Sample records for pill tongkat ali

  1. Simultaneous quantitation of six major quassinoids in Tongkat Ali dietary supplements by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Young Min; Jang, Moonhee; Kim, In Sook; Kim, Seung Hyun; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2015-07-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) is one of the most popular traditional herbs in Southeast Asia and generally consumed as forms of dietary supplements, tea, or drink additives for coffee or energy beverages. In this study, the liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantitation of six major quassinoids of Tongkat Ali (eurycomanone, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, 13α(21)-epoxyeurycomanone, 14,15β-dihydroxyklaineanone, eurycomalactone, and longilactone) was developed and validated. Using the developed method, the content of the six quassinoids was measured in Tongkat Ali containing dietary supplement tablets or capsules, and the resulting data were used to confirm the presence of Tongkat Ali in those products. Among the six quassinoids, eurycomanone was the most abundant quassinoid in all samples tested. The developed method would be useful for the quality assessment of Tongkat Ali containing dietary supplements. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Contamination of mercury in tongkat Ali hitam herbal preparations.

    PubMed

    Ang, H H; Lee, K L

    2006-08-01

    The DCA (Drug Control Authority), Malaysia has implemented the phase three registration of traditional medicines on 1 January 1992. As such, a total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation found in Malaysia, containing tongkat Ali hitam, either single or combined preparations, were analyzed for the presence of a heavy toxic metal, mercury, using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after performing a simple random sampling to enable each sample an equal chance of being selected in an unbiased manner. Results showed that 26% of these products possessed 0.53-2.35 ppm of mercury, and therefore, do not comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. The quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia is not exceeding 0.5 ppm for mercury. Out of these 26 products, four products have already registered with the DCA, Malaysia whilst the rest, however, have not registered with the DCA, Malaysia.

  3. Determination of mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer in Tongkat Ali preparations obtained in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ang, Hooi-Hoon; Lee, Ee-Lin; Cheang, Hui-Seong

    2004-01-01

    The DCA (Drug Control Authority), Malaysia, has implemented the phase 3 registration of traditional medicines on 1 January 1992, with special emphasis on the quality, efficacy, and safety (including the presence of heavy metals) in all pharmaceutical dosage forms of traditional medicine preparations. As such, a total of 100 products in various pharmaceutical dosage forms of a herbal preparation, containing Tongkat Ali, were analyzed for mercury content using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that 36% of the above products possessed 0.52 to 5.30 ppm of mercury and, therefore, do not comply with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia. Out of these 36 products, 5 products that possessed 1.05 to 4.41 ppm of mercury were in fact have already registered with the DCA, Malaysia. However, the rest of the products that contain 0.52 to 5.30 ppm of mercury still have not registered with the DCA, Malaysia. Although this study showed that only 64% of the products complied with the quality requirement for traditional medicines in Malaysia pertaining to mercury, they cannot be assumed safe from mercury contamination because of batch-to-batch inconsistency.

  4. 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production in elicited hairy roots culture of Eurycoma longifolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nazirah; Ismail, Ismanizan; Hassan, Nor Hasnida; Basherudin, Norlia

    2016-11-01

    Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) is a highly sought after medicinal plant in Malaysia. Propagation of E. longifolia through tissue culture has been reported in order to cater the industry demands for planting and raw materials as well as for conservation purposes. E. longifolia hairy roots culture has been developed using Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of Tongkat Ali phytochemicals. Effects of three elicitors; methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and yeast extract at different concentrations were evaluated on the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in E. longifolia hairy roots. The cultures were elicited at early exponential growth phase, followed by extraction of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one using methanol and HPLC analysis. Elicitation with methyl jasmonate at all concentrations increased 9-methoxycanthin-6-one up to 1-3 fold and treatment with (0.1 mM) was most efficient in enhancing 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production up to 3.902 mg/g dry weight after 7 days (168 hours) elicitation.

  5. Pill counts and pill rental: unintended entrepreneurial opportunities.

    PubMed

    Viscomi, Christopher M; Covington, Melissa; Christenson, Catherine

    2013-07-01

    Prescription opioid diversion and abuse are becoming increasingly prevalent in many regions of the world, particularly the United States. One method advocated to assess compliance with opioid prescriptions is occasional "pill counts." Shortly before a scheduled appointment, a patient is notified that they must bring in the unused portion of their opioid prescription. It has been assumed that if a patient has the correct number and strength of pills that should be present for that point in a prescription interval that they are unlikely to be selling or abusing their opioids. Two cases are presented where patients describe short term rental of opioids from illicit opioid dealers in order to circumvent pill counts. Pill renting appears to be an established method of circumventing pill counts. Pill counts do not assure non-diversion of opioids and provide additional cash flow to illicit opioid dealers.

  6. Methamphetamine Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... Careers Our People Staff Volunteers Board of Directors Science Advisory Board Newsroom Annual Report & Financials Frequently Asked Questions Contact Search for: Search Home Drug Guide Methamphetamine Pills Methamphetamine Pills Know the facts about methamphetamine pills and connect with help and ...

  7. Birth Control Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Pill KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Pill What's in this article? What Is It? ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  8. Patient understanding of oral contraceptive pill instructions related to missed pills: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Lauren B; Steenland, Maria W; Brahmi, Dalia; Marchbanks, Polly A; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2013-05-01

    Instructions on what to do after pills are missed are critical to reducing unintended pregnancies resulting from patient non-adherence to oral contraceptive (OC) regimens. Missed pill instructions have previously been criticized for being too complex, lacking a definition of what is meant by "missed pills," and for being confusing to women who may not know the estrogen content of their formulation. To help inform the development of missed pill guidance to be included in the forthcoming US Selected Practice Recommendations, the objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence on patient understanding of missed pill instructions. We searched the PubMed database for peer-reviewed articles that examined patient understanding of OC pill instructions that were published in any language from inception of the database through March 2012. We included studies that examined women's knowledge and understanding of missed pill instructions after exposure to some written material (e.g., patient package insert, brochure), as well as studies that compared different types of missed pill instructions on women's comprehension. We used standard abstract forms and grading systems to summarize and assess the quality of the evidence. From 1620 articles, nine studies met our inclusion criteria. Evidence from one randomized controlled trial (RCT) and two descriptive studies found that more women knew what to do after missing 1 pill than after missing 2 or 3 pills (Level I, good, to Level II-3, poor), and two descriptive studies found that more women knew what to do after missing 2 pills than after missing 3 pills (Level II-3, fair). Data from two descriptive studies documented the difficulty women have understanding missed pill instructions contained in patient package inserts (Level II-3, poor), and evidence from two RCTs found that providing written brochures with information on missed pill instructions in addition to contraceptive counseling significantly improved

  9. Definition of ALI/ARDS.

    PubMed

    Raghavendran, Krishnan; Napolitano, Lena M

    2011-07-01

    Although acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are caused by different injuries and conditions, their similar clinical picture makes a compelling case for them to be studied as a single entity. An array of potential specific targets for pharmacologic intervention can be applied to ALI/ARDS as one disease. Although a working definition of ALI/ARDS that includes pulmonary and extrapulmonary causes can have benefit in standardizing supportive care, it can also complicate assessments of the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. In this article, definitions that have been recently used for ALI/ARDS in various clinical studies are discussed individually. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. "Take your pill": the role and fantasy of pills in modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Leder, Drew; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2014-06-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has undergone a vast expansion in the 20th and 21st centuries. This article explores the central role now played by pills in clinical practice, but also in the public imagination. First, this article analyzes four properties that, together, account for many of the promises and perils associated with pills: They are ingestible, potent, reproducible, and miniaturized. This allows them to serve as ideal consumer items for widespread distribution and sale and also as model technological "devices" capable of downloading into the body healing chemicals. As such, they seem to promise a disburdening solution to many of life's ills. In our cultural fantasy, often shared by physician and patient alike, pills can be used not only to treat and prevent disease but also raise energy, lose weight, lessen pain, lift mood, cope with stress, and enhance sexual and athletic performance. This article also explores many adverse effects not only of pills themselves but of this exaggerated cultural fantasy of the pill. It tends to distract us from other, more holistic understandings of the locus of disease and healing. It even fosters misunderstandings of the ways in which pills themselves work, which is to assist bodily processes, and the mind's "meaning response." The intent here is not to demonize all pills-many have great therapeutic potential-but to learn how to better choose and use them wisely. We propose that this process be assisted through recontextualizing the pill as a multidimensional gift. Taken in such a way, with appropriate gratitude and discernment, we may ingest fewer pills, but with greater efficacy.

  11. Progestin-only pills for contraception.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A; Lopez, Laureen M; O'Brien, Paul A; Raymond, Elizabeth G

    2010-01-20

    The introduction of a new progestin-only oral contraceptive in Europe has renewed interest in this class of oral contraceptives. Unlike the more widely used combined oral contraceptives containing an estrogen plus progestin, these pills contain only a progestin (progestogen) and are taken without interruption. How these pills compare to others in their class or to combined oral contraceptives is not clear. This review examined randomized controlled trials of progestin-only pills for differences in efficacy, acceptability, and continuation rates. We searched the computerized databases MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), POPLINE, LILACS, and EMBASE for studies of progestin-only pills. We also searched for current trials via ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP. We included all randomized controlled trials in any language that included progestin-only pills for contraception. We incorporated any comparison with a progestin-only pill; this could include different doses, other progestin-only pills, combined oral contraceptives, or other contraceptives. The first author abstracted the data and entered the information into RevMan 5. Another author performed a second, independent data abstraction to verify the initial data entry. Because of disparate exposures, we were not able to combine studies in meta-analysis. Six trials met the inclusion criteria. In the trial comparing the desogestrel versus levonorgestrel progestin-only pill, desogestrel was not associated with a significantly lower risk of accidental pregnancy; the rate ratio was 0.27 (95% CI 0.06 to 1.19). However, the desogestrel progestin-only pill caused more bleeding problems, although this difference was not statistically significant. The trial comparing low-dose mifepristone versus a levonorgestrel progestin-only pill found similar pregnancy rates. In the trial comparing ethynodiol diacetate versus a combined oral contraceptive, irregular cycles occurred in all women assigned to the

  12. Localization of magnetic pills

    PubMed Central

    Laulicht, Bryan; Gidmark, Nicholas J.; Tripathi, Anubhav; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Numerous therapeutics demonstrate optimal absorption or activity at specific sites in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Yet, safe, effective pill retention within a desired region of the GI remains an elusive goal. We report a safe, effective method for localizing magnetic pills. To ensure safety and efficacy, we monitor and regulate attractive forces between a magnetic pill and an external magnet, while visualizing internal dose motion in real time using biplanar videofluoroscopy. Real-time monitoring yields direct visual confirmation of localization completely noninvasively, providing a platform for investigating the therapeutic benefits imparted by localized oral delivery of new and existing drugs. Additionally, we report the in vitro measurements and calculations that enabled prediction of successful magnetic localization in the rat small intestines for 12 h. The designed system for predicting and achieving successful magnetic localization can readily be applied to any area of the GI tract within any species, including humans. The described system represents a significant step forward in the ability to localize magnetic pills safely and effectively anywhere within the GI tract. What our magnetic pill localization strategy adds to the state of the art, if used as an oral drug delivery system, is the ability to monitor the force exerted by the pill on the tissue and to locate the magnetic pill within the test subject all in real time. This advance ensures both safety and efficacy of magnetic localization during the potential oral administration of any magnetic pill-based delivery system. PMID:21257903

  13. Prognostic Significance of Modified Advanced Lung Cancer Inflammation Index (ALI) in Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer_ Comparison with Original ALI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Nambeom; Kim, Young Saing; Seo, Ja-Young; Park, Inkeun; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Kim, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI, body mass index [BMI] x serum albumin/neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio [NLR]) has been shown to predict overall survival (OS) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). CT enables skeletal muscle to be quantified, whereas BMI cannot accurately reflect body composition. The purpose was to evaluate prognostic value of modified ALI (mALI) using CT-determined L3 muscle index (L3MI, muscle area at L3/height2) beyond original ALI. L3MIs were calculated using the CT images of 186 consecutive patients with SCLC taken at diagnosis, and mALI was defined as L3MI x serum albumin/NLR. Using chi-squared test determined maximum cut-offs for low ALI and low mALI, the prognostic values of low ALI and low mALI were tested using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Finally, deviance statistics was used to test whether the goodness of fit of the prognostic model is improved by adding mALI as an extra variable. Patients with low ALI (cut-off, 31.1, n = 94) had shorter OS than patients with high ALI (median, 6.8 months vs. 15.8 months; p < 0.001), and patients with low mALI (cut-off 67.7, n = 94) had shorter OS than patients with high mALI (median, 6.8 months vs. 16.5 months; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in estimates of median survival time between low ALI and low mALI (z = 0.000, p = 1.000) and between high ALI and high mALI (z = 0.330, p = 0.740). Multivariable analysis showed that low ALI was an independent prognostic factor for shorter OS (HR, 1.67, p = 0.004), along with advanced age (HR, 1.49, p = 0.045), extensive disease (HR, 2.27, p < 0.001), supportive care only (HR, 7.86, p < 0.001), and elevated LDH (HR, 1.45, p = 0.037). Furthermore, goodness of fit of this prognostic model was not significantly increased by adding mALI as an extra variable (LR difference = 2.220, p = 0.136). The present study confirms mALI using CT-determined L3MI has no additional prognostic value beyond original ALI using BMI. ALI

  14. Features of electronic structure of hypovalent lithides ALi/sub k/ and ALi/sub k+1//sup +/

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Klimenko, N.M.; Mebel', A.M.; Charkin, O.P.

    The features of the chemical bonding and the behavior of the original energies of the lithides ALi/sub k/ and ALi/sub K+1//sup +/ have been analyzed on the basis of nonempirical calculations in the MP3/(DZHD + P/sub A/) approximation. It has been found that the new A-Li bond appearing upon the addition of Li/sup +/ to Ali/sub k/ is formed with the participation of only the p/sub A/ AO's from the atom A. In contrast to the case of the hydrides AK/sub k/ and the fluorides AF/sub k/, in the case of the lithides ALi/sub k/ and ALi/sub k+1//sup +/, themore » lone pair of the atom A consists of its almost pure s/sub A/ AO, which maintains its spherical shape, is not active stereochemically, and practically does not participate in the bonding. The lithides ALi/sub k/ and Ali/sub k+1//sup +/ (such as CLi/sub 2/, Cli/sub 3//sup +/, NLi/sub 3/, NLi/sub 4//sup +/, OLi/sub 2/, OLi/sub 3//sup +/, Fli, Fli/sub 2//sup +/, etc.) may be classified as hypovalent compounds, in which the number of valence AO's of the atom A participating in the bonding is smaller than the number of atoms of Li directly bonded to the atom A. The bonding in them is delocalized over all the atoms comparing the molecule, and the two-center approach and Gillespie's rules are, in principle, not suitable.« less

  15. Morning-After Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... morning-after pill is a type of emergency birth control (contraception). Emergency contraception is used to prevent pregnancy for women who've had unprotected sex or whose birth control method has failed. The morning-after pill is ...

  16. Progestin-only pills for contraception.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A; Lopez, Laureen M; O'Brien, Paul A; Raymond, Elizabeth G

    2013-11-13

    The introduction of a new progestin-only oral contraceptive in Europe has renewed interest in this class of oral contraceptives. Unlike the more widely used combined oral contraceptives containing an estrogen plus progestin, these pills contain only a progestin (progestogen) and are taken without interruption. How these pills compare to others in their class or to combined oral contraceptives is not clear. This review examined randomized controlled trials of progestin-only pills for differences in efficacy, acceptability, and continuation rates. Through October 2013, we searched the computerized databases MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), POPLINE, and LILACS for studies of progestin-only pills. We also searched for current trials via ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP. Previous searches also included EMBASE. We included all randomized controlled trials in any language that included progestin-only pills for contraception.  We incorporated any comparison with a progestin-only pill; this could include different doses, other progestin-only pills, combined oral contraceptives, or other contraceptives. The first author abstracted the data and entered the information into RevMan 5. Another author performed a second, independent data abstraction to verify the initial data entry.We attempted to extract life-table rates (actuarial or continuous) and used the rate difference as the effect measure. Where life-table rates were not published, we used the incidence rate ratio (ratio of Pearl rates). Where only the crude number of events was published, we calculated the Peto odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) using a fixed-effect model. For continuous variables, the mean difference (MD) was computed with 95% CI. Because of disparate exposures, we were not able to combine studies in meta-analysis. Six trials met the inclusion criteria. We have not found any new studies since the initial review. In the trial comparing the desogestrel versus

  17. Fabric pilling measurement using three-dimensional image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Wenbin; Wang, Rongwu; Xu, Bugao

    2013-10-01

    We introduce a stereovision system and the three-dimensional (3-D) image analysis algorithms for fabric pilling measurement. Based on the depth information available in the 3-D image, the pilling detection process starts from the seed searching at local depth maxima to the region growing around the selected seeds using both depth and distance criteria. After the pilling detection, the density, height, and area of individual pills in the image can be extracted to describe the pilling appearance. According to the multivariate regression analysis on the 3-D images of 30 cotton fabrics treated by the random-tumble and home-laundering machines, the pilling grade is highly correlated with the pilling density (R=0.923) but does not consistently change with the pilling height and area. The pilling densities measured from the 3-D images also correlate well with those counted manually from the samples (R=0.985).

  18. Delaying Your Period with Birth Control Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pill to have more control over your cycle. By Mayo Clinic Staff Are you interested in ... pills are designed to mimic a natural menstrual cycle. A traditional pill pack contains 28 pills, but ...

  19. Birth control pill - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use the ... produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. Review ...

  20. Surfactant Therapy of ALI and ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendran, K; Willson, D; Notter, RH

    2011-01-01

    This article examines exogenous lung surfactant replacement therapy and its utility in mitigating clinical acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Biophysical research has documented that lung surfactant dysfunction can be reversed or mitigated by increasing surfactant concentration, and multiple studies in animals with ALI/ARDS have shown that respiratory function and pulmonary mechanics in vivo can be improved by exogenous surfactant administration. Exogenous surfactant therapy is a routine intervention in neonatal intensive care, and is life-saving in preventing or treating the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) in premature infants. In applications relevant for lung injury-related respiratory failure and ALI/ARDS, surfactant therapy has been shown to be beneficial in term infants with pneumonia and meconium aspiration lung injury, and in children up to age 21 with direct pulmonary forms of ALI/ARDS. However, extension of exogenous surfactant therapy to adults with respiratory failure and clinical ALI/ARDS remains a challenge. Coverage here reviews clinical studies of surfactant therapy in pediatric and adult patients with ALI/ARDS, particularly focusing on its potential advantages in patients with direct pulmonary forms of these syndromes. Also discussed is the rationale for mechanism-based therapies utilizing exogenous surfactant in combination with agents targeting other aspects of the multifaceted pathophysiology of inflammatory lung injury. Additional factors affecting the efficacy of exogenous surfactant therapy in ALI/ARDS are also described, including the difficulty of effectively delivering surfactants to injured lungs and the existence of activity differences between clinical surfactant drugs. PMID:21742216

  1. Pill Properties that Cause Dysphagia and Treatment Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Jeremy; Go, Jorge T.; Schulze, Konrad S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pills (tablets and capsules) are widely used to administer prescription drugs or to take supplements such as vitamins. Unfortunately, little is known about how much effort it takes Americans to swallow these various pills. More specifically, it is not known to what extent hard-to-swallow pills might affect treatment outcomes (eg, interfering with adherence to prescribed medications or causing clinical complications). It is also unclear which properties (eg, size, shape, or surface texture) Americans prefer or reject for their pills. To learn more about these issues, we interviewed a small group of individuals. Methods We invited individuals in waiting rooms of our tertiary health care center to participate in structured interviews about their pill-taking habits and any problems they have swallowing pills. We inquired which pill properties they believed caused swallowing problems. Participants scored capsules and pills of representative size, shape, and texture for swallowing effort and reported their personal preferences. Results Of 100 successive individuals, 99 participants completed the interview (65% women, mean age = 41 years, range = 23-77 years). Eighty-three percent took pills daily (mean 4 pills/d; 56% of those pills were prescribed by providers). Fifty-four percent of participants replied yes to the question, "Did you ever have to swallow a solid medication that was too difficult?" Four percent recounted serious complications: 1% pill esophagitis, 1% pill impaction, and 2% stopped treatments (antibiotic and prenatal supplement) because they could not swallow the prescribed pills. Half of all participants routinely resorted to special techniques (eg, plenty of liquids or repeated or forceful swallows). Sixty-one percent of those having difficulties cited specific pill properties: 27% blamed size (20% of problems were caused by pills that were too large whereas 7% complained about pills that were too small to sense); 12% faulted rough surface

  2. ALI: A CSSL/multiprocessor software interface

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Makoui, A.; Karplus, W.J.

    ALI (A Language Interface) is a software package which translates simulation models expressed in one of the higher-level languages, CSSL-IV or ACSL, into sequences of instructions for each processor of a network of microprocessors. The partitioning of the source program among the processors is automatically accomplished. The code is converted into a data flow graph, analyzed and divided among the processors to minimize the overall execution time in the presence of interprocessor communication delays. This paper describes ALI from the user's point of view and includes a detailed example of the application of ALI to a specific dynamic system simulation.

  3. Pills, Thrills and Bellyaches: Case Studies of Prescription Pill Use and Misuse among Marijuana/Blunt Smoking Middle Class Young Women.

    PubMed

    Bardhi, Flutura; Sifaneck, Stephen J; Johnson, Bruce D; Dunlap, Eloise

    2007-01-01

    Recent survey research has documented important increases during the 2000s in the misuse and abuse of several prescription drugs (Vicodin, Percocet, Codeine, Dilaudid, Xanax, Klonopin, Valium, Ativan, Adderall, Ritalin, among others). This article focuses upon the patterns of pill use and misuse among young women who are middle-class white and college-educated, and they are also experienced marijuana users who report recreational consumption of other illegal drugs. The ethnographic data provides insights about various ways and reasons that such prescription pill misuse occurs among 12 college-educated, (upper) middle-class, white/Asian women in their 20s who were involved in a major ethnographic study of marijuana and blunts. Three patterns of pill use were observed: recreational; quasi-medical; and legal medical; shifts among these patterns of pill use was common. Few reported that their pill use interfered with their conventional jobs and lifestyles; they concealed such use from their employers and coworkers, and from non-using friends and family members. None reported contacts with police nor seeking treatment specifically for their pill misuse. Many reported misusing prescription pills in conjunction with illegal drugs (marijuana, cocaine, ecstasy) and alcohol. Pills were used as a way to enhance the euphoric effects of other drugs, as well as a way to avoid the negative side effects of illegal drugs. Some reported pill use as a means for reducing expenditures (and use of) alcohol and cocaine. The implications suggest a hidden subpopulation of prescription pill misusers among regular users of marijuana and other illegal drugs. Future research should include users and misusers of various pills to better understand how prescriptions pills interact with illegal drug use patterns.

  4. Pills, Thrills and Bellyaches: Case Studies of Prescription Pill Use and Misuse among Marijuana/Blunt Smoking Middle Class Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Bardhi, Flutura; Sifaneck, Stephen J.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2008-01-01

    Recent survey research has documented important increases during the 2000s in the misuse and abuse of several prescription drugs (Vicodin, Percocet, Codeine, Dilaudid, Xanax, Klonopin, Valium, Ativan, Adderall, Ritalin, among others). This article focuses upon the patterns of pill use and misuse among young women who are middle-class white and college-educated, and they are also experienced marijuana users who report recreational consumption of other illegal drugs. The ethnographic data provides insights about various ways and reasons that such prescription pill misuse occurs among 12 college-educated, (upper) middle-class, white/Asian women in their 20s who were involved in a major ethnographic study of marijuana and blunts. Three patterns of pill use were observed: recreational; quasi-medical; and legal medical; shifts among these patterns of pill use was common. Few reported that their pill use interfered with their conventional jobs and lifestyles; they concealed such use from their employers and coworkers, and from non-using friends and family members. None reported contacts with police nor seeking treatment specifically for their pill misuse. Many reported misusing prescription pills in conjunction with illegal drugs (marijuana, cocaine, ecstasy) and alcohol. Pills were used as a way to enhance the euphoric effects of other drugs, as well as a way to avoid the negative side effects of illegal drugs. Some reported pill use as a means for reducing expenditures (and use of) alcohol and cocaine. The implications suggest a hidden subpopulation of prescription pill misusers among regular users of marijuana and other illegal drugs. Future research should include users and misusers of various pills to better understand how prescriptions pills interact with illegal drug use patterns. PMID:19081798

  5. Effects of pill burden on discontinuation of the initial HAART regimen in minority female patients prescribed 1 pill/day versus any other pill burden.

    PubMed

    Hill, Seth; Kavookjian, Jan; Qian, Jingjing; Chung, Allison; Vandewaa, John

    2014-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a mainstay of treatment for patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Since second line HAART therapies can be costlier and less effective, it is essential to understand the duration of initial HAART therapies. The overall aim of this study was to estimate the effects of daily pill burden on the time to discontinuation of the initial HAART regimen. Patients were initially identified through the clinic's CAREWARE database. A chart review was conducted for data collection, where only adult, female, HIV-positive patients initiating therapy at the study clinic between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2011 were included. All study subjects were followed up from the initiation of HAART to treatment discontinuation. A Kaplan-Meier curve was generated to describe time to discontinuation by regimens, and a Cox proportional hazards model was developed to assess the impact of different regimen and patient demographic characteristics on the hazard of discontinuation of the initial regimen. A total of 498 charts were initially reviewed. After assessment of these patients for inclusion criteria, a cohort of 115 adult female patients who initiated HAART at the study clinic was included. Patients treated with 1 pill/day regimen had a significantly longer time to discontinuation than regimens of >1 pills/day (mean duration of initial therapy was 1062.56 days vs. 631.70 days, respectively, p = 0.003). Compared to 1 pill/day regimens, >1 pills/day regimens were associated with a higher hazard of discontinuation (hazard ratio (HR) =3.44 with 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25, 9.48). A higher viral load and patients without insurance were also found to be significantly associated with increased hazards of discontinuation. Overall, female HIV patients initiating therapy with the 1 pill/day HAART regimen were less likely to discontinue their treatment compared to patients initiating with >1 pills/day HAART regimen.

  6. Why we need a tax on sleeping pills.

    PubMed

    Kripke, D F

    1983-05-01

    In the United States every year the total costs of giving sleeping pills can be estimated at $500 million to $1 billion. Many if not most of the prescriptions are inappropriate. Sleeping pill use, associated with a 50% increase in overall mortality, is especially dangerous for older people, who have a high risk of sleep apnea. There is virtually no evidence that sleeping pills are effective with prolonged usage and no evidence for life-preserving benefits. Excessive use of sleeping pills should be discouraged with a tax of 4 per pill. Revenues from the tax should fund new research to determine which sleeping pills are safest and when alternative treatments are safer.

  7. Introduction of the pill and its impact.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, L

    1999-01-01

    Introduction of the birth control pill in the United States in 1960 marked the end of a relatively short period of time (< 10 years) to intentionally produce an oral contraceptive, and the beginning of a relatively long period of controversy surrounding the use of the pill. Availability of the pill had an impact on various aspects of social life, including women's health, fertility trends, laws and policies, religion, interpersonal relationships and family roles, feminist issues, and gender relations, as well as sexual practices among both adults and adolescents. The pill proved to be highly effective from the outset. Although safety issues developed with the earlier formulations, continued evolution of pill hormones and doses has resulted in a greatly improved and safe oral contraceptive. A broad range of noncontraceptive health benefits also is associated with the pill. These health effects are significant, as they include protection against potentially fatal diseases, including ovarian and endometrial cancers, as well as against other conditions that are associated with substantial morbidity and potential hospitalization and associated costs. The popularity of the pill has remained high, with rates of use in the past 30 years in the United States ranging from one-quarter to almost one-third of women using contraception. Almost 40 years after its introduction, the pill's contraceptive efficacy is proven, its improved safety has been established, and the focus has shifted from supposed health risks to documented and real health benefits.

  8. Contemporary ventilator management in patients with and at risk of ALI/ARDS.

    PubMed

    Chang, Steven Y; Dabbagh, Ousama; Gajic, Ognen; Patrawalla, Amee; Elie, Marie-Carmelle; Talmor, Daniel S; Malhotra, Atul; Adesanya, Adebola; Anderson, Harry L; Blum, James M; Park, Pauline K; Gong, Michelle Ng

    2013-04-01

    Ventilator practices in patients at risk for acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS are unclear. We examined factors associated with choice of set tidal volumes (VT), and whether VT < 8 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW) relates to the development of ALI/ARDS. We performed a secondary analysis of a multicenter cohort of adult subjects at risk of lung injury with and without ALI/ARDS at onset of invasive ventilation. Descriptive statistics were used to describe ventilator practices in specific settings and ALI/ARDS risk groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the use of VT < 8 mL/kg PBW and the relationship of VT to ALI/ARDS development and outcome. Of 829 mechanically ventilated patients, 107 met the criteria for ALI/ARDS at time of intubation, and 161 developed ALI/ARDS after intubation (post-intubation ALI/ARDS). There was significant intercenter variability in initial ventilator settings, and in the incidence of ALI/ARDS and post-intubation ALI/ARDS. The median VT was 7.96 (IQR 7.14-8.94) mL/kg PBW in ALI/ARDS subjects, and 8.45 (IQR 7.50-9.55) mL/kg PBW in subjects without ALI/ARDS (P = .004). VT decreased from 8.40 (IQR 7.38-9.37) mL/kg PBW to 7.97 (IQR 6.90-9.23) mL/kg PBW (P < .001) in those developing post-intubation ALI/ARDS. Among subjects without ALI/ARDS, VT ≥ 8 mL/kg PBW was associated with shorter height and higher body mass index, while subjects with pneumonia were less likely to get ≥ 8 mL/kg PBW. Initial VT ≥ 8 mL/kg PBW was not associated with the post-intubation ALI/ARDS (adjusted odds ratio 1.30, 95% CI 0.74-2.29) or worse outcomes. Post-intubation ALI/ARDS subjects had mortality similar to subjects intubated with ALI/ARDS. Clinicians seem to respond to ALI/ARDS with lower initial VT. Initial VT, however, was not associated with the development of post-intubation ALI/ARDS or other outcomes.

  9. Adherence with single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin vs a two-pill regimen

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bimal V; Scott Leslie, R; Thiebaud, Patrick; Nichol, Michael B; Tang, Simon SK; Solomon, Henry; Honda, Dennis; Foody, JoAnne M

    2008-01-01

    While clinical trials demonstrate the benefits of blood pressure and cholesterol reduction, medication adherence in clinical practice is problematic. We hypothesized that a single-pill would be superior to a 2-pill regimen for achieving adherence. In this retrospective, cohort study based on pharmacy claims data, patients newly initiated on a calcium channel blocker (CCB) or statin simultaneously or within 30 days, regardless of sequence, were followed (N = 4703). Adherence was measured over 6 months as proportion of days covered (PDC). At baseline, mean age was 63.0 years, 51.6% were female, and mean number of other medications was 7.8. Overall, 16.9% of patients were on single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin, 15.6% amlodipine + atorvastatin, 24.7% amlodipine + other statin, 13.9% other CCB + atorvastatin, 28.9% other CCB + other statin. Percentages of patients achieving adherence (PDC ≥ 80%) were: 67.7% amlodipine/atorvastatin; 49.9% amlodipine + atorvastatin; 40.4% amlodipine + other statin; 46.9% other CCB + atorvastatin; 37.4% other CCB +other statin. After adjusting for treatment selection and cohort differences, odds ratios for adherence with amlodipine/atorva-statin were 1.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80–2.13) vs amlodipine + atorvastatin, 3.10 (95% CI, 2.85–3.38) vs amlodipine + other statin, 2.06 (95% CI, 1.89–2.24) vs other CCB + atorvastatin, 2.85 (95% CI, 2.61–3.10) vs other CCB + other statin (all p <0.0001). Single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin may provide clinical benefits through improving adherence, offering clinicians a practical solution for cardiovascular risk management. PMID:18827917

  10. Anti-C.Diff Pill

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kumar, Anand

    The anti- C.diff pill is being developed for patients who are at high risk for Clostridium difficile, a bacterium that causes diarrhea and serious intestinal conditions like colitis. C-diff is deadly, killing over 30,000 people a year in the United States and costing an average of $42,000 per treatment. The most common treatment is a fecal transplant (FT). The anti- C.diff replaces the invasive and messy FT practice with a pill.

  11. Sleeping Pill Administration Time and Patient Subjective Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seockhoon; Youn, Soyoung; Yi, Kikyoung; Park, Boram; Lee, Suyeon

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Taking hypnotic agents 30 min before bedtime is the usual suggested administration time, but some patients report dissatisfaction with their sleeping pills. We investigated whether the timing of sleeping pill administration influences patient subjective satisfaction with these drugs. Methods: One hundred twelve patients with primary insomnia currently taking benzodiazepine or nonbenzodiazepine gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists as sleeping pills were selected. The time of administration for their sleeping pills, bedtime, sleep onset time, and wake up time were obtained from their medical records. Subjects were also categorized into satisfied or dissatisfied groups. Results: Hypnotic agents administration time (p < 0.001) and bedtime (p < 0.001), but not sleep onset or wake up time, occurred later in the night in the satisfied group. The durations from administration of pills to sleep onset (33.6 ± 20.7 min) and to wake up time (7.2 ± 1.2 h) were significantly shorter in the satisfied group when compared to the dissatisfied group (135.9 ± 73.4 min and 9.3 ± 1.5 h for time to sleep onset and wake up, respectively). Logistic regression analysis revealed that patient subjective satisfaction with hypnotic agents could be predicted by a short duration from administration of pills to sleep onset (odds ratio = 0.01; 95% confidence interval [0.001–0.09]) and a short duration from administration of pills to wake up time (0.53; [0.31–0.89], F = 49.9, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Taking sleeping pills at a later time and a shorter interval between pill administration and wake up time may increase patient subjective satisfaction with hypnotic agents. We propose that physicians advise patients to take sleeping pills approximately 7 h before their usual getting-out-of-bed time instead of the current standard of 30 min before bedtime. Citation: Chung S, Youn S, Yi K, Park B, Lee S. Sleeping pill administration time and patient subjective satisfaction. J

  12. Sleeping Pill Administration Time and Patient Subjective Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seockhoon; Youn, Soyoung; Yi, Kikyoung; Park, Boram; Lee, Suyeon

    2016-01-01

    Taking hypnotic agents 30 min before bedtime is the usual suggested administration time, but some patients report dissatisfaction with their sleeping pills. We investigated whether the timing of sleeping pill administration influences patient subjective satisfaction with these drugs. One hundred twelve patients with primary insomnia currently taking benzodiazepine or nonbenzodiazepine gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists as sleeping pills were selected. The time of administration for their sleeping pills, bedtime, sleep onset time, and wake up time were obtained from their medical records. Subjects were also categorized into satisfied or dissatisfied groups. Hypnotic agents administration time (p < 0.001) and bedtime (p < 0.001), but not sleep onset or wake up time, occurred later in the night in the satisfied group. The durations from administration of pills to sleep onset (33.6 ± 20.7 min) and to wake up time (7.2 ± 1.2 h) were significantly shorter in the satisfied group when compared to the dissatisfied group (135.9 ± 73.4 min and 9.3 ± 1.5 h for time to sleep onset and wake up, respectively). Logistic regression analysis revealed that patient subjective satisfaction with hypnotic agents could be predicted by a short duration from administration of pills to sleep onset (odds ratio = 0.01; 95% confidence interval [0.001-0.09]) and a short duration from administration of pills to wake up time (0.53; [0.31-0.89], F = 49.9, p < 0.001). Taking sleeping pills at a later time and a shorter interval between pill administration and wake up time may increase patient subjective satisfaction with hypnotic agents. We propose that physicians advise patients to take sleeping pills approximately 7 h before their usual getting-out-of-bed time instead of the current standard of 30 min before bedtime. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  13. Parental love pills: some ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Liao, S Matthew

    2011-11-01

    It may soon be possible to develop pills that allow parents to induce in themselves more loving behaviour, attitudes and emotions towards their children. In this paper, I consider whether pharmacologically induced parental love can satisfy reasonable conditions of authenticity; why anyone would be interested in taking such parental love pills at all, and whether inducing parental love pharmacologically promotes narcissism or results in self-instrumentalization. I also examine how the availability of such pills may affect the duty to love a child. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Characterization of ALD grown TixAlyN and TixAlyC thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnunen, S. A.; Malm, J.; Arstila, K.; Lahtinen, M.; Sajavaara, T.

    2017-09-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to grow TixAlyN and TixAlyC thin films using trimethylaluminum (TMA), titanium tetrachloride and ammonia as precursors. Deposition temperature was varied between 325 °C and 500 °C. Films were also annealed in vacuum and N2-atmosphere at 600-1000 °C. Wide range of characterization methods was used including time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF-ERDA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray reflectometry (XRR), Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, helium ion microscopy (HIM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and 4-point probe measurement for resistivity. Deposited films were roughly 100 nm thick and contained mainly desired elements. Carbon, chlorine and hydrogen were found to be the main impurities.

  15. The return of rainbow diet pills.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; Goday, Alberto; Swann, John P

    2012-09-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently warned consumers about the risks of weight loss supplements adulterated with multiple pharmaceutical agents. Some of these supplements combine potent anorectics, such as amphetamines derivatives, with benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, and other medications to suppress the anorectics' adverse effects. These weight loss supplements represent the most recent generation of rainbow diet pills, named for their bright and varied colors, which date back more than 70 years. Beginning in the 1940s, several US pharmaceutical firms aggressively promoted rainbow pills to physicians and patients. By the 1960s the pills had caused dozens of deaths before the FDA began removing them from the US market. We used a variety of original resources to trace these deadly pills from their origins in the United States to their popularity in Spain and Brazil to their reintroduction to the United States as weight loss dietary supplements.

  16. Adolescents' experiences using the contraceptive patch versus pills.

    PubMed

    Sucato, Gina S; Land, Stephanie R; Murray, Pamela J; Cecchini, Reena; Gold, Melanie A

    2011-08-01

    To compare use of the weekly transdermal contraceptive patch (patch) with daily combined hormonal contraceptive pills (pills) in adolescents. Prospective longitudinal study of adolescents' self-selected (non-randomized) use of the patch or pills. Urban, university hospital-affiliated, adolescent outpatient clinic. 13-22-year-old female adolescents seeking hormonal contraception, 40 who chose the patch and 40 who chose pills. Data were collected via self-report on paper questionnaires at three-cycle intervals for a total of up to nine cycles. Method continuation, perfect use, method satisfaction, quality of life, and side effects, including menstrual changes and perceived mood changes. After nine cycles, 38% of patch users and 60% of pill users were still using the method they had chosen at enrollment. There were no significant differences between the groups in self-reported perfect use. No differences were found in quality of life or side effects. Both patch and pill users noted menses became lighter and more predictable and reported decreased depression prior to their menses; only the pill group reported improvement in premenstrual anger. Method satisfaction was similar in both groups except patch users were more likely to report that their contraceptive method improved normal daily activities. Despite apparent advantages of the patch over the pill, adolescents using both methods continue to face challenges achieving perfect and sustained contraceptive use. 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Return of Rainbow Diet Pills

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Pieter A.; Goday, Alberto; Swann, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently warned consumers about the risks of weight loss supplements adulterated with multiple pharmaceutical agents. Some of these supplements combine potent anorectics, such as amphetamines derivatives, with benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, and other medications to suppress the anorectics’ adverse effects. These weight loss supplements represent the most recent generation of rainbow diet pills, named for their bright and varied colors, which date back more than 70 years. Beginning in the 1940s, several US pharmaceutical firms aggressively promoted rainbow pills to physicians and patients. By the 1960s the pills had caused dozens of deaths before the FDA began removing them from the US market. We used a variety of original resources to trace these deadly pills from their origins in the United States to their popularity in Spain and Brazil to their reintroduction to the United States as weight loss dietary supplements. PMID:22813089

  18. Enhancing the AliEn Web Service Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianlin; Saiz, Pablo; Carminati, Federico; Betev, Latchezar; Zhou, Daicui; Mendez Lorenzo, Patricia; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Furano, Fabrizio; Schreiner, Steffen; Vladimirovna Datskova, Olga; Sankar Banerjee, Subho; Zhang, Guoping

    2011-12-01

    Web Services are an XML based technology that allow applications to communicate with each other across disparate systems. Web Services are becoming the de facto standard that enable inter operability between heterogeneous processes and systems. AliEn2 is a grid environment based on web services. The AliEn2 services can be divided in three categories: Central services, deployed once per organization; Site services, deployed on each of the participating centers; Job Agents running on the worker nodes automatically. A security model to protect these services is essential for the whole system. Current implementations of web server, such as Apache, are not suitable to be used within the grid environment. Apache with the mod_ssl and OpenSSL only supports the X.509 certificates. But in the grid environment, the common credential is the proxy certificate for the purpose of providing restricted proxy and delegation. An Authentication framework was taken for AliEn2 web services to add the ability to accept X.509 certificates and proxy certificates from client-side to Apache Web Server. The authentication framework could also allow the generation of access control policies to limit access to the AliEn2 web services.

  19. Use of an oestrogen-free pill (Ex Luton) for contraception.

    PubMed

    Etman, S

    1974-12-01

    Ex Luton, an estrogen-free pill composed of 0.5 mg lynestrenol was given to 92 nonlactating women of proven fertility attending the Family Planning Clinic in the Misr Spinning and Weaving Company's Hospital at Mehalla-Kubra, Egypt. 695 cycles were given: 30 women received the pill for less than 6 cycles, and 62 for more than 6. 31 of the 62 continued the pill for more than 12 cycles. Pills were given daily without interruption. There were no cases of pregnancy during regular use. 2 cases of pregnancy occurred due to patient failure, 1 missing 6 pills in the 2nd cycle, and the other missing 2 in the 6th. 2 women who dropped out of the program because they wished to become pregnant did so: 1 who had taken only 1 cycle of pills became pregnant 1 month after dropping out; the 2nd completed 12 cycles and became pregnant 5 months after dropping out. The most common side effects that occur with combined pills appeared to be less frequent in the current study. Headache, nausea and sense of weakness, all present before use of the pill, either decreased or increased only slightly afterwards. Although amenorrhea was reported by 27% of the women after pill use -- a 5-fold increase -- it was noted in only 11.6% of the cycles and was not permanent, although 9 women dropped the pill because of it. Intermenstrual bleeding was a complaint of 12 women before pill use, and of 13 after. It was present only in 17 cycles, but was severe enough in 6 cases to make them drop the pill.

  20. Safe pill-dispensing.

    PubMed

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  1. The Administration of Tibetan Precious Pills

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Precious pills represent a special kind of Tibetan drug that once was, and still is, highly sought after by Tibetan, Chinese, and Mongolian patients. Such pills are generally taken as a potent prophylactic remedy, and can be used to cure various diseases. The present study seeks to discuss the dispensation and efficacy of precious pills according to the presentations of historical Tibetan medical scholars. Several treatises dealing with these instructions will be analysed, thereby revealing their underlying concepts, and highlighting their points of both general consensus and disagreement. The analysis of these detailed instructions will reveal the fact that these precious pills were not merely given to a patient but, in order to ensure their full efficacy, involved an elaborate regimen concerning three chronological periods: (1) the time of preparation, (2) the time of dispensation, and (3) the time after dispensation. Thus the present study surveys not only the ritual empowerment of drugs in Tibetan medicine, but also the importance of social relationships between doctors and patients in Tibetan medical history. PMID:27980504

  2. Improvement of the association between self-reported pill count and varenicline levels following exclusion of participants with misreported pill count: A commentary on Peng et al. (2017).

    PubMed

    Peng, Annie R; Le Foll, Bernard; Morales, Mark; Lerman, Caryn; Schnoll, Robert; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2018-04-01

    We previously reported poor associations between salivary varenicline and pill counts, and a substantial overestimation of adherence by pill counts in "Measures and predictors of varenicline adherence in the treatment of nicotine dependence" (Peng et al., 2017). We have since conducted supplementary analyses characterizing, and then excluding, individuals with established inaccurate pill count recall. Based on published varenicline pharmacokinetics (including drug levels, and the long half-life) and our detection limits, conservatively we should be able to detect varenicline in anyone who took at least one pill during the 48h prior to saliva collection; thus, those reporting 1 or more pills in this time frame but who had undetectable salivary varenicline were deemed to have inaccurate pill count recall. Correlations between pill counts and salivary varenicline, and Receiver Operating Characteristics curve analyses were conducted following exclusion of participants with inaccurate pill count recall. Nearly 20% of our participants (N=67/376) had inaccurate self-reported pill counts. These participants were younger, non-white, lower income, and unmarried (evaluated using chi-square or Mann-Whitney U test). Following exclusion of these individuals, the correlations between salivary varenicline and pill count improved and the area under the curve (AUC) of pill counts for discriminating adherence improved modestly. When the 20% of individuals with inaccurate pill count recall were excluded, an improved association between self-reported pill count and salivary varenicline was observed, albeit still weak. A substantial overestimation of adherence by pill counts relative to salivary varenicline is still observed even after exclusion of almost 20% of the group having established inaccurate reporting suggesting that these individuals, with identifiable inaccuracies, were only part of the overestimation of adherence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of method-related partner violence on covert pill use and pill discontinuation among women living in La Paz, El Alto and Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    McCarraher, Donna R; Martin, Sandra L; Bailey, Patricia E

    2006-03-01

    Intimate partner violence is widespread worldwide. While assumed to impact women's ability to use contraceptive methods, few data are available to support this claim. In this study, eight focus group discussions were conducted to guide questionnaire development and to provide contextual information. Participants were women who were currently using the pill and women who had used the pill previously. In addition, 300 women were interviewed who initiated oral contraceptive pill use between December 1995 and April 1996. Participants were interviewed 3-6 months later to investigate the role intimate partner violence played in covert pill use and pill discontinuation. Special study procedures for asking women questions about violence were employed. Nineteen per cent of the women interviewed were using the pill covertly. The odds of covert pill use were four times higher in El Alto and La Paz than in Santa Cruz. Women who used the pill covertly were more likely to have experienced method-related partner violence (OR = 21.27) than women whose partners knew of their pill use. One-third of the women had discontinued pill use at the time of the interview. In the final multivariate analysis, having experienced side-effects (OR = 2.37) was a significant predictor of pill discontinuation and method-related partner violence was marginally predictive (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.0-3.66). While efforts are ongoing to incorporate men into family planning programmes, some male partners oppose, and in some situations violently oppose, contraceptive use. The needs of women with these types of partners must not be overlooked.

  4. Imported fenproporex-based diet pills from Brazil: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A

    2009-03-01

    Banned amphetamine-based anorectics are illicitly imported into the United States (US), but little is known regarding the harm these diet pills pose to US residents. A 26-year-old woman using imported diet pills presented with a two-year history of intermittent chest pains, palpitations, headaches and insomnia. Urine toxicology screen detected amphetamines and benzodiazepines. Fenproporex and chlordiazepoxide were detected in her pills. Her symptoms resolved after she stopped using diet pills. A 38-year-old man using imported diet pills presented after his occupational urine screen was significantly positive for amphetamine. Fenproporex and fluoxetine were detected in his pills. These cases illustrate the potential harm from imported prescription diet pills that combine fenproporex with benzodiazepines, antidepressants, diuretics, laxatives and other substances. Increasing physicians' awareness of imported diet pill use may improve care of patients suffering from the pills' many adverse effects.

  5. AliEn—ALICE environment on the GRID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Bunčić, P.; Piskač, R.; Revsbech, J.-E.; Šego, V.; Alice Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    AliEn ( http://alien.cern.ch) (ALICE Environment) is a Grid framework built on top of the latest Internet standards for information exchange and authentication (SOAP, PKI) and common Open Source components. AliEn provides a virtual file catalogue that allows transparent access to distributed datasets and a number of collaborating Web services which implement the authentication, job execution, file transport, performance monitor and event logging. In the paper we will present the architecture and components of the system.

  6. Missed pills: frequency, reasons, consequences and solutions.

    PubMed

    Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Jamin, Christian; Lete, Iñaki; Lobo, Paloma; Nappi, Rossella E; Pintiaux, Axelle; Häusler, Günther; Fiala, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Oral hormonal contraception is an effective contraceptive method as long as regular daily intake is maintained. However, a daily routine is a constraint for many women and can lead to missed pills, pill discontinuation and/or unintended pregnancy. This article describes the frequency of inconsistent use, the consequences, the risk factors and the possible solutions. The article comprises a narrative review of the literature. Forgetting one to three pills per cycle is a frequent problem among 15-51% of users, generally adolescents. The reasons for this are age, inability to establish a routine, pill unavailability, side effects, loss of motivation and lack of involvement in the initial decision to use oral contraceptives. The consequences are 'escape ovulations' and, possibly, unintended pregnancy. Solutions are either to use a long-acting method or, for women who prefer to take oral contraceptives, use a continuous or long-cycle regimen to reduce the risks of follicular development and thus the likelihood of ovulation and unintended pregnancy. A progestogen with a long half-life can increase ovarian suppression. For women deciding to use oral contraceptives, a shortened or eliminated hormone-free interval and a progestogen with a long half-life may be an option to reduce the negative consequences of missed oral contraceptive pills.

  7. Association of Heme Oxygenase 1 with Lung Protection in Malaria-Associated ALI/ARDS.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marcelo L M; Ortolan, Luana S; Sercundes, Michelle K; Debone, Daniela; Murillo, Oscar; Lima, Flávia A; Marinho, Claudio R F; Epiphanio, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a serious disease, caused by the parasite of the genus Plasmodium , which was responsible for 440,000 deaths in 2015. Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is one of the main clinical complications in severe malaria. The murine model DBA/2 reproduces the clinical signs of ALI/ARDS in humans, when infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. High levels of HO-1 were reported in cases of severe malaria. Our data indicated that the HO-1 mRNA and protein expression are increased in mice that develop malaria-associated ALI/ARDS (MA-ALI/ARDS). Additionally, the hemin, a HO-1 inducing drug, prevented mice from developing MA-ALI/ARDS when administered prior to the development of MA-ALI/ARDS in this model. Also, hemin treatment showed an amelioration of respiratory parameters in mice, high VEGF levels in the sera, and a decrease in vascular permeability in the lung, which are signs of ALI/ARDS. Therefore, the induction of HO-1 before the development of MA-ALI/ARDS could be protective. However, the increased expression of HO-1 on the onset of MA-ALI/ARDS development may represent an effort to revert the phenotype of this syndrome by the host. We therefore confirm that HO-1 inducing drugs could be used for prevention of MA-ALI/ARDS in humans.

  8. Predictive Criteria to Study the Pathogenesis of Malaria-Associated ALI/ARDS in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ortolan, Luana S.; Sercundes, Michelle K.; Debone, Daniela; Hagen, Stefano C. F.; D' Império Lima, Maria Regina; Alvarez, José M.; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Epiphanio, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Malaria-associated acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) often results in morbidity and mortality. Murine models to study malaria-associated ALI/ARDS have been described; we still lack a method of distinguishing which mice will develop ALI/ARDS before death. This work aimed to characterize malaria-associated ALI/ARDS in a murine model and to demonstrate the first method to predict whether mice are suffering from ALI/ARDS before death. DBA/2 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA developing ALI/ARDS or hyperparasitemia (HP) were compared using histopathology, PaO2 measurement, pulmonary X-ray, breathing capacity, lung permeability, and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels according to either the day of death or the suggested predictive criteria. We proposed a model to predict malaria-associated ALI/ARDS using breathing patterns (enhanced pause and frequency respiration) and parasitemia as predictive criteria from mice whose cause of death was known to retrospectively diagnose the sacrificed mice as likely to die of ALI/ARDS as early as 7 days after infection. Using this method, we showed increased VEGF levels and increased lung permeability in mice predicted to die of ALI/ARDS. This proposed method for accurately identifying mice suffering from ALI/ARDS before death will enable the use of this model to study the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:25276057

  9. Quantifying the utility of taking pills for cardiovascular prevention.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Robert; Viera, Anthony J; Sheridan, Stacey L; Pignone, Michael P

    2015-03-01

    The decrease in utility attributed to taking pills for cardiovascular prevention can have major effects on the cost-effectiveness of interventions but has not been well studied. We sought to measure the utility of daily pill-taking for cardiovascular prevention. We conducted a cross-sectional Internet-based survey of 1000 US residents aged ≥30 in March 2014. We calculated utility values, using time trade-off as our primary method and standard gamble and willingness-to-pay techniques as secondary analyses. Mean age of respondents was 50 years. Most were female (59%) and white (63%); 28% had less than a college degree; and 79% took ≥1 pills daily. Mean utility using the time trade-off method was 0.990 (95% confidence interval, 0.988-0.992), including ≈70% not willing to trade any amount of time to avoid taking a preventive pill daily. Using the standard gamble method, mean utility was 0.991 (0.989-0.993), with 62% not willing to risk any chance of death. Respondents were willing to pay an average of $1445 to avoid taking a pill daily, which translated to a mean utility of 0.994 (0.940-0.997), including 41% unwilling to pay any amount. Time trade-off-based utility varied by age (decreasing utility as age increased), sex, race, numeracy, difficulty with obtaining pills, and number of pills taken per day but did not vary by education level, literacy, or income. Mean utility for taking a pill daily for cardiovascular prevention is ≈0.990 to 0.994. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Imported Fenproporex-based Diet Pills from Brazil: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Banned amphetamine-based anorectics are illicitly imported into the United States (US), but little is known regarding the harm these diet pills pose to US residents. A 26-year-old woman using imported diet pills presented with a two-year history of intermittent chest pains, palpitations, headaches and insomnia. Urine toxicology screen detected amphetamines and benzodiazepines. Fenproporex and chlordiazepoxide were detected in her pills. Her symptoms resolved after she stopped using diet pills. A 38-year-old man using imported diet pills presented after his occupational urine screen was significantly positive for amphetamine. Fenproporex and fluoxetine were detected in his pills. These cases illustrate the potential harm from imported prescription diet pills that combine fenproporex with benzodiazepines, antidepressants, diuretics, laxatives and other substances. Increasing physicians’ awareness of imported diet pill use may improve care of patients suffering from the pills’ many adverse effects. PMID:19096898

  11. Use and Knowledge of Diet Pills among Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorociak, Jeffery D.; Vincent, Murray L.

    1985-01-01

    A survey was conducted in an attempt to assess the use and knowledge of diet pills and dietary patterns of female college students. Analysis of the data indicated that, while many students used diet pills, their knowledge of the effects of the pills was minimal. Conclusions are presented. (MT)

  12. Oxycodone Ingestion Patterns in Acute Fracture Pain With Digital Pills.

    PubMed

    Chai, Peter R; Carreiro, Stephanie; Innes, Brendan J; Chapman, Brittany; Schreiber, Kristin L; Edwards, Robert R; Carrico, Adam W; Boyer, Edward W

    2017-12-01

    Opioid analgesics are commonly prescribed on an as-needed (PRN) basis for acute painful conditions. Uncertainty of how patients actually take PRN opioids, coupled with a desire to completely cover pain, leads to variable and overly generous opioid prescribing practices, resulting in a surplus of opioids. This opioid surplus becomes a source for diversion and nonmedical opioid use. Understanding patterns of actual opioid ingestion after acute painful conditions can help clinicians counsel patients on safe opioid use, and allow timely recognition and intervention when escalating opioid self-dosing occurs, to prevent tolerance and addiction. We used a novel oxycodone digital pill system (ingestible biosensor within a standard gelatin capsule combined with 5-mg oxycodone) that when ingested, is activated by the chloride ion gradient in the stomach thereby emitting a radiofrequency signal captured by a wearable reader. The reader relays ingestion data to a cloud-based server that displays ingestion events to the study team. We deployed the oxycodone digital pill among opioid-naive individuals discharged from the emergency department with acute fracture pain. Participants were trained on digital pill operation and discharged with twenty-one 5-mg oxycodone digital pills. They were instructed to take digital pills PRN for pain on discharge. We conducted a brief interview 7 days after study enrollment, at which point participants returned the digital pill system. We identified oxycodone ingestion events in real time by data from the digital pill system and performed pill counts at the return visit to validate digital pill reporting of medication ingestion. In this study, 26 individuals were approached; 16 enrolled with 15 completing the study. Participants ingested a median of 6 (3-9.5) oxycodone digital pills over the course of 7 days, with 82% of the oxycodone dose ingested in the first 3 days. In individuals who required operative repair, 86% (N = 6) continued to ingest

  13. Undigested Pills in Stool Mimicking Parasitic Infection.

    PubMed

    Mir, Fazia; Achakzai, Ilyas; Ibdah, Jamal A; Tahan, Veysel

    2017-01-01

    Background . Orally ingested medications now come in both immediate release and controlled release preparations. Controlled release preparations were developed by pharmaceutical companies to improve compliance and decrease frequency of pill ingestion. Case Report . A 67-year-old obese male patient presented to our clinic with focal abdominal pain that had been present 3 inches below umbilicus for the last three years. This pain was not associated with any trauma or recent heavy lifting. Upon presentation, the patient reported that for the last two months he started to notice pearly oval structures in his stool accompanying his chronic abdominal pain. This had coincided with initiation of his nifedipine pills for his hypertension. He reported seeing these undigested pills daily in his stool. Conclusion . The undigested pills may pose a cause of concern for both patients and physicians alike, as demonstrated in this case report, because they can mimic a parasitic infection. This can result in unnecessary extensive work-up. It is important to review the medication list for extended release formulations and note that the outer shell can be excreted whole in the stool.

  14. Update on 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP) party pills.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Márcia Sá; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Carvalho, Márcia

    2013-06-01

    N-benzylpiperazine (BZP) has become popular among recreational drug users as the major active ingredient of "party pills" due to its stimulant and euphoric properties. Before BZP legal restrictions, these pills were sold as a safe and legal alternative to classical amphetamines like ecstasy. New Zealand, given the size of its legal market prior to BZP control, is the country that most contributed to the knowledge about the patterns of use, motivations and positive and adverse effects resulting from its consumption, though the interest in BZP-party pills was observed all over the world. The use of these pills has been associated with hospitalizations for adverse events and continued availability over the Internet makes this intoxication a continued concern. This paper provides a review on the characteristics of BZP recreational use, specifically the target population, patterns and motivations of use, and evolution of legal status. Moreover, the in vivo and in vitro studies performed in order to understand its pharmacology, toxicology and kinetics are also discussed. Lastly, analytical methodologies for the identification of BZP in clinical and forensic settings are addressed.

  15. Site Protection Program and Progress Report of Ali Observatory, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yongqiang; Zhou, Yunhe; Wang, Xiaohua; He, Jun; Zhou, Shu

    2015-08-01

    The Ali observatory, Tibet, is a promising new site identified through ten year site survey over west China, and it is of significance to establish rules of site protection during site development. The site protection program is described with five aspects: site monitoring, technical support, local government support, specific organization, and public education. The long-term sky brightness monitoring is ready with site testing instruments and basic for light pollution measurement; the monitoring also includes directions of main light sources, providing periodical reports and suggestions for coordinating meetings. The technical supports with institutes and manufacturers help to publish lighting standards and replace light fixtures; the research pays special attention to the blue-rich sources, which impact the important application of high altitude sites. An official leading group towards development and protection of astronomical resources has been established by Ali government; one of its tasks is to issue regulations against light pollution, including special restrictions of airport, mine, and winter heating, and to supervise lighting inspection and rectification. A site protection office under the official group and local astronomical society are organized by Ali observatory; the office can coordinate in government levels and promote related activities. A specific website operated by the protection office releases activity propaganda, evaluation results, and technical comparison with other observatories. Both the site protection office and Ali observatory take responsibility for public education, including popular science lectures, light pollution and energy conservation education. Ali Night Sky Park has been constructed and opens in 2014, and provides a popular place and observational experience. The establishment of Ali Observatory and Night Sky Park brings unexpected social influence, and the starry sky trip to Ali becomes a new format of culture

  16. Is It Safe to Provide Abortion Pills over the Counter? A Study on Outcome Following Self-Medication with Abortion Pills

    PubMed Central

    Nivedita, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medical abortion is a safe method of termination of pregnancy when performed as per guidelines with a success rate of 92-97 %. But self-administration of abortion pills is rampant throughout the country due to over the counter availability of these drugs and complications are not uncommon due to this practice. The society perceives unsupervised medical abortion as a very safe method of termination and women use this as a method of spacing. Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to study the implications of self-administration of abortion pills by pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study done in Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College & Hospital between the period of July 2013 to June2014. Case sheets were analysed to obtain data regarding self-administration of abortion pills and complications secondary to its administration. The following data were collected. Age, marital status, parity, duration of pregnancy as perceived by the women, confirmation of pregnancy, duration between pill intake and visit to hospital, whether any intervention done elsewhere, any known medical or surgical complications, Hb level on admission, whether patient was in shock, USG findings, evidence of sepsis, blood transfusion, treatment given and duration of hospital stay. Descriptive analysis of the collected data was done. Results: Among the 128 cases of abortion in the study period, 40 (31.25%) patients had self-administered abortion pills. Among these 40 patients 27.5% had consumed abortion pills after the approved time period of 63 days of which 17.5% had consumed pills after 12 weeks of gestation. The most common presentation was excessive bleeding (77.5%) Severe anaemia was found in 12.5% of the patients and 5% of patients presented with shock. The outcome was as follows : 62.5% of the patients were found to have incomplete abortion, 22.5% had failed abortion and 7.5% of patients had incomplete abortion with sepsis. Surgical evacuation

  17. Is It Safe to Provide Abortion Pills over the Counter? A Study on Outcome Following Self-Medication with Abortion Pills.

    PubMed

    Nivedita, K; Shanthini, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Medical abortion is a safe method of termination of pregnancy when performed as per guidelines with a success rate of 92-97 %. But self-administration of abortion pills is rampant throughout the country due to over the counter availability of these drugs and complications are not uncommon due to this practice. The society perceives unsupervised medical abortion as a very safe method of termination and women use this as a method of spacing. The aim of this study was to study the implications of self-administration of abortion pills by pregnant women. Retrospective observational study done in Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College & Hospital between the period of July 2013 to June2014. Case sheets were analysed to obtain data regarding self-administration of abortion pills and complications secondary to its administration. The following data were collected. Age, marital status, parity, duration of pregnancy as perceived by the women, confirmation of pregnancy, duration between pill intake and visit to hospital, whether any intervention done elsewhere, any known medical or surgical complications, Hb level on admission, whether patient was in shock, USG findings, evidence of sepsis, blood transfusion, treatment given and duration of hospital stay. Descriptive analysis of the collected data was done. Among the 128 cases of abortion in the study period, 40 (31.25%) patients had self-administered abortion pills. Among these 40 patients 27.5% had consumed abortion pills after the approved time period of 63 days of which 17.5% had consumed pills after 12 weeks of gestation. The most common presentation was excessive bleeding (77.5%) Severe anaemia was found in 12.5% of the patients and 5% of patients presented with shock. The outcome was as follows : 62.5% of the patients were found to have incomplete abortion, 22.5% had failed abortion and 7.5% of patients had incomplete abortion with sepsis. Surgical evacuation was performed in 67.5% of the patients whereas 12.5% of the

  18. Dementia in Parkinson's disease: usefulness of the pill questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2013-11-01

    The Level I algorithm for the diagnosis of dementia associated with Parkinson's disease (PD-D) recommended by the Movement Disorder Society task force includes a Pill Questionnaire to determine the impact of cognitive decline on daily activities. The objective of this study was to test the performance of the Pill Questionnaire as a screening tool for the detection of dementia (all-cause) in patients with PD and to test the performance of another functional scale substituting the Pill Questionnaire for the diagnosis of "probable PD-D" (pPD-D). Data were collected from 529 patients who had PD in Hoehn and Yahr stages 1 through 5. The measures used include the Scales for Outcomes in PD-Motor (SCOPA-Motor), scales for psychiatric complications, the Mini Mental State Examination, the Clinical Impression of Severity Index, and the Pill Questionnaire. The SCOPA-Motor functional subscale score was categorized as "impact" or "no impact" of PD on daily activities. According to clinical judgment, 13.3% of patients had dementia. For detecting dementia, the Pill Questionnaire had 89% accuracy, although its positive predictive value was 55%. Performance was worse with the categorized SCOPA-Motor subscale. According to the Movement Disorder Society task force criterion, 85 patients (16.1%) had pPD-D. When the Pill Questionnaire was substituted by the categorized SCOPA-Motor subscale, the modified algorithm showed sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy indexes over 90% but had positive predictive value of 66% for pPD-D diagnosis. Although the Pill Questionnaire demonstrated acceptable basic properties as a screening tool for dementia, its positive predictive value was low. The SCOPA-Motor subscale cannot be proposed as a substitute for the Pill Questionnaire. © 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  19. A new accurate pill recognition system using imprint information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Kamata, Sei-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Great achievements in modern medicine benefit human beings. Also, it has brought about an explosive growth of pharmaceuticals that current in the market. In daily life, pharmaceuticals sometimes confuse people when they are found unlabeled. In this paper, we propose an automatic pill recognition technique to solve this problem. It functions mainly based on the imprint feature of the pills, which is extracted by proposed MSWT (modified stroke width transform) and described by WSC (weighted shape context). Experiments show that our proposed pill recognition method can reach an accurate rate up to 92.03% within top 5 ranks when trying to classify more than 10 thousand query pill images into around 2000 categories.

  20. MPC and ALI: their basis and their comparison

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Watson, E.C.

    Radiation protection regulations in the United States have evolved from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). In 1959, the ICRP issued Publication 2 which contained specific recommendations on dose rate limits, permissible body burdens, metabolic data for radionuclides, and maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) in air or water. Over the next 20 years, new information became available concerning the effects of radiation, the uptake and retention of radionuclides, and the radioactive decay schemes of parent radionuclides. To include this newer information, the ICRP issued Publication 30 inmore » 1978 to supersede Publication 2. One of the secondary limits defined in Publication 30 is the annual limit of intake (ALI). Radionuclide specific ALI values are intended to replace MPC values in determining whether or not ambient air and water concentrations are sufficiently low to maintain the dose to workers within accepted dose rate limits. In this paper, we discuss the derivation of MPC and ALI values, compare inhalation committed dose equivalent factors derived from ICRP Publications 2 and 30, and discuss the practical implications of using either MPC or ALI in determining compliance with occupational exposure limits. 6 references.« less

  1. Repeat use of emergency contraceptive pills in urban Kenya and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chin-Quee, Dawn; L'Engle, Kelly; Otterness, Conrad; Mercer, Sarah; Chen, Mario

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the frequency and patterns of use of emergency contraceptive pills among women in urban Kenya and Nigeria. To recruit women who had used emergency contraceptive pills, individuals aged 18-49 were intercepted and interviewed at shopping venues in Nairobi, Kenya, and Lagos, Nigeria, in 2011. Information was collected on 539 Nairobi and 483 Lagos respondents' demographic and behavioral characteristics, attitudes toward the method, and frequency of use. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify associations between these characteristics and frequency of pill use. Eighteen percent of the women interviewed in Nairobi and 17% in Lagos had ever used emergency contraceptive pills. On average, these respondents had used the pills less than once per month, but greater use and acceptance were seen in Lagos. In multivariate analysis, women who had sex at least once in a typical week were generally more likely than others to have used the pills 2-5 times in the last six months, rather than once or never, or to have used them six or more times. Furthermore, Lagos respondents who said their main contraceptive method was the condom, the pill or injectable, or a natural method were generally less likely than those who did not report these methods to have used the emergency pills multiple times in the last six months. Repeated use of emergency contraceptive pills was not common in this sample.

  2. Haemostatic and metabolic impact of estradiol pills and drospirenone-containing ethinylestradiol pills vs. levonorgestrel-containing ethinylestradiol pills: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Lete, Iñaki; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Jamin, Christian; Lello, Stefano; Lobo, Paloma; Nappi, Rossella E; Pintiaux, Axelle

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction 50 years ago, the contraceptive pill has continuously evolved to decrease the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with its use. An increased risk of VTE still remains, however. Other concerns, such as effects on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, have also been reported. In this study we compared two reference combined oral contraceptives (COCs) containing ethinylestradiol (EE)/levonorgestrel (LNG) and EE/drospirenone (DRSP) with COCs containing estradiol (E2) (estradiol valerate [E2V]/dienogest [DNG] and E2/nomegestrol acetate [NOMAC]). They were evaluated according to their influence on recognised haemostatic and metabolic markers. A literature search of the MEDLINE/PubMed database was conducted for head-to-head studies. EE/LNG was chosen as the comparator pill. The haemostatic impact of E2 pills and EE/LNG has been extensively compared, in contrast to that of EE/DRSP and EE/LNG. Changes in haemostatic and metabolic marker levels between EE/LNG and E2V/DNG were generally not statistically significant. E2/NOMAC showed statistically significantly favourable results on haemostatic markers and had a neutral effect on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism when compared with EE/LNG. E2/NOMAC exhibits less haemostatic and metabolic impact than EE/LNG and other COCs, suggesting that it may be a promising candidate to reduce residual VTE risk associated with COC use. Confirmation from a well-powered prospective clinical trial is, however, needed.

  3. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksieva, K.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2011-06-01

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  4. Birth control pills overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on ... the medicine was prescribed for the person Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ...

  5. [Application of time domain reflectometry for determination of wate content in Xiangsha Yangwei pills].

    PubMed

    Long, Feng-Lai; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Peng, Xiu-Juan; Liu, Peng; He, Fang-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Xiangsha Yangwei pill was selected as a model drug in this research, and time domain reflectometry (TDR) was used to determine the water content in the pill. The effects of five factors including the number of pill layers, pill packing density, atmospheric moisture, ambient temperature and the ratio of pill formula were investigated on water content. The results showed that the number of pill layers and ambient temperature had significant effects on water content of pills, while the pill packing density, atmospheric moisture and pill formula ratio had little effect on the determination of water content in pills. The reflection value was stable when 6 layers of pills were used. Under the condition of 25 ℃ and 45% relative humidity, the water content of pills ranged from 4.01% to 22.38%, showing good linear relationship between water content and reflection value, and the model equation was as follows: Y=0.279X-21.670 (R²=0.997 0). Verification experiment was used to explain the feasibility of this prediction model. The precision of the method complied with the methodology standard. It is concluded that TDR can be used in determination of water content in Xiangsha Yangwei pills. Additionally, TDR, as a new way to quickly and efficiently determine the water content, has a prospect application in the processing of traditional Chinese medicine pharmacy, especially for concentrated pill. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Monitoring Location and Angular Orientation of a Pill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schipper, John F.

    2012-01-01

    A mobile pill transmitter system moves through, or adjacent to, one or more organs in an animal or human body, while transmitting signals from its present location and/or present angular orientation. The system also provides signals from which the present roll angle of the pill, about a selected axis, can be determined. When the location coordinates angular orientation and the roll angle of the pill are within selected ranges, an aperture on the pill container releases a selected chemical into, or onto, the body. Optionally, the pill, as it moves, provides a sequence of visually perceptible images. The times for image formation may correspond to times at which the pill transmitter system location or image satisfies one of at least four criteria. This invention provides and supplies an algorithm for exact determination of location coordinates and angular orientation coordinates for a mobile pill transmitter (PT), or other similar device that is introduced into, and moves within, a GI tract of a human or animal body. A set of as many as eight nonlinear equations has been developed and applied, relating propagation of a wireless signal between either two, three, or more transmitting antennas located on the PT, to four or more non-coplanar receiving antennas located on a signal receiver appliance worn by the user. The equations are solved exactly, without approximations or iterations, and are applied in several environments: (1) association of a visual image, transmitted by the PT at each of a second sequence of times, with a PT location and PT angular orientation at that time; (2) determination of a position within the body at which a drug or chemical substance or other treatment is to be delivered to a selected portion of the body; (3) monitoring, after delivery, of the effect(s) of administration of the treatment; and (4) determination of one or more positions within the body where provision and examination of a finer-scale image is warranted.

  7. Asian herbals and aphrodisiacs used for managing ED

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In the East, many herbal tonics and preparations are used to assist the aging male improve his sexual drive or ability to perform penetrative sex by increasing sexual stimulation, erectile, ejaculatory, orgasmic and other responses for sexual function and satisfaction. The herbs and tonics act as or as “pick-me-ups” and energizing tonics which help the tired and fatigued male and those with sexual asthenia. The myths and realities concerning Tongkat Ali, sea horse, cobra meat and blood, animal penises and testicles amongst many other herbs and portions for oral intake or local application used by traditional “medical” practitioners and village doctors will be discussed. PMID:28540223

  8. [Effect and regulation of drying on quality of traditional Chinese medicine pills].

    PubMed

    Qi, Ya-Ru; Li, Yuan-Hui; Han, Li; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yue, Peng-Fei; Wang, Xue-Cheng; Xiong, Yao-Kun; Yang, Ming

    2017-06-01

    The dry quality of traditional Chinese medicine pills is the hot spot of pills research, because their quality has a crucial effect on the efficacy and development of dosage forms. Through literature research and statistical analysis, we would review the current problems on the drying of traditional Chinese medicine pills in this paper, and surrounding the evaluation system for traditional Chinese medicine pills, analyze the characteristics of common drying equipment and processes as well as their effect on quality of pills, discuss the problems in drying equipment and process as well as quality, and put forward the corresponding strategies, hoping to provide new ideas and new methods for the quality improvement of traditional Chinese medicine pills and quality standards. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Analysis of traditional Tibetan pills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesnek, Martin; Štefánik, Milan; Miglierini, Marcel; Kmječ, Tomáš; Sklenka, L'ubomír

    2017-11-01

    Traditional Tibetan medicine starts to be a very popular complementary medicine in USA and Europe. These pills contain many elements essential for the human body. However, they might also contain heavy metals such as mercury, iron, arsenic, etc. This paper focuses on elemental composition of two Tibetan pills and investigation of forms of iron in them. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis identified the presence of several heavy metals such as mercury, iron and copper. Mőssbauer spectroscopy revealed the possible presence of α - F e 2 O 3(hematite) and α - F e O O H(goethite) in both of the investigated samples.

  10. Choosing the Right Oral Contraceptive Pill for Teens.

    PubMed

    Powell, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) continue to be the most commonly used form of prescription contraceptives used by adolescents in the United States. With proper use, oral contraceptives provide safe and effective birth control. Broad categories of OCPs include progestin-only pills (POPs) and combined oral contraceptive pills (COCs). Certain types of progestins have more potent antiandrogenic properties and are more effective in treating acne, hirsutism, and polycystic ovary syndrome. This article reviews types of OCPs, discusses risks and benefits of OCPs, and provides guidance for how to choose the most beneficial and appropriate OCP for individual adolescent patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Emergency contraceptive pills: knowledge and attitudes of pharmacy personnel in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Ehrle, Nina; Sarker, Malabika

    2011-06-01

    As abortion is illegal in Nicaragua, postcoital contraception is an important option for preventing pregnancy. Emergency contraceptive pills are available in Nicaraguan pharmacies over the counter, but pharmacy personnel's knowledge and attitudes about this method can affect access. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Managua, Nicaragua's capital. Interviewers administered a semistructured questionnaire to 93 pharmacy employees to determine their knowledge of and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills. Descriptive statistics and cross-tabulations were used to examine responses of and differences between male and female employees. All participants knew about emergency contraceptive pills and reported experience selling them. The majority sold them at least once a week (92%), usually without a prescription (97%). Of participants who were aware that emergency contraceptive pills should be taken only after sexual intercourse, 45% knew that the pills can be taken up to three days afterward; none knew that the pills are effective up to five days afterward. More than one-third of all respondents (39%) thought the pills can induce abortion, and most overestimated contraindications and side effects. Large majorities believed the availability of emergency contraceptive pills discourages use of ongoing methods (75%), encourages sexual risk-taking (82%) and increases transmission of HIV and other STIs (76%). Sixty-three participants (68%) thought emergency contraceptive pills are necessary to reduce unwanted and unplanned pregnancy; 65% were willing to provide them to all women in need, although only 13% would provide them to minors. Managuan pharmacy personnel frequently dispense emergency contraceptive pills, but need additional education to accurately counsel women about the method.

  12. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation in ALI/ARDS.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sammy; Ferguson, Niall D

    2011-07-01

    In the last 2 decades, our goals for mechanical ventilatory support in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or acute lung injury (ALI) have changed dramatically. Several randomized controlled trials have built on a substantial body of preclinical work to demonstrate that the way in which we employ mechanical ventilation has an impact on important patient outcomes. Avoiding ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is now a major focus when clinicians are considering which ventilatory strategy to employ in patients with ALI/ARDS. Physicians are searching for methods that may further limit VILI, while still achieving adequate gas exchange. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Two pills, two paths: a tale of gender bias.

    PubMed

    Potts, Malcolm

    2003-01-01

    In Japan, it took over 30 years to register the contraceptive Pill, but it took only six months to approve Viagra. The Pill was developed in an academic institution and no large pharmaceutical manufacturer wished to market it. Viagra was developed inside a big company and actively promoted. In the USA, the Pill was almost removed from the market because of widely publicized reports of deaths, but mortalities associated with Viagra do not make the headlines. Viagra has been promoted by the famous, whilst those who use the Pill do not appear in advertisements. Even theologians have treated these two drugs according to different standards. It is suggested that this asymmetry is not accidental, but is an expression of a deep-seated dual standard that is ultimately driven by biosocial differences in male and female power, and reproductive agendas rooted in human evolution.

  14. [Stability of physical state on compound hawthorn dropping pills].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Jian-Lan

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the stability of physical state with accelerate test and dropping in process before and after on compound hawthorn dropping pills. Scanning electron microscope, TG-DTA, FT-IR and XRD were used. The active components presented amorphous, tiny crystal and molecular state in dropping pills, and it had no obvious reaction between PEG 4000 and active components. With time prolonging, a little of active components changed from amorphous state to tiny crystal or molecular state. Solid dispersion improved the stability and dissolution of compound hawthorn dropping pills.

  15. Infrared dim small target segmentation method based on ALI-PCNN model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shangnan; Song, Yong; Zhao, Yufei; Li, Yun; Li, Xu; Jiang, Yurong; Li, Lin

    2017-10-01

    Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) is improved by Adaptive Lateral Inhibition (ALI), while a method of infrared (IR) dim small target segmentation based on ALI-PCNN model is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the feeding input signal is modulated by lateral inhibition network to suppress background. Then, the linking input is modulated by ALI, and linking weight matrix is generated adaptively by calculating ALI coefficient of each pixel. Finally, the binary image is generated through the nonlinear modulation and the pulse generator in PCNN. The experimental results show that the segmentation effect as well as the values of contrast across region and uniformity across region of the proposed method are better than the OTSU method, maximum entropy method, the methods based on conventional PCNN and visual attention, and the proposed method has excellent performance in extracting IR dim small target from complex background.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Silymarin Synchronized and Sustained Release Dropping Pill.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Hong; Li, Xue-Jing; Huang, Ai-Wen; Zhang, Jing; Song, Hong-Tao

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a synchronized and sustained-release silymarin dropping pill, and to evaluate its pharmacokinetic characteristics. Polyoxyethylene stearate, glyceryl monostearate, and stearic acid were used to prepare the dropping pills. X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and release were used to evaluate its physicochemical properties. The plasma concentration of silybin in beagle dogs after oral administration of silymarin dropping pills and silymarin capsule was determined by RP-HPLC. Synchronized release was achieved with high similarity factor f2 values between every set of two of the five components. Mean plasma concentration-time curves of silymarin after oral administration of dropping pills in beagle dogs were in accordance with first-order absorption and open twocompartment model. The Tmax, Cmax, and AUC0-∞ of dropping pills in beagle dogs were 0.8750±0.13 h, 0.8183±0.07 μg·ml-1, and 2.274±0.90 μg·h·ml-1, respectively. Silymarin dropping pills prolonged in vivo exposure and reduced maximum in vivo concentration, achieving a stable level in the serum. The combination of solid dispersion technique and dropping pill formulation allowed synchronized release of multiple components in herbal medicine, and has potential application in the development of sustained release in herbal medicine. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Features Associated with Diet Pill Use in Individuals with Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Reba-Harrelson, Lauren; Von Holle, Ann; Thornton, Laura M.; Klump, Kelly L.; Berrettini, Wade H.; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steven; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M.; Goldman, David; Halmi, Katherine A.; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S.; Keel, Pamela; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James; Plotnicov, Katherine; Rotondo, Alessandro; Strober, Michael; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D. Blake; Kaye, Walter H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the relation between diet pill use and eating disorder subtype, purging and other compensatory behaviors, body mass index (BMI), tobacco and caffeine use, alcohol abuse or dependence, personality characteristics, and Axis I and Axis II disorders in 1,345 participants from the multisite Price Foundation Genetics Studies. Diet pill use was significantly less common in women with restricting type of AN than in women with other eating disorder subtypes. In addition, diet pill use was associated with the use of multiple weight control behaviors, higher BMI, higher novelty seeking, and the presence of anxiety disorders, alcohol abuse or dependence, and borderline personality disorder. Findings suggest that certain clinical and personality variables distinguish individuals with eating disorders who use diet pills from those who do not. In the eating disorder population, vigilant screening for diet pill use should be routine clinical practice. PMID:18167325

  18. [The NHG guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills'].

    PubMed

    Damen-van Beek, Zamire; Lucassen, Peter L B J; Gorgels, Wim; Smelt, Antonette F H; Knuistingh Neven, Arie; Bouma, Margriet

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch College of General Practitioners' (NHG) guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills' provides recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of the most prevalent sleep problems and for the management of chronic users of sleeping pills. The preferred approach for sleeplessness is not to prescribe medication but to give information and behavioural advice. Practice assistants of the Dutch Association of Mental Health and Addiction Care are also expected to be able to undertake this management. The GP may consider prescribing sleeping pills for a short period only in cases of severe insomnia with considerable distress. Chronic users of sleeping pills should be advised by the GP to stop using them or to reduce the dose gradually (controlled dose reduction). The GP may refer patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) to a pulmonary or ear, nose and throat specialist or neurologist for further diagnosis depending on the regional arrangements. The GP may then consider the cardiovascular risk factors commonly present with OSA. In patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) who continue to experience major distress despite being given advice without the prescription of medication, the GP may consider prescribing a dopamine agonist.

  19. Muhammad Ali's Fighting Words: The Paradox of Violence in Nonviolent Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsevski, Ellen W.; Butterworth, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    While Muhammad Ali has been the subject of countless articles and books written by sports historians and journalists, rhetorical scholars have largely ignored him. This oversight is surprising given both the tradition of social movement scholarship within rhetorical studies and Ali's influential eloquence as a world renowned celebrity espousing…

  20. Efficacy and tolerability of the single-pill combination of aliskiren 300 mg/amlodipine 10 mg in hypertensive patients not controlled by olmesartan 40 mg/amlodipine 10 mg.

    PubMed

    Axthelm, Christoph; Sieder, Christian; Meister, Franziska; Kaiser, Edelgard

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether the single pill combination (SPC) of aliskiren 300 mg and amlodipine 10 mg (ALIS 300/AMLO 10) improves blood pressure (BP) reduction in hypertensive patients not adequately controlled by the SPC olmesartan 40 mg and amlodipine 10 mg (OLM 40/AMLO 10). Open-label, non-randomized single-arm study. Patients with stage 2 hypertension were titrated to the SPC OLM 40/AMLO 10 (4-week Phase 1). If hypertension was not controlled they were switched to the SPC ALIS 300/AMLO 10 (4-week Phase 2). In the optional 4-week study extension hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) 12.5 mg was added. EudraCT 2009-016693-33. In the 342 patients treated, OLM 40/AMLO 10 reduced systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) by 24.5/14.5 mmHg by end of Phase 1. Those 187 patients with uncontrolled hypertension at the end of Phase 1 switched to ALIS 300/AMLO 10 experienced a further SBP reduction of 5.1 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.7 to 6.5, p < 0.0001) and a DBP reduction of 4.8 mmHg (95% CI 3.8 to 5.8; p < 0.0001) in Phase 2. DBP or SBP responder rates were achieved by 51.3% or 44.4%, respectively, SBP and DBP normalization by 36.4%. In 65 patients whose BP was not controlled in Phase 2, SPC ALIS 300/AMLO 10/HCT 12.5 mg decreased SBP/DBP by further 8.1/6.7 mmHg (p < 0.0001 each). No deaths or serious adverse events were noted. Significant adverse events leading to study discontinuation were reported in 2.6% (Phase 1), 2.7% (Phase 2), and 0% (extension). Limitations included the open-label, single-arm non-randomized design, and the relatively short duration. In this switch study reflecting clinical practice, patients with moderate hypertension not controlled by the SPC OLM 40/AMLO 10 achieved a clinically and statistically significant reduction of blood pressure from the SPC ALIS 300/AMLO 10 and the optional addition of HCT. All drug combinations were well tolerated.

  1. [Research on blood distribution of Tibetan population in Ali area].

    PubMed

    Liu, X X; Li, D D; Li, H L; Hou, L A; Liu, Z J; Yang, H Y; Qiu, L

    2017-12-12

    Objective: To explore the distribution of ABO blood group in the healthy population in the Ali area of Tibet, and to analyze the difference of blood group distribution between the Tibetan population in Ali and the Tibet Tibetan population. Methods: The blood distribution of 509 apparent healthy volunteers of Tueti County and Gal County, Tibet, which were randomly selected from September to November in 2016; 137 Tibetan blood donors, from 2016 September to2017 July and 84 Tibetan blood donors from 2015 August to 2017 July was analyzed retrospectively. The blood type was tested by the slide method. By reviewing the Chinese and foreign language database, seven articles on Tibetan blood group distribution were obtained. And the data of the blood distribution of the Ali area population and the Tibet Tibetan population were compared. Results: The ABO phenotype frequencies of 507 apparent healthy people, 137 blood donors and 84 recipients were B>O>A>AB. The composition ratio were 36.1%, 34.5%, 21.5 %, 7.9%; 40.1%, 35.0%, 17.5%, 7.3%; 39.3%, 34.5%, 20.2%, 6.0%.There was no statistically significant difference in blood group distribution between the donors and the recipients ( P >0.05). And there was no significant difference in the blood group distribution between Ali and Shigatse, Nagqu, Lhasa, Shannan. However, the differences between Ali and Qamdo, Nyingchi areas were statistically significant. Conclusion: The geographical position of the blood from the west to east, B type shows a downward trend, O type blood composition ratio shows an upward trend.

  2. Ground-based multi-station spectroscopic imaging with ALIS. - Scientific highlights, project status and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brändström; Gustavsson, Björn; Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta; Sandahl, Ingrid; Sergienko, Tima; Steen, Ake

    2005-08-01

    The Auroral Large Imaging System (ALIS) was first proposed at the ESA-PAC meeting in Lahnstein 1989. The first spectroscopic imaging station was operational in 1994, and since then up to six stations have been in simultaneous operation. Each station has a scientific-grade CCD-detector and a filter-wheel for narrow-band interference-filters with six positions. The field-of-view is around 70°. Each imager is mounted in a positioning system, enabling imaging of a common volume from several sites. This enables triangulation and tomography. Raw data from ALIS is freely available at ("http://alis.irf.se") and ALIS is open for scientific colaboration. ALIS made the first unambiguous observations of Radio-induced optical emissions at high latitudes, and the detection of water in a Leonid meteor-trail. Both rockets and satellite coordination are considered for future observations with ALIS.

  3. November campaign to increase pill awareness.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    70% of respondents in a survey of women using oral contraceptives (OCs) reported that they have forgotten to take at least 1 OC pill. Insufficient information on taking OCs is responsible for such mistakes. Many women calling the hotline of the UK Family Planning Association (FPA) do not really understand how OCs work so they do not actually realize the risks of forgetting to take pills. The UK's Department of Health, FPA, the Royal Pharmaceutical Association, the Health Education Authority, and health agencies in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland have joined together to reduce this ignorance about the significance of not taking pills among the 3 million women in the UK who use OCs. This OC initiative is part of the Pharmacy Healthcare Scheme. 70% of pharmacists in a recent survey claim that customers ask them about contraception, particularly OCs, at least once a month and as often as once a week. Since pharmacists work in the community and are highly trained health professionals, they are in a good position to distribute advice and information. FPA had developed an information pamphlet and poster for the Pharmacy Healthcare Scheme campaign. It plans on distributing more than 500,000 copies to the 13,000 community pharmacies in the UK in November 1993. A briefing sheet to assist pharmacists with doling out advice and information on OCs will accompany the copies. The Scheme also is targeting hospital pharmacies. This initiative hopes to increase awareness about the danger of missing pills, to respond to common questions about OCs, and to encourage women to seek more information about OCs form the pharmacist.

  4. Effects of the oral contraceptive pill cycle on physiological responses to hypoxic exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandoval, Darleen A.; Matt, Kathleen S.

    2003-01-01

    To test whether the oral contraceptive pill cycle affects endocrine and metabolic responses to hypoxic (fraction of inspired oxygen = 13%, P(IO2): 95 mmHg; H) versus normoxic (P(IO2):153 mmHg; N) exercise, we examined eight women (28 +/- 1.2 yr) during the third (PILL) and placebo (PLA) weeks of their monthly oral contraceptive pill cycle. Cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and neuroendocrine measurements were taken before, during, and after three 5-min consecutive workloads at 30%, 45%, and 60% of normoxic V(O2peak) in H and N trials. Heart rate response to exercise was greater in H versus N, but was not different between PILL and PLA. Lactate levels were significantly greater during exercise, and both lactate and glucose levels were significantly greater for 30 min after exercise in H versus N (p < 0.0001). When expressed relative to baseline, lactate levels were lower in PILL versus PLA, but glucose was greater in PILL versus PLA (p < 0.001). Cortisol levels were also significantly greater in PILL versus PLA (p < 0.001). Norepinephrine levels were significantly increased during exercise (p < 0.0001) and in H versus N (p < 0.0001). However, epinephrine levels were not different over time or with trial. Thus, the presence of circulating estradiol and progesterone during the PILL phase reduces glucose and lactate responses to hypoxic exercise.

  5. Patterns of benzylpiperazine/trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine party pill use and adverse effects in a population sample in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Chris; Sweetsur, Paul; Girling, Melissa

    2008-11-01

    A large legal market for party pills containing benzylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) developed in New Zealand after 2004. The use of these party pills has been associated with adverse health effects. The purpose of this paper was to assess a general population sample of party pill users to investigate the relationship between (1) patterns of use of BZP/TFMPP party pills and concurrent use of other drug types, and (2) adverse side effects from BZP/TFMPP party pill use. A national household survey of the use of BZP/TFMPP party pills was conducted using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) facility. The quantity of BZP and TFMPP in each brand of party pill was obtained from the National Poisons Centre. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of having experienced adverse side effects from party pills. The mean quantity of BZP/TFMPP taken on an occasion of greatest use was 533 mg (median 400 mg, range 43-2500 mg). Being female, using cannabis and other drugs concurrently with BZP/TFMPP party pills, taking large quantities of party pills in a single session and taking 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) recovery pills at the same time as party pills were independent predictors of having experienced an adverse problem from party pills. Females may be at greater risk of experiencing problems from BZP/TFMPP party pills due to their smaller physical size. Taking 5-HTP 'recovery' pills with party pills may increase the risk of adverse effects as both substances increase users' levels of serotonin.

  6. [Advance on human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of ALI in severe burns].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Hu, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    Severe burn is often accompanied by multiple organ damage. Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the most common complications, and often occurs in the early stage of severe burns. If it is not treated in time, it will progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which will be a serious threat to the lives of patients. At present, the treatment of ALI in patients with severe burn is still remained in some common ways, such as the liquid resuscitation, the primary wound treatment, ventilation support, and anti-infection. In recently, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been found having some good effects on ALI caused by various causes, but few reports on the efficacy of ALI caused by severe burns were reported. By reviewing the mechanism of stem cell therapy for ALI, therapeutic potential of hUCMSCs in the treatment of severe burns with ALI and a new approach for clinical treatment was provided.

  7. Fatal Fentanyl: One Pill Can Kill.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Mark E; Gerona, Roy R; Davis, M Thais; Roche, Bailey M; Colby, Daniel K; Chenoweth, James A; Adams, Axel J; Owen, Kelly P; Ford, Jonathan B; Black, Hugh B; Albertson, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

    The current national opioid epidemic is a public health emergency. We have identified an outbreak of exaggerated opioid toxicity caused by fentanyl adulterated tablets purchased on the street as hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Over an 8-day period in late March 2016, a total of 18 patients presented to our institution with exaggerated opioid toxicity. The patients provided a similar history: ingesting their "normal dose" of hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets but with more pronounced symptoms. Toxicology testing and analysis was performed on serum, urine, and surrendered pills. One of the 18 patients died in hospital. Five patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation, one required extracorporeal life support, three required intubation, and two received bag-valve-mask ventilation. One patient had recurrence of toxicity after 8 hours after naloxone discontinuation. Seventeen of 18 patients required boluses of naloxone, and four required prolonged naloxone infusions (26-39 hours). All 18 patients tested positive for fentanyl in the serum. Quantitative assays conducted in 13 of the sera revealed fentanyl concentrations of 7.9 to 162 ng/mL (mean = 52.9 ng/mL). Pill analysis revealed fentanyl amounts of 600-6,900 μg/pill. The pills are virtually indistinguishable from authentic hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets and are similar in weight. To date, our county has reported 56 cases of fentanyl opioid toxicity, with 15 fatalities. In our institution, the outbreak has stressed the capabilities and resources of the emergency department and intensive care units. A serious outbreak of exaggerated opioid toxicity caused by fentanyl-adulterated tablets purchased on the street as hydrocodone/acetaminophen is under way in California. These patients required higher dosing and prolonged infusions of naloxone. Additionally, observation periods off naloxone were extended due to delayed, recurrent toxicity. The outbreak has serious ramifications for public health and safety, law

  8. Determination and application of location and angular orientation of a pill transmitter within a body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A mobile pill transmitter system that moves through or adjacent to one or more organs in an animal's body and that provides signals from which the pill's present location and/or present angular orientation can be determined. The system also provides signals from which the present roll angle of the pill, about a selected axis, can be determined. When the location coordinates and the roll angle of the pill are within selected ranges, an aperture on the pill container releases a selected chemical into or onto the body. Optionally, the pill as it moves also provides a sequence of visually perceptible images; the times for image formation may correspond to times at which the pill transmitter system location or image satisfies one or at least four different criteria.

  9. Neutrophil extracellular traps contribute to the pathogenesis of acid-aspiration-induced ALI/ARDS.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Zhou, Xiaoting; Tan, Hongyi; Hu, Yongbin; Zhang, Lemeng; Liu, Shuai; Dai, Minhui; Li, Yi; Li, Qian; Mao, Zhi; Pan, Pinhua; Su, Xiaoli; Hu, Chengpin

    2018-01-05

    Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is a manifestation of systemic inflammation in the lungs, but the factors that trigger inflammation in ALI/ARDS are unclear. We hypothesized that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to the pathogenesis of acid aspiration-induced ALI/ARDS. Analysis of bronchial aspirates from ARDS patients showed that NETs were significantly correlated with the degree of ARDS (r = -0.5846, p = 0.0359). NETs in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of acid-aspiration mice were significantly higher (141.6 ± 23.08) at 3 h after injury than those in the sham group (1234 ± 101.9; p = 0.003, n = 5 per group). Exogenous NETs aggravated lung injury, while alvelestat and DNase markedly attenuated the intensity of ARDS. We investigated whether NETs are involved in the severity of gastric aspiration-induced ARDS. Then, a hydrochloric acid aspiration-induced ALI murine model was used to assess whether NETs are pathogenic and whether targeting NETs is protective. Exogenous NETs were administered to mice. Alvelestat can inhibit neutrophil elastase (NE), which serves an important role in NET formation, so we investigated whether alvelestat could protect against ALI in cell and mouse models. NETs may contribute to ALI/ARDS by promoting tissue damage and systemic inflammation. Targeting NETs by alvelestat may be a potential therapeutic strategy.

  10. Consumer perspectives on a pericoital contraceptive pill in India and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Cover, Jane K; Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Kyamwanga, Imelda T; Turyakira, Eleanor; Dargan, Tanya; Kumakech, Edward; Harner-Jay, Claudia

    2013-12-01

    Studies suggest that women in some countries have adopted emergency contraceptive pills as a routine method of family planning. This practice indicates there may be latent demand for a pericoital contraceptive pill taken only when a woman has sexual intercourse, and labeled and marketed for use as a regular contraceptive method. To understand the appeal and potential market for a pericoital contraceptive pill, 39 focus groups and 23 in-depth interviews were conducted with women and men in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, and Kampala, Uganda. A total of 281 individuals participated in this qualitative study. In general, women embraced the idea of a female-controlled method that would be easier than taking a daily oral contraceptive pill and that could be taken either before or after sexual intercourse; in Uganda, especially, women approved of the fact that the method could be taken without a partner's knowledge. Although we do not yet know the extent of side effects for this method, women expressed some concerns about the level and nature of potential side effects. The results suggest that a pericoital contraceptive pill would be well-received by consumers in both country settings. If its efficacy and side effects are acceptable, a pericoital contraceptive pill could fill a gap for female-controlled, discreet, coitus-related contraception, particularly among women who do not have sex very frequently.

  11. Highs and lows: patterns of use, positive and negative effects of benzylpiperazine-containing party pills (BZP-party pills) amongst young people in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Butler, Rachael A; Sheridan, Janie L

    2007-11-19

    This study aimed to investigate patterns and context of use of BZP-party pills, function of use, and positive and negative effects experienced by a sample of New Zealand young people who had used the products. A qualitative study comprised of semi-structured interviews and group discussions. The sample included 58 young people aged 17-23 years who had used BZP-party pills in the previous 12 months. Young people were using these substances in a range of settings--primarily during weekend social occasions--particularly as part of the dance party culture. They were mostly used for their stimulant properties and to enhance socialisation, and were often taken in combination with other legal and illicit drugs. Young people had suffered a range of physical and emotional negative effects, although none of these was reported as being life-threatening or long-term. Many participants had reduced the frequency with which they used BZP-party pills due to adverse effects. Potentially risky behaviours identified included taking large doses, mixing BZP-party pills with alcohol and other substances, and driving whilst under the influence of BZP-party pills. Findings suggest that young people in this study were not suffering excessive or dangerous adverse effects. However, potentially risky use of these products raises the issue of the need for developing harm reduction interventions.

  12. Highs and lows: patterns of use, positive and negative effects of benzylpiperazine-containing party pills (BZP-party pills) amongst young people in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Rachael A; Sheridan, Janie L

    2007-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate patterns and context of use of BZP-party pills, function of use, and positive and negative effects experienced by a sample of New Zealand young people who had used the products. Methods A qualitative study comprised of semi-structured interviews and group discussions. Results The sample included 58 young people aged 17–23 years who had used BZP-party pills in the previous 12 months. Young people were using these substances in a range of settings – primarily during weekend social occasions – particularly as part of the dance party culture. They were mostly used for their stimulant properties and to enhance socialisation, and were often taken in combination with other legal and illicit drugs. Young people had suffered a range of physical and emotional negative effects, although none of these was reported as being life-threatening or long-term. Many participants had reduced the frequency with which they used BZP-party pills due to adverse effects. Potentially risky behaviours identified included taking large doses, mixing BZP-party pills with alcohol and other substances, and driving whilst under the influence of BZP-party pills. Conclusion Findings suggest that young people in this study were not suffering excessive or dangerous adverse effects. However, potentially risky use of these products raises the issue of the need for developing harm reduction interventions. PMID:18021425

  13. Cross calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ and EO-1 ALI sensor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Meyer, D.J.; Helder, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) Mission, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) demonstrates a potential technological direction for Landsat Data Continuity Missions. To evaluate ALI's capabilities in this role, a cross-calibration methodology has been developed using image pairs from the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and EO-1 (ALI) to verify the radiometric calibration of ALI with respect to the well-calibrated L7 ETM+ sensor. Results have been obtained using two different approaches. The first approach involves calibration of nearly simultaneous surface observations based on image statistics from areas observed simultaneously by the two sensors. The second approach uses vicarious calibration techniques to compare the predicted top-of-atmosphere radiance derived from ground reference data collected during the overpass to the measured radiance obtained from the sensor. The results indicate that the relative sensor chip assemblies gains agree with the ETM+ visible and near-infrared bands to within 2% and the shortwave infrared bands to within 4%.

  14. The National Library of Medicine Pill Image Recognition Challenge: An Initial Report.

    PubMed

    Yaniv, Ziv; Faruque, Jessica; Howe, Sally; Dunn, Kathel; Sharlip, David; Bond, Andrew; Perillan, Pablo; Bodenreider, Olivier; Ackerman, Michael J; Yoo, Terry S

    2016-10-01

    In January 2016 the U.S. National Library of Medicine announced a challenge competition calling for the development and discovery of high-quality algorithms and software that rank how well consumer images of prescription pills match reference images of pills in its authoritative RxIMAGE collection. This challenge was motivated by the need to easily identify unknown prescription pills both by healthcare personnel and the general public. Potential benefits of this capability include confirmation of the pill in settings where the documentation and medication have been separated, such as in a disaster or emergency; and confirmation of a pill when the prescribed medication changes from brand to generic, or for any other reason the shape and color of the pill change. The data for the competition consisted of two types of images, high quality macro photographs, reference images, and consumer quality photographs of the quality we expect users of a proposed application to acquire. A training dataset consisting of 2000 reference images and 5000 corresponding consumer quality images acquired from 1000 pills was provided to challenge participants. A second dataset acquired from 1000 pills with similar distributions of shape and color was reserved as a segregated testing set. Challenge submissions were required to produce a ranking of the reference images, given a consumer quality image as input. Determination of the winning teams was done using the mean average precision quality metric, with the three winners obtaining mean average precision scores of 0.27, 0.09, and 0.08. In the retrieval results, the correct image was amongst the top five ranked images 43%, 12%, and 11% of the time, out of 5000 query/consumer images. This is an initial promising step towards development of an NLM software system and application-programming interface facilitating pill identification. The training dataset will continue to be freely available online at: http://pir.nlm.nih.gov/challenge/submission.html.

  15. Ectopic Pregnancy and Emergency Contraceptive Pills: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Kelly; Raymond, Elizabeth; Trussell, James; Cheng, Linan; Zhu, Haoping

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the existing data to estimate the rate of ectopic pregnancy among emergency contraceptive pill treatment failures. Data Sources Our initial reference list was generated from a 2008 Cochrane review of emergency contraception. In August 2009, we searched Biosys Previews, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Medline, Global Health Database, Health Source: Popline, and Wanfang Data (a Chinese database). Methods of Study Selection This study included data from 136 studies which followed a defined population of women treated one time with emergency contraceptive pills (either mifepristone or levonorgestrel), and in which the number and location of pregnancies were ascertained. Results Data from each article were abstracted independently by two reviewers. In the studies of mifepristone, 3 out of 494 (0.6%) pregnancies were ectopic; in the levonorgestrel studies, 3 out of 307 (1%) were ectopic. Conclusion The rate of ectopic pregnancy when treatment with emergency contraceptive pills fails does not exceed the rate observed in the general population. Since emergency contraceptive pills are effective in lowering the risk of pregnancy, their use should reduce the chance that an act of intercourse will result in ectopic pregnancy. PMID:20502299

  16. Salt Pill Design and Fabrication for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Mccammon, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The performance of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is critically dependent on the design and construction of the salt pills that produce cooling. In most cases, the primary goal is to obtain the largest cooling capacity at the low temperature end of the operating range. The realizable cooling capacity depends on a number of factors, including refrigerant mass, and how efficiently it absorbs heat from the various instrument loads. The design and optimization of "salt pills" for ADR systems depend not only on the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of the refrigerant, but also on the range of heat fluxes that the salt pill must accommodate. Despite the fairly wide variety of refrigerants available, those used at very low temperature tend to be hydrated salts that require a dedicated thermal bus and must be hermetically sealed, while those used at higher temperature - greater than about 0.5 K - tend to be single-­- or poly-­-crystals that have much simpler requirements for thermal and mechanical packaging. This paper presents a summary of strategies and techniques for designing, optimizing and fabricating salt pills for both low-­- and mid-­-temperature applications.

  17. Attitudes towards the male contraceptive pill in men and women in casual and stable sexual relationships.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Judith; van Wersch, Anna; Meikle, Neil

    2009-07-01

    Men's and women's attitudes towards the male contraceptive pill and their trust in the effective use of the male pill were investigated, as well as the associated variables of reported health behaviours, perceived self-efficacy and type of sexual relationship, using a questionnaire survey. Although both sexes had a favourable attitude towards the male pill, females had a more positive attitude than men. Conversely, women had less trust that men would use the male pill effectively. Males in stable sexual relationships were more positive about the male pill than those in casual sexual relationships. Gender, relationship type and trust in the effective use of the male pill reliably predicted attitude towards the male pill. High perceived self-efficacy was related to engaging in more health behaviours, and in men a positive association between health behaviours and attitude towards the male pill has been found. A positive attitude towards the male pill does not automatically imply that the individual is confident about its effective use. Once the male pill is widely available, promotional campaigns could target not only men but also their female partners, as the latter tend to come into contact with health services more frequently. In order to increase confidence in effective implementation, a variety of presentations of the male pill should be made available in line with individual needs and lifestyles.

  18. Unused Opioid Pills After Outpatient Shoulder Surgeries Given Current Perioperative Prescribing Habits.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kanupriya; Gulotta, Lawrence V; Dines, Joshua S; Allen, Answorth A; Cheng, Jennifer; Fields, Kara G; YaDeau, Jacques T; Wu, Christopher L

    2017-03-01

    In the past 16 years, the number of prescription opioids sold in the United States, as well as deaths from prescription opioids, has nearly quadrupled. However, the overall amount of pain reported by patients has not changed significantly. Specific information about opioid prescriptions in the perioperative period is lacking. Of the studies that have been published, investigators have shown that the majority of patients have unused postoperative opioid pills. Moreover, patients appear to lack information about disposal of unused opioid pills. To compare the number of pills prescribed versus the numbers left unused after outpatient shoulder surgeries at an orthopaedic surgery institution. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. In this prospective, observational study, 100 patients (age >18 years) undergoing outpatient shoulder surgery (rotator cuff repair, labral repair, stabilization/Bankart repair, debridement) were enrolled. Follow-ups were conducted via surveys on postoperative days (PODs) 7, 14, 28, and 90. The primary outcome was the number of unused pills from the originally prescribed medication. For all procedure types, the median (Q1, Q3) number of prescribed pills was 60 (40, 80). On POD 90, patients reported a median (Q1, Q3) of 13 (0, 32) unused pills; patients who underwent rotator cuff repairs had the lowest number of pills remaining (median [Q1, Q3], 0 [0, 16]), whereas patients who had stabilization/Bankart repairs had the highest number of unused pills (median [Q1, Q3], 37 [29, 50]). Patient satisfaction with pain management ranged from an average of 70% to 90%. Only 25 patients received instructions or education about opioid disposal. Most outpatient shoulder surgery patients who underwent certain operations were prescribed more opioid analgesics than they consumed. Patient education regarding the disposal of opioids was lacking.

  19. Validation of Two Temperature Pill Telemetry Systems in Humans During Moderate and Strenuous Exercise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    The concept of using a temperature sensor in a pill as a clinical thermometer Is good, but mobility of the pill makes it less suitable as a research...Human Technologies, Inc. (CorTempt m; St. Petersburg, FL). Both systems included an ingestible temperature sensor /pill, a receiver, and a data storage...telemetry pills did, and T, and T. showed a faster response to changing core temperature than did T,. The concept of using a temperature sensor in a

  20. Social constructions of the male contraception pill: When are we going to break the vicious circle?

    PubMed

    Dismore, Lorelle; Van Wersch, Anna; Swainston, Katherine

    2016-05-01

    Social constructions of men towards the availability of a male hormonal contraceptive, the 'male pill', were explored. A qualitative approach applying semi-structured interviews and scenarios with 22 men (mean age 35 years) from the North East of England revealed two core constructs and six sub-constructs using a Thematic-Construct Analysis in line with the method of Toerien and Wilkinson and Clarke and Kitzinger. Verbal accounts were inductively used to balance the deductively created two core constructs 'Constructing the male pill norm: dominant system of sensemaking' and 'Living by the male pill norm' to represent a normative framework within a changing ideology of shared responsibility in contraceptive choice. Constructing the male pill norm was divided into two sub-constructs: 'Male pill: we are going to join the women and become responsible - too!' and 'Male pill: you look so girly - what are they going to think of me?' The 'Living by the male pill norm' was further divided into four sub-constructs 'Male pill - thank you for giving me promises not to have to become a dad as yet!'; 'Male pill: thank you for the idea of fun - sorry about my morals!'; 'Male pill: in stable relations - yes, I would have you now - sorry, I am too late!' and 'Male pill, we love you - but we are too anxious - we are not ready as yet!' From this male discourse, it is clear that discussions over the male pill follow the line of a vicious circle. In order to establish long-term side effects, Phase IV studies are necessary, and these cannot commence without the male hormonal contraception being a marketable product. So, unless this circle gets broken by some brave men, the male pill will remain a virtual rotating idea for a long time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Effect and mechanism of Qishen Yiqi Pills on adriamycin- induced cardiomyopathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jia-Yi; Xu, Yan-Juan; Bian, Ye-Ping; Shen, Xiang-Bo; Yan, Lei; Zhu, Xin-Yi

    2013-09-01

    To study the effect and probable mechanism of Qishen Yiqi Pills on adriamycin (ADR)-induced cardiomyopathy in mice. Sixty-four mice were randomly divided into (1) the ADR group: saline (1 mL/100 g) administered every day by intragavage, ADR (4 mg·kg(-1)) administered to each mouse by intraperitoneal injection twice a week for four weeks; (2) the ADR + Qishen Yiqi Pills I group: ADR (4 mg·kg(-1)) administered to each mouse by intraperitoneal injection twice a week for four weeks, and at the beginning of the third week Qishen Yiqi Pills (3.5 mg/100 g) administered by intragavage every day for four weeks; (3) the ADR + Qishen Yiqi Pills II group: ADR (4 mg·kg(-1)) administered to each mouse by intraperitoneal injection twice a week for four weeks, and at the same time Qishen Yiqi Pills (3.5 mg/100 g) administered by intragavage every day for four weeks; (4) the control group: saline (1 mL/100 g) administered every day by intragavage, saline (1 mL·kg(-1)) administered to each mouse by intraperitoneal injection twice a week for four weeks. Six weeks later, cardiac function, myocardial pathology, and expression of Bcl-2 and Bax were evaluated. 1. The left ventricular diastolic diameter and the left ventricular systolic diameter were significantly increased (P < 0.05) and the left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the ADR group, and the cardiac function of both the ADR + Qishen Yiqi Pills I group and the ADR + Qishen Yiqi Pills II group improved. 2. Myocardial morphologic observation showed that the myocardial fibers were disordered, there was cell edema, and gap widening in the ADR group. The degree of myocardial cell injury was reduced in the ADR + Qishen Yiqi Pills I group and ADR + Qishen Yiqi Pills II group compared with the ADR group. 3. The expression of Bax in the ADR group was significantly up-regulated, and the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly downregulated in the ADR group compared with the ADR + Qishen Yiqi Pills

  2. 76 FR 62494 - Designation of Ibrahim `Awwad Ibrahim `Ali al-Badri, Also Known as Dr. Ibrahim `Awwad Ibrahim...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7638] Designation of Ibrahim `Awwad Ibrahim `Ali al-Badri, Also Known as Dr. Ibrahim `Awwad Ibrahim `Ali al-Badri, Also Known as Ibrahim `Awad Ibrahim al-Badri al... individual known as Ibrahim `Awwad Ibrahim `Ali al-Badri, also known as Dr. Ibrahim `Awwad Ibrahim `Ali al...

  3. The effect of cool water ingestion on gastrointestinal pill temperature.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, David M; Carter, James M; Richmond, Victoria L; Blacker, Sam D; Rayson, Mark P

    2008-03-01

    Telemetric gastrointestinal (GI) temperature pills are now commonly used to measure core body temperature and could minimize the risk of heat illness while maximizing operational effectiveness in workers subject to high levels of thermal strain. To quantify the effect of repeated cool water ingestion on the accuracy of GI pill temperature. Ten operational firefighters ingested a pill to measure GI temperature (T1int) before overnight sleep. Two hours following breakfast and 11.5 h after ingesting T1int, the firefighters ingested a second pill (T2int) before performing 8.5 h of intermittent activity (repetitive cycles of 30 min of seated rest followed by 30 min of general firefighter duties). During the first 2 min of each 30-min rest period, the firefighters consumed 250 mL of chilled water (5-8 degrees C). Water ingestion had a highly variable effect both within and between subjects in transiently (32 +/- 10 min) reducing the temperature of T2int in comparison with T1int. In general, this transient reduction in T2int became progressively smaller as time following ingestion increased. In some firefighters, the difference between T1int and T2int became negligible (+/- 0.1 degrees C) after 3 h, whereas in two others, large differences (peaking at 2.0 degrees C and 6.3 degrees C) were still observed when water was consumed 8 h after pill ingestion. These results show that a GI pill ingested immediately prior to physical activity cannot be used to measure core body temperature accurately in all individuals during the following 8 h when cool fluids are regularly ingested. This makes GI temperature measurement unsuitable for workers who respond to emergency deployments when regular fluid consumption is recommended operational practice.

  4. Antiretroviral pill count and clinical outcomes in treatment-naïve patients with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Young, J; Smith, C; Teira, R; Reiss, P; Jarrín Vera, I; Crane, H; Miro, J M; D'Arminio Monforte, A; Saag, M; Zangerle, R; Bucher, H C

    2018-02-01

    Treatment guidelines recommend single-tablet regimens for patients with HIV infection starting antiretroviral therapy. These regimens might be as effective and cost less if taken as separate drugs. We assessed whether the one pill once a day combination of efavirenz, emtricitabine and tenofovir reduces the risk of disease progression compared with multiple-pill formulations of the same regimen. We selected treatment-naïve patients starting one-, two- or three-pill formulations of this regimen in data from the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration. These patients were followed until an AIDS event or death or until they modified their regimen. We analysed these data using Cox regression models, then used our models to predict the potential consequences of exposing a future population to either a one-pill regimen or a three-pill regimen. Among 11 739 treatment-naïve patients starting the regimen, there were 386 AIDS events and 87 deaths. Follow-up often ended when patients switched to the same regimen with fewer pills. After the first month, two pills rather than one was associated with an increase in the risk of AIDS or death [hazard ratio (HR) 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.91], but three pills rather than two did not appreciably add to that increase (HR 1.19; 95% CI 0.84-1.68). We estimate that 77 patients would need to be exposed to a one-pill regimen rather than a three-pill regimen for 1 year to avoid one additional AIDS event or death. This particular single-tablet regimen is associated with a modest decrease in the risk of AIDS or death relative to multiple-pill formulations. © 2017 British HIV Association.

  5. 76 FR 11756 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Ali Amirnazmi; Order Denying Export Privileges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Ali Amirnazmi; Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Ali Amirnazmi, Register 63302-066, FCI... release and forfeit $81,277.37. Section 766.25 of the Export Administration Regulations (``EAR'' or...

  6. The science of being a study participant: FEM-PrEP participants' explanations for overreporting adherence to the study pills and for the whereabouts of unused pills.

    PubMed

    Corneli, Amy L; McKenna, Kevin; Perry, Brian; Ahmed, Khatija; Agot, Kawango; Malamatsho, Fulufhelo; Skhosana, Joseph; Odhiambo, Jacob; Van Damme, Lut

    2015-04-15

    FEM-PrEP was unable to determine whether once-daily, oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate reduces the risk of HIV acquisition among women because of low adherence. Self-reported adherence was high, and pill-count data suggested good adherence. Yet, drug concentrations revealed limited pill use. We conducted a follow-up study with former participants in Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa, to understand factors that had influenced overreporting of adherence and to learn the whereabouts of unused pills. Qualitative, semistructured interviews were conducted with 88 participants, and quantitative, audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with 224 participants. We used thematic analysis and descriptive statistics to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data, respectively. In audio computer-assisted self-interviews, 31% (n = 70) said they had overreported adherence; the main reason was the belief that nonadherence would result in trial termination (69%, n = 48). A considerable percentage (35%, n = 78) acknowledged discarding unused pills. Few acknowledged giving their pills to someone else (4%, n = 10), and even fewer acknowledged giving them to someone with HIV (2%, n = 5). Many participants in the semistructured interviews said other participants had counted and removed pills from their bottles to appear adherent. Despite repeated messages that nonadherence would not upset staff, participants acknowledged several perceived negative consequences of reporting nonadherence, which made it difficult to report accurately. Uneasiness continued in the follow-up study, as many said they had not overreported during the trial. Efforts to improve self-reported measures should include identifying alternative methods for creating supportive environments that allow participants to feel comfortable reporting actual adherence.

  7. [Application of microscopic spectroscopy in quality control of Niuhuang Qingxin pills].

    PubMed

    Nie, Li-Xing; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Nan-Ping; Hu, Xiao-Ru; Kang, Shuai; Hou, Jian-Zhong; Dai, Zhong; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Application of microscopic spectroscopy in quality control of Niuhuang Qingxin pills was discussed. First, microscopic characteristics specified by the statutory standard of Niuhuang Qingxin pills were summarized. Then new identification method was established for Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Saigae Tataricae Cornu, Cinnamomi Cortex and Saposhnikoviae Radix. Finally, microscopic spectroscopy was used for test of Dioscoreae Rhizoma's adulterant Dioscoreae Fordii Rhizoma.It was the first time for this technology being applied in adulteration test of Chinese patent medicine.The results showed that Saigae Tataricae Cornu was not detected in 2 batches of Niuhuang Qingxin pills from 1 manufacturer while Dioscoreae Fordii Rhizoma was detected in 3 batches of samples from 2 manufacturers. The proposed methods were accurate, simple, rapid, objective and economic, which offered a more comprehensive approach for quality control of Niuhuang Qingxin pills. It was indicated that conventional technology such as microscopic spectroscopy could play an important role in identification of traditional Chinese medicine whose index ingredient was deficient or tiny. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. [Pharmacodynamics Study on Gualou Xiebai Dropping Pills and Its Medicinal Ingredients in Prescription].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hai-yan; Zou, Chun-cai; Wei, Mei-ling; Gao, Zheng-zheng; Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    To study the pharmacodynamics of Gualou Xiebai Dropping Pills and its medicinal ingredients in prescription on anti-myocardial ischemia. SPF Rats were divided randomly into eleven groups with ten rats in each group and half male and half female, the rats were respectively given the physiological saline(blank group and model group), Gualou, Xiebai, Gualou Xiebai Baijiutang (all equivalent to the crude herb of 22. 5 g/kg), Gualou Xiebai. Dropping Pills in the doses of 3. 75,11. 25,22. 5,33. 75 and 45 g/kg and Compound Danshen Drop Pills of 0. 085 g/kg by gavage one time a day for seven days. Except blank group, other rats were given by intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol to establish myocardial ischemia models, changes of ST segments in ECG were observed in all groups, and the levels of SOD, NO, HDL-C, MDA, CAT, LDH and CK in blood plasma were detected, and the pathological changes of myocardial tissues were observed under light microscope by HE staining. Compared with model group, ST segments in ECG dropped markedly at different time point which included 10,11 and 12 (P <0. 05) in Gualou Xiebai Drop Pills groups of 22. 5, 33. 75 and 45 g/kg, time points were more than those of other groups. Gualou Xiebai Dropping Pills groups of 22. 5 and 33. 75 g/kg improved the levels of SOD, MDA, CAT, NO, HDL-C, LDH and CK in blood plasma in model rats significantly (P <0. 01 or P <0. 05). Gualou Xeibai Dropping Pills improved the pathological changes of myocardial tissues at all dosages. Gualou Xiebai Drop Pills can effectively restrain the acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol in rats, compared with Gualou, Xiebai or Gualou Xiebai Baijiutang, Gualou Xiebai Drop Pills obtains a favourable effect.

  9. [Correlation between physical characteristics of sticks and quality of traditional Chinese medicine pills prepared by plastic molded method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Xian, Jiechen; Hong, Yanlong; Lin, Xiao; Feng, Yi

    2012-05-01

    To quantify the physical characteristics of sticks of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) honeyed pills prepared by the plastic molded method and the correlation of adhesiveness and plasticity-related parameters of sticks and quality of pills, in order to find major parameters and the appropriate range impacting pill quality. Sticks were detected by texture analyzer for their physical characteristic parameters such as hardness and compression action, and pills were observed by visual evaluation for their quality. The correlation of both data was determined by the stepwise discriminant analysis. Stick physical characteristic parameter l(CD) can exactly depict the adhesiveness, with the discriminant equation of Y0 - Y1 = 6.415 - 41.594l(CD). When Y0 < Y1, pills were scattered well; when Y0 > Y1, pills were adhesive with each other. Pills' physical characteristic parameters l(CD) and l(AC), Ar, Tr can exactly depict smoothness of pills, with the discriminant equation of Z0 - Z1 = -195.318 + 78.79l(AC) - 3 258. 982Ar + 3437.935Tr. When Z0 < Z1, pills were smooth on surface. When Z0 > Z1, pills were rough on surface. The stepwise discriminant analysis is made to show the obvious correlation between key physical characteristic parameters l(CD) and l(AC), Ar, Tr of sticks and appearance quality of pills, defining the molding process for preparing pills by the plastic molded and qualifying ranges of key physical characteristic parameters characterizing intermediate sticks, in order to provide theoretical basis for prescription screening and technical parameter adjustment for pills.

  10. Pill content, dose and resulting plasma concentrations of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in recreational 'ecstasy' users.

    PubMed

    Morefield, Kate M; Keane, Michael; Felgate, Peter; White, Jason M; Irvine, Rodney J

    2011-07-01

    To improve our understanding of the pharmacology of 'ecstasy' in recreational environments; in particular, to describe the composition of ecstasy pills, patterns of ecstasy use and the relationship between dose of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and resulting plasma concentrations. A naturalistic observational study of 56 experienced 'ecstasy' users in recreational settings in Australia. Drug use patterns (number of pills consumed, other drugs consumed). drug content of pills and resultant plasma concentrations of MDMA and related drugs were assessed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Ecstasy pills generally contained MDMA, but this was often combined with other drugs such as 3,4-ethylendioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) and methamphetamine. The dose of MDMA per pill ranged from 0 to 245 mg and users consumed from one-half to five pills, with the total dose consumed ranging up to 280 mg. Plasma concentrations of MDMA increased with number of pills consumed and cumulative MDMA dose. Use of larger numbers of pills was associated with extended exposure to the drug. MDMA is the major active drug in ecstasy pills, but there is a high degree of variation in doses. Use of multiple pills over the course of one session is common and results in a sustained increase in MDMA plasma concentrations over a number of hours. This is likely to lead to a much greater exposure of the brain to MDMA than would be predicted from controlled single-dose pharmacokinetic studies. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. ALI--A Digital Archive of DAISY Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsberg, Asa

    2007-01-01

    ALI is a project to develop an archive for talking books produced by the Swedish universities. The universities produce talking books from the mandatory literature for students with reading disabilities, including mostly journal articles, book chapters and texts written by teachers. The project group consists of librarians and co-ordinators for…

  12. First-principles study of the phonon, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of B2-phase AlY under high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Leini; Jian, Zhang; Ning, Wei

    2017-12-01

    We have investigated the phonon, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of B2-phase AlY under high pressure by performing density functional theory (DFT). The result of phonon band structure shows B2-phase AlY exhibits dynamical stability. Then, the elastic properties of AlY under high pressure have been discussed. The elastic constants of AlY increase monotonically with the increase of the pressure and all the elastic constants meet the mechanical stability standard under high pressure. By analyzing the Poisson’s ratio ν and the value of B/G of AlY, we first predicted that AlY undergoes transformation from brittleness to ductility at 30 GPa and high pressure can improve the ductility. To obtain the thermodynamic properties of B2-phase AlY, the quasi-harmonic Debye model has been employed. Debye temperature ΘD, thermal expansion coefficient α, heat capacity Cp and Grüneisen parameter γ of B2-phase AlY are systematically explored at pressure of 0-75 GPa and temperature of 0-700 K.

  13. Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Pueraria Flavones by a Novel Solid Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SMEDDS) Dropping Pills.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qingxiang; Zhang, Guangyuan; Sun, Shilin; Fan, Hongbo; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Shaoyuan

    2016-05-01

    To improve bioavailability of pueraria flavones (PF), a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) dropping pills composed of PF, Crodamol GTCC, Maisine 35-1, Cremophor RH 40, 1,2-propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) was developed. Particle size, zeta potential, morphology and in vitro drug release were investigated, respectively. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills were also evaluated and compared in rats. Puerarin treated as the representative component of PF was analyzed. Dynamic light scattering showed the ability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills to form a nanoemulsion droplet size in aqueous media. The type of media showed no significant effects on the release rate of PF. PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were able to improve the in vitro release rate of PF, and the in vitro release of these dropping pills was significantly faster than that of Yufengningxin dropping pills. There was a dramatic difference between the mean value of t1/2, peak concentration (Cmax), the area of concentration-time curve from 0 to 6 h (AUC0-6 h) of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and that of commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills. A pharmacokinetic study showed that the bioavailability of PF was greatly enhanced by PF-SMEDDS dropping pills. The value of Cmax and relative bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were dramatically improved by an average of 1.69- and 2.36-fold compared with that of Yufengningxin dropping pills after gavage administration, respectively. It was concluded that bioavailability of PF was greatly improved and that PF-SMEDDS dropping pills might be an encouraging strategy to enhance the oral bioavailability of PF.

  14. Malignant hypertension in women of childbearing age and its relation to the contraceptive pill.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, K G; Isles, C G; Hodsman, G P; Lever, A F; Robertson, J W

    1987-01-01

    Eleven of 34 women aged 15-44 with malignant phase hypertension were taking oral contraceptives at presentation. All had had normal blood pressure before starting to take the pill. In four the interval between the start of oral contraception and the diagnosis of malignant hypertension was less than four months, and in eight no other cause for the hypertension was found. Underlying renal disease and renal failure were less common among pill users than among non-users with malignant hypertension who were of similar age. No pill user became normotensive after withdrawal of the pill, but blood pressure was well controlled (diastolic less than 90 mm Hg) in three patients taking only one drug. By contrast, all 23 non-users needed two or more antihypertensive drugs to control blood pressure. Ten year survival was 90% among pill users and 50% among non-users. These results suggest that oral contraceptives may be a common cause of malignant hypertension in women of child-bearing age. If the pill is stopped and underlying renal disease excluded the long term prognosis for such patients is excellent. PMID:3107691

  15. Empagliflozin/linagliptin single-pill combination therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is typically progressive, with sequential addition of therapies often needed to address increasing hyperglycemia over the disease course. Using treatments in combination may be preferred to sequential addition, as a means of providing a more rapid clinical response and potentially avoiding clinical inertia. In such cases, a single-pill combination can help to reduce pill burden. Although various single-pill combinations of oral glucose-lowering agents are available, empagliflozin/linagliptin was the first approved combination of a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor with a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor in the United States. Areas covered: Two publications of the clinical trial investigating the efficacy and safety of single-pill combinations of empagliflozin/linagliptin in treatment-naive or metformin-treated patients with T2DM (NCT01422876) are reviewed, and their potential impact on clinical practice is discussed. Expert opinion: The study discussed provides evidence for the efficacy and safety of empagliflozin/linagliptin single pills. Addition of an empagliflozin/linagliptin single pill may be considered in patients with inadequate glycemic control on metformin, or as an alternative to first-line treatment with empagliflozin or linagliptin when metformin is not suitable, particularly in patients with very poor glycemic control, or those who need to achieve target more quickly.

  16. A case of acute myocardial infarction due to the use of cayenne pepper pills.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Muhammet Rasit; Karabag, Turgut; Dogan, Sait Mesut; Akpinar, Ibrahim; Aydin, Mustafa

    2012-04-01

    The use of weight loss pills containing cayenne pepper has ever been increasing. The main component of cayenne pepper pills is capsaicin. There are conflicting data about the effects of capsaicin on the cardiovascular system. In this paper, we present the case of a 41 year old male patient with no cardiovascular risk factors who took cayenne pepper pills to lose weight and developed acute myocardial infarction.

  17. Peripheral arterial disease in a female using high-dose combined oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Pallavee, P; Samal, Sunita; Samal, Rupal

    2013-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptive (OC) pills and vascular diseases is well-known, although, the present generation of pills is considered to be relatively safer in this regard. Hormonal treatment for severe abnormal uterine bleeding is usually considered after ruling out malignancy, when such bleeding is resistant to all other forms of treatment. We report a case of severe peripheral arterial disease in a female, who had been on high-dose OC pills for an extended period of time for severe uterine bleeding.

  18. PillCam(TradeMark), a Noninvasive Endoscopic Device for the Measurement of Gastrointestinal Motility Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Zahman; Crady, Camille; Raju, G. S.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Bioavailability and effectiveness of drugs given by mouth are governed in part by gastrointestinal (GI) motility and function. Microgravity has been shown to decrease GI motility as indicated by a 3 fold increase in gastrointestinal transit time (GITT). The PillCam(TradeMark), an endoscopic camera embedded in a capsule, is a novel noninvasive and unobtrusive device that is used for the diagnosis of GI pathology. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of PillCam(TradeMark) as an alternative to the Lactulose Breath Hydrogen Test (LBHT) for estimating GI motility. The sensitivity and applicability of this device for detection and estimation of the effect of promethazine, a deterrent, and caffeine, a prokinetic, on GI motility were also examined. Method: In this semi-randomized cross-over design study, six male and six female subjects were administered the following 4 treatments: PillCam(TradeMark) alone, PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose (10g), PillCam(TradeMark)+caffeine (200mg), and PillCam(TradeMark)+Promethazine (50mg). Results: GITT ranged between 1:24 and 7:52 hr:min. Lactulose did not alter GITT. A significant increase in GITT was noticed after administration of PMZ when compared to values from PillCam(TradeMark) treatment alone or PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose treatment. No difference in GITT after caffeine treatment was noticed. While there were no gender related differences in GITT after administration of PillCam(TradeMark) or with lactulose, a significant difference (p<.05) between genders was observed after promethazine administration with mean GITT higher in males (5:50 hr:min) than females (4:15 hr:min). Conclusion: The PillCam(TradeMark) capsule is applicable for the determination of GITT using time stamped GI images. It can be successfully used for the assessment of drug induced changes in GI motility and therefore, may be applicable for microgravity and analog environment studies on GI motility and function.

  19. Digital Pills to Measure Opioid Ingestion Patterns in Emergency Department Patients With Acute Fracture Pain: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Carreiro, Stephanie; Innes, Brendan J; Rosen, Rochelle K; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Boyer, Edward W

    2017-01-01

    Background Nonadherence to prescribed regimens for opioid analgesic agents contributes to increasing opioid abuse and overdose death. Opioids are frequently prescribed on an as-needed basis, placing the responsibility to determine opioid dose and frequency with the patient. There is wide variability in physician prescribing patterns because of the lack of data describing how patients actually use as-needed opioid analgesics. Digital pill systems have a radiofrequency emitter that directly measures medication ingestion events, and they provide an opportunity to discover the dose, timing, and duration of opioid therapy. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a novel digital pill system to measure as-needed opioid ingestion patterns in patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) after an acute bony fracture. Methods We used a digital pill with individuals who presented to a teaching hospital ED with an acute extremity fracture. The digital pill consisted of a digital radiofrequency emitter within a standard gelatin capsule that encapsulated an oxycodone tablet. When ingested, the gastric chloride ion gradient activated the digital pill, transmitting a radiofrequency signal that was received by a hip-worn receiver, which then transmitted the ingestion data to a cloud-based server. After a brief, hands-on training session in the ED, study participants were discharged home and used the digital pill system to ingest oxycodone prescribed as needed for pain for one week. We conducted pill counts to verify digital pill data and open-ended interviews with participants at their follow-up appointment with orthopedics or at one week after enrollment in the study to determine the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding digital pills. We analyzed open-ended interviews using applied thematic analysis. Results We recruited 10 study participants and recorded 96 ingestion events (87.3%, 96/110 accuracy). Study participants

  20. Urticarial vasculitis induced by OTC diet pills: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chérrez Ojeda, Iván; Loayza, Enrique; Greiding, Leonardo; Calderón, Juan Carlos; Cherrez, Annia; Adum, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Urticarial Vasculitis (UV) is in most of the cases idiopathic; however it has been associated with several conditions and drugs. Over the counter (OTC) diet pills are widely available, even on-line, but they are rarely regulated by pharmaceutical control. We present the case of a 35-year-old female patient suffering of pruriginous and painful wheals more than 1 cm in diameter, with a burning sensation. The eruption lasted more than 24 hours and was accompanied by angioedema, headache and myalgia. No remarkable medical history was found, except for previous intake of OTC diet pills. UV diagnosis was confirmed by the skin biopsy of a lesion. OTC diet pills are widely available worldwide, and due to its widespread use, allergologists and dermatologist should be able to recognize symptoms and lesions of cutaneous vasculitis, which may be under reported.

  1. [ilin Pills for oligoasthenospermia: Advances in clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai-Shu; Fu, Long-Long; Shang, Xue-Jun; Gu, Yi-Qun

    2017-10-01

    Industrialization and environmental pollution are bringing more problems to human reproduction and increasing the prevalence of male infertility. Western medicine has shown its limitations in the management of male infertility, especially that of oligoasthenospermia. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), however, has long and rich experiences in the treatment of oligoasthenospermia, with a large variety of medicinal prescriptions based on the TCM theories, among which Qilin Pills shows a particularly significant therapeutic effect on oligoasthenospermia, especially when combined with Western medicine. At present, published studies on Qilin Pills are mainly in the stage of clinical observation, while basic researches and studies on its relevant mechanisms are rarely seen.

  2. Pharmacokinetics, brain distribution, release and blood-brain barrier transport of Shunaoxin pills.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kai; Wang, Zhan-Zhang; Liu, Dan; Qi, Xian-Rong

    2014-02-12

    Shunaoxin pills, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) product, have been used to treat cerebrovascular diseases in China since 2005. The main active components of Shunaoxin pills are ferulic acid and ligustilide from Chuanxiong (Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, Umbelliferae) and Danggui (Angelica sinensis radix, Umbelliferae). As Shunaoxin shows excellent activity in the central nervous system (CNS), the extent to which the major constituents of Shunaoxin reach the CNS should be investigated. Moreover, the in vivo-in vitro correlations (IVIVC) of the formulation should be studied to elucidate the mechanisms of action of TCM in the CNS. However, these data have not previously been available. Thus we intended to investigate what the extent when these constituents of Shunaoxin pills reach the CNS, and evaluate the IVIVC of release and pharmacokinetics. In this study, we evaluated the release of ferulic acid and ligustilide from Shunaoxin pills, and their transport across an in vitro model of the BBB. We also evaluated their pharmacokinetics and brain distribution in vivo. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify both compounds simultaneously. Based on the release in vitro and absorption of ferulic acid and ligustilide in vivo, IVIVC permitted prediction of the pharmacokinetics of these compounds. The release of ferulic acid and ligustilide reached a platform phase within 1h. Ferulic acid and ligustilide rapidly crossed the BBB in different patterns; the transport ratio increased over time. After intragastric (i.g.) administration of Shunaoxin pills, ferulic acid and ligustilide were rapidly absorbed and distributed into brain, which may result in a rapid onset of action. Ferulic acid and ligustilide were transported across a model BBB. After i.g. administration of Shunaoxin pills, ferulic acid and ligustilide were rapidly absorbed and distributed in brain; this may lead to rapid pharmacological onset. The IVIVC can be used to predict in vivo

  3. Interest in Over-the-Counter Access to a Progestin-Only Pill among Women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grindlay, Kate; Grossman, Daniel

    A progestin-only pill may be the first pill formulation to become available over the counter in the United States; however, no research on over-the-counter (OTC) pill interest has focused on progestin-only pills or a representative sample of teens. The objective of this study was to assess U.S. women and teens' interest in OTC progestin-only pill use. In October 2015, we conducted a nationally representative, cross-sectional, online survey with 2,026 sexually active adult women aged 18 to 44 not currently desiring pregnancy, and 513 female teens aged 15 to 17. Logistic regression was used to identify characteristics associated with likely OTC progestin-only pill use. We also assessed reasons for use or nonuse, duration of use, and willingness to pay. Thirty-nine percent of adults and 29% of teens reported likely use, with a greater likelihood if covered by insurance. Adults were willing to pay $15 per month and teens $10 per month on average. Among adults, women who were never married or living alone (vs. married), uninsured (vs. privately insured), current pill or less effective method users (vs. ring, patch, injectable, or intrauterine device), tried to get a birth control prescription in the past year, or ever used an oral contraceptive pill or progestin-only pill had higher odds of likely use. Among teens, Spanish speakers and those who ever had sex had higher odds of likely use; Black teens (vs. White) had lower odds. Teens and adults are interested in using an OTC progestin-only pill. These findings indicate a large pool of interested users and the potential for improved contraceptive access by making an OTC progestin-only pill available. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The expected and unexpected benefits of dispensing the exact number of pills.

    PubMed

    Treibich, Carole; Lescher, Sabine; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Ventelou, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    From November 2014 to November 2015, an experiment in French community pharmacies replaced traditional pre-packed boxes by per-unit dispensing of pills in the exact numbers prescribed, for 14 antibiotics. A cluster randomised control trial was carried out in 100 pharmacies. 75 pharmacies counted out the medication by units (experimental group), the other 25 providing the treatment in the existing pharmaceutical company boxes (control group). Data on patients under the two arms were compared to assess the environmental, economic and health effects of this change in drug dispensing. In particular, adherence was measured indirectly by comparing the number of pills left at the end of the prescribed treatment. Out of the 1185 patients included during 3 sessions of 4 consecutive weeks each, 907 patients experimented the personalized delivery and 278 were assigned to the control group, consistent with a 1/3 randomization-rate at the pharmacy level. 80% of eligible patients approved of the per-unit dispensing of their treatment. The initial packaging of the drugs did not match with the prescription in 60% of cases and per-unit dispensing reduced by 10% the number of pills supplied. 13.1% of patients declared that they threw away pills residuals instead of recycling-no differences between groups. Finally, per-unit dispensing appeared to improve adherence to antibiotic treatment (marginal effect 0.21, IC 95, 0.14-0.28). Supplying antibiotics per unit is not only beneficial in terms of a reduced number of pills to reimburse or for the environment (less pills wasted and non-recycled), but also has a positive and unexpected impact on adherence to treatment, and thus on both individual and public health.

  5. Low-dose levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol patch and pill: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, Andrew M; Portman, David; Westhoff, Carolyn L; Archer, David F; Mishell, Daniel R; Rubin, Arkady; Foegh, Marie

    2014-02-01

    To compare a new low-dose levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol contraceptive patch (Patch) with a combination oral contraceptive (Pill; 100 micrograms levonorgestrel, 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol) regarding efficacy, safety, compliance, and unscheduled uterine bleeding. Women (17-40 years; body mass index 16-60) were randomized in a 3:1 ratio to one of two groups: Patch only (13 cycles) or Pill (six cycles) followed by Patch (seven cycles). Investigators evaluated adverse events during cycles 2, 4, 6, 9, and 13. Participants recorded drug administration and uterine bleeding on daily diary cards. Compliance was assessed by measuring levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol plasma levels. Pearl Index (pregnancies per 100 woman-years) was calculated to evaluate efficacy. Participants (N=1,504) were randomized to Patch (n=1,129) or Pill (n=375). Approximately 30% were obese, more than 40% were racial or ethnic minorities, and more than 55% were new users of hormonal contraceptives. Laboratory-verified noncompliance (undetectable plasma drug levels) was 11% of Patch and 12.6% of Pill users at cycle 6. Pearl Indices (95% confidence intervals) for the intention-to-treat population (cycles 1-6) were 4.45 (2.34-6.57) for Patch and 4.02 (0.50-7.53) for Pill; excluding laboratory-verified noncompliant participants, Pearl Indices were 2.82 (0.98-4.67) for Patch and 3.80 (0.08-7.52) for Pill (differences not statistically significant). Incidence of unscheduled bleeding and incidence and severity of adverse events were similar for both contraceptives (no statistically significant difference). Efficacy and safety of the new contraceptive Patch are comparable to those of a Pill. Laboratory-verified noncompliance and bleeding profile are similar between the two treatments. The Patch was well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01181479. I.

  6. [Study on self-microemulsifying membrane controlled-release drop pill of hawthorn leaves flavonoids].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Xuan; Huang, Hong-Zhang; Li, Ning; Gao, Chong-Kai

    2014-03-01

    To prepare the hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsifying membrane controlled-release coated drop pill, and to study its release rate in vitro and pharmacokinetics study in vivo. In order to improve the dissolution of hawthorn leaves flavonoids, self-microemulsifying technology was used to prepare the hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsion. Hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsifying drop pill was prepared with the PEG 6000. Studies were made on the in vitro release of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying membrane-moderated coated drop pills and the in vivo pharmacokinetic in rats. The prescription of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying drop pills was 0.25 g of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves, 0.25 g of iodophenyl maleimide, 0.375 g of polyethylene glycol 400, 0.375 g of cremophor RH 40 and 2 g of polyethylene glycol 6000. The optimized prescription was 4 g of ethyl cellulose 20, 0.64 g of polyethylene glycol 400, 1.8 g of diethyl phthalate, and the weight of coating materials increased by 3.5%. Flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying membrane-moderated coated drop pills complied with the design of sustained-release in 12 h in terms of in vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters in rats, and its bioavailability was 2.47 times of quick-release drop pills. Slightly soluble flavonoids from hawthorn leaves could be made into sustained-release preparations by the self-micro-emulsifying and coating technology.

  7. Digital Pills to Measure Opioid Ingestion Patterns in Emergency Department Patients With Acute Fracture Pain: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Chai, Peter R; Carreiro, Stephanie; Innes, Brendan J; Rosen, Rochelle K; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Boyer, Edward W

    2017-01-13

    Nonadherence to prescribed regimens for opioid analgesic agents contributes to increasing opioid abuse and overdose death. Opioids are frequently prescribed on an as-needed basis, placing the responsibility to determine opioid dose and frequency with the patient. There is wide variability in physician prescribing patterns because of the lack of data describing how patients actually use as-needed opioid analgesics. Digital pill systems have a radiofrequency emitter that directly measures medication ingestion events, and they provide an opportunity to discover the dose, timing, and duration of opioid therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a novel digital pill system to measure as-needed opioid ingestion patterns in patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) after an acute bony fracture. We used a digital pill with individuals who presented to a teaching hospital ED with an acute extremity fracture. The digital pill consisted of a digital radiofrequency emitter within a standard gelatin capsule that encapsulated an oxycodone tablet. When ingested, the gastric chloride ion gradient activated the digital pill, transmitting a radiofrequency signal that was received by a hip-worn receiver, which then transmitted the ingestion data to a cloud-based server. After a brief, hands-on training session in the ED, study participants were discharged home and used the digital pill system to ingest oxycodone prescribed as needed for pain for one week. We conducted pill counts to verify digital pill data and open-ended interviews with participants at their follow-up appointment with orthopedics or at one week after enrollment in the study to determine the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding digital pills. We analyzed open-ended interviews using applied thematic analysis. We recruited 10 study participants and recorded 96 ingestion events (87.3%, 96/110 accuracy). Study participants reported being able to operate all

  8. Quantifying the utility of taking pills for preventing adverse health outcomes: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, Robert; Pignone, Michael P; Sheridan, Stacey L; Viera, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The utility value attributed to taking pills for prevention can have a major effect on the cost-effectiveness of interventions, but few published studies have systematically quantified this value. We sought to quantify the utility value of taking pills used for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Central North Carolina. Participants 708 healthcare employees aged 18 years and older. Primary and secondary outcomes Utility values for taking 1 pill/day, assessed using time trade-off, modified standard gamble and willingness-to-pay methods. Results Mean age of respondents was 43 years (19–74). The majority of the respondents were female (83%) and Caucasian (80%). Most (80%) took at least 2 pills/day. Mean utility values for taking 1 pill/day using the time trade-off method were: 0.9972 (95% CI 0.9962 to 0.9980). Values derived from the standard gamble and willingness-to-pay methods were 0.9967 (0.9954 to 0.9979) and 0.9989 (95% CI 0.9986 to 0.9991), respectively. Utility values varied little across characteristics such as age, sex, race, education level or number of pills taken per day. Conclusions The utility value of taking pills daily in order to prevent an adverse CVD health outcome is approximately 0.997. PMID:25967985

  9. Practical Applications for Single Pill Combinations in the Cardiovascular Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Iellamo, Ferdinando; Werdan, Karl; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Rosano, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Despite the availability of new drugs and devices, the treatment of cardiovascular disease remains suboptimal. Single-pill combination therapy offers a number of potential advantages. It can combine different classes of drugs to increase efficacy while mitigating the risks of treatment-related adverse events, reduce pill burden, lower medical cost, and improve patient adherence. Furthermore, in hypertension, single pill combinations include standard to lower doses of each drug than would be necessary to achieve goals with monotherapy, which may explain their better tolerability compared with higher dose monotherapy. Combination therapy is now established in the treatment of hypertension. In ischaemic heart disease, the concept of a preventative polypill has been studied, but its benefits have not been established conclusively. However, the combination of ivabradine and beta-blockers has proven efficacy in patients with stable angina pectoris. This combination has also demonstrated benefits in patients with chronic heart failure. PMID:28785474

  10. The birth control pill, thromboembolic disease, science and the media: a historical review of the relationship.

    PubMed

    Lackie, Elyse; Fairchild, Amy

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill (the Pill) in 1960 revolutionized the options for contraception, sparking vibrant discussion in the scientific and social science literature and in the media. Much attention focused on issues of women's rights, including ethics and personal choice. But the Pill also introduced new questions about risk. Shortly after its introduction, the risk of thromboembolic disease was recognized [1]. After more than half a century, controversies about the relationship between the Pill and thromboembolic disease have persisted. The scientific and media communities have been active in the discussion, debate and delivery of information about this risk. Scientific and public attention to thromboembolism and the Pill has had dramatic consequences, both good and bad. The spotlight on risk has helped to change norms regarding the public's right to know and assess dangers; it has sparked Pill scares linked to increased unplanned pregnancy, birth and abortion rates; and it has led to a change in federally mandated policies regarding how new contraceptive products are studied and brought to market. This paper charts the narrative of the thromboembolic risk of the Pill from its introduction in 1960 until today and reviews the corresponding media response to this history. How does the story of the thromboembolic risk of the Pill - explored through the lens of science, media and contemporary social dynamics - frame contemporary understanding of risk for researchers, clinicians, individuals and the public? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential expression of THOC1 and ALY mRNP biogenesis/export factors in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Sánchez, María S; Sáez, Carmen; Japón, Miguel A; Aguilera, Andrés; Luna, Rosa

    2011-02-17

    One key step in gene expression is the biogenesis of mRNA ribonucleoparticle complexes (mRNPs). Formation of the mRNP requires the participation of a number of conserved factors such as the THO complex. THO interacts physically and functionally with the Sub2/UAP56 RNA-dependent ATPase, and the Yra1/REF1/ALY RNA-binding protein linking transcription, mRNA export and genome integrity. Given the link between genome instability and cancer, we have performed a comparative analysis of the expression patterns of THOC1, a THO complex subunit, and ALY in tumor samples. The mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and hybridization of a tumor tissue cDNA array; and the protein levels and distribution by immunostaining of a custom tissue array containing a set of paraffin-embedded samples of different tumor and normal tissues followed by statistical analysis. We show that the expression of two mRNP factors, THOC1 and ALY are altered in several tumor tissues. THOC1 mRNA and protein levels are up-regulated in ovarian and lung tumors and down-regulated in those of testis and skin, whereas ALY is altered in a wide variety of tumors. In contrast to THOC1, ALY protein is highly detected in normal proliferative cells, but poorly in high-grade cancers. These results suggest a differential connection between tumorogenesis and the expression levels of human THO and ALY. This study opens the possibility of defining mRNP biogenesis factors as putative players in cell proliferation that could contribute to tumor development.

  12. Pharmaceutical quality of "party pills" raises additional safety concerns in the use of illicit recreational drugs.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon A; Thrimawithana, Thilini R; Antia, Ushtana; Fredatovich, John D; Na, Yonky; Neale, Peter T; Roberts, Amy F; Zhou, Huanyi; Russell, Bruce

    2013-06-14

    To determine the content and release kinetics of 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP) and 1-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) from "party pill" formulations. From these data, the possible impact of pharmaceutical quality upon the safety of such illicit formulations may be inferred. The amount of BZP and TFMPP in party pill formulations was determined using a validated HPLC method. The in-vitro release kinetics of selected party pill brands were determined using a USP dissolution apparatus (75 rpm, 37.5 degrees Celsius). The release data were then fitted to a first order release model using PLOT software and the time taken to achieve 90% release reported. Many of the tested party pill brands contained amounts of BZP and TFMPP that varied considerably from that stated on the packaging; including considerable TFMPP content in some brands not labelled to contain this drug. Dissolution studies revealed that there was considerable variability in the release kinetics between brands; in one case 90% release required >30 minutes. Lack of quality control in party pill manufacture may have led to the toxic effects reported by users unaware of the true content and release of drug from pills. More stringent regulation in the manufacture and quality control of "new generation party pills" is essential to the harm reduction campaign.

  13. Adolescents' Knowledge, Attitude and Utilization of Emergency Contraceptive Pills in Nigeria's Niger Delta Region.

    PubMed

    Onasoga, Olayinka A; Afolayan, Joel Adeleke; Asamabiriowei, Tariebi Florence; Jibril, Umar Nda; Imam, Abubakar Ayinla

    2016-01-01

    Risky sexual activity among adolescents is on the increase and contraceptive prevalence rate is low which is evidenced by high rate of teenage pregnancy in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. This study assesses the adolescents' knowledge, attitude and utilization of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) in Amassoma Community, Bayelsa State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional research design. A purposive sampling technique was used to select a sample of 220 respondents from the target population. Data were collected using a self-structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data generated. Majority of the respondents had high level of knowledge and positive attitude towards emergency contraceptive pills but had low level of utilization. Concerns about what others may say, parental attitude, contraceptive availability, contraceptive accessibility, and peer influences were the major factors that influenced the utilization of contraceptive pills. There was no significant relationship between knowledge and utilization of emergency contraceptive pills, as well as level of knowledge and their utilization of emergency contraceptive pills. Adolescents in the study were more likely to use emergency contraceptive pills, if parents and others reaction to adolescents' contraceptive use were positive about those. Health care professionals, especially nurses, should organize enlightenment programs to educate adolescents, parents and the public on the benefits of adolescents' contraceptives use, especially ECP.

  14. Detecting esophageal disease with second-generation capsule endoscopy: initial evaluation of the PillCam ESO 2.

    PubMed

    Gralnek, I M; Adler, S N; Yassin, K; Koslowsky, B; Metzger, Y; Eliakim, R

    2008-04-01

    Esophageal capsule endoscopy (ECE) provides an alternative, minimally invasive modality for evaluating the esophagus. This study evaluates the performance and test characteristics of a second-generation esophageal capsule endoscope, the PillCam ESO 2. Adults with known or suspected esophageal disease were included. Using the simplified ingestion procedure, each patient underwent capsule endoscopy with the PillCam ESO 2. Following ECE, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was performed on the same day by an investigator who was blinded to the results of the ECE. In random order, capsule endoscopy videos were read and interpreted by the study investigator blinded to EGD results. 28 patients (19 men, 9 women; mean age 53.3 years) were included. In 82 % of the patients, at least 75 % of the Z line was visualized by the PillCam ESO 2. A per-lesion analysis demonstrated that the PillCam ESO 2 had definitive results in 30/43 lesions (69.8 %) and EGD in 29/43 (67.4 %), P value = 0.41. Compared with EGD for detecting suspected Barrett's esophagus and esophagitis, the PillCam ESO 2 had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 74 %, and a sensitivity of 80 % and a specificity of 87 %, respectively. The PillCam ESO 2 demonstrated 86 % agreement with EGD in describing the Z line (kappa statistic 0.68). The modified ingestion protocol provided excellent cleansing, with bubbles/saliva having no or only a minor effect on Z line images in 86 % of cases. The PillCam ESO 2 demonstrated excellent visualization of the Z line. Compared with standard EGD, the PillCam ESO 2 had good test characteristics with high rates of detection of suspected Barrett's esophagus and esophagitis. This study provides indirect validation of the simplified ingestion procedure. The PillCam ESO 2 acquires high quality esophageal images, performs safely, and should be able to replace the current PillCam ESO.

  15. The expected and unexpected benefits of dispensing the exact number of pills

    PubMed Central

    Lescher, Sabine; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Ventelou, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Background From November 2014 to November 2015, an experiment in French community pharmacies replaced traditional pre-packed boxes by per-unit dispensing of pills in the exact numbers prescribed, for 14 antibiotics. Methods A cluster randomised control trial was carried out in 100 pharmacies. 75 pharmacies counted out the medication by units (experimental group), the other 25 providing the treatment in the existing pharmaceutical company boxes (control group). Data on patients under the two arms were compared to assess the environmental, economic and health effects of this change in drug dispensing. In particular, adherence was measured indirectly by comparing the number of pills left at the end of the prescribed treatment. Results Out of the 1185 patients included during 3 sessions of 4 consecutive weeks each, 907 patients experimented the personalized delivery and 278 were assigned to the control group, consistent with a 1/3 randomization-rate at the pharmacy level. 80% of eligible patients approved of the per-unit dispensing of their treatment. The initial packaging of the drugs did not match with the prescription in 60% of cases and per-unit dispensing reduced by 10% the number of pills supplied. 13.1% of patients declared that they threw away pills residuals instead of recycling—no differences between groups. Finally, per-unit dispensing appeared to improve adherence to antibiotic treatment (marginal effect 0.21, IC 95, 0.14–0.28). Conclusions Supplying antibiotics per unit is not only beneficial in terms of a reduced number of pills to reimburse or for the environment (less pills wasted and non-recycled), but also has a positive and unexpected impact on adherence to treatment, and thus on both individual and public health. PMID:28926636

  16. Single-pill combination therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus: linagliptin plus empagliflozin.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Ronnie

    2015-05-01

    Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus invariably requires the use of multiple daily medications which can impact negatively on patient adherence. As a result, there is growing interest in the use of single-pill combinations that can reduce the pill burden. Many such formulations incorporate metformin, although this agent is not suitable for all patients. The single-pill combination of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin with the sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin offers a new and attractive option, given their complementary mechanisms of action. Publications with titles containing the keywords 'linagliptin' or 'empagliflozin' were identified from a non-systematic search of PubMed without date restrictions, together with abstracts presented at the annual meetings of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes 2012-2014. ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for entries containing these two keywords. Additional references known to the author were included. The efficacy and safety of linagliptin and empagliflozin as monotherapy or in combination with other oral antidiabetic drugs has been established through extensive clinical trial programs. Studies specifically evaluating the efficacy/safety of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor/sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor in combination are limited, but do include two studies of linagliptin/empagliflozin of up to 52 weeks in duration. These studies show that the single-pill combination of linagliptin and empagliflozin produced clinical improvements in glycemic control that were generally superior to the improvements seen with linagliptin and empagliflozin alone, but with a safety profile comparable to that of the individual constituents. The single-pill combination of linagliptin and empagliflozin, with their complementary mechanisms of action, is a promising treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It would reduce the daily

  17. The Administration of Tibetan Precious Pills: Efficacy in Historical and Ritual Contexts.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Precious pills represent a special kind of Tibetan drug that once was, and still is, highly sought after by Tibetan, Chinese, and Mongolian patients. Such pills are generally taken as a potent prophylactic remedy, and can be used to cure various diseases. The present study seeks to discuss the dispensation and efficacy of precious pills according to the presentations of historical Tibetan medical scholars. Several treatises dealing with these instructions will be analysed, thereby revealing their underlying concepts, and highlighting their points of both general consensus and disagreement. The analysis of these detailed instructions will reveal the fact that these precious pills were not merely given to a patient but, in order to ensure their full efficacy, involved an elaborate regimen concerning three chronological periods: (1) the time of preparation, (2) the time of dispensation, and (3) the time after dispensation. Thus the present study surveys not only the ritual empowerment of drugs in Tibetan medicine, but also the importance of social relationships between doctors and patients in Tibetan medical history.

  18. Quantifying the utility of taking pills for preventing adverse health outcomes: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Robert; Pignone, Michael P; Sheridan, Stacey L; Viera, Anthony J

    2015-05-11

    The utility value attributed to taking pills for prevention can have a major effect on the cost-effectiveness of interventions, but few published studies have systematically quantified this value. We sought to quantify the utility value of taking pills used for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cross-sectional survey. Central North Carolina. 708 healthcare employees aged 18 years and older. Utility values for taking 1 pill/day, assessed using time trade-off, modified standard gamble and willingness-to-pay methods. Mean age of respondents was 43 years (19-74). The majority of the respondents were female (83%) and Caucasian (80%). Most (80%) took at least 2 pills/day. Mean utility values for taking 1 pill/day using the time trade-off method were: 0.9972 (95% CI 0.9962 to 0.9980). Values derived from the standard gamble and willingness-to-pay methods were 0.9967 (0.9954 to 0.9979) and 0.9989 (95% CI 0.9986 to 0.9991), respectively. Utility values varied little across characteristics such as age, sex, race, education level or number of pills taken per day. The utility value of taking pills daily in order to prevent an adverse CVD health outcome is approximately 0.997. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills: Profile of Acceptors in a Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abasiattai, A M; Utuk, M N; Ojeh, S O; Eyo, U E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined oral contraceptive pills were the first contraceptive method to provide sexual freedom of choice for women through reliable, personal and private control of fertility. They are the most widely used hormonal contraceptives and also the most popular non-surgical method of contraception. OBJECTIVE: To review the profile of acceptors of combined oral contraceptive pills at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo. METHODOLOGY: An 8 year review of all clients that accepted combined oral contraceptive pills in the family planning clinic. RESULTS: There were 1,146 new contraceptive acceptors during the period of study out of which 309 (27.9%) accepted the pills. Majority of the clients were between 20 and 29 years of age (54.0%), were multiparous (72.8%), Christians (99.7%) and 61.2% had tertiary level education. Two hundred and fifty-five women (82.5%) desired to use combined oral contraceptive pills to space births while 7.8% wanted to limit child bearing. There was a high discontinuation rate among the women (45.0%) and out of these 87.9% of the clients changed to other contraceptive methods. All the clients commenced their pills within seven days of menstruation and only the low dose monophasic preparations were available in the family planning unit and thus were given to the clients. CONCLUSION: Women who accept to initiate combined oral contraceptive pills in our center are young, well educated, multiparous women who want to space their pregnancies. However, due to the high discontinuation rate among the clients, there is need for further studies evaluating reasons for the high discontinuation rate, exploring interactions between clients and providers' and also providers' attitude towards combined pills in our environment.

  20. Individual patient data meta-analysis of combined treatments versus psychotherapy (with or without pill placebo), pharmacotherapy or pill placebo for adult depression: a protocol.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Erica; Kleiboer, Annet; van Straten, Annemieke; Hollon, Steven D; Cuijpers, Pim

    2017-02-13

    There are many proven treatments (psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy or their combination) for the treatment of depression. Although there is growing evidence for the effectiveness of combination treatment (psychotherapy + pharmacotherapy) over pharmacotherapy alone, psychotherapy alone or psychotherapy plus pill placebo, for depression, little is known about which specific groups of patients may respond best to combined treatment versus monotherapy. Conventional meta-analyses techniques have limitations when tasked with examining whether specific individual characteristics moderate the effect of treatment on depression. Therefore, this protocol outlines an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis to explore which patients, with which clinical characteristics, have better outcomes in combined treatment compared with psychotherapy (alone or with pill placebo), pharmacotherapy and pill placebo. Study searches are completed using an established database of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the psychological treatment of adult depression that has previously been reported. Searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. RCTs comparing combination treatment (psychotherapy + pharmacotherapy) with psychotherapy (with or without pill placebo), pharmacotherapy or pill placebo for the treatment of adult depression will be included. Study authors of eligible trials will be contacted and asked to contribute IPD. Conventional meta-analysis techniques will be used to examine differences between studies that have contributed data and those that did not. Then, IPD will be harmonised and analysis using multilevel regression will be conducted to examine effect moderators of treatment outcomes. Study results outlined above will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Study results will contribute to better understanding whether certain patients respond best to combined treatment or other depression treatments and provide

  1. Emergency contraceptive pills: dispensing practices, knowledge and attitudes of South Dakota pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Van Riper, Kristi K

    2005-03-01

    Despite a decision by the Food and Drug Administration to deny over-the-counter status to emergency contraceptive pills, pharmacists play a crucial role in a woman's access to this medication, especially in areas with large rural populations. Pharmacists' knowledge about and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills may affect whether pharmacies carry the medication and whether individual pharmacists dispense it. In October 2003, all registered pharmacists living and working in South Dakota were mailed a survey to assess their dispensing practices for, knowledge about, and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills. Data for 501 respondents were analyzed through chi-square testing and multivariate logistic regression. Fifty-four percent of respondents worked in pharmacies that carried emergency contraceptive pills. Of these, 67% had dispensed the medication in 2003, and 24% were not comfortable providing customer counseling about the method. Thirty-seven percent of all pharmacists did not understand its mechanism of action; 43% and 21%, respectively, incorrectly answered questions about the medication's link to birth defects and health risks. Only 5% correctly answered all three questions. Eighty-four percent of surveyed pharmacists believed that the medication should not be made available over the counter. Multivariate analysis showed that knowledge of emergency contraception and support for over-the-counter status were relatively low among pharmacists working in small communities. The education of pharmacists about emergency contraceptive pills must be strengthened to ensure that women receive accurate medical information and access to all contraceptive services.

  2. Effects of menstruation and contraceptive pill on the performance of physical education students.

    PubMed Central

    Bale, P.; Davies, J.

    1983-01-01

    Of the 109 specialist female physical education students who answered a detailed questionnaire on menstruation and the contraceptive pill in relation to exercise, 91 (83.5%) reported that they suffered menstrual problems. These included stomach ache, depression, abdominal cramps and backache. Over two-thirds of the students considered that these problems adversely influenced their physical performance. However, whether they had a mainly physiological or psychological effect is not clear. Many of the students with menstrual problems thought that exercise had a beneficial effect and helped alleviate their discomfort. A small number of students reported problems such as amenorrhoea and reduced menses possibly due to excessive training. Just under half the students in the investigation took the contraceptive pill, and though as many students taking the pill complained of menstrual problems as those not taking it, they reported less problems and to a lesser degree. Most students claimed that taking the contraceptive pill had no effect upon their performance. Images p46-a p46-b PMID:6850205

  3. Differential expression of THOC1 and ALY mRNP biogenesis/export factors in human cancers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One key step in gene expression is the biogenesis of mRNA ribonucleoparticle complexes (mRNPs). Formation of the mRNP requires the participation of a number of conserved factors such as the THO complex. THO interacts physically and functionally with the Sub2/UAP56 RNA-dependent ATPase, and the Yra1/REF1/ALY RNA-binding protein linking transcription, mRNA export and genome integrity. Given the link between genome instability and cancer, we have performed a comparative analysis of the expression patterns of THOC1, a THO complex subunit, and ALY in tumor samples. Methods The mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and hybridization of a tumor tissue cDNA array; and the protein levels and distribution by immunostaining of a custom tissue array containing a set of paraffin-embedded samples of different tumor and normal tissues followed by statistical analysis. Results We show that the expression of two mRNP factors, THOC1 and ALY are altered in several tumor tissues. THOC1 mRNA and protein levels are up-regulated in ovarian and lung tumors and down-regulated in those of testis and skin, whereas ALY is altered in a wide variety of tumors. In contrast to THOC1, ALY protein is highly detected in normal proliferative cells, but poorly in high-grade cancers. Conclusions These results suggest a differential connection between tumorogenesis and the expression levels of human THO and ALY. This study opens the possibility of defining mRNP biogenesis factors as putative players in cell proliferation that could contribute to tumor development. PMID:21329510

  4. The intervention effect of zuogui pill on chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder regulatory factor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaohong; He, Liqun

    2018-06-24

    Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Zuogui pill as a traditional Chinese herbal drug has been used for nourish kidney essence improve bone malnutrition of renal bone disease by regulating the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus and participating in osteoblast metabolism. In the present study, 5/6 nephrectomy rat model was used to reveal the mechanism of zuogui pill in treatment of CKD-MBD. Compared with sham rats, the levels of serum phosphorus, PTH, iPTH and creatinine were significantly decreased, while the serum calcium level was significantly increased, and the Cbfa1 protein level was significantly decreased and FGF23 protein level was significantly increased by Zuogui pill treatment. Compared with model rats, the BMD of rat was significantly increased by Zuogui pill treatment. Histological analysis revealed that the kidney injury of rats with CKD was significantly reduced by zuogui pill treatment. Compared with model rats, the CYP27B1 mRNA level was significantly increased, and the PTH mRNA level and NaPiIIa protein level were significantly decreased in the kidney by zuogui pill treatment. We inferred that zuogui pill exhibited potential therapeutic effects on CKD-MBD in the rats by regulating bone metabolism and nourish kidney. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum phosphorus levels and pill burden are inversely associated with adherence in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Steven; Alfieri, Thomas; Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Braunhofer, Peter; Newsome, Britt A

    2014-11-01

    Phosphate binders (PBs) account for about one half of the daily pill burden for US hemodialysis (HD) patients, which may reduce adherence. Adherence can be estimated by the medication possession ratio (MPR), which is defined as the proportion of time a patient had sufficient medication to have taken it as prescribed. Gaps of time between prescription fills lower the patient's MPR. We assessed the association of PB pill burden and adherence (MPR) with phosphorus goal attainment. Using pharmacy management program data, HD patients on PB monotherapy were tracked from first PB fill during 1 January 2007-30 June 2011 for 1 year, or until PB change or censoring. Data were assessed with generalized linear models. We analyzed 8616 patients. Higher pill burden was associated with lower adherence. Lower adherence tended to be associated with higher mean phosphorus levels and lower percentage of patients with serum phosphorus ≤5.5 mg/dL (P < 0.001). The association between adherence and these clinical outcomes was most pronounced in the lowest and highest pill burden strata (<3, >3-6, >12-15, >15). Adherence, as measured by the MPR, was negatively related to higher pill burden and phosphorus levels and positively related to patients in the phosphorus target range. Within pill burden strata, phosphorus increased and patients in the target range generally decreased with decreasing adherence, suggesting that patients prescribed fewer PB pills are less likely to have treatment gaps, and may be more likely to achieve phosphorus targets. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  6. Salt pill design and fabrication for adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; McCammon, Dan

    2014-07-01

    The performance of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is critically dependent on the design and construction of the salt pills that produce cooling. In most cases, the primary goal is to obtain the largest cooling capacity at the low temperature end of the operating range. The realizable cooling capacity depends on a number of factors, including refrigerant mass, and how efficiently it absorbs heat from the various instrument loads. The design and optimization of “salt pills” for ADR systems depend not only on the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of the refrigerant, but also on the range of heat fluxes that the salt pill must accommodate. Despite the fairly wide variety of refrigerants available, those used at very low temperature tend to be hydrated salts that require a dedicated thermal bus and must be hermetically sealed, while those used at higher temperature - greater than about 0.5 K - tend to be single- or poly-crystals that have much simpler requirements for thermal and mechanical packaging. This paper presents a summary of strategies and techniques for designing, optimizing and fabricating salt pills for both low- and mid-temperature applications.

  7. BZP-party pills: a review of research on benzylpiperazine as a recreational drug.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bruce M Z; Butler, Rachael

    2011-03-01

    BZP-party pills are yet another 'designer drug' which mimics the stimulant qualities of amphetamines and MDMA/Ecstasy. As legal markets for the substance have developed in the last decade (especially amongst young people) so has public and governmental concern. This article provides a summary of the available international research on benzylpiperazine (BZP) and its popular use in the compound form known as 'party pills'. Through performing an analysis of the available medical and social scientific literature, the review outlines current knowledge on the compound, the prevalence of usage of BZP-party pills, as well as the associated harms, risks and rationales for use of the drug. Despite moves towards legislative control of BZP-party pills, the evidence presented suggests limited social and health harms associated with the drug, although research on long term effects is a significant gap in the literature. It also remains inconclusive as to whether BZP-party pills act as a 'gateway' to illegal drugs or, conversely, play a role in harm reduction with illegal drug users turning to legal alternatives; there is some evidence for both positions. With increasing controls of BZP-party pills, and with the increasing numbers of 'legal highs' and new designer drugs on the market, we conclude that new legal alternatives will continue to surface to replace the drug in the future. Considering a harm reduction approach to drug taking, it is suggested that policy makers consider the creation of a legal holding category which restricts and regulates the market in legal highs whilst the social and health harms associated with each drug can be thoroughly investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Phosphate Binder Pill Burden, Patient-Reported Non-Adherence, and Mineral Bone Disorder Markers: Findings from the DOPPS

    PubMed Central

    Fissell, Rachel B.; Karaboyas, Angelo; Bieber, Brian A.; Sen, Ananda; Li, Yun; Lopes, Antonio A.; Akiba, Takashi; Bommer, Jürgen; Ethier, Jean; Jadoul, Michel; Pisoni, Ronald L.; Robinson, Bruce M.; Tentori, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to multiple comorbidities, hemodialysis (HD) patients are prescribed many oral medications, including phosphate binders (PBs), often resulting in a high “pill burden”. Methods Using data from the international Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS), we assessed associations between PB pill burden, patient-reported PB non-adherence, and levels of serum phosphorus (SPhos) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), using standard regression analyses. The study included data collected from 5,262 HD patients from dialysis units participating in the DOPPS in 12 countries. Results PB prescription ranged from a mean of 7.4 pills/day in the United States (US) to 3.9 pills/day in France. About half of the patients were prescribed at least 6 PB pills/day, and 13% were prescribed at least 12 PB pills/day. Overall, the proportion of patients who reported skipping PBs at least once in the past month was 45% overall, ranging from 33% in Belgium to 57% in the US. There was a trend toward greater PB non-adherence and a higher number of prescribed PB pills/day. Non-adherence to PB prescription was associated with high SPhos (>5.5 mg/dL) and PTH (> 600 pg/mL). Conclusions Adherence to PB is a challenge for many hemodialysis patients and may be related to the number of PB pills prescribed. Prescription of a simplified PB regimen could improve patient adherence and perhaps improve SPhos and PTH levels. PMID:25975222

  9. Emergency contraceptive pills: Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of community health workers in a developing Muslim country.

    PubMed

    Mir, Azeem Sultan; Malik, Raees

    2010-08-01

    Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills. The cross sectional survey was conducted during the monthly meeting of Lady Health Supervisors. Self administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire consisting of 17 items, regarding demographic profile, awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices, was used. Insufficient knowledge, high misinformation and strongly negative attitudes were revealed. More than half did not know that emergency contraceptive pills do not cause abortion. About four fifths believed that emergency contraceptive pills will lead to 'evil' practices in society. More than four fifths recognized that the clients of National Program for Family Planning need emergency contraceptive pills. The attitudes were significantly associated with knowledge (P=0.034, Fisher's Exact Test). The awareness of emergency contraceptive pills is high. Serious gaps in knowledge have been identified. There is a clear recognition of the need of emergency contraceptive pills for the clients of National Program for Family Planning. However, any strategy to introduce emergency contraceptive pills must cater for the misplaced beliefs of the work force.

  10. New low-dose, extended-cycle pills with levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol: an evolutionary step in birth control.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Anita

    2010-08-09

    To review milestones in development of oral contraceptive pills since their introduction in the US 50 years ago in order to better understand how a new formulation with low-dose estrogen in an extended-cycle pattern fits into the evolution of birth control pills. This is a review of trends in the development of various birth controls pills and includes data from phase III clinical trials for this new formulation. The first birth control pill was a very high-dose monophasic formulation with the prodrug estrogen mestranol and a first-generation progestin. Over the decades, the doses of hormones have been markedly reduced, and a new estrogen and several different progestins were developed and used in different dosing patterns. The final element to undergo change was the 7-day pill-free interval. Many of these same changes have been made in the development of extended-cycle pill formulation. The newest extended-cycle oral contraceptive formulation with 84 active pills, each containing 20 μg ethinyl estradiol and 100 μg levonorgestrel, represents an important evolution in birth control that incorporates lower doses of estrogen (to reduce side effects and possibly reduce risk of thrombosis), fewer scheduled bleeding episodes (to meet women's desires for fewer and shorter menses) and the use of low-dose estrogen in place of placebo pills (to reduce the number of days of unscheduled spotting and bleeding). Hopefully, this unique formation will motivate women to be more successful contraceptors.

  11. ASTER, ALI and Hyperion sensors data for lithological mapping and ore minerals exploration.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and Hyperion data and applications of the data as a tool for ore minerals exploration, lithological and structural mapping. Spectral information extraction from ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data has great ability to assist geologists in all disciplines to map the distribution and detect the rock units exposed at the earth's surface. The near coincidence of Earth Observing System (EOS)/Terra and Earth Observing One (EO-1) platforms allows acquiring ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion imagery of the same ground areas, resulting accurate information for geological mapping applications especially in the reconnaissance stages of hydrothermal copper and gold exploration, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits, mineral components of soils and structural interpretation at both regional and district scales. Shortwave length infrared and thermal infrared bands of ASTER have sufficient spectral resolution to map fundamental absorptions of hydroxyl mineral groups and silica and carbonate minerals for regional mapping purposes. Ferric-iron bearing minerals can be discriminated using six unique wavelength bands of ALI spanning the visible and near infrared. Hyperion visible and near infrared bands (0.4 to 1.0 μm) and shortwave infrared bands (0.9 to 2.5 μm) allowed to produce image maps of iron oxide minerals, hydroxyl-bearing minerals, sulfates and carbonates in association with hydrothermal alteration assemblages, respectively. The techniques and achievements reviewed in the present paper can further introduce the efficacy of ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data for future mineral and lithological mapping and exploration of the porphyry copper, epithermal gold, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits especially in arid and semi-arid territory.

  12. [Effect of osseointegration in the posterior area by Shenggu pills].

    PubMed

    Cuifen, Luo; Guoguang, Peng

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the osseointegration condition by measuring the implant stability quotient (ISQ) to study the effect of osseointegration in the posterior area by Shenggu pills. A total of 101 DENTIUM implants were placed in 48 patients. Fifty implants placed in 24 patients were addressed as usual, whereas 51 implants placed in 24 patients were treated with Shenggu pills. ISQ was tested on the day of surgery and consecutively at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. All data were analyzed. The efficacy of the treatment group was no much better than that of control group on the day of surgery and consecutively at 12 weeks with no significant difference (P>0.05). The efficacy of the treatment group was significantly better than that of the control group at 4 and 8 weeks (P<0.05). The implants placed in the mandible were significantly better than those placed in the maxilla (P<0.05). Early intake of Shenggu pills could accelerate the implant bone union, improve the implants' ISQ, and ensure the success rate of the operation.

  13. Effect of a "pill mill" law on opioid prescribing and utilization: The case of Texas.

    PubMed

    Lyapustina, Tatyana; Rutkow, Lainie; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Daubresse, Matthew; Ramji, Alim F; Faul, Mark; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Alexander, G Caleb

    2016-02-01

    States have attempted to reduce prescription opioid abuse through strengthening the regulation of pain management clinics; however, the effect of such measures remains unclear. We quantified the impact of Texas's September 2010 "pill mill" law on opioid prescribing and utilization. We used the IMS Health LRx LifeLink database to examine anonymized, patient-level pharmacy claims for a closed cohort of individuals filling prescription opioids in Texas between September 2009 and August 2011. Our primary outcomes were derived at a monthly level and included: (1) average morphine equivalent dose (MED) per transaction; (2) aggregate opioid volume; (3) number of opioid prescriptions; and (4) quantity of opioid pills dispensed. We compared observed values with the counterfactual, which we estimated from pre-intervention levels and trends. Texas's pill mill law was associated with declines in average MED per transaction (-0.57 mg/month, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.09, -0.057), monthly opioid volume (-9.99 kg/month, CI -12.86, -7.11), monthly number of opioid prescriptions (-12,200 prescriptions/month, CI -15,300, -9,150) and monthly quantity of opioid pills dispensed (-714,000 pills/month, CI -877,000, -550,000). These reductions reflected decreases of 8.1-24.3% across the outcomes at one year compared with the counterfactual, and they were concentrated among prescribers and patients with the highest opioid prescribing and utilization at baseline. Following the implementation of Texas's 2010 pill mill law, there were clinically significant reductions in opioid dose, volume, prescriptions and pills dispensed within the state, which were limited to individuals with higher levels of baseline opioid prescribing and utilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nonempirical electron-correlation calculations on ALi/sub k/ and Ali/sub k+1//sup +/ clusters formed with elements from the second and third periods

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mebel', A.M.; Klimenko, N.M.; Charkin, O.P.

    Several basic sets have been used (from 3-21 G/sub A//asterisk/ to DZHD + P/sub A/) with electron correlation in the Meller-Plesset MP3 approximation in nonempirical calculations on ALi/sub k+1//sup +/ and ALi/sub K+1//sup +/ lithium clusters (CLi/sub 2/, CLi/sub 3//sup +/, NLi/sub 3/, NLi/sub 4//sup +/, OLi/sub 2/, OLi/sub 3//sup +/, etc.) formed with elements from the second and third periods in the lowest singlet states. A study has been made on the effects of the approximation on the results. Several reference systems are used to show that the SCF/3-21G/sub A//asterisk/ approximation describes the lithide geometry satisfactorily, while MP3/DZHD +more » P/sub A/ gives a satisfactory description of the affinity of Ali/sub k/ for Li/sup +/. These approximations have been taken as optimal for calculations on the other compounds. The Li/sup +/ affinities are highest for NLi/sub 3/ and PLi/sub 3/ (90 and 84 kcal correspondingly) and decrease as A varies along the subgroups from the second to the third and the lower sp periods, as well as when A varies in each period from the middle to the start or end. The affinities of the analogous compounds for Na/sup +/ are less by 5-10 kcal than those for Li/sup +/. The values are compared with the proton affinities for the related hydrides AK/sub k/.« less

  15. [Contraception from the viewpoint of women (2): Long-term pill users are especially pleased by the advantages of hormonal contraception. Comprehensive study of motives at first and refill prescription of the pill and evaluation after 3 months of hormonal contraception].

    PubMed

    Bitzer, J; Kunz, J

    2000-08-10

    The pill is the most famous contraceptive method beside the condom. It has a positive image both with women taking it for the first time as with women taking it again after an interruption: they appreciate its efficacy and its easy use. They consider a potential weight increase as a major disadvantage of the pill but do not fear serious health risks. Younger women are significantly more concerned by the lack of protection from AIDS. Young women start their "contraception carrier" with the condom and switch to the pill later. Middle-aged women had usually chosen the pill as first contraception method. The quality of life with the pill is considered as positive, especially its effects on skin and menses.

  16. [Optimize dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills by using design space approach].

    PubMed

    Shen, Ji-Chen; Wang, Qing-Qing; Chen, An; Pan, Fang-Lai; Gong, Xing-Chu; Qu, Hai-Bin

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a design space approach was applied to optimize the dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Firstly, potential critical process parameters and potential process critical quality attributes were determined through literature research and pre-experiments. Secondly, experiments were carried out according to Box-Behnken design. Then the critical process parameters and critical quality attributes were determined based on the experimental results. Thirdly, second-order polynomial models were used to describe the quantitative relationships between critical process parameters and critical quality attributes. Finally, a probability-based design space was calculated and verified. The verification results showed that efficient production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills can be guaranteed by operating within the design space parameters. The recommended operation ranges for the critical dropping process parameters of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills were as follows: dropping distance of 5.5-6.7 cm, and dropping speed of 59-60 drops per minute, providing a reference for industrial production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. New low-dose, extended-cycle pills with levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol: an evolutionary step in birth control

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To review milestones in development of oral contraceptive pills since their introduction in the US 50 years ago in order to better understand how a new formulation with low-dose estrogen in an extended-cycle pattern fits into the evolution of birth control pills. Methods: This is a review of trends in the development of various birth controls pills and includes data from phase III clinical trials for this new formulation. Results: The first birth control pill was a very high-dose monophasic formulation with the prodrug estrogen mestranol and a first-generation progestin. Over the decades, the doses of hormones have been markedly reduced, and a new estrogen and several different progestins were developed and used in different dosing patterns. The final element to undergo change was the 7-day pill-free interval. Many of these same changes have been made in the development of extended-cycle pill formulation. Conclusion: The newest extended-cycle oral contraceptive formulation with 84 active pills, each containing 20 μg ethinyl estradiol and 100 μg levonorgestrel, represents an important evolution in birth control that incorporates lower doses of estrogen (to reduce side effects and possibly reduce risk of thrombosis), fewer scheduled bleeding episodes (to meet women’s desires for fewer and shorter menses) and the use of low-dose estrogen in place of placebo pills (to reduce the number of days of unscheduled spotting and bleeding). Hopefully, this unique formation will motivate women to be more successful contraceptors. PMID:21072303

  18. Emergency contraceptive pills: Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of community health workers in a developing Muslim country

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Azeem Sultan; Malik, Raees

    2010-01-01

    Background: Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. Aims: This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills. Materials and Methods: The cross sectional survey was conducted during the monthly meeting of Lady Health Supervisors. Self administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire consisting of 17 items, regarding demographic profile, awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices, was used. Results: Insufficient knowledge, high misinformation and strongly negative attitudes were revealed. More than half did not know that emergency contraceptive pills do not cause abortion. About four fifths believed that emergency contraceptive pills will lead to ‘evil’ practices in society. More than four fifths recognized that the clients of National Program for Family Planning need emergency contraceptive pills. The attitudes were significantly associated with knowledge (P=0.034, Fisher's Exact Test). Conclusion: The awareness of emergency contraceptive pills is high. Serious gaps in knowledge have been identified. There is a clear recognition of the need of emergency contraceptive pills for the clients of National Program for Family Planning. However, any strategy to introduce emergency contraceptive pills must cater for the misplaced beliefs of the work force. PMID:22737673

  19. Prognostic Value of the Pretreatment Advanced Lung Cancer Inflammation Index (ALI) in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Patients Treated with R-CHOP Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Hoon; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul Soo; Lim, Joo Han

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Lung Cancer Inflammation Index (ALI, body mass index × albumin/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) has been demonstrated to be a prognostic factor of survival in some solid cancers. We retrospectively investigated the usefulness of the ALI to predict chemotherapy response and survival in 212 patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) chemotherapy. Patients were allocated to a low ALI group (n = 82, 38.7%) or a high ALI group (n = 130, 61.3%) according to an optimal pretreatment ALI cut-off value of 15.5 as determined by receiver operating curve analysis. The low ALI group displayed more adverse clinical characteristics, lower rates of complete remission (54.9 vs. 75.4%, p = 0.008), and poorer 5-year progression-free (PFS, 58.1 vs. 77.3%, p = 0.006) and overall (OS, 64.2 vs. 80.2%, p = 0.008) survival. Multivariate analysis showed that low ALI was found to independently predict shorter PFS and OS. Interestingly, a low ALI reverted to a high ALI during treatment in 58 patients (27.4%), and the 5-year OS of these patients was better than that of patients whose ALI remained low (n = 24, 72.5 vs. 24%, p < 0.001). ALI might be an easily available marker for predicting clinical outcomes in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP chemotherapy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Correlation between pill counts and biologic effects in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial: implications for measuring adherence.

    PubMed

    Donnell, Deborah J; Baeten, Jared M; Hong, Ting; Lingappa, Jairam R; Mujugira, Andrew; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Bangsberg, David; Celum, Connie

    2013-02-01

    Clinic-based pill counts of unused study medication are frequently used to measure adherence in HIV-1 prevention trials. Monthly pill count adherence data from the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study, a double-blind, placebo controlled trial of twice-daily acyclovir suppression of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in HIV-1 infected persons was used to compare changes between 3,381 placebo and active arm participants in two objective biologic measures of acyclovir's drug activity: reduction in plasma HIV-1 RNA and HSV-2 genital ulcer disease (GUD). Higher acyclovir pill count adherence was associated with greater reductions in plasma HIV-1 RNA and GUD, indicating pill count data is strongly correlated with biological effects of adherence. However, when calculated adherence exceeded 102 % (i.e., fewer pills returned than expected) and when pill counts were missing because bottles were not returned, plasma HIV-1 RNA and GUD effects were diminished, likely indicating periods of non-adherence.

  1. Does the contraceptive pill alter mate choice in humans?

    PubMed

    Alvergne, Alexandra; Lummaa, Virpi

    2010-03-01

    Female and male mate choice preferences in humans both vary according to the menstrual cycle. Women prefer more masculine, symmetrical and genetically unrelated men during ovulation compared with other phases of their cycle, and recent evidence suggests that men prefer ovulating women to others. Such monthly shifts in mate preference have been suggested to bring evolutionary benefits in terms of reproductive success. New evidence is now emerging that taking the oral contraceptive pill might significantly alter both female and male mate choice by removing the mid-cycle change in preferences. Here, we review support for such conclusions and speculate on the consequences of pill-induced choice of otherwise less-preferred partners for relationship satisfaction, durability and, ultimately, reproductive outcomes.

  2. Gene expression of bovine embryos developing at the air-liquid interface on oviductal epithelial cells (ALI-BOEC).

    PubMed

    van der Weijden, Vera A; Chen, Shuai; Bauersachs, Stefan; Ulbrich, Susanne E; Schoen, Jennifer

    2017-11-25

    We recently developed an air-liquid interface long-term culture of differentiated bovine oviductal epithelial cells (ALI-BOEC). This ex vivo oviduct epithelium is capable of supporting embryo development in co-culture up to the blastocyst stage without addition of embryo culture medium. However, blastocyst rates in co-culture were markedly lower than in conventional in vitro embryo production procedures. In the present study, we assessed target gene expression of ALI-BOEC derived embryos to test their similarity to embryos from conventional in vitro embryo culture. We screened previously published data from developing bovine embryos and selected 41 genes which are either differentially expressed during embryo development, or reflect differences between various in vitro culture conditions or in vitro and in vivo embryos. Target gene expression was measured in 8-cell embryos and blastocysts using a 48.48 Dynamic Array™ on a Biomark HD instrument. For comparison with the ALI-BOEC system, we generated embryos by two different standard IVP protocols. The culture conditions lead to differential gene expression in both 8-cell embryos and blastocysts. Across the expression of all target genes the embryos developing on ALI-BOEC did not depart from conventional IVP embryos. These first results prove that gene expression in ALI-BOEC embryos is not largely aberrant. However, there was no clear indication for a more in vivo-like target gene expression of these embryos. This calls for further optimization of the ALI-BOEC system to increase its efficiency both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  3. Fertility Effects of Abortion and Birth Control Pill Access for Minors

    PubMed Central

    GULDI, MELANIE

    2008-01-01

    This article empirically assesses whether age-restricted access to abortion and the birth control pill influence minors’ fertility in the United States. There is not a strong consensus in previous literature regarding the relationship between laws restricting minors’ access to abortion and minors’ birthrates. This is the first study to recognize that state laws in place prior to the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision enabled minors to legally consent to surgical treatment—including abortion—in some states but not in others, and to construct abortion access variables reflecting this. In this article, age-specific policy variables measure either a minor’s legal ability to obtain an abortion or to obtain the birth control pill without parental involvement. I find fairly strong evidence that young women’s birthrates dropped as a result of abortion access as well as evidence that birth control pill access led to a drop in birthrates among whites. PMID:19110899

  4. Fertility effects of abortion and birth control pill access for minors.

    PubMed

    Guldi, Melanie

    2008-11-01

    This article empirically assesses whether age-restricted access to abortion and the birth control pill influence minors' fertility in the United States. There is not a strong consensus in previous literature regarding the relationship between laws restricting minors' access to abortion and minors' birth rates. This is the first study to recognize that state laws in place prior to the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision enabled minors to legally consent to surgical treatment-including abortion-in some states but not in others, and to construct abortion access variables reflecting this. In this article, age-specific policy variables measure either a minor's legal ability to obtain an abortion or to obtain the birth control pill without parental involvement. I find fairly strong evidence that young women's birth rates dropped as a result of abortion access as well as evidence that birth control pill access led to a drop in birth rates among whites.

  5. Does advanced lung inflammation index (ALI) have prognostic significance in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Ozyurek, Berna Akinci; Ozdemirel, Tugce Sahin; Ozden, Sertac Buyukyaylaci; Erdoğan, Yurdanur; Ozmen, Ozlem; Kaplan, Bekir; Kaplan, Tugba

    2018-01-22

    Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed and death-related cancer type and is more frequent in males. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 85% of all case. In this study, it was aimed to research the relationship between advanced lung inflammation index (ALI) and the primary mass maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and C-reactive protein (CRP) at initial diagnosis and the prognostic value of ALI in determining the survival in metastatic NSCLC. A total of 112 patients diagnosed as stage 4 non-small-lung cancer in our hospital between January 2006 and December 2013 were included in this study. ALI was calculated as body mass index (BMI) × serum albumin/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). The patients were divided into two groups as ALI < 18 (high inflammation) and ALI ≥ 18 (low inflammation). The log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard model were used to identify predictors of mortality. Evaluation was made of 94 male and 18 female patients with a mean age of 59.7 ± 9.9 years. A statistically significant negative relationship was determined between ALI and CRP values (P < .001), but no relationship was found between ALI and SUVmax values (P = .436). The median survival time in patients with ALI < 18 was 12 months and, in those with ALI ≥ 18, it was 16 months (P = .095). ALI is an easily calculated indicator of inflammation in lung cancer patients. Values <18 can be considered to predict a poor prognosis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (stochastic ALI) or (2) a committed dose equivalent of 50 rems to an organ or tissue (non-stochastic ALI). The stochastic ALIs were derived to result in... equivalent to the whole body of 5 rems. The derivation includes multiplying the committed dose equivalent to...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (stochastic ALI) or (2) a committed dose equivalent of 50 rems to an organ or tissue (non-stochastic ALI). The stochastic ALIs were derived to result in... equivalent to the whole body of 5 rems. The derivation includes multiplying the committed dose equivalent to...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (stochastic ALI) or (2) a committed dose equivalent of 50 rems to an organ or tissue (non-stochastic ALI). The stochastic ALIs were derived to result in... equivalent to the whole body of 5 rems. The derivation includes multiplying the committed dose equivalent to...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (stochastic ALI) or (2) a committed dose equivalent of 50 rems to an organ or tissue (non-stochastic ALI). The stochastic ALIs were derived to result in... equivalent to the whole body of 5 rems. The derivation includes multiplying the committed dose equivalent to...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 20 - Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) and Derived Air Concentrations (DACs) of Radionuclides for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) a committed effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (stochastic ALI) or (2) a committed dose equivalent of 50 rems to an organ or tissue (non-stochastic ALI). The stochastic ALIs were derived to result in... equivalent to the whole body of 5 rems. The derivation includes multiplying the committed dose equivalent to...

  11. Quantitative determination of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine by thin-layer chromatography in ecstasy illicit pills in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Shetab Boushehri, Seyed Vahid; Tamimi, Maryam; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2009-11-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is the major ingredient of ecstasy illicit pills. It is a hallucinogen, central nervous system stimulant, and serotonergic neurotoxin that strongly releases serotonin from serotonergic nerves terminals. Moreover, it releases norepinephrine and dopamine from nerves terminal, but to a lesser extent than serotonin. Poisoning and even death from abusing MDMA-containing ecstasy illicit pills among abusers is usual. Thus, quantitative determination of MDMA content of ecstasy illicit pills in illicit drug bazaar must be done regularly to find the most high dose ecstasy illicit pills and removing them from illicit drug bazaar. In the present study, MDMA contents of 13 most abundant ecstasy illicit pills were determined by quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Two procedures for quantitative determination of MDMA contents of ecstasy illicit pills by TLC were used: densitometric and so-called 'scraping off' methods. The former was done in a reflection mode at 285 nm and the latter was done by absorbance measurement of eluted scraped off spots. Limit of detection (LOD), considering signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 2, and limit of quantification (LOQ), regarding S/N of 10, of densitometric and scraping off methods were 0.40 microg, 1.20 microg, and 6.87 mug, 20.63 microg, respectively. Repeatabilities (within-laboratory error) of densitometric and scraping off methods were 0.5% and 3.6%, respectively. The results showed that the ecstasy illicit pills contained 24-124.5 mg and 23.9-122.2 mg MDMA by densitometric and scraping off methods, respectively.

  12. Adolescents’ Knowledge, Attitude and Utilization of Emergency Contraceptive Pills in Nigeria’s Niger Delta Region

    PubMed Central

    Onasoga, Olayinka A.; Afolayan, Joel Adeleke; Asamabiriowei, Tariebi Florence; Jibril, Umar Nda; Imam, Abubakar Ayinla

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Risky sexual activity among adolescents is on the increase and contraceptive prevalence rate is low which is evidenced by high rate of teenage pregnancy in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. This study assesses the adolescents’ knowledge, attitude and utilization of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) in Amassoma Community, Bayelsa State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional research design. A purposive sampling technique was used to select a sample of 220 respondents from the target population. Data were collected using a self-structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data generated. Results: Majority of the respondents had high level of knowledge and positive attitude towards emergency contraceptive pills but had low level of utilization. Concerns about what others may say, parental attitude, contraceptive availability, contraceptive accessibility, and peer influences were the major factors that influenced the utilization of contraceptive pills. There was no significant relationship between knowledge and utilization of emergency contraceptive pills, as well as level of knowledge and their utilization of emergency contraceptive pills. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Adolescents in the study were more likely to use emergency contraceptive pills, if parents and others reaction to adolescents’ contraceptive use were positive about those. Health care professionals, especially nurses, should organize enlightenment programs to educate adolescents, parents and the public on the benefits of adolescents’ contraceptives use, especially ECP. PMID:28058193

  13. Capsule endoscopy with PillCamSB2 versus PillCamSB3: has the improvement in technology resulted in a step forward?

    PubMed

    Xavier, Sofia; Monteiro, Sara; Magalhães, Joana; Rosa, Bruno; Moreira, Maria João; Cotter, José

    2018-03-01

    To compare the findings and completion rate of PillCam® SB2 and SB3. This was a retrospective single-center study that included 357 consecutive small bowel capsule endoscopies (SBCE), 173 SB2 and 184 SB3. The data collected included age, gender, capsule type (PillCam® SB2 or SB3), quality of bowel preparation, completion of the examination, gastric and small bowel transit time, small bowel findings, findings in segments other than the small bowel and the detection of specific anatomical markers, such as the Z line and papilla. The mean age of the patients was 48 years and 66.9% were female. The two main indications were suspicion/staging of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) (43.7% and 40.3%, respectively). Endoscopic findings were reported in 76.2% of examinations and 53.5% were relevant findings. No significant differences were found between SB2 and SB3 with regard to completion rate (93.6% vs 96.2%, p = 0.27), overall endoscopic findings (73.4% vs 78.8%, p = 0.23), relevant findings (54.3% vs 52.7%, p = 0.76), first tertile findings (43.9% vs 48.9%, p = 0.35), extra-SB findings (23.7% vs 17.3%, p = 0.14), Z line and papilla detection rate (35.9% vs 35.7%, p = 0.97 and 27.1% vs 32.6%, p = 0.32, respectively). With regard to the patient subgroups with suspicion/staging of IBD, significant differences were found in relation to the detection of villous edema and the 3rd tertile findings, thus favoring SB3 (26.3% vs 43.8%, p = 0.02 and 47.4% vs 66.3%, p = 0.02, respectively). Mucosal atrophy was significantly more frequently diagnosed with the PillCam® SB3 in patients with anemia/OGIB (0% vs 8%, p = 0.03). Overall, PillCam® SB3 did not improve the diagnostic yield compared to SB2, although it improved the detection of villous atrophy and segmental edema.

  14. Discussing Smart Pills versus Endorsing Smart Pills: Reply to Swanson, Wigal, and Volkow (2011) and Elliott and Elliott (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Martha J.; Smith, M. Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    We find much of interest, and little to disagree with, in the commentaries on our article. We take issue only with the suggestion that our article was provocative and submit that the attempt to understand the use of stimulants as smart pills does not imply an endorsement of the practice.

  15. An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ujuju, Chinazo; Adebayo, Samson B; Anyanti, Jennifer; Oluigbo, Obi; Muhammad, Fatima; Ankomah, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    In Nigeria about 50% of oral contraceptive pill users obtain their products from proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs). This group of service providers are poorly trained and have very limited knowledge about contraception. This paper investigated the nature of the advice offered to simulated current and potential users of oral contraceptive pills. The main objective was to assess the nature and quality of advice provided by PPMVs to pill users. This study is based on findings from a 'mystery client' approach in which three scenarios related to contraceptive pill use were simulated. Each of the 12 mystery clients simulated one of the following three scenarios: new pill users (new to family planning or switching from condom to pills); user seeking a resupply of pills; and dissatisfied pill users intending to discontinue use. Simple random sampling was used to select 410 PPMVs from a total of 1,826 in four states in Nigeria. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was also conducted. A majority of the PPMVs had pills in stock on the day of the survey and resupplied pills to the clients. PPMVs also understood the reason and importance of referring clients who were new adopters of oral contraceptive methods to a health facility; 30% of the PPMVs referred new adopters to a health facility. However, demand from clients who do not want to go to health care facilities (for various reasons) necessitated the provision of oral contraceptive pills to 41% of the first time users. Some PPMVs prescribed treatment to mystery clients who presented with perceived complications arising from the use of pills, while 49% were referred to a health facility. The advice given by PPMVs often falls short of safety guidelines related to the use of oral contraceptive pills. There is a need to continuously update knowledge among the PPMVs to ensure that they provide quality oral contraceptive services as PPMVs bridge the gap between medical experts and users in rural communities.

  16. An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ujuju, Chinazo; Adebayo, Samson B; Anyanti, Jennifer; Oluigbo, Obi; Muhammad, Fatima; Ankomah, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In Nigeria about 50% of oral contraceptive pill users obtain their products from proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs). This group of service providers are poorly trained and have very limited knowledge about contraception. This paper investigated the nature of the advice offered to simulated current and potential users of oral contraceptive pills. The main objective was to assess the nature and quality of advice provided by PPMVs to pill users. Method This study is based on findings from a ‘mystery client’ approach in which three scenarios related to contraceptive pill use were simulated. Each of the 12 mystery clients simulated one of the following three scenarios: new pill users (new to family planning or switching from condom to pills); user seeking a resupply of pills; and dissatisfied pill users intending to discontinue use. Simple random sampling was used to select 410 PPMVs from a total of 1,826 in four states in Nigeria. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was also conducted. Results A majority of the PPMVs had pills in stock on the day of the survey and resupplied pills to the clients. PPMVs also understood the reason and importance of referring clients who were new adopters of oral contraceptive methods to a health facility; 30% of the PPMVs referred new adopters to a health facility. However, demand from clients who do not want to go to health care facilities (for various reasons) necessitated the provision of oral contraceptive pills to 41% of the first time users. Some PPMVs prescribed treatment to mystery clients who presented with perceived complications arising from the use of pills, while 49% were referred to a health facility. Conclusion The advice given by PPMVs often falls short of safety guidelines related to the use of oral contraceptive pills. There is a need to continuously update knowledge among the PPMVs to ensure that they provide quality oral contraceptive services as PPMVs bridge the gap between medical

  17. Influence of the number of daily pills and doses on adherence to antiretroviral treatment: a 7-year study.

    PubMed

    Hernández Arroyo, M J; Cabrera Figueroa, S E; Sepúlveda Correa, R; Valverde Merino, M P; Luna Rodrigo, G; Domínguez-Gil Hurlé, A

    2016-02-01

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) is hampered by complicated regimens, high pill burden, drug-drug interactions, and frequent short- and long-term adverse effects, leading to decreased adherence. Over recent years, considerable effort has been directed at developing regimens that are less burdening. We undertook a 7-year retrospective study of the records of 264 HIV-infected subjects enrolled in a pharmaceutical care programme to document the progress made and to study the influence of the number of ART pills and doses on the level of treatment adherence. Antiretroviral dispensing records were analysed for the number of pills and doses administered and the ART adherence rate estimated. In 2005, the patients took a mean of 6·2 pills daily (CI 95%: 5·9-6·6), and 92·9% of them were on a twice-a-day (BID) dosage regimen. By 2012, the mean number of pills was reduced to 4·1 (CI 95%: 3·8-4·4), and only 50·9% were on a BID regimen. No statistically significant relation was observed between number of daily pills and doses and ART adherence reached by the patients in any of the analyses performed. There has been a continuous reduction in the number of pills and doses of antiretrovirals taken by individual patients over the last 7 years due largely to the introduction of improved treatments and regimens. More daily pills or doses was not associated with worse ART adherence in our pharmaceutical care programme. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Mineral mapping on the Chilean-Bolivian Altiplano using co-orbital ALI, ASTER and Hyperion imagery: Data dimensionality issues and solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, B.E.; Crowley, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Hyperspectral data coverage from the EO-1 Hyperion sensor was useful for calibrating Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images of a volcanic terrane area of the Chilean-Bolivian Altiplano. Following calibration, the ALI and ASTER datasets were co-registered and joined to produce a 13-channel reflectance cube spanning the Visible to Short Wave Infrared (0.4-2.4 ??m). Eigen analysis and comparison of the Hyperion data with the ALI + ASTER reflectance data, as well as mapping results using various ALI+ASTER data subsets, provided insights into the information dimensionality of all the data. In particular, high spectral resolution, low signal-to-noise Hyperion data were only marginally better for mineral mapping than the merged 13-channel, low spectral resolution, high signal-to-noise ALI + ASTER dataset. Neither the Hyperion nor the combined ALI + ASTER datasets had sufficient information dimensionality for mapping the diverse range of surface materials exposed on the Altiplano. However, it is possible to optimize the use of the multispectral data for mineral-mapping purposes by careful data subsetting, and by employing other appropriate image-processing strategies.

  19. How Placebo Needles Differ From Placebo Pills?

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Ye-Seul; Enck, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Because acupuncture treatment is defined by the process of needles penetrating the body, placebo needles were originally developed with non-penetrating mechanisms. However, whether placebo needles are valid controls in acupuncture research is subject of an ongoing debate. The present review provides an overview of the characteristics of placebo needles and how they differ from placebo pills in two aspects: (1) physiological response and (2) blinding efficacy. We argue that placebo needles elicit physiological responses similar to real acupuncture and therefore provide similar clinical efficacy. We also demonstrate that this efficacy is further supported by ineffective blinding (even in acupuncture-naïve patients) which may lead to opposite guesses that will further enhances efficacy, as compared to no-treatment, e.g., with waiting list controls. Additionally, the manner in which placebo needles can exhibit therapeutic effects relative to placebo pills include enhanced touch sensations, direct stimulation of the somatosensory system and activation of multiple brain systems. We finally discuss alternative control strategies for the placebo effects in acupuncture therapy.

  20. [Qilin Pills for obstructive azoospermia after ejaculatory duct reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Gao, Ping; Ren, Fei-Qiang; Chang, De-Gui; Yu, Xu-Jun; Zhang, Pei-Hai

    2016-09-01

    To observe the clinical effect of Qilin Pills in the treatment of severe oligozoospermia after microsurgical ejaculatory duct reconstruction for obstructive azoospermia. We retrospectively analyzed 75 cases of obstructive azoospermia treated by ejaculatory duct reconstruction followed by administration of Qilin Pills. The patients were divided into a Qilin group (n=42) and a control group (n=33) postoperatively, treated with Qilin Pills and placebo, respectively. After 3 months of medication, we compared the sperm quality between the two groups of patients. After 3 months' treatment, all the patients experienced remarkable improvement in sperm quality (P<0.05). Compared with the controls, the patients in the Qilin group showed dramatic increases in sperm concentration, from (0.57±0.25) and (0.60±0.18) ×10⁶/ml before medication to (2.83±0.59) and (1.72 ±0.52) ×10⁶/ml after medication, significantly higher in the Qilin than in the control group (P<0.05). The percentage of grade a sperm was increased from (5.52±5.97) and (5.30±6.26)% to (11.56±9.96) and (10.27±6.52)%, that of grade a+b sperm from (9.68±8.63) and (8.64±10.10)% to (23.42 ±14.10) and (20.81±14.70)%, and that of morphologically normal sperm from (2.00±1.27) and (2.31±0.94)% to (3.54±2.47) and (3.47±1.33)%, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed in sperm motility and normal sperm morphology between the two groups after treatment (P>0.05). The total effectiveness rate was higher in the Qilin group than in the controls (88.1% vs 72.7%), but with no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). Qilin Pills are fairly effective in improving the quantity of sperm in obstructive azoospermia patients after ejaculatory duct reconstruction.

  1. JAliEn - A new interface between the AliEn jobs and the central services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoras, A. G.; Grigoras, C.; Pedreira, M. M.; Saiz, P.; Schreiner, S.

    2014-06-01

    Since the ALICE experiment began data taking in early 2010, the amount of end user jobs on the AliEn Grid has increased significantly. Presently 1/3 of the 40K CPU cores available to ALICE are occupied by jobs submitted by about 400 distinct users, individually or in organized analysis trains. The overall stability of the AliEn middleware has been excellent throughout the 3 years of running, but the massive amount of end-user analysis and its specific requirements and load has revealed few components which can be improved. One of them is the interface between users and central AliEn services (catalogue, job submission system) which we are currently re-implementing in Java. The interface provides persistent connection with enhanced data and job submission authenticity. In this paper we will describe the architecture of the new interface, the ROOT binding which enables the use of a single interface in addition to the standard UNIX-like access shell and the new security-related features.

  2. ON IMPROVING THE DISINTEGRATION OF AYURVEDIC PILLS CONTAINING GUGGULU

    PubMed Central

    Chaube, Anjana; Dixit, S.K.; Sharma, P.V.

    1995-01-01

    An attempt is made in this communication to report a better way of preparing guggulu – containing pills. This technique improves the disintegration time of the preparation, thus enhancing its therapeutic value. PMID:22556694

  3. Efficacy and Safety of a Single-Pill Fixed-Dose Combination of Azilsartan and Amlodipine

    PubMed Central

    Motozato, Kota; Miura, Shin-ichiro; Shiga, Yuhei; Kusumoto, Takaaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Guidelines for the management of hypertension recommend the use of drugs with different mechanisms of action in antihypertensive regimens that include single-pill fixed-dose combinations of medications. There is some controversy regarding which single-pill fixed-dose combinations of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are effective at reducing blood pressure (BP). Methods Forty hypertensive patients who were receiving a single-pill fixed-dose combination of valsartan 80 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day or irbesartan 100 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two treatment groups, a group that changed to a single-pill fixed-dose combination of azilsartan 20 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day (changeover group) and a group that continued to receive valsartan 80 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day or irbesartan 100 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day (control group), and treated for 16 weeks. Results There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) or pulse rate (PR) at 16 weeks between the control and changeover groups. In addition, there were no significant changes in biochemical parameters throughout the study period in both groups. Conclusion The ability of a single-pill fixed-dose combination of azilsartan and amlodipine to reduce BP may be comparable to that of a combination of valsartan and amlodipine or irbesartan and amlodipine. PMID:27829955

  4. Efficacy and Safety of a Single-Pill Fixed-Dose Combination of Azilsartan and Amlodipine.

    PubMed

    Motozato, Kota; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Shiga, Yuhei; Kusumoto, Takaaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-12-01

    Guidelines for the management of hypertension recommend the use of drugs with different mechanisms of action in antihypertensive regimens that include single-pill fixed-dose combinations of medications. There is some controversy regarding which single-pill fixed-dose combinations of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are effective at reducing blood pressure (BP). Forty hypertensive patients who were receiving a single-pill fixed-dose combination of valsartan 80 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day or irbesartan 100 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two treatment groups, a group that changed to a single-pill fixed-dose combination of azilsartan 20 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day (changeover group) and a group that continued to receive valsartan 80 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day or irbesartan 100 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day (control group), and treated for 16 weeks. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) or pulse rate (PR) at 16 weeks between the control and changeover groups. In addition, there were no significant changes in biochemical parameters throughout the study period in both groups. The ability of a single-pill fixed-dose combination of azilsartan and amlodipine to reduce BP may be comparable to that of a combination of valsartan and amlodipine or irbesartan and amlodipine.

  5. Shexiang Baoxin pills promotes angiogenesis in myocardial infarction rats via up-regulation of 20-HETE-mediated endothelial progenitor cells mobilization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feifei; Liu, Yang; Yang, Xia; Che, Di; Qiu, Kaifeng; Hammock, Bruce D; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Mong-Heng; Chen, Jie; Huang, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis is a pivotal strategy for ischemic heart disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect and molecular mechanism of Shexiang Baoxin pills, a widely-used traditional Chinese medicine for ischemic heart disease, on angiogenesis in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). We used the occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery of Sprague-Dawley rats as a model of MI. The MI rats were treated with distilled water, Shexiang Baoxin pills, or Shexiang Baoxin pills + HET0016 (a selective blocker of the biosynthesis of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) at 10 mg/kg/day), respectively. Sham-operated rats were used as controls. Treatment with Shexiang Baoxin pills increases the level of serum 20-HETE in MI rats, which can be suppressed by HET0016 treatment. Shexiang Baoxin pills shows cardio-protective effects on MI rats, including improving cardiac function, decreasing infarction area, and promoting angiogenesis in peri-infarct area. The protective effects of Shexiang Baoxin pills are partly inhibited by HET0016. Furthermore, Shexiang Baoxin pills enhances the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and the expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), based on immunohistochemical analysis, in peri-infarct area of MI rats, which is partly suppressed by HET0016. Shexiang Baoxin pills may partially participate in angiogenesis in MI rats. The protective mechanism of Shexiang Baoxin pills may be mediated via up-regulation of 20-HETE, which promotes EPCs mobilization and VEGF expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Spectrum-Effect Relationship of GualouXiebai Dropping Pills on Myocardial Ischemia].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hai-yan; Zou, Chun-cai; Wei, Mei-ling; Yang, You-yun; Fei, Fu-qi; Xu, Xin-ying

    2015-09-01

    To study the relationship between HPLC characteristic spectrum and pharmacodynamics on anti-myocardial ischemia of GualouXiebai dropping pills. HPLC characteristic spectrum of GualouXiebai dropping pills was established, dropping pills were divided into five dose groups (3.75, 11.25, 22.5, 33.75 and 45 g/kg, equivalent to the crude herb g/kg), the mice were orally administered dropping pills once daily for 7 d, 90 min after the mice were given by intraperitoneal injection of isoprenaline to establish myocardial ischemia models, the level of CK in blood plasma were detected; Then, the correlation between characteristic spectrum and biochemical index CK was studied by grey relational analysis method. The correlation between each common peak and CK had gradually increased with the dose increased from 3.73 g/kg to 33.75 g/kg, but when the dose reached to 45 g/kg, the correlation between each common peak and CK had decreased. The variation trends of correlation of spectrum-effect relationship for different dose were similar,but the correlation variation trend of the efficacy on the No. 8 peak in 33.75 g/kg group with the other four groups in the opposite, the change trends of the No. 11 peak in 22.5 g/kg group, the No. 24 peak in 33. 75 g/kg group and the No. 37 peak in 45 g/ kg group with 3.75 g/kg group and 11.25 g/kg group on the contrary. The relational orders of spectrum-effect relationship were not consistent, respectively( the first 15 peaks) :11 > 37 > 24 > 30 > 8 > 21 > 2 > 16 > 1 > 3 > 20 > 15 > 12 > 19 > 7;11 > 37 > 30 > 8 > 21 > 24 > 2 > 1 > 16 > 3 > 27 > 12 > 22 > 20 >10; 8 > 30 > 1 > 2 > 21 > 27 > 31 > 22 > 16 > 12 > 3 > 10 > 9 > 20 > 4; 1 > 2 > 27 > 21 > 31 > 22 > 12 > 16 > 9 > 3 > 10 > 4 > 17 > 30 > 20; 8 > 30 > 1 > 2 > 2 > 2 > 7 > 31 > 22 > 16 > 12 > 3 > 9 > 10 > 20 > 17. Anti-myocardial ischemia effect of GualouXiebai dropping pills comes from the synergistic or antagonistic effect among various active ingredients related to the dose. With the

  7. Securing the AliEn File Catalogue - Enforcing authorization with accountable file operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, Steffen; Bagnasco, Stefano; Sankar Banerjee, Subho; Betev, Latchezar; Carminati, Federico; Vladimirovna Datskova, Olga; Furano, Fabrizio; Grigoras, Alina; Grigoras, Costin; Mendez Lorenzo, Patricia; Peters, Andreas Joachim; Saiz, Pablo; Zhu, Jianlin

    2011-12-01

    The AliEn Grid Services, as operated by the ALICE Collaboration in its global physics analysis grid framework, is based on a central File Catalogue together with a distributed set of storage systems and the possibility to register links to external data resources. This paper describes several identified vulnerabilities in the AliEn File Catalogue access protocol regarding fraud and unauthorized file alteration and presents a more secure and revised design: a new mechanism, called LFN Booking Table, is introduced in order to keep track of access authorization in the transient state of files entering or leaving the File Catalogue. Due to a simplification of the original Access Envelope mechanism for xrootd-protocol-based storage systems, fundamental computational improvements of the mechanism were achieved as well as an up to 50% reduction of the credential's size. By extending the access protocol with signed status messages from the underlying storage system, the File Catalogue receives trusted information about a file's size and checksum and the protocol is no longer dependent on client trust. Altogether, the revised design complies with atomic and consistent transactions and allows for accountable, authentic, and traceable file operations. This paper describes these changes as part and beyond the development of AliEn version 2.19.

  8. Sidi Ali Ou Azza (L4): A New Moroccan Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennaoui Aoudjehane, H.; Agee, C. B.; Aaranson, A.; Bouragaa, A.

    2016-08-01

    Sidi Ali Ou Azza is the latest meteorite fall in Morocco, it occurred on 28 July 2015 very close (about 40 km) to Tissint martian shergottite fall that occurred on 18 July 2011. It's one of the small group of 23 L4 ordinary chondrite falls.

  9. The ALI-ARMS Code for Modeling Atmospheric non-LTE Molecular Band Emissions: Current Status and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutepov, A. A.; Feofilov, A. G.; Manuilova, R. O.; Yankovsky, V. A.; Rezac, L.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    The Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) technique was developed in stellar astrophysics at the beginning of 1990s for solving the non-LTE radiative transfer problem in atomic lines and multiplets in stellar atmospheres. It was later successfully applied to modeling the non-LTE emissions and radiative cooling/heating in the vibrational-rotational bands of molecules in planetary atmospheres. Similar to the standard lambda iterations ALI operates with the matrices of minimal dimension. However, it provides higher convergence rate and stability due to removing from the iterating process the photons trapped in the optically thick line cores. In the current ALI-ARMS (ALI for Atmospheric Radiation and Molecular Spectra) code version additional acceleration of calculations is provided by utilizing the opacity distribution function (ODF) approach and "decoupling". The former allows replacing the band branches by single lines of special shape, whereas the latter treats non-linearity caused by strong near-resonant vibration-vibrational level coupling without additional linearizing the statistical equilibrium equations. Latest code application for the non-LTE diagnostics of the molecular band emissions of Earth's and Martian atmospheres as well as for the non-LTE IR cooling/heating calculations are discussed.

  10. [Effects of shoutai pills on expression of Th1/Th2 cytokine in maternal-fetal interface and pregnancy outcome].

    PubMed

    Lai, Maohua; You, Zhaoling; Ma, Hongxia; Lei, Lei; Lu, Fangguo; He, Dongmei; Liu, Huiping; Yin, Sheng

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate its mechanism of inducing the maternal-fetal immune tolerance by studying the effects of Shoutai pills on the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokine and pregnancy in maternal-fetal interface of mice with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). The normal pregnancy and RSA model were respectively induced with CBA/J x BALB/c and CBA/J x DBA/2. The mice with RSA were randomly divided into model group and low, middle and high dose groups of Shoutai pills. The mice were killed in 14 days after administration and embryo resorption rate was counted and their decidual and placental tissues were co-cultured to detect the expressions of IL-4, IL-10, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha with ELISA. The embryo resorption rate of the model group was significantly higher than the normal pregnancy, middle and high dose groups of Shoutai pills could decreased the embryo resorption rate of the mice with RSA (P < 0.05). All the doses in 3 groups of Shoutai pills could decreased the expression of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha (P < 0. 05) and there was no obvious difference between normal pregnancy group and all groups of Shoutai pills. Middle and high doses of Shoutai pills could increased the expression of IL-4 and IL-10 (P < 0.05) and there was no obvious differences between normal pregnancy and high dose group of Shoutai pills. The mechanism about Shoutai pills can change Th1 /Th2 cytokine towards Th2 bias, which induced the maternal-fetal immune tolerance.

  11. Other Factors That Affect Heart Disease: Birth Control Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Handbook for Women Other Factors That Affect Heart Disease Birth Control Pills Studies show that women who ... t had any more complications because of my heart disease." — Diane Pay attention to diabetes. Levels of glucose, ...

  12. Land cover mapping with emphasis to burnt area delineation using co-orbital ALI and Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, George P.; Kontoes, Charalambos C.; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the potential of EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) radiometer for land cover and especially burnt area mapping from a single image analysis is investigated. Co-orbital imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) was also utilised for comparison purposes. Both images were acquired shortly after the suppression of a fire occurred during the summer of 2009 North-East of Athens, the capital of Greece. The Maximum Likelihood (ML), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classifiers were parameterised and subsequently applied to the acquired satellite datasets. Evaluation of the land use/cover mapping accuracy was based on the error matrix statistics. Also, the McNemar test was used to evaluate the statistical significance of the differences between the approaches tested. Derived burnt area estimates were validated against the operationally deployed Services and Applications For Emergency Response (SAFER) Burnt Scar Mapping service. All classifiers applied to either ALI or TM imagery proved flexible enough to map land cover and also to extract the burnt area from other land surface types. The highest total classification accuracy and burnt area detection capability was returned from the application of SVMs to ALI data. This was due to the SVMs ability to identify an optimal separating hyperplane for best classes' separation that was able to better utilise ALI's advanced technological characteristics in comparison to those of TM sensor. This study is to our knowledge the first of its kind, effectively demonstrating the benefits of the combined application of SVMs to ALI data further implying that ALI technology may prove highly valuable in mapping burnt areas and land use/cover if it is incorporated into the development of Landsat 8 mission, planned to be launched in the coming years.

  13. BmAly Is an Important Factor in Meiotic Progression and Spermatid Differentiation in Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengjie; Zhong, Jinfeng; Cao, Guangli; Xue, Renyu; Gong, Chengliang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Drosophila melanogaster “ always early” gene ( Dmaly ), which is required for G2/M cell-cycle control and spermatid differentiation, is one of the meiotic arrest genes. To study the Bombyx mori aly gene ( Bmaly ), the cDNA of Bmaly was cloned and sequenced, and the results showed that the open reading frame of Bmaly is 1,713 bp in length, encoding 570 amino acid residues, in which a domain in an Rb-related pathway was found. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of conserved regions showed that Aly from different insects gathered together, except for DmAly and Culex quinquefasciatus Aly, which were not clustered to a subgroup according to insect order. The Bmaly gene was inserted into expression vector pGS-21a(+) and then the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and used to immunize mice to prepare the antibody against BmAly. Immunofluorescence examination showed that BmAly was distributed in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of BmN cell. The Bmaly gene expression could not be detected in the silk gland, malpighian tubule, fat body, or midgut of the silkworm. Expression levels of the Bmaly gene were detected in the gonadal tissues, where the levels in the testes were 10 times higher than that in the ovaries. Moreover, Bmaly expression was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction at different stages of B . mori testis development, at which fifth instar was relatively grossly expressed. The result suggested Bmaly was abundantly expressed in primary spermatocytes and prespermatids. To further explore the function of Bmaly , Bmaly siRNA was injected into third and fourth instar silkworm larvae, which markedly inhibited the development of sperm cells. These results together suggest that Bmaly is a meiotic arrest gene that plays an important role in spermatogenesis. PMID:25480974

  14. Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Koch, Iris; Sylvester, Steven; Lai, Vivian W.-M.

    2007-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) often contain significant levels of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills were analyzed to determine the concentration, bioaccessibility (arsenic fraction soluble in the human gastrointestinal system) and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic. Arsenic excretion in urine (including speciation) and facial hair were studied after a one-time ingestion. The pills contained arsenic in the form of realgar, and although the total arsenic that was present in a single pill was high (28 mg), the low bioaccessibility of this form of arsenic predicted that only 4% of it was available for absorption intomore » the bloodstream (1 mg of arsenic per pill). The species of arsenic that were solubilized were inorganic arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) but DMAA and MMAA were detected in urine. Two urinary arsenic excretion peaks were observed: an initial peak several (4-8) hours after ingestion corresponding to the excretion of predominantly As(III), and a larger peak at 14 h corresponding predominantly to DMAA and MMAA. No methylated As(III) species were observed. Facial hair analysis revealed that arsenic concentrations did not increase significantly as a result of the ingestion. Arsenic is incompletely soluble under human gastrointestinal conditions, and is metabolized from the inorganic to organic forms found in urine. Bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Facial hair as a bio-indicator should be further tested.« less

  15. Teaching through Trade Books: Roly-Poly Pill Bugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Emily; Ansberry, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Pill bugs, also called roly-polies, are small terrestrial isopods that are abundant in temperate areas throughout the world. Because they are engaging, harmless, and easily collected, they provide an excellent opportunity for children to learn about invertebrate body parts, behaviors, and information processing. This column includes activities…

  16. [Pharmacokinetics of magnolol and honokiol in Weichang'an pill].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Ling; Wang, Shu-Ping; Wang, Lei; Jin, Zhao-Xiang; Zhang, Jing-Ze; Chen, Hong; Gao, Wen-Yuan

    2016-05-01

    To conduct multiple-reaction monitoring(MRM) quantitative analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method, establish the quantification method of magnolol and honokiol in blood sample under negative ion mode with ibuprofen as internal standard, investigate the pharmacokinetic process of lignans constituents after oral administration of Weichang'an pill(WCA) at different doses, and provide theoretical basis to further reveal the material basis of WCA's anti-diarrhea effect. In the plasma samples, the linear relationship was good over the concentration range of 5.25 to 1 344.00 μg•L ⁻¹ for magnolol and 10.08 to 2 580.00 μg•L ⁻¹ for honokiol. The results of precision, stability, and extraction recovery tests showed that the determination method of plasma concentration for such compositions was stable and reliable. Dose-dependence was shown for magnolol and honokiol in the plasma concentration-time profile. The results indicated that the time to reach the maximum plasma concentration(Tmax) for lignanoids was 0.55-1.42 h, when the maximum plasma concentration(Cmax) could reach 996.36-2 330.96,189.87-1 469.43 μg•L ⁻¹ respectively for magnolol and honokiol. The lignanoids could be absorbed rapidly in the blood after oral administration of WAC pills, providing experimental basis to prove rapid and long-acting anti-diarrhea effect of WAC pills after oral administration. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Evaluating the practice of Iranian community pharmacists regarding oral contraceptive pills using simulated patients.

    PubMed

    Foroutan, Nazanin; Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    As oral contraceptive pills are available over the counter in pharmacies, pharmacists are professionally responsible for checking and informing patients about every aspect of taking these drugs. Simulated patient method is a new and robust way to evaluate professional performance of pharmacists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacy practice of Iranian pharmacists regarding over-the-counter use of oral contraceptive pills using simulated patient method. Simulated patients visited pharmacy with a prescription containing ciprofloxacin and asked for oral contraceptive pills. The pharmacist was expected to ask important questions for using these drugs and to inform the patient about them properly. Moreover, the Pharmacists should advise patients in regard to the possible interaction. Ninety four pharmacists participated in this study. In 24 (25.3%) visits, the liable pharmacist was not present at the time of purchase. Furthermore, In 13 (18.57 %) visits by the simulated patients, the liable pharmacists did not pay any attention to the simulated patients even when they asked for consultation. Twenty nine (41.43%) pharmacists did not ask any question during dispensing. Nausea was the most frequent described side effect by pharmacists (27 (38.57%)). Yet important adverse effects of oral contraceptive pills were not mentioned by the pharmacists except for few ones. Only twelve (17.14%) pharmacists mentioned the possible interaction. There was a significant relation between the pharmacists' gender and detection of possible interaction (p value= 0.048). The quality of the pharmacists' consultations regarding the over the counter use of oral contraceptive pills was not satisfactory and required improvement.

  18. 75 FR 2921 - In the Matter of the Designation of Said Ali al-Shihri, Also Known as Abu-Sayyaf, Also Known as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6872] In the Matter of the Designation of Said Ali al-Shihri... Known as Abu Sufian Kadhdhaab Matrook, Also Known as Sa'id Ali Jabir al-Khathim al-Shihri, Also Known as... January 23, 2003, I hereby determine that the individual known as Said Ali al- Shihri, and also known as...

  19. Mothers' attitude to the use of a combined oral contraceptive pill by their daughters for menstrual disorders or contraception.

    PubMed

    Yiu, K W; Chan, S Sc; Chung, T Kh

    2017-04-01

    Mothers' attitude may affect use of combined oral contraceptive pills by their daughters. We explored Chinese mothers' knowledge of and attitudes towards the use of combined oral contraceptive pills by their daughters for menstrual disorders or contraception, and evaluate the factors affecting their attitude. This survey was conducted from October 2012 to March 2013, and recruited Chinese women who attended a gynaecology clinic or accompanied their daughter to a gynaecology clinic, and who had one or more daughters aged 10 to 18 years. They completed a 41-item questionnaire to assess their knowledge of and attitude towards use of the combined oral contraceptive pills by their daughters. The demographic data of the mothers and their personal experience in using the pills were also collected. A total of 300 women with a mean age of 45.2 (standard deviation, 5.0) years completed the questionnaire. Only 58.3% of women reported that they had knowledge about the combined oral contraceptive pills; among them, a majority (63.3%) reported that their source of knowledge came from medical professionals. Of a total possible score of 22, their mean knowledge score for risk, side-effects, benefits, and contra-indications to use of combined oral contraceptive pills was only 5.0 (standard deviation, 4.7). If the medical recommendation to use an oral contraceptive was to manage their daughter's dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, acne, or contraception needs, 32.0%, 39.3%, 21.0% and 29.7%, respectively would accept this advice. Women who were an ever-user of combined oral contraceptive pills or who were more knowledgeable about combined oral contraceptives had a higher acceptance rate. Chinese women had a low acceptance level of using combined oral contraceptive pills as a legitimate treatment for their daughters. This was associated with lack of knowledge or a high degree of uncertainty about their risks and benefits. It is important that health caregivers provide up-to-date information

  20. 4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING TIMBER PILL APPROACH SPAN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING TIMBER PILL APPROACH SPAN AND BRIDGE IN OPEN POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Shaw's Cove Bridge, Spanning Shaw's Cove, New London, New London County, CT

  1. Comparative analysis of the alveolar macrophage proteome in ALI/ARDS patients between the exudative phase and recovery phase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite decades of extensive studies, the morbidity and mortality for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) remained high. Particularly, biomarkers essential for its early diagnosis and prognosis are lacking. Methods Recent studies suggest that alveolar macrophages (AMs) at the exudative phase of ALI/ARDS initiate, amplify and perpetuate inflammatory responses, while they resolve inflammation in the recovery phase to prevent further tissue injury and perpetuated inflammation in the lung. Therefore, proteins relevant to this functional switch could be valuable biomarkers for ALI/ARDS diagnosis and prognosis. We thus conducted comparative analysis of the AM proteome to assess its dynamic proteomic changes during ALI/ARDS progression and recovery. Results 135 proteins were characterized to be differentially expressed between AMs at the exudative and recovery phase. MALDI-TOF-MS and peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) analysis characterized 27 informative proteins, in which 17 proteins were found with a marked increase at the recovery phase, while the rest of 10 proteins were manifested by the significantly higher levels of expression at the exudative phase. Conclusions Given the role of above identified proteins played in the regulation of inflammatory responses, cell skeleton organization, oxidative stress, apoptosis and metabolism, they have the potential to serve as biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis in the setting of patients with ALI/ARDS. PMID:23773529

  2. Screening for the anti-inflammation quality markers of Xiaojin Pills based on HPLC-MS/MS method, COX-2 inhibition test and protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xi; He, Ya-Nan; Feng, Bi; Pan, Yuan; Zhang, Hai-Zhu; Ke, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Ming; Han, Li; Zhang, Ding-Kun

    2018-05-10

    Nowadays, breast disorders seriously affect women's health in an increasing number. In China, Xiaojin Pills are commonly used in the treatment of breast diseases. Doctors have concluded that the combined use of Xiaojin Pills with conventional therapy can significantly improve the efficacy with fewer side effects. However, the prescription of Xiaojin Pills is complicated and their quality control methods cannot completely ensure the quality of Xiaojin Pills. On the basis of its mechanism, our study combined chemical evaluation and biological evaluation to identify the anti-inflammatory markers of Xiaojin Pills. In this manuscript, 13 compounds in Xiaojin Pills were quantified. At the same time, the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition rates of different Xiaojin Pills were measured and the possible markers were screened by spectrum-effect relationship. Further, anti-inflammatory activities of markers were verified and protein interaction network was analyzed, identifying the components of Protocatechuate, Beta-Boswellic acid and Levistilide A as the anti-inflammatory quality markers of Xiaojin Pills. We hope our studies can provide a scientific theoretical basis for accurately quality control of Xiaojin Pills and reasonable suggestions for pharmaceutical companies and new ideas for the quality control of other medicines.

  3. Providers' knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of e-pills in government dispensaries of South district in delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Vertika; Misro, Man M; Nandan, Deoki

    2010-01-01

    South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills) were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. A descriptive epidemiological study. Both medical and paramedical (n = 428) providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively (P < 0.05) correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R(2) = 0.35). Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills.

  4. Oral contraceptive pills: Risky or protective in case of Trichinella spiralis infection?

    PubMed

    Hasby Saad, M A; Radi, D A; Hasby, E A

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how Trichinella spiralis infection can be affected by contraceptive pills in vivo. Methods included six groups of female Wistar rats; healthy, Trichinella infected, receiving combined contraceptive pills (COCPs), receiving progestin only pills (POPs), infected receiving COCPs and infected receiving POPs. Parasite burden was measured; adult worm counts, gravidity, larvae and reproductive capacity index). Histopathological examination, immunohistochemical detection of C-kit+ mast cells and Foxp3+ T-reg. cells in intestinal sections, eosinophils muscle infiltration and CPK level were performed. Rats infected and receiving COCPs showed a significant increase in parasitic burden, and infected receiving POPs showed a significant reduction compared to infected only, with a significant increase in nongravid females (Mean total worms=964.40±55.9, 742±52.63, 686±31.68, larvae/g=5030±198.75, 2490±143.18 and 4126±152,91, respectively). Intestinal sections from infected receiving COCPs showed intact mucosa (though the high inflammatory cells infiltrate), and significant increase in C-kit+ mast cells number and intensity (30.20±4.15 and 60.40±8.29), and Foxp3+ T-reg. cells (10±1.58). Infected receiving POPs showed a significantly less CPK (5886±574.40) and eosinophilic muscle infiltration (58±13.51). Oestrogen-containing pills established a favourable intestinal environment for Trichinella by enhancing Foxp+T-reg. cells and stabilizing C-kit+mast cells, while POPs gave a potential protection with less gravidity, larval burden and eosinophilic infiltrate. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Accumulation of mesalazine pills in the medium ileum in a patient with Crohn´s disease.

    PubMed

    Martínez Huertas, Carmen; Garcia-Villanova Ruiz, Paloma; Pozo Sánchez, José; Dávila Arias, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    Crohn´s disease is an inflammatory disease that can involve any portion of the gastrointestinal tract, although terminal ileum is the most commonly affected portion. It is characterized by a transmural and discontinuous distribution pattern, with alternating periods of active disease and remission. We present the case of a 23-year-old patient diagnosed with Crohn´s disease, in treatment with extended release Mesalazine and corticoids. The CT Enterography showed activity signs and a great dilatation of medium ileum with lots of Mesalazine pills accumulated inside. Pill accumulation occurred because of stenosis, which did not let the pills at this level progress to distal ileum, and be absorbed.

  6. A Pill to Treat People Exposed to Radioactive Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2018-01-16

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  7. Examining Reliability and Validity of an Online Score (ALiEM AIR) for Rating Free Open Access Medical Education Resources.

    PubMed

    Chan, Teresa Man-Yee; Grock, Andrew; Paddock, Michael; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Yarris, Lalena M; Lin, Michelle

    2016-12-01

    Since 2014, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) has used the Approved Instructional Resources (AIR) score to critically appraise online content. The primary goals of this study are to determine the interrater reliability (IRR) of the ALiEM AIR rating score and determine its correlation with expert educator gestalt. We also determine the minimum number of educator-raters needed to achieve acceptable reliability. Eight educators each rated 83 online educational posts with the ALiEM AIR scale. Items include accuracy, usage of evidence-based medicine, referencing, utility, and the Best Evidence in Emergency Medicine rating score. A generalizability study was conducted to determine IRR and rating variance contributions of facets such as rater, blogs, posts, and topic. A randomized selection of 40 blog posts previously rated through ALiEM AIR was then rated again by a blinded group of expert medical educators according to their gestalt. Their gestalt impression was subsequently correlated with the ALiEM AIR score. The IRR for the ALiEM AIR rating scale was 0.81 during the 6-month pilot period. Decision studies showed that at least 9 raters were required to achieve this reliability. Spearman correlations between mean AIR score and the mean expert gestalt ratings were 0.40 for recommendation for learners and 0.35 for their colleagues. The ALiEM AIR scale is a moderately to highly reliable, 5-question tool when used by medical educators for rating online resources. The score displays a fair correlation with expert educator gestalt in regard to the quality of the resources. The score displays a fair correlation with educator gestalt. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Birth Control Pills and Nonprofessional Voice: Acoustic Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that…

  9. Factors affecting the decision to hospitalise children admitted to the emergency department due to non-fatal suicide attempts by pills.

    PubMed

    Gokalp, Gamze; Anil, Murat; Bal, Alkan; Bicilioglu, Yuksel; Kamit Can, Fulya; Anil, Ayse Berna

    2016-01-01

    Suicide attempts (SAs) in the paediatric age group represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to examine the factors affecting the decision to hospitalize children with a diagnosis of non-fatal SA by pills. Children <18 years of age admitted with SA by pills during 2014 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups: Group-I comprised hospitalised patients and Group-II included those who were discharged from the PED. These two groups were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics recorded upon PED admission. A total of 196 patients were included in the study. The number of pills taken for self-poisoning in Group-I (median: 20 pills) was higher than that in Group-II (median: 12 pills) (p < 0.001), and the rate of pathological findings during the first paediatric psychiatric consultation was higher in Group-I (91.1%) than in the Group-II (54.8%) (p < 0.001). Factors affecting the disposition decision in cases of children who performed non-fatal SA via pills included the amount of medication taken for the suicide attempt and the presence of psychiatric disorders, as determined by a paediatric psychiatrist during the acute phase.

  10. "Every 'never' I ever said came true": transitions from opioid pills to heroin injecting.

    PubMed

    Mars, Sarah G; Bourgois, Philippe; Karandinos, George; Montero, Fernando; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This qualitative study documents the pathways to injecting heroin by users in Philadelphia and San Francisco before and during a pharmaceutical opioid pill epidemic. Data was collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews (conducted between 2010 and 2012) that were, conducted against a background of longer-term participant-observation, ethnographic studies of street-based drug users and dealers in Philadelphia (2007-12) and San Francisco (1994-2007, 2012). Philadelphia and San Francisco were selected for their contrasting political economies, immigration patterns and source type of heroin. In Philadelphia the ethnographers found heroin injectors, usually white users, who had started their opiate using careers with prescription opioids rather than transitioning from other drugs. In both Philadelphia and San Francisco, most of the young heroin injectors interviewed began, their drug-use trajectories with opioid pills--usually Percocet (oxycodone and acetaminophen), generic short acting oxycodone or, OxyContin (long-acting oxycodone)--before transitioning to heroin, usually by nasal inhalation (sniffing) or smoking at first, followed by injecting. While most of the Philadelphia users were born in the city or its suburbs and had started using both opioid pills and heroin there, many of the San Francisco users had initiated their pill and sometimes heroin use elsewhere and had migrated to the city from around the country. Nevertheless, patterns of transition of younger injectors were similar in both cities suggesting an evolving national pattern. In contrast, older users in both Philadelphia and San Francisco were more likely to have graduated to heroin injection from non-opiate drugs such as cannabis, methamphetamine and cocaine. Pharmaceutical opioid initiates typically reported switching to heroin for reasons of cost and ease-of-access to supply after becoming physically and emotionally dependent on opioid pills. Many expressed surprise and dismay at their

  11. Providers' Knowledge, Attitude and Dispensing Practices of E-Pills in Government Dispensaries of South District in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Vertika; Misro, Man M; Nandan, Deoki

    2010-01-01

    Background: South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills) were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. Study Design: A descriptive epidemiological study. Materials and Methods: Both medical and paramedical (n = 428) providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively (P < 0.05) correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R2 = 0.35). Conclusion: Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills. PMID:20606919

  12. Assessments of Ali, Dome A, and Summit Camp for mm-wave Observations Using MERRA-2 Reanalysis

    DOE PAGES

    Kuo, Chao -Lin

    2017-10-10

    NASA's latest MERRA-2 reanalysis of the modern satellite measurements has made atmospheric data easily accessible with unprecedented uniformity, fidelity, and completeness. In this paper, these data are used to evaluate five sites for millimeter-wave (mm-wave) observations. These include two established sites (South Pole and Chajnantor, Atacama), and three new sites (Ali in Tibet, Dome A in Antarctica, and Summit Camp in Greenland). Atmospheric properties including precipitable water vapor (PWV), sky brightness temperature fluctuations, and ice and liquid water paths are derived and compared. Dome A emerges to be the best among those evaluated, with PWV and fluctuations smaller than themore » second-best site, South Pole, by more than a factor of 2. It is found that the higher site in Ali (6100 m) is on par with Cerro Chajnantor (5612 m) in terms of transmission and stability. The lower site in Ali (5250 m) planned for the first stage of observations at 90/150 GHz provides conditions comparable to those on the Chajnantor Plateau. These analyses confirm Ali to be an excellent mm-wave site in the Northern Hemisphere that will complement well-established Southern sites. According to MERRA-2 data, the observing conditions at Summit Camp are also comparable to Cerro Chajnantor. Furthermore, it is more affected by the presence of liquid water clouds.« less

  13. Assessments of Ali, Dome A, and Summit Camp for mm-wave Observations Using MERRA-2 Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chao-Lin

    2017-10-01

    NASA’s latest MERRA-2 reanalysis of the modern satellite measurements has made atmospheric data easily accessible with unprecedented uniformity, fidelity, and completeness. In this paper, these data are used to evaluate five sites for millimeter-wave (mm-wave) observations. These include two established sites (South Pole and Chajnantor, Atacama), and three new sites (Ali in Tibet, Dome A in Antarctica, and Summit Camp in Greenland). Atmospheric properties including precipitable water vapor (PWV), sky brightness temperature fluctuations, and ice and liquid water paths are derived and compared. Dome A emerges to be the best among those evaluated, with PWV and fluctuations smaller than the second-best site, South Pole, by more than a factor of 2. It is found that the higher site in Ali (6100 m) is on par with Cerro Chajnantor (5612 m) in terms of transmission and stability. The lower site in Ali (5250 m) planned for the first stage of observations at 90/150 GHz provides conditions comparable to those on the Chajnantor Plateau. These analyses confirm Ali to be an excellent mm-wave site in the Northern Hemisphere that will complement well-established Southern sites. According to MERRA-2 data, the observing conditions at Summit Camp are also comparable to Cerro Chajnantor. However, it is more affected by the presence of liquid water clouds.

  14. Assessments of Ali, Dome A, and Summit Camp for mm-wave Observations Using MERRA-2 Reanalysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kuo, Chao -Lin

    NASA's latest MERRA-2 reanalysis of the modern satellite measurements has made atmospheric data easily accessible with unprecedented uniformity, fidelity, and completeness. In this paper, these data are used to evaluate five sites for millimeter-wave (mm-wave) observations. These include two established sites (South Pole and Chajnantor, Atacama), and three new sites (Ali in Tibet, Dome A in Antarctica, and Summit Camp in Greenland). Atmospheric properties including precipitable water vapor (PWV), sky brightness temperature fluctuations, and ice and liquid water paths are derived and compared. Dome A emerges to be the best among those evaluated, with PWV and fluctuations smaller than themore » second-best site, South Pole, by more than a factor of 2. It is found that the higher site in Ali (6100 m) is on par with Cerro Chajnantor (5612 m) in terms of transmission and stability. The lower site in Ali (5250 m) planned for the first stage of observations at 90/150 GHz provides conditions comparable to those on the Chajnantor Plateau. These analyses confirm Ali to be an excellent mm-wave site in the Northern Hemisphere that will complement well-established Southern sites. According to MERRA-2 data, the observing conditions at Summit Camp are also comparable to Cerro Chajnantor. Furthermore, it is more affected by the presence of liquid water clouds.« less

  15. Therapeutic effect of the compound Danshen dripping pill combined with laser acupoint irradiation on early diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui-Hui; Xiong, Guo-Xin; Zhang, Li-Ping

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of the compound Danshen dripping pill combined with laser acupoint irradiation on early diabetic retinopathy, 19 patients with early diabetic retinopathy were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group. The TaiYang, YangBai, YuYao and ZanZhu acupoints of patients in the treatment group were irradiated with a semiconductor laser combined with the oral compound Danshen dropping pills, while those in the control group only used the oral compound Danshen dropping pills. The indicators of vision, mean defect of light sensitivity in the visual field, renal function and fasting blood glucose, were examined to evaluate the efficacy. After treatment, the above indicators of patients in the two groups were significantly improved and there was a significant difference between the two groups. This showed that the compound Danshen dripping pills combined with the laser acupoint irradiation can improve the ischemic and anoxic state of early diabetic retinopathy and improve the visual field.

  16. A comparison of second and third generations combined oral contraceptive pills' effect on mood.

    PubMed

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Farshbaf Khalili, Azizeh; Ranjbar Kochaksaraei, Fatemeh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Gaza Banoi, Kamal; Nahaee, Jila; Bayati Payan, Somayeh

    2014-08-01

    Most women taking combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are satisfied with their contraceptive method. However, one of the most common reasons reported for discontinuation of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) is mood deterioration. This study aimed to compare effects of the second and third generation oral contraceptive pills on the mood of reproductive women. This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted in reproductive women at health centers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were randomized into the second and third generation oral contraceptive groups. Positive and negative moods were recorded using positive affect, negative affect scale (PANAS) tools at the end the second and fourth months of the study. Data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and P Values < 0.05 was considered significant. Statistically significant difference was seen in positive and negative mood changes in women receiving contraceptive pills. The second generation oral contraceptive pills resulted in a decrease in positive mood (95% CI: 43.39 to 38.32 in second month and 43.39 to 26.05 in four month) and increase in negative mood (95% CI: 14.23 to 22.04 in second month and 14.23 to 32.26 in four month - P < 0.001), but the third generation led to an increase in positive mood (95% CI: 22.42 to 25.60 in second month and 22.42 to 33.87 in four month) and decrease in negative mood (95% CI: 36.78 to 31.97 in second month and 36.78 to 22.65 in four month - P < 0.001). Third generation combined oral contraceptive pills have a better effect on mood in women in reproductive ages than the second generation pills. It can be recommended as a proper combined oral contraceptive in Iran.

  17. Using an Ingestible Telemetric Temperature Pill to Assess Gastrointestinal Temperature During Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bongers, Coen C.W.G.; Hopman, Maria T.E.; Eijsvogels, Thijs M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise results in an increase in core body temperature (Tc), which may reduce exercise performance and eventually can lead to the development of heat-related disorders. Therefore, accurate measurement of Tc during exercise is of great importance, especially in athletes who have to perform in challenging ambient conditions. In the current literature a number of methods have been described to measure the Tc (esophageal, external tympanic membrane, mouth or rectum). However, these methods are suboptimal to measure Tc during exercise since they are invasive, have a slow response or are influenced by environmental conditions. Studies described the use of an ingestible telemetric temperature pill as a reliable and valid method to assess gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi), which is a representative measurement of Tc. Therefore, the goal of this study was to provide a detailed description of the measurement of Tgi using an ingestible telemetric temperature pill. This study addresses important methodological factors that must be taken into account for an accurate measurement. It is recommended to read the instructions carefully in order to ensure that the ingestible telemetric temperature pill is a reliable method to assess Tgi at rest and during exercise. PMID:26485169

  18. Preoperative localization of intracranial lesions with MRI using marking pills.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Sumiya; Kunieda, Takeharu; Adachi, Hidemitsu; Ueno, Yasushi; Kohara, Nobuo; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2011-12-01

    To describe a simple technique for preoperative surface localization of intracranial lesions. 11 pills in total, including Alfarol (alfacalcidol) capsules, were affixed to a phantom with adhesive tape and a MRI scan was performed. The visibility of the pills and any spatial errors in determining their locations were evaluated. Between June 2006 and April 2009, we employed Alfarol capsules as a skin marker in MRI in clinical surgical cases. Alfarol capsules, whose actual size is 5.6 mm in diameter, were identified as a hyperintense spot at a size of 4.2, 4.2, and 4.5mm in diameter in T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) sequence images, respectively. The size discrepancies were within 1.4 mm. The average spatial errors were 0.7, 0.6, and 0.7 mm in T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and FLAIR sequence images, respectively. Other pills were not identified in the MRI scans. During this 35-month period, 8 patients underwent preoperative MRI-guided localization at our institution. There were 5 men and 3 women in whom 8 biopsies were performed. In all cases, the result of the biopsy was positive and useful for the treatment that followed. No perioperative complications were encountered. Alfarol capsule can be used as an external skin marker. Our simple and inexpensive method is a useful addition to preoperative evaluation of superficial intracranial lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Role of Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets in Treating Diabetic Complications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Yu, Jiangyi; Liu, Jingshun; An, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To observe the clinical prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets for type 2 diabetic vascular complications. Methods. It was a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial. 140 outpatients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into the treatment group and control group. The two groups were given basic therapy (management of blood sugar, blood pressure, etc.). Additionally, the treatment group was given Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets, while the control group was given Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets placebos. All subjects were followed up for consecutive 36 months and observed monthly. The clinical data as urinary microalbumin to urinary creatinine ratio (Umalb/cr), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), diabetic nephropathy (DN) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) prevalence, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, blood glucose, and blood pressure were collected and analyzed statistically. Results. After 36-month treatment, the Umalb/cr level and DN and DR prevalence in treatment group were all significantly lower than control group ( P < 0.05). However, the IMT level and the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events were not significantly different between the two groups ( P > 0.05). Conclusions. Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets are beneficial to diabetic microvascular complications, while the efficacy to diabetic macrovascular complications needs more observations.

  20. Differences in harm from legal BZP/TFMPP party pills between North Island and South Island users in New Zealand: a case of effective industry self-regulation?

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Chris; Sweetsur, Paul

    2010-01-01

    'Party' pills containing benzylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) were sold legally in New Zealand until early 2008. Prospective studies of hospital emergency department admissions appeared to suggest that the harm from party pills was greater among South Island than North Island users. The party pill industry association (the Social Tonics Association of New Zealand or STANZ) claimed these differences were due to the voluntary code of practice adopted by their members in the North Island. The aims of this study were to examine differences in harm from party pills between North and South Island users in New Zealand, and to investigate possible reasons for any differences in harm, including the impact of industry self-regulation. A national household survey of BZP/TFMPP party pill use was conducted in New Zealand. Information on the ingredients of party pills was provided by the National Poisons Centre. In a number of instances last year users of party pills from the South Island were more likely than last year users from the North Island to report harm from party pills. There were no differences between the North and South Island users with regard to the mean number of BZP/TFMPP party pills taken, mean total milligrams of BZP/TFMPP ingested or prevalence of use of other drug types in combination with party pills. A minority of users in the South Island reported using extremely high numbers of BZP/TFMPP party pills in a single session and using extremely high potency brands of party pills. Last year party pill users from the South Island were more likely than those from the North Island to be students. A number of factors may have contributed to the greater harm from BZP/TFMPP party pills among South Island users including a higher proportion of student users with higher consumption of alcohol and other drugs. Users from both Islands commonly exceeded the dosage of BZP/TFMPP recommended by STANZ suggesting the STANZ code of conduct was

  1. Quality evaluation of Shenmaidihuang Pills based on the chromatographic fingerprints and simultaneous determination of seven bioactive constituents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sifei; Zhang, Guangrui; Qiu, Ying; Wang, Xiaobo; Guo, Lihan; Zhao, Yanxin; Tong, Meng; Wei, Lan; Sun, Lixin

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish a comprehensive and practical quality evaluation system for Shenmaidihuang pills. A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection method was developed both for fingerprint analysis and quantitative determination. In fingerprint analysis, relative retention time and relative peak area were used to identify the common peaks in 18 samples for investigation. Twenty one peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of 18 Shenmaidihuang pills samples with different manufacture dates. Furthermore, similarity analysis was applied to evaluate the similarity of samples. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were also performed to evaluate the variation of Shenmaidihuang pills. In quantitative analysis, linear regressions, injection precisions, recovery, repeatability and sample stability were all tested and good results were obtained to simultaneously determine the seven identified compounds, namely, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, morroniside, loganin, paeonol, paeoniflorin, psoralen, isopsoralen in Shenmaidihuang pills. The contents of some analytes in different batches of samples indicated significant difference, especially for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. So, it was concluded that the chromatographic fingerprint method obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection associated with multiple compounds determination is a powerful and meaningful tool to comprehensively conduct the quality control of Shenmaidihuang pills. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Chromatographic fingerprinting through chemometric techniques for herbal slimming pills: A way of adulterant identification.

    PubMed

    Shekari, Nafiseh; Vosough, Maryam; Tabar Heidar, Kourosh

    2018-05-01

    In the current study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) fingerprinting of herbal slimming pills assisted by chemometric methods has been presented. Deconvolution of two-way chromatographic signals of nine herbal slimming pills into pure chromatographic and spectral patterns was performed. The peak clusters were resolved using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) by employing appropriate constraints. It was revealed that more useful chemical information about the composition of the slimming pills can be obtained by employing sophisticated GC-MS method coupled with proper chemometric tools yielding the extended number of identified constituents. The thorough fingerprinting of the complex mixtures proved the presence of some toxic or carcinogen components, such as toluene, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, styrene, itaconic anhydride, citraconic anhydride, trimethyl phosphate, phenol, pyrocatechol, p-propenylanisole and pyrogallol. In addition, some samples were shown to be adulterated with undeclared ingredients, including stimulants, anorexiant and laxatives such as phenolphthalein, amfepramone, caffeine and sibutramine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Role of Oral Contraceptive Pills on Increased Risk of Breast Cancer in Iranian Populations: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Soroush, Ali; Farshchian, Negin; Komasi, Saeid; Izadi, Neda; Amirifard, Nasrin; Shahmohammadi, Afshar

    2016-12-01

    Cancer is one of the main public health issues in the world. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among women. It is also the second cause of mortality in women. The association between the use of oral contraceptive pills and breast cancer is controversial and a main issue in public health. Some findings have shown that taking these pills does not have a significant effect in increasing the risk of breast cancer, while others have confirmed the carcinogenic effect of these products. These contradictory findings necessitated this meta-analysis, through of all correlated studies in Iran. All published studies were considered from June 2000 until June 2015, using reliable Latin databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, Google search, Scopus, and Science Direct, and Persian database like SID, Irandoc, IranMedex, and Magiran. Finally, 26 papers were selected: 24 studies were case control while two were population based studies. A total of 26 papers with 46,260 participants were assessed since 2001. Overall estimate of OR for the effect of oral contraceptive pills on breast cancer is 1.521 (CI = 1.25-1.85), which shows that the intervention group had more chance (52%) compared to the control group ( P = 0.001). Using these pills increased the risk of breast cancer up to 1.52 times. Because of directly increasing levels of estrogen and the role of estrogen in gaining weight indirectly, oral contraceptive pills can stimulate the occurrence of breast cancer. More studies should be conducted for controlling the period of pill use.

  4. Knowledge about missed contraceptive pills among married women at King Abdulaziz University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, Rahila; Aba Al Khail, Bahaa Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are one of the most reliable methods of contraception. However, lack of knowledge about oral contraceptive use and inconsistent pill-taking might result in decreased efficacy. The study reported here aimed to explore women’s knowledge about oral contraceptive use and assess the factors associated with knowledge about OCPs among users. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between April and June 2014. We included married, non-pregnant women >18 years old who had used a combined 21-day OCP for at least 3 months prior to recruitment. A questionnaire was used to collect the participants’ demographic information. It also assessed their knowledge about OCPs. Data were entered into and analyzed using SPSS software. Results A total of 357 women were recruited. Of these, 57.7% reported they knew what to do after missing one or two pills, but only 18.3% knew exactly what to do after missing more than two pills consecutively. Postgraduate women had a significantly higher knowledge score than illiterate women (P=0.002) and those who had completed at least primary education (P=0.001). Conversely, there was no difference in knowledge scores between Saudi and expatriate women (P=0.2). Monthly incomes (P=0.2) and mode of OCP selection (P=0.2) were also not significantly associated with knowledge scores. Conclusion Women had poor knowledge about OCP use. Appropriate measures should be taken to educate women about proper oral contraceptive use. PMID:25792813

  5. Pill testing or drug checking in Australia: Acceptability of service design features.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Monica J; Bruno, Raimondo; Ezard, Nadine; Ritter, Alison

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to determine design features of a drug-checking service that would be feasible, attractive and likely to be used by Australian festival and nightlife attendees. Web survey of 851 Australians reporting use of psychostimulants and/or hallucinogens and attendance at licensed venues past midnight and/or festivals in the past year (70% male; median age 23 years). A drug-checking service located at festivals or clubs would be used by 94%; a fixed-site service external to such events by 85%. Most (80%) were willing to wait an hour for their result. Almost all (94%) would not use a service if there was a possibility of arrest, and a majority (64%) would not use a service that did not provide individual feedback of results. Drug-checking results were only slightly more attractive if they provided comprehensive quantitative results compared with qualitative results of key ingredients. Most (93%) were willing to pay up to $5, and 68% up to $10, per test. One-third (33%) reported willingness to donate a whole dose for testing: they were more likely to be male, younger, less experienced, use drugs more frequently and attend venues/festivals less frequently. In this sample, festival- or club-based drug-checking services with low wait times and low cost appear broadly attractive under conditions of legal amnesty and individualised feedback. Quantitative analysis of ecstasy pills requiring surrender of a whole pill may appeal to a minority in Australia where pills are more expensive than elsewhere. [Barratt MJ, Bruno R, Ezard N, Ritter A. Pill testing or drug checking in Australia: Acceptability of service design features. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Ingestible Thermometer Pill Aids Athletes in Beating the Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Developed by Goddard Space Flight Center and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory to monitor the core body temperature of astronauts during space flight, the ingestible "thermometer pill" has a silicone-coated exterior, with a microbattery, a quartz crystal temperature sensor, a space-aged telemetry system, and microminiaturized circuitry on the interior.

  7. The mother of the pill.

    PubMed

    Djerassi, C

    1995-01-01

    The first synthesis of an active ingredient of the pill was performed on October 15, 1951, at Syntex in Mexico City. These preliminary results, obtained in late 1951, encouraged the submission of a synthetic progestin, norethindrone (19-nor-17alpha-ethynyltestosterone), to a number of outside investigators for more extensive biological scrutiny. Norethynodrel, together with many other steroids synthesized in the Searle laboratories, as well as Syntex's norethindrone, were examined by Pincus and collaborators for ovulation inhibition in animals and humans. Contrary to predictions, orally effective steroid ovulation inhibitors became the most widely used method of reversible birth control in most parts of the world some 40 years after their first synthesis. Toward the end of the 1960s, at least 13 international pharmaceutical companies (9 of them US) had active research and development programs dedicated to new advances in the field of contraception. Every drug to which a woman or man is exposed to for long periods of time (e.g., vaccines, systemic contraceptives, cholesterol-lowering agents, antihypertensives) in the end has to pass through large-scale postmarketing experiments. The most damaging was the requirement for 6-year toxicology in beagle dogs, which resulted in enormous development costs. Another setback was a 1986 judgment in Georgia against Ortho Pharmaceutical Company for the amount of $5,151,030 for alleged birth defects caused by the use of its spermicide Ortho-Gynol in spite of overwhelming epidemiological evidence against such a cause-effect relationship. Mifepristone (RU-486) is clearly the most significant new development in birth control as an important alternative to conventional abortion. A priority list of six new contraceptive methods for future development includes a spermicide with antiviral properties, a once-a-month menses inducer, a reliable ovulation predictor, easily reversible male sterilization, a male contraceptive pill, and an

  8. [Dissolution behavior of Fuzi Lizhong pill based on simultaneous determination of two components in Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mao-Yuan; Zhang, Zhen; Shi, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Fu, Chao-Mei; Lin, Xia; Liu, Yu-Mei

    2018-03-01

    To preliminarily investigate the dissolution behavior of Fuzi Lizhong pill, provide the basis for its quality control and lay foundation for in vivo dissolution behavior by determining the dissolution rate of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for simultaneous content determination of the two active ingredients of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid in Fuzi Lizhong pill was established; The dissolution amount of these two active ingredients in fifteen batches of Fuzi Lizhong pill from five manufacturers was obtained at different time points, and then the cumulative dissolution rate was calculated and cumulative dissolution curve was drawn. The similarity of cumulative dissolution curve of different batches was evaluated based on the same factory, and the similarity of cumulative dissolution curve of different factories was evaluated based on the same active ingredients. The dissolution model of Fuzi Lizhong pill based on two kinds of active ingredients was established by fitting with the dissolution data. The best dissolution medium was 0.25% sodium lauryl sulfate. The dissolution behavior of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid in Fuzi Lizhong pill was basically the same and sustained release in 48 h. Three batches of the factories (factory 2, factory 3, factory 4 and factory 5) appeared to be similar in dissolution behavior, indicating similarity in dissolution behavior in most factories. Two of the three batches from factory 1 appeared to be not similar in dissolution behavior of liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid. The dissolution data of the effective ingredients from different factories were same in fitting, and Weibull model was the best model in these batches. Fuzi Lizhong pill in 15 batches from 5 factories showed sustained release in 48 h, proving obviously slow releasing characteristics "pill is lenitive and keeps a long-time efficacy". The generally good dissolution behavior also suggested that quality of

  9. ALiEM Blog and Podcast Watch: Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Zaver, Fareen; Craddick, Michael; Sanford, Audrey; Sefa, Nana; Hughes, George; Lin, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    The WestJEM Blog and Podcast Watch presents high-quality open-access educational blogs and podcasts in emergency medicine based on the ongoing Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) Approved Instructional Resources (AIR) and AIR-Professional (Pro) series. Both series critically appraise open-access educational blogs and podcasts in EM using an objective scoring instrument. This installment of the blog and podcast watch series curated and scored relevant posts in the specific topic of toxicology emergencies from the AIR-Pro Series. The AIR-Pro Series is a continuously building curriculum covering a new subject area every two months. For each area, eight EM chief residents identify 3-5 advanced clinical questions. Using FOAMsearch.net and FOAMSearcher to search blogs and podcasts, relevant posts are scored by eight reviewers from the AIR-Pro editorial board, which is comprised of EM faculty and chief residents at various institutions across North America. The scoring instrument contains five measurement outcomes based on seven-point Likert scales: recency, accuracy, educational utility, evidence based, and references. The AIR-Pro label is awarded to posts with a score of ≥28 (out of 35) points. An "honorable mention" label is awarded if board members collectively felt that the blogs were valuable and the scores were > 25. A total of 31 blog posts and podcasts were included. Key educational pearls from the six high-quality AIR-Pro posts and four honorable mentions are summarized. The WestJEM ALiEM Blog and Podcast Watch series is based on the AIR and AIR-Pro Series, which attempts to identify high-quality educational content on open-access blogs and podcasts. This series provides an expert-based, crowdsourced approach towards critically appraising educational social media content for EM clinicians. This installment focuses on toxicology emergencies.

  10. ALiEM Blog and Podcast Watch: Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Zaver, Fareen; Craddick, Michael; Sanford, Audrey; Sefa, Nana; Hughes, George; Lin, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The WestJEM Blog and Podcast Watch presents high-quality open-access educational blogs and podcasts in emergency medicine based on the ongoing Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) Approved Instructional Resources (AIR) and AIR-Professional (Pro) series. Both series critically appraise open-access educational blogs and podcasts in EM using an objective scoring instrument. This installment of the blog and podcast watch series curated and scored relevant posts in the specific topic of toxicology emergencies from the AIR-Pro Series. Methods The AIR-Pro Series is a continuously building curriculum covering a new subject area every two months. For each area, eight EM chief residents identify 3–5 advanced clinical questions. Using FOAMsearch.net and FOAMSearcher to search blogs and podcasts, relevant posts are scored by eight reviewers from the AIR-Pro editorial board, which is comprised of EM faculty and chief residents at various institutions across North America. The scoring instrument contains five measurement outcomes based on seven-point Likert scales: recency, accuracy, educational utility, evidence based, and references. The AIR-Pro label is awarded to posts with a score of ≥28 (out of 35) points. An “honorable mention” label is awarded if board members collectively felt that the blogs were valuable and the scores were > 25. Results A total of 31 blog posts and podcasts were included. Key educational pearls from the six high-quality AIR-Pro posts and four honorable mentions are summarized. Conclusion The WestJEM ALiEM Blog and Podcast Watch series is based on the AIR and AIR-Pro Series, which attempts to identify high-quality educational content on open-access blogs and podcasts. This series provides an expert-based, crowdsourced approach towards critically appraising educational social media content for EM clinicians. This installment focuses on toxicology emergencies. PMID:29085545

  11. Comparing the effects of low-dose contraceptive pills to control dysfunctional uterine bleeding by oral and vaginal methods.

    PubMed

    Mehrabian, Ferdous; Abbassi, Fariba

    2013-09-01

    Background and Objective : Contraceptive pills are generally taken orally and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting and hypertension. The vaginal use of these pills can reduce such complications. Our objective was to compare the efficacy and side effects of low dose contraceptive pills by oral and vaginal route in the management of dysfunctional uterine bleeding-(DUB) Methods: This comparative observational study was conducted at Beheshti and Alzahra (SA) teaching hospitals, affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2010-2011. One hundred women who presented with DUB were randomly assigned into two groups of equal number, receiving the low dose oral contraceptive pills by oral or vaginal route for three month. The amount and duration of bleeding were compared at the beginning and at the end of the study and side effects by these two methods compared. The results of this study showed that both oral and vaginal routes effectively reduced the duration and amount of bleeding due to DUB after three courses of treatment. This effect was better in the vaginal method compared with oral administration (P = 0.03). Regarding the side effects, nausea and vomiting were significantly higher in the oral group than in the vaginal group (P = 0.03). Vulvovaginitis infection was more frequent in the vaginal group than in the oral group (P = 0.03). Low dose contraceptive pills are effective in reducing the amount, time, and duration of bleeding in patients with DUB. In addition, reduction of gastrointestinal side effects by vaginal route helps to use these pills by the patient with proper training of physicians, midwives and patients.

  12. The Role of Oral Contraceptive Pills on Increased Risk of Breast Cancer in Iranian Populations: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Soroush, Ali; Farshchian, Negin; Komasi, Saeid; Izadi, Neda; Amirifard, Nasrin; Shahmohammadi, Afshar

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is one of the main public health issues in the world. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among women. It is also the second cause of mortality in women. The association between the use of oral contraceptive pills and breast cancer is controversial and a main issue in public health. Some findings have shown that taking these pills does not have a significant effect in increasing the risk of breast cancer, while others have confirmed the carcinogenic effect of these products. These contradictory findings necessitated this meta-analysis, through of all correlated studies in Iran. Methods All published studies were considered from June 2000 until June 2015, using reliable Latin databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, Google search, Scopus, and Science Direct, and Persian database like SID, Irandoc, IranMedex, and Magiran. Finally, 26 papers were selected: 24 studies were case control while two were population based studies. A total of 26 papers with 46,260 participants were assessed since 2001. Results Overall estimate of OR for the effect of oral contraceptive pills on breast cancer is 1.521 (CI = 1.25–1.85), which shows that the intervention group had more chance (52%) compared to the control group (P = 0.001). Using these pills increased the risk of breast cancer up to 1.52 times. Conclusions Because of directly increasing levels of estrogen and the role of estrogen in gaining weight indirectly, oral contraceptive pills can stimulate the occurrence of breast cancer. More studies should be conducted for controlling the period of pill use. PMID:28053965

  13. Design and performance of a fast thermal response miniature Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill for use in a millikelvin cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, J.; Hardy, G.; Hepburn, I. D.

    2015-01-01

    The design and performance of a fast thermal response miniature (24 mm outer diameter by 30 mm long) Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill is described. The need for a fast thermal response has been driven by the development of a continuously operating millikelvin cryocooler (mKCC) which uses 2 T superconducting magnets that can be ramped to full field in 30 s. The consequence of magnetising and demagnetising the CPA pill in such a short time is that thermal boundary resistance and eddy current heating have a significant impact on the performance of the pill, which was investigated in detail using modelling. The complete design of a prototype CPA pill is described in this paper, including the methods used to minimise thermal boundary resistance and eddy current heating as well as the manufacturing and assembly processes. The performance of the prototype CPA pill operated from a 3.6 K bath is presented, demonstrating that a complete CPA cycle (magnetising, cooling to bath and demagnetising) can be accomplished in under 2.5 min, with magnetisation and demagnetisation taking just 30 s each. The cold finger base temperature of the prototype varies with demagnetisation speed as a consequence of eddy current heating; for a 30 s demagnetisation, a base temperature of 161 mK is obtained, whilst for a 5 min demagnetisation, a base temperature of 149 mK was measured (both from a 3.6 K and 2 T starting position). The measured hold times of the CPA pill at 200 mK, 300 mK, and 1 K are given, proving that the hold time far exceeds the recycle time and demonstrating the potential for continuous operation when two ADRs are used in a tandem configuration. The ease and speed at which the CPA pill temperature can be changed and controlled when stepping between operating temperatures in the range of 200 mK to 4 K using a servo control program is also shown, once again highlighting the excellent thermal response of the pill. All of the test results are in good agreement with the

  14. 'Worth the test?' Pragmatism, pill testing and drug policy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Groves, Andrew

    2018-04-10

    Recent deaths of young Australian music festival attendees from 'party-drug' overdoses have sparked debate about the effectiveness of drug policies. Australia is widely lauded for its harm minimisation approach to drugs, and yet, over the last 30 years, it can be argued its policies have been fragmented, sometimes inconsistent and contradictory. The present article examines the root of this inconsistency, using it as a foundation to advocate for drug policy reform. In keeping with the goals of the National Drug Strategy to promote policy innovation, there is an opportunity to learn from international studies which have shown promising findings in the reduction of party-drug use and its harms through application of pill testing. This paper evaluates Australia's National Drug Strategy and pill testing through a lens of pragmatism, to determine whether there is space for testing practices in contemporary policy. Specifically, the paper analyses current drug policy literature and research studies, examining a range of key drug use indicators, social and political debate and research evidence. The need for policy reform, attitudinal and cultural shifts and development of stronger cross-sectoral partnerships is highlighted, to ensure a rational and logical approach that genuinely tackles drug policy-making and strategy from a broad public health perspective. Using a theoretical frame of pragmatism and drawing from national and international research evidence, this paper recommends the integration of pill testing into Australia's harm minimisation strategy.

  15. Contraindications to progestin-only oral contraceptive pills among reproductive aged women

    PubMed Central

    White, Kari; Potter, Joseph E.; Hopkins, Kristine; Fernández, Leticia; Amastae, Jon; Grossman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background Progestin-only oral contraceptive pills (POPs) have fewer contraindications to use compared to combined pills. However, the overall prevalence of contraindications to POPs among reproductive aged women has not been assessed. Study Design We collected information on contraindications to POPs in two studies: 1) the Self-Screening Study, a sample of 1,267 reproductive aged women in the general population in El Paso, Texas, and 2) the Prospective Study of Oral Contraceptive (OC) Users, a sample of current OC users who obtained their pills in El Paso clinics (n=532) or over the counter (OTC) in Mexican pharmacies (n=514). In the Self-Screening Study, we also compared women’s self-assessment of contraindications using a checklist to a clinician’s evaluation. Results Only 1.6% of women in the Self-Screening Study were identified as having at least one contraindication to POPs. The sensitivity of the checklist for identifying women with at least one contraindication was 75.0% (95% CI: 50.6–90.4%), and the specificity was 99.4% (95% CI: 98.8–99.7%). In total, 0.6% of women in the Prospective Study of OC Users reported having any contraindication to POPs. There were no significant differences between clinic and OTC users. Conclusion The prevalence of contraindications to POPs was very low in these samples. POPs may be the best choice for the first OTC oral contraceptive in the US. PMID:22364816

  16. The effects of compound danshen dripping pills and human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplant after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Jun, Yi; Chunju, Yuan; Qi, Ai; Liuxia, Deng; Guolong, Yu

    2014-04-01

    The low frequency of survival of stem cells implanted in the myocardium after acute myocardial infarction may be caused by inflammation and oxidative stress in the myocardial microenvironment. We evaluated the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine, Compound Danshen Dripping Pills, on the cardiac microenvironment and cardiac function when used alone or in combination with human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplant after acute myocardial infarction. After surgically induced acute myocardial infarction, rabbits were treated with Compound Danshen Dripping Pills alone or in combination with human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplant. Evaluation included histology, measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening, leukocyte count, count of green fluorescent protein positive cells, superoxide dismutase activity, and malondialdehyde content. Combination treatment with Compound Danshen Dripping Pills and human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplant significantly increased the survival of implanted cells, inhibited cardiac cell apoptosis, decreased oxidative stress, decreased the inflammatory response, and improved cardiac function. Rabbits treated with either Compound Danshen Dripping Pills or human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells alone had improvement in these effects compared with untreated control rabbits. Combination therapy with Compound Danshen Dripping Pills and human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells may improve cardiac function and morphology after acute myocardial infarction.

  17. [Qilin Pills for idiopathic oligoasthenospermia: A multi-centered randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Mao, Jia-Ming; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Chuan-Hang; Ning, Ke-Qin; Liu, Ji-Hong; Yang, Shu-Wen; Li, Hai-Song; Zhou, Shao-Hu; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Xu, Ji-Xiu; Huang, Yong-Han

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Qilin Pills in the treatment of oligoasthenospermia in infertile men. This multi-centered randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial included 216 infertile males with oligoasthenospermia, 108 in the trial group and the other 108 in the control, the former treated with Qilin Pills at the dose of 6 g tid while the latter with Wuziyanzong Pills at 6 g bid, both for 12 weeks. We examined the total sperm count, sperm motility and the count of progressively motile sperm of the patients before and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after medication and evaluated the safety of the drug based on the adverse events and the laboratory results of blood and urine routine examinations and liver and kidney function tests. Compared with the baseline, the patients in the trial group showed a significant time-dependent improvement after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of medication in sperm motility (21.75% vs 27.54%, 29.04% and 32.95%, P <0.05), total sperm count (156.27 ×106 vs 177.33, 188.18 and 205.44 ×106, P <0.05), and the count of progressively motile sperm (32.08 ×10⁶/ml vs 46.33, 50.98 and 61.10 ×10⁶/ml, P <0.05). The three parameters above were also improved in the controls, but more significantly in the trial group (P <0.05). Qilin Pills can evidently improve the semen quality of oligoasthenospermia patients with no obvious adverse events.

  18. Annual limits on intake (ALI) values in ICRP 61 and 10 CFR Part 20 (1991)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhu, M.; Kearfott, K.J.

    The newest major revision of Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s 10 CFR Part 20 (1991) incorporates the new dose methodology system, revised limits, and improved internal dose computations presented in International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 (1979). A year before the issue of this revised 10 CFR Part 20, the ICRP dispatched Publication 61 (1990). This new ICRP report employed different dose limits, in addition to incorporating more recent biological information and variations in physiological and different tissue weighing factors for various organs. An investigation of the numerical differences in the Annual Limit on Intake (ALI) reported in this moremore » recent international regulations and those of the new regulations was thus undertaken. Overall means, medians, modes, maximum, minimum, and ranges of the percent changes are almost identical for ingestion and inhalation, although the percent difference between 10 CFR and ICRP Publication 61 showed minor differences for individual radionuclides. Approximately 334 of 1,351 radionuclides for inhalation and 173 of 771 radionuclides for ingestion have much less restrictive ALIs in the new ICRP recommendations than in the old, with some of those limits increased by at least a factor of two. Approximately 51% of the radionuclides for ingestion intake and 48% of radionuclides for inhalation intake showed changes of greater than 25%. The radionuclides observed to have much less restrictive ALIs are primarily the radionuclides of thorium, mercury, plutonium, uranium, and americium which have short effective clearance rates. While many countries have already applied the ICRP 61 recommendations to their radiation protection standards, using the ICRP 30 recommendation in the United States does not match the international standards even when the values of the ALIs are adjusted for differences in dose limits.« less

  19. Adult Literacy Information and Evaluation System (ALIES): Background, Status and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jacqueline; And Others

    This document describes the Adult Literacy Information and Evaluation System (ALIES), which is the management information system for New York City's citywide adult education program expansion effort begun in 1984. Chapter 1 describes the organization's creation in order to provide timely and reliable information to funders about the effects of the…

  20. Why Did My Doctor Prescribe Birth Control Pills for My Acne?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Why Did My Doctor Prescribe Birth Control Pills for My Acne? KidsHealth / For Teens / Why ...

  1. Endocytosis of the Aspartic Acid/Glutamic Acid Transporter Dip5 Is Triggered by Substrate-Dependent Recruitment of the Rsp5 Ubiquitin Ligase via the Arrestin-Like Protein Aly2 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Riko; Kamiya, Masao; Takahara, Terunao; Maeda, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    Endocytosis of nutrient transporters is stimulated under various conditions, such as elevated nutrient availability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, endocytosis is triggered by ubiquitination of transporters catalyzed by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5. However, how the ubiquitination is accelerated under certain conditions remains obscure. Here we demonstrate that closely related proteins Aly2/Art3 and Aly1/Art6, which are poorly characterized members of the arrestin-like protein family, mediate endocytosis of the aspartic acid/glutamic acid transporter Dip5. In aly2Δ cells, Dip5 is stabilized at the plasma membrane and is not endocytosed efficiently. Efficient ubiquitination of Dip5 is dependent on Aly2. aly1Δ cells also show deficiency in Dip5 endocytosis, although less remarkably than aly2Δ cells. Aly2 physically interacts in vivo with Rsp5 at its PY motif and also with Dip5, thus serving as an adaptor linking Rsp5 with Dip5 to achieve Dip5 ubiquitination. Importantly, the interaction between Aly2 and Dip5 is accelerated in response to elevated aspartic acid availability. This result indicates that the regulation of Dip5 endocytosis is accomplished by dynamic recruitment of Rsp5 via Aly2. PMID:20956561

  2. Stress field during early magmatism in the Ali Sabieh Dome, Djibouti, SE Afar rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sue, Christian; Le Gall, Bernard; Daoud, Ahmed Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    The so-called Ali Sabieh range, SE Afar rift, exhibits an atypical antiform structure occurring in the overall extensional tectonic context of the Afar triple junction. We dynamically analyzed the brittle deformation of this specific structural high using four different methods in order to better constrain the tectonic evolution of this key-area in the Afar depression. Paleostress inversions appear highly consistent using the four methods, which a posteriori validates this approach. Computed paleostress fields document two major signals: an early E-W extensional field, and a later transcurrent field, kinematically consistent with the previous one. The Ali Sabieh range may have evolved continuously during Oligo-Miocene times from large-scale extensional to transcurrent tectonism, as the result of probable local stress permutation between σ1 and σ2 stress axes.

  3. [Effect of compound Danshen dripping pills combined with atorvastatin on restenosis after angioplasty in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Song, Jieli; Zeng, Jinpei; Zhang, Yongxia; Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Lihong; Chen, Cibin

    2014-08-01

    To study the effect of compound Danshen dripping pills and atorvastatin on restenosis after abdominal aorta angioplasty in rabbits. Rabbit models of abdominal aorta restenosis after angioplasty were established and treated with saline (group A), compound Danshen dripping pills (group B), atorvastatin (group C), or compound Danshen dripping pills plus atorvastatin (group D). HE staining was used to determine the thickness of arterial intimal hyperplasia and assess the morphological changes of the narrowed artery. Immunohistochemistry was employed to detect the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Compared with group A, the 3 treatment groups showed significant increased vascular cavity area and reduced intimal area and percentage of intimal hyperplasia (P<0.05). The vascular cavity area, intimal area and percentage of intimal hyperplasia levels differed significantly between group D and groups B and C (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed a significant reduction of the expression rate of NF-κB and MCP-1 in the 3 treatment groups compared with group A (P<0.05), and the reduction was especially obvious in group D (P<0.05). Compound danshen dripping pills combined with atorvastatin produces better effects than the drugs used alone in inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in rabbits after abdominal aorta angioplasty possibly due to a decreased expression of MCP-1 as a result of NF-κB inhibition.

  4. Utilization of and Adherence to Oral Contraceptive Pills and Associated Disparities in the United States: A Baseline Assessment for the Impact of the Affordable Care Act of 2010.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsien-Chang; Lee, Hsiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sociological factors that may influence women's utilization of and adherence to oral contraceptive pills. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using the 2010-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Female adults aged 18-50 years were included. Logistic regression was performed to discern women's decisions to use oral contraceptive pills or not. Ordinary least squares and Poisson regressions were conducted to examine the number of oral contraceptive pills received, refill frequency, and annual out-of-pocket expenditure on oral contraceptive pills. Covariates were based on the Andersen model of health care utilization. Among the study sample (weighted n = 207,007,531), 14.8% were oral contraceptive pill users. Factors positively related to oral contraceptive pill use included non-Hispanic white ethnicity, younger age, not currently married, having private insurance, residing in the Midwest, higher education level, and higher annual family income. Being non-Hispanic white and having a higher education level were positively related to oral contraceptive pill adherence. Our findings therefore demonstrate disparities in oral contraceptive pill utilization and adherence, especially according to women's race/ethnicity and educational level. This study serves as a baseline assessment for the impact of the Affordable Care Act on oral contraceptive pill utilization and adherence for future studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    PubMed

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (p<0.01) and reduce cerebral infarct volume of focal cerebral ischemia rats remarkably (p<0.05-0.01). Meanwhile, each group could alleviate cerebral water content and cerebral index (p<0.05-0.01) and regulate oxidative stress of focal cerebral ischemia rats obviously (p<0.05-0.01). Activities of middle group corresponded with that treated with positive control drug. The results obtained here showed that Dragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. ALI (Autonomous Lunar Investigator): Revolutionary Approach to Exploring the Moon with Addressable Reconfigurable Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Rilee, M. L.; Floyd, S. R.

    2005-03-01

    Addressable Reconfigurable Technology (ART), conceived for future ANTS (Autonomous Nanotechnology Swarm) Architectures, is now implemented as Autonomous Lunar Investigator (ALI) rovers, a mission concept allowing autonomous exploration of the lunar farside and poles within 10 years.

  7. Nonempirical calculations of the structure and stability of ALi/sub 2k/ lithium clusters of group-two elements

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Klimenko, N.M.; Musaev, D.G.; Gorbik, A.A.

    Nonempirical Hartree-Fock calculations of the geometric and relative energetic characteristics of linear ALi/sub 2/ molecules and square ALi/sub 4/ molecules, where A = Be, Mg, Ca, and Zn, have been performed. The results for BeLi/sup +/, BeLi/sup 2/, BeLi/sub 4/, and MgLi/sub 2/ have been refined with consideration of the electron correlation in the framework of the theory of self-consistent electron pairs (SCEP). It has been shown that the stability of ALi/sub 2k/ increases with increasing size of the cluster and that the energy of the singlet-triplet transitions does not exceed 0.5-1.5 eV in all cases. The interactions between themore » atoms in the clusters have a cooperative character: the overlapping Q(Li-Li) between the Li atoms is no less significant than the overlapping Q(A-Li) between the Li atoms and the central atom A.« less

  8. Effect of progestin vs. combined oral contraceptive pills on lactation: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Espey, Eve; Ogburn, Tony; Leeman, Larry; Singh, Rameet; Schrader, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of progestin-only vs. combined hormonal contraceptive pills on rates of breastfeeding continuation in postpartum women. Secondary outcomes include infant growth parameters, contraceptive method continuation and patient satisfaction with breastfeeding and contraceptive method. Methods In this randomized controlled trial, postpartum breastfeeding women who desired oral contraceptives were assigned to progestin-only vs. combined hormonal contraceptive pills. At two and eight weeks postpartum, participants completed in-person questionnaires that assessed breastfeeding continuation and contraceptive use. Infant growth parameters including weight, length and head circumference were assessed at eight weeks postpartum. Telephone questionnaires assessing breastfeeding, contraceptive continuation and satisfaction were completed at 3-7 weeks and 4 and 6 months. Breastfeeding continuation was compared between groups using Cox proportional hazards regression. Differences in baseline demographic characteristics and in variables between the two intervention groups were compared using chi-square tests, Fisher’s Exact test, or two-sample t-tests as appropriate. Results Breastfeeding continuation rates, contraceptive continuation, and infant growth parameters did not differ between users of progestin-only and combined hormonal contraceptive pills. Infant formula supplementation and maternal perception of inadequate milk supply were associated with decreased rates of breastfeeding in both groups. Conclusions Choice of combined or progestin-only birth control pills administered two weeks postpartum did not adversely affect breastfeeding continuation. PMID:22143258

  9. A survey of bonobo (Pan paniscus) oral contraceptive pill use in North American zoos.

    PubMed

    Agnew, Mary K; Asa, Cheryl S; Clyde, Victoria L; Keller, Dominique L; Meinelt, Audra

    2016-09-01

    Contraception is an essential tool in reproductive management of captive species. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Reproductive Management Center (RMC) gathers data on contraception use and provides recommendations. Although apes have been given oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) for at least 30 years, there have been no published reports with basic information on why the pill is administered, formulations and brands used, and effects on physiology and behavior. Here, we report survey results characterizing OCP use in bonobos (Pan paniscus) housed in North American zoos, as well as information accumulated in the RMC's Contraception Database. Of 26 females treated, there have been no failures and nine reversals. The most commonly administered OCP formulation in bonobos contained ethinyl estradiol (EE) 35 μg/norethindrone 1 mg. Few females on combined oral contraceptives (COCs) were given a continuous active pill regimen; a hormone-free interval of at least 5 days was allowed in most. Crushing the pill and mixing with juice or food was common. Females on COCs seldom experienced breakthrough estrus or bleeding, while these conditions were sometimes observed for females on continuous COCs. All females on COCs exhibited some degree of perineal swelling, with a mean score of 3 or 3+ most commonly reported. Behavioral changes included less sexual behavior, dominant females becoming subordinate, and a negative effect on mood. No appreciable change in weight was noted. Taken together, these results indicate that OCPs are an effective and reversible contraceptive option for bonobos that can be used by zoos and sanctuaries to limit reproduction. Zoo Biol. 35:444-453, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Feminism, biomedicine and the 'reproductive destiny' of women in clinical texts on the birth control pill.

    PubMed

    Carson, Andrea

    2018-07-01

    The birth control pill is one of the most popular forms of contraception in North America and has been a key player in women's rights activism for over 50 years. In this paper, I conduct a feminist deconstructive analysis of 12 biomedical texts on the birth control pill, published between 1965 and 2016. This study is situated amongst the feminist scholarship that challenges the representation of women's bodies in biomedicine. Findings suggest that clinical texts on the birth control pill continue to universalise women's lives and experiences, and essentialise them based on their reproductive capacities. One way the texts accomplish this is by making women absent or passive in the literature thereby losing concern for the diversity of their lives, interpretations and identities as more than reproductive beings. The consequence of such representations is that biomedical texts disseminate limited forms of knowledge, in particular concerning definitions of 'natural' and 'normal' behaviour, with important consequences for the embodied experiences of women.

  11. Effects of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on cervical radiculopathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xue-Jun; Sun, Yue-Li; You, Sheng-Fu; Mo, Wen; Lu, Sheng; Shi, Qi; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2013-10-07

    Neck pain is a common symptom in most patients suffering from cervical radiculopathy. However, some conservative treatments are limited by their modest effectiveness. On the other hand, surgical intervention for cervical disc disorders is indicated when symptoms are refractory to conservative treatments and neurological symptoms are progressive. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. The purpose of the present study is to examine the efficacy and safety of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, for neck pain in patients with cervical radiculopathy. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Qishe Pill is proposed. The study will include 240 patients from five sites across China and diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy, according to the following inclusion criteria: age 18 to 65 with pain or stiffness in the neck for at least 2 weeks (neck disability index score 25 or more) and accompanying arm pain that radiates distally from the elbow. Qualified participants will be randomly allocated into two groups: Qishe Pill group and placebo group. The prescription of the trial medications (Qishe Pill/placebo) are 3.75 g each twice a day for 28 consecutive days. The primary outcome is pain severity. Secondary outcomes are functional status, patient satisfaction, and adverse events as reported in the trial. Qishe Pill is composed of processed Radix Astragali, Muscone, Szechuan Lovage Rhizome, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Ovientvine, and Calculus Bovis Artifactus. According to modern research and preparation standards, Qishe Pill is developed to improve on the various symptoms of cervical radiculopathy, especially for neck pain. As it has a potential benefit in treating patients with neck pain, we designed a double-blind, prospective, randomized-controlled trial and would like to publish the results and

  12. [Inhibitory effect of Biejiajian pills on HepG2 cell xenograft growth and expression of β-catenin and Tbx3 in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Wen, Bin; Sun, Hai-Tao; He, Song-Qi; LA, Lei; An, Hai-Yan; Pang, Jie

    2016-02-01

    To explore the molecular mechanism by which Biejiajian pills inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma in a nude mouse model bearing HepG2 cell xenograft. The inhibitory effect of Biejiajian pills on the growth of HepG2 cell xenograft in nude mice was observed. Immunohistochemical method was used to examine proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in HepG2 cell xenograft, and TUNEL method was employed to detect the cell apoptosis; the expression levels of β-catenin and Tbx3 were measured by Western blotting. Biejiajian pills significantly suppressed the growth of HepG2 cell xenograft in nude mice. The tumor-bearing mice treated with a high and a moderate dose of Biejiajian pills showed significantly increased apoptosis rate of the tumor cells [(22.9±1.220)% and (14.7±0.50)%, respectively] compared with the control group [(5.5±0.90)%, P<0.05]. Treatment with Biejiajian pills significantly decreased the expressions of PNCA, β-catenin, and Tbx3 in the cell xenograft (P<0.05). Biejiajian pills can inhibit the growth of HepG2 cell xenograft in nude mice and promote tumor cell apoptosis possibly by inhibiting PNCA expression and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  13. Remembering for tomorrow: Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Mustafa Abdalla M

    2013-01-01

    This is a highlight of the obituary ceremony in tribute to Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb (1910 – 1973), organized by the Medical Students Association of the Faculty of Medicine, the University of Khartoum (U of K). Professor Haseeb has been the first Sudanese Professor and first Dean of the Faculty of Medicine. He was an outstanding humane teacher, mentor and researcher, and was awarded the international Dr. Shousha Foundation Prize and Medal by the WHO. He was also an active citizen in public life and became Mayor of Omdurman City. The obituary ceremony reflected the feelings of the medical community and included speeches by Professor Abdalla El Tayeb, President of U of K; the Dean, Faculty of Medicine; the Late Professor Haseeb’s colleagues and students, His family representative, and an elegy poem. PMID:27493378

  14. Remembering for tomorrow: Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb.

    PubMed

    Salih, Mustafa Abdalla M

    2013-01-01

    This is a highlight of the obituary ceremony in tribute to Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb (1910 - 1973), organized by the Medical Students Association of the Faculty of Medicine, the University of Khartoum (U of K). Professor Haseeb has been the first Sudanese Professor and first Dean of the Faculty of Medicine. He was an outstanding humane teacher, mentor and researcher, and was awarded the international Dr. Shousha Foundation Prize and Medal by the WHO. He was also an active citizen in public life and became Mayor of Omdurman City. The obituary ceremony reflected the feelings of the medical community and included speeches by Professor Abdalla El Tayeb, President of U of K; the Dean, Faculty of Medicine; the Late Professor Haseeb's colleagues and students, His family representative, and an elegy poem.

  15. Unscheduled bleeding with continuous oral contraceptive pills: a comparison of progestin dose.

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Bliss; Edelman, Alison; Carlson, Nichole E; Nichols, Mark; Jensen, Jeffrey

    2012-07-01

    Although the use of continuous oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) eliminates scheduled uterine bleeding, unscheduled bleeding is common. The objective of this study was to determine whether progestin dose influences bleeding with use of continuous OCPs. This was a secondary data analysis of two other studies of continuous OCPs. Women were eligible if they were switching from a cyclic hormonal contraceptive to a continuous OCP. Women took a 20-mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE)/100-mcg levonorgestrel (LNG) pill or a 20-mcg EE/90-mcg LNG pill for 112 days. The number of bleeding/spotting days was compared between groups using a t test. Sample size was adequate to detect a difference of 8 days of bleeding/spotting over the 112 day study period (β=0.80, α=0.05). Sixty-six subjects were enrolled, 33 in each group. There were no differences in baseline characteristic, missed OCPs or side effects. There were no differences in the mean number of bleeding/spotting days in the first 84 days of the study (90 mcg LNG mean 20.8 (SE 3.6) days versus 100 mcg LNG 17.8 (SE 2.3) days, p=.48), nor was there a difference in the time to amenorrhea (p=.35). Our results do not support the use of one LNG dose over another to decrease the amount of unscheduled bleeding women experience when initiating a continuous OCP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Do fixed-dose combination pills or unit-of-use packaging improve adherence? A systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Jennie; Rafter, Natasha; Rodgers, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Adequate adherence to medication regimens is central to the successful treatment of communicable and noncommunicable disease. Fixed-dose combination pills and unit-of-use packaging are therapy-related interventions that are designed to simplify medication regimens and so potentially improve adherence. We conducted a systematic review of relevant randomized trials in order to quantify the effects of fixed-dose combination pills and unit-of-use packaging, compared with medications as usually presented, in terms of adherence to treatment and improved outcomes. Only 15 trials met the inclusion criteria; fixed-dose combination pills were investigated in three of these, while unit-of-use packaging was studied in 12 trials. The trials involved treatments for communicable diseases (n = 5), blood pressure lowering medications (n = 3), diabetic patients (n = 1), vitamin supplementation (n = 1) and management of multiple medications by the elderly (n = 5). The results of the trials suggested that there were trends towards improved adherence and/or clinical outcomes in all but three of the trials; this reached statistical significance in four out of seven trials reporting a clinically relevant or intermediate end-point, and in seven out of thirteen trials reporting medication adherence. Measures of outcome were, however, heterogeneous, and interpretation was further limited by methodological issues, particularly small sample size, short duration and loss to follow-up. Overall, the evidence suggests that fixed-dose combination pills and unit-of-use packaging are likely to improve adherence in a range of settings, but the limitations of the available evidence means that uncertainty remains about the size of these benefits. PMID:15654408

  17. Artichoke and milk thistle pills and syrups as sources of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; José Alves, Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-07-13

    Dietary supplements based on hepatoprotective plants have been increasingly used in the prevention of liver injuries. In the present work, the aim was to study the phenolic profile and possibly relate it to the in vitro antimicrobial activity of two different formulations (pills and syrups) of artichoke and milk thistle, the antioxidant and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activities of which were previously reported by our research group. The phenolic profiles were obtained by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, and the antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed with the clinical isolates of multiresistant bacteria (Escherichia coli, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Artichoke syrup revealed the presence of vanillic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucoside while the pills possessed higher concentrations of 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 1,3-O-dicaffeoylquinic acids, this latest being able to inhibit the growth of MRSA. Regarding milk thistle formulations, the syrup presented isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-dihexoside, isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-hexoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside as the major phenolic constituents whereas the pills were richer in taxifolin, silymarin derivatives and hydroxylated silibinin; the syrup revealed antimicrobial activity against all the studied bacteria with the exception of Proteus mirabilis whereas the pills revealed activity against ESBL producing Escherichia coli. Overall, all of the studied formulations revealed to be a good source of phenolic compounds, among which milk thistle syrup presented the highest variety and concentration of flavonoids, which is possibly related to its strongest antimicrobial activity.

  18. Birthing the Pill at the University of Vermont (1970-1976)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christmas, William A.; Schultz, J. Donald

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill in 1960 precipitated 2 decades of intense social change in the United States, particularly in the area of sexuality. Colleges and universities were not immune to these changes. The author examines the struggles at 1 land-grant university to find common ground on this issue among students, faculty,…

  19. [Regulation effects of liuwei dihuang pill, jingui shenqi pill, jiangu erxian pill containing serums on adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation-related genes expressions in the differentiation process of preadipocytes to osteoblasts].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhi-An; Han, Ling; Wei, Jian-An; Sun, Jing; Duan, Xiao-Dong

    2013-02-01

    To study the effects of Chinese medical recipes for invigorating Shen on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)-derived preadipocytes' differentiation to osteoblasts. The BMSCs were cultured using whole bone marrow adherence wall method. The BMSCs were induced to preadipocytes by classic chemical method. The osteogenic differentiation process of preadipocytes was intervened by Liuwei Dihuang Pill (LDP), Jingui Shenqi Pill (JSP), or Jiangu Erxian Pill (JEP)-containing serums (with the concentRation of 10%, on behalf of tonifying Shen yin, tonifying Shen yang, and tonifying Shen essence). Reverse transcription-real time fluorescent quantitative-PCR (RT real time qPCR) was used to detect RUNX2, ALP, BGP, BMP2, BMP4, SPP1, and IGF1 mRNA expressions of osteogenic differentiation-related genes, mRNA expressions of LPL, FABP4, and PPARgamma of adipogenic differentiation-related genes on the 6th, the 12th, and the 18th day. As for the osteogenic differentiation-related gene, when compared with the control group, there was no statistical difference in the gene expression level in the experimental groups on the 6th day (2.0 > Ratio > 0.5). On the 12th day, the mRNA expressions of IGF1 and Runx2 increased more significantly in the JSP group, with their relative quantification (Ratio) being 2.97 and 1.81 respectively. On the 18th day the IGF1 mRNA expression significantly increased, being the Ratio value of 3.74, 12.60, and 8.35, respectively, in the LDP group, the JSP group, and the JEP group. The SPP1 mRNA expression also significantly increased, with the Ratio value of 2.94, 3.18, and 2.62, respectively, in the LDP group, the JSP group, and the JEP group. As for adipogenic differentiation-related genes, on the 6th day, when compared with the control group, FABP4 mRNA expression significantly decreased in the LDP group and the JSP group (with the Ratio value of 0.47 and 0.40 respectively). The expression levels of other genes were all down-regulated, but not

  20. Comparison of combined hormonal vaginal ring and low dose combined oral hormonal pill for the treatment of idiopathic chronic pelvic pain: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Priya, Khushboo; Rajaram, Shalini; Goel, Neerja

    2016-12-01

    To compare the efficacy and acceptability of combined hormonal vaginal ring with combined oral hormonal pill in women with idiopathic chronic pelvic pain. Randomised prospective interventional trial conducted in 60 women with idiopathic chronic pelvic pain. Women were randomised into two groups of 30 each. In each group, treatment was given for 84 days using either combined vaginal ring or combined oral hormonal pill. Hormonal vaginal ring releases 15mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 120mcg of the etonogestrel per day while the hormonal pill contained 30mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 150mcg of levonorgestrel. There was no ring or pill free week. After every 28 days, pain relief was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS), and verbal rating score (VRS) calculated by summing dysmenorrhea, non-cyclic pelvic pain (NCCP) and deep dyspareunia scores. Side effects, compliance, satisfaction, and user acceptability were also measured. Data was analyzed using various parametric and non-parametric tests. Reduction in mean VAS score at end of treatment in ring group was 6.23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.45-7.01; p<0.001) as compared to 5.53 in pill group (95% CI, 4.83-6.23; p<0.001). Reduction in mean VRS score was 5.63 in ring users (95% CI, 4.84-6.42; p<0.001) versus 4.36 in pill users (95% CI, 3.63-5.10; p<0.001). A significantly higher persistent relief in NCPP score was observed in vaginal ring group as compared to oral pill group at end of one month after stopping treatment. Compliance, satisfaction, and user acceptability were higher in ring users (80%) than pill users (70%) and a higher incidence of nausea was seen in pill group. Present study demonstrates for first time that both vaginal and oral hormonal therapy are effective in treatment of idiopathic chronic pelvic pain and vaginal ring may be a better choice with higher satisfaction rate and fewer side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Emergency contraceptive pills as a backup for lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) of contraception: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Omar M; Hassen, Shaimaa G; Nour, Sanna A; Kames, Mervat A; Yones, Entsar M

    2013-03-01

    The use of breastfeeding as a method of birth spacing occasionally ends in "unplanned pregnancy." This is due to unexpected expiration of one or more of the lactation amenorrhea method (LAM) prerequisites. The current study tests a new concept that the in-advance provision of single packet of progestogen emergency contraception (EC) pills during the postpartum LAM counseling may decrease the incidence of unplanned pregnancy during breastfeeding. This was a registered two-armed randomized controlled trial (NCT 01111929). Women intending to breastfeed and to postpone pregnancy for 1 year or more were approached. They received adequate postpartum contraceptive counseling. Women intending to use LAM were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The LAM-only group received the proper LAM counseling and did not receive counseling about EC. The LAM-EC group received counseling for both LAM and EC with in-advance provision of one packet of EC pills. They were advised to use these pills if one of the prerequisites of LAM expires and sexual relation has occurred before the initiation of another regular contraceptive protection. All the participants were advised that they need to use another regular method upon expiration of any of the LAM prerequisites. Eligible women were 1158 parturients randomized into two equal groups. Forty-four percent of the women provided with EC used them. Significantly more women in the LAM-EC group initiated regular contraception within or shortly after the first 6 months postpartum when compared with those in the LAM-only group (30.5% vs. 7.3%, respectively; p=.0004). Pregnancy occurred in 5% of the LAM-only group as compared with 0.8% in the LAM-EC group (p=.005). Minimal side effects were reported after EC use. In-advance provision of EC pills can increase the rate of initiation of regular contraception once one or more of the prerequisites of LAM expire. Consequently, the use of EC pills as a temporary backup of LAM can decrease the incidence

  2. Pretreatment advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI) for predicting early progression in nivolumab-treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shiroyama, Takayuki; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tamiya, Motohiro; Tamiya, Akihiro; Tanaka, Ayako; Okamoto, Norio; Nakahama, Kenji; Taniguchi, Yoshihiko; Isa, Shun-Ichi; Inoue, Takako; Imamura, Fumio; Atagi, Shinji; Hirashima, Tomonori

    2018-01-01

    Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression status is inadequate for indicating nivolumab in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because the baseline advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI) is reportedly associated with patient outcomes, we investigated whether the pretreatment ALI is prognostic in NSCLC patients treated with nivolumab. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients treated with nivolumab for advanced NSCLC between December 2015 and May 2016 at three Japanese institutes. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the impact of the pretreatment ALI (and other inflammation-related parameters) on progression-free survival (PFS) and early progression (i.e., within 8 weeks after starting nivolumab). A total of 201 patients were analyzed; their median age was 68 years (range, 27-87 years), 67% were men, and 24% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 2 or higher. An ECOG performance status ≥2, serum albumin <3.7 g/dL, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥4, and ALI <18 were significantly associated with poor PFS and early progression on univariate analysis. Multivariate analyses revealed that pretreatment ALI <18 was independently associated with inferior PFS (median, 1.4 vs. 3.7 months, P < 0.001) and a higher likelihood of early progression (odds ratio, 2.76; 95% confidence interval 1.44-5.34; P = 0.002). The pretreatment ALI was found to be a significant independent predictor of early progression in patients with advanced NSCLC receiving nivolumab, and may help identify patients likely to benefit from continued nivolumab treatment in routine clinical practice. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. 40 CFR 721.9527 - Bis(1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-piperidin-4-ol) ester of cy-clo-ali-phatic spiroketal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bis(1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-piperidin-4-ol) ester of cy-clo-ali-phatic spiroketal. 721.9527 Section 721.9527 Protection of Environment...-piperidin-4-ol) ester of cy-clo-ali-phatic spiroketal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...

  4. Serum metabolomics strategy for understanding pharmacological effects of ShenQi pill acting on kidney yang deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yang; Zhou, Xiaohang; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Aihua; Guan, Yu; Lin, Shanhua; Kong, Ling; Han, Ying; Wang, Xijun

    2016-07-15

    Kidney yang deficiency syndrome, a diagnostic pattern in Chinese medicine, is similar with clinical features of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. The aim of this present study was to explore low molecular mass differentiating metabolites between control group and model group of kidney yang deficiency rats induced with corticosterone as well as the therapeutic effect of Shen Qi Pill, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula for treating Kidney yang deficiency syndrome in China. This study utilized ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization synapt quadrupole time-of-flight high definition mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-SYNAPT-QTOF-HDMS) to identify the underlying biomarkers for clarifying mechanism of Shen Qi Pill in treating Kidney yang deficiency syndrome based on metabolite profiling of the serum samples and in conjunction with multivariate and pathway analysis. Meanwhile, blood biochemistry assay and histopathology were examined to identify specific changes in the model group rats. Distinct changes in the pattern of metabolites were observed by UPLC-HDMS. The changes in metabolic profiling were restored to their baseline values after treatment with Shen Qi Pill according to the combined with a principal component analysis (PCA) score plots. Altogether, the current metabolomics approach based on UPLC-HDMS and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) demonstrated 27 ions (18 in the negative mode, 9 in the positive mode, 17 ions restored by Shen Qi Pill). These results indicated that effectiveness of Shen Qi Pill in Kidney yang deficiency syndrome rats induced a substantial change in the metabolic profiles by regulating the biomarkers and adjusting the metabolic disorder. It suggested that the metabolomics approach was a powerful approach for elucidation of pathologic changes of Chinese medicine syndrome and action mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  5. The Effect on Treatment Adherence of Administering Drugs as Fixed-Dose Combinations versus as Separate Pills: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    van Galen, Katy A; Nellen, Jeannine F; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T

    2014-01-01

    Administering drugs as fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) versus the same active drugs administered as separate pills is assumed to enhance treatment adherence. We synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effect of FDCs versus separate pills on adherence. We searched PubMed for RCTs comparing a FDC with the same active drugs administered as separate pills, including a quantitative estimate of treatment adherence, without restriction to medical condition. The odds ratio (OR) of optimal adherence with FDCs versus separate pills was used as common effect size and aggregated into a pooled effect estimate using a random effect model with inverse variance weights. Out of 1258 articles screened, only six studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Across medical conditions, administering drugs as FDC significantly increased the likelihood of optimal adherence (OR 1.33 (95% CI, 1.03-1.71)). Within subgroups of specific medical conditions, the favourable effect of FDCs on adherence was of borderline statistical significance for HIV infection only (OR 1.46 (95% CI, 1.00-2.13)). We observed a remarkable paucity of RCTs comparing the effect on adherence of administering drugs as FDC versus as separate pills. Administering drugs as FDC improved medication adherence. However, this conclusion is based on a limited number of RCTs only.

  6. An Approach to the Stories of Sabahattin Ali within the Context of Marxist Literary Aesthetics: The Conflict between Peasants and the Intelligentsia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yigit, Murat

    2016-01-01

    This study will try to read the stories of Sabahattin Ali, who has written various books in Turkish, within the context of Marxist literary aesthetics, assess the types and characters in the stories of Sabahattin Ali within that framework, and observe the social levels and the gaps between them based on the relationships between the two extreme…

  7. Zhenbao pill protects against acute spinal cord injury via miR-146a-5p regulating the expression of GPR17

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Bokang; Huan, Yanqiang; Liu, Bin; Li, Yutang; Jia, Lizhou; Qu, Chenhui; Wang, Dongsheng; Yu, Hai

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of zhenbao pill on the motor function of acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) rats and the molecular mechanisms involving miR-146a-5p and G-protein-coupled receptor 17 (GPR17). ASCI rat model was established by modified Allen method, and then the rats were divided into three groups. SH-SY5Y cells were cultured overnight in hypoxia condition and transfected with miR-146a-5p mimic or miR-146a-5p inhibitor. The hind limb motor function of the rats was evaluated by Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scoring system. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the expression of miR-146a-5p, GPR17, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Neuronal apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry assay. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the regulation of miR-146a-5p on GPR17. Zhenbao pill could enhance hind limb motor function and attenuate the inflammatory response caused by ASCI. Moreover, zhenbao pill increased the level of miR-146a-5p and decreased GPR17 expression in vivo and in vitro. Bioinformatics software predicted that GPR17 3′-UTR had a binding site with miR-146a-5p. Luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-146a-5p had a negative regulatory effect on GPR17 expression. Knockdown of miR-146a-5p could reverse the effect of zhenbao pill on the up-regulation of GPR17 induced by hypoxia, reversed the inhibitory effect of zhenbao pill on the cell apoptosis induced by hypoxia and the recovery of zhenbao pill on hind limb motor function in ASCI rats. Zhenbao pill could inhibit neuronal apoptosis by regulating miR-146a-5p/GPR17 expression, and then promoting the recovery of spinal cord function. PMID:29187582

  8. Abraham Lincoln's blue pills. Did our 16th president suffer from mercury poisoning?

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, N; Feldman, R G; Greaves, I A

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that Abraham Lincoln took a medicine called "blue mass" or "blue pill," commonly prescribed in the 19th century. What is now hardly known is that the main ingredient of blue mass was finely dispersed elemental mercury. As his friends understood, mercury was often prescribed for melancholy or "hypochondriasis," a condition Lincoln famously endured. Mercury in the form of the blue pill is a potential neurotoxin, which we have demonstrated by recreating and testing the recipe. We present the testimony of many of Lincoln's contemporaries to suggest that Lincoln suffered the neurobehavioural consequences of mercury intoxication but, perhaps crucial to history, before the main years of his presidency; he was astute enough to recognize the effects and stop the medication soon after his inauguration.

  9. The Power of the Pill for the Next Generation: Oral Contraception’s Effects on Fertility, Abortion, and Maternal & Child Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Hungerman, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how oral contraception’s diffusion to young unmarried women affected the number and parental characteristics of children born to these women. In the short-term, pill access caused declines in fertility and increases in both the share of children born with low birthweight and the share born to poor households. In the long-term, access led to negligible changes in fertility while increasing the share of children with college-educated mothers and decreasing the share with divorced mothers. The short-term effects appear to be driven by upwardly-mobile women opting out of early childbearing while the long-term effects appear to be driven by a retiming of births to later ages. These effects differ from those of abortion legalization, although we find suggestive evidence that pill diffusion lowered abortions. Our results suggest that abortion and the pill are on average used for different purposes by different women, but on the margin some women substitute from abortion towards the pill when both are available. JELNo. I0, J13, N12. PMID:22389533

  10. Seasonal abundance and activity of pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) in mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest of southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwini, Krishna M.; Sridhar, Kandikere R.

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence and activity of endemic pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) were examined in organically managed mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest reserve in southwest India between November 1996 and September 1998. Abundance and biomass of millipedes were highest in both habitats during monsoon season. Soil moisture, conductivity, organic carbon, phosphate, potassium, calcium and magnesium were higher in plantation than in forest. Millipede abundance and biomass were about 12 and 7 times higher in plantation than in forest, respectively ( P < 0.001). Their biomass increased during post-monsoon, summer and monsoon in the plantation ( P < 0.001), but not in forest ( P > 0.05). Millipede abundance and biomass were positively correlated with rainfall ( P = 0.01). Besides rainfall, millipedes in plantation were positively correlated with soil moisture as well as temperature ( P = 0.001). Among the associated fauna with pill millipedes, earthworms rank first followed by soil bugs in both habitats. Since pill millipedes are sensitive to narrow ecological changes, the organic farming strategies followed in mixed plantation and commonly practiced in South India seem not deleterious for the endangered pill millipedes Arthrosphaera and reduce the risk of local extinctions.

  11. 'Stratified Contraception': Emergency Contraceptive Pills and Women's Differential Experiences in Contemporary India.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Nayantara

    2015-01-01

    Available without prescriptions in India since 2005, emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) and their advertisements have provided women with increased contraceptive options and a vocabulary to talk about their reproductive lives. I draw on long-term fieldwork with women in urban India about ECPs, demonstrating a new form of 'stratified contraception' enabled by these pills and their advertisements. I posit that there are within India spaces that replicate the luxuries and privileges of the global North. These material conditions, I suggest, are replicated when it comes to contraception as there are hubs of women consumers of contraception and contraceptive advertising that participate in an 'imagined cosmopolitanism' within the global South in close proximity to 'contraceptive ghettos.' Moving beyond simplistic binaries, I outline three major stratifications along which women experience this medical technology and outline the implications for women and their contraceptive choices when notions of northern privilege exist in the 'South.'

  12. Physiologic and psychologic symptoms associated with use of injectable contraception and 20 microg oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Abbey B; Odom, Susan D; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2008-10-01

    The objective of the study was to compare menstrual, physiologic, and psychologic symptoms over 2 years among women initiating use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate or an oral contraceptive pill with a reduced pill-free interval and those not using hormonal contraception. A total of 608 women reported their experience regarding 17 symptoms prior to initiating contraception and every 6 months thereafter for 24 months. Longitudinal relationships between symptoms and contraceptives were assessed after adjusting for age, visits, and baseline status of symptoms. Oral contraceptive pills were protective against mastalgia (odds ratio [OR], 0.7), cramping (OR, 0.5), hair loss (OR, 0.6), acne (OR, 0.4), nervousness (OR, 0.5), and mood swings (OR, 0.7). Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) was protective against bloating (OR, 0.5) and mood swings (OR, 0.7) but caused weight gain (OR, 2.3), bleeding episodes more than 20 days (OR, 13.4), and missed periods (OR, 96.9). Both methods caused intermenstrual bleeding. Evidence-based data regarding beneficial and adverse symptoms associated with these methods may help clinicians counsel patients appropriately prior to contraceptive initiation.

  13. Reaching the end of the line: Operational issues with implementing phone-based unannounced pill counts in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Hirsch-Moverman, Yael; Burkot, Camilla; Saito, Suzue; Frederix, Koen; Pitt, Blanche; Melaku, Zenebe; Gadisa, Tsigereda; Howard, Andrea A

    2017-01-01

    Accurate measurement of adherence is necessary to ensure that therapeutic outcomes can be attributed to the recommended treatment. Phone-based unannounced pill counts were shown to be feasible and reliable measures of adherence in developed settings; and have been further used as part of medication adherence interventions. However, it is not clear whether this method can be implemented successfully in resource-limited settings, where cellular network and mobile phone coverage may be low. Our objective is to describe operational issues surrounding the use of phone-based unannounced pill counts in Lesotho and Ethiopia. Phone-based monthly unannounced pill counts, using an adaptation of a standardized protocol from previous US-based studies, were utilized to measure anti-TB and antiretroviral medication adherence in two implementation science studies in resource-limited settings, START (Lesotho) and ENRICH (Ethiopia). In START, 19.6% of calls were completed, with 71.9% of participants reached at least once; majority of failed call attempts were due to phones not being available (54.8%) or because participants were away from the pills (32.7%). In ENRICH, 33.5% of calls were completed, with 86.7% of participants reached at least once; the main reasons for failed call attempts were phones being switched off (31.5%), participants not answering (27.3%), participants' discomfort speaking on the phone (15.4%), and network problems (13.2%). Structural, facility-level, participant-level, and data collection challenges were encountered in these settings. Phone-based unannounced pill counts were found to be challenging, and response rates suboptimal. While some of these challenges were specific to local contexts, most of them are generalizable to resource-limited settings. In a research study context, a possible solution to ease operational challenges may be to focus phone-based unannounced pill count efforts on a randomly selected sample from participants who are provided with

  14. Mechanism and early intervention research on ALI during emergence surgery of Stanford type-A AAD: Study protocol for a prospective, double-blind, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi; Jin, Mu; Dong, Xiuhua; Sun, Lizhong; Liu, Jing; Wang, Rong; Yang, Yanwei; Lin, Peirong; Hou, Siyu; Ma, Yuehua; Wang, Yuefeng; Pan, Xudong; Lu, Jiakai; Cheng, Weiping

    2016-10-01

    Stanford type-A acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a severe cardiovascular disease demonstrating the characteristics of acute onset and rapid development, with high morbidity and mortality. The available evidence shows that preoperative acute lung injury (ALI) induced by Stanford type-A AAD is a frequent and important cause for a number of untoward consequences. However, there is no study assessing the incidence of preoperative ALI and its independent determinants before Standford type-A AAD surgery in Chinese adult patients. This is a prospective, double-blind, signal-center clinical trial. We will recruit 130 adult patients undergoing Stanford type-A AAD surgery. The incidence of preoperative ALI will be evaluated. Perioperative clinical baselines and serum variables including coagulation, fibrinolysis, inflammatory, reactive oxygen species, and endothelial cell function will be assayed. The independent factors affecting the occurrence of preoperative ALI will be identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. ClinicalTrials.gov (https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/), Registration number NCT01894334.

  15. Comparative Analysis of EO-1 ALI and Hyperion, and Landsat ETM+ Data for Mapping Forest Crown Closure and Leaf Area Index

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Ruiliang; Gong, Peng; Yu, Qian

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a comparative analysis of capabilities of three sensors for mapping forest crown closure (CC) and leaf area index (LAI) was conducted. The three sensors are Hyperspectral Imager (Hyperion) and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) onboard EO-1 satellite and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). A total of 38 mixed coniferous forest CC and 38 LAI measurements were collected at Blodgett Forest Research Station, University of California at Berkeley, USA. The analysis method consists of (1) extracting spectral vegetation indices (VIs), spectral texture information and maximum noise fractions (MNFs), (2) establishing multivariate prediction models, (3) predicting and mapping pixel-based CC and LAI values, and (4) validating the mapped CC and LAI results with field validated photo-interpreted CC and LAI values. The experimental results indicate that the Hyperion data are the most effective for mapping forest CC and LAI (CC mapped accuracy (MA) = 76.0%, LAI MA = 74.7%), followed by ALI data (CC MA = 74.5%, LAI MA = 70.7%), with ETM+ data results being least effective (CC MA = 71.1%, LAI MA = 63.4%). This analysis demonstrates that the Hyperion sensor outperforms the other two sensors: ALI and ETM+. This is because of its high spectral resolution with rich subtle spectral information, of its short-wave infrared data for constructing optimal VIs that are slightly affected by the atmosphere, and of its more available MNFs than the other two sensors to be selected for establishing prediction models. Compared to ETM+ data, ALI data are better for mapping forest CC and LAI due to ALI data with more bands and higher signal-to-noise ratios than those of ETM+ data. PMID:27879906

  16. Comparative Analysis of EO-1 ALI and Hyperion, and Landsat ETM+ Data for Mapping Forest Crown Closure and Leaf Area Index.

    PubMed

    Pu, Ruiliang; Gong, Peng; Yu, Qian

    2008-06-06

    In this study, a comparative analysis of capabilities of three sensors for mapping forest crown closure (CC) and leaf area index (LAI) was conducted. The three sensors are Hyperspectral Imager (Hyperion) and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) onboard EO-1 satellite and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). A total of 38 mixed coniferous forest CC and 38 LAI measurements were collected at Blodgett Forest Research Station, University of California at Berkeley, USA. The analysis method consists of (1) extracting spectral vegetation indices (VIs), spectral texture information and maximum noise fractions (MNFs), (2) establishing multivariate prediction models, (3) predicting and mapping pixel-based CC and LAI values, and (4) validating the mapped CC and LAI results with field validated photo-interpreted CC and LAI values. The experimental results indicate that the Hyperion data are the most effective for mapping forest CC and LAI (CC mapped accuracy (MA) = 76.0%, LAI MA = 74.7%), followed by ALI data (CC MA = 74.5%, LAI MA = 70.7%), with ETM+ data results being least effective (CC MA = 71.1%, LAI MA = 63.4%). This analysis demonstrates that the Hyperion sensor outperforms the other two sensors: ALI and ETM+. This is because of its high spectral resolution with rich subtle spectral information, of its short-wave infrared data for constructing optimal VIs that are slightly affected by the atmosphere, and of its more available MNFs than the other two sensors to be selected for establishing prediction models. Compared to ETM+ data, ALI data are better for mapping forest CC and LAI due to ALI data with more bands and higher signal-to-noise ratios than those of ETM+ data.

  17. Destination Entry And Retrieval With The Ali-Scout Navigation System Fast-Trac Phase Iib Deliverable

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-12-01

    AFTER TRAINING, 36 DRIVERS RETRIEVED AND ENTERED A TOTAL OF 20 DESTINATIONS USING AN ALI-SCOUT NAVIGATION COMPUTER AND 10 DESTINATIONS USING A TOUCHSCREEN SIMULATION WHILE SITTING IN A VEHICLE MOCKUP. RETRIEVAL INVOLVED KEYING IN PART OF THE DESTINAT...

  18. Why use of dienogest for the first contraceptive pill with estradiol?

    PubMed

    Mueck, Alfred O; Seeger, Harald; Bühling, Kai J

    2010-02-01

    Dienogest (DNG) has the essential properties of an effective progestogen for use in a new contraceptive pill using estradiol valerate as estrogenic component -- it inhibits ovulation and protects against endometrial proliferation. DNG is a derivative of norethisterone (NET), but has a cyanomethyl- instead of an ethinyl-group in C17 position which may offer a variety of benefits regarding hepatic effects. The similarity to NET is reflected in the high endometriotropy and in similar pharmacokinetics like short plasma half-live and high bioavailability. However, DNG also elicits properties of progesterone derivatives like neutrality in metabolic and cardiovascular system and considerable antiandrogenic activity, the latter increased by lack of binding to SHBG as specific property of DNG. It has no glucocorticoid and antimineralocorticoid activity and has no antiestrogenic activity with the consequence that possible beneficial estradiol effects should not be antagonized. This may be of special importance for the tolerability and safety of the first pill with estradiol valerate instead of ethinylestradiol, although well-designed postmarketing studies are still ongoing to demonstrate what can be expected on the basis of pharmacology.

  19. [Qilin Pills combined with clomiphene for idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermia].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-gen; Zheng, Gou-da; Xu, Zhen-qiang; Lin, Hai-li; Zhuang, Zhi-ming; Zhang, Chao-xian

    2015-06-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of Qilin Pills combined with clomiphene on idiopathic oligoasthenospermia. We randomly assigned 300 patients with idiopathic oligoasthenospermia to a trial (n = 156) and a control group (n = 144) to be treated with Qilin Pills (6 g, tid) combined with clomiphene (50 mg, qd) and clomiphene alone (50 mg, qd), respectively, both for a course of 12 weeks. Before and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of medication, we determined sperm concentration, the percentages of grade a and grade a + b sperm, sperm motility, and the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone (T), followed by evaluation of the clinical efficacy of Qilin Pills with the pregnancy rate in the patients' spouses as the secondaty therapeutic indexes. Compared with the baseline, both groups of patients showed remarkably improved semen parameters and hormone levels after treatment (all P < 0.01). After 4, 8, and 12 weeks of medication, statistically significant differences were observed between the trial and control groups in sperm concentration ([17.06 ± 2.24] vs [15.07 ± 2.48], [22.10 ± 2.65] vs [18.11 ± 2.97], and [28.13 ± 3.59] vs [21.21 ± 3.60] x 10(6)/mL, P < 0.01), the percentage of grade a sperm ([15.03 ± 2.39] vs [13.08 ± 2.51], [21.08 ± 3.16] vs [16.04 ± 3.05], and [28.08 ± 4.70] vs [20.14 ± 4.74]%, P < 0.01), the percentage of grade a + b sperm ([30.10 ± 5.07] vs [26.21 ± 3.96], [38.08 ± 5.64] vs [30.07 ± 4.80], and [48.04 ± 6.49] vs [35.28 ± 4.77]%, P < 0.01), sperm motility ([42.04 ± 4.86] vs [40.29 ± 4.19], [52.05 ± 5.58] vs [48.03 ± 4.40], and [65.03 ± 5.13] vs [56.67 ± 4.99]%), the FSH level ([7.75 ± 1.38] vs [7.20 ± 1.17], [10.83 ± 1.23] vs [9.10 ± 1.32], and [14.22 ± 0.84] vs [12.06 ± 1.45] IU/L, P < 0.01), the LH level ([10.05 ± 1.68] vs [9.18 ± 1.54], [13.96 ± 1.68] vs [11.99 ± 1.71], and [19.01 ± 2.42] vs [15.86 ± 2.08] IU/L, P < 0.01) and the T level ([19.19 ± 192] vs [18.34

  20. Comparative alteration mineral mapping using visible to shortwave infrared (0.4-2.4 μm) Hyperion, ALI, and ASTER imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, B.E.; Crowley, J.K.; Zimbelman, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Hyperion imaging spectrometer data covering an area in the Central Andes between Volcan Socompa and Salar de Llullaillaco were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks associated with several young volcanic systems. Six ALI channels in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range (0.4-1.0 ??m) were useful for discriminating between ferric-iron alteration minerals based on the spectral shapes of electronic absorption features seen in continuum-removed spectra. Six ASTER channels in the short wavelength infrared (1.0-2.5 ??m) enabled distinctions between clay and sulfate mineral types based on the positions of band minima related to Al-OH vibrational absorption features. Hyperion imagery embedded in the broader image coverage of ALI and ASTER provided essential leverage for calibrating and improving the mapping accuracy of the multispectral data. This capability is especially valuable in remote areas of the earth where available geologic and other ground truth information is limited.

  1. Low-FODMAP vs regular rye bread in irritable bowel syndrome: Randomized SmartPill® study.

    PubMed

    Pirkola, Laura; Laatikainen, Reijo; Loponen, Jussi; Hongisto, Sanna-Maria; Hillilä, Markku; Nuora, Anu; Yang, Baoru; Linderborg, Kaisa M; Freese, Riitta

    2018-03-21

    To compare the effects of regular vs low-FODMAP rye bread on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and to study gastrointestinal conditions with SmartPill ® . Our aim was to evaluate if rye bread low in FODMAPs would cause reduced hydrogen excretion, lower intraluminal pressure, higher colonic pH, different transit times, and fewer IBS symptoms than regular rye bread. The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled cross-over meal study. Female IBS patients ( n = 7) ate study breads at three consecutive meals during one day. The diet was similar for both study periods except for the FODMAP content of the bread consumed during the study day. Intraluminal pH, transit time, and pressure were measured by SmartPill, an indigestible motility capsule. Hydrogen excretion (a marker of colonic fermentation) expressed as area under the curve (AUC) (0-630 min) was [median (range)] 6300 (1785-10800) ppm∙min for low-FODMAP rye bread and 10 635 (4215-13080) ppm∙min for regular bread ( P = 0.028). Mean scores of gastrointestinal symptoms showed no statistically significant differences but suggested less flatulence after low-FODMAP bread consumption ( P = 0.063). Intraluminal pressure correlated significantly with total symptom score after regular rye bread (ρ = 0.786, P = 0.036) and nearly significantly after low-FODMAP bread consumption (ρ = 0.75, P = 0.052). We found no differences in pH, pressure, or transit times between the breads. Gastric residence of SmartPill was slower than expected. SmartPill left the stomach in less than 5 h only during one measurement (out of 14 measurements in total) and therefore did not follow on par with the rye bread bolus. Low-FODMAP rye bread reduced colonic fermentation vs regular rye bread. No difference was found in median values of intraluminal conditions of the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Evaluation of a telemetric gastrointestinal pill for continuous monitoring of gastrointestinal temperature in horses at rest and during exercise.

    PubMed

    Verdegaal, Elisabeth-Lidwien J M M; Delesalle, Catherine; Caraguel, Charles G B; Folwell, Louise E; McWhorter, Todd J; Howarth, Gordon S; Franklin, Samantha H

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate use of a telemetric gastrointestinal (GI) pill to continuously monitor GI temperature in horses at rest and during exercise and to compare time profiles of GI temperature and rectal temperature. ANIMALS 8 Standardbred horses. PROCEDURES Accuracy and precision of the GI pill and a rectal probe were determined in vitro by comparing temperature measurements with values obtained by a certified resistance temperature detector (RTD) in water baths at various temperatures (37°, 39°, and 41°C). Subsequently, both GI and rectal temperature were recorded in vivo in 8 horses over 3 consecutive days. The GI temperature was recorded continuously, and rectal temperature was recorded for 3.5 hours daily. Comparisons were made between GI temperature and rectal temperature for horses at rest, during exercise, and after exercise. RESULTS Water bath evaluation revealed good agreement between the rectal probe and RTD. However, the GI pill systematically underestimated temperature by 0.14°C. In vivo, GI temperature data were captured with minimal difficulties. Most data loss occurred during the first 16 hours, after which the mean ± SD data loss was 8.6 ± 3.7%. The GI temperature was consistently and significantly higher than rectal temperature with an overall mean temperature difference across time of 0.27°C (range, 0.22° to 0.32°C). Mean measurement cessation point for the GI pill was 5.1 ± 1.0 days after administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study revealed that the telemetric GI pill was a reliable and practical method for real-time monitoring of GI temperature in horses.

  3. Determinants of oral contraceptive pill use and its discontinuation among rural women in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    HUMBLE, MORAG ELIZABETH

    2006-01-01

    Oral contraceptive pills (OCP) contribute a major share in the current method‐mix in Bangladesh. However, multiple studies show high discontinuation rates of OCP. The present study examines the behavior and attitude towards OCP use, and investigates the determinants of its discontinuation among the rural married women of Bangladesh. The present study is based on critical analyses of the data from 24 focus group discussions and 135 in‐depth‐interviews with women, their husbands and key informants conducted over the period of 1 year. The present study shows that more than two‐thirds of married women have at one time or another used OCP as a method of family planning. However, many women did not take the pills regularly and about one‐quarter of ever users had taken, at one stage or another, a ‘short break’ from OCP use. Although nearly half of them took a break because of side effects, interestingly, 16% took a break as the result of fear of health problems that were related to ‘folk stories’ and other misconceptions. The individual assessment by users of the national family planning service delivery, perceived side effects, misconceptions about continuous use of pills, quality of counseling and information, and contraceptive behavior of the OCP users considerably influenced the decisions on contraceptive use or non‐use. (Reprod Med Biol 2006; 5: 111–121) PMID:29699243

  4. Quality evaluation of moluodan concentrated pill using high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting coupled with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lingyan; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Yongjiang; Liu, Xuesong

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a fast and effective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to obtain a fingerprint chromatogram and quantitative analysis simultaneously of four indexes including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, albiflorin and paeoniflorin of the traditional Chinese medicine Moluodan Concentrated Pill. The method was performed by using a Waters X-bridge C 18 reversed phase column on an Agilent 1200S high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled with diode array detection. The mobile phase of the high-performance liquid chromatography method was composed of 20 mmol/L phosphate solution and acetonitrile with a 1 mL/min eluent velocity, under a detection temperature of 30°C and a UV detection wavelength of 254 nm. After the methodology validation, 16 batches of Moluodan Concentrated Pill were analyzed by this high-performance liquid chromatography method and both qualitative and quantitative evaluation results were achieved by similarity analysis, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. The results of these three chemometrics were in good agreement and all indicated that batch 10 and batch 16 showed significant differences with the other 14 batches. This suggested that the developed high-performance liquid chromatography method could be applied in the quality evaluation of Moluodan Concentrated Pill. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. [Effect of Biejiajian Pills on Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway and DKK-1 and FrpHe gene expressions in hepatocellular carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    He, Songqi; Cheng, Yang; Zhu, Yun; Fan, Qin; Sun, Haitao; Jia, Wenyan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Biejiajian Pills on Wnt signal pathway and its inhibitory gene (DKK-1 and FrpHe) expressions and explore the mechanism underlying the action of Biejiajian Pills to suppress the invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma. Twenty-four Wistar rats were randomized equally into 3 groups for gavage of normal saline and Biejiajian Pills at 20- and 10-fold clinical doses for 3 days. Blood samples were then collected from the rats, and the serum was separated and added in HepG2 cell cultures. After 48 h of culture, the cells were collected to determine the cellular content of β-catenin protein using flow cytometry and detect DKK-1 and FrpHe mRNA expressions using qRT-PCR. HepG2 cells cultured in the presence of sera from rats fed with Biejiajian Pills showed significantly lowered β-catenin protein expression and obvious down-regulation of DKK-1 mRNA expression, and the effect was correlated with the doses of the drug administered. The expression of FrpHe mRNA showed no significant differences between the 3 groups. Biejiajian Pills can effectively inhibit the invasiveness and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma cells, which is closely related to decreased expressions of β-catenin and DKK-1 to cause block of the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway.

  6. Diet Pills, Powders, and Liquids: Predictors of Use by Healthy Weight Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight. Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk…

  7. [VEGF165 transfected endothelial progenitor cells mediated by lentivirus alleviated ALI in rats].

    PubMed

    He, Zhaohui; He, Huiwei; Lu, Yuanhua; Chen, Zhi; Xu, Fanghua; Wang, Rongsheng; Yang, Chunli

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the protective effects of vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF165) transfected the endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) mediated by lentivirus on acute lung injury (ALI) in rats. The mononuclear cells from the male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were isolated and cultured to get the EPCs for study. The lentivirus vector carrying the human VEGF165 gene was constructed. According to the random number table method, 90 male SD rats were divided into ALI model group, phosphate buffer solution (PBS) group, EPCs treatment group, none transfected EPCs treatment group and VEGF165 transfected EPCs treatment group, and the rats in each group were subdivided into 4, 12 and 48 hours subgroups, with 6 rats in each subgroup. The rat model of ALI was reproduced by intravenous injection of oleic acid (0.15 μL/g). Then each treatment group was given PBS, EPCs, none transfected EPCs and VEGF165 transfected EPCs respectively with the same volume of 0.2 mL. For the groups with cells, about 1×10 6 cells were contained. Abdominal aortic blood and lung tissue were harvested at 4, 12 and 48 hours. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed. The lung wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) was calculated. The expressions of induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and VEGF165 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After dyed with hematoxylin-eosin (HE), the lung tissue pathology was observed and the lung injury score was performed. Compared with the ALI model group, the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2 ) in EPCs, none transfected EPCs and VEGF165 transfected EPCs treatment groups was significantly increased from 4 hours, and lung W/D, expressions of iNOS and ET-1 were significantly decreased, and VEGF165 expression was significantly increased. Compared with the EPCs treatment group, the increase in PaO 2 , the decrease in lung W/D and expressions of iNOS and ET-1, and the increase in VEGF165 expression in VEGF165 transfected EPCs

  8. Low-Thermal Conductivity Suspensions Used in the Isolation of the Salt Pills Aboard the Astro-H Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimball, Mark O.; Shirron, Peter J.; Wegel, Donald C.; James, Bryan L.; Galassi, Nicholas M.; Faulkner, Richard L.; San Sebastian, Marcelino

    2011-01-01

    An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) utilizes the magnetocholoric effect in a paramagnetic salt to produce sub-Kelvin temperatures. It is a solid-state device that has no moving parts and does not rely upon a density gradient in a working fluid. This makes it ideal for cooling space-based instruments. ·Typically the salt is enclosed in a cylindrical pill that is suspended within the bore of a magnet. The suspension between the salt pill and magnet must be robust enough to survive a launch yet have a thermal conductance that minimizes heat from the magnet that is mechanically, and thermally, anchored to a stage at a higher temperature. Here we detail such a design that uses Kevlar(Trade Mark) as the supporting media in a system that limits motion of the salt pill axial as well as laterally with respect to the magnet bore.

  9. Cellular Nuclear Export Factors TAP and Aly Are Required for HDAg-L-mediated Assembly of Hepatitis Delta Virus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lee, Chung-Pei; Liu, Hui-Kang; Chang, Ming-Fu; Lai, Yu-Heng; Lee, Yu-Ching; Huang, Cheng

    2016-12-09

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a satellite virus of hepatitis B virus (HBV). HDV genome encodes two forms of hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg), small HDAg (HDAg-S), which is required for viral replication, and large HDAg (HDAg-L), which is essential for viral assembly. HDAg-L is identical to HDAg-S except that it bears a 19-amino acid extension at the C terminus. Both HDAgs contain a nuclear localization signal (NLS), but only HDAg-L contains a CRM1-independent nuclear export signal at its C terminus. The nuclear export activity of HDAg-L is important for HDV particle formation. However, the mechanisms of HDAg-L-mediated nuclear export of HDV ribonucleoprotein are not clear. In this study, the host cellular RNA export complex TAP-Aly was found to form a complex with HDAg-L, but not with an export-defective HDAg-L mutant, in which Pro 205 was replaced by Ala. HDAg-L was found to colocalize with TAP and Aly in the nucleus. The C-terminal domain of HDAg-L was shown to directly interact with the N terminus of TAP, whereas an HDAg-L mutant lacking the NLS failed to interact with full-length TAP. In addition, small hairpin RNA-mediated down-regulation of TAP or Aly reduced nuclear export of HDAg-L and assembly of HDV virions. Furthermore, a peptide, TAT-HDAg-L(198-210), containing the 10-amino acid TAT peptide and HDAg-L(198-210), inhibited the interaction between HDAg-L and TAP and blocked HDV virion assembly and secretion. These data demonstrate that formation and release of HDV particles are mediated by TAP and Aly. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Size-Dependent Properties of Matter: Is the Size of a Pill Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adadan, Emine; Akaygun, Sevil; Sanyal, Amitav

    2017-01-01

    This interdisciplinary scientific inquiry lesson specifically utilizes the 5E learning cycle to engage high school students in an investigation on size-dependent properties of matter. In particular, this inquiry lesson focuses on a biologically relevant phenomenon, namely accessibility to a pharmaceutical drug with respect to the size of the pill.…

  11. Greater self-enhancement in Western than Eastern Ukraine, but failure to replicate the Muhammad Ali effect.

    PubMed

    Kemmelmeier, Markus; Malanchuk, Oksana

    2016-02-01

    Based on the cross-cultural research linking individualism-collectivism and self-enhancement, this research examines regional pattern of self-enhancement in Ukraine. Broadly speaking, the western part of Ukraine is mainly Ukrainian speaking and historically oriented towards Europe, whereas Eastern Ukraine is mainly Russian speaking and historically oriented towards the Russian cultural sphere. We found self-enhancement on a "better than average" task to be higher in a Western Ukrainian sample compared to an Eastern Ukrainian sample, with differences in independent self-construals supporting assumed regional variation in individualism. However, the Muhammad Ali effect, the finding that self-enhancement is greater in the domain of morality than intelligence, was not replicated. The discussion focuses on the specific sources of this regional difference in self-enhancement, and reasons for why the Muhammad Ali effect was not found. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. STS-45 Earth observation of the Persian Gulf and the island of Abu Ali

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-45 Earth observation taken aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, is of the northern reaches of the Persian Gulf with the sunglint pattern centered on the Saudi Arabian island of Abu Ali. Bright features along the coast are thought to be deposits of oil, released from a terminal offshore of Kuwait during the recent Persian Gulf War. Further up the coast, in Kuwait, the black, oil-soaked desert surrounding the site of the oil well fires is clearly visible. View was taken from an altitude of 160 nautical miles with OV-104 located at 28 degrees north and 52.8 degrees east. During the STS-45 mission, an international survey team focused on oil contamination of the shallow-water habitants in the area north of Abu Ali Island. Crewmembers contacted the NOAA survey vessel, the R/V Mt. Mitchell, several times and photographed water color and sunglint within the study area and throughout the entire Persian Gulf. These photographic data are expected to aid the Persian Gulf researchers in

  13. Defense Health Board Review of the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine Assessment of Sodium Dichromate Exposure at Qarmat Ali Water Treatment Plant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-19

    Medicine (USACHPPM) occupational and environmental health assessment conducted in 2003 at the Qarmat Ali Water Treatment Plant ( WTP ) in Basra, Iraq...Information Briefing Occupational and Environmental Health (OEH) Assessment: Sodium Dichromate Exposures at the Qarmat Ali Water Treatment Plant ( WTP ) in

  14. Stress Conditions Promote Yeast Gap1 Permease Ubiquitylation and Down-regulation via the Arrestin-like Bul and Aly Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Crapeau, Myriam; Merhi, Ahmad; André, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Gap1, the yeast general amino acid permease, is a convenient model for studying how the intracellular traffic of membrane transporters is regulated. Present at the plasma membrane under poor nitrogen supply conditions, it undergoes ubiquitylation, endocytosis, and degradation upon activation of the TORC1 kinase complex in response to an increase in internal amino acids. This down-regulation is stimulated by TORC1-dependent phosphoinhibition of the Npr1 kinase, resulting in activation by dephosphorylation of the arrestin-like Bul1 and Bul2 adaptors recruiting the Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase to Gap1. We report here that Gap1 is also down-regulated when cells are treated with the TORC1 inhibitor rapamycin or subjected to various stresses and that a lack of the Tco89 subunit of TORC1 causes constitutive Gap1 down-regulation. Both the Bul1 and Bul2 and the Aly1 and Aly2 arrestin-like adaptors of Rsp5 promote this down-regulation without undergoing dephosphorylation. Furthermore, they act via the C-terminal regions of Gap1 not involved in ubiquitylation in response to internal amino acids, whereas a Gap1 mutant altered in the N-terminal tail and resistant to ubiquitylation by internal amino acids is efficiently down-regulated under stress via the Bul and Aly adaptors. Although the Bul proteins mediate Gap1 ubiquitylation of two possible lysines, Lys-9 and Lys-16, the Aly proteins promote ubiquitylation of the Lys-16 residue only. This stress-induced pathway of Gap1 down-regulation targets other permeases as well, and it likely allows cells facing adverse conditions to retrieve amino acids from permease degradation. PMID:24942738

  15. Use of birth control pills, condoms, and withdrawal among U.S. high school students.

    PubMed

    Everett, S A; Warren, C W; Santelli, J S; Kann, L; Collins, J L; Kolbe, L J

    2000-08-01

    To examine the use of contraception at last sexual intercourse among currently sexually active adolescents. We analyzed data from national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) conducted in 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997. The YRBS is a self-administered, anonymous survey which uses a national probability sample of U.S. students in public and private schools from grades 9 through 12. From 1991 to 1997, condom use significantly increased (from 46% to 57%), birth control pill use decreased (from 21% to 17%), and use of withdrawal significantly decreased (from 18% to 13%). In 1997, although more students were using condoms, 13% reported using withdrawal and 15% reported using no method to prevent pregnancy at last sexual intercourse. In 1997, condom use among females was significantly lower in the 9th grade than in the 12th grade (p <.001), whereas birth control pill use was higher (p <.001) and use of withdrawal remained stable. Among males, condom use and withdrawal use remained stable from 9th to 12th grade, whereas birth control pill use by their partner increased (p <.001). Inadequate contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. For young people who will not remain sexually abstinent, families, health care providers, schools, and other influential societal institutions should promote the correct and continued use of condoms as essential protection against sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  16. A pill for HIV prevention: déjà vu all over again?

    PubMed

    Myers, Julie E; Sepkowitz, Kent A

    2013-06-01

    Recent FDA approval of tenofovir-emtricitabine for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a form of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has led to concern about implementation of this strategy. Fifty years ago, a very similar national and international debate occurred when the oral contraceptive pill ("the Pill" or "OCP") was approved. Contentious issues included OCP safety, cost, and the potential impact on sexual behavior--many of the same concerns being voiced currently about PrEP. In this article, we review the social and medical history of OCP, drawing parallels with the current PrEP debate. We also explore the key areas where PrEP differs from its forbear: lower efficacy, presence of drug resistance, and a more circumscribed (and marginalized) target population. A thoughtful approach to PrEP implementation, bearing in mind the historical insights gained from the 1960s, might serve as well as we begin this new chapter in the control of the HIV epidemic.

  17. Predicting fate of the contraceptive pill in wastewater treatment and discharge.

    PubMed

    Mastrup, M; Schäfer, A I; Khan, S J

    2005-01-01

    The risk of endocrine disrupters to humans and wildlife is to date poorly understood, although evidence of effects is now widespread. In understanding the risk, an important step is the determination of the partitioning, as well as chemical and biochemical transformation, of compounds in the environment, the water cycle and the food chain. This is a complex task and this paper is a first step towards estimating some of these factors from a largely theoretical approach. A chemical fate model is used to predict the fate of the contraceptive drug 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2). The example of the contraceptive pill is chosen to follow the journey of the drug from human ingestion and excretion to treatment in a sewage treatment plant (STP) using fugacity-based fate models, followed by discharge into a receiving river and eventually into the estuary/sea. The model predicts how EE2 will partition into the different compartments during each stage of this journey and thereby infiltrate into the food chain. The results suggest that a person would have to ingest more than 30,000 portions of fish to consume an equivalent to a single average dose of the contraceptive pill. While this scenario is highly unlikely, the biochemical consequence of the contraceptive pill is greatly significant. Furthermore, there are many identified similarly estrogenic compounds in the environment while this study only considers one. Cumulative effects of such compounds as well as degradation into other potent compounds may be anticipated. An important message in this paper is the interrelation of wastewater effluent discharge and eventual human exposure of marginally degradable and lipophilic chemicals. While at present the main concerns regarding endocrine disrupters appear to be the fear of their occurrence in drinking water sources, it is clear that the domains of wastewater treatment and discharge, water supply and contamination of food should not be treated as separate issues. The model

  18. Oral contraceptive pills induced hemichorea in an adolescent female with polycystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Sharmila, Vijayan; Babu, Thirunavukkarasu Arun

    2015-01-01

    Chorea is a neurological adverse effect of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). The onset of chorea following OCPs usage varies widely from few weeks to several years. We report a rare case of chorea which developed within a week of starting OCPs in an adolescent girl with polycystic ovarian disease.

  19. Landslide detection using LiDAR data and data mining technology: Ali Mountain Highway case study (Taiwan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Youg-Sin; Yu, Teng-To; Tarolli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan mountains are severely affected each year by landslides, rock falls, and debris flows where the roads system suffer the most critical consequences. Among all mountain highways, Ali Highway, located into the main entrance of Alishan Mountain region, is one of the most landslide-prone areas in southern Taiwan. During the typhoon season, between May and August, the probability of occurrence of mass movements is at higher level than usual seeing great erosion rates. In fact, during Typhoon Morakot, in 2009, the intense rainfall caused abrupt interruption of the circulation for three months triggering several landslides (Liu et al. 2012). The topographic features such as slope, roughness and curvature among others have been extracted from 1 m DTM derived by a LiDAR dataset (collected in 2015) to investigate the slope failures along the Ali Mountain Highway. The high-resolution DTM highlighted that the hydrogeomorphological (e.g. density of stream, the distance from the ridge and terrain) features are one of the most influencing factors affecting the change and the instability of the slopes. To detect the landslide area, the decision tree classifier and the random forest algorithm (RF) have been adopted. The results provided a suitable analysis of the area involved in the failure. This will be a useful step in the understanding (and management) landslide processes of study area. References Liu CN, Dong JJ, Chen CJ, Lee WF (2012) Typical landslides and related mechanisms in Ali Mountain highway induced by typhoon Morakot: Perspectives from engineering geology. Landslides 9:239-254.

  20. A Longitudinal Analysis of Daily Pill Burden and Likelihood of Optimal Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among People Living With HIV Who Use Drugs.

    PubMed

    Mohd Salleh, Nur Afiqah; Richardson, Lindsey; Kerr, Thomas; Shoveller, Jean; Montaner, Julio; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Milloy, M-J

    2018-03-07

    Among people living with HIV (PLWH), high levels of adherence to prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) is required to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. However, little is known about the effects of daily pill burden on adherence amongst PLWH who use drugs. We sought to investigate the association between daily pill burden and adherence to ART among members of this key population in Vancouver, Canada. We used data from the AIDS Care Cohort to Evaluate Exposure to Survival Services study, a long-running community-recruited cohort of PLWH who use illicit drugs linked to comprehensive HIV clinical records. The longitudinal relationship between daily pill burden and the odds of ≥95% adherence to ART among ART-exposed individuals was analyzed using multivariable generalized linear mixed-effects modeling, adjusting for sociodemographic, behavioural, and structural factors linked to adherence. Between December 2005 and May 2014, the study enrolled 770 ART-exposed participants, including 257 (34%) women, with a median age of 43 years. At baseline, 437 (56.7%) participants achieved ≥95% adherence in the previous 180 days. Among all interview periods, the median adherence was 100% (interquartile range 71%-100%). In a multivariable model, a greater number of pills per day was negatively associated with ≥95% adherence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.87 per pill, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-0.91). Further analysis showed that once-a-day ART regimens were positively associated with optimal adherence (AOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.07-1.80). In conclusion, simpler dosing demands (ie, fewer pills and once-a-day single tablet regimens) promoted optimal adherence among PLWH who use drugs. Our findings highlight the need for simpler dosing to be encouraged explicitly for PWUD with multiple adherence barriers.

  1. [Estrogens and feminine brain maturation during adolescence: emergency contraceptive pill].

    PubMed

    López Moratalla, Natalia; Errasti Alcalá, Tania; Santiago, Esteban

    2011-01-01

    In the period between puberty and maturity takes place the process of brain maturation. Hormone levels induce changes in neurons and direct the architecture and structural functionality thus affecting patterns of development of different brain areas. The onset of puberty brings with it the invasion of the female brain by high levels of hormones, cyclic surges of estrogen and progesterone in addition to steroids produced in situ. Control centers of emotions (amygdala), memory and learning (hippocampus) and sexual activity (hypothalamus) are modified according to the cyclical concentrations of both hormones. Sex hormones stimulate multimodal actions, both short and longer terms, because neurons in various brain areas have different types of receptors, membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear. The composition of emergency contraceptive pill (postcoital pill) with high hormonal content raises the urgency of a thorough knowledge about the possible effect that the lack of control of the menstrual cycle in a time of consolidation of brain maturation, can bring in structuring and development of brain circuitry. Changes in the availability of sex steroids during puberty and adolescence underlie psychiatric disorders whose prevalence is typically feminine, such as depression, anxiety disorders. It is a fundamental ethical duty to present scientific data about the influence of estrogen in young female brain maturation, both for full information to potential users, and also to induce the appropriate public health measures.

  2. How can a state control swallowing? The home use of abortion pills in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Sally

    2016-11-01

    Evidence suggests that there is widespread home use of abortion pills in Ireland and that ending a pregnancy in this way is potentially safer than the alternatives available to many women. This paper argues that there is a strong case for women with unwanted pregnancies to be offered truthful and objective information regarding the use of abortion pills by trusted local professionals and, further, that this is possible within existing law. A move in this direction would not, however, negate the need for legal reform to address the fundamental moral incoherence of a law that treats women who terminate pregnancies within Ireland as criminals but those who travel to access services overseas as victims in need of support. In support of these arguments, the paper draws on both library research and a small number of interviews with government officials, service providers and activists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Initial severity of depression and efficacy of cognitive–behavioural therapy: individual-participant data meta-analysis of pill-placebo-controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Toshi A.; Weitz, Erica S.; Tanaka, Shiro; Hollon, Steven D.; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Andersson, Gerhard; Twisk, Jos; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Dimidjian, Sona; Hegerl, Ulrich; Mergl, Roland; Jarrett, Robin B.; Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Watanabe, Norio; Cuijpers, Pim

    2017-01-01

    Background The influence of baseline severity has been examined for antidepressant medications but has not been studied properly for cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) in comparison with pill placebo. Aims To synthesise evidence regarding the influence of initial severity on efficacy of CBT from all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which CBT, in face-to-face individual or group format, was compared with pill-placebo control in adults with major depression. Method A systematic review and an individual-participant data meta-analysis using mixed models that included trial effects as random effects. We used multiple imputation to handle missing data. Results We identified five RCTs, and we were given access to individual-level data (n = 509) for all five. The analyses revealed that the difference in changes in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression between CBT and pill placebo was not influenced by baseline severity (interaction P = 0.43). Removing the non-significant interaction term from the model, the difference between CBT and pill placebo was a standardised mean difference of −0.22 (95% CI −0.42 to −0.02, P = 0.03, I2 = 0%). Conclusions Patients suffering from major depression can expect as much benefit from CBT across the wide range of baseline severity. This finding can help inform individualised treatment decisions by patients and their clinicians. PMID:28104735

  4. Magma-driven antiform structures in the Afar rift: The Ali Sabieh range, Djibouti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, Bernard; Daoud, Mohamed Ahmed; Maury, René C.; Rolet, Joël; Guillou, Hervé; Sue, Christian

    2010-06-01

    The Ali Sabieh Range, SE Afar, is an antiform involving Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and synrift volcanics. Previous studies have postulated a tectonic origin for this structure, in either a contractional or extensional regime. New stratigraphic, mapping and structural data demonstrate that large-scale doming took place at an early stage of rifting, in response to a mafic laccolithic intrusion dated between 28 and 20 Ma from new K-Ar age determinations. Our 'laccolith' model is chiefly supported by: (i) the geometry of the intrusion roof, (ii) the recognition of roof pendants in its axial part, and (iii) the mapping relationships between the intrusion, the associated dyke-sill network, and the upper volcanic/volcaniclastic sequences. The laccolith is assumed to have inflated with time, and to have upwardly bent its sedimentary roof rocks. From the architecture of the ˜1 km-thick Mesozoic overburden sequences, ca. 2 km of roof lifting are assumed to have occurred, probably in association with reactivated transverse discontinuities. Computed paleostress tensors indicate that the minimum principal stress axis is consistently horizontal and oriented E-W, with a dominance of extensional versus strike-slip regimes. The Ali Sabieh laccolith is the first regional-scale magma-driven antiform structure reported so far in the Afro-Arabian rift system.

  5. A randomised study comparing the effect on ovarian activity of a progestogen-only pill (POP) containing desogestrel and a new POP containing drospirenone in a 24/4 regimen.

    PubMed

    Duijkers, Ingrid J M; Heger-Mahn, Doris; Drouin, Dominique; Skouby, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Progestogen-only pills (POPs) are safer with respect to cardiovascular risks than contraceptives containing estrogens. Despite the increased contraceptive efficacy of a desogestrel-only pill compared with a traditional POP, POPs are still not widely used due to an unpredictable bleeding pattern. A new POP containing 4 mg drospirenone has been developed with a 24/4 intake regimen which may improve the bleeding pattern. The objectives of this study were to investigate ovulation inhibition with the new drospirenone-only pill in comparison with the desogestrel-only pill and, in addition, to assess the effects on cervical mucus permeability and bleeding. Sixty-four healthy volunteers with proven ovulatory cycles were randomised and treated with either the drospirenone-only or the desogestrel-only pill during two 28-day cycles. Follicular diameter, endometrial thickness, and serum estradiol (E2) and progesterone concentrations were measured and Hoogland scores were determined. Additionally, cervical mucus scores, bleeding and return of ovulation were assessed. Both treatments effectively inhibited ovulation. Follicular diameter, E2 levels and Hoogland scores were equal, demonstrating efficient ovarian suppression. One subject in each group had a Hoogland score of 6, but the criteria for normal luteal activity were not fulfilled. In both groups, ovulation did not occur before day 9 of the post-treatment cycle. Cervical mucus permeability was suppressed in both groups. The median number of bleeding and spotting days was lower in the drospirenone group. The new drospirenone-only pill inhibited ovulation as effectively as the desogestrel-only pill despite the 4-day hormone-free interval.

  6. Investigation on the association between breast cancer and consumption patterns of combined oral contraceptive pills in the women of Isfahan in 2011.

    PubMed

    Ehsanpour, Soheila; Nejad, Fahime Seyed Ahmadi; Rajabi, Fariborz Mokarian; Taleghani, Fariba

    2013-05-01

    Oral contraceptive pills are among the most popular contraceptive methods, but the fear of cancer and cardiovascular disease overshadows its continuous use among women. This study aimed to define the association between consumption patterns of combined oral contraceptives among women with breast cancer. This is an analytical case-control study conducted on 175 women with breast cancer, referring to Seyed al Shohada Medical Center and private clinics in Isfahan to be treated and followed up in 2011, as well as 350 healthy women who were identical with the subjects in the study group regarding age and residential location. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. Content validity and Cronbach's alpha were employed to confirm validity and scientific reliability of the questionnaire, respectively. The data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistical methods through SPSS. The findings showed that there was a significant association between history of contraceptive pills' consumption and incidence of breast cancer (P < 0.001). It was shown that the risk of developing breast cancer is increased by 2.27-fold among those with pills' consumption compared to those with no history of that. It was also shown that pills' consumption for 36-72 months increased the risk of breast cancer by 2.18-fold, the age of the first use being less than 20 years increased the risk by 3.28-fold, and time since the last use of less than 25 years increased the risk by 2.63-fold. There was no significant association between duration of use, age of the first and last use, and time since the first and last use in the study and control groups. The results showed that history of pills' consumption is associated with incidence of breast cancer regardless of the consumption pattern. Use of oral contraceptives pills at any age and for any duration can increase the risk of breast cancer.

  7. Over-the-counter MTP Pills and Its Impact on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Sarojini; Ashakiran, T R; Bhanu, B T; Radhika

    2017-02-01

    To study the complications and consequences including maternal morbidity and mortality following indiscriminate self-consumption of abortion pills reporting to a tertiary care center. This is an observational study conducted at Vanivilas hospital between January 2012 to December 2013 for 24 months. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 104 women were studied with respect to period of gestation, parity, clinical features at presentation and management in the institution. An analysis of maternal morbidity and mortality was done with respect to surgical interventions, ICU admissions, need for blood transfusions and maternal deaths. In this study, there were 75 (72.2 %) cases of incomplete abortion, 10 (9.6 %) cases of missed abortion, 2 (1.9 %) cases of ruptured ectopic and 2 (1.9 %) cases of rupture uterus. Seventy-eight (75 %) cases received blood transfusion, 7 (6.7 %) were admitted to ICU, and 2 (1.9 %) developed acute kidney injury. There were 2 (1.9 %) maternal deaths in the study group. This study shows urgent need for legislation and restriction of drugs used for medical termination of pregnancy. Drugs should be made available via health care facilities under supervision to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity due to indiscriminate use of these pills.

  8. SIRT1 protects rat lung tissue against severe burn-induced remote ALI by attenuating the apoptosis of PMVECs via p38 MAPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiaozhi; Fan, Lei; He, Ting; Jia, Wenbin; Yang, Longlong; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Yang; Shi, Jihong; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai

    2015-01-01

    Silent information regulator type-1 (SIRT1) has been reported to be involved in the cardiopulmonary protection. However, its role in the pathogenesis of burn-induced remote acute lung injury (ALI) is currently unknown. The present study aims to investigate the role of SIRT1 in burn-induced remote ALI and the involved signaling pathway. We observed that SIRT1 expression in rat lung tissue after burn injury appeared an increasing trend after a short period of suppression. The upregulation of SIRT1 stimulated by resveratrol exhibited remission of histopathologic changes, reduction of cell apoptosis, and downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in rat pulmonary tissues suffering from severe burn. We next used primary pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) challenged by burn serum (BS) to simulate in vivo rat lung tissue after burn injury, and found that BS significantly suppressed SIRT1 expression, increased cell apoptosis, and activated p38 MAPK signaling. The use of resveratrol reversed these effects, while knockdown of SIRT1 by shRNA further augmented BS-induced increase of cell apoptosis and activation of p38 MAPK. Taken together, these results indicate that SIRT1 might protect lung tissue against burn-induced remote ALI by attenuating PMVEC apoptosis via p38 MAPK signaling, suggesting its potential therapeutic effects on the treatment of ALI. PMID:25992481

  9. [Effect of Biejiajian Pills on Wnt signal pathway molecules β-catenin and GSK-3β and the target genes CD44v6 and VEGF in hepatocellular carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Sun, Haitao; He, Songqi; Wen, Bin; Jia, Wenyan; Fan, Eryan; Zheng, Yan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of Biejiajian Pills on the expressions of the signal molecules and target genes of Wnt signal pathway in HepG2 cells and explore the mechanisms by which Biejiajian pills suppress the invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma. HepG2 cells were cultured for 48 h in the presence of serum collected from rats fed with Biejiajian Pills. The expressions of β-catenin, GSK-3β and P-GSK-3β in the cultured cells were assessed by Western blotting and the expressions of CD44v6 and VEGF were detected using immunohistochemistry. HepG2 cells cultured with the serum of rats fed with Biejiajian Pills showed lowered expressions of β-catenin protein both in the cytoplasm and the nuclei with also inhibition of phosphorylation of GSK-3β and reduced expression of CD44v6 and VEGF. Biejiajian Pills can significantly reduce the expression of β-catenin by decreasing the phosphorylation of GSK-3β and blocking the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway to cause down-regulation of the target genes CD44v6 and VEGF, which may be one of the molecular mechanisms by which Biejiajian Pills suppress the proliferation and invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Awareness and Perceptions of Emergency Contraceptive Pills Among Women in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Julie H; Muanda, Mbadu; Garcia, Mélissa; Matawa, Grace

    2017-09-01

    Despite the commitment of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to expand the family planning method mix and increase access to services, awareness of emergency contraception is low among women, and the method remains underused and poorly integrated in family planning programming. Data from 15 focus group discussions conducted in 2016 among women aged 15-35 were used to examine awareness and perceptions of, and attitudes toward, emergency contraceptives. After facilitators explained emergency contraceptive pills' mechanism of action and other characteristics, participants were asked about the potential benefits and risks of making the method more widely available. Transcripts were analyzed using an iterative approach. Women reported employing a wide range of postcoital contraceptive behaviors, albeit often using inappropriate products, and generally agreed that emergency contraceptive pills seemed to be a potentially effective solution to their family planning needs. Perceived benefits and limitations of the method were almost always framed in reference to other, better-known contraceptives, and women expressed strong preferences for pharmacy-based provision that aligned with their usual behaviors for obtaining contraceptives. Participants were reluctant to see the method available for free. Emergency contraceptive pills have the potential to address gaps in the family planning method mix in the DRC. Assessing whether women have incomplete or erroneous information about family planning methods can provide better understanding of women's contraceptive choices in low-income countries.

  11. Acceptability of the use of cellular telephone and computer pictures/video for "pill counts" in buprenorphine maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive plan to attempt to minimize the diversion of prescribed controlled substances, many professional organization and licensing boards are recommending the use of "pill counts." This study sought to evaluate acceptability of the use of cellular phone and computer pictures/video for "pill counts" by patients in buprenorphine maintenance treatment. Patients prescribed buprenorphine/naloxone were asked a series of questions related to the type(s) of electronic communication to which they had access as well as their willingness to use these for the purpose of performing a "pill/film count." Of the 80 patients, 4 (5 percent) did not have a phone at all. Only 28 (35 percent) had a "smart phone" with some sort of data plan and Internet access. Forty (50 percent) of the patients had a phone with no camera and 10 (12.5 percent) had a phone with a camera but no video capability. All patients said that they would be willing to periodically use the video or camera on their phone or computer to have buprenorphine/naloxone pills or film counted as long as the communication was protected from electronic tampering. With the advent of applications for smart phones that allow for Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996-compliant picture/video communication, a number of things can now be done that can enhance patient care as well as reduce the chances of misuse/diversion of prescribed medications. This could be used in settings where a larger proportion of controlled substances are prescribed including medication assisted therapy for opioid use disorders and pain management programs.

  12. [Effect of jiaotai pill on pancreatic fat accumulation and islet cell apoptosis in rats with type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Zou, Xin; Liu, De-Liang; Lu, Fu-Er; Dong, Hui; Xu, Li-Jun; Luo, Yun-Huan; Wang, Kai-Fu

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the rat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model was established through tail vein injection with low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) and high fat diet for 8 weeks, and then treated with Jiaotai Pill. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), fasting serum insulin (FINS), free fatty acid(FFA) levels and blood lipid were assayed. HOMA-IR was calculated. Pancreatic pathology was performed. And pancreatic triglyceride (TG) content was examined by the lipid extraction method. Pancreatic islet cell apoptosis were detected by terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). According to the results, the model group showed abnormal OGTT, increased FINS, HOMA-IR, FFA, lipid disorder, obvious fat accumulation and significantly increased TG content in pancreatic tissues, and enhanced pancreatic islet cell apoptosis. Compared with the model group, the Jiaotai Pill group displayed improved OGTT, reduced FINS, HOMA-IR, FFA, recovered lipid disorder, decreased fat accumulation and significantly declined TG content in pancreatic tissues, and lowered pancreatic islet cell apoptosis. In summary, Jiaotai pill could effectively treat type 2 diabetes in rats. Its mechanism may be related to the reduction in pancreatic fat accumulation and islet cell apoptosis.

  13. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement. An Experimental Study on University Students' Willingness and Their Intention to Try Neuroenhancements.

    PubMed

    Brand, Ralf; Koch, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment, we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the Prototype-Willingness Model of risk behavior. Two hundred and thirty-one university students were randomized to a high prevalence condition (read faked research results overstating usage of caffeine pills amongst peers by a factor of 5; 50%), low prevalence condition (half the estimated prevalence; 5%) or control condition (no information about peer prevalence). Structural equation modeling confirmed that our participants' willingness and intention to use caffeine pills in the next exam period could be explained by their past use of neuroenhancers, attitude to NE and subjective norm about use of caffeine pills whilst image of the typical user was a much less important factor. Provision of inaccurate information about prevalence reduced the predictive power of attitude with respect to willingness by 40-45%. This may be because receiving information about peer prevalence which does not fit with their perception of the social norm causes people to question their attitude. Prevalence information might exert a deterrent effect on NE via the attitude-willingness association. We argue that research into NE and deterrence of associated risk behaviors should be informed by psychological theory.

  14. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement. An Experimental Study on University Students’ Willingness and Their Intention to Try Neuroenhancements

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Ralf; Koch, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment, we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the Prototype-Willingness Model of risk behavior. Two hundred and thirty-one university students were randomized to a high prevalence condition (read faked research results overstating usage of caffeine pills amongst peers by a factor of 5; 50%), low prevalence condition (half the estimated prevalence; 5%) or control condition (no information about peer prevalence). Structural equation modeling confirmed that our participants’ willingness and intention to use caffeine pills in the next exam period could be explained by their past use of neuroenhancers, attitude to NE and subjective norm about use of caffeine pills whilst image of the typical user was a much less important factor. Provision of inaccurate information about prevalence reduced the predictive power of attitude with respect to willingness by 40-45%. This may be because receiving information about peer prevalence which does not fit with their perception of the social norm causes people to question their attitude. Prevalence information might exert a deterrent effect on NE via the attitude-willingness association. We argue that research into NE and deterrence of associated risk behaviors should be informed by psychological theory. PMID:26903909

  15. Effects of the Chinese herbal formula "Zuojin Pill" on the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan in healthy Chinese volunteers with CYP2D6*10 genotype.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Furong; Liu, Songcan; Miao, Ping; Zeng, Jin; Zhu, Leilei; Zhao, TongFang; Ye, Yujie; Jiang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Zuojin Pill has been shown to inhibit the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 isoenzyme in vitro. In Chinese individuals, CYP 2D6*10 is the most common allele with reduced enzyme activity. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetic interaction between Zuojin Pill and the sensitive CYP2D6 probe dextromethorphan in healthy Chinese volunteers with CYP2D6*10 genotype. A pharmacokinetics interaction study was carried out in three groups with CYP2D6*1/*1 (n = 6), CYP2D6*1/*10 (n = 6), and CYP2D6*10/*10 (n = 6) genotypes. Each participant received a single oral dose of dextromethorphan (15 mg) followed by Zuojin Pill (3 g twice daily) for 7 days, and received 3 g Zuojin Pill with 15 mg dextromethorphan in the last day. Blood samples (0-24 h) and urine samples (0-12 h) were collected at baseline and after the administration of Zuojin Pill, and the samples' concentration of dextromethorphan and its main metabolite dextrorphan was determined. Compared to baseline values, co-administration of Zuojin Pill (3 g twice daily) for 7 days increased the AUC0-24 of dextromethorphan [mean (90 % CI)] by 3.00-fold (2.49∼3.61) and 1.71-fold (1.42∼2.06), and decreased oral clearance(CL/F) by 0.27-fold (0.2-0.40) and 0.57-fold (0.48-0.67) in the participants with CYP2D6*1/*1 and CYP2D6*1/*10 genotypes, respectively. In contrast, no significant change was observed in these pharmacokinetic parameters of the participants with CYP2D6*10/*10 genotype. These data demonstrated that administration of Zuojin Pill inhibited moderately CYP2D6-mediated metabolism of dextromethorphan in healthy volunteers. The inhibitory influence of CYP2D6 was greater in CYP2D6*1/*1 and CYP2D6*1/*10 groups than CYP2D6 *10/*10 group.

  16. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  17. [Effects of Betel shisanwei ingredients pill on AC-cAMP-PKA signal transduction pathways in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of depressive rats].

    PubMed

    Tong, Hai-Ying; Wu, Jisiguleng; Bai, Liang-Feng; Bao, Wu-Ye; Hu, Rilebagen; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yue

    2014-05-01

    To observe the effects of Mongolian pharmaceutical Betel shisanwei ingredients pill on AC-cAMP-PKA signal transduction pathways in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of depressive rats. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups according to the sugar consumption test (10 rats in each group), normal control group,model group,fluoxetine group (3.3 mg x kg(-1)) and low dose, medium dose and high dose group (0.25, 0.5, 1 g x kg(-1)) of Betel shisanwei ingredients pill. Except the normal control,the other groups were treated with the chronic unpredictable mild stress stimulation combined with lonely raising for 28 days. 10 mL x kg(-1) of drugs were given to each rat once daily,continuously for 28 days. The AC activity of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were determined by radiation immunity analysis (RIA), while cAMP and PKA quantity were determinated by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA). The AC activity, cAMP and PKA quantity of hippocampus and prefrontal of mouse model of Chronic stress depression decreased significantly than those of control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). However, the AC activity, cAMP and PKA quantity of rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in the fluoxetine group and the Mongolian pharmaceutical Betel shisanwei ingredients pill group indecreased significantly than those of model group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Especially for the high dose group of Mongolian pharmaceutical Betel shisanwei ingredients pill. The AC-cAMP-PKA signal transduction pathways in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of depression model of rats is down-regulated, whereas Mongolian pharmaceutical Betel shisanwei ingredients pill could up-regulated it to resist depression.

  18. The origins of the giant pill-millipedes from Madagascar (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida: Arthrosphaeridae).

    PubMed

    Wesener, Thomas; Raupach, Michael J; Sierwald, Petra

    2010-12-01

    Giant pill-millipedes (order Sphaerotheriida) are large-bodied millipedes without poison glands which can roll-up into a complete ball. Their disconnected area of distribution spanning South Africa, Madagascar, India, SE Asia, Australia and New Zealand makes them interesting model organisms for biogeographic studies. The here presented phylogeny is based on a molecular dataset covering all areas of distribution with a special focus on Madagascar, where some species of giant pill-millipedes show island gigantism, reaching the size of a baseball. For our study, two mitochondrial genes (partial 16S rRNA and COI) as well as the complete nuclear 18S rDNA were sequenced. While many recent vertebrate studies hint that the ancestors of the recent Malagasy fauna crossed the >350 km wide Mozambique Channel several times, no such crossing was discovered in the Sphaerotheriida. For the first time in a molecular phylogenetic study of soil arthropods, a Madagascar-India group, the family Arthrosphaeridae, is recovered, hinting to a Gondwanan origin of the Sphaerotheriida. The Malagasy-Indian family Arthrosphaeridae forms a monophyletic, statistically well-supported group in all obtained trees. The giant pill-millipedes from Madagascar are paraphyletic because the Malagasy genus Sphaeromimus is the sister-taxon of the Indian Arthrosphaera. In Sphaeromimus, an ecotone shift occurred only once: the spiny forest species Sphaeromimus musicus forms the sister-clade to the species collected in rainforests and littoral rainforests. The two species of the Malagasy genus Zoosphaerium which express island gigantism form a monophyletic group in some trees, but these trees lack good statistical support. Deeper nodes inside the Sphaerotheriida, like the position of the Australian genera Procyliosoma and Epicyliosoma, the Southeast Asian family Zephroniidae and the South African genus Sphaerotherium could not be resolved. This study is the first genetic study inside the order Sphaerotheriida

  19. Pioneers of paediatrics: Professor Salah Abdelrahman Ali Taha

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the contributions of Professor Salah Abdelrahman Ali Taha (1927–1988), one of the pioneers in paediatrics in Sudan and Saudi Arabia. He graduated from Kitchener School of Medicine (renamed, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum[U of K]) in 1952 and was awarded an MD from the U of K in 1973, having accomplished a survey on the prevalence and underlying causes of childhood malnutrition in 14 villages. His impact was remarkable in establishing child health services in Sudan and Saudi Arabia, and in laying the foundation of the Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, King Saud University. He was also an active researcher in various fields in child health, and was pioneering in those related to nutrition. Following his return to Sudan, Dr Salah A Taha was elected Member of Parliament from his rural district in Gezira State and was the Speaker of the House of Parliament in 1986. PMID:27493360

  20. [Effects of Biejiajian Pills on Wnt signal pathway signal molecules β-catenin/TCF4 complex activities and downstream proteins cyclin D1 and MMP-2 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Wen, Bin; Sun, Haitao; He, Songqi; Cheng, Yang; Jia, Wenyan; Fan, Eryan; Pang, Jie

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of Biejiajian Pills on Wnt signal pathway and the mechanisms underlying its action to suppress the invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma. HepG2 cells cultured in the serum of rats fed with Biejiajian Pills for 48 h were examined for β-catenin expression using immunofluorescence, β-catenin/TCF4 complex activity with luciferase, and expressions of the downstream proteins cyclin D1 and MMP-2 using qRT-PCR. Biejiajian Pills-treated sera significantly reduced the expressions of cytoplasmic and nuclear β-catenin protein, cyclin D1 and MMP-2 proteins and lowered the activities of β-catenin/TCF4 complex. Biejiajian Pills may serve as a potential anti-tumor agent, whose effect might be mediated by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  1. The efficacy of the traditional Chinese medicine Juanbi pill combined with methotrexate in active rheumatoid arthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Wang, Yi-Ru; Jia, Qing-Yun; Liu, Li; Xu, Chong-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Yun; Yao, Min; Cui, Xue-Jun; Shi, Qi; Wang, Yong-Jun; Liang, Qian-Qian

    2018-03-20

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by swelling and painful joints, eventually leading to joint destruction. There is still a lack of effective therapy to treat RA. The Juanbi pill is a Chinese medicine that has been widely used to treat active RA in China for hundreds of years, relieving pain and protecting the affected joints from malformation. However, there is no solid evidence to show the effect of the Juanbi pill on the management of active RA. We will conduct a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to determine whether the traditional Chinese medicine Juanbi pill could relieve joint pain in RA and protect the joints. A total of 120 patients with active RA will be enrolled and treated with the Juanbi pill or a placebo for 3 months. The primary outcome measures are as follows: rate of in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR)50, change in the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) from baseline at beginning of therapy to 3 months, and a change in the van der Heijde modified Sharp score measured from baseline to 12 months. The secondary outcome measures are as follows: rate of change in ACR20, ACR70, Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), and change in score in the Patient Assessment of Arthritis Pain, Patient Global Assessment of Arthritis, and the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) from baseline to 2-week, 1-month, 2-month, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow up. In addition, the rate of change (score) in the ACR50 and DAS28 from the baseline to 2-week, 1-month, 2-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow up are also the secondary outcome measures. Although the Juanbi pill has been used in China for many years to treat RA, there is a lack of consensus about its effectiveness. This trial will provide convincing evidence about the effect of Juanbi pill on active RA. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02885597 . Registered on 30 August 2016.

  2. Mini-pill in lactating women.

    PubMed

    Canto, T E; Vera, L; Polanco, L E; Colven, C E

    1989-06-01

    A non-comparative study of the progestogen-only oral contraceptive, norgestrel 0.075 mg, in breast-feeding women was conducted at the Centro de Investigaciones Regionales, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. The study was designed to evaluate the overall acceptability and contraceptive efficacy of norgestrel in breast-feeding women. This report includes a survey of 200 women, all of whom were less than 26 weeks postpartum at admission; 113 were interval patients and 87 were postpartum. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 2, 6 and 12 months after admission. Overall, women experienced an increase in intermenstrual bleeding, amenorrhea, vaginal discharge and breast discomfort. The discontinuation rate at 12 months was 32.5 and the corresponding lost to follow-up rate was 22.5; this is a measure of acceptability. The 12-month life-table rate for pregnancy was 3.4 with a standard error of 2.0. Three women discontinued use of the mini-pill due to accidental pregnancy. One pregnancy was attributed to user failure and the woman conceived 9 months after entering into the study; the other two were attributed to method failure, one woman conceived 3 months after admission and the other conceived 6 months after admission.

  3. Investigation of thermodynamic and mechanical properties of AlyIn1-yP alloys by statistical moment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Vu Thi Thanh; Hung, Vu Van; Hanh, Pham Thi Minh; Tuyen, Nguyen Viet; Hai, Tran Thi; Hieu, Ho Khac

    2018-03-01

    The thermodynamic and mechanical properties of III-V zinc-blende AlP, InP semiconductors and their alloys have been studied in detail from statistical moment method taking into account the anharmonicity effects of the lattice vibrations. The nearest neighbor distance, thermal expansion coefficient, bulk moduli, specific heats at the constant volume and constant pressure of the zincblende AlP, InP and AlyIn1-yP alloys are calculated as functions of the temperature. The statistical moment method calculations are performed by using the many-body Stillinger-Weber potential. The concentration dependences of the thermodynamic quantities of zinc-blende AlyIn1-yP crystals have also been discussed and compared with those of the experimental results. Our results are reasonable agreement with earlier density functional theory calculations and can provide useful qualitative information for future experiments. The moment method then can be developed extensively for studying the atomistic structure and thermodynamic properties of nanoscale materials as well.

  4. Designing a flashcard with knowledge pills for learning to solve chemistry exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancela, Angeles; Sanchez, Angel; Maceiras, Rocio

    2012-08-01

    Nowadays, universities tend to promote more learner-centred learning, creating a more interactive and motivational environment for students and teachers. This paper describes an expanded framework to help chemical educators to construct a quiz for solution of chemical exercises in their courses. The novelty of this contribution is that the proposed tool combines a flashcards-based method with knowledge pills. The framework has three levels: definition of problem for a teacher; the quiz; use of the quiz for the student. The tool could provide predefined or automatically generated exercises of chemicals. Students could practise where and whenever they like via the Internet. Theirs answers would be registered automatically by the tool and if the students have doubts about any of the questions, they can see a knowledge pill with a teacher explanation about the solution of the exercise. Moreover, they would be able to check their scores from the tests. Once the flashcards were designed and produced, the opinions of other lecturers and students about them were considered. Both groups considered that the tool could be useful to improve the students' learning process. For future work, this design will be used with the students and its effectiveness will be analysed.

  5. Simultaneous Quantification of 11 Constituents in Wuji Pill Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled With a Triple Quadrupole Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tingting; Jin, Yiran; Ma, Yinghua; Xie, Weiwei; Xu, Huijun; Du, Yingfeng

    2016-02-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method was developed for analyzing and identifying the constituents of 11 compounds including berberine, epiberberine, berberrubine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, palmatine, evodiamine, rutaecarpine, limonin, paeoniflorin and albiflorin in Wuji pill (WJ pill), a traditional Chinese medicine. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column and the mobile phase was composed of water (0.1% formic acid and 2 mmol ammonium acetate) and methanol with a linear gradient elution. The detection was performed by multiple reaction monitoring mode, using electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. The total run time was 14 min. The calibration curves were linear with all correlation coefficients higher than 0.9987 in the tested range. The intra- and interday precisions were no more than 4.9%, and the average recoveries were from 92.4 to 107.8% with the relative standard deviations no more than 7.8%. The developed method was successfully employed to analyze five batches of WJ pill samples. This is the first time to establish a method for the quality control of WJ pill to ensure the safety and efficacy in clinical applications effectively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. "They're legal so they're safe, right?" What did the legal status of BZP-party pills mean to young people in New Zealand?

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Janie; Butler, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    The legislation on psychoactive substances has a role to play with regard to shaping social values and influencing the normalisation of drug use. In New Zealand from 2005 to 2008, benzylpiperazine-containing 'legal' party pills (BZP-party pills) were legally available for purchase, subject to controls around a minimum purchase age of 18 years, and prohibitions on free of charge distribution and advertising in certain media. This paper explores what their legal status communicated to young users. Interviews and group discussions with young people (n=58) who had used BZP-party pills in the preceding 6 months. Data were collected between June and December 2006 via a series of interviews with individuals, 'friendship' pairs, and groups comprised of participants known to each other. Young people saw BZP-party pills as 'safe' and of good quality as they were legal/government sanctioned, but also thus of inferior strength, suggesting they could take more of them. However, after using them they often reviewed their view of their safety and quality due to varied experiences. Being legal for some people meant they could use the substances without breaking the law, or having to go to 'dealers'. Their legal status also meant they were easily accessible and were seen to be 'socially acceptable', with some young people indicating they would be happy to discuss their use with their parents. However, social acceptability was, for some, a reason not to use them. These data provide a unique insight into the tension between positive and negative harm reduction messages relating to the legal nature of psychoactive drugs and as such begin to fill an information void in this area. The legal status of these 'party pills' conveys mixed messages to young people and whilst being seen as potentially safe and of good quality, this often leads to higher than 'recommended' doses being used. Nevertheless, not breaking the law or having to access BZP-party pills from 'dealers', and being able to

  7. The Lumbar Pelvic Angle, the Lumbar Component of the T1 Pelvic Angle, Correlates With HRQOL, PI-LL Mismatch, and it Predicts Global Alignment.

    PubMed

    Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Lafage, Renaud; Smith, Justin S; Passias, Peter G; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Kim, Han Jo; Mundis, Gregory M; Ames, Christopher P; Burton, Douglas C; Bess, Shay; Klineberg, Eric; Hart, Robert A; Schwab, Frank J; Lafage, Virginie

    2018-05-15

    Prospective multicenter analysis of adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients. The aim of this study was to introduce the lumbar pelvic angle (LPA), a novel parameter of spinopelvic alignment. The T1 pelvic angle (TPA), a measure of global spinopelvic alignment, correlates with health-related quality of life (HRQOL), but it may not be measureable on all intraoperative x-rays. In patients with previous interbody fusion at L5-S1, the plane of the S1 endplate can be blurred, creating error in pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis (PI-LL) measure. The LPA is more readily measured on intraoperative imaging than the TPA. ASD patients were included with either coronal Cobb angle >20°, sagittal vertical axis (SVA) >5 cm, thoracic kyphosis >60°, or pelvic tilt (PT) >25°. Measures of disability included Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Scoliosis Research Society (SRS), and Short Form (SF)-36. Baseline and 2-year follow-up radiographic and HRQOL outcomes were evaluated. Linear regressions compared LPA with radiographic parameters and HRQOL. A total of 852 ASD patients (407 operative) were enrolled (mean age 53.7). Baseline LPA correlated with PI-LL (r = 0.79), PT (r = 0.78), TPA (r = 0.82), and SVA (r = 0.61) (all P < 0.001). PI-LL, LPA, and TPA correlated with ODI (r = 0.42/0.29/0.45), SF-36 physical component score (-0.43/-0.28/-0.45) SRS (-0.354/-0.23/-0.37) with all P < 0.001. At 2 years' follow-up, LPA correlated with PI-LL (r = 0.77), PT (r = 0.78), TPA (r = 0.83), and SVA (r = 0.57) (all P < 0.001). Categorizing patients by increasing LPA (<7°; 7°-15°; >15°) revealed progressive increases in all HRQOL, PI-LL (-3.2°/12.7°/32.4°), and TPA (9.7°/20.1°/34.6°) with all P < 0.001. Moderate disability (ODI = 40) corresponded to LPA 10.1°, PI-LL 12.6°, and TPA 20.6°. Mild disability (ODI = 20) corresponded to LPA 7.2°, PI-LL 4.2°, and TPA 14.7°. LPA correlates with TPA, PI-LL, and HRQOL in ASD patients

  8. The combined oral contraceptive pill containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol plus levomefolate calcium.

    PubMed

    Rapkin, Rachel B; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2011-10-01

    Neural tube defects are the second most common congenital anomaly in the United States, although their incidence may be decreased by periconception folic acid supplementation. A new oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol plus levomefolate calcium was formulated to decrease the risk of neural tube defects in pregnancies conceived while taking or shortly after discontinuing this pill. Because of its novelty, very few studies have been performed to evaluate the efficacy, side effects and safety related to contraception, premenstrual dysphoric disorder and acne; therefore, literature evaluating similar contraceptives without levomefolate is reviewed. Additionally, we review studies evaluating the addition of levomefolate calcium to oral contraceptives containing 3 mg drospirenone and either 20 or 30 μg ethinyl estradiol. To date, no study has been performed to evaluate the effect this new oral contraceptive has on reducing the incidence of neural tube defects. This new pill has similar contraceptive efficacy, side effect, safety and benefits profile to other drospirenone-containing contraceptives. While also approved to prevent neural tube defects, no studies validate this claim and physician time is better spent counseling women, regardless of contraceptive choice, on the importance of folic acid supplementation during the child-bearing years.

  9. Mapping forest height, foliage height profiles and disturbance characteristics with time series of gap-filled Landsat and ALI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, E.; Ruzycki, T. S.; Wunderle, J. M.; Kwit, C.; Ewert, D. N.; Voggesser, S. M.; Brandeis, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    We mapped tropical dry forest height (RMSE = 0.9 m, R2 = 0.84, range 0.6-7 m) and foliage height profiles with a time series of gap-filled Landsat and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) imagery for the island of Eleuthera, The Bahamas. We also mapped disturbance type and age with decision tree classification of the image time series. Having mapped these variables in the context of studies of wintering habitat of an endangered Nearctic-Neotropical migrant bird, the Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii), we then illustrated relationships between forest vertical structure, disturbance type and counts of forage species important to the Kirtland's Warbler. The ALI imagery and the Landsat time series were both critical to the result for forest height, which the strong relationship of forest height with disturbance type and age facilitated. Also unique to this study was that seven of the eight image time steps were cloud-gap-filled images: mosaics of the clear parts of several cloudy scenes, in which cloud gaps in a reference scene for each time step are filled with image data from alternate scenes. We created each cloud-cleared image, including a virtually seamless ALI image mosaic, with regression tree normalization of the image data that filled cloud gaps. We also illustrated how viewing time series imagery as red-green-blue composites of tasseled cap wetness (RGB wetness composites) aids reference data collection for classifying tropical forest disturbance type and age.

  10. [A translation of the Tuhfe-i Aliyye--the Kina Kina (cinchona) essay by Ali Münşi of Bursa].

    PubMed

    Aydüz, Salim; Yildirim, Esma

    2002-01-01

    Ali Münşi (Bursa ? - Istanbul 1733), mostly known as Bursali Ali Münşi, is one of the most eminent physicians in the 18th century. He started education at a Bursa madrasa and attended courses given by many famous Ottoman physicians and scholars in various madrassas in Bursa. After completing his education in madrassa he was employed as a mudarris in Bursa and Istanbul madrassas. He was appointed to the Ottoman Palace and became a member of the royal physicians (etibba-yi hassa), because of his proficiency. Then, he was promoted and was officed as the head physician of the Galatasaray Enderun School. Ali Münşi has many works on medical practice, such as, Bida'at al-mübtedi, Cerrahnâme, Tuhfe-i aliyye and Altznotu Risalesi. Tuhfe-i Aliyye is known as the Kinakina Risalesi (chinchona), that is about how to treat a patient infected with malaria, by administering a drug named chinchona. Besides, it deals with the story of introducing chinchona to the Ottoman world from Europe. It was the first monography written on kinakina. There are several manuscripts of this text; for example, one is in the Bayezid Library, the other is in the Cerrahpaşa Medical School Medical History Department. This article is a Turkish transliteration of the Süleymaniye manuscript.

  11. Levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pills use during breastfeeding; effect on infants' health and development.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Omar M; Abbas, Ahmed M; Mahmoud, Hanaa R; Yones, Entsar M; Mahmoud, Ahmed; Zakherah, Mahmoud S

    2018-02-20

    The current study aims to evaluate the effect of the use of single packet of levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pills (LNG-ECPs) during breastfeeding on the health and development of the nursing infant. The current study was an ancillary observational cohort study carried out in a university hospital. We counseled all women delivered and planning birth-space and breastfeed for at least 1 year for participation during postpartum hospital stay. Eligible participants for inclusion in the randomized controlled trial (NCT 01111929) were allocated to receive adequate Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) counseling (LAM-only group) or the LAM counseling in addition to counseling about LNG-ECPs use (LAM + emergency contraception (EC) group). These pills were to be used once if unprotected intercourse did occur after expiry of any of the LAM prerequisites and before the couples started to use a reliable method of contraception. We included the first 100 women in the LAM + EC who did use the pills and the first 100 women in the control group who completed the follow-up visits for 6 months to draw the infants' outcome. The primary outcome was the difference of anthropometric measurements of the infants at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Secondary outcome was the difference in the Psycho-social, fine and gross motor, and language development using Denver development screening test. There were no statistical significant differences between both the groups regarding the infants' weight, length, head circumference, chest circumference, and mid-arm circumference at each visit (p > .05). Additionally, there were no statistically significant differences regarding all items (psycho-social, fine and gross motor, and language) of Denver development screening test between the infants in LAM-only and LAM + EC groups (p = .081). The use of single packet of LNG-ECPs during breastfeeding not objectively affects health and development of nursing infants or subjectively

  12. Does incentivising pill-taking 'crowd out' risk-information processing? Evidence from a web-based experiment.

    PubMed

    Mantzari, Eleni; Vogt, Florian; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-04-01

    The use of financial incentives for changing health-related behaviours raises concerns regarding their potential to undermine the processing of risks associated with incentivised behaviours. Uncertainty remains about the validity of such concerns. This web-based experiment assessed the impact of financial incentives on i) willingness to take a pill with side-effects; ii) the time spent viewing risk-information and iii) risk-information processing, assessed by perceived-risk of taking the pill and knowledge of its side-effects. It further assesses whether effects are moderated by limiting cognitive capacity. Two-hundred and seventy-five UK-based university staff and students were recruited online under the pretext of being screened for a fictitious drug-trial. Participants were randomised to the offer of different compensation levels for taking a fictitious pill (£0; £25; £1000) and the presence or absence of a cognitive load task (presentation of five digits for later recall). Willingness to take the pill increased with the offer of £1000 (84% vs. 67%; OR 3.66, CI 95% 1.27-10.6), but not with the offer of £25 (79% vs. 67%; OR 1.68, CI 95% 0.71-4.01). Risk-information processing was unaffected by the offer of incentives. The time spent viewing the risk-information was affected by the offer of incentives, an effect moderated by cognitive load: Without load, time increased with the value of incentives (£1000: M = 304.4sec vs. £0: M = 37.8sec, p < 0.001; £25: M = 66.6sec vs. £0: M = 37.8sec, p < 0.001). Under load, time decreased with the offer of incentives (£1000: M = 48.9sec vs. £0: M = 132.7sec, p < 0.001; £25: M = 60.9sec vs. £0: M = 132.7sec, p < 0.001), but did not differ between the two incentivised groups (p = 1.00). This study finds no evidence to suggest incentives "crowd out" risk-information processing. On the contrary, incentives appear to signal risk, an effect, however, which disappears under cognitive load. Although these findings require

  13. A User's Guide to the ALiEM Emergency Medicine Match Advice Web Series.

    PubMed

    Gisondi, Michael A; Fant, Abra; Shakeri, Nahzinine; Schnapp, Benjamin H; Lin, Michelle

    2017-06-01

    ALiEM EM Match Advice is a web series hosted on the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine website. The intended audience includes senior medical students seeking a residency in emergency medicine (EM) and the faculty members who advise them. Each episode features a panel of three EM program directors who discuss a critical step in the residency application process. This article serves as a user's guide to the series, including a timeline for viewing each episode, brief summaries of the panel discussions, and reflection questions for discussion between students and their faculty advisors.

  14. Equations of state of anhydrous AlF3 and AlI3: Modeling of extreme condition halide chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrou, Elissaios; Zaug, Joseph M.; Bastea, Sorin; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Radousky, Harry B.; Armstrong, Michael R.; Roberts, Sarah K.; Plaue, Jonathan W.

    2015-06-01

    Pressure dependent angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction measurements of alpha-phase aluminum trifluoride (α-AlF3) and separately, aluminum triiodide (AlI3) were conducted using a diamond-anvil cell. Results at 295 K extend to 50 GPa. The equations of state of AlF3 and AlI3 were determined through refinements of collected x-ray diffraction patterns. The respective bulk moduli and corresponding pressure derivatives are reported for multiple orders of the Birch-Murnaghan (B-M), finite-strain (F-f), and higher pressure finite-strain (G-g) EOS analysis models. Aluminum trifluoride exhibits an apparent isostructural phase transition at approximately 12 GPa. Aluminum triiodide also undergoes a second-order atomic rearrangement: applied stress transformed a monoclinically distorted face centered cubic (fcc) structure into a standard fcc structural arrangement of iodine atoms. Results from semi-empirical thermochemical computations of energetic materials formulated with fluorine containing reactants were obtained with the aim of predicting the yield of halogenated products.

  15. Placebos: the nurse and the iron pills

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Ella Grace

    2007-01-01

    In sub‐Saharan Africa, a nurse gives iron pills as placebos to terminally ill patients. She tells them, acting in what she believes is in their best interests, “these will make you feel better”. The patients believe it will help their AIDS and their well‐being improves. Do the motive and the patient's positive outcome in well‐being make the deceit justifiable when other issues such as consent, autonomy and potential consequences regarding the patient and the wider community are considered? Is there a difference between lying and non‐lying deception when the end result is the same? The patients feel better, but at what cost if the deceit was found out? It will be argued that although the actions of the nurse are understandable and to some extent defensible, they are unethical. It is not ethically acceptable to take away the patient's autonomy and risk the health of the community even though the risk of deceit being discovered is a small one. PMID:17526681

  16. A "Suicide Pill" for Older People: Attitudes of Physicians, the General Population, and Relatives of Patients Who Died after Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rurup, Mette L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Heide, Agnes; van Der Maas, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands there has been ongoing debate in the past 10 years about the availability of a hypothetical "suicide pill", with which older people could end their life in a dignified way if they so wished. Data on attitudes to the suicide pill were collected in the Netherlands from 410 physicians, 1,379 members of the general…

  17. [Efficacy of Qilin Pills combined with sertraline in the treatment of secondary non-consolidated kidney qi premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-xin; Lu, Qing-ge

    2015-05-01

    To observe the clinical effectiveness of Qilin Pills combined with sertraline in the treatment of secondary non-consolidated kidney qi premature ejaculation (PE). A total of 120 patients with secondary non-consolidated kidney qi PE were randomly assigned to groups A (aged [35.5 ± 5.4] yr), B (aged [36.2 ± 5.7] yr), and C (aged [35.2 ± 5.3] yr) in the ratio of 1:1:1 to receive Qilin Pills (once 6 g, bid), sertraline (once 50 mg, qd), and Qilin Pills plus sertraline, respectively, all for 4 weeks. The intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and PE diagnostic tool (PEDT) scores were obtained before and after medication and at 1 month after drug withdrawal, and comparative analyses were made among the three groups of patients. The IELT was dramatically prolonged in groups A, B, and C after treatment ([3.23 ± 1.84], [3.87 ± 2.43], and [5.92 ± 3.11] min) and at 1 month after drug withdrawal ([1.85 ± 1.27], [1.52 ± 1.06], and [ 4.26 ± 1.88 ] min) as compared with the baseline ([0.88 ± 0.45], [0.84 ± 0.47], and [0.85 ± 0.50] min) (P < 0.01), even longer in group C than in A and B (P < 0.01). The PEDT scores of the three groups were 5.1 ± 1.8, 4.9 ± 1.7, and 3.8 ± 1.2 after treatment and 8.2 ± 2.4, 8.1 ± 2.4, and 6.5 ± 2.1 at 1 month after drug withdrawal, significantly improved in comparison with 13.2 ± 3.2, 12.8 ± 3.1, and 13.1 ± 3.4 before treatment (P < 0.01), even more significantly in group C than in A and B (P < 0.01). Qilin Pills combined with sertraline has a definite efficacy in the treatment of secondary non-consolidated kidney qi PE and therefore deserves wide clinical application.

  18. Screening bioactive quality control markers of QiShenYiQi dripping pills based on the relationship between the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography fingerprint and vascular protective activity.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Limeng; Peng, Jingjing; Zhao, Yunli; Li, Dongxiang; Xie, Xiuman; Tong, Ling; Yu, Zhiguo

    2017-10-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine consists of complex phytochemical constituents. Selecting appropriate analytical markers of traditional Chinese medicine is a critical step in quality control. Currently, the combination of fingerprinting and efficacy evaluation is considered as a useful method for screening active ingredients in complex mixtures. This study was designed to develop an orthogonal partial least squares model for screening bioactive quality control markers of QishenYiqi dripping pills based on the fingerprint-efficacy relationship. First, the chemical fingerprints of 49 batches of QishenYiqi dripping pill samples were established by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. Second, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry was exploited to systematically investigate the 36 copossessing fingerprint components in QishenYiqi dripping pills. The vascular protective activity of QishenYiqi dripping pills was determined by using a cell counting kit-8 assay. Finally, fingerprint-efficacy relationship was established by orthogonal partial least squares model. The results indicated that ten components exhibited strong correlation with vascular protective activity, and these were preliminarily screened as quality control markers. The present study provided a novel idea for the study of the pharmacodynamic material basis and quality evaluation of QishenYiqi dripping pills. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Comparison of hyperspectral transformation accuracies of multispectral Landsat TM, ETM+, OLI and EO-1 ALI images for detecting minerals in a geothermal prospect area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Nguyen Tien; Koike, Katsuaki

    2018-03-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing generally provides more detailed spectral information and greater accuracy than multispectral remote sensing for identification of surface materials. However, there have been no hyperspectral imagers that cover the entire Earth surface. This lack points to a need for producing pseudo-hyperspectral imagery by hyperspectral transformation from multispectral images. We have recently developed such a method, a Pseudo-Hyperspectral Image Transformation Algorithm (PHITA), which transforms Landsat 7 ETM+ images into pseudo-EO-1 Hyperion images using multiple linear regression models of ETM+ and Hyperion band reflectance data. This study extends the PHITA to transform TM, OLI, and EO-1 ALI sensor images into pseudo-Hyperion images. By choosing a part of the Fish Lake Valley geothermal prospect area in the western United States for study, the pseudo-Hyperion images produced from the TM, ETM+, OLI, and ALI images by PHITA were confirmed to be applicable to mineral mapping. Using a reference map as the truth, three main minerals (muscovite and chlorite mixture, opal, and calcite) were identified with high overall accuracies from the pseudo-images (> 95% and > 42% for excluding and including unclassified pixels, respectively). The highest accuracy was obtained from the ALI image, followed by ETM+, TM, and OLI images in descending order. The TM, OLI, and ALI images can be alternatives to ETM+ imagery for the hyperspectral transformation that aids the production of pseudo-Hyperion images for areas without high-quality ETM+ images because of scan line corrector failure, and for long-term global monitoring of land surfaces.

  20. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the rapid analysis of constituents in the traditional Chinese medicine formula Wu Ji Bai Feng Pill.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shengnan; Qi, Wen; Zhang, Siwen; Huang, Kunkun; Yuan, Dan

    2017-10-01

    An ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method in both positive and negative ion modes was established in order to comprehensively investigate the major constituents in Wu Ji Bai Feng Pill. Briefly, a Waters ACQUITY UPLC HSS C 18 column was used to separate the aqueous extract of Wu Ji Bai Feng Pill. A total of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% aqueous formic acid v/v were used as the mobile phase. All analytes were determined using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization source in positive and negative ion modes. At length, a total of 173 components including flavones and their glycosides, monoterpene glycosides, triterpene saponins, phenethylalchohol glycosides, iridoid glycosides, phthalides, tanshinones, phenolic acids, sesquiterpenoids and cyclopeptides were identified or tentatively characterized in Wu Ji Bai Feng Pill in an analysis of 16.0 min based on the accurate mass and tandem mass spectrometry behaviors. The developed method is rapid and highly sensitive to characterize the chemical constituents of Wu Ji Bai Feng Pill, which could not only be used for chemical standardization and quality control of Wu Ji Bai Feng Pill, but also be helpful for further study in vivo metabolism of Wu Ji Bai Feng Pill. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Low-cost, high-performance nonevaporable getter pumps using nonevaporable getter pills

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kodama, Hiraku; Ohno, Shinya; Tanaka, Masatoshi

    Nonevaporable getter (NEG) pumps are widely used for maintaining a clean ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) of ≤10{sup −8 }Pa because of their high pumping speeds for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and active gases in the UHV region. In addition, they are oil free, evaporation free, sputtering free, sublimation free, magnetic field free, vibration free, economical, compact, lightweight, and energy saving. In the present paper, the authors report a new NEG pump which is composed of commercial 60 NEG pills (ϕ10 × 3 mm; 70 wt. % Zr, 24.6 wt. % V, and 5.4 wt. % Fe), titanium parts, a DN 40 conflat flange, and a tantalum heater.more » The NEG pills are vertically and radially aligned around the heater to maximize the effective area for pumping. After activation at 400 °C for 30 min, the pumping speeds of the NEG pump were measured with the orifice method. Pumping speeds of 140–130, 200–140, 190–130, and 35–17 l/s were estimated for H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} gasses, respectively, in a pumped-quantity range of 0.01–0.1 Pa l. Since the NEG pump is composed of a heating unit and a NEG module, the pumping speeds can be improved by increasing the number of NEG modules. These NEG pumps are favorable alternatives to sputtering ion pumps or titanium sublimation pumps.« less

  2. Assessment of the relationship between the use of birth control pill and the characteristics of mate selection.

    PubMed

    Gori, Alessio; Giannini, Marco; Craparo, Giuseppe; Caretti, Vincenzo; Nannini, Ilaria; Madathil, Renee; Schuldberg, David

    2014-09-01

    In recent research, scientists have begun to suspect that birth control pill use could interfere with key mechanisms that play a role when women choose a sexual partner. Many studies have shown that women, particularly during the most fertile days of their menstrual cycle, look for specific physical, psychological, and behavioral characteristics indicative of genetic quality in a short-term partner. Analysis of the psychometric properties of the Partner's Masculinity Index (PMI) scale. The scale was built to assess the degree of masculinity in hypothetical short-term partners. A total of 395 female Italian volunteers from Central Italy (M = 32.9 years old, SD = 8.58, range = 18-50 years) completed the study. The psychometric properties of PMI were then evaluated. We administered the following self-report questionnaires: (i) PMI; (ii) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Masculinity/Femininity scale; and (iii) Demographic Questionnaire. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis showed a four-factor structure for the PMI. Internal consistency of the measure, evaluated with the Cronbach's alpha, was satisfactory. Factorial ANOVA results showed that the group of nonpill users obtained higher scores on the PMI scale than the group of pill users (considering the fertile phase of the cycle). From an evolutionary point of view, changes in preference for indicators of genetic quality in a sexual partner are considered to be functional and adaptive. Pill use may have implications for both current and future generations. Directions for future research are discussed. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. [Repackaging drugs in pill-box in France: an illegal activity for pharmacists?].

    PubMed

    Hallouard, F; Bourdelin, M; Fessi, H; Bontemps, H

    2011-07-01

    Drug repackaging in pill-box by pharmacists is booming since few years. However, repackaging processes needed to open the industrially primary packaging will be found illegal in France. Thus, in this country drug repacking remains legal only by overwrapping medicines. Now, this solution is not applicable for example, with divisible or liquid forms. Therefore, packaging recommendations must be taken immediately in order to preserve the quality of drugs dispensed and to obtain a legalization of this activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. "Pregnancy and labour cause more deaths than oral contraceptives": The debate on the pill in the Spanish press in the 1960s and 1970s.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Gómez, Teresa; Ignaciuk, Agata

    2015-08-01

    From 1941 to 1978, Franco's regime in Spain banned all contraceptive methods. The pill started circulating in Spain from the 1960s, officially as a drug used in gynaecological therapy. However, in the following decade it was also increasingly used and prescribed as a contraceptive. This paper analyses debates about the contraceptive pill in the Spanish daily newspaper ABC and in two magazines, Blanco y Negro and Triunfo, in the 1960s and 1970s. It concludes that the debate on this contraceptive method was much more heterogeneous than might be expected given the Catholic-conservative character of the dictatorship. The daily press focused on the adverse effects of the drug and magazines concentrated on the ethical and religious aspects of the pill and discussed it in a generally positive light. Male doctors and Catholic authors dominated the debate. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Radiometric cross-calibration of EO-1 ALI with L7 ETM+ and Terra MODIS sensors using near-simultaneous desert observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, Gyanesh; Angal, Amit; Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2013-01-01

    The Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite was launched on November 21, 2000, as part of a one-year technology demonstration mission. The mission was extended because of the value it continued to add to the scientific community. EO-1 has now been operational for more than a decade, providing both multispectral and hyperspectral measurements. As part of the EO-1 mission, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) sensor demonstrates a potential technological direction for the next generation of Landsat sensors. To evaluate the ALI sensor capabilities as a precursor to the Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM, or Landsat 8 after launch), its measured top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances were compared to the well-calibrated Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors in the reflective solar bands (RSB). These three satellites operate in a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit 705 km above the Earth's surface. EO-1 was designed to fly one minute behind L7 and approximately 30 minutes in front of Terra. In this configuration, all the three sensors can view near-identical ground targets with similar atmospheric, solar, and viewing conditions. However, because of the differences in the relative spectral response (RSR), the measured physical quantities can be significantly different while observing the same target. The cross-calibration of ALI with ETM+ and MODIS was performed using near-simultaneous surface observations based on image statistics from areas observed by these sensors over four desert sites (Libya 4, Mauritania 2, Arabia 1, and Sudan 1). The differences in the measured TOA reflectances due to RSR mismatches were compensated by using a spectral band adjustment factor (SBAF), which takes into account the spectral profile of the target and the RSR of each sensor. For this study, the spectral profile of the target comes from the near-simultaneous EO-1

  6. Equations of state of anhydrous AlF 3 and AlI 3 : Modeling of extreme condition halide chemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Stavrou, Elissaios; Zaug, Joseph M.; Bastea, Sorin; ...

    2015-06-04

    Pressure dependent angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction measurements of alpha-phase aluminum trifluoride (α-AlF 3) and separately, aluminum triiodide (AlI 3) were conducted using a diamond-anvil cell. Results at 295 K extend to 50 GPa. The equations of state of AlF 3 and AlI 3 were determined through refinements of collected x-ray diffraction patterns. The respective bulk moduli and corresponding pressure derivatives are reported for multiple orders of the Birch-Murnaghan (B-M), finite-strain (F-f), and higher pressure finite-strain (G-g) EOS analysis models. Aluminum trifluoride exhibits an apparent isostructural phase transition at approximately 12 GPa. Aluminum triiodide also undergoes a second-order atomic rearrangement: appliedmore » stress transformed a monoclinically distorted face centered cubic (fcc) structure into a standard fcc structural arrangement of iodine atoms. In conclusion, results from semi-empirical thermochemical computations of energetic materials formulated with fluorine containing reactants were obtained with the aim of predicting the yield of halogenated products.« less

  7. Equations of state of anhydrous AlF 3 and AlI 3 : Modeling of extreme condition halide chemistry

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stavrou, Elissaios; Zaug, Joseph M.; Bastea, Sorin

    Pressure dependent angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction measurements of alpha-phase aluminum trifluoride (α-AlF 3) and separately, aluminum triiodide (AlI 3) were conducted using a diamond-anvil cell. Results at 295 K extend to 50 GPa. The equations of state of AlF 3 and AlI 3 were determined through refinements of collected x-ray diffraction patterns. The respective bulk moduli and corresponding pressure derivatives are reported for multiple orders of the Birch-Murnaghan (B-M), finite-strain (F-f), and higher pressure finite-strain (G-g) EOS analysis models. Aluminum trifluoride exhibits an apparent isostructural phase transition at approximately 12 GPa. Aluminum triiodide also undergoes a second-order atomic rearrangement: appliedmore » stress transformed a monoclinically distorted face centered cubic (fcc) structure into a standard fcc structural arrangement of iodine atoms. In conclusion, results from semi-empirical thermochemical computations of energetic materials formulated with fluorine containing reactants were obtained with the aim of predicting the yield of halogenated products.« less

  8. Effect of pill burden on dosing preferences, willingness to pay, and likely adherence among patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hauber, A Brett; Han, Steven; Yang, Jui-Chen; Gantz, Ira; Tunceli, Kaan; Gonzalez, Juan Marcos; Brodovicz, Kimberly; Alexander, Charles M; Davies, Michael; Iglay, Kristy; Zhang, Qiaoyi; Radican, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To quantify willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing pill burden and dosing frequency among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to examine the effect of dosing frequency and pill burden on likely medication adherence. Patients and methods Participants were US adults with T2DM on oral antihyperglycemic therapy. Each patient completed an online discrete-choice experiment (DCE) with eight choice questions, each including a pair of hypothetical medication profiles. Each profile was defined by reduction in average glucose (AG), daily dosing, chance of mild-to-moderate stomach problems, frequency of hypoglycemia, weight change, incremental risk of congestive heart failure (CHF), and cost. Patients were asked to rate their likely adherence to the profiles presented in each question. Choice questions were based on a predetermined experimental design. Choice data were analyzed using random-parameters logit. Likely treatment adherence was analyzed using a Heckman two-stage model. Results Of the 1,114 patients who completed the survey, 90 had lower dosing burden (<5 pills/day taken once/day or as needed) for all medications, and 1,024 had higher dosing burden (≥5 pills/day or more than once/day). Reduction in AG was valued most highly by patients. Hypoglycemia, chance of mild-to-moderate stomach problems, weight change, incremental risk of CHF, and daily dosing were less valued. Patients with higher current dosing burden had lower WTP for more convenient dosing schedules than patients with lower current dosing burden. Changes in dosing and cost impacted likely adherence. The magnitude of the impact of dosing on likely adherence was higher for patients with lower current dosing burden than for patients with higher current dosing burden. Conclusion Patients with T2DM were willing to pay for improvements in efficacy, side effects, and dosing. Patients’ WTP for more convenient dosing depended on current dosing burden, as did the effect of these attributes

  9. The Therapeutic Effects of a Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula Wuzi Yanzong Pill for the Treatment of Oligoasthenozoospermia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiao; Kong, Grace Wing Shan; Wu, Justin Che Yuen; Li, Tin Chiu

    2018-01-01

    Oligoasthenozoospermia is a crucial factor in male infertility. Wuzi Yanzong (WZYZ) pill is a popular traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula which has been used for male infertility treatment for years. However, its effects on semen quality remain controversial. We conducted a preregistered meta-analysis to assess the effect of WZYZ pill for the therapeutic effects on oligoasthenozoospermia. Five randomized controlled trials including 960 participants were selected from databases of domains in North-East Asian regions, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. WZYZ pill group yielded a greater mean increment on sperm concentration (5 trials: MD 5.99, 95% CI 2.12–9.85, P = 0.002), sperm motility (5 trials: MD 4.57, 95% CI 0.47–8.68, P = 0.03), sperm morphology (2 trials: MD −1.93, 95% CI −4.87–1.01, P = 0.20), activity of acrosomal enzyme (2 trials: MD 28.27, 95% CI 12.41–44.14, P < 0.01), volume of semen (2 trials: MD 0.56, 95% CI 0.21–0.91, P = 0.002), and a decrement of sperm DNA fragmentation index (2 trials: MD −3.82, 95% CI −6.45–−1.19, P = 0.004). However, qualities of selected studies were generally unsatisfactory, and there was inherent heterogeneity among some of the outcomes. Despite these limitations, the WZYZ pill improved sperm quality by improving several semen parameters and decreasing DNA damage in oligoasthenozoospermia patients. PMID:29576794

  10. Monitoring the quality consistency of Fufang Danshen Pills using micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprint coupled with prediction of antioxidant activity and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhengchao; Sun, Wanyang; Sun, Guoxiang; Zhang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    A fast micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprint method combined with quantification was developed and validated to evaluate the quality of Fufang Danshen Pills, a traditional Chinese Medicine, which has been used in the treatment of cardiovascular system diseases, in which the tetrahedron optimization method was first used to optimize the background electrolyte solution. Subsequently, the index of the fingerprint information amount of I was performed as an excellent objective indictor to investigate the experimental conditions. In addition, a systematical quantified fingerprint method was constructed for evaluating the quality consistency of 20 batches of test samples obtained from the same drug manufacturer. The fingerprint analysis combined with quantitative determination of two components showed that the quality consistency of the test samples was quite good within the same commercial brand. Furthermore, the partial least squares model analysis was used to explore the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between active components and antioxidant activity in vitro, which can be applied for the assessment of anti-oxidant activity of Fufang Danshen pills and provide valuable medicinal information for quality control. The result illustrated that the present study provided a reliable and reasonable method for monitoring the quality consistency of Fufang Danshen pills. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Ali Observatory in Tibet: a unique northern site for future CMB ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Meng

    2015-08-01

    Ground-based CMB observations have been performed at the South Pole and the Atacama desert in Chile. However, a significant fraction of the sky can not be observed from just these two sites. For a full sky coverage from the ground in the future, a northern site for CMB observation, in particular CMB polarization, is required. Besides the long-thought site in Greenland, the high altitude Tibet plateau provides another opportunity. I will describe the Ali Observatory in Tibet, located at N32°19', E80°01', as a potential site for ground-based CMB observations. The new site is located on almost 5100m mountain, near Gar town, where is an excellent site for both infrared and submillimeter observations. Study with the long-term database of ground weather stations and archival satellite data has been performed. The site has enough relative height on the plateau and is accessible by car. The Shiquanhe town is 40 mins away by driving, and a recently opened airport with 40 mins driving, the site also has road excess, electricity, and optical fiber with fast internet. Preliminary measurement of the Precipitable Water Vapor is ~one quarter less than 0.5mm per year and the long term monitoring is under development. In addition, surrounding higher sites are also available and could be further developed if necessary. Ali provides unique northern sky coverage and together with the South Pole and the Atacama desert, future CMB observations will be able to cover the full sky from ground.

  12. Is Time an Important Problem in Management of Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia by Using an Amlodipine-Atorvastatin Single Pill Combination?

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rui; Wang, Mian; Zhang, Li

    2016-07-26

    BACKGROUND Is the timing of dosing for amlodipine and atorvastatin important with regard to therapeutic efficacy? To answer this question, we designed an outpatient, practice-based, case-control study lasting 8 weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two hundred patients were divided into 2 groups: in Group I, patients were provided with a single pill containing amlodipine/atorvastatin (5/20 mg) to be taken each night at 10 pm, and in Group II, patients were taking amlodipine (5 mg) and atorvastatin (20 mg) each morning at 7 am. RESULTS Our results indicated no obvious difference in blood pressure control between the 2 groups. Taking amlodipine at night not only lowered blood pressure, but it also provided better control during the peak blood pressure in the morning. Hypercholesterolemia control in the 2 groups was also not significantly different, taking atorvastatin in the morning was as effective as dosing at night in patients with hypercholesterolemia. While the carotid IMT, hs-CRP, and LVMI were significantly lower after treatment, no differences were found between the 2 groups. Although no obvious difference was found in adverse drug reactions between the 2 groups, compliance was much better in the single-pill group than in patients taking the 2 medications separately. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, single-pill amlodipine-atorvastatin taken at night can lower blood pressure and reduce the morning peak blood pressure levels the next day. Additionally, this dosing method could improve patient adherence to the therapy.

  13. A User’s Guide to the ALiEM Emergency Medicine Match Advice Web Series

    PubMed Central

    Gisondi, Michael A.; Fant, Abra; Shakeri, Nahzinine; Schnapp, Benjamin H.; Lin, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    ALiEM EM Match Advice is a web series hosted on the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine website. The intended audience includes senior medical students seeking a residency in emergency medicine (EM) and the faculty members who advise them. Each episode features a panel of three EM program directors who discuss a critical step in the residency application process. This article serves as a user’s guide to the series, including a timeline for viewing each episode, brief summaries of the panel discussions, and reflection questions for discussion between students and their faculty advisors. PMID:28611891

  14. Outcome prediction in pneumonia induced ALI/ARDS by clinical features and peptide patterns of BALF determined by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Jochen; Gessner, Christian; Sandvoss, Torsten; Hammerschmidt, Stefan; Schellenberger, Wolfgang; Sack, Ulrich; Eschrich, Klaus; Wirtz, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Peptide patterns of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were assumed to reflect the complex pathology of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) better than clinical and inflammatory parameters and may be superior for outcome prediction. A training group of patients suffering from ALI/ARDS was compiled from equal numbers of survivors and nonsurvivors. Clinical history, ventilation parameters, Murray's lung injury severity score (Murray's LISS) and interleukins in BALF were gathered. In addition, samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were analyzed by means of hydrophobic chromatography and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for each clinical and cytokine parameter revealed interleukin-6>interleukin-8>diabetes mellitus>Murray's LISS as the best outcome predictors. Outcome predicted on the basis of BALF levels of interleukin-6 resulted in 79.4% accuracy, 82.7% sensitivity and 76.1% specificity (area under the ROC curve, AUC, 0.853). Both clinical parameters and cytokines as well as peptide patterns determined by MALDI-ToF MS were analyzed by classification and regression tree (CART) analysis and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms. CART analysis including Murray's LISS, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in combination was correct in 78.0%. MALDI-ToF MS of BALF peptides did not reveal a single identifiable biomarker for ARDS. However, classification of patients was successfully achieved based on the entire peptide pattern analyzed using SVM. This method resulted in 90% accuracy, 93.3% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity following a 10-fold cross validation (AUC = 0.953). Subsequent validation of the optimized SVM algorithm with a test group of patients with unknown prognosis yielded 87.5% accuracy, 83.3% sensitivity and 90.0% specificity. MALDI-ToF MS peptide patterns of BALF, evaluated by appropriate mathematical methods can be of value in predicting outcome in pneumonia induced

  15. Prazosin, an adrenergic blocking agent inadequate as male contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    Kjaergaard, N; Kjaergaard, B; Lauritsen, J G

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and the acceptability of Prazosin as a male contraceptive pill. Acceptable antifertility drugs for men are proving difficult to produce, and the possibility of using pharmacological agents to block selectively or to inhibit normal sperm transport through the male genital tract is an interesting approach. Prazosin administered in doses up to 10 mg/day did not cause azoospermia following ejaculation. In conclusion, we have not been able to confirm either the efficacy or the acceptability of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist Prazosin as a male contraceptive drug. Homonnai et al. confirmed the fact that phenoxybenzamine blocks ejaculation, but it should be noted that although both drugs are alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocking agents, they are not chemically identical.

  16. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Udani, Jay K.; George, Annie A.; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N.; Abas, Azreena

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40–65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers. PMID:24550993

  17. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Udani, Jay K; George, Annie A; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N; Abas, Azreena

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40-65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers.

  18. Use of EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) multispectral image data and real-time field sampling for water quality mapping in the Hirfanlı Dam Lake, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kavurmacı, Murat; Ekercin, Semih; Altaş, Levent; Kurmaç, Yakup

    2013-08-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of water quality variations in Hirfanlı Water Reservoir, which is one of the most important water resources in Turkey, through EO-1 (Earth Observing-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) multispectral data and real-time field sampling. The study was materialized in 20 different sampling points during the overpass of the EO-1 ALI sensor over the study area. A multi-linear regression technique was used to explore the relationships between radiometrically corrected EO-1 ALI image data and water quality parameters: chlorophyll a, turbidity, and suspended solids. The retrieved and verified results show that the measured and estimated values of water quality parameters are in good agreement (R (2) >0.93). The resulting thematic maps derived from EO-1 multispectral data for chlorophyll a, turbidity, and suspended solids show the spatial distribution of the water quality parameters. The results indicate that the reservoir has average nutrient values. Furthermore, chlorophyll a, turbidity, and suspended solids values increased at the upstream reservoir and shallow coast of the Hirfanlı Water Reservoir.

  19. The effect of a combination therapy with myo-inositol and a combined oral contraceptive pill versus a combined oral contraceptive pill alone on metabolic, endocrine, and clinical parameters in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Massimo; Costantino, Demetrio; Guaraldi, Claudia; Unfer, Vittorio

    2011-11-01

    Compare the effects of a combined contraceptive pill (OCP) in combination with myo-inositol (MI) on endocrine, metabolic, and clinical parameters in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). One hundred fifty-five patients with PCOS were enrolled in this prospective, open-label clinical study. Patients were assigned to receive oral treatment with OCP alone (estradiol (EE) 30 μg/gestodene 75 μg) or in combination with myo-inositol 4 g/die, for 12 months. OCP plus MI therapy resulted in a higher reduction of FG score compared with OCP alone therapy. The combined therapy (OCP plus MI) significantly decreased hyperinsulinaemia, by positively affecting the fasting insulin and glucose levels and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance parameters, while no significant changes were observed in the OCP group. Androgens serum levels decreased in both groups, but significantly more in the combined therapy group. The lipid profile was improved in the combined therapy group, by reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and enhancing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Our data show that a combination of combined contraceptive pill and MI may be more effective in controlling endocrine, metabolic, and clinical profile in patients with PCOS than OCP alone, and may reduce insulin levels and insulin resistance. Hence, combined treatment may become a more effective long-term therapeutic choice for controlling PCOS symptoms.

  20. Porphyry Cu-Au mineralization in the Mirkuh Ali Mirza magmatic complex, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghsoudi, A.; Yazdi, M.; Mehrpartou, M.; Vosoughi, M.; Younesi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Mirkuh Ali Mirza Cu-Au porphyry system in East Azerbaijan Province is located on the western part of the Cenozoic Alborz-Azerbaijan volcanic belt. The belt is also an important Cu-Mo-Au metallogenic province in northwestern Iran. The exposed rocks in the study area consist of a volcaniclastic sequence, subvolcanic rocks and intermediate to mafic lava flows of Neogene age. The volcanic rocks show a typical subduction-related magmatic arc geological and geochemical signature, with low concentration of Nb, Ta, and Ti. Mineralization is hosted by Neogene dacitic tuff and porphyritic dacite situated at the intersections of northeast and northwest faults. Field observations, alteration zonation, geochemical haloes and isotopic data of the Mirkuh Ali Mirza magmatic complex show similarities with typical convergent margin Cu-Au porphyry type deposits. The following features confirm the classic model for Cu-Au porphyry systems: (a) close spatial association with high-K calcalkaline to shoshonitic rock related to post-collision extensional setting (b) low grade Cu (0.57%) (c) stockworks as well as disseminated sulfides (c) zonality of the alteration patterns from intense phyllic at the center to outward weak-phyllic, argillic, and propylitic (d) the presence of a pyritic halo (e) accompanied by sheeted veins and low-sulfidation epithermal gold (f) mineralization spatially associated with intersection of structures, (g) genetically related to diorite porphyry stocks at depth (h) geochemical zonation of (Cu ± Au ± Ag ± Bi) → (Cu + Mo ± Bi ± Au ± Pb ± Zn ± As) → (Au + Mo ± Pb ± Zn) → (As + Ag + Sb + Mn + Ba + Pb + Zn + Hg) → Hg from center to outwards (i) The range of sulfur isotopic values is approximately zero (interpreted to have magmatic source) and similar to other subduction-related porphyry Cu deposits.

  1. Synthesis of Multispectral Bands from Hyperspectral Data: Validation Based on Images Acquired by AVIRIS, Hyperion, ALI, and ETM+

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Glasser, Gerald; Russell, Jeffrey; Ryan, Robert; Terrie, Greg; Zanoni, Vicki

    2003-01-01

    Spectral band synthesis is a key step in the process of creating a simulated multispectral image from hyperspectral data. In this step, narrow hyperspectral bands are combined into broader multispectral bands. Such an approach has been used quite often, but to the best of our knowledge accuracy of the band synthesis simulations has not been evaluated thus far. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to provide validation of the spectral band synthesis algorithm used in the ART software. The next section contains a description of the algorithm and an example of its application. Using spectral responses of AVIRIS, Hyperion, ALI, and ETM+, the following section shows how the synthesized spectral bands compare with actual bands, and it presents an evaluation of the simulation accuracy based on results of MODTRAN modeling. In the final sections of the paper, simulated images are compared with data acquired by actual satellite sensors. First, a Landsat 7 ETM+ image is simulated using an AVIRIS hyperspectral data cube. Then, two datasets collected with the Hyperion instrument from the EO-1 satellite are used to simulate multispectral images from the ALI and ETM+ sensors.

  2. Conformational preferences of DNA following damage by aristolochic acids: Structural and energetic insights into the different mutagenic potential of the ALI and ALII-N(6)-dA adducts.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Preetleen; Sharma, Purshotam; Abendong, Minette N; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2015-04-21

    Aristolochic acids (AAI and AAII), produced by the Aristolochiaceae family of plants, are classified as group I (human) carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. These acids are metabolized in cells to yield aristolactams (ALI and ALII, respectively), which further form bulky adducts with the purine nucleobases. Specifically, the adenine lesions are more persistent in cells and have been associated with chronic renal diseases and related carcinogenesis. To understand the structural basis of the nephrotoxicity induced by AAs, the ALI-N(6)-dA and ALII-N(6)-dA lesions are systematically studied using computational methods. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the aristolactam moiety intrinsically prefers a planar conformation with respect to adenine. Nucleoside and nucleotide models suggest that the anti and syn orientations about the glycosidic bond are isoenergetic for both adducts. Molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations reveal that the anti base-displaced intercalated conformation is the most stable conformer for both types of AL-N(6)-dA adducted DNA, which agrees with previous experimental work on the ALII-N(6)-dA adduct and thereby validates our approach. Interestingly, this conformer differs from the dominant conformations adopted by other N6-linked adenine lesions, including those derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Furthermore, the second most stable syn base-displaced intercalated conformation lies closer in energy to the anti base-displaced intercalated conformation for ALI-N(6)-dA compared to ALII-N(6)-dA. This indicates that a mixture of conformations may be detectable for ALI-N(6)-dA in DNA. If this enhanced conformational flexibility of double-stranded DNA persists when bound to a lesion-bypass polymerase, this provides a possible structural explanation for the previously observed greater nephrotoxic potential for the ALI versus ALII-N(6)-dA adduct. In addition, the structural

  3. [From a method for family planning to a differentiating lifestyle drug: images of the pill and its consumer in gynaecological advertising since the 1960s in West Germany and France].

    PubMed

    Malich, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Based upon flyers and advertisements for the contraceptive pill from 1961 until 2005, this paper discusses the ways in which the drug and its female users were represented in the marketing of two West European countries, France and the German Federal Republic. As my analysis suggests, national differences are only discernible in the marketing until the end of the 1970s. In West Germany, the pill was depicted from early on as a contraceptive, whereas, due to the restrictive legal situation, in France the pill was marketed as a multi-purpose drug. Nevertheless, the sources in both countries emphasized the safety of the drug. Likewise the representations of women changed from the notion of the married mother to a more diverse image, including young, modern and active women. From the early 1980s on, French and German materials conformed to one another. Now more classification systems were developed, emphasizing the differences between types of pills and types of women. Lifestyle, leisure and fun became increasingly central topics. Correspondingly, the female user was often portrayed in a sexualized way and represented as an active consumer with individual needs and wishes.

  4. [Oral Testosterone Undecanoate Capsules combined with Qilin Pills for late-onset hypogonadism in males].

    PubMed

    Mao, Jun-Biao; Chen, Xiao-Gang; Gui, Ding-Wen; Peng, Wei; Zheng, Jie

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the clinical effects of oral Testosterone Undecanoate Capsules (TUC) combined with Qilin Pills (QLP) on late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in men. Sixty-three LOH patients meeting the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into a control group (aged [48.4 ± 6.2] yr, n = 32) and an experimental group (aged [47.2 ± 5.6] yr, n = 31) to be treated with oral TUC (80 mg, qd) and TUC + QLP (6g, tid), respectively, both for 3 months. Comparisons were made between the two groups of patients in the IIEF-5 scores, total testosterone (TT) levels, and scores in the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale before and after treatment. After treatment, the patients of the experimental group, as compared with the controls, showed a significantly increased IIEF-5 score (21.7 ± 5.8 vs 15.9 ± 4.7, P <0.05) and TT level ([16.7 ± 2.2] vs [13.1 ± 2.8] nmol/L, P <0.05), but a decreased AMS score (20.7 ± 5.7 vs 31.3±6.5, P <0.05). TUC combined with Qilin Pills has a better effect and a lower rate of adverse reactions than TUC used alone in the treatment of late-onset hypogonadism in males.

  5. Adherence to Warfarin Assessed by Electronic Pill Caps, Clinician Assessment, and Patient Reports: Results from the IN-RANGE Study

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Catherine S.; Chen, Zhen; Price, Maureen; Gross, Robert; Metlay, Joshua P.; Christie, Jason D.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Newcomb, Craig W.; Samaha, Frederick F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Patient adherence to warfarin may influence anticoagulation control; yet, adherence among warfarin users has not been rigorously studied. Objective Our goal was to quantify warfarin adherence over time and to compare electronic medication event monitoring systems (MEMS) cap measurements with both self-report and clinician assessment of patient adherence. Design We performed a prospective cohort study of warfarin users at 3 Pennsylvania-based anticoagulation clinics and assessed pill-taking behaviors using MEMS caps, patient reports, and clinician assessments. Results Among 145 participants, the mean percent of days of nonadherence by MEMS was 21.8% (standard deviation±21.1%). Participants were about 6 times more likely to take too few pills than to take extra pills (18.8 vs. 3.3%). Adherence changed over time, initially worsening over the first 6 months of monitoring, which was followed by improvement beyond 6 months. Although clinicians were statistically better than chance at correctly labeling a participant’s adherence (odds ratio = 2.05, p = 0.015), their estimates often did not correlate with MEMS-cap data; clinicians judged participants to be “adherent” at 82.8% of visits that were categorized as moderately nonadherent using MEMS-cap data (≥20% nonadherence days). Similarly, at visits when participants were moderately nonadherent by MEMS, they self-reported perfect adherence 77.9% of the time. Conclusions These results suggest that patients may benefit from adherence counseling even when they claim to be taking their warfarin or the clinician feels they are doing so, particularly several months into their course of therapy. PMID:17587092

  6. Impact and mechanistic role of oral contraceptive pills on the number and epithelial type of ovarian cortical inclusion cysts; a clinicopathology and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    DastranjTabrizi, Ali; MostafaGharabaghi, Parvin; SheikhzadehHesari, Farzam; Sadeghi, Liela; Zamanvandi, Sharareh; Sarbakhsh, Parvin; Ghojazadeh, Morteza

    2016-03-22

    Ovarian epithelial cancers are among the most lethal women's cancers. There is no doubt about the preventive role of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) in development of ovarian cancers. But, there are limited numbers of studies to address the effect of these agents on the number of cortical inclusion cysts (CICs), their epithelial type and suppression of the metaplastic phenomenon by these pills. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of these agents in the prevention of these cyst formation and tubal metaplasia and also examine the mesenchymal-epithelial transition theory in this context by immunohistochemical methods. The representative section(s) of ovarian cortex from a total number of 201 consecutive total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral or unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy specimens were examined for mean number of CICs and their epithelial type between two groups of the patients. Group A included the patients who were on oral contraceptive pills for more than 5 years. All of the subjects with other contraceptive methods or a history of less than 5 years contraceptive pills usage were stratified in group B. Sections from 20 cases in which more than five inclusion cysts were found, were selected for IHC staining with calretinine and PAX8 as markers for mesothelium and mullerian epithelium respectively. The mean age of the patients was 51.67 years with no significant differences between two groups. The mean number of cysts were 1.27 and 3.23 in group A and B respectively (P =0.0001). Similarly the mean number of CICs, lined by tubal epithelium, was significantly different between two groups (0.65 vs 2.65, P =0.0001). In IHC staining 123 out of 150 CICs (82 %) were PAX+ while only 7 CICs (4.8 %) showed positive reaction for calretinin irrespective of type of epithelium. Our findings showed that the use of OCP for more than five years in women, significantly prevents development of cortical inclusion cysts in the ovaries which lined by tubal

  7. Pills on the World Wide Web: reducing barriers through technology.

    PubMed

    Gawron, Lori M; Turok, David K

    2015-10-01

    Oral contraceptive pills are safe, effective, and available without a prescription in most countries. Despite support from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to provide oral contraceptives as an over-the-counter medication, US women are still required to have a prescription to obtain them. Use of online applications and the Internet has made most things easier to obtain in our society and this includes contraceptive methods. Several online ventures are now underway to enable US women to obtain oral contraceptives without visiting a medical provider's office. Women's health care professionals should encourage these novel approaches, as they will improve contraceptive access. As US women experiment with innovative health care models, providers will need to lead, follow, or be left behind. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The suppression effect of a periodic surface with semicircular grooves on the high power microwave long pill-box window multipactor phenomenon

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhang, Xue, E-mail: zhangxue.iecas@yahoo.com; Wang, Yong; Fan, Junjie

    2014-09-15

    To improve the transmitting power in an S-band klystron, a long pill-box window that has a disk with grooves with a semicircular cross section is theoretically investigated and simulated. A Monte-Carlo algorithm is used to track the secondary electron trajectories and analyze the multipactor scenario in the long pill-box window and on the grooved surface. Extending the height of the long-box window can decrease the normal electric field on the surface of the window disk, but the single surface multipactor still exists. It is confirmed that the window disk with periodic semicircular grooves can explicitly suppress the multipactor and predominantlymore » depresses the local field enhancement and the bottom continuous multipactor. The difference between semicircular and sharp boundary grooves is clarified numerically and analytically.« less

  9. The suppression effect of a periodic surface with semicircular grooves on the high power microwave long pill-box window multipactor phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue; Wang, Yong; Fan, Junjie; Zhong, Yong; Zhang, Rui

    2014-09-01

    To improve the transmitting power in an S-band klystron, a long pill-box window that has a disk with grooves with a semicircular cross section is theoretically investigated and simulated. A Monte-Carlo algorithm is used to track the secondary electron trajectories and analyze the multipactor scenario in the long pill-box window and on the grooved surface. Extending the height of the long-box window can decrease the normal electric field on the surface of the window disk, but the single surface multipactor still exists. It is confirmed that the window disk with periodic semicircular grooves can explicitly suppress the multipactor and predominantly depresses the local field enhancement and the bottom continuous multipactor. The difference between semicircular and sharp boundary grooves is clarified numerically and analytically.

  10. NMR-based plasma metabolomic discrimination for male fertility assessment of rats treated with Eurycoma longifolia extracts.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Forough; Ibrahim, Baharudin; Teh, Chin-Hoe; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2017-06-01

    Male infertility is one of the leading causes of infertility which affects many couples worldwide. Semen analysis is a routine examination of male fertility status which is usually performed on semen samples obtained through masturbation that may be inconvenient to patients. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali, TA), native to Malaysia, has been traditionally used as a remedy to boost male fertility. In our recent studies in rats, upon the administration of high-quassinoid content extracts of TA including TA water (TAW), quassinoid-rich TA (TAQR) extracts, and a low-quassinoid content extract including quassinoid-poor TA (TAQP) extract, sperm count (SC) increased in TAW- and TAQR-treated rats when compared to the TAQP-treated and control groups. Consequently, the rats were divided into normal- (control and TAQP-treated) and high- (TAW- and TAQR-treated) SC groups [Ebrahimi et al. 2016]. Post-treatment rat plasma was collected. An optimized plasma sample preparation method was developed with respect to the internal standards sodium 3- (trimethylsilyl) propionate- 2,2,3,3- d4 (TSP) and deuterated 4-dimethyl-4-silapentane-1-ammonium trifluoroacetate (DSA). Carr-Purcell-Meibum-Gill (CPMG) experiments combined with orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was employed to evaluate plasma metabolomic changes in normal- and high-SC rats. The potential biomarkers associated with SC increase were investigated to assess fertility by capturing the metabolomic profile of plasma. DSA was selected as the optimized internal standard for plasma analysis due to its significantly smaller half-height line width (W h/2 ) compared to that of TSP. The validated OPLS-DA model clearly discriminated the CPMG profiles in regard to the SC level. Plasma profiles of the high-SC group contained higher levels of alanine, lactate, and histidine, while ethanol concentration was significantly higher in the normal-SC group. This approach might be a new alternative applicable to

  11. [Effects of qishenyiqi gutta pills on calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II in rats with renal hypertension].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-ying; Wei, Wan-lin; Shu, Chang-cheng; Zhang, Ling; Tian, Guo-xiang

    2013-02-05

    To explore the effects of qishenyiqi gutta pills on myocardial hypertrophy of left ventricle and calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CAMK II) in rats with renal hypertension and elucidate its intervention mechanism for myocardial hypertrophy. A total of 50 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of sham-operation, control, high-dose qishenyiqi gutta pills, low-dose qishenyiqi gutta pills and valsartan (n = 10 each). The rat model of myocardial hypertrophy with renal hypertension was established by the 2-kidney 1-clip (2K1C) method. The experimental animals were divided into control, high-dose, low-dose and valsartan groups. At Week 5 postoperation, valsartan group received an oral dose of valsartan (30 mg×kg(-1)×d(-1)), high-dose and low-dose groups took qishenyiqi gutta pills (250 and 125 mg×kg(-1)×d(-1)) while sham-operation and control groups had the same dose of normal saline solution. Tail arterial pressure was detected weekly and continued for 8 weeks. At the end of Week 12, the animals were sacrificed to harvest myocardial tissue of left ventricle for detecting left ventricular mass index (LVMI). The collagen volume fraction (CVF) of myocardium was examined by Van Gieson staining, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the expression of CAMK II was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. (1) Blood pressures were significantly higher in high-dose, low-dose and control groups than those in sham-operation and valsartan groups ((167.66 ± 11.48), (166.72 ± 13.51), (174.34 ± 14.52) vs (119.57 ± 6.30), (131.80 ± 12.49) mm Hg, P < 0.01). The changes of blood pressure had no significant difference between high-dose and low-dose groups. (2) LVMI and CVF increased significantly in high-dose, low-dose and valsartan groups versus sham-operation group (LVMI: (1.98 ± 0.16), (2.09 ± 0.14), (1.97 ± 0.17) vs (1.74 ± 0.17) g/kg; CVF

  12. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Abdali, Khadijeh; Jahed, Leila; Amooee, Sedigheh; Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Bekhradi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01). Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis.

  13. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Abdali, Khadijeh; Jahed, Leila; Amooee, Sedigheh; Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Bekhradi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01). Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis. PMID:26266260

  14. Outcome Prediction in Pneumonia Induced ALI/ARDS by Clinical Features and Peptide Patterns of BALF Determined by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Jochen; Gessner, Christian; Sandvoss, Torsten; Hammerschmidt, Stefan; Schellenberger, Wolfgang; Sack, Ulrich; Eschrich, Klaus; Wirtz, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Background Peptide patterns of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were assumed to reflect the complex pathology of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) better than clinical and inflammatory parameters and may be superior for outcome prediction. Methodology/Principal Findings A training group of patients suffering from ALI/ARDS was compiled from equal numbers of survivors and nonsurvivors. Clinical history, ventilation parameters, Murray's lung injury severity score (Murray's LISS) and interleukins in BALF were gathered. In addition, samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were analyzed by means of hydrophobic chromatography and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for each clinical and cytokine parameter revealed interleukin-6>interleukin-8>diabetes mellitus>Murray's LISS as the best outcome predictors. Outcome predicted on the basis of BALF levels of interleukin-6 resulted in 79.4% accuracy, 82.7% sensitivity and 76.1% specificity (area under the ROC curve, AUC, 0.853). Both clinical parameters and cytokines as well as peptide patterns determined by MALDI-ToF MS were analyzed by classification and regression tree (CART) analysis and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms. CART analysis including Murray's LISS, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in combination was correct in 78.0%. MALDI-ToF MS of BALF peptides did not reveal a single identifiable biomarker for ARDS. However, classification of patients was successfully achieved based on the entire peptide pattern analyzed using SVM. This method resulted in 90% accuracy, 93.3% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity following a 10-fold cross validation (AUC = 0.953). Subsequent validation of the optimized SVM algorithm with a test group of patients with unknown prognosis yielded 87.5% accuracy, 83.3% sensitivity and 90.0% specificity. Conclusions/Significance MALDI-ToF MS peptide patterns of BALF, evaluated by appropriate mathematical

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AKARI IRC asteroid sample diameters & albedos (Ali-Lagoa+, 2018)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Lagoa, V.; Mueller, T. G.; Usui, F.; Hasegawa, S.

    2017-11-01

    Table 1 contains the best-fitting values of size and beaming parameter and corresponding visible geometric albedos for the full AKARI IRC sample. We fitted the near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) of Harris (1998Icar..131..291H) to the AKARI IRC thermal infrared data (Murakami et al., 2007PASJ...59S.369M, Onaka et al., 2007PASJ...59S.401O, Ishihara et al., 2010A&A...514A...1I, Cat. II/297, Usui et al., 2011PASJ...63.1117U, Cat. J/PASJ/63/1117, Takita et al., 2012PASJ...64..126T, Hasegawa et al., 2013PASJ...65...34H, Cat. J/PASJ/65/34). The NEATM implementation is described in Ali-Lagoa and Delbo' (2017A&A...603A..55A, cat. J/A+A/603/A55). Minimum relative errors of 10, 15, and 20 percent are given for size, beaming parameter and albedo in those cases where the beaming parameter could be fitted. Otherwise, a default value of the beaming parameter is assumed based on Eq. 1 in the article, and the minimum relative errors in size and albedo increase to 20 and 40 percent (see the discussions in Mainzer et al., 2011ApJ...736..100M, Ali-Lagoa et al., 2016A&A...591A..14A, Cat. J/A+A/591/A14). We also provide the asteroid absolute magnitudes and G12 slope parameters retrieved from Oszkiewicz et al. (2012), the number of observations used in each IRC band (S9W and L18W), plus the heliocentric and geocentric distances and phase angle (r, Delta, alpha) based on the ephemerides taken from the MIRIADE service (http://vo.imcce.fr/webservices/miriade/?ephemph). (1 data file).

  16. [Protective effect of Liuweidihuang Pills against cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality, oxidative injury, and cell apoptosis in rat testes].

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui-rong; Cao, Xiao-hui; Ma, Xue-lian; Chen, Jin-jin; Chen, Jing-wei; Yang, Hui; Liu, Yun-xiao

    2015-08-01

    To observe the effect of Liuweidihuang Pills in relieving cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality, oxidative injury, and cell apoptosis in the rat testis. Thirty adult male SD rats were equally randomized into a normal, a radiated, and a Liuweidihuang group, the animals in the latter two groups exposed to electromagnetic radiation of 900 MHz cellphone frequency 4 hours a day for 18 days. Meanwhile, the rats in the Liuweidihuang group were treated with the suspension of Liuweidihuang Pills at 1 ml/100 g body weight and the other rats intragastrically with the equal volume of purified water. Then all the rats were killed for observation of testicular histomorphology by routine HE staining, measurement of testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels by colorimetry, and determination of the expressions of bax and bcl-2 proteins in the testis tissue by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the normal controls, the radiated rats showed obviously loose structure, reduced layers of spermatocytes, and cavitation in the seminiferous tubules. Significant increases were observed in the MDA level (P < 0.01) and bax expression (P < 0.01) but decreases in the GSH level (P < 0.01) and bcl-2 expression (P < 0.01) in the testis issue of the radiated rats. In comparison with the radiated rats, those of the Liuweidihuang group exhibited nearly normal testicular structure, significantly lower MDA level (P < 0.05), bax expression (P < 0.01), and bcl-2 expression (P < 0.01). Liuweidihuang Pills can improve cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality of the testis tissue and reduce its oxidative damage and cell apoptosis.

  17. [Effect of Shexiang Baoxin Pills on isoprenaline-induced myocardial cell hypertrophy and Cx43 expression].

    PubMed

    Tang, Fen; Jiang, Zhentao; Tan, Wenting; Long, Junrong; Liu, Shengquan; Chu, Chun

    2017-08-28

    To observe the effects of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP) on isoprenaline (Iso)-induced changes in myocardial cell volume, shape, and connexin 43 (Cx43) expression.
 Methods: H9C2 myocardial cells were randomly divided into a control group, a Iso group and a Iso+SBP group. After 72 h of culture, the average surface area of H9C2 cells was measured under phase contrast microscope. Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay was carried out to determine the concentration of proteins. The survival rate of myocardial cells was measured by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the Cx43 expression was detected by Western blot.
 Results: The mean surface area and Cx43 concentration in Iso-treated myocardial cells were increased under the phase contrast microscope (P<0.05). Compared with the Iso group, the mean surface area was decreased, and the Cx43 concentration was reduced in the Iso+SBP group (both P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the Cx43 expression was obviously down-regulated in the H9C2 cells of the Iso group (P<0.05); while compared with the Iso group, the Cx43 expression was obviously up-regulated in the Iso+SBP group (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: Shexiang Baoxin Pills can prevent Iso-induced myocardial hypertrophy and down-regulate Cx43 expression.

  18. When can a woman resume or initiate contraception after taking emergency contraceptive pills? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Salcedo, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Maria I; Curtis, Kathryn M; Kapp, Nathalie

    2013-05-01

    Hormonal emergency contraception can postpone ovulation, making a woman vulnerable to pregnancy later in the same cycle. However, concern exists as to whether concurrently administered emergency contraception pills (ECP) and other hormonal methods of contraception may affect the effectiveness of both medications. A systematic review of the literature using PubMed and the Cochrane databases was performed to identify articles concerning the resumption or initiation of regular contraception within the same cycle as ECP use. We searched for articles in any language, published between 1980 and April 2012 and included all methods of emergency contraception pills available in the USA. The search strategy identified 184 articles in the PubMed and Cochrane databases, of which none met inclusion criteria. The drug manufacturer advises continuation or initiation of routine contraception as soon as possible after use of ulipristal acetate, with concomitant use of a reliable barrier method until next menses. However, a theoretical concern exists that given ulipristal acetate's function as a selective progesterone receptor modulator, coadministration of a progestin could decrease its effectiveness as an emergency contraceptive. Initiation of hormonal contraception following levonorgestrel or the Yuzpe regimen for emergency contraception carries no similar concern for decreased method effectiveness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Pharmacists' Services for Dispensing Emergency Contraceptive Pills in Delhi, India: A Mystery Shopper Study.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Nigam, Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI), has not been well documented. To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months. None of the pharmacists asked about the time lapsed since last unprotected sexual intercourse or last menstrual period before deciding the eligibility of the customer. The majority were unclear about side effects associated with emergency contraception (78.57%) or with anticipated changes in menstrual flow (78.57%); 85.71% did not know whether subsequent unprotected intercourse would be protected. Only 15.71% counseled shoppers regarding risk of STI on asking leading questions and 88.5% did not provide any contraceptive advice. There is a huge gap in the technical knowledge and mindset of the pharmacists when it comes to checking for the eligibility of the client and providing advice regarding use of regular contraception and barrier for protection from STI, which needs to be addressed in order to realize the full benefit of making emergency contraceptive pills available over the counter.

  20. IUD users may have higher risk of contracting PID, studies find; pill may have protective effect.

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    The incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can lead to serious reproductive impairment, infertility, or ectopic pregnancy, is increasing worldwide. About 500,000 women in their childbearing years contract PID for the first time each year in the U.S., and the incidence among young women appears to be increasing. Sexually transmitted diseases are responsible for many PID cases worldwide, while in developing countries postpartum and postabortion sepsis and endemic diseases such as filariasis and schistosomiasis may also be implicated. Some increase of PID is associated with legal abortion and IUD insertion, while pill use appears to protect women from PID. A worldwide review of medical literature indicates that the risk of PID is 3.5 times greater for IUD users than for nonusers, although several variables other than IUD use affect PID risk, such as age, race, socioeconomic status, and sexual activity. The risk for never pregnant IUD users in a Swedish study was 11.8 per 100 woman years, compared to 3.4 for ever-pregnant IUD users. There was no difference in relative risk for users of the pill or barrier methods, or for non-contraceptors. Another study reported a higher relative risk of PID related to duration of IUD use.

  1. Pill in the blister pack: a rare cause of dysphagia in an elderly adult

    PubMed Central

    Laeeq, Syed Mudassir; Rai, Ayesha Aslam; Tasneem, Abbas Ali; Luck, Nasir Hassan; Majid, Zain

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body impaction in the esophagus amongst adults is not a common cause of dysphagia. Fish bone, food bolus, dentures may cause symptoms of dysphagia, odynophagia, chest pain or respiratory distress. It needs prompt evaluation along with removal of the substance either surgically or endoscopically to avoid the development of life threatening complications. Here we are reporting a case of an elderly male, who presented to us with a history of absolute dysphagia for one week, as a consequence of ingestion of a pill in blister pack. PMID:26918072

  2. Health education alone and health education plus advance provision of emergency contraceptive pills on knowledge and attitudes among university female students in Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arinze-Onyia, S U; Aguwa, E N; Nwobodo, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This was an intervention study to compare the effects of health education alone and health education plus advance provision of emergency contraception (EC) pills on the knowledge and attitudes to EC by female students of University of Nigeria in South-East Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data in February, 2009 from 290 female students of a tertiary educational institution (140 in the study group and 150 from the control group) who were selected by multistage sampling. Subsequently, health education was conducted among all the students. In addition, a pack containing 2 tablets of EC pills (Postinor) was given only to the students in the study group. Three months after this intervention, its effects were assessed through a survey using the same structured questionnaire employed in the baseline survey. knowledge of EC was significantly higher among the study group than the controls at post-intervention, P < 0.05. Attitudes to EC were also more favorable at post-intervention survey among the study group, P < 0.05 in most of the variables. Health education plus advance provision of EC pills effectively improved knowledge and attitudes to EC among female students of tertiary institutions more than health education alone and this should be promoted.

  3. SmartPill® as an objective parameter for determination of severity and duration of postoperative ileus: study protocol of a prospective, two-arm, open-label trial (the PIDuSA study)

    PubMed Central

    Vilz, Tim O; Pantelis, Dimitrios; Lingohr, Philipp; Fimmers, Rolf; Esmann, Anke; Randau, Thomas; Kalff, Jörg C; Coenen, Martin; Wehner, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative ileus (POI) is a frequent complication after abdominal surgery (AS). Until today, neither a prophylaxis nor an evidence-based therapy exists. This originates from the absence of objective parameters evaluating the severity and duration of POI resulting in clinical trials of modest quality. The SmartPill®, a capsule which frequently measures pH value, temperature and intraluminal pressure after swallowing, offers an elegant option for analysing gastrointestinal (GI) transit times and smooth muscle activity in vivo. As the use in patients in the first months after AS is not covered by the marketing authorisation, we aim to investigate the safety and feasibility of the SmartPill® immediately after surgery. Additionally, we analyse the influence of prokinetics and laxatives as well as standardised physiotherapy on postoperative bowel contractility, as scientific evidence of its effects is still lacking. Methods and analysis The PIDuSA study is a prospective, single-centre, two-arm, open-label trial. The SmartPill® will be applied to 55 patients undergoing AS having a high risk for POI and 10 patients undergoing extra-abdominal surgery rarely developing POI. The primary objective is the safety of the SmartPill® in patients after surgery on the basis of adverse device effects/serious adverse device effects (ADE/SADE). The sample size suggests that events with a probability of 3% could be seen with a certainty of 80% for at least once in the sample. Secondary objective is the analysis of postoperative intestinal activity in the GI tract in both groups. Furthermore, clinical signs of bowel motility disorders will be correlated to the data measured by the SmartPill® to evaluate its significance as an objective parameter for assessing POI severity. Additionally, effects of prokinetics, laxatives and physiotherapy on postoperative peristaltic activity recorded by the SmartPill® will be analysed. Ethics and dissemination The protocol was

  4. SmartPill® as an objective parameter for determination of severity and duration of postoperative ileus: study protocol of a prospective, two-arm, open-label trial (the PIDuSA study).

    PubMed

    Vilz, Tim O; Pantelis, Dimitrios; Lingohr, Philipp; Fimmers, Rolf; Esmann, Anke; Randau, Thomas; Kalff, Jörg C; Coenen, Martin; Wehner, Sven

    2016-07-08

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is a frequent complication after abdominal surgery (AS). Until today, neither a prophylaxis nor an evidence-based therapy exists. This originates from the absence of objective parameters evaluating the severity and duration of POI resulting in clinical trials of modest quality. The SmartPill(®), a capsule which frequently measures pH value, temperature and intraluminal pressure after swallowing, offers an elegant option for analysing gastrointestinal (GI) transit times and smooth muscle activity in vivo. As the use in patients in the first months after AS is not covered by the marketing authorisation, we aim to investigate the safety and feasibility of the SmartPill(®) immediately after surgery. Additionally, we analyse the influence of prokinetics and laxatives as well as standardised physiotherapy on postoperative bowel contractility, as scientific evidence of its effects is still lacking. The PIDuSA study is a prospective, single-centre, two-arm, open-label trial. The SmartPill(®) will be applied to 55 patients undergoing AS having a high risk for POI and 10 patients undergoing extra-abdominal surgery rarely developing POI. The primary objective is the safety of the SmartPill(®) in patients after surgery on the basis of adverse device effects/serious adverse device effects (ADE/SADE). The sample size suggests that events with a probability of 3% could be seen with a certainty of 80% for at least once in the sample. Secondary objective is the analysis of postoperative intestinal activity in the GI tract in both groups. Furthermore, clinical signs of bowel motility disorders will be correlated to the data measured by the SmartPill(®) to evaluate its significance as an objective parameter for assessing POI severity. Additionally, effects of prokinetics, laxatives and physiotherapy on postoperative peristaltic activity recorded by the SmartPill(®) will be analysed. The protocol was approved by the federal authority (94

  5. Simulation of EO-1 Hyperion Data from ALI Multispectral Data Based on the Spectral Reconstruction Approach

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lifu; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Bing; Tong, Qingxi

    2009-01-01

    Data simulation is widely used in remote sensing to produce imagery for a new sensor in the design stage, for scale issues of some special applications, or for testing of novel algorithms. Hyperspectral data could provide more abundant information than traditional multispectral data and thus greatly extend the range of remote sensing applications. Unfortunately, hyperspectral data are much more difficult and expensive to acquire and were not available prior to the development of operational hyperspectral instruments, while large amounts of accumulated multispectral data have been collected around the world over the past several decades. Therefore, it is reasonable to examine means of using these multispectral data to simulate or construct hyperspectral data, especially in situations where hyperspectral data are necessary but hard to acquire. Here, a method based on spectral reconstruction is proposed to simulate hyperspectral data (Hyperion data) from multispectral Advanced Land Imager data (ALI data). This method involves extraction of the inherent information of source data and reassignment to newly simulated data. A total of 106 bands of Hyperion data were simulated from ALI data covering the same area. To evaluate this method, we compare the simulated and original Hyperion data by visual interpretation, statistical comparison, and classification. The results generally showed good performance of this method and indicated that most bands were well simulated, and the information both preserved and presented well. This makes it possible to simulate hyperspectral data from multispectral data for testing the performance of algorithms, extend the use of multispectral data and help the design of a virtual sensor. PMID:22574064

  6. Impact of changes in pill appearance in the adherence to angiotensin receptor blockers and in the blood pressure levels: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lumbreras, B; López-Pintor, E

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the level of adherence to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients regularly attending a community pharmacy and the influence of a change in patients' adherence to pharmacological treatment. Design Retrospective cohort study of a random sample of consecutive patients collecting their medication. Setting 40 community pharmacies in Alicante (Southeast Spain). Participants 602 consecutive ≥18 years old patients following treatment with ARBs at least 3 previous refills were included. Main outcome measures Prevalence of uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) and adherence to prescribed pharmacological treatment (measured through both the Batalla and the Morisky-Green tests). A multivariate Poisson regression model was used to estimate the adjusted risk ratio (RRa) for non-adherence to pharmacological treatment by the presence of a change in patient's adherence and other significant variables. Results 161/602 (13.7%) patients presented uncontrolled BP. According to the Morisky test, 410/602 (68.2%) patients were considered adherent to pharmacological treatment and 231/602 (38.4%) patients according to the Batalla test. According to the Morisky-Green test, in the multivariable analysis, patients with a previous change in pill appearance were less likely to be adherent than those patients with no change in their pharmacological treatment (RRa 0.45; CI 95% 0.22 to 0.90; p=0.024). Systolic BP was higher in patients with a change in pill appearance in the previous 3 refills (median BP 142 mm Hg; IQR 136–148) than in those who did not have a change (median BP 127 mm Hg; IQR 118–135; p<0.001). Conclusions There was a low percentage of adherence and nearly 15% of uncontrolled BP in patients who regularly collected their medication. Switching between pills of different appearances was associated with lower patient adherence to pharmacological treatment and a higher uncontrolled BP than no change in pharmacological treatment or change only in

  7. Multi-constituent cardiovascular pills (MCCP)--challenges and promises of population-based prophylactic drug therapy for prevention of heart attack.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Michael J; Naghavi, Morteza

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) are highly co-prevalent but poorly identified and treated. The Screening for Heart Attack Prevention and Education (SHAPE) Task Force from the Association for Eradication of Heart Attack (AEHA) has recently proposed a new strategy that recommends screening for subclinical atherosclerosis and implementing aggressive treatment of "vulnerable patients". The Task Force has also envisioned future developments that may shift mass screening strategies to mass prophylactic therapy. The "Polypill" concept, introduced by Wald and Law suggests a combination of statin, low-dose antihypertensives, aspirin and folic acid, in a single pill, taken prophylactically by high risk population can cut CVD event rates by as much as 80%. In this communication, we review the challenges and promises of such a strategy. "Polypill" is but one of an astronomical number of possible multiconstituent pills (MCCP). Attractive as the MCCP concept is, it lacks evidence from randomized controlled trials, and begs numerous questions about the credibility of the concept, the design and synthesis of such complex pills, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, bioequivalence, "class" vs. unique properties, interactions, evidence of clinical efficacy and safety, regulatory approval, post-marketing surveillance, prescription vs. over-the-counter use, responsibility for initiating and monitoring therapy, patient education, counterfeiting and importation, reimbursement, advertisement, patent protection, commercial viability, etc. If these issues are favorably addressed, MCCP stand to dramatically change the manner in which CVD is prevented particularly in developing societies. Notwithstanding, assuming low commercial interests, realizing the promises of MCCP will demand serious attention from national public health policymakers. The clinical and regulatory implications of population-based secondary prevention (which rely on a different evidence base

  8. Comparison of two contraceptive pills containing drospirenone and 20 μg or 30 μg ethinyl estradiol for polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sudhindra M; Jha, Ayan; DasMukhopadhyay, Lipika

    2016-02-01

    To compare the effects of 30 μg and 20 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE) among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In a randomized study, patients with PCOS, a history of six or fewer menstrual cycles in the previous 12 months, and abnormal body hair growth were enrolled at a center in Kolkata, India, between May 1, 2012, and January 31, 2014. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) using a computer-generated randomization table to receive an oral contraceptive pill containing 3mg drospirenone and either 30 μg EE or 20 μg EE. Patients were followed up after 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome was the absolute change in the free androgen index. Participants were masked to group assignment but investigators were not. Analyses were by intention to treat. Overall, 112 patients were enrolled. At 6 months, the free androgen index had decreased by 4.96±6.01 among patients receiving 30 μg (n=55) and by 4.81±6.03 among those receiving 20 μg (n=57; P=0.89). At 12 months, the decrease from baseline was 5.23±5.79 with 30 μg and 4.99±5.86 with 20 μg (P=0.82). Among patients with PCOS, an oral contraceptive pill containing 20 μg EE has similar effects on androgen levels to those of a pill containing 30 μg. CTRI/2012/04/002571. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Examination of the "Theory of Guidance" in the View of 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib (A): An Exploration into the Nahj Al-Balaghah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostami-Nasab, Abas Ali; Tajedini, Oranus; Sadatmoosavi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the "Theory of Guidance" according to 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (a). This theory is based on three divine covenants or fundamentals in guidance including the divine Prophet, the divine Book, and the divine human nature ("fitrat"). Research in this regard seems essential because this theory has not been previously…

  10. Investigation on the neutral and anionic BxAlyH2 (x + y = 7, 8, 9) clusters using density functional theory combined with photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li-Ping; Shao, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Zhang, Fang-Hui; Ding, Lei; Yuan, Tao Li

    2016-08-17

    The structure and bonding nature of neutral and negatively charged BxAlyH2 (x + y = 7, 8, 9) clusters are investigated with the aid of previously published experimental photoelectron spectra combined with the present density functional theory calculations. The comparison between the experimental photoelectron spectra and theoretical simulated spectra helps to identify the ground state structures. The accuracy of the obtained ground state structures is further verified by calculating their adiabatic electron affinities and vertical detachment energies and comparing them against available experimental data. The results show that the structures of BxAlyH2 transform from three-dimensional to planar structures as the number of boron atoms increases. Moreover, boron atoms tend to bind together forming Bn units. The hydrogen atoms prefer to bind with boron atoms rather than aluminum atoms. The analyses of the molecular orbital on the ground state structures further support the abovementioned results.

  11. [Testicular artery-sparing microscopic varicocelectomy combined with Qilin Pills for bilateral varicocele-induced oligoasthenospermia].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-Feng; Zhao, Jia

    2016-10-01

    To explore the clinical effect of testicular artery-sparing microscopic varicocelectomy (MV) in combination with Qilin Pills (QL) in the treatment of bilateral varicocele-induced oligoasthenospermia. Sixty patients with bilateral varicocele-induced oligoasthenospermia were randomly assigned to receive MV (n=30) or MV+QL (n=30), those in the latter group treated with oral QL for 12 weeks postoperatively. At 4, 8, and 12 weeks after operation, we compared the semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, the levels of serum Inh B, luteinizing hormone (LH) and total testosterone (TT), and the testosterone secretion index (TSI) between the two groups. After surgery, all the patients showed disappearance of varicocele symptoms, remarkably improved semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, serum Inh B and TT levels, TSI, decreased LH and FSH (P<0.01). At 12 weeks after treatment, statistically significant differences were found between the MV and MV+QL groups in Inh B (138.96±22.26 vs 129.54±22.23) ng/L, LH (3.17±0.12 vs 3.59±0.11) IU/L, TT (13.98±3.02 vs 12.68±3.12) nmol/L, and TSI (4.41±0.53 vs 3.53±0.51) nmol/ IU (P<0.05). The pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the MV+QL than in the MV group (73.4% vs 36.6%, P<0.05). Testicular artery-sparing microscopic varicocelectomy combined with Qilin Pills is an effective strategy for the treatment of bilateral varicocele-induced oligoasthenospermia by significantly improving the semen quality of the patient.

  12. Impact of the French 3rd and 4th generation pill scare in women seeking termination of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Caillot, O; Aubry, M; Duros, S; Boyer, L; Van Valenberg, C; Levêque, J; Lavoué, V

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the contraceptive profile of women seeking termination of pregnancy following the debate on 3rd and 4th generation pills in France in 2012. Single-center case-control study comparing the attitude to contraception before (between 02/15/2012 and 07/16/2012) and after the debate (between 02/25/2013 and 06/24/2013). A total of 291 patients consulted before and 601 after the debate. We showed that there were more students (+9.5%), more single women (+8.3%) and fewer working women (-7.7%) in the cohort after the debate. After the termination procedure, prescriptions for long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods increased (+7.8%, P=0.03), in particular in patients aged 25 or younger, including nulliparous (+12.6%, P=0.02). The media alert about the pill led to a change in the contraceptive standard in the post-abortion period and altered patient profiles. An increase was notably observed in certain vulnerable populations (high school students, unemployed and single women). It remains to be seen whether these changes are transient or permanent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Occurrence and genesis of Quaternary microbialitic tufa at Hammam Al Ali, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, Fikry I.

    2017-05-01

    Remnants of late Quaternary microbialitic tufa occurs within a shallow depression in the Hammam Al Ali hot spring area, which is located approximately 14.5 km to the southwest of Muscat, Oman. The tufa precipitated from hot spring water supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate and is mostly of a porous phytogenic type, with occasional detrital and stromatolitic types. Microscopic and nanoscopic examination revealed that the tufa deposits developed through two successive processes of calcite precipitation, biotic and abiotic, preceded by limited precipitation of unstable aragonite. It is suggested that biologically mediated precipitation results in the construction of incomplete skeletal calcite crystals. The latter provide a base for classical physiochemical precipitation and, eventually, the development of complete sparry calcite crystals. The initiation of dendritic calcite crystals in the stromatolitic tufa as incomplete biogenic skeletal crystals and their characteristic growth pattern indicates that the tufa represents a clear example of hot spring calcitic microbialite.

  14. Evaluation of Pharmacists' Services for Dispensing Emergency Contraceptive Pills in Delhi, India: A Mystery Shopper Study

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Nigam, Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI), has not been well documented. Objective: To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months. Results: None of the pharmacists asked about the time lapsed since last unprotected sexual intercourse or last menstrual period before deciding the eligibility of the customer. The majority were unclear about side effects associated with emergency contraception (78.57%) or with anticipated changes in menstrual flow (78.57%); 85.71% did not know whether subsequent unprotected intercourse would be protected. Only 15.71% counseled shoppers regarding risk of STI on asking leading questions and 88.5% did not provide any contraceptive advice. Conclusion: There is a huge gap in the technical knowledge and mindset of the pharmacists when it comes to checking for the eligibility of the client and providing advice regarding use of regular contraception and barrier for protection from STI, which needs to be addressed in order to realize the full benefit of making emergency contraceptive pills available over the counter. PMID:27385872

  15. Women's ability to self-screen for contraindications to combined oral contraceptive pills in Tanzanian drug shops.

    PubMed

    Chin-Quee, Dawn; Ngadaya, Esther; Kahwa, Amos; Mwinyiheri, Thomas; Otterness, Conrad; Mfinanga, Sayoki; Nanda, Kavita

    2013-10-01

    To estimate the accuracy of self-screening for contraindications to combined oral contraceptive pills (COCs) and to estimate the proportion of women with contraindications to hormonal methods among those using drug shops in Tanzania. Trained nurses interviewed 1651 women aged 18-39 years who self-screened for contraindications to COCs with the help of a poster at drug shops in Tanzania. Nurse assessment of the women served as the gold standard for comparison with self-assessment. Blood pressure was also measured onsite. Nurses reported that 437 (26.5%) women were not eligible to use COCs, compared with 485 (29.4%) according to self-report. Overall, 133 (8.1%) women who said that they were eligible were deemed ineligible by nurses. The rate of ineligibility was artificially high owing to participant and nurse assessments that were incorrectly based on adverse effects of pill use and cultural reasons, and because of the sampling procedure, which intercepted women regardless of their reasons for visiting the drug shop. Adjusted rates of ineligibility were 8.6% and 12.7%, respectively, according to nurse and participant assessment. Both nurses and women underestimated the prevalence of hypertension in the present group. Self-screening among women in rural and peri-urban Tanzania with regard to contraindications to COC use was comparable to assessment by trained nurses. © 2013.

  16. The effect of extending the pill-free interval on follicular activity: triphasic norgestimate/35 micro g ethinyl estradiol versus monophasic levonorgestrel/20 micro g ethinyl estradiol.

    PubMed

    Creinin, Mitchell D; Lippman, Joel S; Eder, Scott E; Godwin, Amy J; Olson, William

    2002-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate follicular activity in women taking oral contraceptives with imposed imperfect compliance. After completing a 28-day cycle of either triphasic norgestimate/EE (NGM/EE) (Ortho Tri-Cyclen, Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ) or monophasic levonorgestrel/EE (LNG/EE) (Alesse, Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA), women were instructed to intentionally "miss" the first two active pills of the next pack. The first two tablets in the second treatment cycle were deliberately omitted, thereby extending the pill-free interval from 7 days to 9 days. Subjects were randomized to take NGM/EE (n = 40) or LNG/EE (n = 39) for two consecutive cycles. The mean maximum follicular diameter was significantly greater in women taking LNG/EE than in those taking NGM/EE (16.4 +/- 7.1 mm vs. 12.6 +/- 8.3 mm, p = 0.047). The LNG/EE group had significantly higher median serum estradiol concentrations compared to women taking NGM/EE on pill Days 10 [29.5 pg/mL (range: 10.0-540.0 pg/mL) vs. 2.5 pg/mL (range: 2.0-6.0 pg/mL), p < 0.001] and 14 [11.0 pg/mL (range: 2.0-416.0 pg/mL) vs. 2.0 pg/mL (range: 2.0-3.0 pg/mL), p = 0.001]. Two women in the NGM/EE group and three women in the LNG/EE group had at least one progesterone level > or =3 ng/mL; none of these women demonstrated a maximum follicular diameter >13 mm. Significantly greater follicular activity was observed after an extended pill-free interval in women taking LNG/EE compared to those taking triphasic NGM/EE. The clinical implications of these findings require further study.

  17. What's in a label? Ecstasy sellers' perceptions of pill brands.

    PubMed

    Duterte, Micheline; Jacinto, Camille; Sales, Paloma; Murphy, Sheigla

    2009-03-01

    This article presents selected findings from a qualitative study of Ecstasy sellers and their sales practices, knowledge of distribution networks, buyer-seller relationships, and self-reported drug use. In-depth interviews were conducted with 80 men and women who had sold five or more hits of Ecstasy five or more times in the six months prior to the interview. Study participants described their perceptions of the various types of Ecstasy they had distributed or used themselves. The participants had experience with a variety of Ecstasy labels, from the popular "Blue Dolphin" tablets to the powdered form called "Molly." We tracked pill brand mentions on Ecstasy-related websites to compare with interviewees' descriptions of Ecstasy brands. This study examines Ecstasy sellers' ideas about the role of brand names in Ecstasy markets and their relationship to their beliefs about different types of Ecstasy's purity and quality. We demonstrate that considering Ecstasy branding increases our understanding of buyer and seller relationships.

  18. How-To-Do-It: Snails, Pill Bugs, Mealworms, and Chi-Square? Using Invertebrate Behavior to Illustrate Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Described is a study designed to introduce students to the behavior of common invertebrate animals, and to use of the chi-square statistical technique. Discusses activities with snails, pill bugs, and mealworms. Provides an abbreviated chi-square table and instructions for performing the experiments and statistical tests. (CW)

  19. Summary of current radiometric calibration coefficients for Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and EO-1 ALI sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Helder, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the current equations and rescaling factors for converting calibrated Digital Numbers (DNs) to absolute units of at-sensor spectral radiance, Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, and at-sensor brightness temperature. It tabulates the necessary constants for the Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) sensors. These conversions provide a basis for standardized comparison of data in a single scene or between images acquired on different dates or by different sensors. This paper forms a needed guide for Landsat data users who now have access to the entire Landsat archive at no cost.

  20. Summary of Current Radiometric Calibration Coefficients for Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and EO-1 ALI Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Markham, Brian L.; Helder, Dennis L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the current equations and rescaling factors for converting calibrated Digital Numbers (DNs) to absolute units of at-sensor spectral radiance, Top-Of- Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, and at-sensor brightness temperature. It tabulates the necessary constants for the Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) sensors. These conversions provide a basis for standardized comparison of data in a single scene or between images acquired on different dates or by different sensors. This paper forms a needed guide for Landsat data users who now have access to the entire Landsat archive at no cost.

  1. Stokesian dynamics of pill-shaped Janus particles with stick and slip boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Chan, Derek Y. C.

    2013-04-01

    We study the forces and torques experienced by pill-shaped Janus particles of different aspect ratios where half of the surface obeys the no-slip boundary condition and the other half obeys the Navier slip condition of varying slip lengths. Using a recently developed boundary integral formulation whereby the traditional singular behavior of this approach is removed analytically, we quantify the strength of the forces and torques experienced by such particles in a uniform flow field in the Stokes regime. Depending on the aspect ratio and the slip length, the force transverse to the flow direction can change sign. This is a novel property unique to the Janus nature of the particles.

  2. Frequency of Candidiasis and Colonization of Candida albicans in Relation to Oral Contraceptive Pills.

    PubMed

    Aminzadeh, Atousa; Sabeti Sanat, Ali; Nik Akhtar, Saeed

    2016-10-01

    Candidiasis, the infection caused by Candida albicans , is one of the most common infections of the oral cavity in humans. Candidiasis causes irritation and is known for its carcinogenic effects. Thus, it is important to recognize the predisposing factors for this opportunistic infection. Several previous studies have demonstrated an increased frequency of vaginal candidiasis in relation to oral contraceptive consumption. Only a few studies on the relation between oral contraceptives and oral candidiasis have been previously conducted. This study aims to evaluate the possible relation between oral contraceptive pills and oral candidiasis. This analytic, case-control study included 40 non-pregnant women divided into two groups: 20 who used oral contraceptive pills and 20 who did not. The groups were matched according to age, oral health, and past and present medical history. Samples were collected from the tongue's dorsum using a cotton swab and inoculated on CHROMagar culture plates. The frequency of positive cultures and the number of Candida colonies were compared between the two groups using independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney statistical tests with SPSS18 software. The frequency of positive cultures of Candida albicans was higher (P value = 0.03) for the case group. Also, the number of C. albicans and C. krusei was significantly higher for the case group compared to the control group (P value = 0.04, P value = 0.03). The results of the present study demonstrate that oral contraceptives containing estradiol can lead to Candida colonization in the oral cavity. It is recommended that further studies comparing the influence of oral contraceptives on Candida's adherence to the epithelium is highly recommended.

  3. Investigating Birth Control: Comparing Oestrogen Levels in Patients Using the Ortho Evra[R] Patch versus the Ortho-Cyclen[R] Pill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Theresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent drug studies have investigated the incidence of blood clots among patients using the Ortho Evra[R] birth control patch. In this article, the author describes an investigation of oestrogen levels in the body resulting from the application of the Ortho Evra[R] birth control patch versus daily use of Ortho-Cyclen[R] birth control pills.…

  4. Personalised Single-Pill Combination Therapy in Hypertensive Patients: An Update of a Practical Treatment Platform.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Massimo; Tocci, Giuliano; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Kreutz, Reinhold; Laurent, Stéphane; Manolis, Athanasios J; Tsioufis, Kostantinos

    2017-12-01

    Despite the improvements in the management of hypertension during the last three decades, it continues to be one of the leading causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Effective and sustained reductions in blood pressure (BP) reduce the incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure and cardiovascular death. However, the proportion of patients who achieve the recommended BP goal (< 140/90 mmHg) is persistently low, worldwide. Poor adherence to therapy, complex therapeutic regimens, clinical inertia, drug-related adverse events and multiple risk factors or comorbidities contribute to the disparity between the potential and actual BP control rate. Previously we published a practical therapeutic platform for the treatment of hypertension based on clinical evidence, guidelines, best practice and clinical experience. This platform provides a personalised treatment approach and can be used to improve BP control and simplify treatment. It uses long-acting, effective and well-tolerated angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) olmesartan, in combination with a calcium channel blocker amlodipine, and/or a thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide. These drugs were selected based on the availability in most European Countries of single-pill, fixed formulations in a wide range of doses for both dual- and triple-drug combinations. The platform approach could be applied to other ARBs or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors available in single-pill, fixed-dose combinations. Here, we present an update, which takes into account the results of the recently published studies and extends the applicability of the platform to common conditions that are often neglected or poorly considered in clinical practice guidelines.

  5. Comprehensive quantitative analysis of Chinese patent drug YinHuang drop pill by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin-Long; An, Ya-Qi; Yan, Bing-Chao; Yue, Rui-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Bo; Ho, Hing-Man; Ren, Tian-Jing; Fung, Hau-Yee; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Liu, Zhong-Liang; Pu, Jian-Xin; Han, Quan-Bin; Sun, Han-Dong

    2016-06-05

    YinHuang drop pill (YHDP) is a new preparation, derived from the traditional YinHuang (YH) decoction. Since drop pills are one of the newly developed forms of Chinese patent drugs, not much research has been done regarding the quality and efficacy. This study aims to establish a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the chemical profile of YHDP. ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used to identify 34 non-sugar small molecules including 15 flavonoids, 9 phenolic acids, 5 saponins, 1 iridoid, and 4 iridoid glycosides in YHDP samples, and 26 of them were quantitatively determined. Sugar composition of YHDP in terms of fructose, glucose and sucrose was examined via a high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector on an amide column (HPLC-NH2P-ELSD). Macromolecules were examined by high performance gel permeation chromatography coupled with ELSD (HPGPC-ELSD). The content of the drop pill's skeleton component PEG-4000 was also quantified via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detector (UHPLC-CAD). The results showed that up to 73% (w/w) of YHDP could be quantitatively determined. Small molecules accounted for approximately 5%, PEG-4000 represented 68%, while no sugars or macromolecules were found. Furthermore, YHDP showed no significant differences in terms of daily dosage, compared to YinHuang granules and YinHuang oral liquid; however, it has a higher small molecules content compared to YinHuang lozenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Patents, pills and politics: the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ken

    2004-11-08

    There is tension between the need of the pharmaceutical innovator for intellectual property protection and the need of society for equitable and affordable access to innovative drugs. The recent Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement provides a nice illustration of this interplay between patents, pills and politics. This article provides a brief history of patent law as applied to pharmaceuticals, describes how the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme got caught up in AUSFTA negotiations, analyses the clauses that are likely to impact upon the PBS and describes the political process that reviewed and ultimately amended the AUSFTA.

  7. Lithospheric mantle evolution in the Afro-Arabian domain: Insights from Bir Ali mantle xenoliths (Yemen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgualdo, P.; Aviado, K.; Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Bryce, J. G.; Graham, D. W.; Natali, C.; Siena, F.

    2015-05-01

    Detailed petrological and geochemical investigations of an extensive sampling of mantle xenoliths from the Neogene-Quaternary Bir Ali diatreme (southern Yemen) indicate that the underlying lithospheric mantle consists predominantly of medium- to fine-grained (often foliated) spinel-peridotites (85-90%) and spinel-pyroxenites (10-15%) showing thermobarometric estimates in the P-T range of 0.9-2.0 GPa and 900-1150 °C. Peridotites, including lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites delineate continuous chemical, modal and mineralogical variations compatible with large extractions of basic melts occurring since the late Proterozoic (~ 2 Ga, according to Lu-Hf model ages). Pyroxenites may represent intrusions of subalkaline basic melts interacting and equilibrated with the host peridotite. Subsequent metasomatism has led to modal changes, with evidence of reaction patches and clinopyroxene and spinel destabilization, as well as formation of new phases (glass, amphibole and feldspar). These changes are accompanied by enrichment of the most incompatible elements and isotopic compositions. 143Nd/144Nd ranges from 0.51419 to 0.51209 (εNd from + 30.3 to - 10.5), 176Hf/177Hf from 0.28459 to 0.28239 (εHf from + 64.4 to - 13.6), and 208Pb/204Pb from 36.85 to 41.56, thus extending from the depleted mantle (DM) towards the enriched OIB mantle (EM and HIMU) components. 3He/4He (R/RA) ratios vary from 7.2 to 7.9 with He concentrations co-varying with the most incompatible element enrichment, in parallel with metasomatic effects. These metasomatic events, particularly effective in harzburgites and dunites, are attributable to the variable interaction with alkaline basic melts related to the general extensional and rifting regime affecting the East Africa-Arabian domain during the Cenozoic. In this respect, Bir Ali mantle xenoliths resemble those occurring along the Arabian margins and the East Africa Rift system, similarly affected by alkaline metasomatism, whereas they are

  8. What’s in a Label? Ecstasy Sellers’ Perceptions of Pill Brands†

    PubMed Central

    Duterte, Micheline; Jacinto, Camille; Sales, Paloma; Murphy, Sheigla

    2009-01-01

    This article presents selected findings from a qualitative study of Ecstasy sellers and their sales practices, knowledge of distribution networks, buyer-seller relationships, and self-reported drug use. In-depth interviews were conducted with 80 men and women who had sold five or more hits of Ecstasy five or more times in the six months prior to the interview. Study participants described their perceptions of the various types of Ecstasy they had distributed or used themselves. The participants had experience with a variety of Ecstasy labels, from the popular “Blue Dolphin” tablets to the powdered form called “Molly.” We tracked pill brand mentions on Ecstasy-related websites to compare with interviewees’ descriptions of Ecstasy brands. This study examines Ecstasy sellers’ ideas about the role of brand names in Ecstasy markets and their relationship to their beliefs about different types of Ecstasy’s purity and quality. We demonstrate that considering Ecstasy branding increases our understanding of buyer and seller relationships. PMID:19455907

  9. Comparing the effects of ketotifen fumarate eye drops and ketotifen oral pills on symptom severity and quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Asghar; Karimi-Sari, Hamidreza; Khosravi, Mohammad Hossein; Arefzadeh, Esmaeil; Yavarahmadi, Mohammadhosein

    2015-05-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of nasal mucosa. Previous studies have shown the therapeutic effects of ketotifen eye drops on allergic conjunctivitis and rhinitis patients. This study was designed to compare the effects of ketotifen drops and oral ketotifen pills on symptoms and quality of life in allergic rhinitis patients. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, patients with mild allergic rhinitis who were referred to the allergy clinic of Baqiyatallah Hospital from March to April 2014 were randomly allocated to 2 groups; the first group received ketotifen drops (1 drop every 12 hours) with placebo pills (2 pills daily), and the second group received placebo eye drops with ketotifen pills for 4 weeks. Symptoms (sneezing, runny nose, itching, and nasal obstruction) severity were examined and Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) scores were evaluated in the second and fourth weeks. A total of 140 patients were evaluated in 2 groups. The mean age was 30.33 years. There were no significant differences in demographic data between the groups (p > 0.05). Both groups showed a significant improvement in rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, nasal itching, coughing, sneezing, RQLQ, and nasal smear eosinophil percent compared to baseline amounts (p < 0.05). Improvements were significantly more in the drops group (p < 0.05). Because of the absence of systemic complications in ketotifen eye drops in patients with allergic rhinitis and their easy availability in Iran, using this medication instead of systemic therapies is suggested. Nevertheless, more studies are required to evaluate the long-term effects of using this drug and the recurrence rate of symptoms. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  10. Emergency Contraceptive Pill (ECP) Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States: Changes since ECP Went Over-the-Counter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers since ECP went over-the-counter (OTC) in 2006. Related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved, contraindications, follow-up procedures, methods of advertising, and staff attitudes, were…

  11. To compare the efficacy of two kinds of Zhizhu pills in the treatment of functional dyspepsia of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome:a randomized group sequential comparative trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory, functional dyspepsia (FD) can be divided into different syndromes according to different clinical symptoms and signs, and the most common one is spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome that can be treated by Chinese traditional patent medicine ---- two kinds of Zhizhu pills, between which the primary difference in ingredients is that one contains immature orange fruit of Citrus aurantium L.(IFCA) and the other contains that of Citrus sinensis Osbeck (IFCS). The trial's objective was to compare the efficacy of two kinds of Zhizhu pills on symptom changes in patients with FD of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome. Methods A randomized, group sequential, double-blinded, multicenter trial was conducted in patients with FD of spleen-deficiency and qi-stagnation syndrome at 3 hospitals in Beijing between June 2003 and May 2005. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups (IFCA group and IFCS group) in a 1:1 ratio, and respectively took one of the two kinds of Zhizhu pills orally, 6 g each time, 3 times a day, for 4 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed with use of a group sequential method, the triangular test (TT). Results A total of 163 patients were randomized, and 3 patients were excluded from analysis because of early dropouts, leaving 160 patients (IFCA group: n = 82; IFCS group: n = 78) for statistical analysis. Three interim analyses were done after 62, 116, and 160 patients had completed their 4-week treatment, respectively. At the third interim analysis, the sample path crossed the upper boundary and the trial was stopped, the cure-markedly effective rates were 45% for IFCS group and 67% for IFCA group, respectively, the one-sided p-value was 0.0036, the median unbiased estimate of the odds ratio (OR) for the benefit of IFCA relative to IFCS was 2.91 with 95%CI: 1.40 to 6.06. No adverse events were observed in the two groups. Conclusions Zhizhu pills containing IFCA was superior

  12. Ventilation distribution measured with EIT at varying levels of pressure support and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist in patients with ALI.

    PubMed

    Blankman, Paul; Hasan, Djo; van Mourik, Martijn S; Gommers, Diederik

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of varying levels of assist during pressure support (PSV) and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) on the aeration of the dependent and non-dependent lung regions by means of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). We studied ten mechanically ventilated patients with Acute Lung Injury (ALI). Positive-End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) and PSV levels were both 10 cm H₂O during the initial PSV step. Thereafter, we changed the inspiratory pressure to 15 and 5 cm H₂O during PSV. The electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) during pressure support ten was used to define the initial NAVA gain (100 %). Thereafter, we changed NAVA gain to 150 and 50 %, respectively. After each step the assist level was switched back to PSV 10 cm H₂O or NAVA 100 % to get a new baseline. The EIT registration was performed continuously. Tidal impedance variation significantly decreased during descending PSV levels within patients, whereas not during NAVA. The dorsal-to-ventral impedance distribution, expressed according to the center of gravity index, was lower during PSV compared to NAVA. Ventilation contribution of the dependent lung region was equally in balance with the non-dependent lung region during PSV 5 cm H₂O, NAVA 50 and 100 %. Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist ventilation had a beneficial effect on the ventilation of the dependent lung region and showed less over-assistance compared to PSV in patients with ALI.

  13. Emergency Contraceptive Pills: A 10-Year Follow-up Survey of Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura McKeller; Sawyer, Robin G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a 10-year follow-up study using a telephone survey to investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. They also examined related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved,…

  14. Enhancement of p-type conductivity by modifying the internal electric field in Mg- and Si-δ-codoped AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinchai; Yang, Weihuang; Li, Shuping; Chen, Hangyang; Liu, Dayi; Kang, Junyong

    2009-10-01

    The internal electric field is modified by using Mg- and Si-δ-codoped AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN superlattices (SLs). The first-principles simulation results show that the internal electric field in SL has been significantly intensified due to the charge transferring from Si-doped interface to Mg-doped interface. Accordingly, the Mg- and Si-δ-codoped p-type Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN SLs are grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and higher hole concentration as much as twice of that in modulation-doped SL has been achieved, as determined by Hall effect measurements. Furthermore, by applying Mg- and Si-δ-codoped AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN SLs with high Al content as the p-type layers, we have fabricated deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes with superior current-voltage characteristics by lowering Mg-acceptor activation energy.

  15. Participant experiences and facilitators and barriers to pill use among men who have sex with men in the iPrEx pre-exposure prophylaxis trial in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Hailey J; Liu, Albert; Koester, Kimberly Ann; Amico, K Rivet; McMahan, Vanessa; Goicochea, Pedro; Vargas, Lorena; Lubensky, David; Buchbinder, Susan; Grant, Robert

    2013-10-01

    In 2010, the iPrEx study demonstrated efficacy of daily emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in reducing HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men. Adherence to study product was critical for PrEP efficacy, and varied considerably, with FTC/TDF detection rates highest in the United States. We conducted a qualitative study to gain insights into the experiences of iPrEx participants in San Francisco (SF) where there was high confirmed adherence, to understand individual and contextual factors influencing study product use in this community. In 2009 and 2011, we conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews in 36 and 16 SF iPrEx participants, respectively. Qualitative analyses indicate that participants joined the study out of altruism. They had a clear understanding of study product use, and pill taking was facilitated by establishing or building on an existing routine. Participants valued healthcare provided by the study and relationships with staff, whom they perceived as nonjudgmental, and found client-centered counseling to be an important part of the PrEP package. This facilitated pill taking and accurate reporting of missed doses. Adherence barriers included changes in routine, side effects/intercurrent illnesses, and stress. Future PrEP adherence interventions should leverage existing routines and establish client-centered relationships/ environments to support pill taking and promote accurate reporting.

  16. The preparation of Cistanche phenylethanoid glycosides liquid proliposomes: Optimized formulation, characterization and proliposome dripping pills in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Li, Yunjing; Liu, Weiwei; Li, Rongli; Qin, Cuiying; Liu, Nan; Han, Jing

    2016-10-10

    Water-soluble Cistanche phenylethanoid glycosides (CPhGs) have poor permeability and low bioavailability. However, liposomes can improve the permeability of such drugs and their poor stability, and proliposomes have been used to overcome these problems. Based on this, Cistanche phenylethanoid glycoside liquid proliposomes (CPhGsP) and dripping(?) pills were prepared and optimized using response surface methodology. The properties of CPhGsP were evaluated in terms of their encapsulation efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, and morphology. The results obtained showed that the optimal formulation was drug/soybean phospholipid/poloxamer-188/sodium deoxycholate/propylene glycol 1:22.38:3.52:0.84:80 (w/w/w/w/v). This resulted in an encapsulation efficiency, particle size, and zeta potential of hydrated proliposomes with phosphate buffer solution (pH7.4) of 51.97%, 671.7nm, and -25.49mV, respectively. Stability testing of CPhGsP and CPhGs ordinary liposomes was carried out for 3months at 4±2°C, 25±2°C, 40±2°C, 75±5% RH. The results obtained showed that the stability of the proliposomes was better than that of ordinary liposomes at the same temperature, while a lower temperature of 4°C is ideal for storage. Cistanche phenylethanoid glycoside liquid proliposomes dripping pills (CPhGsPD) are efficiently released in gastrointestinal solution as shown by in vitro release experiments and the structure of the liposomes does not destroy the proliposome dripping pills by hydration. In vivo experiments showed that the areas under the plasma level-time curves and peak concentrations of CPhGsPD and hydrated proliposomes were higher than those of CPhGs. Moreover, with CPhGsPD, the pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to those with hydrated proliposomes. These results showed that CPhGsPD offer a good way to improve the oral delivery of CPhGs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Effects of Gushen Antai pills combined with progestin on serum β-HCG, P, E2 and CA125 in patients with threatened abortion].

    PubMed

    Tian, Chun-Man; Chen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of Gushen Antai pills and progesterone in the treatment of threatened abortion, in order to provide references for early clinical intervention with threatened abortion. The 112 cases of patients with threatened abortion were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group. 56 cases in each group. Patients in the control group was injected with progesterone, the observation group was treated with Gushen Antai pills in addition to the therapy of the control group. Both groups were treated by drugs for two weeks. Their venous bloods (5 mL) were collected before treatment and in 1, 2 weeks after treatment to determine serum levels of β-HCG, P, E2 and CA125. The differences between the two groups after treatment were compared. The total effective rate of the control group and the observation group were 79% and 91.9% respectively, with a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). Two weeks after the treatment, the serum levels of P and E2 in the observation group were significantly higher than before treatment, but the serum CA125 levels decreased significantly after treatment (P<0.05). These indicators showed statistically significant difference compared with that of the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the serum β-HCG levels of the two groups were significantly higher than before treatment (P<0.05), but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Gushen Antai pills and progesterone had a better clinical curative effect in treatment threatened abortion, which could significantly raise serum β-HCG, P and E2, reduce serum CA125 and increase the tocolysis efficiency, and so it was worth promoted in clinic. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Brachial artery endothelial function is stable across a menstrual and oral contraceptive pill cycle, but lower in premenopausal women than age-matched men.

    PubMed

    Shenouda, Ninette; Priest, Stacey E; Rizzuto, Vanessa I; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2018-05-04

    Sex hormone concentrations differ between men, premenopausal women with natural menstrual cycles (NAT), and premenopausal women using oral contraceptive pills (OCP), as well as across menstrual or OCP phases. This study sought to investigate how differences in sex hormones, particularly estradiol, between men and women and across cycle phases, may influence brachial artery endothelial function. Fifty-three healthy adults (22{plus minus}3 yrs; 20 men, 15 NAT, 18 second, third or fourth generation OCP) underwent assessments of sex hormones and endothelial (flow-mediated dilation test, FMD) and smooth muscle (nitroglycerin test, NTG) function. Men were tested three times at one-week intervals, and women were tested three times throughout a single menstrual or OCP cycle (NAT: menstrual, mid-follicular, luteal; OCP: placebo/no pill, 'early' and 'late' active pill). Endogenous estradiol concentration was comparable between men and women in their NAT menstrual or OCP placebo phase (p=0.36) but increased throughout a NAT cycle (p<0.001). Allometrically scaled FMD did not change across a NAT or OCP cycle but was lower in both groups of women than men (p=0.005), whereas scaled NTG was lower only in NAT women (p=0.001). Changes in estradiol across a NAT cycle were not associated with changes in relative FMD (r2=0.01, p=0.62) or NTG (r2=0.09, p=0.13). Duration of OCP use was negatively associated with the average relative FMD for second generation OCP users only (r=-0.65, p=0.04). Our findings suggest that brachial endothelial function is unaffected by cyclic hormonal changes in premenopausal women but may be negatively impacted by longer term use of second generation OCPs.

  19. Opioid Overdose Deaths and Florida’s Crackdown on Pill Mills

    PubMed Central

    Richey, Matthew; McGinty, Emma E.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Barry, Colleen L.; Webster, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effect on opioid overdose mortality of Florida state laws and law enforcement operations targeting “pill mills.” Methods. We collected 2003 to 2012 mortality data from the Florida Department of Health and the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics (the comparison state) to estimate changes in the rates of death from prescription opioid, heroin, or any opioid overdose. Results. Florida’s actions were associated with an estimated 1029 lives saved from prescription opioid overdose over a 34-month period. Estimated reductions in deaths grew over the intervention period, with rates per 100 000 population that were 0.6 lower in 2010, 1.8 lower in 2011, and 3.0 lower in 2012 than what would have been expected had the changes in mortality rate trends in Florida been the same as changes in trends in North Carolina. Florida’s mortality rates from heroin and total opioid overdose were also lower than anticipated relative to changes in trends in North Carolina. Conclusions. Findings from this study indicate that laws regulating pain clinics and enforcement of these laws may, in combination, reduce opioid overdose deaths. PMID:26691121

  20. A comparison between monophasic levonorgestrel-ethinyl estradiol 150/30 and triphasic levonorgestrel-ethinyl estradiol 50-75-125/30-40-30 contraceptive pills for side effects and patient satisfaction: a study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kashanian, Maryam; Shahpourian, Farangis; Zare, Omolbanin

    2010-05-01

    Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are one of the most effective reversible and accessible contraceptives, and patient acceptance for their use depends partly on the unfavorable adverse effects. The present study compared the two kinds of OCPs (monophasic; levonorgestrel (LNG)-ethinyl estradiol (EE) 150/30 versus triphasic; LNG-EE 50-75-125/30-40-30) for adverse effects and patient satisfaction. A randomized clinical trial was performed on 314 women who used OCPs for the first time, as their contraception, for 6 months. Overall, 1884 cycles were studied. In the monophasic group (n=159 who finally finished the study), monophasic pills LNG-EE 150/30mcg, and in the triphasic group (n=155 who finally finished the study), triphasic pills LNG-EE 50-75-125/30-40-30 mcg were used. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 10: Chi square test, Fisher exact test and Student's t-test were used. There were no significant differences between the two groups for common side effects, including nausea, headache, nervousness, facial hyperpigmentation (chloasma), and body weight (increase or decrease) but breakthrough bleeding and spotting (BTB/S) were less in the triphasic group, occurring in 30 cycles (18.86%) versus 10 cycles (6.45%), P=0.009*. Patient satisfaction for the two OCPs was similar and high. The rates of side effects were low. It seems that the monophasic and triphasic pills are similar according to patient satisfaction and side effects; therefore there is no benefit of one over the other except for BTB/S, for which triphasic is superior. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rethinking agency and medical adherence technology: applying Actor Network Theory to the case study of Digital Pills.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Cabling, Mark L; Sheppard, Vanessa B

    2015-12-01

    Much literature surrounding medical technology and adherence posits that technology is a mechanism for social control. This assumes that the medical establishment can take away patients' agency. Although power relationships and social control can play a key role, medical technology can also serve as an agentive tool to be utilized. We (1) offer the alternative framework of Actor Network Theory to view medical technology, (2) discuss the literature on medication adherence and technology, (3) delve into the ramifications of looking at adherence as a network and (4) use Digital Pills as a case study of dispersed agency. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Near-critical density filling of the SF6 fluid cell for the ALI-R-DECLIC experiment in weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoutre, C.; Marre, S.; Garrabos, Y.; Beysens, D.; Hahn, I.

    2018-05-01

    Analyses of ground-based experiments on near-critical fluids to precisely determine their density can be hampered by several effects, especially the density stratification of the sample, the liquid wetting behavior at the cell walls, and a possible singular curvature of the "rectilinear" diameter of the density coexisting curve. For the latter effect, theoretical efforts have been made to understand the amplitude and shape of the critical hook of the density diameter, which depart from predictions from the so-called ideal lattice-gas model of the uniaxial 3D-Ising universality class. In order to optimize the observation of these subtle effects on the position and shape of the liquid-vapor meniscus in the particular case of SF6, we have designed and filled a cell that is highly symmetrized with respect to any median plane of the total fluid volume. In such a viewed quasi-perfect symmetrical fluid volume, the precise detection of the meniscus position and shape for different orientations of the cell with respect to the Earth's gravity acceleration field becomes a sensitive probe to estimate the cell mean density filling and to test the singular diameter effects. After integration of this cell in the ALI-R insert, we take benefit of the high optical and thermal performances of the DECLIC Engineering Model. Here we present the sensitive imaging method providing the precise ground-based SF6 benchmark data. From these data analysis it is found that the temperature dependence of the meniscus position does not reflect the expected critical hook in the rectilinear density diameter. Therefore the off-density criticality of the cell is accurately estimated, before near future experiments using the same ALI-R insert in the DECLIC facility already on-board the International Space Station.

  3. The impact of New Zealand's 2008 prohibition of piperazine-based party pills on young people's substance use: results of a longitudinal, web-based study.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Janie; Dong, Christine Yang; Butler, Rachael; Barnes, Joanne

    2013-09-01

    The last decade has seen the emergence of a new phenomenon in recreational substance use with the availability of herbal and synthetic, unregulated, psychoactive drugs in the market place; alongside this, international concern has developed in relation to their use and associated harms. New Zealand (NZ) was one of the first countries to experience this new phenomenon, with products containing chemicals of the piperazine group - mainly benzylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP). In 2008, the NZ Government prohibited these substances, but allowed a 6-month amnesty period for possession. Our study aimed to obtain a measure of change in BZP use over time. This study used a longitudinal, web-based survey, with data collected at two time points from the same participants. The first survey was carried out 3 months after BZP prohibition, and included retrospective questions for the 6 months preceding the survey. The second survey was conducted 9 months after prohibition and also included retrospective questions for the 6 months preceding the survey. 273 sets of paired data were identified. The use of BZP party pills (p<0.0001) and legally available smokeable products (p=0.002) reduced over time. A majority of users of party pills obtained them from friends or from their own stockpiled supplies. The misuse of prescription drugs (p=0.02) increased over time, whereas statistically significant increases in stimulant or alcohol use were not noted. Following prohibition of piperazine-based party pills, we noted a significant reduction in the proportions of participants using them. The observed increase in the misuse of prescription medicines may relate to their perceived 'quality', or as being less 'illegal' than illicit drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Attribution-Based Nocebo Effects. Perceived Effects of a Placebo Pill and a Sham Magnetic Field on Cognitive Performance and Somatic Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Szemerszky, Renáta; Dömötör, Zsuzsanna; Berkes, Tímea; Köteles, Ferenc

    2016-04-01

    Negative non-specific (nocebo-like) effects of medications and electromagnetic fields are often described as results of mistaken attribution. The current study aimed to find empirical evidence supporting this theory. Participants completed questionnaires assessing modern health worries, health anxiety, and somatosensory amplification, were assigned to one of three conditions (placebo pill with sedative information, sham magnetic field, or control), and completed a 14-min vigilance task. Changes in physiological arousal (heart rate, heart rate variability, and skin conductance) and reported symptoms were also measured. Finally, causal attributions concerning cognitive performance and reported symptoms were assessed. No increase in symptom reports and physiological arousal was measured in the two intervention groups. A perceived negative effect on cognitive performance was attributed to both sham conditions, and attributions were connected to modern health worries. A proportion of reported symptoms was ascribed to the placebo pill but not to the sham magnetic field. Symptom attributions were not related to any assessed psychological variables. An aroused physiological state is not necessary for the automatic causal attribution process. Negative effects attributed to medication and environmental factors can be regarded as unavoidable side effects of human cognitive-emotional functioning; they might be alleviated, but cannot be completely eradicated.

  5. ALiEM Blog and Podcast Watch: Procedures in Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Nikita; Morley, Eric J; Taira, Taku; Branzetti, Jeremy; Grock, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    The WestJEM Blog and Podcast Watch presents high-quality, open-access educational blogs and podcasts in emergency medicine (EM) based on the ongoing Academic Life in EM (ALiEM) Approved Instructional Resources (AIR) and AIR-Professional series. Both series critically appraise resources using an objective scoring rubric. This installment of the Blog and Podcast Watch highlights the topic of procedure emergencies from the AIR Series. The AIR Series is a continuously building curriculum that follows the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors' (CORD) annual testing schedule. For each module, relevant content is collected from the top 50 Social Media Index sites published within the previous 12 months, and scored by eight AIR board members using five equally weighted measurement outcomes: Best Evidence in Emergency Medicine (BEEM) score, accuracy, educational utility, evidence based, and references. Resources scoring ≥30 out of 35 available points receive an AIR label. Resources scoring 27-29 receive an "honorable mention" label if the executive board agrees that the post is accurate and educationally valuable. A total of 85 blog posts and podcasts were evaluated in June 2016. This report summarizes key educational pearls from the three AIR posts and the 10 Honorable Mentions. The WestJEM Blog and Podcast Watch series is based on the AIR and AIR-Pro series, which attempts to identify high-quality educational content on open-access blogs and podcasts. This series provides an expert-based, post-publication curation of educational social media content for EM clinicians, with this installment focusing on procedure emergencies within the AIR series.

  6. [Impact of media alerts on contraceptive pills medication].

    PubMed

    Pozzi-Gaudin, S; Deffieux, X; Davitian, C; Guerre, N; Faucher, P; Bacle, F; Teboul, M; Larmignat, P; Hatchuel, M; Benachi, A

    2015-09-01

    The end of 2012 was marked by some media alerts regarding combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) and lawsuit against pharmaceutical companies selling these birth control pills. In this study, we analyzed whether these information had an impact on the number of abortion. Prospective study determining the number of women asking for abortion and who spontaneously declare that the contraception defect was due to an abandon of their oral contraception as they were scared of some information they received from media about the medication. Eleven centers out of 16 did participate to the study, allowing the study of 2300 abortion during this time frame. Ninety-eight of these pregnancies (4.2%) were due to an interruption of the contraceptive treatment as a consequence of media alerts. Average age was 26 years old. Within these pregnancies, 4 (6%) started in December 2012, 3 months after the beginning of the alerts, 11 (16%) in January, 24 (36%) in February and 18 (27%) in March 2013 (4-6 months later). In 7 cases (10%) CHC stopped by fear of information reported by media were of 2nd generation, in 17 cases (25%) of 3rd generation, in 32 cases (48%) of 4th generation and microprogestative in 2 cases (3%). Women who declared that they stopped their birth control medication by fear of information reported in media, represented 4% of the number of abortions performed between 2013 February 18th and 2013 April 30th. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Freedom Fighters of South Asia: Mohandas K. Gandhi [and] Mohammad Ali Jinnah [and] Jawaharlal Nehru [and] Subhas Chandra Bose [and] Bal Gangadhar Tilak [and] Vallabhbhai Patel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benade, Judith A.

    Biographies of five men who dedicated their lives to fighting for the independence of India are presented. Mohandas K. Gandhi, born in 1869, spent his life in non-violent resistance to the many injustices being perpetrated against the poor and needy of India. Born in 1876, lawyer Mohammad Ali Jinnah was close in ideas, hope, and spirit to Gandhi.…

  8. Using Pill Identification Calls to Poison Centers as a Marker of Drug Abuse at Three Texas Military Bases.

    PubMed

    Ng, Patrick C; Maddry, Joseph K; Sessions, Daniel; Borys, Douglas J; Bebarta, Vikhyat S

    2017-11-01

    Opioid abuse is a growing problem in civilian communities, and it has developed in the military as well. Telephone calls to poison centers requesting pill identification (ID) is a marker of drug abuse. This study identifies the number of pill ID calls made to the poison centers from areas containing and surrounding three Texas military bases during an 8-year period. We performed a retrospective observational study identifying calls to certified poison centers in Texas from 2002 to 2009 that identified hydrocodone tablets and other pain medications. We noted the calls made from ZIP codes containing and surrounding the three largest military bases in Texas. We reviewed 75,537 drug ID calls for any drug from the ZIP codes of interest. Total drug ID calls increased 105% and the number of calls for hydrocodone increased 463%. In our study most of the drug ID calls from military communities in Texas were for hydrocodone. The rate of calls for hydrocodone increased more than the rate of calls for other analgesics from 2002 to 2009. Using drug ID calls as a surrogate of drug abuse, our results suggest that hydrocodone abuse has increased within military communities and that poison center data can be a reliable surrogate for prescription drug abuse near military bases. Future studies are needed to further understand the extent of this problem in military and civilian communities. We can use this information to heighten awareness, influence prescription practices, establish practice guidelines, and develop educational programs to mitigate the increasing rate of prescription analgesic abuse in the United States.

  9. Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism: pill scares and public health.

    PubMed

    Reid, Robert L

    2011-11-01

    Post-marketing surveillance of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) for rare complications such as venous thromboembolism (VTE) presents unique challenges. Prospective studies, which are costly and time consuming, have to date been undertaken by only a few contraceptive manufacturers willing to commit to full evaluation of product safety. Often such studies are conducted with the approval of regulatory authorities as a precondition for marketing. Alternatively, independent investigators with access to large databases have conducted retrospective studies to compare the incidence of VTE between new and older products. Such studies, however, run the risk of erroneous conclusions if they cannot ensure comparable risk profiles for users of these different products. Often database studies are unable to access information on important confounders, and medical records may not be available to validate the actual diagnosis of VTE. "Pill scares" generated following publication and media dissemination of worrisome findings, when the conclusions are in doubt and not corroborated by stronger prospective study designs, are frequently damaging to public health. From a review of recent publications on the VTE risk with drospirenone-containing COCs, it can be concluded that the best quality evidence does not support a difference in risk between users of COCs containing drospirenone and those of COCs containing levonorgestrel.

  10. Qishen Yiqi Drop Pill improves cardiac function after myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    JianXin, Chen; Xue, Xu; ZhongFeng, Li; Kuo, Gao; FeiLong, Zhang; ZhiHong, Li; Xian, Wang; HongCai, Shang

    2016-04-14

    Myocardial ischemia (MI) is one of the leading causes of death, while Qishen Yiqi Drop Pill (QYDP) is a representative traditional Chinese medicine to treat this disease. Unveiling the pharmacological mechanism of QYDP will provide a great opportunity to promote the development of novel drugs to treat MI. 64 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: MI model group, sham operation group, QYDP treatment group and Fosinopril treatment group. Echocardiography results showed that QYDP exhibited significantly larger LV end-diastolic dimension (LVEDd) and LV end-systolic dimension (LVEDs), compared with the MI model group, indicating the improved cardiac function by QYDP. (1)H-NMR based metabonomics further identify 9 significantly changed metabolites in the QYDP treatment group, and the QYDP-related proteins based on the protein-metabolite interaction networks and the corresponding pathways were explored, involving the pyruvate metabolism pathway, the retinol metabolism pathway, the tyrosine metabolism pathway and the purine metabolism pathway, suggesting that QYDP was closely associated with blood circulation. ELISA tests were further employed to identify NO synthase (iNOS) and cathepsin K (CTSK) in the networks. For the first time, our work combined experimental and computational methods to study the mechanism of the formula of traditional Chinese medicine.

  11. Substrate stiffness-dependent exacerbation of endothelial permeability and inflammation: mechanisms and potential implications in ALI and PH (2017 Grover Conference Series)

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Pratap; Birukova, Anna A.

    2018-01-01

    The maintenance of endothelial barrier integrity is absolutely essential to prevent the vascular leak associated with pneumonia, pulmonary edema resulting from inhalation of toxins, acute elevation to high altitude, traumatic and septic lung injury, acute lung injury (ALI), and its life-threatening complication, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In addition to the long-known edemagenic and inflammatory agonists, emerging evidences suggest that factors of endothelial cell (EC) mechanical microenvironment such as blood flow, mechanical strain of the vessel, or extracellular matrix stiffness also play an essential role in the control of endothelial permeability and inflammation. Recent studies from our group and others have demonstrated that substrate stiffening causes endothelial barrier disruption and renders EC more susceptible to agonist-induced cytoskeletal rearrangement and inflammation. Further in vivo studies have provided direct evidence that proinflammatory stimuli increase lung microvascular stiffness which in turn exacerbates endothelial permeability and inflammation and perpetuates a vicious circle of lung inflammation. Accumulating evidence suggests a key role for RhoA GTPases signaling in stiffness-dependent mechanotransduction mechanisms defining EC permeability and inflammatory responses. Vascular stiffening is also known to be a key contributor to other cardiovascular diseases such as arterial pulmonary hypertension (PH), although the precise role of stiffness in the development and progression of PH remains to be elucidated. This review summarizes the current understanding of stiffness-dependent regulation of pulmonary EC permeability and inflammation, and discusses potential implication of pulmonary vascular stiffness alterations at macro- and microscale in development and modulation of ALI and PH. PMID:29714090

  12. Using a source-to-source transformation to introduce multi-threading into the AliRoot framework for a parallel event reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohn, Stefan B.; Dong, Xin; Carminati, Federico

    2012-12-01

    Chip-Multiprocessors are going to support massive parallelism by many additional physical and logical cores. Improving performance can no longer be obtained by increasing clock-frequency because the technical limits are almost reached. Instead, parallel execution must be used to gain performance. Resources like main memory, the cache hierarchy, bandwidth of the memory bus or links between cores and sockets are not going to be improved as fast. Hence, parallelism can only result into performance gains if the memory usage is optimized and the communication between threads is minimized. Besides concurrent programming has become a domain for experts. Implementing multi-threading is error prone and labor-intensive. A full reimplementation of the whole AliRoot source-code is unaffordable. This paper describes the effort to evaluate the adaption of AliRoot to the needs of multi-threading and to provide the capability of parallel processing by using a semi-automatic source-to-source transformation to address the problems as described before and to provide a straight-forward way of parallelization with almost no interference between threads. This makes the approach simple and reduces the required manual changes in the code. In a first step, unconditional thread-safety will be introduced to bring the original sequential and thread unaware source-code into the position of utilizing multi-threading. Afterwards further investigations have to be performed to point out candidates of classes that are useful to share amongst threads. Then in a second step, the transformation has to change the code to share these classes and finally to verify if there are anymore invalid interferences between threads.

  13. Metabolic changes in overweight and obese women above 35 years using Ethinylestradiol/drosperinone combined contraceptive pills: a 3-year case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Mohamed; Sayyed, Tarek; Ellakwa, Hamid; Zahran, Ahmed; Gamal, Awni

    2016-10-01

    To assess metabolic changes in overweight and obese women above 35 years using ethinylestradiol/drosperinone combined contraceptive pills for 36 cycles. A prospective case-control study over 3 years recruiting 202 overweight and obese women above the age of 35 years who were divided into two groups, study group (n = 90) who received Ethinylestradiol/drospirenone for 36 cycles, and control group (n = 112) to whom intrauterine device was inserted. Recording of the body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and fasting blood lipids including triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol before starting the method and repeated at 12, 24 and 36 cycles of use. No significant change was observed in body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose between the two groups (p > 0.05).There was a significant reduction in triglycerides, total and LDL cholesterol with elevation in HDL cholesterol in the study group after 24 and 36 cycles of use (p < 0.05). Ethinylestradiol/drospirenone combined contraceptive pills do not alter blood pressure or affect the body weight, with favorable effects on blood lipids in overweight and obese women above the age of 35 years when used for 24-36 cycles.

  14. ALiEM Blog and Podcast Watch: Procedures in Emergency Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Nikita; Morley, Eric J.; Taira, Taku; Branzetti, Jeremy; Grock, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The WestJEM Blog and Podcast Watch presents high-quality, open-access educational blogs and podcasts in emergency medicine (EM) based on the ongoing Academic Life in EM (ALiEM) Approved Instructional Resources (AIR) and AIR-Professional series. Both series critically appraise resources using an objective scoring rubric. This installment of the Blog and Podcast Watch highlights the topic of procedure emergencies from the AIR Series. Methods The AIR Series is a continuously building curriculum that follows the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors’ (CORD) annual testing schedule. For each module, relevant content is collected from the top 50 Social Media Index sites published within the previous 12 months, and scored by eight AIR board members using five equally weighted measurement outcomes: Best Evidence in Emergency Medicine (BEEM) score, accuracy, educational utility, evidence based, and references. Resources scoring ≥30 out of 35 available points receive an AIR label. Resources scoring 27–29 receive an “honorable mention” label if the executive board agrees that the post is accurate and educationally valuable. Results A total of 85 blog posts and podcasts were evaluated in June 2016. This report summarizes key educational pearls from the three AIR posts and the 10 Honorable Mentions. Conclusion The WestJEM Blog and Podcast Watch series is based on the AIR and AIR-Pro series, which attempts to identify high-quality educational content on open-access blogs and podcasts. This series provides an expert-based, post-publication curation of educational social media content for EM clinicians, with this installment focusing on procedure emergencies within the AIR series. PMID:29085547

  15. Young adult couples' decision making regarding emergency contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Richard; Kools, Susan M; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Humphreys, Janice

    2011-03-01

    Unintended pregnancy is a significant public health problem among young people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to explore and better understand the reasons for the apparent underuse of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) in young people in coupled relationships. THEORETICAL RATIONAL: In postmodern explications of grounded theory, social construction of realities and the influence of subjectivities on the meanings of experiences lead to the development of partial truths that may change with time, context, and situation. Grounded theory methods guided semi-structured face-to-face interviews and data analysis. Twenty-two couples aged 18 to 25 years old were recruited through public notices. Four salient and interrelated conditions were constructed to help explain the complexities involved in young couples decision making regarding ECP use: (a) the shifting locus of responsibility for contraceptive decision making: in a perfect world versus biological reality; (b) relationship power: control-vulnerability continuum; (c) a woman's autonomy over her own body; and (d) conflicting views on ECP. Healthcare professionals whose practice includes young people need to be aware of possible couple dynamics when discussing contraception. Clients in supportive relationships should be encouraged to engage in open communication with their partners about their contraception needs, including possible ECP use. The results of this study contribute to the body of knowledge with regard to decision making related to ECP use in young adults. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  16. Acceptability of an oral contraceptive that reduces the frequency of menstruation: the tri-cycle pill regimen.

    PubMed Central

    Loudon, N B; Foxwell, M; Potts, D M; Guild, A L; Short, R V

    1977-01-01

    The frequency of menstruation was reduced to once every three months in 196 women by the continuous administration of the oral contraceptive pill, Minilyn, for 84 days (tri-cycle regimen). No pregnancies occurred. One hundred and sixty-one women (82%) welcomed the reduction in the number of periods with the associated freedom from menstrual and premenstrual symptoms, and many found the tri-cycle regimen easier to follow. Weight gain of more than 2 kg, irregular cycle control, especially in the first three months, breast tenderness, and headaches were the main side effects. Menstrual loss was unchanged or reduced in all but seven women. The doctors and nurses on the clinic staff were less enthusiastic about this regimen than the volunteers themselves. PMID:890363

  17. Knowledge and opinions of emergency contraceptive pills among female factory workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    García, Sandra G; Becker, Davida; de Castro, Marcela Martínez; Paz, Francisco; Olavarrieta, Claudia Díaz; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2008-09-01

    Workers in Mexico's maquiladoras (assembly plants) are mainly young, single women, many of whom could benefit from emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). Because ECPs are readily available in Mexico, women who know about the therapy can obtain it easily. Do maquiladora workers know about the method? Could worksite programs help increase awareness? To investigate these questions, we conducted a five-month intervention during which workers in three maquiladoras along the Mexico-United States border could attend educational talks on ECPs, receive pamphlets, and obtain kits containing EC supplies. Among the workers exposed to our intervention, knowledge of ECPs increased. Reported ECP use also increased. Although our intervention apparently increased workers' knowledge and use, the factory proved to be a difficult intervention setting. Problems we experienced included a factory closure and management/staff opposition to certain project elements. Future studies should continue to investigate work-site interventions and other strategies to reach workers.

  18. Emergency contraceptive pills over-the-counter: a population-based survey of young Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Margareta; Eurenius, Karin; Westerling, Ragnar; Tydén, Tanja

    2004-04-01

    One year after emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) had become prescription-free, we sent a questionnaire to 800 randomly selected women in mid-Sweden. The aim was to investigate women's knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the method. The response rate was 71% (n = 564). The majority of the women, 65%, would prefer to purchase ECP over-the-counter (OTC) in a pharmacy. Attitudes toward the method were predominantly positive, but one fourth (24%) had worries about side effects and one third (33%) considered ECP to be a kind of abortion. Logistic regression showed that correct knowledge of and positive attitudes toward ECP contributed to estimated future use of ECP. Although women favored the OTC option, persistent misunderstanding about ECP implies that routine information from gynecologists and health professionals as well as media campaigns is needed along with the deregulation in order to make ECP an accepted and properly used contraceptive method.

  19. New insights into the structure of Om Ali-Thelepte basin, central Tunisia, inferred from gravity data: Hydrogeological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harchi, Mongi; Gabtni, Hakim; El Mejri, Hatem; Dassi, Lassaad; Mammou, Abdallah Ben

    2016-08-01

    This work presents new results from gravity data analyses and interpretation within the Om Ali-Thelepte (OAT) basin, central Tunisia. It focuses on the hydrogeological implication, using several qualitative and quantitative techniques such as horizontal gradient, upward continuation and Euler deconvolution on boreholes log data, seismic reflection data and electrical conductivity measurements. The structures highlighted using the filtering techniques suggest that the Miocene aquifer of OAT basin is cut by four major fault systems that trend E-W, NE-SW, NW-SE and NNE-SSW. In addition, a NW-SE gravity model established shows the geometry of the Miocene sandstone reservoir and the Upper Cretaceous limestone rocks. Moreover, the superimposition of the electrical conductivity and the structural maps indicates that the low conductivity values of sampled water from boreholes are located around main faults.

  20. Arginine methylation of REF/ALY promotes efficient handover of mRNA to TAP/NXF1

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ming-Lung; Hautbergue, Guillaume M.; Snijders, Ambrosius P. L.; Dickman, Mark J.; Wilson, Stuart A.

    2010-01-01

    The REF/ALY mRNA export adaptor binds TAP/NXF1 via an arginine-rich region, which overlaps with its RNA-binding domain. When TAP binds a REF:RNA complex, it triggers transfer of the RNA from REF to TAP. Here, we have examined the effects of arginine methylation on the activities of the REF protein in mRNA export. We have mapped the arginine methylation sites of REF using mass spectrometry and find that several arginines within the TAP and RNA binding domains are methylated in vivo. However, arginine methylation has no effect on the REF:TAP interaction. Instead, arginine methylation reduces the RNA-binding activity of REF in vitro and in vivo. The reduced RNA-binding activity of REF in its methylated state is essential for efficient displacement of RNA from REF by TAP in vivo. Therefore, arginine methylation fine-tunes the RNA-binding activity of REF such that the RNA–protein interaction can be readily disrupted by export factors further down the pathway. PMID:20129943

  1. Digital Workflow for the Conservation of Bahrain Built Heritage: the Sheik Isa Bin ALI House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazzetti, L.; Mezzino, D.; Santana Quintero, M.

    2017-08-01

    Currently, the commercial market offers several tools for digital documentation of historic sites and buildings. Photogrammetry and laser scanning play a fundamental role in the acquisition of metric information, which is then processed to generate reliable records particularly useful also in the built heritage conservation field. Although potentially very fast and accurate, such techniques require expert operators to produce reliable results, especially in the case of complex and large sites. The aim of this paper is to present the digital workflow developed for data acquisition and processing of the Shaikh Isa Bin Ali house in Muharraq, Bahrain. This historic structure is an outstanding example of Bahrain architecture as well as tangible memory of the country history, with strong connotations in the Bahrain cultural identity. The building has been documented employing several digital techniques, including: aerial (drone) and terrestrial photogrammetry, rectifying photography, total station and laser scanning. The documentation project has been developed for the Bahrain Authority for Culture and Antiquities (BACA) by a multidisciplinary team of experts from Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS, Carleton University, Canada) and Gicarus Lab (Politecnico di Milano, Italy).

  2. Cross-calibration of MODIS with ETM+ and ALI sensors for long-term monitoring of land surface processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, D.; Chander, G.

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, data from multiple sensors are used to gain a more complete understanding of land surface processes at a variety of scales. Although higher-level products (e.g., vegetation cover, albedo, surface temperature) derived from different sensors can be validated independently, the degree to which these sensors and their products can be compared to one another is vastly improved if their relative spectroradiometric responses are known. Most often, sensors are directly calibrated to diffuse solar irradiation or vicariously to ground targets. However, space-based targets are not traceable to metrological standards, and vicarious calibrations are expensive and provide a poor sampling of a sensor's full dynamic range. Crosscalibration of two sensors can augment these methods if certain conditions can be met: (1) the spectral responses are similar, (2) the observations are reasonably concurrent (similar atmospheric & solar illumination conditions), (3) errors due to misregistrations of inhomogeneous surfaces can be minimized (including scale differences), and (4) the viewing geometry is similar (or, some reasonable knowledge of surface bi-directional reflectance distribution functions is available). This study explores the impacts of cross-calibrating sensors when such conditions are met to some degree but not perfectly. In order to constrain the range of conditions at some level, the analysis is limited to sensors where cross-calibration studies have been conducted (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) on Landsat-7 (L7), Advance Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion on Earth Observer-1 (EO-1)) and including systems having somewhat dissimilar geometry, spatial resolution & spectral response characteristics but are still part of the so-called "A.M. constellation" (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra platform). Measures for spectral response differences and methods for cross calibrating such sensors are provided in this study. These

  3. [Study on action mechanism and material base of compound Danshen dripping pills in treatment of carotid atherosclerosis based on techniques of gene expression profile and molecular fingerprint].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Song, Xiang-gang; Chen, Chao; Wang, Shu-mei; Liang, Sheng-wang

    2015-08-01

    Action mechanism and material base of compound Danshen dripping pills in treatment of carotid atherosclerosis were discussed based on gene expression profile and molecular fingerprint in this paper. First, gene expression profiles of atherosclerotic carotid artery tissues and histologically normal tissues in human body were collected, and were screened using significance analysis of microarray (SAM) to screen out differential gene expressions; then differential genes were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and KEGG pathway analysis; to avoid some genes with non-outstanding differential expression but biologically importance, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) were performed, and 7 chemical ingredients with higher negative enrichment score were obtained by Cmap method, implying that they could reversely regulate the gene expression profiles of pathological tissues; and last, based on the hypotheses that similar structures have similar activities, 336 ingredients of compound Danshen dripping pills were compared with 7 drug molecules in 2D molecular fingerprints method. The results showed that 147 differential genes including 60 up-regulated genes and 87 down regulated genes were screened out by SAM. And in GO analysis, Biological Process ( BP) is mainly concerned with biological adhesion, response to wounding and inflammatory response; Cellular Component (CC) is mainly concerned with extracellular region, extracellular space and plasma membrane; while Molecular Function (MF) is mainly concerned with antigen binding, metalloendopeptidase activity and peptide binding. KEGG pathway analysis is mainly concerned with JAK-STAT, RIG-I like receptor and PPAR signaling pathway. There were 10 compounds, such as hexadecane, with Tanimoto coefficients greater than 0.85, which implied that they may be the active ingredients (AIs) of compound Danshen dripping pills in treatment of carotid atherosclerosis (CAs). The present method can be applied to the research on material

  4. Improved Design and Fabrication of Hydrated-Salt Pills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance design, and fabrication and growth processes to implement the design, have been devised for encapsulating a hydrated salt in a container that both protects the salt and provides thermal conductance between the salt and the environment surrounding the container. The unitary salt/container structure is known in the art as a salt pill. In the original application of the present design and processes, the salt is, more specifically, a hydrated paramagnetic salt, for use as a refrigerant in a very-low-temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The design and process can also be applied, with modifications, to other hydrated salts. Hydrated paramagnetic salts have long been used in ADRs because they have the desired magnetic properties at low temperatures. They also have some properties, disadvantageous for ADRs, that dictate the kind of enclosures in which they must be housed: Being hydrated, they lose water if exposed to less than 100-percent relative humidity. Because any dehydration compromises their magnetic properties, salts used in ADRs must be sealed in hermetic containers. Because they have relatively poor thermal conductivities in the temperature range of interest (<0.1 K), integral thermal buses are needed as means of efficiently transferring heat to and from the salts during refrigeration cycles. A thermal bus is typically made from a high-thermal-conductivity met al (such as copper or gold), and the salt is configured to make intimate thermal contact with the metal. Commonly in current practice (and in the present design), the thermal bus includes a matrix of wires or rods, and the salt is grown onto this matrix. The density and spacing of the conductors depend on the heat fluxes that must be accommodated during operation.

  5. Risk of Autoimmune Disease in Adults with Chronic Insomnia Requiring Sleep-Inducing Pills: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Kok, Victor C; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Hung, Guo-Dung; Xu, Jia-Li; Hung, Tzu-Wei; Chen, Yu-Ching; Chen, Chien-Lung

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies indicate that chronic insomnia is associated with the development of certain somatic diseases. Whether it would be associated with the development of an autoimmune disease (AID) was unknown. We aimed to examine the association and quantify the magnitude of risk for AID in individuals suffering from chronic insomnia requiring sleep-inducing pills. This was a population-based, nationwide longitudinal study. Using a claims data set containing 1 million randomly sampled, insured subjects derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database, we assembled a chronic insomnia group and a 1:3 propensity score-matched comparison group (CP), which were balanced in terms of sex, age, insurance premium, urbanization, alcohol use disorder, smoking-related diagnoses, and morbid obesity. Person-time data with incidence rate, adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) by the Cox model, AID-free survival functions compared with the log-rank test, and a sensitivity analysis on the time lag effect were presented. Incident AID within the first year of follow-up were excluded. The error rate was controlled using the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure. With 39,550 and 129,914 person-years' follow-up for the chronic insomnia and CP groups (n = 5,736 and 17,208), respectively, we found an increased risk for subsequent AID, representing a 70 % increase in the aHR (1.7; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.5-1.9, p < 0.0001). A positive association between chronic insomnia and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) was observed (aHR, 1.3; 95 % CI, 1.1-1.6). Sensitivity analysis disclosed that AID risk was even stronger after 5 years of follow-up (aHR, 2.0; 95 % CI, 1.7-2.4). Chronic insomnia requiring sleep-inducing pills may be associated with a 70 % increased risk for future AID, particularly pSS.

  6. Comparison of combined hormonal vaginal ring with ultralow-dose combined oral contraceptive pills in the management of heavy menstrual bleeding: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, N; Gupta, M; Kriplani, A; Bhatla, N; Singh, N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare combined hormonal vaginal ring with ultralow-dose combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills in management of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Fifty patients were randomised into Group I: vaginal ring (n = 25) and group II: COC pills (n = 25). Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was assessed at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months (while on treatment) and at 9 months (3 months after stopping therapy). There was significant reduction in baseline pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC) score from 440 ± 188 (Mean ± SD) to 178 ± 95, 139 ± 117, 112 ± 84 and 120 ± 108 in group I and from 452 ± 206 to 204 ± 152, 179 ± 125, 176 ± 164 and 202 ± 167 in group II at 1, 3, 6 and 9 months, respectively (p = 0.001). Reduction in MBL was 72% and 62% at 6 months and up to 71% and 55% at 9 months in group I and group II, respectively (p = 0.001). Reduction in MBL with ring was greater at higher baseline PBAC score but lesser in patients with fibroid > 2 cm. Combined vaginal hormonal treatment for HMB is as effective as oral hormonal therapy, with minor and transient side effects and persistence of response after cessation of therapy.

  7. Study of np{sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2} Rydberg series of AlI by the method of laser stepwise excitation and ionization by electric field

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kasimov, A.K.; Tursunov, A.T.; Tukhlibaev, O.

    Frequencies of the 4s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-np{sup 2}P{sub 1/2, 3/2} transitions are measured and the energies of high-lying P states, as well as the ionization energy of aluminum atoms, are determined by the method of two-step laser excitation and ionization of excited atoms of AlI by an electric field. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. The pharmacokinetic characters of simvastatin after co-administration with Shexiang Baoxin Pill in healthy volunteers' plasma.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jianfei; Jiang, Peng; Peng, Chengcheng; Li, Min; Liu, Runhui; Zhang, Weidong

    2016-07-15

    To investigate the effect of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP), a tranditional Chinese medicine, on the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of simvastatin in healthy volunteers' plasma, a quantitative method was developed using an Agilent G6410A rapid performance liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry system. The established method was rapid with high extraction recovery and successfully applied for the determination of simvastatin in plasma of 16 healthy volunteers. The results demonstrated that the MRT(0-∞), T1/2 and Tmax value of simvastatin were significantly decreased, while the AUC(0-t) and Cmax values of smivastatin were increased by SBP. The pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the metabolism parameters of simvastatin could be affected by SBP and the potential drug-drug interaction should be noted in the future clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantification of the adverse effect of ethinylestradiol containing oral contraceptive pills when used in conjunction with growth hormone replacement in routine practice.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Niamh; Conway, Sophy H; Llahana, Sofia; Conway, Gerard S

    2012-05-01

    Oestrogen antagonizes the action of growth hormone (GH). For women with combined GH and oestrogen deficiency, transdermal oestradiol is more favourable in this regard compared to oral oestradiol. Oral contraceptive pills containing ethinylestradiol (EE) are commonly used in young women with GHD and there is little information on the impact of this form of oestrogen. A case note review of women with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) attending a tertiary endocrine clinic comparing the dose of GH and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations and the type of exogenous oestrogen. All women with GHD between the ages of 18 and 47 attending University College London Hospitals (UCLH) were included and grouped according to type of oestrogen replacement. Weight, GH dose and serum IGF-I concentrations were recorded at 121 visits in 88 women. The daily dose of GH was significantly higher and the GH responsivity was significantly lower in the EE group compared to those taking no oestrogen and transdermal oestrogen. The additional cost of GH for women using EE compared to transdermal oestradiol was £6016 per patient per year. Effectiveness of GH improved in all women changing from EE to another form of oestrogen. Use of oral contraceptive pills containing EE should be avoided in women receiving treatment with GH. Alternative options include oral or transdermal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) preparations for those that require oestrogen replacement or a progesterone-based regimen for contraceptive purposes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. [Intervention effects of Jiaotai pills on PCPA-induced insomnia in rats].

    PubMed

    Yue, He; Zhou, Xiang-Yu; Li, Chun-Yuan; Zou, Zhong-Jie; Wang, Shu-Mei; Liang, Sheng-Wang; Gong, Meng-Juan

    2016-09-01

    To elucidate the intervention effects of Jiaotai pills(JTP) on p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA)-induced insomnia in rats and its underlying mechanism, the insomnia model was established by single intraperitoneal injection with PCPA in rats. The locomotor activity of rats was observed, and the levels of nerve growth factor(NGF) in hypothalamus, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and serum of rats were determined by using ELISA. Moreover, a proton nuclear magnetic resonance(¹H-NMR)-based metabonomic approach was developed to profile insomnia-related metabolites in rat serum and hippocampus and analyze the intervention effects of JTP on changes in underlying biomarkers related to locomotor activity, NGF and insomnia. According to the results, JTP could significantly suppress the locomotor activity of insomnia rats, and increase the NGF levels in hypothalamus, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and serum of rats with insomnia. The disturbed metabolic state associated with PCPA-induced insomnia in rat serum and hippocampus could be intervened by JTP. Meanwhile, six and five potential biomarkers related to insomnia in rat serum and hippocampus were reversed by administration of JTP. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that JTP had protective effects against PCPA-induced insomnia in rats, which was probably correlated with regulation of NGF level and metabolism of amino acids, lipids and choline. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Mapping tropical dry forest height, foliage height profiles and disturbance type and age with a time series of cloud-cleared Landsat and ALI image mosaics to characterize avian habitat

    Treesearch

    E.H. Helmer; Thomas S. Ruzycki; Jr. Joseph M. Wunderle; Shannon Vogesser; Bonnie Ruefenacht; Charles Kwit; Thomas J. Brandeis; David N. Ewert

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing of forest vertical structure is possible with lidar data, but lidar is not widely available. Here we map tropical dry forest height (RMSE=0.9 m, R2=0.84, range 0.6–7 m), and we map foliage height profiles, with a time series of Landsat and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) imagery on the island of Eleuthera, The Bahamas, substituting time for vertical canopy...

  12. Investigation of the effects of 'piperazine-containing party pills' and dexamphetamine on interhemispheric communication using electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Lee, HeeSeung; Wang, Grace Y; Curley, Louise E; Kydd, Rob R; Kirk, Ian J; Russell, Bruce R

    2016-08-01

    'Piperazine-containing party pills' were marketed and sold as legal alternatives to methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) until 2008 in New Zealand. The major constituents of these 'pills' were benzylphenylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP). Despite their popularity, there is a paucity of knowledge about their central effects in humans. This study investigated their effects on human neural processing using electroencephalographic techniques. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the effects of an acute dose of these compounds on the interhemispheric transfer of information (IHTT) using the Poffenberger task. Reaction time data were also collected. Healthy, right-handed males were given an oral dose of either BZP (n = 13) (200 mg), TFMPP (n = 15) (60 mg), a combination of BZP + TFMPP (n = 15) (100 mg/30 mg), dexamphetamine (n = 16) (20 mg), or placebo (n = 23) and tested both before and 120 min after drug administration. A mixed factorial repeated measures analysis of variance of absolute N160 latency and contrast analysis revealed that only TFMPP (F (1,77) = 17.30, p ≤ 0.001) significantly reduced the absolute N160 latency. Analysis of the IHTT revealed that only TFMPP (F (1,77) = 5.266, p ≤ 0.02) significantly reduced the IHTT, while BZP, BZP + TFMPP and dexamphetamine had no effect. Contrast analysis revealed that both TFMPP (F (1,77) = 17.30, p ≤ 0.001) and placebo (F (1,77) = 15.08, p ≤ 0.001) preserved the laterality of information transfer from one hemisphere to the other. Reaction time (p > 0.05) was not significantly affected by any of the drug treatments. The usual directional asymmetry (i.e. faster R-to-L transfer relative to L-to-R) observed in healthy control group was absent following the administration of either BZP, BZP + TFMPP or dexamphetamine. Surprisingly, lateralised hemispheric function was not

  13. Suicide, Canadian law, and Exit International's "peaceful pill".

    PubMed

    Ogden, Russel D

    2010-11-01

    Australia's Exit International ("Exit") is probably the most visible and controversial right-to-die organization in the world. Founded by Dr. Philip Nitschke, Exit is known for do-it-yourself ("DIY") suicide workshops and a book banned in Australia: The Peaceful Pill Handbook. In 2009, Exit held its first workshop in Canada. Due to legal concerns, the Vancouver Public Library reneged on a commitment to give Exit a venue, so the workshop proceeded in the sanctuary of a church hall. This article summarizes the history of suicide law in Canada and gives an overview of the emerging DIY movement. A case report describes how a Canadian woman studied Exit's literature and learned how to import veterinary pentobarbital. In accordance with Exit's information, she ended her life. Ethical and legal implications for researching DIY suicide are discussed and it is argued that prohibition contributes to an undesirable situation of uncontrolled and unregulated suicide. Whether they are prohibited, permitted, or tolerated, suicide and assisted suicide are controversial. Their legal treatment in Canada is conflicting because suicide is not a crime but it is a serious offense to assist, encourage, or counsel someone to suicide. Individuals can lawfully take their lives, but they must act independently. This legal situation has given rise to a do-it-yourself ("DIY") right-to-die movement dedicated to technologies and information to enhance the possibilities for planned and humane suicide, while limiting the legal exposure of sympathetic third parties (Martin, 2010; Ogden 2001). My aim is to summarize the legal history of suicide in Canada and discuss the emerging social movement for DIY suicide and assistance in suicide. Exit International ("Exit"), based in Australia, is a leading organization in this movement. I present a case report that describes how a Canadian woman ended her life using DIY techniques learned from Exit. Some ethical and legal implications for researching DIY

  14. Luminescent properties of SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} and its luminescence improvement by incorporating A{sup +} (A=Li, Na, and K)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Li, Panlai, E-mail: li_panlai@126.com; Wang, Zhijun, E-mail: wangzj1998@126.com; Yang, Zhiping

    2014-12-15

    A novel green phosphor SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} is synthesized by a high temperature solid-state method, and its luminescent property is investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns of SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} indicate a similarity crystalline phase to SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} shows green emission under 369 nm excitation, and the prominent luminescence in green (544 nm) due to {sup 5}D{sub 4}–{sup 7}F{sub 5} transition of Tb{sup 3+}. For the 544 nm emission, excitation spectrum has several excitation band from 200 nm to 400 nm. Emission intensity of SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} is influencedmore » by Tb{sup 3+} concentration, and concentration quenching effect of Tb{sup 3+} in SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} is also observed. With incorporating A{sup +} (A=Li, Na, and K) as compensator charge, the emission intensity of SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} can be obviously enhanced. CIE color coordinates of SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} locate in the green region. The results indicate this phosphor may be a potential application in white LEDs. - Graphical abstract: SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} can produce green emission under near-UV excitation, and its luminescent properties can be improved by incorporating A{sup +} (A=Li, Na, and K). - Highlights: • SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} can produce green emission under near-UV excitation. • Concentration quenching effect of Tb{sup 3+} in SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} is observed. • Emission intensities of SrZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tb{sup 3+} are enhanced by codoped A{sup +} (A=Li, Na, K)« less

  15. Randomized and controlled clinical study of modified prescriptions of Simiao Pill in the treatment of acute gouty arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xin-de; Li, Guo-chun; Qian, Zu-xi; Jin, Ze-qiu; Song, Yan

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the compatibility of a modified prescription of Simiao Pill in the treatment of acute gouty arthritis and to verify the clinical efficacy and safety of the drug through a clinical trial. A randomized and controlled clinical trial was designed based on clinical epidemiological principles. A total of 107 patients with acute gouty arthritis were enrolled and randomly assigned to four groups. The first group (Group I) included 27 patients taking gout prescription I; the second group (Group II) included 27 patients taking gout prescription II; the third group (Group III) included 28 patients taking gout prescription III; and the fourth group (control group) included 25 patients taking indomethacin and Benzobromarone as a control group. The duration of the treatment in all 4 groups was two weeks. After the treatment, the index of blood uric acid, blood leukocyte count, score of clinical symptoms, etc. were observed and measured. The total clinical effective rate of the three different modified prescriptions of the Simiao Pill was above 96%, significantly superior to that of the control group (68%, P<0.05). In terms of the improvement of main symptoms, the scores of four symptoms in all TCM treatment and control groups decreased after treatment, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05). Moreover, the scores markedly fell more so in the three Chinese herb groups than in the control group, and especially in Group III (P<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in blood uric acid values before and after the treatment in the same group but no significant inter-group difference was seen. The modified prescriptions, based on the clinical research, clinical experience and traditional Chinese medicine theory, did show a better effect than Western medicine in this clinical study. Moreover, the prescriptions were precise, with the herbs inexpensive and readily available. The patients had good compliance with less adverse reactions noted. The

  16. Thin CVD-diamond RF Pill-Box vacuum windows for LHCD systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravera, G. L.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Cardinali, A.; Cesario, R.; Mirizzi, F.; Schettini, G.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    The preliminary assessment of a Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for the DEMOnstration power plant (DEMO) is mainly focused on the R&D needs of the less conventional RF components of the Main Transmission Line (MTL) and of the launcher. 500 kW, CW klystrons will be used to deliver the RF power to independent Passive Active Multijunction (PAM) launcher modules at 5 GHz. This paper describes the criteria followed to investigate the optimum solution for the RF window used as vacuum barrier between the MTL and the launcher, an open issue in the LHCD system for ITER too. The best candidate, capable of withstanding a power level of, or above, 0.5 MW in CW operation and to satisfy the electrical and thermonuclear requirements, is a Pill-Box assembly, based on a thin single disk of CVD-diamond as dielectric, water cooled at the edge. A thickness of 3 mm, much shorter than half a wavelength of the TE°11 mode in the dielectric as in the conventional window (unfeasible and too expensive with CVD-diamond at these frequencies), is sufficient to limit the exerted stress at the edge under the fracture stress for a maximum pressure applied of 0.9 MPa. In this paper the simulation results of conventional and thin CVD-diamond vacuum windows are presented comparing S-parameters, losses and electric fields in both matching condition and with VSWR = 2, using WR284 and WR229 as input/output rectangular waveguide.

  17. [Study on mechanisms and myocardial protective effect of Qishen Yiqi dropping pills on rats with myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Yang, Quan; Cao, Yunshan

    2017-06-01

    To approach the mechanisms and myocardial protective effect of Qishen Yiqi dropping pills on rats with myocardial infarction. Sixty clean healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group and observation group (each n = 20). The rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was established by ligation of left anterior descent (LAD) branch of coronary artery. After modeling, the rats in observation group were given 0.135 g/kg of Qishen Yiqi dropping pills, and sham operation group and model group were administered the same amount of normal saline, once a day for consecutive 28 days. At the end of treatment, the levels of serum inflammatory factors of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); the changes of the indexes of hemodynamic [left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), the maximal rate of increase/decrease in left ventricular pressure (±dp/dt max)], the ratio of the heart weight/body weight, and the ratio of the left ventricular weight/heart weight (LVW/HW), the myocardial infarction area, myocardial histopathological changes were observed in the three groups; myocardial tissues inflammatory related factors [the mRNA and protein expressions of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX)], and the expression levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smads signal transduction pathway related protein (TGF-β1, Smad2/3, Collagen I, Collagen III) and cell apoptosis related factors (Bcl-2, Bax) protein were measured. Compared with the sham operation group, levels of serum inflammatory factors, the index of LVEDP, the ratio of the heart weight/body weight, LVW/HW, myocardial infarction area, the mRNA and protein expression levels of inflammatory factors in myocardium, the expression levels of

  18. A new herbal combination, Etana, for enhancing erectile function: an efficacy and safety study in animals.

    PubMed

    Qinna, N; Taha, H; Matalka, K Z; Badwan, A A

    2009-01-01

    We present herein a new herbal combination called Etana that is composed of five herbal extracts including Panax quinquelotius (Ginseng), Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Epimedium grandiflorum (Horny goat weed), Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) and flower pollen extracts. Most of the above-mentioned extracts have a long historical and traditional use for erectile dysfunction (ED). On the basis of the mechanism of action of each of the above, a combination is introduced to overcome several physiological or induced factors of ED. This study was conducted to show an enhancement of erectile function in male rats. The animals were observed for 3 h after each administration for penile erection, genital grooming and copulation mounting, and the penile erection index (PEI) was calculated. The maximum response was observed at the concentration of 7.5 mg kg(-1) of Etana. At a 7.5 mg kg(-1) single dose, the percentage of responding rats was 53+/-7 with a PEI of 337+/-72 compared with 17+/-6 with a PEI of 30+/-10 for control animals. This PEI was significantly (P<0.001) higher than each single component and than the sum of any two herbal components of Etana. When compared with sildenafil citrate, Etana induced more pronounced PEI than 0.36 mg kg(-1), but similar to 0.71 mg kg(-1) of sildenafil. Furthermore, full acute and sub-acute toxicity studies showed no toxic effects of Etana. In conclusion, this study describes a new and safe combination of herbal components that enhance erectile function in male rats. Clinical studies are warranted for evaluating Etana's significance in ED.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of the pseudo-hexagonal hollandites ALi{sub 2}Ru{sub 6}O{sub 12} (A=Na, K)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Foo, M.L.; He, T.; Huang, Q.

    The crystal structures, synthesis and physical properties of ruthenium hollandites ALi{sub 2}Ru{sub 6}O{sub 12} (A=Na, K) with a new pseudo-hexagonal structure type are described. Analogous to tetragonal hollandites, the framework is made of MO{sub 6} octahedra in double chains that share corner oxygens with each other to create interstitial tunnels. The tunnels are either hexagonal or triangular in cross-section. Magnetic susceptibilities, low temperature specific heat, and electrical resistivities are reported. The data indicate that these materials are normal, low density of states metals. This new structure type can be extended from A=Group I to A=Group II ions with the synthesismore » of CaLi{sub 2}Ru{sub 6}O{sub 12} and SrLi{sub 2}Ru{sub 6}O{sub 12}.« less

  20. Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K.; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass. PMID:23990056

  1. Metformin versus oral contraceptive pill in polycystic ovary syndrome: a Cochrane review.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael F; Shrestha, Bhushan; Eden, John; Johnson, Neil P; Sjoblom, Peter

    2007-05-01

    The object of this review was to compare metformin versus oral contraceptive pill (OCP) treatment in polycystic ovary syndrome. A systematic review and meta-analysis employing the principles of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group was undertaken. Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (104 subjects) were included. Limited data demonstrated no evidence of a difference in effect between metformin and the OCP on hirsutism, acne or development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There were no trials assessing diagnosis of cardiovascular disease or endometrial cancer. Metformin, in comparison with the OCP, was less effective in improving menstrual pattern [Peto odds ratio (OR) 0.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.45) and in reducing the serum total testosterone level weighted mean difference (WMD) 0.54, 95% CI 0.22-0.86] but more effective in reducing fasting insulin (WMD -3.46, 95% CI - 5.39 to -1.52) and not increasing fasting triglyceride (WMD -0.48, 95% CI - 0.86 to -0.09) levels. Limited data demonstrated no evidence of a difference in effect between the two therapies on reducing fasting glucose or total cholesterol levels and severe adverse events. The limited RCT evidence to date does not show adverse metabolic risk with the use of the OCP compared with metformin. Further long-term RCTs are required.

  2. General practitioners' competence and confidentiality determinations with a minor who requests the oral contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Terence P; Carvalho, Tatiana

    2005-11-01

    The right of minors to make medical treatment decisions is an issue that is not explicitly addressed in the legislation of most Australian jurisdictions. While recent common law decisions allow competent minors to consent to treatment, current legislation in Victoria does not provide adequate guidelines on how competence is to be measured. It is also unclear whether the duty of confidentiality is extended to competent minors. The current study explored general practitioners' competence and confidentiality decisions with a hypothetical 14-year-old patient who requests the oral contraceptive pill (OCP). Questionnaires were sent to 1,000 Victorian general practitioners, 305 of whom responded. General practitioners were asked to determine whether "Liz" was competent to request the OCP, and whether they would maintain her confidentiality. A total of 81% of respondents found the patient competent, while 91% would have maintained her confidentiality. Results indicate that the majority of general practitioners used rationales that generally did not conform to current legal principles when making competence and confidentiality determinations regarding this patient.

  3. Efficacy of nebivolol-valsartan single-pill combination in obese and nonobese patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mende, Christian W; Giles, Thomas D; Bharucha, David B; Ferguson, William G; Mallick, Madhuja; Patel, Mehul D

    2017-06-01

    Antihypertensive efficacy of single-pill combinations (SPCs) consisting of a β 1 -selective adrenergic blocker with vasodilatory properties via β 3 -agonism (nebivolol) and an angiotensin II receptor blocker (valsartan) was demonstrated in an 8-week phase 3 trial (NCT01508026). In this post hoc analysis, seated blood pressure, heart rate, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, plasma aldosterone, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and safety measures were assessed in obese (body mass index >32 kg/m 2 ; n=1823) and nonobese (body mass index <27 kg/m 2 ; n=847) adults with hypertension (stage I or II) treated with nebivolol-valsartan SPCs, nebivolol or valsartan monotherapy, or placebo. At week 8, reductions from baseline in blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were greater with SPCs and most nebivolol and valsartan monotherapy doses vs placebo regardless of obesity status. Aldosterone declined with all active treatments and estimated glomerular filtration rate remained steady. The nebivolol-valsartan 5/80 mg/d SPC was efficacious regardless of degree of obesity. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Impact of Florida's prescription drug monitoring program and pill mill law on high-risk patients: A comparative interrupted time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsien-Yen; Murimi, Irene; Faul, Mark; Rutkow, Lainie; Alexander, G Caleb

    2018-04-01

    We quantified the effects of Florida's prescription drug monitoring program and pill mill law on high-risk patients. We used QuintilesIMS LRx Lifelink data to identify patients receiving prescription opioids in Florida (intervention state, N: 1.13 million) and Georgia (control state, N: 0.54 million). The preintervention, intervention, and postintervention periods were July 2010 to June 2011, July 2011 to September 2011, and October 2011 to September 2012. We identified 3 types of high-risk patients: (1) concomitant users: patients with concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids; (2) chronic users: long-term, high-dose, opioid users; and (3) opioid shoppers: patients receiving opioids from multiple sources. We compared changes in opioid prescriptions between Florida and Georgia before and after policy implementation among high-risk/low-risk patients. Our monthly measures included (1) average morphine milligram equivalent per transaction, (2) total opioid volume across all prescriptions, (3) average days supplied per transaction, and (4) total number of opioid prescriptions dispensed. Among opioid-receiving individuals in Florida, 6.62% were concomitant users, 1.96% were chronic users, and 0.46% were opioid shoppers. Following policy implementation, Florida's high-risk patients experienced relative reductions in morphine milligram equivalent (opioid shoppers: -1.08 mg/month, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.62 to -0.54), total opioid volume (chronic users: -4.58 kg/month, CI -5.41 to -3.76), and number of dispensed opioid prescriptions (concomitant users: -640 prescriptions/month, CI -950 to -340). Low-risk patients generally did not experience statistically significantly relative reductions. Compared with Georgia, Florida's prescription drug monitoring program and pill mill law were associated with large relative reductions in prescription opioid utilization among high-risk patients. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Emergency Contraceptive Pills (ECP) Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Among Women Working in the Entertainment Industry and Men in the Trucking Industry, Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Pem, Deki; Nidup, Tshewang; Wangdi, Ugyen; Pelzom, Dorji; Mirzazadeh, Ali; McFarland, Willi

    2018-02-12

    Emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) were recently made available over the counter in Bhutan. We evaluated knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning ECP in 2 populations at risk for HIV and STI (sexually transmitted infections): entertainment women (drayang) and male truck drivers and helpers (truckers). Of 179 drayang and 437 truckers intercepted at venues, 73.7 and 21.1%, respectively, had heard of ECP; 47.0% of drayang had used them. Their concerns about ECP use included harm to the body, impact on future pregnancy, side effects, and HIV/STI risk. Education programs are needed in Bhutan to increase awareness of ECP for unplanned pregnancy and condoms to prevent HIV and STI.

  6. Randomized clinical trial evaluating metformin versus oral contraceptive pills in the treatment of adolescents with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al-Zubeidi, Hiba; Klein, Karen O

    2015-07-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by irregular menses, elevated androgens, and insulin resistance. Little information is published about the treatment of adolescent PCOS. The aim of this study was to evaluate metformin versus oral contraceptive pills (OCP) in treating adolescent PCOS. Twenty-two girls were randomized to either treatment for 6 months. The outcomes variables included body mass index (BMI) and free testosterone (FT). BMI decreased in all patients (metformin p=0.004, OCP p=0.045). FT decreased significantly only with OCP. Insulin resistance measures decreased in all patients but did not reach significance. The only significant difference in any of the variables between the two groups was number of menses. BMI and FT remained less than baseline for 3 months off treatment. Metformin and OCP have a positive effect on BMI, which persists after treatment is discontinued. FT decreased with both treatments, but only reached significance with OCP.

  7. Self-reported and verified compliance in a phase 3 clinical trial of a novel low-dose contraceptive patch and pill.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, Andrew M; Portman, David; Westhoff, Carolyn L; Archer, David F; Mishell, Daniel R; Foegh, Marie

    2015-03-01

    Pregnancy rates in US contraceptive clinical trials are increasing due to decreased treatment compliance. This study compared compliance with a new low-dose levonorgestrel (LNG) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) contraceptive patch (CP, Twirla™) with that of a low-dose combination oral contra