experimental set-up was based on a third generation-type teflon microwave vessel, equipped with an automatic pressure regulating type vessel cover. A borosilicate glass holder insert, containing a smaller quartz sample insert, was fitted inside the vessel. Sulphuric acid was added to the holder insert as a microwave absorbing and temperature transferring liquid, which transferred heat to the sample insert (into which the sample was weighed) and charred the sample material. Oxidation of the sample material was carried out simultaneously with charring using nitric acid vapour, which was generated by the 1:1 (v/v) sulphuric acid-nitric acid mixture located in the bottom of the microwave vessel. This set-up generated high digestion efficiency, without any of the interferences normally associated with direct sulphuric acid usage. The method was used for determining the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Zn and Fe in certified organic reference materials using ICP-OES instrumentation. The certified organic reference materials were NRCC DOLT-2 dogfish liver, NIST-SRM 1577b bovine liver and IRMM VDA cadmium in polyethylene No. 001 and No. 004. The results were in good agreement with the certified values, forepart from Cd. For Cd the results were lower than the certified values due to volatilization losses. Sample materials that could not be digested by an earlier procedure were completely digested during a single-step, 30 min digestion. The tested sample materials included certified reference materials, 3-nitrobenzoic acid (3-NBA) and pike (Esox lucius) muscle. The residual carbon concentrations in the digestion solutions were below the detection limit of the TOC instrument. This type of digestion method is described here for the first time in the literature.

  11. Natural, social, economical and political influences on fisheries: a review of the transitional area of the Polish waters of the Vistula Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Psuty, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    A 60 year (1948-2007) dataset gathered by Polish researchers working on the Vistula Lagoon fish assemblages and fisheries has shown this stressed transitional environment to be always been dominated by a few highly abundant fish species. During this period, the surrounding countries Poland and Russia (Kaliningrad) were transformed from centrally-planned economies with fixed prices to free market systems. The organization of the fishery evolved from one in which the majority of the fishing effort was expended by cooperatives, to one which was characterized by individual economic activity. The fishing gear deployed also evolved from cotton to monofilament, as well as from large sailing vessels with small-sized pair trawls to fyke nets targeting eel (Anguilla anguilla) and pound nets targeting herring (Clupea harengus). Small-sized gillnets targeting perch (Perca fluviatilis) grew in popularity as eel and pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) catches decreased. Cooperation between Polish and Russian fishery managers began in 1952 with the aim of implementing joint agreements to establish protection guidelines. The substantial nutrient loads into the lagoon in 1970 and 1980 put very large pressure on the environment, and contributed to the loss of macrophytes as well as the development of non-commercial fish populations. One of the consequences of these changes was the rapid growth of a black cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) breeding colony. These multi-faceted changes are considered to be the factors that have influenced the exploitation of fish assemblages in the Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon. The most evident change in the fish assemblage structure during the study period was the permanent decrease in the basin's top predators--pike (Esox lucius) and pikeperch. Eel stocking was initiated in 1970 following a crucial decline in yield from natural recruitment, and stocking was successful in increasing eel abundance.

  12. Comparative toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to seven freshwater fish species during early life-stage development

    SciTech Connect

    Elonen, G.E.; Spehar, R.L.; Holcombe, G.W.; Johnson, R.D.; Fernandez, J.D.; Erickson, R.J.; Tietge, J.E.; Cook, P.M.

    1998-03-01

    The toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), lake herring (Coregonus artedii), medaka (Oryzias latipes), white sucker (Catastomus commersoni), northern pike (Esox lucius), and zebrafish (Danio danio) were observed during early life-stage development after waterborne exposure of fertilized eggs. Species sensitivity based on TCDD-C{sub egg} (TCDD concentration in eggs) was determined by effects observed over a 32-d period for all species except lake herring in which a 100-d period was used. Signs of TCDD toxicity, including edema, hemorrhaging, and craniofacial malformations were essentially identical to those observed in salmonids following TCDD egg exposure and preceded or accompanied mortality most often during the period from hatch through swim-up. The no-observed-effect concentrations and lowest-observed-effect concentrations, based on significant decreases in survival and growth as compared to the controls, ranged from 175 and 270 pg/g for lake herring to 424 and 2,000 pg/g for zebrafish, respectively. Shapes of concentration-response curves, expressed as TCDD-C{sub egg} versus percent mortality, were similar for all species and were consistently steep suggesting that the mechanism of action of TCDD is the same among these species. The LC{sub egg}50s ranged from 539 pg/g for the fathead minnow to 2,610 pg/g for zebrafish. Comparisons of LC{sub egg}50s indicate that the tested species were approximately 8 to 38 times less sensitive to TCDD than lake trout, the most sensitive species evaluated to date. When LC{sub egg}50s are normalized to the fraction lipid in eggs (LC{sub egg,f}50s), the risk to early life stage survival for the species tested ranges from 16- to 180-fold less than for lake trout.

  13. Late Pleistocene fishes of the Tennessee River Basin: an analysis of a late Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2) in Colbert County, Alabama, USA

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Jun A.; Dickinson, William C.; Ciampaglio, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    The Tennessee River Basin is considered one of the most important regions for freshwater biodiversity anywhere on the globe. The Tennessee River Basin currently includes populations of at least half of the described contemporary diversity of extant North American freshwater fishes, crayfish, mussel, and gastropod species. However, comparatively little is known about the biodiversity of this basin from the Pleistocene Epoch, particularly the late Pleistocene (∼10,000 to 30,000 years B.P.) leading to modern Holocene fish diversity patterns. The objective of this study was to describe the fish assemblages of the Tennessee River Basin from the late Pleistocene using a series of faunas from locales throughout the basin documented from published literature, unpublished reports, and an undocumented fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2, Colbert County, AL). Herein we discuss 41 unequivocal taxa from 10 late Pleistocene localities within the basin and include a systematic discussion of 11 families, 19 genera, and 24 identifiable species (28 unequivocal taxa) specific to the Bell Cave locality. Among the described fauna are several extirpated (e.g., Northern Pike Esox lucius, Northern Madtom Noturus stigmosus) and a single extinct (Harelip Sucker Moxostoma lacerum) taxa that suggest a combination of late Pleistocene displacement events coupled with more recent changes in habitat that have resulted in modern basin diversity patterns. The Bell Cave locality represents one of the most intact Pleistocene freshwater fish deposits anywhere in North America. Significant preservational, taphonomic, sampling, and identification biases preclude the identification of additional taxa. Overall, this study provides a detailed look into paleo-river ecology, as well as freshwater fish diversity and distribution leading up to the contemporary biodiversity patterns of the Tennessee River Basin and Mississippi River Basin as a whole. PMID:26855876

  14. Survival of cool and warm freshwater fish following chloramine-T exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Larson, W.J.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Chloramine-T is presently available in the USA to control mortalities associated with bacterial gill disease or external columnaris only through an Investigational New Animal Drug Permit authorized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Its US approval hinges on FDA's acceptance of several key data, including those describing animal safety. Chloramine-T is presently applied in US aquaculture, by permit only, once daily on consecutive or alternate days for 1??h at 10 to 20??mg/L to control mortalities associated with bacterial gill disease or external columnaris. Our objective was to determine the safety of chloramine-T bath exposures at multiples of the proposed maximum treatment concentration (i.e., 0, 20, 60, 100, and 200??mg/L) administered on four consecutive days at 20????C to lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens, northern pike Esox lucius, and walleye Sander vitreum, or at 27????C to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. All fish were tested as five to eight week old fry except for walleye and channel catfish which were tested as both fry and fingerling (fingerlings were at least four weeks older than the fry tested). Walleye and channel catfish were selected to evaluate the effects of life stage (fry vs. fingerling), temperature (walleye - 15, 20, or 25????C; channel catfish - 22, 27, or 32????C), exposure duration (60 vs. 180??min), and water chemistry (walleye only - reconstituted soft water vs. well water). Except for channel catfish fry, survival was significantly reduced only when fish were treated at 100 or 200??mg/L. Channel catfish fry survival was significantly reduced when exposed at 60??mg/L for 180??min at 27????C. Based on our mortality data, chloramine-T administered once daily for 60??min on four consecutive days at concentrations of up to 20??mg/L is not likely to adversely affect survival of cool or warmwater fish cultured in freshwater. Crown Copyright ?? 2007.

  15. Invalidity of three Palaearctic species of Triaenophorus tapeworms (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea): evidence from morphometric analysis of scolex hooks.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Roman; Vlcková, Romana; Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Gustinelli, Andrea; Dzika, Ewa; Scholz, Tomaś

    2007-03-01

    A comparative study of the scolex hook morphology of five species of tapeworms of the genus Triaenophorus Rudolphi, 1793 (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea), parasites of pikes (Esox lucius L. and E. reichertii Dybowski) in the Palaearctic Region, was carried out. Measurements of scolex hooks of 81 plerocercoids and 492 adults from different hosts and regions were compared using basic statistics and forward stepwise linear discriminant analysis. The shape of the scolex and that of tridental hooks were found to be suitable only for differentiation of the taxa with a similar shape of hooks, i.e. Triaenophorus nodulosus (Pallas, 1781) from T. amurensis Kuperman, 1968, and T. crassus Forel, 1868 from T. meridionalis Kuperman, 1968 and T. orientalis Kuperman, 1968, respectively. In contrast, discriminant analysis did not enable reliable separation of specimens of individual taxa of these two morphological groups due to high intraspecific variability and overlaps between species. This was reflected in low classification efficiencies (average 83%) of all species of the T. crassus group, whereas all T. amurensis specimens were misidentified as T. nodulosus. The new data also considerably enlarge (up to twofold) the size range of the species described by Kuperman in 1968, which invalidates suitability of the most important discriminant characteristic, the width of the basal plate, for delimitation of Triaenophorus species. Based on the present data, all Kuperman's taxa are considered to represent only distinct geographical populations of T. nodulosus and T. crassus. As a result, T. anmurensis is synonymized with T. nodulosus, whereas T. orientalis is considered to be a synonym of T. crassus. Previous synonymisation of T. ineridionalis with T. crassus, first proposed by Dubinina (1987), is also accepted.

  16. Predicting future changes in Muskegon River Watershed game fish distributions under future land cover alteration and climate change scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steen, Paul J.; Wiley, Michael J.; Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Future alterations in land cover and climate are likely to cause substantial changes in the ranges of fish species. Predictive distribution models are an important tool for assessing the probability that these changes will cause increases or decreases in or the extirpation of species. Classification tree models that predict the probability of game fish presence were applied to the streams of the Muskegon River watershed, Michigan. The models were used to study three potential future scenarios: (1) land cover change only, (2) land cover change and a 3°C increase in air temperature by 2100, and (3) land cover change and a 5°C increase in air temperature by 2100. The analysis indicated that the expected change in air temperature and subsequent change in water temperatures would result in the decline of coldwater fish in the Muskegon watershed by the end of the 21st century while cool- and warmwater species would significantly increase their ranges. The greatest decline detected was a 90% reduction in the probability that brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis would occur in Bigelow Creek. The greatest increase was a 276% increase in the probability that northern pike Esox lucius would occur in the Middle Branch River. Changes in land cover are expected to cause large changes in a few fish species, such as walleye Sander vitreus and Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, but not to drive major changes in species composition. Managers can alter stream environmental conditions to maximize the probability that species will reside in particular stream reaches through application of the classification tree models. Such models represent a good way to predict future changes, as they give quantitative estimates of the n-dimensional niches for particular species.

  17. Late Pleistocene fishes of the Tennessee River Basin: an analysis of a late Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2) in Colbert County, Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Stephen J; Ebersole, Jun A; Dickinson, William C; Ciampaglio, Charles N

    2016-01-01

    The Tennessee River Basin is considered one of the most important regions for freshwater biodiversity anywhere on the globe. The Tennessee River Basin currently includes populations of at least half of the described contemporary diversity of extant North American freshwater fishes, crayfish, mussel, and gastropod species. However, comparatively little is known about the biodiversity of this basin from the Pleistocene Epoch, particularly the late Pleistocene (∼10,000 to 30,000 years B.P.) leading to modern Holocene fish diversity patterns. The objective of this study was to describe the fish assemblages of the Tennessee River Basin from the late Pleistocene using a series of faunas from locales throughout the basin documented from published literature, unpublished reports, and an undocumented fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2, Colbert County, AL). Herein we discuss 41 unequivocal taxa from 10 late Pleistocene localities within the basin and include a systematic discussion of 11 families, 19 genera, and 24 identifiable species (28 unequivocal taxa) specific to the Bell Cave locality. Among the described fauna are several extirpated (e.g., Northern Pike Esox lucius, Northern Madtom Noturus stigmosus) and a single extinct (Harelip Sucker Moxostoma lacerum) taxa that suggest a combination of late Pleistocene displacement events coupled with more recent changes in habitat that have resulted in modern basin diversity patterns. The Bell Cave locality represents one of the most intact Pleistocene freshwater fish deposits anywhere in North America. Significant preservational, taphonomic, sampling, and identification biases preclude the identification of additional taxa. Overall, this study provides a detailed look into paleo-river ecology, as well as freshwater fish diversity and distribution leading up to the contemporary biodiversity patterns of the Tennessee River Basin and Mississippi River Basin as a whole.

  18. Salmonid Chromosome Evolution as Revealed by a Novel Method for Comparing RADseq Linkage Maps

    PubMed Central

    Gosselin, Thierry; Normandeau, Eric; Lamothe, Manuel; Isabel, Nathalie; Audet, Céline; Bernatchez, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome duplication (WGD) can provide material for evolutionary innovation. Family Salmonidae is ideal for studying the effects of WGD as the ancestral salmonid underwent WGD relatively recently, ∼65 Ma, then rediploidized and diversified. Extensive synteny between homologous chromosome arms occurs in extant salmonids, but each species has both conserved and unique chromosome arm fusions and fissions. Assembly of large, outbred eukaryotic genomes can be difficult, but structural rearrangements within such taxa can be investigated using linkage maps. RAD sequencing provides unprecedented ability to generate high-density linkage maps for nonmodel species, but can result in low numbers of homologous markers between species due to phylogenetic distance or differences in library preparation. Here, we generate a high-density linkage map (3,826 markers) for the Salvelinus genera (Brook Charr S. fontinalis), and then identify corresponding chromosome arms among the other available salmonid high-density linkage maps, including six species of Oncorhynchus, and one species for each of Salmo, Coregonus, and the nonduplicated sister group for the salmonids, Northern Pike Esox lucius for identifying post-duplicated homeologs. To facilitate this process, we developed MapComp to identify identical and proximate (i.e. nearby) markers between linkage maps using a reference genome of a related species as an intermediate, increasing the number of comparable markers between linkage maps by 5-fold. This enabled a characterization of the most likely history of retained chromosomal rearrangements post-WGD, and several conserved chromosomal inversions. Analyses of RADseq-based linkage maps from other taxa will also benefit from MapComp, available at: https://github.com/enormandeau/mapcomp/ PMID:28173098

  19. Consumption dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    At Spirit Lake, one of Iowa's most important fisheries, walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) is one of the most popular species with anglers. Despite a century of walleye stocking and management in Spirit Lake, walleye growth rate, size structure, and angler harvest continue to decline. Our purpose was to determine the magnitude and dynamics of walleye population consumption relative to those of other piscivorous species in Spirit Lake, which would allow managers to judge the feasibility of increasing the abundance, growth rate, and size structure of the walleye population. We quantified food consumption by the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake over a 3-year period. Data on population dynamics, diet, energy density, and water temperature from 1995 to 1997 were used in bioenergetics models to estimate total consumption by walleye, yellow perch Perca flavescens, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, and northern pike Esox lucius. Estimated annual consumption by the piscivorous community varied roughly fourfold, ranging from 154,752 kg in 1995 to 662,776 kg in 1997. Walleyes dominated total consumption, accounting for 68, 73, and 90% (1995-1997, respectively) of total food consumption. Walleyes were also the dominant consumers of fish, accounting for 76, 86, and 97% of piscivorous consumption; yellow perch followed, accounting for 16% of piscivorous consumption in 1995 and 12% in 1996. Yellow perch were the predominant fish prey species in all 3 years, accounting for 68, 52, and 36% of the total prey consumed. Natural reproduction is weak, so high walleye densities are maintained by intensive stocking. Walleye stocking drives piscivorous consumption in Spirit Lake, and yearly variation in the cannibalism of stocked walleye fry may be an important determinant of walleye year-class strength and angler success. Reducing walleye stocking intensity, varying stocking

  20. The Pikes Peak batholith, Colorado front range, and a model for the origin of the gabbro-anorthosite-syenite-potassic granite suite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, F.; Wones, D.R.; Sharp, W.N.; Desborough, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    This study of the Pikes Peak batholith includes the mineralogy and petrology of quartz syenite at West Creek and of fayalite-bearing and fayalite-free biotite granite near Mount Rosa; major element chemistry of the batholith; comparisons with similar postorogenic, intracratonic, sodic to potassic intrusives; and genesis of the batholith. The batholith is elongate in plan, 50 by 100 km, composite, and generally subalkalic. It was emplaced at shallow depth 1,040 m. y. ago, sharply transects its walls and may have breached its roof. Biotite granite and biotite-hornblende granite are predominant; quartz syenite, fayalite granite and riebeckite granite are present in minor amounts. Fayalite-bearing and fayalite-free quartz syenite, fayalite-biotite granite and riebeckite granite show a well-defined sodic differentiation trend; the less sodic fayalite-free granites exhibit a broader compositional range and no sharp trends. Crystallization was largely at PH2O < Ptotal; PH2O approached Ptotal only at late stages. Aplite residual to fayalite-free biotite granite in the north formed at about 1,500 bars, or 5 km depth. Feldspar assemblages indicate late stages of crystallization at about 720??C. In the south ilmenite and manganian fayalite indicate fO2 of 10-17 or 10-18 bars. Biotite and fayalite compositions and the 'granite minimum' imply completion of crystallization at about 700??C and 1,500 bars. Nearby fayalite-free biotite granite crystallized at higher water fugacity. All types of syenite and granite contain 5-6% K2O through a range of SiO2 of 63-76%. Average Na2O percentages in quartz syenite are 6.2, fayalite granite 4.2, and fayalite-free granite 3.3 MgO contents are low, 0.03-0.4%; FeO averages 1.9-2.5%. FeO/Fe2O3 ratios are high. Fluorine ranges from 0.3 to 0.6%. The Pikes Peak intrusives are similar in mode of emplacement, composition, and probably genesis to rapakivi intrusives of Finland, the Younger Granites of Nigeria, Cape Ann Granite and Beverly Syenite

  1. Effects of anesthesia and surgery on serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in yellow perch (Perca flavescens), walleye pike (Sander vitreus), and koi (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hanley, Christopher S; Clyde, Victoria L; Wallace, Roberta S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Patterson, Tamatha A; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2010-05-15

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in 3 fish species undergoing surgery and to compare blood lactate concentrations between fish that survived and those that died during the short-term postoperative period. DESIGN-Prospective cohort study. Animals-10 yellow perch, 5 walleye pike, and 8 koi. PROCEDURES-Blood samples were collected from each fish at 3 time points: before anesthesia, during anesthesia, and immediately after surgery. Blood gas values and blood lactate concentrations were measured. Fish were monitored for 2 weeks postoperatively. RESULTS-All walleye and koi survived, but 2 perch died. Blood pH significantly decreased in perch from before to during anesthesia, but increased back to preanesthesia baseline values after surgery. Blood Pco(2) decreased significantly in perch from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery, and also from during anesthesia to immediately after surgery, whereas blood Pco(2) decreased significantly in koi from before to during anesthesia. Blood Po(2) increased significantly in both perch and koi from before to during anesthesia, and also in koi from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery. For all 3 species, blood lactate concentrations increased significantly from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery. Blood lactate concentration (mean +/- SD) immediately after surgery for the 8 surviving perch was 6.06 +/- 1.47 mmol/L, which was significantly lower than blood lactate concentrations in the 2 nonsurviving perch (10.58 and 10.72 mmol/L). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-High blood lactate concentrations following surgery in fish may be predictive of a poor short-term postoperative survival rate.

  2. X-ray scattering study of pike olfactory nerve: intensity of the axonal membrane, solution of the phase problem and electron density profile.

    PubMed

    Luzzati, Vittorio; Vachette, Patrice; Benoit, Evelyne; Charpentier, Gilles

    2004-10-08

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering experiments were performed on unmyelinated pike olfactory nerves. The difference between the meridional and the equatorial traces of the 2-D spectra yielded the 1-D equatorial intensity of the macromolecular components oriented with respect to the nerve: axonal membranes, microtubules and other cytoskeletal filaments. These 1-D spectra display a diffuse band typical of bilayer membranes and, at small s, a few sharper bands reminiscent of microtubules. All the spectra merge at large s. The intensity of the axonal membrane was determined via a noise analysis of the nerve-dependent spectra, involving also the notion that the thickness of the membrane is finite. The shape of the intensity function indicated that the electron density profile is not centrosymmetric. The knowledge of intensity and thickness paved the way to the electron density profile via an ab initio solution of the phase problem. An iterative procedure was adopted: (i) choose the lattice D of a 1-D pseudo crystal, interpolate the intensity at the points sh = h/D, adopt an arbitrary set of initial phases and compute the profile; (ii) determine the phases corresponding to this profile truncated by the thickness D/2; (iii) repeat the operation with the updated phases until a stable result is obtained. This iterative procedure was carried out for different D-values, starting in each case from randomly generated phases: stable results were obtained in less than 10,000 iterations. Most importantly, for D in the vicinity of 200 A, the overwhelming majority of the profiles were congruent with each other. These profiles were strongly asymmetric and otherwise typical of biological membranes.

  3. Water-quality data for the Ohio River from New Cumberland Dam to Pike Island Dam, West Virginia and Ohio, June-November 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Kimberly F.; Faulkenburg, C.W.; Chambers, D.B.; Waldron, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains water-quality data for the Ohio River, collected during the summer and fall of 1992, from river mile 51.1 (3.3 miles upstream from New Cumberland Dam) to river mile 84.0 (0.2 miles upstream from Pike Island Dam). The data were collected to assess the effects of hydropower development on water quality. Water quality was determined by a combination of repeated synoptic field measurements and laboratory analyses. Synoptic measurements were made along a longitudinal transect with 18 mid-channel sampling sites; cross-sectional transects of water quality were measured at 5 of these sites. Water-quality measurements also were made at two sites located on the back-channel (Ohio) side of Browns Island. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and specific conductance were measured at each longitudinal-transect and back-channel sampling site. Longitudinal-transect and back-channel stations were sampled at three depths (about 3.3 feet below the surface of the water, middle of the water column, and near the bottom of the river). Cross-sectional transects consisted of three or four detailed vertical pro- files of the same characteristics. Water samples were collected from three depths at the mid-channel vertical profile in each cross-sectional transect and were analyzed for concentrations of phyto- plankton photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Estimates of the depth of light penetration (Secchi disk transparency) were made at pigment-sampling locations whenever light and river-surface conditions were appropriate. Synoptic sampling usually was completed in 12 hours or less and was repeated seven times between June 25 and November 6, 1992.

  4. Prolongation of somitogenesis in two anguilliform species, the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica and pike eel Muraenesox cinereus, with refined descriptions of their early development.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, T; Yamada, Y; Tanaka, S; Tsukamoto, K

    2017-01-18

    The embryonic development of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica and pike eel Muraenesox cinereus was morphologically investigated with laboratory-reared specimens to clarify the characteristics of somitogenesis. In A. japonica, somites were first observed at 18 h post fertilization (hpf) when epiboly reached 90%. Somitogenesis progressed at a rate of 1·6 h(-1) at mean ± s.d. 22·6 ± 0·7° C and completed at 107 hpf (3 days post hatching; dph) when total number of somites (ST) reached 114, which corresponds to the species' number of vertebrae (112-119). In M. cinereus, somites were first observed at 14 hpf when epiboly completed. Somitogenesis progressed at a rate of 1·9 h(-1) at mean ± s.d. 24·4 ± 0·2° C and completed at 90 hpf (2 dph) with 149 ± 4 ST, which corresponds to the species' number of vertebrae (142-158). Both species hatched before somitogenesis was completed, at 37 hpf with 47 ST and 42 hpf with 82 ± 4 ST, respectively. The formation of other organs such as the heart, mouth and pectoral fin bud occurred during somitogenesis. Comparison with the development of zebrafish Danio rerio indicates a prolongation of somitogenesis in A. japonica and M. cinereus. Their somitogenesis rates, however, correspond well with that of D. rerio estimated at the same temperature and their developmental stages at hatching are almost equivalent to other fishes having similar yolk sizes. Therefore, the prolongation of somitogenesis in A. japonica and M. cinereus may be accounted for solely by the increased numbers of somites to be formed, not by a slow somitogenesis rate or an acceleration in organogenesis.

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their methoxylated derivatives in pike from Swedish waters with emphasis on temporal trends, 1967-2000.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, A; Bignert, A; Sellström, U; Olsson, M; Asplund, L; Jansson, B; De Wit, C A

    2004-07-01

    Temporal trends of five tetra- to hexabromodiphenyl ethers [BDE47, BDE99, BDE100, BDE153 and BDE154) and two methoxy-tetraBDEs [6-methoxy-2,2',4,4'- tetraBDE (6-MeO-BDE47) and 2'-methoxy-2,3',4,5'- tetraBDE (2'-MeO-BDE68)] in pike from Lake Bolmen for the years 1967-2000, are presented. All BDE congeners show increasing trends up to the mid-1980s (Sigma5PBDE from 60 to 1600 pg/g wet weight in 1989, i.e. a more than 25-fold increase), and then decrease or level off. The decreasing trends of PBDEs after the 1980s were considerably slower in the present study than was found in a study of an environmental matrix from the Baltic Proper covering the same time period. This difference suggests local sources near Lake Bolmen. The MeO-BDEs show initially decreasing concentrations, which for 6-MeO-BDE47 continues until the early 1990s. The concentrations of 6-MeO-BDE47 in herring from five locations along the Swedish coast increased from south to north in the Baltic Sea. No correlation between the concentrations of the BDE congeners and the MeO-BDEs was observed, indicating sources other than PBDEs for these compounds. The presence of MeO-BDEs in fish from lakes with different characteristics suggests a natural production not favoured by eutrophication, or dependent on sampling season and geographical location.

  6. Water-quality data for the Ohio River from New Cumberland Dam to Pike Island Dam, West Virginia and Ohio, May-October 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.F.; Messinger, Terence; Waldron, M.C.; Faulkenburg, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains water-quality data for the Ohio River from river mile 51.1 (3.3 miles upstream from New Cumberland Dam) to river mile 84.0 (0.2 miles upstream from Pike Island Dam) that were collected during the summer and fall of 1993. The data were collected to establish the water quality of the Ohio River and to use in assessing the proposed effects of hydropower development on the water quality of the Ohio River. Water quality was determined by a combination of repeated synoptic field measurements, continuous-record monitoring, and laboratory analyses. Synoptic measurements were made along a longitudinal transect with 18 mid-channel sampling sites; cross-sectional transects of water-quality measurements were made at 5 of these sites. Water-quality measurements also were made at two sites located on the back-channel (Ohio) side of Browns Island. At each longitudinal-transect and back-channel sampling site, measurements were made of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen conentration. Longitudinal-transect and back-channel stations were sampled at four depths (at the surface, about 3.3 feet below the surface, middle of the water column, and near the bottom of the river). Cross-sectional transects consisted of three to four detailed vertical profiles of the same characteristics. Water samples were collected from three depths at the mid-channel vertical profile in each cross-sectional transect and were analyzed for concentrations of phytoplankton photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Estimates of the depth of light penetration (Secchi-disk transparency) were made at pigment-sampling locations whenever light and river-surface conditions were appropriate. Synoptic sampling usually was completed in 12 hours or less and was repeated 10 times from May through October 1993. Continuous-record monitoring of water quality consisted of hourly measurements of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen

  7. Physical structure of the excitable membrane of unmyelinated axons: X-ray scattering study and electrophysiological properties of pike olfactory nerve.

    PubMed

    Luzzati, V; Mateu, L; Vachette, P; Benoit, E; Charpentier, G; Kado, R

    2000-11-17

    The aim of this work was to elicit correlations between physical structure and physiological functions in excitable membranes. Freshly dissected pike olfactory nerves were studied by synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering experiments and their physiological properties were tested by electrophysiological techniques. The scattering spectra contained a sharply oriented equatorial component (i.e. normal to the nerve axis), and an isotropic background. After background subtraction, the equatorial component displayed a weak and fairly sharp spectrum of oriented microtubules, and a strong and diffuse band of almost the same shape and position as the band computed for an isolated myelin membrane. We ascribed this spectrum to the axonal membranes. Under the action of temperature and of two local anesthetics, the spectrum underwent a contraction (or expansion) in the s-direction, equivalent to the structure undergoing an expansion (or contraction) in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the membrane. The main observations were: (i) with increasing temperature, membrane thickness decreased with a thermal expansion coefficient equal to -0.97(+/-0.19) 10(-3) degrees C(-1). The polarity and amplitude of this coefficient are typical of lipid-containing systems with the hydrocarbon chains in a disordered conformation. The amplitude and propagation velocity of the compound action potentials were drastically and reversibly reduced by lowering the temperature from 20 degrees C to 5 degrees C. (ii) Exposing the nerve to two local anesthetics (tetracaine and dibucaine) had the effect of decreasing membrane thickness. Action potentials were fully inhibited by these anesthetics. (iii) Upon depolarization, induced by replacing NaCl with KCl in the outer medium, approximately 25 % of the membranes were found to associate by apposing their outer faces. Electrophysiological activity was reversibly impaired by the KCl treatment. (iv) No detectable structural effect was observed upon

  8. Chronic toxicity of un-ionized ammonia to early life-stages of endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) compared to the surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Fairchild, J F; Allert, A L; Sappington, L C; Waddell, B

    2005-10-01

    Ammonia-contaminated groundwater enters the Upper Colorado River from beneath the abandoned Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Pile near Moab, Utah. This reach of the Upper Colorado River was designated as critical habitat for four endangered fish species because it is one of the few existing areas with known spawning and rearing habitats. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3) concentrations frequently exceed 1.00 mg/L in backwaters adjacent to the tailings pile, which exceeds the Utah 30-d average chronic water quality criterion for un-ionized ammonia (0.07 mg/L NH3; temperature 20 degrees C; pH 8.2) by a factor of more than 10. However, there is little published information regarding the sensitivity of endangered fishes to ammonia. We conducted 28-d static renewal studies with post-swim-up larvae to determine the relative sensitivity of Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and the standard surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to NH3. Chronic values (ChVs) for mortality and growth were determined as the geometric mean of the no observed effect concentration and the lowest observed effect concentration based on analysis of variance. The ChVs for growth of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.40, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. The ChVs for mortality of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.70, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. Therefore, the ChVs for mortality and growth were similar for fathead minnow and razorback sucker; however, the ChV for growth was lower than the ChV for mortality for Colorado pikeminnow. Maximum likelihood regression was used to calculate 28-d lethal concentrations (LCx) for each species. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for fathead minnow were 0.69, 0.42, and 0.13 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for Colorado pikeminnow were 0.76, 0.61, and 0.38 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for

  9. Chronic toxicity of un-ionized ammonia to early life-stages of endangered Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) compared to the surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, J.F.; Allert, A.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Waddell, B.

    2005-01-01

    Ammonia-contaminated groundwater enters the Upper Colorado River from beneath the abandoned Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Pile near Moab, Utah. This reach of the Upper Colorado River was designated as critical habitat for four endangered fish species because it is one of the few existing areas with known spawning and rearing habitats. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3) concentrations frequently exceed 1.00 mg/L in backwaters adjacent to the tailings pile, which exceeds the Utah 30-d average chronic water quality criterion for un-ionized ammonia (0.07 mg/L NH3; temperature 20??C; pH 8.2) by a factor of more than 10. However, there is little published information regarding the sensitivity of endangered fishes to ammonia. We conducted 28-d static renewal studies with post-swim-up larvae to determine the relative sensitivity of Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and the standard surrogate fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to NH3. Chronic values (ChVs) for mortality and growth were determined as the geometric mean of the no observed effect concentration and the lowest observed effect concentration based on analysis of variance. The ChVs for growth of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.40, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. The ChVs for mortality of fathead minnow, Colorado pikeminnow, and razorback sucker were 0.43, 0.70, and 0.67 mg/L NH3, respectively. Therefore, the ChVs for mortality and growth were similar for fathead minnow and razorback sucker; however, the ChV for growth was lower than the ChV for mortality for Colorado pikeminnow. Maximum likelihood regression was used to calculate 28-d lethal concentrations (LCx) for each species. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for fathead minnow were 0.69, 0.42, and 0.13 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for Colorado pikeminnow were 0.76, 0.61, and 0.38 mg/L NH3, respectively. The 28-d LC50, LC20, and LC1 values for razorback

  10. Short-term evaluation of visible implant alpha tags in juveniles of three fish species under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Turek, K C; Pegg, M A; Pope, K L

    2014-04-01

    Visible implant alpha (VI alpha) tag-induced changes in mortality and condition, as well as tag retention and readability, were examined during a 4-week period for juveniles of three fish species: tiger muskellunge Esox masquinongy × Esox lucius (91 ± 7 mm total length, L(T), mean ± s.d.), Snake River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki behnkei (84 ± 8 mm) and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (85 ± 5 mm). Mortality and condition did not differ between tagged fish and control fish for any species and overall tag retention rates were high (92% for E. masquinongy × E. lucius, 91% for O. c. behnkei and 100% for O. mykiss). Short-term readability of VI alpha tags was low in juvenile E. masquinongy × E. lucius and juvenile O. c. behnkei. Therefore, it is not recommend to use VI alpha tags in juvenile E. masquinongy × E. lucius or juvenile O. c. behnkei for periods >2 weeks, but VI alpha tags seem to be suitable for juvenile O. mykiss for a period of at least 4 weeks.

  11. Predation by Northern Pikeminnow and tiger muskellunge on juvenile salmonids in a high–head reservoir: Implications for anadromous fish reintroductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorel, Mark H.; Hansen, Adam G.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Wilson, Andrew C.; Lowery, Erin D.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of reintroducing anadromous salmonids into reservoirs above high-head dams is affected by the suitability of the reservoir habitat for rearing and the interactions of the resident fish with introduced fish. We evaluated the predation risk to anadromous salmonids considered for reintroduction in Merwin Reservoir on the North Fork Lewis River in Washington State for two reservoir use-scenarios: year-round rearing and smolt migration. We characterized the role of the primary predators, Northern Pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis and tiger muskellunge (Northern Pike Esox lucius × Muskellunge E. masquinongy), by using stable isotopes and stomach content analysis, quantified seasonal, per capita predation using bioenergetics modeling, and evaluated the size and age structures of the populations. We then combined these inputs to estimate predation rates of size-structured population units. Northern Pikeminnow of FL ≥ 300 mm were highly cannibalistic and exhibited modest, seasonal, per capita predation on salmonids, but they were disproportionately much less abundant than smaller, less piscivorous, conspecifics. The annual predation on kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka (in biomass) by a size-structured unit of 1,000 Northern Pikeminnow having a FL ≥ 300 mm was analogous to 16,000–40,000 age-0 spring Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha rearing year-round, or 400–1,000 age-1 smolts migrating April–June. The per capita consumption of salmonids by Northern Pikeminnow having a FL ≥ 200 mm was relatively low, due in large part to spatial segregation during the summer and the skewed size distribution of the predator population. Tiger muskellunge fed heavily on Northern Pikeminnow, other nonsalmonids, and minimally on salmonids. In addition to cannibalism within the Northern Pikeminnow population, predation by tiger muskellunge likely contributed to the low recruitment of larger (more piscivorous) Northern Pikeminnow, thereby decreasing the risk of predation to

  12. Molecular faunistics of accidental infections of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea) parasitic on salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout Salmo trutta L. in NW Russia.

    PubMed

    Zietara, Marek S; Kuusela, Jussi; Veselov, Alexei; Lumme, Jaakko

    2008-02-01

    Salmon Salmo salar L. and brown trout S. trutta L. juveniles were examined for the presence of accidental monogenean ectoparasitic species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 in the Baltic and White Sea basins of Russian Karelia in order to estimate the frequency of host-switching attempts on an ecological timescale. To collect phylogeographical information and for exact species identification, the parasites were characterised by nuclear internal transcribed spacer sequences of rDNA (ITS) and, for some species, also by their mitochondrial DNA (CO1 gene) sequences. Four accidental Gyrodactylus species were observed on salmon and brown trout. A few specimens of G. aphyae Malmberg, 1957, the normal host of which is the Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), were observed on lake salmon from the Rivers Kurzhma (Lake Kuito, White Sea basin) and Vidlitsa (Lake Ladoga, Baltic basin). G. lucii Kulakovskaya, 1952, a parasite of the northern pike Esox lucius L., was observed on salmon in the Kurzhma. In the River Vidlitsa, two specimens of G. papernai Ergens & Bychowsky, 1967, normally on stone loach Barbatula barbatula (L.), were found on salmon. On anadromous White Sea salmon in the River Pulonga in Chupa Bay, a few salmon parr carried small colonies of G. arcuatus Bychowsky, 1933, which were shown to have originated from the local three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. consumed as prey. No specimens of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 were observed, although the Pulonga is the nearest salmon spawning river to the River Keret', which is heavily infected with introduced G. salaris. In the River Satulinoja, Lake Ladoga, three specimens of G. lotae Gusev, 1953, from burbot Lota lota (L.), were collected from a single brown trout S. trutta. All nonspecific gyrodactylid infections on salmonids were judged to be temporary, because only a few specimens were observed on each of the small number of infected fishes. The prevalence of endemic G. salaris was also low, only

  13. Environmental contaminants in fish and their associated risk to piscivorous wildlife in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Echols, K.R.; May, T.W.; Orazio, C.E.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants were measured in northern pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) from 10 sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) during 2002. Contaminant concentrations were compared to historical YRB data and to toxicity thresholds for fish and piscivorous wildlife from the scientific literature. A risk analysis was conducted to screen for potential hazards to piscivorous wildlife for contaminants that exceeded literature-based toxicity thresholds. Concentrations of total DDT (sum of p,p???-homologs; 1.09-13.6 ng/g), total chlordane (0.67-7.5 ng/g), dieldrin (<0.16-0.6 ng/g), toxaphene (<11-34 ng/g), total PCBs (<20-87 ng/g), TCDD-EQ (???1.7 pg/g), arsenic (0.03-1.95 ??g/g), cadmium (<0.02-0.12 ??g/g), copper (0.41-1.49 ??g/g), and lead (<0.21-0.27 ??g/g) did not exceed toxicity thresholds for growth and reproduction in YRB fish. Concentrations of mercury (0.08-0.65 ??g/g), selenium (0.23-0.85 ??g/g), and zinc (11-56 ??g/g) exceeded toxicity thresholds in one or more samples and were included in the risk analysis for piscivorous wildlife. No effect hazard concentrations (NEHCs) and low effect hazard concentrations (LEHCs), derived from literature-based toxicity reference values and avian and mammalian life history parameters, were calculated for mercury, selenium, and zinc. Mercury concentrations in YRB fish exceeded the NEHCs for all bird and small mammal models, which indicated that mercury concentrations in fish may represent a risk to piscivorous wildlife throughout the YRB. Low risk to piscivorous wildlife was associated with selenium and zinc concentrations in YRB fish. Selenium and zinc concentrations exceeded the NEHCs and LEHCs for only the small bird model. These results indicate that mercury should continue to be monitored and assessed in Alaskan fish and wildlife. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  14. Simultaneous determination of substituted diphenylamine antioxidants and benzotriazole ultra violet stabilizers in blood plasma and fish homogenates by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhe; Peart, Thomas E; Cook, Cyril J; De Silva, Amila O

    2016-08-26

    Analytical methods were developed for the determination of eight substituted diphenylamines (SDPAs) and six benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BZT-UVs) in blood plasma and fish homogenate matrices. Liquid-liquid extraction by methyl tert-butyl ether and denaturation by KOH following silica gel packed column clean-up was employed for blood plasma preparation. For the fish homogenate samples, ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction combined with automated gel permeation chromatography and silica gel packed column clean-up was used. The target compounds were determined by optimized ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode. The method limits of quantification (MLOQs) of the 14 analytes ranged from 0.002 to 1.5ngg(-1) and 0.001 to 2.3ngg(-1) (wet weight, w.w.) for blood plasma and fish homogenate, respectively. The total recoveries of the target compounds varied from 61% to 100% (mean 77±9%). Eleven targets including monobutyl- (C4), dibutyl- (C4C4), monooctyl- (C8), monobutyl monooctyl- (C4C8), dioctyl-(C8C8), monononyl- (C9), dinonly-(C9C9) and 4,4'-bis(α,α-dimethylbenzyl)-(diAMS) DPAs, as well as 2-(2H-Benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)phenol (UV234), 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-(5-chloro-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl) phenol (UV327) and 2-(2H-Benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-di-tert-pentylphenol (UV328) were identified in the environmental biota samples, with concentrations in the range of pike (Esox lucius) plasma and white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) homogenate, respectively. This is the first report of an analytical method development for SDPAs in biotic matrices and BZT-UVs in blood plasma samples.

  15. Potential health risks posed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in muscle tissues of fishes from the Athabasca and Slave Rivers, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ohiozebau, Ehimai; Tendler, Brett; Codling, Garry; Kelly, Erin; Giesy, John P; Jones, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are released to the environment from oil sands operations and from natural sources in Alberta, Canada. Concentrations of 16 USEPA priority PAHs were measured in tissues of fishes collected from three locations on the Athabasca River in Alberta and two downstream locations on the Slave River in the Northwest Territories, Canada. A total of 425 individual fish were collected including 89 goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), 93 whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), 104 northern pike/jackfish (Esox lucius), 96 walleye (Sander vitreus) and 43 burbot/loche mariah/mariah (Lota lota). Fish were sampled during the summer and fall of 2011 and spring of 2012. Dorsal muscle of fishes from upstream reaches of the Athabasca River, close to oil sands extraction and upgrading activities, contained greater concentrations of individual PAHs than concentrations in muscle of fishes from further downstream in the Slave River. Concentrations of the sum of USEPA indicator PAHs (∑PAHs) in fishes collected in the vicinity of Fort McKay, closest to oil sands activities, varied among seasons with average concentrations ranging from 11 (burbot, summer) to 1.2 × 10(2) ng/g, wm (burbot, spring) with a mean of 48 ng/g, wm. Concentrations of ∑PAHs in fishes collected in the vicinity of Fort Resolution, the location most distant from oil sands activities, also varied among species and seasons, with average concentrations ranging from 4.3 (whitefish, summer) to 33 ng/g, wm (goldeye, summer) with a mean of 13 ng/g, wm. Significant differences in concentrations of ∑PAHs in muscle were observed within goldeye, jackfish, walleye and whitefish among sites. Health risks posed by PAHs to humans were assessed probabilistically using a B[a]P equivalents approach (B[a]Peq). The average lifetime risk of additional cancers for humans who consumed fish was deemed to be within an 'acceptable' range of risk (i.e., less than 10(-6)).

  16. Assessment of the sensitivity of three North American fish species to disruptors of steroidogenesis using in vitro tissue explants.

    PubMed

    Beitel, Shawn C; Doering, Jon A; Patterson, Sarah E; Hecker, Markus

    2014-07-01

    There is concern regarding exposure of aquatic organisms to chemicals that interfere with the endocrine system. One critical mechanism of endocrine disruption is impairment of steroidogenesis that can lead to altered hormone levels, altered or delayed sexual development, and ultimately reproductive failure. With the current large gap in knowledge and a high degree of uncertainty regarding the sensitivity of fishes native to northern ecosystems to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the aim of this study was to develop an in vitro gonadal explant assay enabling the assessment of EDCs on sex-steroid production in wild fish species native to North America. Northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Sander vitreus), and white sucker (Catostomus commeroni) were sampled from a reference location in Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan, Canada, at spawn and multiple post-spawn time points. Gonads were excised and immediately exposed for 24h to a model inducer (forskolin) or inhibitor (prochloraz) of steroidogenesis in L-15 supplemented media. Furthermore, seasonal profiles of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17-β estradiol (E2) concentrations were characterized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to quantify hormone concentrations in plasma and media. The seasonal profile of plasma hormones was significantly correlated with basal in vitro hormone production. Gonad tissue exposed to forskolin showed a concentration-dependent increase in E2 and a general increase in 11-KT. Gonad tissue exposed to prochloraz resulted in a decrease of concentrations of 11-KT and E2. These results illustrated that gonadal tissue is undergoing steroidogenesis in an in vitro setting that is comparable to in vivo hormone profiles, and which is responsive to chemical exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. The seasonal time point during which gonad explants were excised and exposed had an impact on the potency and magnitude of responses, resulting in a seasonal effect on sensitivity

  17. Comparative lever analysis and ontogenetic scaling in esocid fishes: Functional demands and constraints in feeding biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Courtney L; Smith, Harrison J; Maie, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    When animals grow, the functional demands that they experience often change as a consequence of their increasing body size. In this study, we examined the feeding biomechanics in esocid species that represent different size classes (small, Esox americanus; intermediate, Esox niger; large, Esox lucius), and how their bite forces and associated functional variables change as they grow. In order to evaluate bite performance through ontogeny, we dissected and measured dimensions of the feeding apparatus and the adductor mandibulae muscle complex with its segmentum facialis subdivisions such as the ricto-malaris, stegalis and endoricto-malaris across a wide range of body sizes. The collected morphological data was used as input variables for a published anatomical model to simulate jaw function in these fish species. Maximum bite forces for both anterior bite and posterior bite increased in isometry in E. americanus and E. niger. The posterior bite of E. lucius also increases in isometry, however, the anterior bite increases in positive allometry. Intraspecific comparison within E. lucius indicated the increase of bite forces in more developed individuals accelerated after the fish grew out of fingerling stage. In addition, our analysis indicated functional differentiation between subdivisions of the adductor mandibulae segmentum facialis, as well as interspecific differences in the pattern of contribution to the bite performance by these subdivisions. Our study provides insights into not only the musculoskeletal basis of the jaw function of esocid species, but also the feeding capacity of this species in relation to the functional demands it faces as one of the top predators in lake and river systems. J. Morphol. 277:1447-1458, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A comparative study on glyoxalase II from vertebrata.

    PubMed

    Principato, G B; Rosi, G; Talesa, V; Giovannini, E; Norton, S J

    1987-01-01

    S-2-hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase (glyoxalase II) from the liver of animals belonging to the various vertebrate classes (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Gallus gallus, Python molurus, Rana esculenta, Esox lucius) have been purified from 100,000 g supernatants of liver homogenates, using acetone fractionation and affinity chromatography. Subsequent comparative studies were concerned with some molecular and kinetic properties. Isoelectric focusing gave evidence for a single form of liver glyoxalase II in O. cuniculus, P. molurus and E. lucius, while the enzyme from G. gallus and R. esculenta showed respectively two and three forms with different pI values. All studied enzymes are basic proteins. The relative molecular mass values range from 18,000 to 23,000. The various glyoxalases II do not display markedly different Kn or Ki values. Their stability behavior at different temperatures is also quite similar.

  19. Summary and interpretation of dye-tracer tests to investigate the hydraulic connection of fractures at a ridge-and-valley-wall site near Fishtrap Lake, Pike County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    Dye-tracer tests were done during 1985-92 to investigate the hydraulic connection between fractures in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata at a ridge-and-valley-wall site near Fishtrap Lake, Pike County, Ky. Fluorescent dye was injected into a core hole penetrating near-surface and mining- induced fractures near the crest of the ridge. The rate and direction of migration of dye in the subsurface were determined by measuring the relative concentration of dye in water samples collected from piezometers completed in conductive fracture zones and fractured coal beds at various stratigraphic horizons within the ridge. Dye-concentration data and water-level measurements for each piezometer were plotted as curves on dye- recovery hydrographs. The dye-recovery hydrographs were used to evaluate trends in the fluctuation of dye concentrations and hydraulic heads in order to identify geologic and hydrologic factors affecting the subsurface transport of dye. The principal factors affecting the transport of dye in the subsurface hydrologic system were determined to be (1) the distribution, interconnection, and hydraulic properties of fractures; (2) hydraulic-head conditions in the near-fracture zone at the time of dye injection; and (3) subsequent short- and long-term fluctuations in recharge to the hydrologic system. In most of the dye-tracer tests, dye-recovery hydrographs are characterized by complex, multipeaked dye-concentration curves that are indicative of a splitting of dye flow as ground water moved through fractures. Intermittent dye pulses (distinct upward spikes in dye concentration) mark the arrivals of dye-labeled water to piezometers by way of discrete fracture-controlled flow paths that vary in length, complexity, and hydraulic conductivity. Dye injections made during relatively high- or increasing-head conditions resulted in rapid transport of dye (within several days or weeks) from near-surface fractures to piezometers. Injections made during relatively low- or

  20. Impact of Wildfire on Levels of Mercury in Forested Watershed Systems - Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Brigham, Mark E.; Cannon, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury to remote lakes in mid-continental and eastern North America has increased approximately threefold since the mid-1800s (Swain and others, 1992; Fitzgerald and others, 1998; Engstrom and others, 2007). As a result, concerns for human and wildlife health related to mercury contamination have become widespread. Despite an apparent recent decline in atmospheric deposition of mercury in many areas of the Upper Midwest (Engstrom and Swain, 1997; Engstrom and others, 2007), lakes in which fish contain levels of mercury deemed unacceptable for human consumption and possibly unacceptable for fish-consuming wildlife are being detected with increasing frequency. In northern Minnesota, Voyageurs National Park (VNP) (fig. 1) protects a series of southern boreal lakes and wetlands situated on bedrock of the Precambrian Canadian Shield. Mercury contamination has become a significant resource issue within VNP as high concentrations of mercury in loons, bald eagle eaglets, grebes, northern pike, and other species of wildlife and fish have been found. The two most mercury-contaminated lakes in Minnesota, measured as methylmercury in northern pike (Esox lucius), are in VNP. Recent multidisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research demonstrated that the bulk of the mercury in lake waters, soils, and fish in VNP results from atmospheric deposition (Wiener and others, 2006). The study by Wiener and others (2006) showed that the spatial distribution of mercury in watershed soils, lake waters, and age-1 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) within the Park was highly variable. The majority of factors correlated for this earlier study suggested that mercury concentrations in lake waters and age-1 yellow perch reflected the influence of ecosystem processes that affected within-lake microbial production and abundance of methylmercury (Wiener and others, 2006), while the distribution of mercury in watershed soils seemed to be partially dependent on forest

  1. Various aspects of piscine toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Wlasow, Teresa; Demska-Zakes, Krystyna; Gomulka, Piotr; Jarmolowicz, Sylwia

    2010-01-01

    vitro tests were used to exam dibutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate impact on the development of the reproductive system of pikeperch. Additional as multigenerational studies are needed to clarify influence long term exposure of fish to environmental concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Hydrogen peroxide used in fish therapy is known to be toxic for sensitive species. In our work safe concentrations and exposure times was evaluated for ide Leuciscus idus L. and pike Esox lucius L. fry. The intensity of lesions in gills, skin, pseudobranch and thymus of exposed fish were connected with the time of bath. Actually anesthetics are routinely required during stressful procedures with fish, but data regarding the safety of individual anesthetics to different fish species are still few and insufficient. The influence of clove oil, MS-222 and 2-phenoxyaethanol anesthesia on fish organism was investigated in our faculty with cooperation with Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology, Vodnany, Czech Republic. PMID:21217882

  2. Pike National Historic Trail Study Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Bennet, Michael F. [D-CO

    2013-03-12

    07/31/2013 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-93. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Pikes Peak Community College Deaf Prep Program Study Skills Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Paula

    This study skills curriculum is designed to assist students who are deaf or hearing impaired to prepare for college life. It presents lesson plans and activities that address the following topics: (1) effective school tools; (2) effective school attitudes; (3) effective school behaviors; (4) time management and goal settings, including keeping…

  4. Pikes Peak Model for Training in Professional Geropsychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Bob G.; Karel, Michele J.; Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Qualls, Sara H.; Duffy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The aging of the population will increase demand for psychological services for older adults, which challenges the profession of psychology to provide those services. In response to that challenge, professional geropsychology has been developing over the past few decades to meet current and prepare for anticipated future demand. The development of…

  5. Role of GGAP/PIKE-A in prostate cancer progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    isoform which also contains a COOH-terminal Arf-GAP domain and two ankyrin repeats . Both of these proteins can bind PI3-K via their proline-rich...may contribute to increased activity of GGAP2 in prostate cancer. In summary, GGAP2 may promote prostate cancer growth and progression via...that they may contribute to the functions of GGAP2 in prostate cancer. In summary, GGAP2 may promote prostate cancer growth and progression via

  6. 75 FR 51749 - Pike & San Isabel Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Advisory Committee will meet in Pueblo, Colorado. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure... Grasslands (PSICC) at 2840 Kachina Dr., Pueblo, Colorado. Written comments should be sent to Barbara Timock, PSICC, 2840 Kachina Dr., Pueblo, CO 81008. Comments may also be sent via e-mail to...

  7. Role of GGAP/PIKE-A in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    clones examined 55 55 55 total # of readable clones 40 37 39 total # of clones w/ mutations 1 18 12 total # of clones w/ silent mutations 2 0 0...GAP domain Normal Cancer total # of samples examined 30 72 total # of clones examined 320 764 total # of readable clones 216 520

  8. The Mirror Has Two Faces: Contradictory Reflections of Donkeys in Western Literature from Lucius to Balthazar

    PubMed Central

    Bough, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary I argue that cultural representations of donkeys arise from the contradictory philosophies that underpin western society. Donkeys have invariable been used symbolically in a negative way in early western literature which has affected our ongoing attitudes towards them: used as allegories for human nature, their own remains largely hidden. Tracing literary representations of donkeys reveals not only their conflicting origins but also how they developed over time. Understanding how these representations have affected our treatment of donkeys may lead to a better appreciation of the actual animals. Abstract How we represent animals both reflects our attitudes towards them and affects our treatment of them. The donkey has lived alongside humans, bearing their burdens since the time of their domestication over 10,000 years ago. Despite this, they have invariably enjoyed a low status in human cultures, received little appreciation and been treated harshly. We view some animals as being more worthy than others and represent them accordingly: donkeys have been ridiculed and derided. Literary representations of donkeys from the fables of Ancient Greece to contemporary iconic texts are explored to follow the donkey through the human imaginary. These representations derive from two main, conflicting sources, Greek literature and the Bible. Examining these cultural representations may lead towards a greater understanding of the way they affect the actual animal and lead to a greater understanding of that animal and, ultimately, to better treatment of them. PMID:26486214

  9. Fishes and habitat characteristics of the Keya Paha River, South Dakota-Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harland, B.; Berry, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Fishes were collected in four mainstem reaches and eight tributary reaches in the Keya Paha River basin during May and June 2002. Most reaches were characteristically run habitats with sand substrates and riparian pastures. Data were combined with historical records to construct a basin-wide ichthyofaunal list which comprised 38 species from seven families. Dominant species were sand shiners (Notropis ludibundus; 47%), red shiners (Cyprinella lutrensis; 37%), and brassy minnows (Hybognathus hankinsoni; 8%). Dominant game species were bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). We found one species previously listed as rare in South Dakota - plains topminnow (Fundulus sciadicus), and four species not previously found in the Keya Paha River - silver chub (Macrhybopsis storeriana), river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio), northern pike (Esox Indus), yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

  10. Mercury in freshwater fish of northeast North America--a geographic perspective based on fish tissue monitoring databases.

    PubMed

    Kamman, Neil C; Burgess, Neil M; Driscoll, Charles T; Simonin, Howard A; Goodale, Wing; Linehan, Janice; Estabrook, Robert; Hutcheson, Michael; Major, Andrew; Scheuhammer, Anton M; Scruton, David A

    2005-03-01

    As part of an initiative to assemble and synthesize mercury (Hg) data from environmental matrices across northeastern North America, we analyzed a large dataset comprised of 15,305 records of fish tissue Hg data from 24 studies from New York State to Newfoundland. These data were summarized to provide mean Hg concentrations for 40 fish species and associated families. Detailed analyses were carried out using data for 13 species. Hg in fishes varied by geographic area, waterbody type, and waterbody. The four species with the highest mean Hg concentrations were muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), walleye (Sander vitreus), white perch (Morone americana), and northern pike (Esox luscius). Several species displayed elevated Hg concentrations in reservoirs, relative to lakes and rivers. Normalized deviations from mean tissue levels for yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were mapped, illustrating how Hg concentrations in these species varied across northeastern North America. Certain geographic regions showed generally below or above-average Hg concentrations in fish, while significant heterogeneity was evident across the landscape. The proportion of waterbodies exhibiting exceedances of USEPA's criterion for fish methylmercury ranged from 14% for standard-length brook trout fillets to 42% for standard-length yellow perch fillets. A preliminary correlation analysis showed that fish Hg concentrations were related to waterbody acidity and watershed size.

  11. 76 FR 35235 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... (Ptychocheilus lucius), desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), Gila chub (Gila intermedia), Gila topminnow... pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), Gila topminnow...

  12. The invisible fish: hydrodynamic constraints for predator-prey interaction in fossil fish Saurichthys compared to recent actinopterygians

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Ilja; Pacholak, Steffen; Licht, Martin; Schneider, Jörg W.; Brücker, Christoph; Brandt, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent pike-like predatory fishes attack prey animals by a quick strike out of rest or slow movement. This fast-start behaviour includes a preparatory, a propulsive and a final phase, and the latter is crucial for the success of the attack. To prevent prey from escape, predators tend to minimise the duration of the interaction and the disturbance caused to surrounding water in order to not be detected by the prey's lateral line sensory system. We compared the hydrodynamic properties of the earliest fossil representative of the pike-like morphotype, the Triassic actinopterygian Saurichthys, with several recent pike-like predators by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Rainbow trout has been used as a control example of a fish with a generalist body shape. Our results show that flow disturbance produced by Saurichthys was low and similar to that of the recent forms Belone and Lepisosteus, thus indicative of an effective ambush predator. Drag coefficients are low for all these fishes, but also for trout, which is a good swimmer over longer distances but generates considerable disturbance of flow. Second-highest flow disturbance values are calculated for Esox, which compensates the large disturbance with its extremely high acceleration performance (i.e. attacks at high speeds) and the derived teleostean protrusible mouth that allows prey catching from longer distances compared to the other fishes. We show CFD modelling to be a useful tool for palaeobiological reconstruction of fossil fishes, as it allows quantification of impacts of body morphology on a hypothesised lifestyle. PMID:26603471

  13. Emulating the Fast-Start Swimming Performance of the Chain Pickerel (Esox niger) Using a Mechanical Fish Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    what is experienced on land. It is Newton’s laws of motion; the third law in particular, along with Archimedes ’ law and Bernoulli’s equation that...hydrodynamic performance of these behaviors is governed by the same principles of reactive and circulatory (shed vortices) forces as explained for steady...below, assuming the principles could be translated to all unsteady behavior. 2.5 Fast-Starts Fast-starts are characterized by their purpose and

  14. What Would a Socially Just Education System Look like?: Saving the Minnows from the Pike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reay, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This paper first draws on the political philosophy of R.H. Tawney to outline some universal principles for the provision of socially just education. It then moves onto a more pragmatic approach, analysing where the injustices lie in contemporary British education and outlining policies and practices that are socially just, not in an instrumental…

  15. An Evaluation of the Modified Sachs and Ledsham-Pike Scaling of a Nuclear Air Blast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    I-1) for a given yield in a uniform homo - geneous atmosphere, and then transforming this solution to anoth- er yield and atmosphere. The similarity...high explosive shock waves apply to nuclear explosions in an infinite homo - geneous atmosphere when the weight of the nuclear explosion is defined by...pressure: 4Pa. ---i Pa (IV-3) where q* is the dynamic pressure at R* in an infinite, homo - geneous atmosphere. An iterative procedure was required to pro

  16. Environmental Assessment for Lock and Dam 22 Major Rehabilitation, Ralls County, Missouri and Pike County, Illinois.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    parvula rare - Wild sarsaparilla Aralia nudicaulis rare - Salt meadow grass Leptochloa panlcoides - endangered Jeweled shooting star Dodecatheon...lots rare - Ditch grass Ruppia maritima rare - Small spike-rush Eleocharis parvula rare - Wild sarsaparilla Aralia nudicaulis rare Salt meadow grass

  17. Lateral variation in geochemistry, petrology, and palynology in the Elswick coal bed, Pike County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Eble, C.F.

    2007-01-01

    The Middle Pennsylvanian/Langsettian (Westphalian A) Elswick coal bed, correlative to the Upper Banner of Virginia, is a rare example of a mined high-sulfur (> 2%) coal in Eastern Kentucky, a region known for low-sulfur coals. To characterize lateral variation in the geochemistry, petrography, and palynology of the Elswick coal bed, three sites were sampled along a southeast-northwest transect within a single mine. At the southeastern site, the lower 101??cm of the 116-cm thick coal is dull, generally dominated by durain and dull clarain. While all benches at this site fit within the previously-defined "mixed palynoflora - moderate/low vitrinite group," suggesting a stressed environment of deposition, the palynology of the benches of the dull interval show greater diversity than might be expected just from the petrology. Lithology is generally similar between the sites, but each site has some differences in the petrology. Overall, the coal bed shows significant lateral variation in properties at the mine scale, some of which can be attributed to the gain or loss of upper and lower lithologies, either through an actual physical merging or through the change in character of lithotypes. Sulfur content varies between the three sites examined for this study. Site 3, located in the northwestern portion of the study area is characterized by a strikingly high sulfur zone (7.45%) in the middle of the coal bed, a feature missing at the other sites. Pyrite and marcasite, in a mid-seam lithotype at the northwestern site (site 3), show signs of overgrowths, indicating multiple generations of sulfide emplacement. The high-sulfur site 3 lithologies all have massive overgrowths of euhedral and framboidal pyrite, fracture- and cleat-fill pyrite, and sulfide emplacement in fusinite lumens. Sulfur is high throughout the mine area, but variations are evident in the extent of secondary growth of sulfides. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ground- and surface-water interactions involving an abandoned underground coal mine in Pike County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.; Sjogren, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Several highwall pits of an abandoned surface mine in the Springfield Coal Member (Pennsylvanian) are currently occupied by ponds with a total area of approximately 2.3 x 10{sup 4} m{sup 2}. These ponds are adjacent to an abandoned underground mine (Patoka Valley Coal and Coke Company No. 1 Mine) in the same coalbed. The mine underlies about 0.3 km{sup 2} and contains approximately 4 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of flooded voids. Monitoring of water levels in wells that are screened in the mine and of the levels of adjacent ponds reveal that average hourly levels vary in unison across a range of less than one meter. The mean potentiometric level of the mine-aquifer, the neighboring ponds, and an artesian spring that issues through the outcrop of the coalbed, are at elevations of about 163 m above sea level. Long-term monitoring and a field experiment that involved pumping of a pond indicated that the mine was connected to two of the ponds and served to recharge, rather than discharge, the ponds. The monitoring and field experiment also allowed determination of the mine aquifers barometric efficiency (0.3) and its storativity (2 x 10{sup -3}) . A water-balance calculation indicates that the average recharge rate of the mine is about 0.1 mm/day.

  19. Effect of Dexamethasone on Symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness at Pikes Peak, Colorado (4300m),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    WORK UNIT NUMBERS U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA 01760 3EI62777A879 64683304126 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND...use of dexamethasone. Among these are whether the drug works in the actual mountain environment and what effect it has on normal acclimatization. The... antacids , and ventilation during rapid, active ascent of Mount Rainier. Aviat. Space Env iron. Med. 1983;54: 397-401. 18. Sampson JB, Cymerman A

  20. Fish Manoeuvres and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kiran; Pedley, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    The extraordinary manoeuvrability observed in many fish is attributed to their inherent flexibility, which might be enhanced by the use of appendages like fins. The aim of this work is to understand the role of morphological adaptations, such as body shape and deployment of median fins, on manoeuvrability and internal body dynamics. The 3d vortex lattice numerical method was employed to analyse the hydrodynamics for arbitrary body planforms of infinitesimal thickness. The internal structure of the body due to the combined skeletal system and soft tissue, is represented as an active Euler-Bernoulli beam, in which the time-dependent bending moment distribution is calculated from body inertia and the hydrodynamic pressure difference across the body. C-turns are the manoeuvre of choice for this work and the response for three different species of fish are examined. Angelfish(Pterophyllum eimekei), pike (Esox sp) and tuna (Thunnus albacares) were chosen for their differences in body profile, median fin use and manoeuvrability. Net direction change and bending moment response to prescribed backbone flexure are calculated and used to interpret the influence of body profile on manoeuvrability and muscle work done. Internal stresses may be computed from anatomical data on muscle fibre distribution and recruitment. To the future, it is intended to extend this work to other typical manoeuvres, such as fast starts for which muscle activation patterns have been measured quite widely.

  1. 75 FR 19987 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), Yaqui topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis sonorensis), Quitobaquito desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius eremus),...

  2. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species in Fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France.

    PubMed

    Certad, Gabriela; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Gantois, Nausicaa; Hammouma-Ghelboun, Ourida; Pottier, Muriel; Guyot, Karine; Benamrouz, Sadia; Osman, Marwan; Delaire, Baptiste; Creusy, Colette; Viscogliosi, Eric; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Aliouat-Denis, Cecile Marie; Follet, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in a wide range of vertebrates including humans, is increasingly recognized as a parasite of a diverse range of wildlife species. However, little data are available regarding the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in wild aquatic environments, and more particularly in edible freshwater fish. To evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. in fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France, 41 entire fish and 100 fillets (cuts of fish flesh) were collected from fishery suppliers around the lake. Nested PCR using degenerate primers followed by sequence analysis was used. Five fish species were identified as potential hosts of Cryptosporidium: Salvelinus alpinus, Esox lucius, Coregonus lavaretus, Perca fluviatilis, and Rutilus rutilus. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was found in 15 out of 41 fish (37%), distributed as follows: 13 (87%) C. parvum, 1 (7%) C. molnari, and 1 (7%) mixed infection (C. parvum and C. molnari). C. molnari was identified in the stomach, while C. parvum was found in the stomach and intestine. C. molnari was also detected in 1 out of 100 analyzed fillets. In order to identify Cryptosporidium subtypes, sequencing of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) was performed. Among the C. parvum positive samples, three gp60 subtypes were identified: IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, and IIaA17G2R1. Histological examination confirmed the presence of potential developmental stages of C. parvum within digestive epithelial cells. These observations suggest that C. parvum is infecting fish, rather than being passively carried. Since C. parvum is a zoonotic species, fish potentially contaminated by the same subtypes found in terrestrial mammals would be an additional source of infection for humans and animals, and may also contribute to the contamination of the environment with this parasite. Moreover, the risk of human transmission is strengthened by the

  3. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species in Fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France

    PubMed Central

    Certad, Gabriela; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Gantois, Nausicaa; Hammouma-Ghelboun, Ourida; Pottier, Muriel; Guyot, Karine; Benamrouz, Sadia; Osman, Marwan; Delaire, Baptiste; Creusy, Colette; Viscogliosi, Eric; Aliouat-Denis, Cecile Marie; Follet, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in a wide range of vertebrates including humans, is increasingly recognized as a parasite of a diverse range of wildlife species. However, little data are available regarding the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in wild aquatic environments, and more particularly in edible freshwater fish. To evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. in fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France, 41 entire fish and 100 fillets (cuts of fish flesh) were collected from fishery suppliers around the lake. Nested PCR using degenerate primers followed by sequence analysis was used. Five fish species were identified as potential hosts of Cryptosporidium: Salvelinus alpinus, Esox lucius, Coregonus lavaretus, Perca fluviatilis, and Rutilus rutilus. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was found in 15 out of 41 fish (37%), distributed as follows: 13 (87%) C. parvum, 1 (7%) C. molnari, and 1 (7%) mixed infection (C. parvum and C. molnari). C. molnari was identified in the stomach, while C. parvum was found in the stomach and intestine. C. molnari was also detected in 1 out of 100 analyzed fillets. In order to identify Cryptosporidium subtypes, sequencing of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) was performed. Among the C. parvum positive samples, three gp60 subtypes were identified: IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, and IIaA17G2R1. Histological examination confirmed the presence of potential developmental stages of C. parvum within digestive epithelial cells. These observations suggest that C. parvum is infecting fish, rather than being passively carried. Since C. parvum is a zoonotic species, fish potentially contaminated by the same subtypes found in terrestrial mammals would be an additional source of infection for humans and animals, and may also contribute to the contamination of the environment with this parasite. Moreover, the risk of human transmission is strengthened by the

  4. Estimates of long-term suspended-sediment loads in Bay Creek at Nebo, Pike County, Illinois, 1940-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lazaro, Timothy R.; Fitzgerald, Kathleen K.; Frost, Leonard R.

    1984-01-01

    Five years of daily suspended-sediment discharges (1968, 1969, 1975, 1976, and 1980) for Bay Creek at Nebo, Illinois, computed from once- or twice-weekly samples (more often during storm events), were used to develop transport equations that can be used to estimate long-term suspended-sediment discharges from long-term water-discharge records. Discharge was divided into three groups based on changes in slope on a graph of logarithms of water discharge versus suspended-sediment discharge. Two subgroups were formed within each of the three groups by determining whether the flow was steady or increasing, or was decreasing. Seasonality was accounted for by introducing day of the year in sine and cosine functions. The suspended-sediment load estimated from the equations for the 5 years was 77.3 percent of that computed from daily sediment- and water-discharge records for those years. The mean annual suspended-sediment load for 41 years of estimated loads was 359 ,500 tons, which represents a yield of about 3.5 tons per acre from the Bay Creek drainage basin. (USGS)

  5. Geophysical investigations of near-surface materials and groundwater quality at abandoned mine land site No. 1087, Pike County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Spindler, K.M.; Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1998-12-31

    Reclamation of Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Site No. 1087 (Midwestern) includes extensive use of coal-combustion byproducts such as fly ash and fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) as fill and cover materials. Prior to reclamation, a deposit of coarse-grained pyritic refuse in the central part of the site was the primary source for acidic mine drainage. The FSS tends to have a low permeability, so it was applied over the refuse to serve as a barrier to vertical recharge and thereby inhibit generation and mobilization of additional acidity. Repeated post-reclamation measurements of soil-water content using a neutron moisture gauge provide evidence that vertical recharge is, in fact, not occurring through the FSS. However, a previously existing plume of acidic water extends beyond the area of the refuse into adjacent areas of disturbed overburden (spoil). Electrical resistivity profiles using the offset Wenner method were used to delineate the horizontal extent of the refuse and to quantify spatial variability of groundwater chemistry within the refuse and adjacent spoil. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to precisely determine the thickness and extent of the FSS layer and its relation to the refuse and to the surrounding plume of acidic water. Together, these techniques provide a complete three-dimensional representation of the FSS, refuse, spoil, and plume of acidic groundwater.

  6. 10 CFR 2.305 - Service of documents, methods, proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852, Attention: Rulemakings and..., Enforcement & Administration, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville MD 20852-0001; by...

  7. 10 CFR 2.305 - Service of documents, methods, proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852, Attention: Rulemakings and..., Enforcement & Administration, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville MD 20852-0001; by...

  8. A reconnaissance spatial and temporal assessment of methane and inorganic constituents in groundwater in bedrock aquifers, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    The June 2013 samples were also analyzed for radium-226 and age-dating dissolved gases. Activities of radium-226 ranged from 0.041 to 0.29 pCi/L in water samples from the six wells and were less than the drinking-water standard of 5 pCi/L for combined radium-226 and radium-228. Age-dating of groundwater using a method based on the presence of anthropogenic gases (chlorofluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride) released into the atmosphere yielded estimated recharge dates for water from these six wells that ranged from the 1940s to early 2000s. The oldest water was in samples from wells that had the highest methane concentrations and the youngest water was in samples from a continuously pumped 300-foot deep production well.

  9. Reflections on the Scholarship of Application in Student Affairs: A Response to "The Scholarship of Application in Student Affairs" by Charles C. Schroeder and Gary R. Pike.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Donald

    2001-01-01

    Presents a response to Schroeder et. al's "The Scholarship of Application in Student Affairs" (this issue). Extends the dialogue of the original article by asserting the need for scholar-practitioners, and the values of student affairs to the higher education mission. (GCP)

  10. Pre-test geological and geochemical evaluation of the Caprock, St. Peter Sandstone and formation fluids, Yakley Field, Pike County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    The goal of these studies is to ensure long-term stable containment of air in the underground reservoirs used in conjunction with compressed air energy storage (CAES) plants. The specific objective is to develop stability criteria and engineering guidelines for designing CAES reservoirs in each of the three major reservoir types, including aquifers, salt cavities, and mined hard rock caverns. This document characterizes the geologic nature of porous media constituents native to the aquifer field test site near Pittsfield, Illinois. The geologic samples were subjected to geochemical evaluations to determine anticipated responses to cyclic air injection, heating and moisture - conditions typical of an operating CAES reservoir. This report documents the procedures used and results obtained from these analyses.

  11. Study of hydrocarbon production from the Devonian shale in Letcher, Knott, Floyd, Martin, and Pike Counties, eastern Kentucky annual technical report, July 1, 1984-June 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Frankie, W.T.

    1985-07-01

    The Kentucky Geological Survey (KGS) at the University of Kentucky is conducting a 2-year research project funded by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) to study hydrocarbon production from the Devonian shale in eastern Kentucky. Objectives are to develop an understanding of relationships between stratigraphy and hydrocarbon production, create a data base, and prepare geologic reports for each county in the study area. Data were compiled from the KGS, GRI Eastern Gas Data System (EGDS), U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), and industry. Research for Letcher County was completed and 270 Devonian wells were entered into the KGS computer data base. Devonian black-shale units were correlated using gamma-ray logs. Structure and isopach maps, and stratigraphic cross sections have been constructed. An isopotential map defining areas of equal initial gas production has been prepared. Statistics for Letcher County have been run on the data base using Datatrieve software package. Statistical analyses focused on different types of formation treatments and the resulting production. Temperature logs were used to detect gas-producing intervals within the Mississippian-Devonian black-shale sequence. The results of the research provide the petroleum industry with a valuable tool for gas exploration in the Devonian shales.

  12. Social learning in a high-risk environment: incomplete disregard for the 'minnow that cried pike' results in culturally transmitted neophobia.

    PubMed

    Crane, Adam L; Mathiron, Anthony G E; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2015-08-07

    Many prey species rely on conspecifics to gather information about unknown predation threats, but little is known about the role of varying environmental conditions on the efficacy of social learning. We examined predator-naive minnows that had the opportunity to learn about predators from experienced models that were raised in either a low- or high-risk environment. There were striking differences in behaviour among models; high-risk models showed a weaker response to the predator cue and became neophobic in response to the control cue (a novel odour, NO). Observers that were previously paired with low-risk models acquired a strong antipredator response only to the predator cue. However, observers that interacted with high-risk models, displayed a much weaker response to the predator odour and a weak neophobic response to the NO. This is the first study reporting such different outcomes of social learning under different environmental conditions, and suggests high-risk environments promote the cultural transmission of neophobia more so than social learning. If such a transfer can be considered similar to secondary traumatization in humans, culturally transmitted neophobia in minnows may provide a good model system for understanding more about the social ecology of fear disorders.

  13. Reconnaissance Report for Section 205 Flood Damage Reduction Study. The SNY Island Levee Drainage District, Adams, Pike, and Calhoun Counties, Illinois.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    The SILDD is protected from the Mississippi River by a Corps of Engineers local flood protection levee most recently raised in 1969. The SILDD would...District, Corps of Engineers , report entitled, Upper Mississippi River Basin, Mississippi River -Nine Foot Channel, Appendix 22, Master Reservoir...pumping stations, diversions for five upland streams, retarding/ desilting reservoirs, and a closing levee to prevent Mississippi River backup in the lower

  14. 10 CFR 9.35 - Duplication fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 9.21 at the NRC Public Document Room (PDR), One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F23... at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. (1) Sizes up to...

  15. 10 CFR 9.35 - Duplication fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 9.21 at the NRC Public Document Room (PDR), One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F23... at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. (1) Sizes up to...

  16. 10 CFR 9.35 - Duplication fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 9.21 at the NRC Public Document Room (PDR), One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F23... at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. (1) Sizes up to...

  17. 10 CFR 9.35 - Duplication fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 9.21 at the NRC Public Document Room (PDR), One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F23... at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland. (1) Sizes up to...

  18. Front elevation of highlift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front elevation of high-lift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called U.S. Route 29 or Columbia Pike) is in foreground. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  19. 47 CFR 0.445 - Publication, availability and use of opinions, orders, policy statements, interpretations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FCC Reports, reference should be made to the Federal Register or Pike and Fischer Communications..., the FCC Record, FCC Reports, or Pike and Fischer Communications Regulation. Commission decisions and... in the FCC Record, FCC Reports or Pike and Fischer Communications Regulation. General...

  20. 40 CFR 81.304 - Arkansas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Johnson County Logan County Madison County Marion County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk... County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk County Scott County Searcy County Stone County... County Marion County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk County Scott County Searcy...

  1. Proterometra epholkos sp. n. (Digenea: Azygiidae) from Terrapin Creek, Alabama, USA: molecular characterization of life cycle, redescription of Proterometra albacauda, and updated lists of host and geographic locality records for Proterometra spp. in North America.

    PubMed

    Womble, Matthew R; Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-02-01

    localities and hosts concomitant with neotype designations. P. macrostoma seems a repository for conspicuous, furcocystocercous cercariae shed from freshwater prosobranchs in eastern North American rivers and streams. The specific epithet "pinguis" associated with specimens purportedly infecting Esox lucius and deposited by JF Mueller is a nomen nudum. Proterometra guangzhouensis, Proterometra sillagae, Proterometra brachyuran, and Proterometra lamellorchis are incertae sedis. Significant barriers to characterizing biodiversity and distributions (host range and geographic distribution) of Proterometra spp. comprise a paucity of data on adult morphology, dubious species-level identification or a lack of information regarding prosobranch hosts, lack of molecular data for putative comparisons among fluke 'strains' and species as well as between cercariae and adults, lack of consistency in terminology, and indeterminate homology for key morphological features. Uncertainty about the providence and identity of, or absence of, accessioned museum materials of P. macrostoma, Proterometra catenaria, and P. hodgesiana together represent another fundamental problem. The present study comprises the first description of a new species of Proterometra in nearly 20years, first report of a species of the genus from the Coosa River (Mobile-Tensaw River Basin) and from these host species, and first use of molecular sequence data to elucidate a life cycle for a species of Proterometra.

  2. Geologic controls on gas production in the devonian shale, GRI Experimental Development Research Area, Pike County, Kentucky. Final report, January 1991-December 1992. Volume 1 of 2. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Kubik, W.T.; Falleur, J.P.; Lowry, P.H.

    1992-12-01

    Gas production from the Devonian Shale within the Experimental Development Research Area is controlled by its stratigraphic and structural framework. The main pay interval for the area are the black and gray shales of the Lower Huron and lower portion of the Chagrin (Transition Zone). Permeability and productivity within this interval is controlled by a variety of natural fracturing styles including regional jointing, flexure-related (density log) fracturing, and small-scale thrust faulting. The regional joint sets provide the basic permeability system for the reservoir, while these other features contribute to substantial increased productivity. Optimal completion zone selection requires the proper identification of these production-enhancing components in individual wells, and successful site selection should be based upon the definition of regions within an exploitation play which have the greatest likelihood of encountering these features.

  3. National Dam Inspection Program. Fawn Lake Dam (NDI I.D. Number PA-00822, PennDER I.D. Number 52-182). Delaware River basin, Branch of Hornbecks Creek, Pike County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    12-inch diameter, discharge conduit. Crest Elevation 997.0 feet. j. Emergency Spillway. Type Uncontrolled, trapezoidal shaped channel located at the...The spillway has no regulating weir or well defined "* control section. Therefore, discharges are regulated strictly by channel slope. The discharge ...at the inlet as evidenced by the control 6 mechanism protruding through the reservoir surface in Photo- graph 11. The conduit apparently discharges at

  4. National Dam Inspection Program. Lake Greeley Dam (NDI I.D. Number PA- 00752, PennDER I.D. Number 52-20), Delaware River Basin, Taylortown Creek, Pike County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    reservoir was initially at its normal pool or spillway crest elevation of 1155.0 feet, with the spillway weir discharging freely. The outlet con- duit was...from the discharge channel between the spillway weir and downstream roadway embankment. e. Provide additional rock slope protection to the unpro- tected...with an ogee-type weir located near the center of the embankment. The length of the spillway crest is 103 feet. Drawdown is provided by a 6-inch

  5. National Dam Inspection Program. Beaver Lake Lodge Dam (NDI I.D. Number PA-00300, PennDER I.D. Number 52-93), Delaware River Basin, Raymondskill Creek, Pike County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    broad crested weir . Crest Elevation 848.7 feet. Crest Length 38 feet ( effective ). k. Outlet Conduit. Type...channel with a concrete, broad crested weir . The spillway weir has a 38-foot effective length and a 14-foot breadth. c) Outlet Conduit. No information...channel service spillway located at the right abutment, and an uncontrolled, rectangular shaped, concrete broad crested , emergency spillway

  6. National Dam Inspection Program. Westcolang Lake Dam, NDI I.D. Number PA-00396 PennDER I.D. Number 52-4. Delaware River Basin. Westcolang Creek, Pike County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Discharges through the spillway are regulated by a broad crested weir located at the inlet. The length of the weir is 16.4 feet at the...spillway consists of an uncontrolled, rectangular shaped, concrete and masonry chute channel, with discharges regulated by a concrete broad - crested weir ...Appendix D, Sheet 1). f. Reservoir Surface (acres). Top of Dam 223 Normal Pool 200 g. Dam. Type Earth. Length2 147 feet (excluding spillway, effective

  7. National Dam Inspection Program. Long Ridge Dam (NDI I.D. Number PA- 01022, PennDER I.D. Number 52-185), Delaware River Basin, Branch of Hornbecks Creek, Pike County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Erosbionobsre blong thuies usreamdem- attention. The deficiency is the result of inadequate slope pro- tection along portions of the upstream embankment...8217iftitift i~iIit tin’i. Hm’i inati 30f’? Vb~f 01,’,tlti’ ilA%9i~iittt Nnlint i~ LAUFRAnu Io PICK$fuumtpnntINdi.ig’iy anyttf’i r iud h~i.~.lIi i .u* i

  8. National Dam Inspection Program. Crescent Lake Dam (NDI-ID Number PA-00413, DER-ID 52-142) Delaware River Basin, Pike County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    CRESPIT LAhE SUPAREA ISIAO ICOMP - IECUN ITAFL J’LT-- JPRT INAhE ISTAGE IAUTO. 8 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 HYDROGRAPH DAIA IHYOG IUHG TAREA SNAP TRSPA TrNSC RATIO...T A 1 CUMF, IECIN I I At-, JftT JPRT INAhE ISTtAGE IUO 10 1 1) 0 0 0 1 0 0 knUl1Nli 1,AIs DLOS CLOK-S AI., G IREq ISAIIt IOPT IFPF LSiN 0.0 0.000 0.00

  9. National Dam Inspection Program. North Lake Dam (NDI I.D. Number PA-00268, PennDER I.D. Number 52-180), Delaware River Basin, Branch of Hornbecks Creek, Pike County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    p.P.p., ip,9 9 o,1111 ’f l’i 1"n, 𔃻"p~i *.’ 1 - LIP ERD.)WA Wil v it pinto .1 tn finn qi’. inah oi I),, lp-’ui I’ f ’’r .,I",..,Pplq ’ *i’’ PI

  10. National Dam Inspection Program. Lake Lattimore Dam (NDI-ID Number PA-00406, DER-ID Number 52-78) Delaware River Basin, Pike County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Appendix E) and the access footbridge to this structure was replaced with earthfill between two retaining walls. -6- SECTION 3 - VISUAL INSPECTION 3.1...LOPF -NO. FOO1’BR I DG; E-M ’AN KM EN’, lN 5AC.K(,ROlINl’ NU FOOTBRIDGE . NOTE DETERIORATION OF PIERS -NO. 4 SPILLWAY -NO. )&)WN’U R ’,IIANNi.",. NOi’F

  11. National Dam Inspection Program. Lower Hemlock Dam (NDI-ID Number PA-00756, DER-ID Number 52-117) Delaware River Basin, Pike County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    is covered with a large overhanging concrete slab and is accessible by a footbridge from the crest of the dam,(Photograph 5, Appendix C). Lower Hemlock...Valve house located in the reservoir accessible from the top of dam by concrete footbridge . B. OUTLET STRUCTURE 24" 0 concrete pipe discharging at...Concrete footbridge to intake. A-3 NDI NO. PA-O_ 756 VISUAL INSPECTION SPILLWAY OBSERVATIONS AND REMARKS A. APPROACH CHANNEL Approach is-directly from

  12. A bill to authorize the Secretary of Agriculture to accept the quitclaim, disclaimer, and relinquishment of a railroad right-of-way within and adjacent to Pike National Forest in El Paso County, Colorado.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Bennet, Michael F. [D-CO

    2012-04-24

    04/24/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.4073, which became Public Law 112-250 on 1/10/2013. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Applicability of Unmanned Aerial Systems to Homeland Defense Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Construct for Integration Into the National Airspace System.” Institute of Air and Space Law. Montreal Quebec . July 2005. Pike , John. FAS Intelligence...208 feet long by 65 feet 16 38 John Pike , FAS Intelligence Resource Program, “Eagle Eye UAV,” (27...Guard, “Bell Helicopter Awarded Contract for Eagle Eye UAV,” http://www.uscg.mil/deepwater/media/bell.htm (accessed 11 March 2006). 41 John Pike

  14. 76 FR 66323 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ...., Fagatogo, 11000789 GEORGIA Crawford County Hawkins, Col. Benjamin, Gravesite, Benjamin Hawkins Rd., Roberta... Wilson Pike, Franklin, 88000299 Russwurm, John S., House, (Williamson County MRA) Spann Town Rd. \\1/...

  15. 29 CFR 1410.3 - Individual access requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Floyd, Harrison, Crawford, Perry, Spencer, DuBois, Pike, Gibson, Posey, Vanderburgh, and Warrick); Ohio...; Nebraska; Kansas; Iowa; Missouri (the counties of Atchinson, Nodaway, Worth, Harrison, Mercer,...

  16. 78 FR 34701 - Illinois Disaster Number IL-00041

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ...: Primary Counties: (Physical Damage and Economic Injury Loans): Brown, Calhoun, Clark, Douglas, Henry, Pike... 59002 and 59008) Joseph P. Loddo, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. BILLING CODE...

  17. 77 FR 16316 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00044

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ...: Jefferson, Switzerland. Kentucky: Bourbon, Clark, Fleming, Gallatin, Henry, Lewis, Nicholas, Owen, Pike... unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) Joseph P. Loddo,...

  18. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 30, 1940. BRICKWORK DETAIL - NORTHWEST ELEVATION - Colonel William Whitley House, Stanford-Crab Orchard Pike, Stanford, Lincoln County, KY

  19. 76 FR 18779 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ...) Milepost 5 on Recreation Rd., Wolf Creek, 11000225 Park County Carter Bridge, (Reinforced Concrete Bridges...-2121 Ontario St., Cleveland, 94000591 PENNSYLVANIA Pike County Grey, Zane, House (Boundary...

  20. 77 FR 70486 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Dewey-Burdock In-Situ Uranium Recovery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ..., One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. B. Submitting Comments Please..., minerals and soils; water resources; ecological resources; socioeconomics; environmental justice;...

  1. 78 FR 59731 - License Amendment Request for Closure of Calcium Fluoride Ponds at Honeywell Metropolis Works...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ..., Room O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. FOR FURTHER...; hydrology; ecological resources; air quality, meteorology, climatology; noise; historic and...

  2. 76 FR 80375 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Hotel & Executive M, 1750 Rockville Pike... Review Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6116...

  3. 76 FR 38718 - Indiana Disaster #IN-00037

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ..., Parke, Perry, Pike, Posey, Putnam, Ripley, Scott, Spencer, Starke, Sullivan, Switzerland, Vanderburgh... Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for...

  4. Electrogenic sulfur oxidation in a northern saltmarsh (St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada).

    PubMed

    Rao, Alexandra; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Neumeier, Urs

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of porewater O2, pH, and H2S microprofiles in intact sediment cores collected in a northern saltmarsh in the St. Lawrence Estuary (Quebec, Canada) revealed the occurrence of electrogenic sulfur oxidation (e-SOx) by filamentous "cable" bacteria in submerged marsh pond sediments in the high marsh. In summer, the geochemical fingerprint of e-SOx was apparent in intact cores, while in fall, cable bacteria were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and the characteristic geochemical signature of e-SOx was observed only upon prolonged incubation. In exposed, unvegetated creek bank sediments sampled in the low marsh in summer, cable bacteria developed only in repacked cores of sieved (500 μm), homogenized sediments. These results suggest that e-SOx is suppressed by the activity of macrofauna in exposed, unvegetated marsh sediments. A reduced abundance of benthic invertebrates may promote e-SOx development in marsh ponds, which are dominant features of subarctic saltmarshes as in the St. Lawrence Estuary.

  5. 40 CFR 81.304 - Arkansas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... County Newton County Pike County Polk County Scott County Searcy County Stone County Van Buren County... Johnson County Logan County Madison County Marion County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk... Unclassifiable/Attainment. Newton County Unclassifiable/Attainment. Ouachita County...

  6. 40 CFR 81.304 - Arkansas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Johnson County Logan County Madison County Marion County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk... County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk County Scott County Searcy County Stone County.... Montgomery County Unclassifiable/Attainment. Nevada County Unclassifiable/Attainment. Newton...

  7. 40 CFR 81.304 - Arkansas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Johnson County Logan County Madison County Marion County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk... County Montgomery County Newton County Pike County Polk County Scott County Searcy County Stone County.... Montgomery County Unclassifiable/Attainment. Nevada County Unclassifiable/Attainment. Newton...

  8. Tagmemics: The Study of Units Beyond the Sentence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Kenneth L.; And Others

    In one essay of this collection of four, Kenneth L. Pike explores the value of exercises which are based on axioms about language structure and which are designed specifically to develop writing competence; he lists eight tagmemic principles accompanied by suggested exercises. In another essay, Pike differentiates the roles of linguist and…

  9. Identity: A Complex Structure for Researching Students' Academic Behavior in Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Hodge, Lynn Liao

    2011-01-01

    This article is a response to Pike and Dunne's research. The focus of their analysis is on reflections of studying science post-16. Pike and Dunne draw attention to under enrollments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, in particular, in the field of physics, chemistry and biology in the United Kingdom. We provide an…

  10. The Segments and Tones of Soyaltepec Mazatec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Heather D.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation describes the segments and tones of Soyaltepec Mazatec, an Oto-Manguean language of southern Mexico virtually undescribed in the literature with the exception of Pike (1956). The preliminary work done by Pike and subsequent analyses by Goldsmith (1990) and Pizer (1994) are reviewed giving evidence that the system is complex and…

  11. Big Can Be Great: Enhancing Undergraduate Education at Research-Extensive Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Although recent results from the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) suggest there is considerable variation in levels of undergraduate student engagement within Carnegie institutional classifications, research also suggests different classifications of institutions exhibit different types (Pike and Kuh, 2005) and levels (Pike, Kuh and…

  12. The Reports of Its Death Are Greatly Exaggerated: Tagmemics and the Politics of Indifference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Bruce L.

    In 1965, Richard Young and Alton Becker announced the task of founding a "modern theory of rhetoric," building on the insights of tagmemic linguist, Kenneth Pike. Five years later, their collaboration with Pike resulted in a textbook, "Rhetoric: Discovery and Change," whose broad purpose was to restore invention to its proper…

  13. Wither the Fruited Plain: The Long Expedition and the Description of the "Great American Desert"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Kevin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The view from Pikes Peak is breathtaking. In the summer of 1893, Katherine Lee Bates sat on the summit of Pikes Peak, inspired by the panorama to pen the words to "America the Beautiful." Her poem was set to the tune "Materna" by Samuel Augustus Ward two years later to become one of our nation's most beloved anthems. Many…

  14. 40 CFR 81.301 - Alabama.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... County Marion County Marshall County Mobile County Monroe County Montgomery County Morgan County Perry... County Monroe County Montgomery County Morgan County Perry County Pickens County Pike County Randolph... County Monroe County Montgomery County Morgan County Perry County Pickens County Pike County...

  15. 78 FR 7428 - Notice of Proposed Administrative Cashout Agreement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; In Re: The Miller Salvage Superfund Site, Latham, Pike County.... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement under CERCLA concerning the Miller... should reference the Miller Salvage Superfund Site, Latham, Pike County, Ohio and EPA Docket No....

  16. FACTORS AFFECTING ENHANCED MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION IN INLAND LAKES OF ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent results have shown that 6 of the 43 inland lakes of Isle Royale National Park, the largest island in Lake Superior, contain northen pike with mercury concentrations exceeding health conxumption advisory levels (> 500 ng/g ww). Standard length (550 mm) pike in advisory lake...

  17. 45 CFR 170.299 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 170.207. (2) (f) U.S. National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894; Telephone... June 2012, IBR approved for § 170.207. (m) U.S. National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike... available to the public. All approved material is available for inspection at the National Archives...

  18. 75 FR 10295 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Washington, DC/Rockville Hotel, 1750 Rockville Pike.... Place: Legacy Hotel and Meeting Center, 1775 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Gerald... Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Blvd., Room 8101, Bethesda, MD...

  19. 75 FR 7489 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... applications. Place: Legacy Hotel and Meeting Center, 1775 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person... Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Boulevard, Room 7141, Bethesda, MD 20892.... Place: Hilton Washington/Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person:...

  20. Effectiveness of Preacclimatization Strategies for High-Altitude Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    47 mL·kg 1·min - I (SL YOzpcak)· Prcstaging in hypobaric chamber (4300 m, 446 mm Hg; 8 h); Staging: 6 d at 2200 m ( AFA ); Poststaging: Pikes Peak (4300...assessed before (2200 m, at AFA ) and after rapid ascent to Pikes Peak (4300 m). Nonnobaric hypoxia (NH) rooms and Pikes Peak (4300 m). NH group: 12M and 2...MAR study) resided permanently at sea level (SL). AFA , Air Force Academy; M, Men; W, Women. For all studies, during both the acclimatization

  1. 7. Underside of span, details of deck, stringers, floor beams, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Underside of span, details of deck, stringers, floor beams, bottom-lateral bracing, and north abutment; looking north - Bridge No. 92101, Spanning Pike River at County Highway 373, Embarrass, St. Louis County, MN

  2. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF KEIM FARMHOUSE (at left of photo; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF KEIM FARMHOUSE (at left of photo; the structure at right is the Keim Stone Cabin, HABS No. PA-1041). - Keim House, West of Lobachsville (Pike Township), Lobachsville, Berks County, PA

  3. 78 FR 16685 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pre-graduate, and Indian Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... Ferry Pike, Mississippi, District of Columbia, Nashville, TN 37214, Tele: New Hampshire, New Jersey, New...: Allopathic and Osteopathic. K. Nurse: Associate and Bachelor Degrees and advanced degrees in Psychiatry, Geriatric, Women's Health, Pediatric Nursing, Midwifery, Nurse Anesthetist, and Nurse...

  4. Institutional Self-Study and the Department Chair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, William E.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses some of the criteria and assumptions useful to department chairpeople planning for the future of academic departments. Available from: ACA Bulletin, Robert Hall, Editor, Speech Communication Association, 5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1001, Falls Church, VA 22041. (MH)

  5. The Technological Setting of the Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowlin, Kenneth E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses future possibilities for information technology in public libraries, particularly in view of decreasing computer costs and developmental trends in data processing. The technological developments of the Pikes Peak Regional Library are outlined as an example of feasibility. (CWM)

  6. Curriculum Revision for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applbaum, Ronald L.; Koehler, Jerry W.

    1975-01-01

    Advocates an integrated approach in the formulation of speech communication curriculum. Published by the Association for Communication Administration Bulletin, Staff Coordinator, ACA 5205 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041, $25.00 annual dues. (JW)

  7. A Rating of Doctoral Programs in Speech Communication, 1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Renee; Barker, Larry

    1977-01-01

    Reviews a survey evaluation of speech communication doctoral programs existing in 1976. Available from: ACA Bulletin, Robert Hall, Editor, Speech Communication Association, 5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1001, Falls Church, VA 22041. (MH)

  8. Computers in the Library: The Human Element.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, Lynn L.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses library staff and public reaction to the computerization of library operations at the Pikes Peak Library District in Colorado Springs. An outline of computer applications implemented since the inception of the program in 1975 is included. (EJS)

  9. Graduate Programs in Speech Communication: A Position Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Alvin A.

    1977-01-01

    Details a position paper concerning the major focus of graduate programs in speech communication. Available from: ACA Bulletin, Robert Hall, Editor, Speech Communication Association, 5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1001, Falls Church, VA 22041. (MH)

  10. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey W. S. Stewart, Photographer Sept.14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey W. S. Stewart, Photographer Sept.14, 1936 SMOKE HOUSE (EAST ELEVATION) BELIEVED TO HAVE BEEN USED AS BLOCK HOUSE - Thomas Cooch House, 961 Old Baltimore Pike, Newark, New Castle County, DE

  11. Modification of the ionosphere by large space vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, M.

    Not Available Copyright 1980 by Michael Mendillo. Extracted from ``Space Systems and their Interactions with Earth's Space Environment'' (Vol. 71 of ``Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics'', eds. H.B. Garret and C.P. Pike), 1980

  12. Health Information in Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 7 ...

  13. 10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville...

  14. 10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville...

  15. 10 CFR 1.5 - Location of principal offices and regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... offices in the Washington, DC, area are as follows: (1) One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852-2738. (2) Two White Flint North Building, 11545 Rockville...

  16. 76 FR 44624 - Exelon Generation Co., LLC; Notice of Receipt and Availability of Application for Renewal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... (NPF-85), expires on June 22, 2029. Both units are boiling- water reactors designed by General Electric... document room (PDR), located at One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852...

  17. 76 FR 11522 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) and the South Carolina Public Service Authority...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... combined licenses (COLs) for two AP1000 advanced passive pressurized water reactors at the existing Virgil... White Flint North, Public File Area O1-F21, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland,...

  18. 76 FR 70169 - Draft Supplement 2 to Final Environmental Statement Related to the Operation of Watts Bar Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... available documents at the NRC's PDR, Room O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville... issuance of an operating license that would authorize TVA to possess, use, and operate a second...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: familial HDL deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  20. 76 FR 45300 - Notice of Issuance of Materials License SUA-1597 and Record of Decision for Uranerz Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... source material for the purpose it requested and Uranerz's proposed equipment and procedures for use at... Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. The PDR reproduction contractor will copy documents for a fee. FOR...

  1. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum, San Francisco Bradley & Rulofson, Lithographers c. 1853 ARRIVAL OF THE MAIL - Second Post Office, Historic View, Clay & Pike Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 77 FR 38342 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of June 25, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  3. 77 FR 5063 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, DATE: Week of January 30, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  4. 77 FR 15142 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of March 12, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  5. 76 FR 55718 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding The Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of September 5, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  6. 76 FR 16459 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of March 21, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  7. 75 FR 34489 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Week of June 14, 2010. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  8. 76 FR 62868 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of October 10, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  9. 77 FR 67689 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of November 5, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  10. 76 FR 11525 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORTY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATES: Week of February 28, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  11. 75 FR 68630 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Date: Week of November 1, 2010. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  12. 76 FR 24540 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. DATE: Week of April 25, 2011. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike,...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Krabbe disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... galactosylceramidase. This enzyme deficiency impairs the growth and maintenance of myelin , the protective covering around certain nerve ... Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Muenke syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... protein that is involved in the development and maintenance of bone and brain tissue. A single mutation ... Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA ...

  15. Liquid-free CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in low-permeability reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Mazza, R.L.; Gehr, J.B.

    1995-06-01

    After 16 months of production, CO{sub 2}/sand fractured wells in the Pike County, Kentucky, study area produce 2.0 times more gas than nitrogen gas treated wells and produce 21.9 MMcf additional gas per well. After 16 months of production, CO{sub 2}/sand fractured wells in the Pike County, Kentucky, study area produce 4.4 times more gas than nitrogen foam treated wells and produce 33.1 MMcf additional gas per well. For the Pike County, Kentucky, study area, payout times for the incremental cost of stimulation is estimated conservatively at less than 9 months. Both groups of wells in the Pike County, Kentucky, study area show consistent relative Production improvements compared to the overall study area results.

  16. 78 FR 32407 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852 (Telephone Conference Call). Contact Person: Dennis E. Leszczynski, Ph.D... Washington/Rockville, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Dennis E. Leszczynski,...

  17. 78 FR 32476 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    .... Until 5:00 p.m. The Subcommittee will review and discuss all cyber security-related initiatives at the... Flint North building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD. After registering with security,...

  18. Managing pain during labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

  19. Keeping your medications organized

    MedlinePlus

    ... to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

  20. Managing your depression - teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 ...

  1. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Feb. 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Theodore Webb, Photographer, Feb. 3, 1934 FIREPLACE AND PANELING (LIVING ROOM SOUTHEAST) - Colonel William Whitley House, Stanford-Crab Orchard Pike, Stanford, Lincoln County, KY

  2. 77 FR 58203 - AER Energy Resources, Inc.; Alto Group Holdings, Inc.; Bizrocket.Com Inc.; Fox Petroleum, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... The Pike Productions Inc.; Mobile Star Corp.; SavWatt USA Inc.; Scorpex Inc.; Silver Dragon Resources... concerning the company's operations and the accuracy of its financial statements. 9. Mobile Star Corp. is...

  3. 76 FR 11525 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire...

  4. Meckel's diverticulectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological Basis of Modern Surgical Practice . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017: ... for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  5. 6. West side, details of west truss web and floorbeam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West side, details of west truss web and floor-beam bracing by steel plates and steel rod; looking northeast - Bridge No. 92101, Spanning Pike River at County Highway 373, Embarrass, St. Louis County, MN

  6. 78 FR 64228 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ..., October 16, 2013, 04:00 p.m. to October 17, 2013, 05:00 p.m., Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference.... Additionally, the meeting location has changed to the Hilton Rockville Hotel, 1750 Rockville Pike,...

  7. 19. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. 'SECOND FLOOR PLAN' - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

  8. 22. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. 'NORTH EAST ELEVATION' - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

  9. 20. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. 'SOUTH WEST ELEVATION' - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

  10. 18. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. 'FIRST FLOOR PLAN' - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

  11. 23. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of blackline print in possession of Mrs. William L. Reno. Original drawing by George Locke Howe, Architect 1938. SHEET OF SECTIONS AND ROOM ELEVATIONS - Mr. & Mrs. Charles Collier House, 6080 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, Falls Church, VA

  12. Allergic to Peanuts? Tree Nuts Might Still Be Safe

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services. Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Food Allergy ... Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated ...

  13. Does Mercury in Fish Play a Role in ALS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Food ... Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: adiposis dolorosa

    MedlinePlus

    ... They include the use of medications called corticosteroids, dysfunction of the endocrine system (which produces hormones), or ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... people with this condition can develop severe brain dysfunction (encephalopathy). Even though seizures can be controlled with ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant leukodystrophy with autonomic disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure upon standing (orthostatic hypotension), and erectile dysfunction in men. Rarely, people experience an inability to ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: centronuclear myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other proteins in the sarcomere, leading to dysfunction of the sarcomere. Abnormal sarcomeres prevent muscle fibers ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the mouth and tongue (known as oromotor dysfunction), which leads to drooling, difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), and ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  19. 76 FR 32240 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Instrumentation and Control Systems; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems (DI&C) will hold a meeting on June 7, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  20. 77 FR 13155 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... inspection practices, and/or incidents, and other technical and statistical information are exchanged... Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. OMB clearance requests are available at the NRC's Web site:...

  1. 78 FR 64518 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Panel; ``Immune Mechanisms of Virus Control (U19).'' Date: November 13-14, 2013. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:30... Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Zhuqing Li, Ph.D., Scientific Review...

  2. MedlinePlus: Low Vision Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... reset the text size to the default. Zoom, text size and other features may vary by operating system or mobile device type. ... Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  3. MedlinePlus FAQ: Which viewers and players are used on MedlinePlus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and tablets . This FAQ has information on accessing text alternatives for MedlinePlus video content. Return to the list of ... Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  4. 75 FR 10242 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... miles of new 30-inch- diameter pipeline loop \\1\\ in seven separate segments in Potter, Tioga, Bradford... in Potter, Tioga, Bradford, Susquehanna, and Pike Counties, Pennsylvania, and Sussex County,...

  5. 77 FR 58900 - Mississippi Disaster #MS-00060

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... State of Mississippi (FEMA- 4081-DR), dated 09/11/2012. Incident: Hurricane Isaac. Incident Period: 08..., Jefferson, Jefferson Davis, Lamar, Lawrence, Lincoln, Marion, Newton, Pearl River, Perry, Pike, Smith,...

  6. 78 FR 63170 - Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Washington DC/Rockville Hotel & Executive Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. FOR... Virtual Laboratory: Innovative Framework for Biological and Environmental Grand Challenges Workshop... Committee Management Officer. BILLING CODE 6450-01-P...

  7. Detail of wall in highlift pumping station with Armstrong "Corkoustic" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of wall in high-lift pumping station with Armstrong "Corkoustic" cladding and glazed brick. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  8. View of the main stairway in the highlift pumping station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the main stairway in the high-lift pumping station, looking from the second floor landing to the ground floor. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  9. 78 FR 45983 - Acceptability of Corrective Action Programs for Fuel Cycle Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ..., 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sabrina Atack, Office...-0001; telephone: 301-287-9075; email Sabrina.Atack@nrc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In response...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type 0

    MedlinePlus

    ... Group. Variation in GYS1 interacts with exercise and gender to predict cardiovascular mortality. PLoS One. 2007 Mar ... of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA HONCode ...

  11. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 29, 1940. SUNDIAL With motto: 'Look to your laws rather than progenitors for inheritance.' - Samuel Taylor House, Chatham Pike, Harrodsburg, Mercer County, KY

  12. About Maggie's Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmens, Carol E.

    1982-01-01

    Describes "Maggie's Place," the library computer system of the Pikes Peak Library District, Colorado Springs, Colorado, noting its use as an electronic card catalog and community information file, accessibility by home users and library users, and terminal considerations. (EJS)

  13. 77 FR 69641 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Express, 1775 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: David H. Weinberg, Ph.D., Scientific..., David.Weinberg@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.864,...

  14. 77 FR 69638 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ...: The Holiday Inn Express, 1775 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: David H. Weinberg..., 301-435-6973, David.Weinberg@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos....

  15. 78 FR 14561 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Express, 1775 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: David H. Weinberg, Ph.D., Scientific....Weinberg@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.864, Population Research;...

  16. 78 FR 51753 - AUC, LLC Reno Creek, In Situ Project, New Source Material License Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... at the NRC's PDR, Room O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852..., ambient background, pollutant sources, and the potential for degradation; Noise: Ambient, sources,...

  17. 78 FR 48726 - Placement of the Georgia Agreement State Program on Probation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lisa Dimmick, Office of Federal and..., DC 20555, telephone: 301-415-0694, email: Lisa.Dimmick@nrc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  18. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM NORTH OF NORTHEAST (FRONT) AND NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM NORTH OF NORTHEAST (FRONT) AND NORTHWEST SIDE - 14th Regiment New Jersey Volunteer Infantry Monument, Off Urbana Pike near Railroad Bridge, Frederick, Frederick County, MD

  19. Interactions between predator- and diet-induced phenotypic changes in body shape of crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Jens; Johansson, Frank; Söderlund, Tony

    2006-02-22

    Predator cues and diet, when studied separately, have been shown to affect body shape of organisms. Previous studies show that the morphological responses to predator absence/presence and diet may be similar, and hence could confound the interpretation of the causes of morphological differences found between groups of individuals. In this study, we simultaneously examined the effect of these two factors on body shape and performance in crucian carp in a laboratory experiment. Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) developed a shallow body shape when feeding on zooplankton prey and a deep body shape when feeding on benthic chironomids. In addition, the presence of chemical cues from a pike predator affected body shape, where a shallow body shape was developed in the absence of pike and a deep body shape was developed in the presence of pike. Foraging activity was low in the presence of pike cues and when chironomids were given as prey. Our results thereby suggest that the change in body shape could be indirectly mediated through differences in foraging activity. Finally, the induced body shape changes affected the foraging efficiency, where crucians raised on a zooplankton diet or in the absence of pike cues had a higher foraging success on zooplankton compared to crucian raised on a chironomid diet or in the presence of pike. These results suggest that body changes in response to predators can be associated with a cost, in terms of competition for resources.

  20. A Literature Review of Processes for Gravel Deposit Identification in the Lower Mississippi River

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    25 Figure 18. Interpretation of GPR data collected near an active sand and gravel quarry (Lucius et al...resistivity, ground penetrat- ing radar ( GPR ), time domain electromagnetism (TDEM), and frequency domain electromagnetism (FDEM). A brief summary of...exploration. GPR is an electromagnetic method that depends on the propagation of high-frequency (10-MHz to 3-GHz) electro- magnetic energy in the ground

  1. Seneca's contribution to astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pljakić, Branislava

    2002-04-01

    In this paper is shown the work of Lucius Anaeus Seneca "Natural Questiones", Book 7th relating to comets from 1st to 14th as well as 24th chapter. Although Seneca was not an astronomer he reached some very interesting conclusions. Besides that he introduces us in his work to the knowledge which had been gained before him as well as to the then obtained fallacies.

  2. The impact of electrogenic sulfur oxidation on the biogeochemistry of coastal sediments: A field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Velde, Sebastiaan; Lesven, Ludovic; Burdorf, Laurine D. W.; Hidalgo-Martinez, Silvia; Geelhoed, Jeanine S.; Van Rijswijk, Pieter; Gao, Yue; Meysman, Filip J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Electro-active sediments distinguish themselves from other sedimentary environments by the presence of microbially induced electrical currents in the surface layer of the sediment. The electron transport is generated by metabolic activity of long filamentous cable bacteria, in a process referred to as electrogenic sulfur oxidation (e-SOx). Laboratory experiments have shown that e-SOx exerts a large impact on the sediment geochemistry, but its influence on the in situ geochemistry of marine sediments has not been previously investigated. Here, we document the biogeochemical cycling associated with e-SOx in a cohesive coastal sediment in the North Sea (Station 130, Belgian Coastal Zone) during three campaigns (January, March and May 2014). Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that cable bacteria were present in high densities throughout the sampling period, and that filaments penetrated up to 7 cm deep in the sediment, which is substantially deeper than previously recorded. High resolution microsensor profiling (pH, H2S and O2) revealed the typical geochemical fingerprint of e-SOx, with a wide separation (up to 4.8 cm) between the depth of oxygen penetration and the depth of sulfide appearance. The metabolic activity of cable bacteria induced a current density of 25-32 mA m-2 and created an electrical field of 12-17 mV m-1 in the upper centimeters of the sediment. This electrical field created an ionic drift, which strongly affected the depth profiles and fluxes of major cations (Ca2+, Fe2+) and anions (SO42-) in the pore water. The strong acidification of the pore water at depth resulted in the dissolution of calcium carbonates and iron sulfides, thus leading to a strong accumulation of iron, calcium and manganese in the pore water. While sulfate accumulated in the upper centimeters, no significant effect of e-SOx was found on ammonium, phosphate and silicate depth profiles. Overall, our results demonstrate that cable bacteria can strongly modulate the

  3. The impact of electrogenic sulfide oxidation on elemental cycling and solute fluxes in coastal sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Alexandra M. F.; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Hidalgo-Martinez, Silvia; Meysman, Filip J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous sulfide oxidizing cable bacteria are capable of linking the oxidation of free sulfide in deep anoxic layers of marine sediments to the reduction of oxygen or nitrate in surface sediments by conducting electrons over centimeter-scale distances. Previous studies have shown that this newly discovered microbial process, referred to as electrogenic sulfide oxidation (e-SOx), may alter elemental cycling in sediments, but the nature and rates of the resulting biogeochemical transformations and their influence on benthic-pelagic coupling remain largely unknown. Here we quantify changes in sediment geochemistry and solute fluxes at the sediment-water interface as e-SOx develops and declines over time in laboratory incubations of organic-rich sediments from a seasonally hypoxic coastal basin (Marine Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands). Our results show that e-SOx enhanced sediment O2 consumption and acidified subsurface sediment, resulting in the dissolution of calcium carbonate and iron sulfide minerals in deeper sediment horizons and the associated accumulation of dissolved iron, manganese, and calcium in porewater. Remobilized Fe diffusing upward was reoxidized at the sediment-water interface, producing an amorphous Fe oxide crust, while dissolved Fe diffusing downward was reprecipitated in the form of FeS as it encountered the free sulfide horizon. The development of e-SOx enhanced the diffusive release of dissolved Mn at the sediment-water interface, capped the phosphate efflux, generated a buildup of organic matter in surface sediments, and strongly stimulated the release of alkalinity from the sediment. About 75% of this alkalinity production was associated with net CaCO3 dissolution, while the remaining 25% was attributed to a pumping mechanism that transfers alkalinity from anodic H2S oxidation (an alkalinity sink) in deeper sediments to cathodic O2 reduction (an alkalinity source) near the sediment-water interface. The resulting sediment alkalinity

  4. The association of phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer A with hepatic insulin receptor enhances its kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chi Bun; Liu, Xia; He, Kunyan; Qi, Qi; Jung, Dae Y; Kim, Jason K; Ye, Keqiang

    2011-07-01

    Dysfunction of hepatic insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (IRTK) causes the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanism regulating IRTK activity in the liver remains poorly understood. Here, we show that phosphoinositide 3-kinase enhancer A (PIKE-A) is a new insulin-dependent enhancer of hepatic IRTK. Liver-specific Pike-knockout (LPKO) mice display glucose intolerance with impaired hepatic insulin sensitivity. Specifically, insulin-provoked phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signalling is diminished in the liver of LPKO mice, leading to the failure of insulin-suppressed gluconeogenesis and hyperglycaemia. Thus, hepatic PIKE-A has a key role in mediating insulin signal transduction and regulating glucose homeostasis in the liver.

  5. 75 FR 4576 - Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting... the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. General Function of the... Rockville Pike, Rockville MD 20852, 301-468-1100. Contact Person: Aleta Sindelar, Center for...

  6. 21 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Elements To Be Considered in Developing a Two-Way Alert System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Quality (HFM-600), 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, phone: 301-827-6190, fax: 301-594-1944. Human Drugs: Director, Office of Compliance, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, phone... (HFV-200), MPN II, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD 20855-2773, phone: 301-827-6644, fax: 301-594-1807....

  7. 21 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Elements To Be Considered in Developing a Two-Way Alert System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Quality (HFM-600), 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, phone: 301-827-6190, fax: 301-594-1944. Human Drugs: Director, Office of Compliance, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, phone... (HFV-200), MPN II, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD 20855-2773, phone: 301-827-6644, fax: 301-594-1807....

  8. 21 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Elements To Be Considered in Developing a Two-Way Alert System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Quality (HFM-600), 1401 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, phone: 301-827-6190, fax: 301-594-1944. Human Drugs: Director, Office of Compliance, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, phone... (HFV-200), MPN II, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD 20855-2773, phone: 301-827-6644, fax: 301-594-1807....

  9. Videotape Recording of Narcotic Addicts in Group Therapy: The Analysis of Communicational and Interactive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soloway, Irv

    An approach to the study of drug sub-culture groups and a model for predictive research in the identification and isolation of heroin addicts are developed in this thesis. The basic methodologies employed are the linguistic methods of Kenneth Pike and Claude Levi-Strauss for use in the analysis of social phenomena. Communicative mechanisms by…

  10. 75 FR 70041 - Sunshine Act Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ...: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. STATUS: Public and closed. Week of..., 2010--Tentative Tuesday, November 30, 2010 1 p.m. Briefing on Security Issues (Closed--Ex. 1). Week of... Program (cROP) (Public Meeting); (Contact: Aida Rivera-Varona, 301-415-4001). This meeting will be...

  11. 75 FR 53353 - Sunshine Act Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ...' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. STATUS: Public and Closed. Week of August 30...--Tentative Wednesday, September 29, 2010 1 p.m. Briefing on Resolution of Generic Safety Issue (GSI)--191, Assessment of Debris Accumulation on Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Sump Performance (Public...

  12. Notes on Linguistics, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notes on Linguistics, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of this quarterly linguistics and language research serial issued during 1992. Typical significant articles include: "The Indispensable Tape Recorder" (Geoffrey Hunt); "Analysis of Tone Systems" (Eunice V. Pike); "Sentence Repetition Testing for Studies of Community Bilingualism: An Introduction" (Carla F.…

  13. 76 FR 23848 - Carolina Power And Light Company; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Renewed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Report methodologies list. This change would have allowed the use of the thermal-hydraulic computer...), Revision 0, was approved by the NRC on April 9, 2003, for the application of the S- RELAP5 thermal... Flint North, Public File Area O1 F21, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville, Maryland....

  14. Evaluation of Insulation Materials and Combinations for Bulkhead Fire Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-20

    fire. (This evaluation condition was suggested by Mr. J. Morris to Mr. R. C. Manahan of Johns - Manville during a visit by Mr. Manahan to the Naval Ship...and Concord Pike Wilmington, Delaware 19897 Telephone: (302) 575-3000 5. Johns - Manville Corporation CERAFELT, CERABLANKET P. 0. Box 5108 Flexible MIN

  15. Non-Discriminatory Discrimination: An Overview of the Discrimination Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasman, Zachary D.; Clark, R. Theodore, Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Surveys the objectives of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the court decisions and complex administrative regulations which have followed from it, focusing on the cases of Griggs vs. Duke Power Co., Johnson vs. Pike Corp. of America, and Long vs. Ford Motor Co. (JM)

  16. Science First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, Diane

    2005-01-01

    At the elementary level, when children learn best through hands-on activities, when is the best time to use literacy and make that connection to enhance learning? For teachers involved in Colorado Springs, Colorado, Science Teacher Enhancement Program Unifying the Pikes Peak Region, STEP-uP professional development program for teachers, it is…

  17. The effects of different predator species on antipredator behavior in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botham, M. S.; Kerfoot, C. J.; Louca, V.; Krause, J.

    2006-09-01

    Different types of predators often elicit different antipredator responses in a common type of prey. Alternatively, some prey species may adopt a general response, which provides limited protection from many different types of predator. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is faced with a wide range of different predators throughout its range and is known to display varying levels of antipredator behavior depending on the predator assemblage. Pike cichlids, Crenicichla frenata, are regarded as the primary aquatic guppy predator in streams in the northern mountain range in Trinidad. As such, they are seen to be responsible for many of the differences in morphology, life history traits, and behavior between guppy populations from areas with few predators and those from areas with many pike cichlids. In this study we investigated how guppies responded when faced with different predator species using three common aquatic predators. We exposed shoals of ten guppies to one out of four treatments: no predator (control), pike cichlid, acara cichlid ( Aequidens pulcher), and wolf fish ( Hoplias malabaricus); and we made behavioral observations on both focal individuals and the shoal as a whole. Guppies showed significantly greater levels of predator inspection and shoaling behavior, foraged less, spent more time in the surface water, and stayed in significantly larger shoals when faced with pike cichlids than in other treatments. We discuss these results in the context of multiple predator effects.

  18. Internships in Organizational Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Cal W.

    1975-01-01

    Considers the present status of intern programs for students of organizational communication and suggests possible future developments. (JW) Published by the Association for Communication Administration Bulletin, Staff Coordinator, ACA 5202 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041, $25.00 annual dues.

  19. The Use of Solid Aluminum Heat Transfer Devices in Organic Chemistry Laboratory Instruction and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodwig, Siegfried N.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a practical and attractive alternative to the sand bath used in the microscale procedures developed by Mayo, Pike, and Butcher. Urges the organic chemistry teaching community to continue towards complete conversion to microscale techniques. Presents the use of aluminum devices in the microlaboratory. (MVL)

  20. Is the Russian /y/ an Allophone of /i/?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaskacz, Bohdan

    Reasons for the structural or functional classification of the Russian /y/ as an allophone of /i/ are explained in this article. Theory countering this classification, proposed by L.V. Scherba and L.R. Zinder, is also presented. Additionally, comments by Kenneth Pike support the author's criticism of the structuralist approach to the problem. (RL)

  1. Correlates of Overrating and Underrating of Cognitive Competence among Kindergarten Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assor, Avi; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Used Harter and Pike's (1984) Pictorial Scale for Young Children to examine self-overrating and self-underrating in cognitive competence among 158 Israeli kindergarten children. Results showed that overrating and underrating in the cognitive domain were associated with similar tendencies in the physical, peer, and mother acceptance domains. (TE)

  2. Measures of Native and Non-Native Rhythm in a Quantity Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockmal, Verna; Markus, Dace; Bond, Dzintra

    2005-01-01

    The traditional phonetic classification of language rhythm as stress-timed or syllable-timed is attributed to Pike. Recently, two different proposals have been offered for describing the rhythmic structure of languages from acoustic-phonetic measurements. Ramus has suggested a metric based on the proportion of vocalic intervals and the variability…

  3. How to Measure the Radius of the Earth on Your Beach Vacation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Zachary H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a method for determining the distance to the horizon which leads to determining the radius of the Earth. The article answers two interesting science questions: (1) Can you see the state of Kansas from Pike's Peak in Colorado? and (2) Can you see two sunsets in one day on the Keys of Florida? (MVL)

  4. Phonology and Language: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arezzo, Emilia La Pergola

    1978-01-01

    This article first gives the definition of "phonology" most widely accepted today, and then illustrates briefly the role that phonology has had in the works of European and American linguists, such as De Saussure, Trubetckoj, Sapir, Bloomfield, H. Sweet, D. Jones, O. Jesperson, K. Pike, Trager and Smith, and N. Chomsky. (CFM)

  5. Seamless Education Through Distance Learning: State Policy Initiatives for Community College K-12 Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Suzanna; Tatroe, Randy L.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a brief description of successful distance-learning partnerships between rural K-12 schools and community colleges in Connecticut, Texas, New Mexico, and New York. Offers an in-depth analysis of how Pikes Peak Community College (PPCC) has extended education to rural communities. Reviews issues in technology, life-long learning,…

  6. Meeting the Learning Needs of Students: A Rural High-Need School District's Systemic Leadership Development Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Maynard, Brenda

    2005-01-01

    The Principals Excellence Program (PEP), a cohort-based professional development project for administrator-certified practitioners, is one of 24 projects across the United States supported by federal funds from the No Child Left Behind legislation. The three-year program is conducted through a partnership between Pike County School District, a…

  7. The Use of Portable Microcomputers for Library Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowlin, Kenneth E.; Hawley, Brenda G.

    1984-01-01

    Describes Pikes Peak Library District's innovative use of portable microcomputers to accomplish an inexpensive collection inventory. The Radio Shack Model 100 battery-operated microcomputer was used as a data-capture device for updating status records of the library's regular automated circulation and cataloging programs. (Author/MBR)

  8. Anglo and Latin: The Cultural Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucklin, L. Brice

    Commentary on cultural differences between the Anglo-American and Spanish-American cultures focuses on food, role playing, division of labor, and the concept of making "-etic" and "-emic" distinctions in culture study. Reference is made analagously to the work of Kenneth Pike, to Howard Nostrand's remarks on Eskimo culture, and to Americo Castro's…

  9. Community Information in the 80s: Towards the Automation of Information and Referral Files.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shroder, Emelie J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Four papers describe systems adopted by public libraries in the United States for computerizing community information services and information and referral programs. Word processing at the Fresno County Information and Referral Network and the automation of library processes in the Pikes Peak Library District are among the topics discussed. (JL)

  10. Forensics and Speech Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBath, James H.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on the importance of integrating forensics programs into the speech communication curriculum. Maintains that debating and argumentation skills increase the probability of academic success. Published by the Association for Communication Administration Bulletin, Staff Coordinator, ACA 5205 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041, $25.00 annual…

  11. Reading Research on Core Values, Christian Ethos and School Transformation at England's Most Improved Academy: A Reply to Bragg, Allington, Simmons and Jones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's reply to the comments of Bragg, Allington, Simmons and Jones to his article "Transaction and transformation at Trinity" (Pike, 2010) wherein he reported a case study of Trinity Academy, which serves a former mining community and social priority area near Doncaster in South Yorkshire. In 2008, just…

  12. Younger Children's Changing Self-Concepts: Boys and Girls from Preschool through Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

    2006-01-01

    The author investigated age- and gender-related changes in self-evaluative judgments of 87 children followed from preschool through 2nd grade. Focusing on cognitive, physical, and peer competence assessed by the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA; S. Harter & R. Pike, 1984), the author tested PSPCSA subscale…

  13. 25 CFR 242.6 - Spawning season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spawning season. 242.6 Section 242.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.6 Spawning season. Walleye and northern pike (or pickerel) shall not be taken during...

  14. Some Practical Criteria for Developing Courses for Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Diana

    1977-01-01

    Examines speech communication course development at the community college level and offers suggestions for dealing with problems of transferring course work to the four-year college and serving the career student enrolled in a two-year program. Available from: ACA Bulletin, Robert Hall, Editor, Speech Communication Association, 5205 Leesburg Pike,…

  15. The Potential for Development of a Clearinghouse for Emergency Information in the Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, Lynn L.; Dowlin, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    Presents the role of the Pikes Peak Library District's services in the creation and dissemination of an online clearinghouse in all four phases of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Seven agencies and organizations involved in the network of community information that has been created are briefly described.…

  16. FACTORS AFFECTING ENHANCED MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION IN INLAND LAKES OF ISLE ROYALE NATIONAL PARK, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated factors causing mercury (Hg) concentrations in northern pike to exceed the consumption advisory level in some inland lakes of Isle Royale National Park. Using Hg-clean techniques, we collected water, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, and fishes in 1998 and 1999 fro...

  17. Speech-Language Pathologists and Autistic Children: What Is Our Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prizant, Barry M.

    1982-01-01

    The speech/language pathologist's role in planning and executing a program for autistic children that emphasizes the development of communication and interaction skills is addressed. Journal Availability: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 10801 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. (SEW)

  18. A Modern Theory of Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneupper, Charles W.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews Kenneth Pike's tagmemic theory and its application to rhetorical concerns generally. Explains his epistemological assumptions. Presents a model for speech classroom use, which allows rhetors to channel their thought processes consciously and to vary their perspectives in search of a fuller understanding of any subject. (PD)

  19. Teacher Practices in a High Performing, Appalachian Rural High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estep, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory case study was to identify, investigate, and describe factors that contributed to the academic success of Phelps High School, a rural, isolated, Appalachian high school in Pike County Kentucky. The academic index of the school in 2000 was 48% and in a six year period the academic index of the school improved to 94%.…

  20. What a Strong Speech Communication Curricular Offering Should Be at a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Jo-Ann

    1977-01-01

    Suggests methods of curriculum development in the speech communication discipline that would offer students opportunities to acquire information and master skills that will enhance academic success and career development. Available from: ACA Bulletin, Robert Hall, Editor, Speech Communication Association, 5205 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1001, Falls…

  1. Partitioning: splitting fact from fiction.

    PubMed

    Pike, Brian

    2012-05-01

    Many larger hospitals are sprawling complexes with endless corridors and rooms of varying purpose. While cleanliness and infection control are, understandably, leading considerations in any hospital building, fire safety also plays a crucial role. Here Brian Pike MBE, technical consultant at partitioning system designer and manufacturer, Komfort Workspace, looks at how current fire guidelines impact on the use of partitioning systems in hospital premises.

  2. Studies on Nutrition - USSR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    carrots 17); Pumpkin 18) Onions 19) Spinach 20) Parsley , root 21) Parsley , greens 22) Bests 23) Fresh cabbage 24) Fresh potatoes 25) Tomato...of fat 54) Fresh pike-perch 55) Spinach 56) Parsley 57) Signatures: Pood Sanitation Physician 58) Calculator 59) Chief cook 60)•Sugar

  3. 78 FR 70598 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ..., 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The meeting will be open to public... the meeting that are open to the public. Detailed procedures for the conduct of and participation in... Doc. 2013-28326 Filed 11-25-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  4. 75 FR 18907 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on the Proposed Model Safety Evaluation for Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Management System (ADAMS) under Accession Number ML092510374. The proposed changes revise the Standard... reflect the contents of the facility design bases related to the operability of the RCS leakage detection... North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. NRC's Agencywide Documents Access and...

  5. 77 FR 1089 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings AGENCY: Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission DATES: Week of January 9, 2012. Place: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. Status: Public and Closed. Additional...

  6. 75 FR 68611 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... given of the meeting of the National Cancer Advisory Board. The meeting will be open to the public as... Board. Open: December 7, 2010, 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Agenda: Program reports and presentations; business of the Board. Place: National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 31, C Wing,...

  7. 77 FR 50087 - Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... of the Secretary Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB); Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Reserve Forces Policy... Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB) will take place. DATES: Wednesday, September 5, 2012, from 8 a.m. to 4... (Facsimile), RFPB@osd.mil . Mailing address is Reserve Forces Policy Board, 5113 Leesburg Pike, Suite...

  8. Brain-Computer Interfaces: A Gentle Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graimann, Bernhard; Allison, Brendan; Pfurtscheller, Gert

    Stardate 3012.4: The U.S.S. Enterprise has been diverted from its original course to meet its former captain Christopher Pike on Starbase 11. When Captain Jim Kirk and his crew arrive, they find out that Captain Pike has been severely crippled by a radiation accident. As a consequence of this accident Captain Pike is completely paralyzed and confined to a wheelchair controlled by his brain waves. He can only communicate through a light integrated into his wheelchair to signal the answers "yes" or "no". Commodore Mendez, the commander of Starbase 11, describes the condition of Captain Pike as follows: "He is totally unable to move, Jim. His wheelchair is constructed to respond to his brain waves. He can turn it, move it forwards, backwards slightly. Through a flashing light he can say 'yes' or 'no'. But that's it, Jim. That is as much as the poor ever can do. His mind is as active as yours and mine, but it's trapped in a useless vegetating body. He's kept alive mechanically. A battery driven heart. …"

  9. 75 FR 8410 - Carolina Power & Light Company: H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... structures, water, or land at the HBRSEP site. The proposed action is in accordance with the licensee's... changes to land use or water use, or result in changes to the quality or quantity of non- radiological...), located at One White Flint North, Public File Area O1 F21, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor),...

  10. 75 FR 57820 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC.; Combined License Application for Comanche Peak Nuclear Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... FSAR update, Revision 3 of the United States--Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (US-APWR) Design... have any foreseeable impacts to land, air, or water resources, including impacts to biota. In addition... White Flint North, Public File Area O1 F21, 11555 Rockville Pike (first floor), Rockville,...

  11. 76 FR 2725 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Water-Control Structures Associated with Nuclear Power Plants,'' is temporarily identified by its task..., and other water-control structures associated with emergency cooling water systems or flood protection..., One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. NRC's Agencywide...

  12. 75 FR 79933 - Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... and Adjudications Staff. Comments may also be hand delivered to the One White Flint North Building... Regulatory Commission's Public Document Room, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Room O-1F21... 1990 (OBRA-90), as amended. Based on the Energy and Water Development and Related...

  13. 77 FR 44268 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ...., Alexandria (Independent City), 12000516 Alleghany County Clifton Forge Historic District, Roughly bounded by... Forge, 12000517 Loudoun County Lovettsville Historic District, Roughly N. & S. Berlin Pike, E. Broad Way... WISCONSIN Rock County St. John's Lutheran Church, 312 S. 3rd St., Evansville, 12000521 BILLING CODE...

  14. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: Building Resilience in the U.S. Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-24

    Sharing Knowledge: Achieving Breakthrough Performance 2010 Military Health System Conference Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: Building...Military Health System,5111 Leesburg Pike, Skyline 5,Falls Church,VA,22041 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES presented at the 2011 Military Health System Conference, January 24-27

  15. 76 FR 1376 - Physical Protection of Irradiated Reactor Fuel in Transit Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... attacks of September 11, 2001. The proposed rule would establish the acceptable performance standards and... their comments that they do not want publicly disclosed. You can access publicly available documents... Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. NRC's Agency-wide Document Access and...

  16. 78 FR 45960 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Jefferson City, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... Department of Natural Resources professional staff in consultation with representatives of the Sac & Fox Nation, Oklahoma; Sac & Fox of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska; and the Sac & Fox Tribe of the... University of Missouri-Columbia. The area of Pike County, MO, was ceded by the Sauk and Fox in a series...

  17. 77 FR 71173 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... the Military Health System (MHS) with a comprehensive enterprise wide Blood Donor Management System... the instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 4800 Mark... Management System (DHIMS), ATTN: COL Aaron J. Silver, 5109 Leesburg Pike, Skyline 6, Suite 703, Falls...

  18. 75 FR 49547 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Indiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... highway projects for a 28.7 mile segment of I-69 in the Counties of Gibson, Pike and Daviess, State of Indiana, and a 25.73 mile segment of I-69 in the Counties of Daviess and Greene, State of Indiana, and... Section 2 of the I-69 highway project from Evansville to Indianapolis and issued a Record of...

  19. 45 CFR 5.31 - Designation of authorized officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... records, except as follows: (i) CDC and ATSDR Freedom of Information Officer. If the records you seek are... Registry, only the Director, Office of Public Affairs, CDC, who also is the CDC and ATSDR Freedom of... Health, Building 31, Room 2B39, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, Tel: (301) 496-5633...

  20. 45 CFR 5.31 - Designation of authorized officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... records, except as follows: (i) CDC and ATSDR Freedom of Information Officer. If the records you seek are... Registry, only the Director, Office of Public Affairs, CDC, who also is the CDC and ATSDR Freedom of... Health, Building 31, Room 2B39, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, Tel: (301) 496-5633...