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Sample records for pilot scale bioreactor

  1. Pilot-scale experiment on anaerobic bioreactor landfills in China

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Jianguo Yang, Guodong; Deng, Zhou; Huang, Yunfeng; Huang, Zhonglin; Feng, Xiangming; Zhou, Shengyong; Zhang, Chaoping

    2007-07-01

    Developing countries have begun to investigate bioreactor landfills for municipal solid waste management. This paper describes the impacts of leachate recirculation and recirculation loadings on waste stabilization, landfill gas (LFG) generation and leachate characteristics. Four simulated anaerobic columns, R1-R4, were each filled with about 30 tons of waste and recirculated weekly with 1.6, 0.8 and 0.2 m{sup 3} leachate and 0.1 m{sup 3} tap water. The results indicated that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) half-time of leachate from R1 was about 180 days, which was 8-14 weeks shorter than that of R2-R4. A large amount of LFG was first produced in R1, and its generation rate was positively correlated to the COD or volatile fatty acid concentrations of influent leachates after the 30th week. By the 50th week of recirculation, the waste in R1 was more stabilized, with 931.2 kg COD or 175.6 kg total organic carbon released and with the highest landfill gas production. However, this contributed mainly to washout by leachate, which also resulted in the reduction of LFG generation potential and accumulation of ammonia and/or phosphorus in the early stage. Therefore, the regimes of leachate recirculation should be adjusted to the phases of waste stabilization to enhance efficiency of energy recovery. Integrated with the strategy of in situ leachate management, extra pre-treatment or post-treatment methods to remove the nutrients are recommended.

  2. Microbial biosafety of pilot-scale bioreactor treating MTBE and TBA-contaminated drinking water supply

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Radomir; Klemme, David A.; Scow, Kate; Hristova, Krassimira

    2012-01-01

    A pilot-scale sand-based fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was utilized to treat both methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) from a contaminated aquifer. To evaluate the potential for re-use of the treated water, we tested for a panel of water quality indicator microorganisms and potential waterborne pathogens including total coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolytica and Mycobacterium avium in both influent and treated waters from the bioreactor. Total bacteria decreased during FBBR treatment. E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni, V. cholerae, Y. enterocolytica and M. avium were not detected in aquifer water or bioreactor treated water samples. For those pathogens detected, including total coliforms, L. pneumophila and A. hydrophila, numbers were usually lower in treated water than influent samples, suggesting removal during treatment. The detection of particular bacterial species reflected their presence or absence in the influent waters. PMID:22321859

  3. Comparison of microbial communities in pilot-scale bioreactors treating Bayer liquor organic wastes.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, Naomi J; Plumb, Jason J; Tilbury, Amanda L; Nyeboer, Hugh J; Sumich, Matt E; McKinnon, Anthony J; Franzmann, Peter D; Sutton, David C; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2011-04-01

    Western Australian bauxite deposits are naturally associated with high amounts of humic and fulvic materials that co-digest during Bayer processing. Sodium oxalate remains soluble and can co-precipitate with aluminium hydroxide unless it is removed. Removal of sodium oxalate requires a secondary crystallisation step followed by storage. Bioreactors treating oxalate wastes have been developed as economically and environmentally viable treatment alternatives but the microbial ecology and physiology of these treatment processes are poorly understood. Analysis of samples obtained from two pilot-scale moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) and one aerobic suspended growth bioreactor (ASGB) using polymerase chain reaction- denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA genes showed that members of the α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria subgroups were prominent in all three processes. Despite differing operating conditions, the composition of the microbial communities in the three reactors was conserved. MBBR2 was the only configuration that showed complete degradation of oxalate from the influent and the ASGB had the highest degradation rate of all three configurations. Several strains of the genus Halomonas were isolated from the bioreactors and their morphology and physiology was also determined.

  4. Achieving "Final Storage Quality" of municipal solid waste in pilot scale bioreactor landfills.

    PubMed

    Valencia, R; van der Zon, W; Woelders, H; Lubberding, H J; Gijzen, H J

    2009-01-01

    Entombed waste in current sanitary landfills will generate biogas and leachate when physical barriers fail in the future, allowing the intrusion of moisture into the waste mass contradicting the precepts of the sustainability concept. Bioreactor landfills are suggested as a sustainable option to achieve Final Storage Quality (FSQ) status of waste residues; however, it is not clear what characteristics the residues should have in order to stop operation and after-care monitoring schemes. An experiment was conducted to determine the feasibility to achieve FSQ status (Waste Acceptance Criteria of the European Landfill Directive) of residues in a pilot scale bioreactor landfill. The results of the leaching test were very encouraging due to their proximity to achieve the proposed stringent FSQ criterion after 2 years of operation. Furthermore, residues have the same characteristics of alternative waste stabilisation parameters (low BMP, BOD/COD ratio, VS content, SO4(2-)/Cl- ratio) established by other researchers. Mass balances showed that the bioreactor landfill simulator was capable of practically achieving biological stabilisation after 2 years of operation, while releasing approximately 45% of the total available (organic and inorganic) carbon and nitrogen into the liquid and gas phases.

  5. Evaluation of two pilot scale membrane bioreactors for the elimination of selected surfactants from municipal wastewaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Susana; Petrovic, Mira; Barceló, Damiá

    2008-07-01

    SummaryThe removal of selected surfactants, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), coconut diethanol amides (CDEA) and alkylphenol ethoxylates and their degradation products were investigated using a two membrane bioreactor (MBR) with hollow fiber and plate and frame membranes. The two pilot plants MBR run in parallel to a full-scale conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment. A total of eight influent samples with the corresponding effluent samples were analysed by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS-MS). The results indicate that both MBR have a better effluent quality in terms of chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD and BOD), NH4+ , concentration and total suspended solids (TSS). MBR showed a better similar performance in the overall elimination of the total nonylphenolic compounds, achieving a 75% of elimination or a 65% (the same elimination reached by CAS). LAS and CDEA showed similar elimination in the three systems investigated and no significant differences were observed.

  6. Verification of energy dissipation rate scalability in pilot and production scale bioreactors using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chris; Natarajan, Venkatesh; Antoniou, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Suspension mammalian cell cultures in aerated stirred tank bioreactors are widely used in the production of monoclonal antibodies. Given that production scale cell culture operations are typically performed in very large bioreactors (≥ 10,000 L), bioreactor scale-down and scale-up become crucial in the development of robust cell-culture processes. For successful scale-up and scale-down of cell culture operations, it is important to understand the scale-dependence of the distribution of the energy dissipation rates in a bioreactor. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations can provide an additional layer of depth to bioreactor scalability analysis. In this communication, we use CFD analyses of five bioreactor configurations to evaluate energy dissipation rates and Kolmogorov length scale distributions at various scales. The results show that hydrodynamic scalability is achievable as long as major design features (# of baffles, impellers) remain consistent across the scales. Finally, in all configurations, the mean Kolmogorov length scale is substantially higher than the average cell size, indicating that catastrophic cell damage due to mechanical agitation is highly unlikely at all scales.

  7. Pilot-scale demonstration of a two-stage methanotrophic bioreactor for biodegradation of trichloroethylene in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, D C; Peltola, J; Kustritz, J M; Chresand, T J; Preston, J C

    1995-01-01

    A two-stage methanotrophic bioreactor system was developed for remediation of water contaminated with TCE and other chlorinated, volatile, aliphatic hydrocarbons. The first stage of the reactor was a suspended-growth culture vessel using a bubbleless methane-transfer device. The second stage was a plug-flow bioreactor supplied with contaminated groundwater and cell suspension from the culture vessel. The test objectives were to determine the applicability of microbial culture conditions reported in the literature for continuous, pilot-scale TCE treatment; the technical feasibility of plug-flow bioreactor design for treatment of TCE; and the projected economic competitiveness of the technology considering the cost of methane for growth of methanotrophs. The methanotrophic organism used in the study was Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. Information on system operation was obtained in bench tests prior to conducting the pilot tests. In bench- and pilot-scale tests, variability in the degree of TCE degradation and difficulty in maintaining the microbial culture activity led to short periods of satisfactory biotreatment. Further development of the microbial culture system will be required for long-term operation. During transient periods of high TCE degradation activity, the bioreactor concept proved feasible by exhibiting both a high degree of TCE biodegradation (typically about 90% at influent TCE concentrations of 0.5-4 ppm) and a close approximation to first-order reactor kinetics throughout the length of the reactor. Actual methane usage in the pilot-scale reactor resulted in projected methane costs of $0.33 per 1000 gallons of water treated. This cost theoretically would be reduced by system modifications. The theoretical minimum methane cost was approximately $0.05 per 1000 gallons.

  8. Evaluation of hydraulic characteristics of a pilot-scale air-lift internal-loop bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Wang, Lan; Zhang, Hongtao; Zheng, Ping; Li, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Zeb, Bibi Saima; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Using sodium fluoride as tracer, residence time distribution technique was employed to evaluate the hydraulic characteristics of a pilot-scale Internal-Loop Airlift Bio-particle (ILAB) bioreactor that was a novel system for ammonia removal from wastewater. The results showed that the flow pattern of ILAB reactor was close to completely mixed reactor under all the tested air flow rates and liquid flow rates (with average N of 1.88). The total dead zone (TDZ) was 32.43% with biological dead zone (BDZ) of 20.66% and hydraulic dead zone (HDZ) of 8.95%. At higher air flow rates, the flow pattern of reactor approached that of completely mixed reactor (N from 2.72 to 1.54), and the increase of air flow rate gave rise to the decrease of TDZ in the reactor (from 36.24% to 23.00%). Whereas at higher liquid flow rates, the flow pattern of ILAB reactor got away from that of completely mixed reactor (N from 1.51 to 1.72), and the increase of liquid flow rate yielded a rise of TDZ in the reactor (from 28.48% to 36.84%). The study highlighted that the effect of air flow rate on flow pattern and TDZ of the reactor was greater than that of liquid flow rate.

  9. Evaluation of hydraulic characteristics of a pilot-scale air-lift internal-loop bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Wang, Lan; Zhang, Hongtao; Zheng, Ping; Li, Wei; Zhang, Meng; Zeb, Bibi Saima; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Using sodium fluoride as tracer, residence time distribution technique was employed to evaluate the hydraulic characteristics of a pilot-scale Internal-Loop Airlift Bio-particle (ILAB) bioreactor that was a novel system for ammonia removal from wastewater. The results showed that the flow pattern of ILAB reactor was close to completely mixed reactor under all the tested air flow rates and liquid flow rates (with average N of 1.88). The total dead zone (TDZ) was 32.43% with biological dead zone (BDZ) of 20.66% and hydraulic dead zone (HDZ) of 8.95%. At higher air flow rates, the flow pattern of reactor approached that of completely mixed reactor (N from 2.72 to 1.54), and the increase of air flow rate gave rise to the decrease of TDZ in the reactor (from 36.24% to 23.00%). Whereas at higher liquid flow rates, the flow pattern of ILAB reactor got away from that of completely mixed reactor (N from 1.51 to 1.72), and the increase of liquid flow rate yielded a rise of TDZ in the reactor (from 28.48% to 36.84%). The study highlighted that the effect of air flow rate on flow pattern and TDZ of the reactor was greater than that of liquid flow rate. PMID:25594127

  10. Pilot-scale testing membrane bioreactor for wastewater reclamation in industrial laundry.

    PubMed

    Andersen, M; Kristensen, G H; Brynjolf, M; Grüttner, H

    2002-01-01

    A pilot-scale study of membrane bioreactor treatment for reclamation of wastewater from Berendsen Textile Service industrial laundry in Søborg, Denmark was carried out over a 4 month period. A satisfactory COD degradation was performed resulting in a low COD in the permeate (< 50 mg/l). To obtain satisfactory treatment, addition of nitrogen was necessary. The biodegradability of the permeate was very low (BOD5 < 2 mg/l). A hydraulic retention time of 1 d turned out to be sufficient at a sludge concentration of 10 g MLSS/l. Through addition of a cationic polymer, a satisfactory dewaterability of the sludge was reached. Membrane tests showed that operating at a trans-membrane pressure of 3 bar and a cross-flow velocity of 4 m/s, a flux of 120 l/m2h can be expected without using chemicals for membrane cleaning. The quality of the permeate was very good when comparing to the reuse quality demands of water to the wash processes. Reuse of the permeate in all rinsing steps requires additional treatment through reverse osmosis.

  11. Membrane fouling in pilot-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Katsuki; Yamato, Nobuhiro; Yamamura, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

    2005-08-15

    The main obstacle for wider use of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment is membrane fouling (i.e., deterioration of membrane permeability),which increases operating costs. For more efficient control of membrane fouling in MBRs, an understanding of the mechanisms of membrane fouling is important. However, there is a lack of information on membrane fouling in MBRs, especially information on features of components that are responsible for the fouling. We conducted a pilot-scale experiment using real municipal wastewater with three identical MBRs under different operating conditions. The results obtained in this study suggested that the food-microorganisms ratio (F/M) and membrane filtration flux were the important operating parameters that significantly influenced membrane fouling in MBRs. Neither concentrations of dissolved organic matter in the reactors nor viscosity of mixed liquor, which have been thought to have influences on fouling in MBRs, showed clear relationships with membrane fouling in this study. Organic substances that had caused the membrane fouling were desorbed from fouled membranes of the MBRs at the termination of the operation and were subjected to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. These analyses revealed that the nature of the membrane foulant changes depending on F/M. It was shown that high F/M would make the foulant more proteinaceous. Carbohydrates were dominant in membrane foulants in this study, while features of humic substances were not apparent.

  12. A catalytic multistage fixed-bed tower bioreactor in an industrial-scale pilot plant for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Bakoyianis, V.; Koutinas, A.A.

    1996-01-20

    This article describes the development of an industrial-scale, multistage fixed-bed tower (MFBT) bioreactor using the promoter mineral kissiris for industrial alcohol producing using free cells. Specifically, the authors examined the parameters needed to maintain operational stability from batch to batch for long periods. Pilot plant operations used one- and two-stage fixed-bed, 7,000-L bioreactors. Likewise a 100,000-L, multistage fixed-bed tower system containing layered kissiris confirmed the laboratory results. Compared with a continuous stirred tank fermentor (CSTF) with recycle, a 30% reduction of energy demand and 10%--20% of the production costs are obtained. The latter are attributed to the increased ethanol concentration and alcohol productivity.

  13. Removal properties of human enteric viruses in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) process.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takayuki; Okabe, Satoshi; Nakahara, Yoshihito; Sano, Daisuke

    2015-05-15

    In order to evaluate removal properties of human enteric viruses from wastewater by a membrane bioreactor (MBR), influent, anoxic and oxic mixed liquor, and membrane effluent samples were collected in a pilot-scale anoxic-oxic MBR process for 16 months, and concentrations of enteroviruses, norovirus GII, and sapoviruses were determined by real-time PCR using murine norovirus as a process control. Mixed liquor samples were separated into liquid and solid phases by centrifugation, and viruses in the bulk solution and those associated with mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) were quantified. Enteroviruses, norovirus GII, and sapoviruses were detected in the influent throughout the sampling period (geometrical mean, 4.0, 3.1, and 4.4 log copies/mL, respectively). Enterovirus concentrations in the solid phase of mixed liquor were generally lower than those in the liquid phase, and the mean log reduction value between influent and anoxic mixed liquor was 0.40 log units. In contrast, norovirus GII and sapovirus concentrations in the solid phase were equal to or higher than those in the liquid phase, and higher log reduction values (1.3 and 1.1 log units, respectively) were observed between influent and anoxic mixed liquor. This suggested that enteroviruses were less associated with MLSS than norovirus GII and sapoviruses, resulting in lower enterovirus removal in the activated sludge process. Enteroviruses and norovirus GII were detected in the MBR effluent but sapoviruses were not in any effluent samples. When MLSS concentration was reduced to 50-60% of a normal operation level, passages of enteroviruses and norovirus GII through a PVDF microfiltration membrane were observed. Since rejection of viruses by the membrane was not related to trans-membrane pressure which was monitored as a parameter of membrane fouling, the results indicated that adsorption to MLSS plays an important role in virus removal by an MBR, and removal properties vary by viruses reflecting different

  14. Pilot-scale culture of Hypericum perforatum L. adventitious roots in airlift bioreactors for the production of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xi-Hua; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2014-09-01

    Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's Wort) is an important medicinal plant which is widely used in the treatment for depression and irritable bowel syndrome. It is also used as a dietary supplement. Major bioactive phytochemicals of H. perforatum are phenolics and flavonoids. Quality of these phytochemicals is dramatically influenced by environmental and biological factors in the field grown plants. As an alternative, we have developed adventitious root cultures in large-scale bioreactors for the production of useful phytochemicals. Adventitious roots of H. perforatum were cultured in 500 l pilot-scale airlift bioreactors using half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with an ammonium and nitrate ratio of 5:25 mM and supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) indole butyric acid, 0.1 mg l(-1) kinetin, and 3 % sucrose for the production of bioactive phenolics and flavonoids. Then 4.6 and 6.3 kg dry biomass were realized in the 500 l each of drum-type and balloon-type bioreactors, respectively. Accumulation of 66.9 mg g(-1) DW of total phenolics, 48.6 mg g(-1) DW of total flavonoids, 1.3 mg g(-1) DW of chlorogenic acid, 0.01 mg g(-1) DW of hyperin, 0.04 mg g(-1) DW of hypericin, and 0.01 mg g(-1) DW of quercetin could be achieved with adventitious roots cultured in 500 l balloon-type airlift bioreactors. Our findings demonstrate the possibilities of using H. perforatum adventitious root cultures for the production of useful phytochemicals to meet the demand of pharmaceutical and food industry.

  15. Pilot-scale culture of Hypericum perforatum L. adventitious roots in airlift bioreactors for the production of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xi-Hua; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2014-09-01

    Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's Wort) is an important medicinal plant which is widely used in the treatment for depression and irritable bowel syndrome. It is also used as a dietary supplement. Major bioactive phytochemicals of H. perforatum are phenolics and flavonoids. Quality of these phytochemicals is dramatically influenced by environmental and biological factors in the field grown plants. As an alternative, we have developed adventitious root cultures in large-scale bioreactors for the production of useful phytochemicals. Adventitious roots of H. perforatum were cultured in 500 l pilot-scale airlift bioreactors using half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with an ammonium and nitrate ratio of 5:25 mM and supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) indole butyric acid, 0.1 mg l(-1) kinetin, and 3 % sucrose for the production of bioactive phenolics and flavonoids. Then 4.6 and 6.3 kg dry biomass were realized in the 500 l each of drum-type and balloon-type bioreactors, respectively. Accumulation of 66.9 mg g(-1) DW of total phenolics, 48.6 mg g(-1) DW of total flavonoids, 1.3 mg g(-1) DW of chlorogenic acid, 0.01 mg g(-1) DW of hyperin, 0.04 mg g(-1) DW of hypericin, and 0.01 mg g(-1) DW of quercetin could be achieved with adventitious roots cultured in 500 l balloon-type airlift bioreactors. Our findings demonstrate the possibilities of using H. perforatum adventitious root cultures for the production of useful phytochemicals to meet the demand of pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:25096393

  16. Solid-state fermentation of soybean residues for bioflocculant production in a pilot-scale bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Zulkeflee, Zufarzaana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    An innovative approach using soybean residues for the production of bioflocculants through solid-state fermentation was carried out in 4.5 L near-to-adiabatic bioreactors at pilot-scale level. An added inoculum of the strain Bacillus subtilis UPMB13 was tested in comparison with control reactors without any inoculation after the thermophilic phase of the fermentation. The flocculating performances of the extracted bioflocculants were tested on kaolin suspensions, and crude bioflocculants were obtained from 20 g of fermented substrate through ethanol precipitation. The production of bioflocculants was observed to be higher during the death phase of microbial growth. The bioflocculants were observed to be granular in nature and consisted of hydroxyl, carboxyl and methoxyl groups that aid in their flocculating performance. The results show the vast potential of the idea of using wastes to produce bioactive materials that can replace the current dependence on chemicals, for future prospect in water treatment applications. PMID:25259492

  17. A pilot scale anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor (A/O MBR) for woolen mill dyeing wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiang; Fan, Yao-bo; Wei, Yuan-song

    2003-07-01

    A pilot-scale (10 m3/d) anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor (A/O MBR) was tested for dyeing wastewater treatment of woolen mill without wasting sludge in 125 days operation. Results showed that the effluent quality was excellent, i.e. effluent COD less than 25 mg/L, BOD5 under 5 mg/L, turbidity lower than 0.65 NTU, and colour less than 30 DT, and met with the reuse water standard of China. The removal rates of COD, BOD5, colour, and turbidity were 92.4%, 98.4%, 74% and 98.9%, respectively. Constant-flux operation mode was carried out in this study, and backwash was effective for reducing membrane fouling and maintaining constant flux. Membrane fouling had heavy impact on energy consumption. More attention should be paid on pipe selection and design for the sidestream MBR system, too.

  18. Correlation between mass transfer coefficient kLa and relevant operating parameters in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors on a bench-to-pilot scale

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Among disposable bioreactor systems, cylindrical orbitally shaken bioreactors show important advantages. They provide a well-defined hydrodynamic flow combined with excellent mixing and oxygen transfer for mammalian and plant cell cultivations. Since there is no known universal correlation between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for oxygen kLa and relevant operating parameters in such bioreactor systems, the aim of this current study is to experimentally determine a universal kLa correlation. Results A Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was used to measure kLa values in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors and Buckingham’s π-Theorem was applied to define a dimensionless equation for kLa. In this way, a scale- and volume-independent kLa correlation was developed and validated in bioreactors with volumes from 2 L to 200 L. The final correlation was used to calculate cultivation parameters at different scales to allow a sufficient oxygen supply of tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures. Conclusion The resulting equation can be universally applied to calculate the mass transfer coefficient for any of seven relevant cultivation parameters such as the reactor diameter, the shaking frequency, the filling volume, the viscosity, the oxygen diffusion coefficient, the gravitational acceleration or the shaking diameter within an accuracy range of +/− 30%. To our knowledge, this is the first kLa correlation that has been defined and validated for the cited bioreactor system on a bench-to-pilot scale. PMID:24289110

  19. Polysaccharide Production in Pilot Scale Bioreactor Cultivations of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C

    PubMed Central

    Baruque-Ramos, Julia; Juncioni de Arauz, Luciana; Fossa da Paz, Marcelo; Vicentin, Marcio Alberto; Hiss, Haroldo

    2016-01-01

    Serogroup C polysaccharide from Neisseria meningitidis (PS) constitutes the antigen for the respective vaccine production. In order to investigate the enhancement of the final PS concentration (Pf), as well as the overall yield factor (PS/biomass) (YP/X), 13 total cultivations distributed in 6 series (from A to F) were carried out in Frantz medium (40 L plus inoculum) in a 80L bioreactor at 35oC, 0.4 atm, 120 rpm, airflow rate of 5 L/min and KLa = 4.2 h-1. The series (A-F) correspond to different experimental conditions as follows: A) without pH and dissolved O2 controls; B) pH control at 6.5; C) pH control at 6.5 and glucose pulse at the 10th hour; D) dissolved O2 control at 10% saturation value; E) pH control at 7.4; F) dissolved O2 limitation (set rotation at 55 rpm). Concentrations of dry biomass, PS, cellular nitrogen, residual glucose, organic and inorganic nitrogen in the medium were measured. The best results were represented by series A (averages of Pf = 0.15 g/L and YP/X = 107 mg/g). The presented findings could be useful for a proper Frantz medium reformulation in order to obtain a greater amount of PS and improve the vaccine development in industrial scale-up production.

  20. Functional maintenance and structural flexibility of microbial communities perturbed by simulated intense rainfall in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    Intense rainfall is one of the most serious and common natural events, causing the excessive inflow of rainwater into wastewater treatment plants. However, little is known about the impacts of rainwater dilution on the structure and function of the sludge microorganisms. Here, high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes was implemented to describe the microbial community dynamics during the simulated intense rainfall situation (event i) in which approximately 45 % of the sludge biomass was artificially overflowed by massive water supply in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor. Thereafter, we investigated the functional and structural responses of the perturbed microbial communities to subsequent conditional changes, i.e., an increase in organic loading rate from 225 to 450 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) l(-1) day(-1) (event ii) and an addition of a microbiota activator (event iii). Due to the event i, the COD removal declined to 78.2 %. This deterioration coincided with the decreased microbial diversity and the proliferation of the oligotrophic Aquabacterium sp. During the succeeding events ii and iii, the sludge biomass increased and the COD removal became higher (86.5-97.4 %). With the apparent recovery of the reactor performance, microbial communities became diversified and the compositions dynamically changed. Notably, various bacterial micropredators were highly enriched under the successive conditions, most likely being involved in the flexible reorganization of microbial communities. These results indicate that the activated sludge harbored functionally redundant microorganisms that were able to thrive and proliferate along with the conditional changes, thereby contributing to the functional maintenance of the membrane bioreactor.

  1. Functional maintenance and structural flexibility of microbial communities perturbed by simulated intense rainfall in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    Intense rainfall is one of the most serious and common natural events, causing the excessive inflow of rainwater into wastewater treatment plants. However, little is known about the impacts of rainwater dilution on the structure and function of the sludge microorganisms. Here, high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes was implemented to describe the microbial community dynamics during the simulated intense rainfall situation (event i) in which approximately 45 % of the sludge biomass was artificially overflowed by massive water supply in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor. Thereafter, we investigated the functional and structural responses of the perturbed microbial communities to subsequent conditional changes, i.e., an increase in organic loading rate from 225 to 450 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) l(-1) day(-1) (event ii) and an addition of a microbiota activator (event iii). Due to the event i, the COD removal declined to 78.2 %. This deterioration coincided with the decreased microbial diversity and the proliferation of the oligotrophic Aquabacterium sp. During the succeeding events ii and iii, the sludge biomass increased and the COD removal became higher (86.5-97.4 %). With the apparent recovery of the reactor performance, microbial communities became diversified and the compositions dynamically changed. Notably, various bacterial micropredators were highly enriched under the successive conditions, most likely being involved in the flexible reorganization of microbial communities. These results indicate that the activated sludge harbored functionally redundant microorganisms that were able to thrive and proliferate along with the conditional changes, thereby contributing to the functional maintenance of the membrane bioreactor. PMID:27020291

  2. Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale.

    PubMed

    Djelal, Hayet; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2013-09-01

    A fungal consortium including Aspergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis and Galactomyces geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater. The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L), at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). The positive impact of fungal addition was confirmed when fungi was beforehand accelerated by pre-culture on whey (5 g/L lactose) or on the dairy effluent. Indeed, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal yields increased from 55% to 75% for model medium, diluted milk. While after inoculation of an industrial biological tank from a dairy factory with the fungal consortium accelerated by pre-cultivation in a 1000 L pilot plant, the outlet COD values decreased from values above the standard one (100 mg/L) to values in the range of 50-70 mg/L. In addition, there was a clear impact of fungal addition on the 'hard' or non-biodegradable COD owing to the significant reduction of the increase of the COD on BOD5 ratio between the inlet and the outlet of the biological tank of WWTP. It was in the range of 451%-1111% before adding fungal consortium, and in the range of 257%-153% after bio-augmentation with fungi. An inoculated bioreactor with fungal consortium was developed at lab-scale and demonstrated successfully at pilot scale in PMID:24520735

  3. Molecular assessment of inoculated and indigenous bacteria in biofilms from a pilot-scale perchlorate-reducing bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Logan, B E; Regan, J M; Achenbach, L A; Bruns, M A

    2005-04-01

    Bioremediation of perchlorate-contaminated groundwater can occur via bacterial reduction of perchlorate to chloride. Although perchlorate reduction has been demonstrated in bacterial pure cultures, little is known about the efficacy of using perchlorate-reducing bacteria as inoculants for bioremediation in the field. A pilot-scale, fixed-bed bioreactor containing plastic support medium was used to treat perchlorate-contaminated groundwater at a site in Southern California. The bioreactor was inoculated with a field-grown suspension of the perchlorate-respiring bacterium Dechlorosoma sp. strain KJ and fed groundwater containing indigenous bacteria and a carbon source amendment. Because the reactor was flushed weekly to remove accumulated biomass, only bacteria capable of growing in biofilms in the reactor were expected to survive. After 26 days of operation, perchlorate was not detected in bioreactor effluent. Perchlorate remained undetected by ion chromatography (detection limit 4 mug L(-1)) during 6 months of operation, after which the reactor was drained. Plastic medium was subsampled from top, middle, and bottom locations of the reactor for shipment on blue ice and storage at -80 degrees C prior to analysis. Microbial community DNA was extracted from successive washes of thawed biofilm material for PCR-based community profiling by 16S-23S ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA). No DNA sequences characteristic of strain KJ were recovered from any RISA bands. The most intense bands yielded DNA sequences with high similarities to Dechloromonas spp., a closely related but different genus of perchlorate-respiring bacteria. Additional sequences from RISA profiles indicated presence of representatives of the low G+C gram-positive bacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group. Confocal scanning laser microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were also used to examine biofilms using genus-specific 16S ribosomal RNA probes. FISH was more

  4. Effect of a microbiota activator on accumulated ammonium and microbial community structure in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R; Ronald, Navarro R; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota activators (MAs) have been used to improve the reactor performances of biological wastewater treatment processes. In this study, to remove ammonium (NH4(+)) accumulated during the pre-operation of a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) under high-organic-loading conditions, an MA was added to the MBR system and the resulting changes in reactor performances and microbial communities were monitored for 12 days. The NH4(+) concentrations in the sludge and effluent decreased (from 427 to 246 mg/L in the sludge (days 1-9)), and mixed liquor suspended solid increased (from 6,793 to 11,283 mg/L (days 1-12)) after the addition of MA. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the microbial community structure changed along with the NH4(+) removal resulting from the MA addition. In particular, the relative abundance of an Acidovorax-related operational taxonomic unit (OTU) increased significantly, accounting for approximately 50% of the total microbial population at day 11. In contrast, the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea showed low abundances (<0.05%), and no anaerobic ammonia oxidizers were detected. These results suggested that the Acidovorax-related OTU was mainly involved in the NH4(+) removal in the MBR, probably due to its ammonia-assimilating metabolism. PMID:26377133

  5. Removal of steroid estrogens from municipal wastewater in a pilot scale expanded granular sludge blanket reactor and anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ayumi; Mensah, Lawson; Cartmell, Elise; Lester, John N

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater offers the prospect of a new paradigm by reducing aeration costs and minimizing sludge production. It has been successfully applied in warm climates, but does not always achieve the desired outcomes in temperate climates at the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values of municipal crude wastewater. Recently the concept of 'fortification' has been proposed to increase organic strength and has been demonstrated at the laboratory and pilot scale treating municipal wastewater at temperatures of 10-17°C. The process treats a proportion of the flow anaerobically by combining it with primary sludge from the residual flow and then polishing it to a high effluent standard aerobically. Energy consumption is reduced as is sludge production. However, no new treatment process is viable if it only addresses the problems of traditional pollutants (suspended solids - SS, BOD, nitrogen - N and phosphorus - P); it must also treat hazardous substances. This study compared three potential municipal anaerobic treatment regimes, crude wastewater in an expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) reactor, fortified crude wastewater in an EGSB and crude wastewater in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor. The benefits of fortification were demonstrated for the removal of SS, BOD, N and P. These three systems were further challenged with the removal of steroid estrogens at environmental concentrations from natural indigenous sources. All three systems removed these compounds to a significant degree, confirming that estrogen removal is not restricted to highly aerobic autotrophs, or aerobic heterotrophs, but is also a faculty of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:26212345

  6. Microbiological Analysis of an Active Pilot-Scale Mobile Bioreactor Treating Organic Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.

    1997-11-26

    Samples were obtained for microbiological analysis from a granular activated carbon fluidized bed bioreactor (GAC-FBR). This GAC-FBR was in operation at a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) Site in Augusta Georgia for in situ groundwater bioremediation of organics. The samples included contaminated site groundwater, GAC-FBR effluent, and biofilm coated granular activated carbon at 5, 9, and 13 feet within the GAC-FBR column. The objective of this analysis was to correlate contaminant removal with microbiological activity within the GAC-FBR.

  7. Removal of steroid estrogens from municipal wastewater in a pilot scale expanded granular sludge blanket reactor and anaerobic membrane bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Ayumi; Mensah, Lawson; Cartmell, Elise; Lester, John N.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater offers the prospect of a new paradigm by reducing aeration costs and minimizing sludge production. It has been successfully applied in warm climates, but does not always achieve the desired outcomes in temperate climates at the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values of municipal crude wastewater. Recently the concept of ‘fortification' has been proposed to increase organic strength and has been demonstrated at the laboratory and pilot scale treating municipal wastewater at temperatures of 10–17°C. The process treats a proportion of the flow anaerobically by combining it with primary sludge from the residual flow and then polishing it to a high effluent standard aerobically. Energy consumption is reduced as is sludge production. However, no new treatment process is viable if it only addresses the problems of traditional pollutants (suspended solids – SS, BOD, nitrogen – N and phosphorus – P); it must also treat hazardous substances. This study compared three potential municipal anaerobic treatment regimes, crude wastewater in an expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) reactor, fortified crude wastewater in an EGSB and crude wastewater in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor. The benefits of fortification were demonstrated for the removal of SS, BOD, N and P. These three systems were further challenged with the removal of steroid estrogens at environmental concentrations from natural indigenous sources. All three systems removed these compounds to a significant degree, confirming that estrogen removal is not restricted to highly aerobic autotrophs, or aerobic heterotrophs, but is also a faculty of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:26212345

  8. Comparison of methanogenic community structure and anaerobic process performance treating swine wastewater between pilot and optimized lab scale bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woong; Cho, Kyungjin; Lee, Seungyong; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2013-10-01

    To investigate methanogenic community structure and process performance of anaerobic digestion treating swine wastewater at different scale, a pilot plant with 20 m(3) of effective working volume and lab scale methanogenic digester with 6L working volume were operated for 71 days and 6 turnover periods, respectively. During the steady state of anaerobic digestion, COD and VS removal efficiency in pilot plant were 65.3±3.2, 51.6±4.3%, respectively, which was similar to those in lab scale. However, calculated VFAs removal efficiency and methane yield were lower in pilot plant than in lab scale digester. Also, organics removal efficiencies, which consist of total carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, were different between pilot and lab scale. These results were thought to be due to the ratio of carbohydrates to proteins in the raw swine wastewater. As a result of qualitative microbial analysis, Methanoculleus receptaculii, and Methanoculleus bourgensis, were commonly concerned with methane production.

  9. Fate of organic pollutants in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor-nanofiltration membrane system at high water yield in antibiotic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxing; Wei, Yuansong; Li, Kun; Cheng, Yutao; Li, Mingyue; Xu, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    A double membrane system combining a membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a nanofiltration (NF) membrane at the pilot scale was tested to treat real antibiotic wastewater at a pharmaceutical company in Wuxi (China). The water yield of the pilot system reached over 92 ± 5.6% through recycling the NF concentrate to the MBR tank. Results showed that the pilot scale system operated in good conditions throughout the entire experiment period and obtained excellent water quality in which the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon were stable at 35 and 5.7 mg/L, respectively. The antibiotic removal rates of both spiramycin (SPM) and new spiramycin in wastewater were over 95%. Organics analysis results showed that the main organics in the biological effluent were proteins, soluble microbial by-product-like, fulvic acid-like and humic-like substances. These organics could be perfectly rejected by the NF membrane. Most of the organics could be removed through recycling NF concentrate to the MBR tank and only a small part was discharged with NF concentrate and permeate.

  10. Fine-scale monitoring of shifts in microbial community composition after high organic loading in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R; Habe, Hiroshi; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    In biological wastewater treatment, municipal wastewater sometimes undergoes unexpected changes in physicochemical parameters, such as organic carbon concentration. The aim of this study was to understand how microbial communities in activated sludge in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) adapt to high organic loading and maintain their degradation ability during reactor operation. A pilot-scale MBR was operated for 19 days. On day 8, the concentration of organic matter in the synthetic wastewater increased from 450 to 900 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L. Even under conditions of high organic loading, COD removal rates were high, ranging from 85.3 to 91.4%. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that microbial communities changed drastically with increased organic loading. After day 8, Aquabacterium- and Azospira-related operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the class β-proteobacteria became dominant; this potentially enhanced the degradation of organic substances and decreased activated sludge microbial diversity. Due to the use of dissolved oxygen (DO) for degradation of organic substances, DO levels in the reactor decreased. This led to an increase in a subset of OTUs related to not only aerobic but also anaerobic bacteria, e.g., those in the class Clostridia. During this period, anaerobic microorganisms may have contributed to the degradation of organic substances to maintain MBR performance. On the other hand, high-throughput sequencing also made it possible to identify yet-to-be cultured or minor microorganisms affiliated with the candidate phylogenetic division SR1 and ammonia-oxidizing archaea in activated sludge.

  11. Pilot-scale passive bioreactors for the treatment of acid mine drainage: efficiency of mushroom compost vs. mixed substrates for metal removal.

    PubMed

    Song, Hocheol; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Hwang, Taewoon

    2012-11-30

    Pilot-scale field-testing of passive bioreactors was performed to evaluate the efficiency of a mixture of four substrates (cow manure compost, mushroom compost, sawdust, and rice straw) relative to mushroom compost alone, and of the effect of the Fe/Mn ratio, during the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) over a 174-day period. Three 141 L columns, filled with either mushroom compost or the four substrate mixture (in duplicate), were set-up and fed with AMD from a closed mine site, in South Korea, using a 4-day hydraulic retention time. In the former bioreactor, effluent deterioration was observed over 1-2 months, despite the good efficiency predicted by the physicochemical characterization of mushroom compost. Steady state effluent quality was then noted for around 100 days before worsening in AMD source water occurred in response to seasonal variations in precipitation. Such changes in AMD quality resulted in performance deterioration in all reactors followed by a slow recovery toward the end of testing. Both substrates (mushroom compost and mixtures) gave satisfactory performance in neutralizing pH (6.1-7.8). Moreover, the system was able to consistently reduce sulfate from day 49, after the initial leaching out from organic substrates. Metal removal efficiencies were on the order of Al (∼100%) > Fe (68-92%) > Mn (49-61%). Overall, the mixed substrates showed comparable performance to mushroom compost, while yielding better effluent quality upon start-up. The results also indicated mushroom compost could release significant amounts of Mn and sulfate during bioreactor operation.

  12. Effectiveness of heat treatment to protect introduced denitrifying bacteria from eukaryotic predatory microorganisms in a pilot-scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Wakako; Miyahara, Morio; Yamada, Takeshi; Watanabe, Akira; Fushinobu, Shinya; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Shoun, Hirofumi; Miyauchi, Keisuke; Endo, Ginro

    2013-12-01

    Bioaugmentation of bioreactor systems with pre-cultured bacteria has proven difficult because inoculated bacteria are easily eliminated by predatory eukaryotic-microorganisms. Here, we demonstrated an intermediate thermal treatment was effective for protecting introduced denitrifying bacteria from eukaryotic predators and consequently allowed the inoculated bacteria to survive longer in a denitrification reactor.

  13. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A TWO-STAGE METHANOTROPHIC BIOREACTOR FOR BIODEGRADATION OF TRICHLOROETHENE IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    BioTrol, Inc., developed a two-stage, methanotrophic, bioreactor system for remediation of water contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated, volatile, aliphatic hydrocarbons. The first stage was a suspended-growth culture vessel with a bubbleless methane tran...

  14. [Treatment of dying wastewater from a woolen mill with a pilot-scale anaerobic/oxic membrane bioreactor (A/O MBR)].

    PubMed

    Zheng, X; Zhu, X; Fan, Y

    2001-07-01

    A pilot-scale (10 t/d) anaerobic/oxic membrane bioreactor (A/O MBR) was used for treatment of dying wastewater from a woolen mill. The results showed that when COD, BOD5 and color in the influent was 179-358 mg/L, 44.8-206 mg/L and 50-240 dilution times (DT), the average COD, BOD5 and color of A/O MBR effluent was 20.2 mg/L, 1.6 mg/L, 25 DT respectively. The removal of COD, BOD5, color, turbidity was 92.1%, 98.4%, 60.7% and 98.9% respectively. Each quota of the treated water met the gray water standards (CJ25.1-89). The A/O MBR process has many advantages, such as stable performance, simple operation, easy management etc. The result of this work could be reference for the designing of industrial scale A/O MBR process for treatment of the woolen mill wastewater.

  15. Microbial community in a pilot-scale bioreactor promoting anaerobic digestion and sulfur-driven denitrification for domestic sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Saia, Flávia Talarico; Souza, Theo S O; Duarte, Rubens Tadeu Delgado; Pozzi, Eloisa; Fonseca, Débora; Foresti, Eugenio

    2016-02-01

    A pilot-scale reactor treating domestic sewage was operated to promote anaerobic digestion and denitrification using endogenous electron donors. While 55 % of organic matter was removed, nitrogen and sulfur showed a different dynamics during the operation. Pyrosequencing analysis clarified this behavior revealing that specific microbial communities inhabited the anaerobic (47.05 % of OTUs) and anoxic (31.39 % of OTUs) chambers. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene partial sequences obtained through pyrosequencing revealed a total of 1727 OTUs clustered at a 3 % distance cutoff. In the anaerobic chamber, microbial community was comprised of fermentative, syntrophic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The majority of sequences were related to Aminobacterium and Syntrophorhabdus. In the anoxic chamber, the majority of sequences were related to mixotrophic and strictly autotrophic denitrifiers Arcobacter and Sulfuricurvum, respectively, both involved in sulfur-driven denitrification. These results show that pyrosequencing was a powerful tool to investigate the microbial panorama of a complex system, providing new insights to the improvement of the system.

  16. Evaluation and characterization during the anaerobic digestion of high-strength kitchen waste slurry via a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiaolan; Huang, Zhenxing; Ruan, Wenquan; Yan, Lintao; Miao, Hengfeng; Ren, Hongyan; Zhao, Mingxing

    2015-10-01

    The anaerobic digestion of high-strength kitchen waste slurry via a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was investigated at two different operational modes, including no sludge discharge and daily sludge discharge of 20 L. The AnMBR provided excellent and reliable permeate quality with high COD removal efficiencies over 99%. The obvious accumulations of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and Ca(2+) were found in the anaerobic digester by precipitation and agglomeration. Though the physicochemical process contributed to attenuating the free LCFAs toxicity on anaerobic digestion, the digestion efficiency was partly influenced for the low bioavailability of those precipitates. Moreover, higher organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.8 kg COD/(m(3) d) and digestion efficiency of 78% were achieved as the AnMBR was stably operated with sludge discharge, where the membrane fouling propensity was also alleviated, indicating the crucial significance of SRT control on the treatment of high-strength kitchen waste slurry via AnMBRs.

  17. Evolution of N-converting bacteria during the start-up of anaerobic digestion coupled biological nitrogen removal pilot-scale bioreactors treating high-strength animal waste slurry.

    PubMed

    Anceno, Alfredo J; Rouseau, Pierre; Béline, Fabrice; Shipin, Oleg V; Dabert, Patrick

    2009-07-01

    Animal wastes have been successfully employed in anaerobic biogas production, viewed as a pragmatic approach to rationalize energy costs in animal farms. Effluents resulting from that process however are still high in nitrogen such that attempts were made to couple biological nitrogen removal (BNR) with anaerobic digestion (AD). The demand for organic substrate in such system is partitioned between the anaerobic metabolism in AD and the heterotrophic denitrification cascade following the autotrophic nitrification in BNR. Investigation of underlying N-converting taxa with respect to process conditions is therefore critical in optimizing N-removal in such treatment system. In this study, a pilot-scale intermittently aerated BNR bioreactor was started up either independently or in series with the AD bioreactor to treat high-strength swine waste slurry. The compositions of NH(3)-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), NO(2)(-)-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and denitrifiers (nosZ gene) were profiled by polymerase chain reaction-capillary electrophoresis/single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-CE/SSCP) technique and clone library analysis. Performance data suggested that these two process configurations significantly differ in the modes of biological N-removal. PCR-CE/SSCP based profiling of the underlying nitrifying bacteria also revealed the selection of distinct taxa between process configurations. Under the investigated process conditions, correlation of performance data and composition of underlying nitrifiers suggest that the stand-alone BNR bioreactor tended to favor N-removal via NO(3)(-) whereas the coupled bioreactors could be optimized to achieve the same via a NO(2)(-) shortcut.

  18. Estimation of flow and transport parameters for woodchip based bioreactors: I. laboratory-scale bioreactor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In subsurface bioreactors used for tile drainage systems, carbon sources are used to facilitate denitrification. The objective of this study was to estimate hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity, dispersivity, and first-order decay coefficients for a laboratory-scale bioreactor with woodchips a...

  19. Effects of Organic-Loading-Rate Reduction on Sludge Biomass and Microbial Community in a Deteriorated Pilot-Scale Membrane Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R; Naganawa, Ryuichi; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-09-29

    The effects of a precipitous decrease in the inlet organic loading rate on sludge reductions and the microbial community in a membrane bioreactor were investigated. The sludge biomass was markedly reduced to 47.4% of the initial concentration (approximately 15,000 mg L(-1)) within 7 d after the organic loading rate was decreased by half (450 to 225 mg chemical oxygen demand L(-1) d(-1)). An analysis of the microbial community structure using high-throughput sequencing revealed an increase in the abundance of facultative predatory bacteria-related operational taxonomic units as well as microorganisms tolerant to environmental stress belonging to the classes Deinococci and Betaproteobacteria.

  20. Effects of Organic-Loading-Rate Reduction on Sludge Biomass and Microbial Community in a Deteriorated Pilot-Scale Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R.; Naganawa, Ryuichi; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a precipitous decrease in the inlet organic loading rate on sludge reductions and the microbial community in a membrane bioreactor were investigated. The sludge biomass was markedly reduced to 47.4% of the initial concentration (approximately 15,000 mg L−1) within 7 d after the organic loading rate was decreased by half (450 to 225 mg chemical oxygen demand L−1 d−1). An analysis of the microbial community structure using high-throughput sequencing revealed an increase in the abundance of facultative predatory bacteria-related operational taxonomic units as well as microorganisms tolerant to environmental stress belonging to the classes Deinococci and Betaproteobacteria. PMID:27431196

  1. Microbial community analysis of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Muñoz-Palazon, Barbara; Garcia-Ruiz, Maria-Jesus; Osorio, Francisco; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2015-03-01

    Full-scale applications of autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies for the treatment of digested sludge liquor have proliferated during the last decade. Among these technologies, the aerobic/anoxic deammonification process (DEMON) is one of the major applied processes. This technology achieves nitrogen removal from wastewater through anammox metabolism inside a single bioreactor due to alternating cycles of aeration. To date, microbial community composition of full-scale DEMON bioreactors have never been reported. In this study, bacterial community structure of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor located at the Apeldoorn wastewater treatment plant was analyzed using pyrosequencing. This technique provided a higher-resolution study of the bacterial assemblage of the system compared to other techniques used in lab-scale DEMON bioreactors. Results showed that the DEMON bioreactor was a complex ecosystem where ammonium oxidizing bacteria, anammox bacteria and many other bacterial phylotypes coexist. The potential ecological role of all phylotypes found was discussed. Thus, metagenomic analysis through pyrosequencing offered new perspectives over the functioning of the DEMON bioreactor by exhaustive identification of microorganisms, which play a key role in the performance of bioreactors. In this way, pyrosequencing has been proven as a helpful tool for the in-depth investigation of the functioning of bioreactors at microbiological scale.

  2. Advanced microscale bioreactor system: a representative scale-down model for bench-top bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Ting; Aulakh, Rigzen P S; Traul, Donald L; Yuk, Inn H

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, several automated scale-down bioreactor systems have been developed to increase efficiency in cell culture process development. ambr™ is an automated workstation that provides individual monitoring and control of culture dissolved oxygen and pH in single-use, stirred-tank bioreactors at a working volume of 10-15 mL. To evaluate the ambr™ system, we compared the performance of four recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines in a fed-batch process in parallel ambr™, 2-L bench-top bioreactors, and shake flasks. Cultures in ambr™ matched 2-L bioreactors in controlling the environment (temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH) and in culture performance (growth, viability, glucose, lactate, Na(+), osmolality, titer, and product quality). However, cultures in shake flasks did not show comparable performance to the ambr™ and 2-L bioreactors.

  3. Scale-up of human embryonic stem cell culture using a hollow fibre bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Iwan; Baila, Stefano; Rice, R Brent; Janssens, Michiel Etienne; Nguyen, Kim; Moens, Nathalie; Ruban, Ludmila; Hernandez, Diana; Coffey, Pete; Mason, Chris

    2012-12-01

    The commercialisation of human embryonic stem cell derived cell therapies for large patient populations is reliant on both minimising expensive and variable manual-handling methods whilst realising economies of scale. The Quantum Cell Expansion System, a hollow fibre bioreactor (Terumo BCT), was used in a pilot study to expand 60 million human embryonic stem cells to 708 million cells. Further improvements can be expected with optimisation of media flow rates throughout the run to better control the cellular microenvironment. High levels of pluripotency marker expression were maintained on the bioreactor, with 97.7 % of cells expressing SSEA-4 when harvested.

  4. Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

  5. Small-scale, hydrogen-oxidizing-denitrifying bioreactor for treatment of nitrate-contaminated drinking water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Buckwalter, S.P.; Repert, D.A.; Miller, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    Nitrate removal by hydrogen-coupled denitrification was examined using flow-through, packed-bed bioreactors to develop a small-scale, cost effective system for treating nitrate-contaminated drinking-water supplies. Nitrate removal was accomplished using a Rhodocyclus sp., strain HOD 5, isolated from a sole-source drinking-water aquifer. The autotrophic capacity of the purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium made it particularly adept for this purpose. Initial tests used a commercial bioreactor filled with glass beads and countercurrent, non-sterile flow of an autotrophic, air-saturated, growth medium and hydrogen gas. Complete removal of 2 mM nitrate was achieved for more than 300 days of operation at a 2-h retention time. A low-cost hydrogen generator/bioreactor system was then constructed from readily available materials as a water treatment approach using the Rhodocyclus strain. After initial tests with the growth medium, the constructed system was tested using nitrate-amended drinking water obtained from fractured granite and sandstone aquifers, with moderate and low TDS loads, respectively. Incomplete nitrate removal was evident in both water types, with high-nitrite concentrations in the bioreactor output, due to a pH increase, which inhibited nitrite reduction. This was rectified by including carbon dioxide in the hydrogen stream. Additionally, complete nitrate removal was accomplished with wastewater-impacted surface water, with a concurrent decrease in dissolved organic carbon. The results of this study using three chemically distinct water supplies demonstrate that hydrogen-coupled denitrification can serve as the basis for small-scale remediation and that pilot-scale testing might be the next logical step.

  6. Small-scale, hydrogen-oxidizing-denitrifying bioreactor for treatment of nitrate-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard L; Buckwalter, Seanne P; Repert, Deborah A; Miller, Daniel N

    2005-05-01

    Nitrate removal by hydrogen-coupled denitrification was examined using flow-through, packed-bed bioreactors to develop a small-scale, cost effective system for treating nitrate-contaminated drinking-water supplies. Nitrate removal was accomplished using a Rhodocyclus sp., strain HOD 5, isolated from a sole-source drinking-water aquifer. The autotrophic capacity of the purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium made it particularly adept for this purpose. Initial tests used a commercial bioreactor filled with glass beads and countercurrent, non-sterile flow of an autotrophic, air-saturated, growth medium and hydrogen gas. Complete removal of 2 mM nitrate was achieved for more than 300 days of operation at a 2-h retention time. A low-cost hydrogen generator/bioreactor system was then constructed from readily available materials as a water treatment approach using the Rhodocyclus strain. After initial tests with the growth medium, the constructed system was tested using nitrate-amended drinking water obtained from fractured granite and sandstone aquifers, with moderate and low TDS loads, respectively. Incomplete nitrate removal was evident in both water types, with high-nitrite concentrations in the bioreactor output, due to a pH increase, which inhibited nitrite reduction. This was rectified by including carbon dioxide in the hydrogen stream. Additionally, complete nitrate removal was accomplished with wastewater-impacted surface water, with a concurrent decrease in dissolved organic carbon. The results of this study using three chemically distinct water supplies demonstrate that hydrogen-coupled denitrification can serve as the basis for small-scale remediation and that pilot-scale testing might be the next logical step.

  7. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, Rick L.; Fox, Don T.; Archiblad, Kip E.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  8. Large scale production of phage antibody libraries using a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Fortunato; Kim, Chang-Yub; Naranjo, Leslie A; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2015-01-01

    One of the limitations of the use of phage antibody libraries in high throughput selections is the production of sufficient phage antibody library at the appropriate quality. Here, we successfully adapt a bioreactor-based protocol for the production of phage peptide libraries to the production of phage antibody libraries. The titers obtained in the stirred-tank bioreactor are 4 to 5 times higher than in a standard shake flask procedure, and the quality of the phage antibody library produced is indistinguishable to that produced using standard procedures as assessed by Western blotting and functional selections. Availability of this protocol will facilitate the use of phage antibody libraries in high-throughput scale selections.

  9. Comparison of bacterial diversity in full scale anammox bioreactors operated under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Osorio, Francisco; Morillo, Jose A; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Abbas, Ben A; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial community structure of full-scale anammox bioreactor is still mainly unknown. It has never been analyzed whether different anammox bioreactor configurations might result in the development of different bacterial community structures among these systems. In this work, the bacterial community structure of six full-scale autotrophic nitrogen removal bioreactors located in The Netherlands and China operating under three different technologies and with different influent wastewater characteristics was studied by the means of pyrotag sequencing evaluation of the bacterial assemblage yielded a great diversity in all systems. The most represented phyla were the Bacteroidetes and the Proteobacteria, followed by the Planctomycetes. 14 OTUs were shared by all bioreactors, but none of them belonged to the Brocadiales order. Statistical analysis at OTU level showed that differences in the microbial communities were high, and that the main driver of the bacterial assemblage composition was different for the distinct phyla identified in the six bioreactors, depending on bioreactor technology or influent wastewater characteristics.

  10. Pilot study of a submerged membrane bioreactor for water reclamation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jian-Jun; Oo, Maung Htun; Tao, Guihe; Kekre, Kiran A; Hashimoto, Tomotaka

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the operational conditions of newly developed MBR modules for water reclamation under tropical conditions. MUDC-620A MBR modules with hollow fibre PVDF membranes from Asahi-Kasei Chemicals were used in the study. The pilot plant with capacity of 50 m(3)/d was operated continuously (24-hour) over four months on site of Ulu Pandan Water Reclamation Plant (UPWRP) in Singapore. During the study, the MLSS in membrane tank was in the range of 6,840 approximately 9,540 mg/L. Filtration operation mode of the membrane unit was 9 minutes on production and 1 minute backwash. The air scouring for the membranes was 0.18-0.30 Nm(3)/h per m(2) membrane area all of the time. Trials on different membrane fluxes were conducted to obtain the sustainable flux. The analytical results showed that COD, TOC, T-N and NH4-N of the treated water were <30 mg/L, 5-7 mg/L, <13 mg/L and <0.1 mg/L, respectively, which met the requirement of Industrial Water for reuse. TMP was in the range of 12-40 kPa and could be recovered after cleaning with 2,000 mg/L sodium hypochlorite solution. Sludge clogging could be a challenge for long-term operation with the current module design. It was concluded that it was feasible for MUDC-620A MBR to operate at a net flux of 25-29 LMH (or 0.6-0.7 m/d) for treating the municipal wastewater at UPWRP.

  11. Dynamic Single-Use Bioreactors Used in Modern Liter- and m(3)- Scale Biotechnological Processes: Engineering Characteristics and Scaling Up.

    PubMed

    Löffelholz, Christian; Kaiser, Stephan C; Kraume, Matthias; Eibl, Regine; Eibl, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    During the past 10 years, single-use bioreactors have been well accepted in modern biopharmaceutical production processes targeting high-value products. Up to now, such processes have mainly been small- or medium-scale mammalian cell culture-based seed inoculum, vaccine or antibody productions. However, recently first attempts have been made to modify existing single-use bioreactors for the cultivation of plant cells and tissue cultures, and microorganisms. This has even led to the development of new single-use bioreactor types. Moreover, due to safety issues it has become clear that single-use bioreactors are the "must have" for expanding human stem cells delivering cell therapeutics, the biopharmaceuticals of the next generation. So it comes as no surprise that numerous different dynamic single-use bioreactor types, which are suitable for a wide range of applications, already dominate the market today. Bioreactor working principles, main applications, and bioengineering data are presented in this review, based on a current overview of greater than milliliter-scale, commercially available, dynamic single-use bioreactors. The focus is on stirred versions, which are omnipresent in R&D and manufacturing, and in particular Sartorius Stedim's BIOSTAT family. Finally, we examine development trends for single-use bioreactors, after discussing proven approaches for fast scaling-up processes.

  12. Investigation of oxygen transfer rates in full scale membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Cornel, P; Wagner, M; Krause, S

    2003-01-01

    In membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment the secondary clarifier is replaced by a membrane filtration. The advantage of this process is a complete removal of solids from the effluent and a small footprint due to possible high biomass concentrations (MLSS). As oxygen supply counts for more than 70% of total energy cost in municipal WWTPs the design of the aeration system is vital for efficient operation. In this respect the alpha-value is an important influencing factor. The alpha-value depends on the MLSS-concentration as shown in various publications and confirmed by own measurements in two full scale municipal MBRs with MLSS ranging from 7 and 17 kg/m3. Furthermore it must be taken into account that alpha-values are not static values; they vary with loading rates, surfactant concentrations, air flow rates, MLSS concentrations, etc. The average alpha-value at typical 12 kg/m3 MLSS for municipal MBRs is about 0.6 +/- 0.1. As submerged configured MBRs are equipped with an additional coarse bubble "crossflow" aeration system for fouling control, supplementary energy is consumed. Therefore MBRs need more energy compared to conventional treatment plants. Measurements of both aeration systems show that the fine bubble aeration system is more efficient by a factor of three concerning oxygen supply compared to the coarse bubble system.

  13. Failure Analysis of a Pilot Scale Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K J

    2001-09-14

    Failure of the pilot-scale test melter resulted from severe overheating of the Inconel 690 jacketed molybdenum electrode. Extreme temperatures were required to melt the glass during this campaign because the feed material contained a very high waste loading.

  14. Pilot demonstration of energy-efficient membrane bioreactor (MBR) using reciprocating submerged membrane.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jaeho; Smith, Shaleena; Patamasank, Jaren; Tontcheva, Petia; Kim, Gyu Dong; Roh, Hyung Keun

    2015-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is becoming popular for advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse. Air scouring to "shake" the membrane fibers is most suitable and applicable to maintain filtration without severe and rapidfouling. However, membrane fouling mitigating technologies are energy intensive. The goal of this research is to develop an alternative energy-saving MBR system to reduce energy consumption; a revolutionary system that will directly compete with air scouring technologies currently in the membrane water reuse market. The innovative MBR system, called reciprocation MBR (rMBR), prevents membrane fouling without the use of air scouring blowers. The mechanism featured is a mechanical reciprocating membrane frame that uses inertia to prevent fouling. Direct strong agitation of the fiber is also beneficial for the constant removal of solids built up on the membrane surface. The rMBR pilot consumes less energy than conventional coarse air scouring MBR systems. Specific energy consumption for membrane reciprocation for the pilot rMBR system was 0.072 kWh/m3 permeate produced at 40 LMH, which is 75% less than the conventional air scouring in an MBR system (0.29 kWh/m3). Reciprocation of the hollow-fiber membrane can overcome the hydrodynamic limitations of air scouring or cross-flow membrane systems with less energy consumption and/or higher energy efficiency. PMID:25842538

  15. Pilot demonstration of energy-efficient membrane bioreactor (MBR) using reciprocating submerged membrane.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jaeho; Smith, Shaleena; Patamasank, Jaren; Tontcheva, Petia; Kim, Gyu Dong; Roh, Hyung Keun

    2015-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is becoming popular for advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse. Air scouring to "shake" the membrane fibers is most suitable and applicable to maintain filtration without severe and rapidfouling. However, membrane fouling mitigating technologies are energy intensive. The goal of this research is to develop an alternative energy-saving MBR system to reduce energy consumption; a revolutionary system that will directly compete with air scouring technologies currently in the membrane water reuse market. The innovative MBR system, called reciprocation MBR (rMBR), prevents membrane fouling without the use of air scouring blowers. The mechanism featured is a mechanical reciprocating membrane frame that uses inertia to prevent fouling. Direct strong agitation of the fiber is also beneficial for the constant removal of solids built up on the membrane surface. The rMBR pilot consumes less energy than conventional coarse air scouring MBR systems. Specific energy consumption for membrane reciprocation for the pilot rMBR system was 0.072 kWh/m3 permeate produced at 40 LMH, which is 75% less than the conventional air scouring in an MBR system (0.29 kWh/m3). Reciprocation of the hollow-fiber membrane can overcome the hydrodynamic limitations of air scouring or cross-flow membrane systems with less energy consumption and/or higher energy efficiency.

  16. Pilot and full scale applications of sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification process for nitrate removal from activated sludge process effluent.

    PubMed

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Kilic, Adem; Duygulu, Bahadir

    2014-09-01

    Sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification of nitrified activated sludge process effluent was studied in pilot and full scale column bioreactors. Three identical pilot scale column bioreactors packed with varying sulfur/lime-stone ratios (1/1-3/1) were setup in a local wastewater treatment plant and the performances were compared under varying loading conditions for long-term operation. Complete denitrification was obtained in all pilot bioreactors even at nitrate loading of 10 mg NO3(-)-N/(L.h). When the temperature decreased to 10 °C during the winter time at loading of 18 mg NO3(-)-N/(L.h), denitrification efficiency decreased to 60-70% and the bioreactor with S/L ratio of 1/1 gave slightly better performance. A full scale sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification process with a S/L ratio of 1/1 was set up for the denitrification of an activated sludge process effluent with a flow rate of 40 m(3)/d. Almost complete denitrification was attained with a nitrate loading rate of 6.25 mg NO3(-)-N/(L.h). PMID:24862952

  17. Scale-up from shake flasks to pilot-scale production of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense for preparing a liquid inoculant formulation.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Gonzalez-Monterrubio, César F; Acevedo-Sánchez, Eduardo V; Martínez-Salinas, Carlos; García-Cabrera, Ramsés I; Gamboa-Suasnavart, Ramsés A; Marín-Palacio, Luz D; Villegas, Jesús; Blancas-Cabrera, Abel

    2013-11-01

    Azospirillum brasilense has industrial significance as a growth promoter in plants of commercial interest. However, there is no report in the literature disclosing a liquid product produced in pilot-scale bioreactors and is able to be stored at room temperature for more than 2 years. The aim of this work was to scale up a process from a shake flask to a 10-L lab-scale and 1,000-L pilot-scale bioreactor for the production of plant growth-promoting bacterium A. brasilense for a liquid inoculant formulation. Furthermore, this work aimed to determine the shelf life of the liquid formulation stored at room temperature and to increase maize crops yield in greenhouses. Under a constant oxygen mass transfer coefficient (K L a), a fermentation process was successfully scaled up from shake flasks to 10- and 1,000-L bioreactors. A concentration ranging from 3.5 to 7.5 × 10(8) CFU/mL was obtained in shake flasks and bioreactors, and after 2 years stored at room temperature, the liquid formulation showed one order of magnitude decrease. Applications of the cultured bacteria in maize yields resulted in increases of up to 95 % in corncobs and 70 % in aboveground biomass.

  18. Large-scale growth of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite in a wave bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Dalton, John P; Demanga, Corine G; Reiling, Sarah J; Wunderlich, Juliane; Eng, Jenny W L; Rohrbach, Petra

    2012-01-01

    We describe methods for the large-scale in vitro culturing of synchronous and asynchronous blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites in sterile disposable plastic bioreactors controlled by wave-induced motion (wave bioreactor). These cultures perform better than static flask cultures in terms of preserving parasite cell cycle synchronicity and reducing the number of multiple-infected erythrocytes. The straight-forward methods described here will facilitate the large scale production of malaria parasites for antigen and organelle isolation and characterisation, for the high throughput screening of compound libraries with whole cells or extracts, and the development of live- or whole-cell malaria vaccines under good manufacturing practice compliant standards.

  19. Scale up of fuel ethanol production from sugar beet juice using loofa sponge immobilized bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ogbonna, J C; Mashima, H; Tanaka, H

    2001-01-01

    Production of fuel ethanol from sugar beet juice, using cells immobilized on loofa sponge was investigated. Based on ethanol productivity and ease of cell immobilization, a flocculating yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae IR2 was selected for ethanol production from sugar beet juice. It was found that raw sugar beet juice was an optimal substrate for ethanol production, requiring neither pH adjustment nor nitrogen source supplement. When compared with a 2 l bubble column bioreactor, mixing was not sufficient in an 8 l bioreactor containing a bed of sliced loofa sponges and consequently, the immobilized cells were not uniformly distributed within the bed. Most of the cells were immobilized in the lower part of the bed and this resulted in decreased ethanol productivity. By using an external loop bioreactor, constructing the fixed bed with cylindrical loofa sponges, dividing the bed into upper, middle and lower sections with approximately 1 cm spaces between them and circulating the broth through the loop during the immobilization, uniform cell distribution within the bed was achieved. Using this method, the system was scaled up to 50 l and when compared with the 2 l bubble column bioreactor, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in ethanol productivity and yield. By using external loop bioreactor to immobilize the cells uniformly on the loofa sponge beds, efficient large scale ethanol production systems can be constructed.

  20. Bioreactor scale-up and oxygen transfer rate in microbial processes: an overview.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ochoa, Felix; Gomez, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    In aerobic bioprocesses, oxygen is a key substrate; due to its low solubility in broths (aqueous solutions), a continuous supply is needed. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) must be known, and if possible predicted to achieve an optimum design operation and scale-up of bioreactors. Many studies have been conducted to enhance the efficiency of oxygen transfer. The dissolved oxygen concentration in a suspension of aerobic microorganisms depends on the rate of oxygen transfer from the gas phase to the liquid, on the rate at which oxygen is transported into the cells (where it is consumed), and on the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) by the microorganism for growth, maintenance and production. The gas-liquid mass transfer in a bioprocess is strongly influenced by the hydrodynamic conditions in the bioreactors. These conditions are known to be a function of energy dissipation that depends on the operational conditions, the physicochemical properties of the culture, the geometrical parameters of the bioreactor and also on the presence of oxygen consuming cells. Stirred tank and bubble column (of various types) bioreactors are widely used in a large variety of bioprocesses (such as aerobic fermentation and biological wastewater treatments, among others). Stirred tanks bioreactors provide high values of mass and heat transfer rates and excellent mixing. In these systems, a high number of variables affect the mass transfer and mixing, but the most important among them are stirrer speed, type and number of stirrers and gas flow rate used. In bubble columns and airlifts, the low-shear environment compared to the stirred tanks has enabled successful cultivation of shear sensitive and filamentous cells. Oxygen transfer is often the rate-limiting step in the aerobic bioprocess due to the low solubility of oxygen in the medium. The correct measurement and/or prediction of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient, (k(L)a), is a crucial step in the design, operation and scale-up of

  1. Molecular analysis of methanogens involved in methanogenic degradation of tetramethylammonium hydroxide in full-scale bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Whang, Liang-Ming; Hu, Tai-Ho; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Fukushima, Toshikazu; Wu, Yi-Ju; Chang, Shao-Hsiung

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated methanogenic communities involved in degradation of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in three full-scale bioreactors treating TMAH-containing wastewater. Based on the results of terminal-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR analyses targeting the methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes retrieved from three bioreactors, Methanomethylovorans and Methanosarcina were the dominant methanogens involved in the methanogenic degradation of TMAH in the bioreactors. Furthermore, batch experiments were conducted to evaluate mcrA messenger RNA (mRNA) expression during methanogenic TMAH degradation, and the results indicated that a higher level of TMAH favored mcrA mRNA expression by Methansarcina, while Methanomethylovorans could only express considerable amount of mcrA mRNA at a lower level of TMAH. These results suggest that Methansarcina is responsible for methanogenic TMAH degradation at higher TMAH concentrations, while Methanomethylovorans may be important at a lower TMAH condition.

  2. New milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactors for the cultivation of mycelium forming microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hortsch, Ralf; Stratmann, Ansgar; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2010-06-15

    A novel milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactor was developed for the cultivation of mycelium forming microorganisms on a 10 milliliter-scale. A newly designed one-sided paddle impeller is driven magnetically and rotates freely on an axis in an unbaffled reaction vessel made of polystyrene. A rotating lamella is formed which spreads out along the reactor wall. Thus an enhanced surface-to-volume ratio of the liquid phase is generated where oxygen is introduced via surface aeration. Volumetric oxygen transfer coefficients (k(L)a) > 0.15 s(-1) were measured. The fast moving liquid lamella efficiently prevents wall growth and foaming. Mean power consumption and maximum local energy dissipation were measured as function of operating conditions in the milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactor (V = 10 mL) and compared to a standard laboratory-scale stirred tank bioreactor with six-bladed Rushton turbines (V = 2,000 mL). Mean power consumption increases with increasing impeller speed and shows the same characteristics and values on both scales. The maximum local energy dissipation of the milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactor was reduced compared to the laboratory-scale at the same mean volumetric power input. Hence the milliliter impeller distributes power more uniformly in the reaction medium. Based on these data a reliable and robust scale-up of fermentation processes is possible. This was demonstrated with the cultivation of the actinomycete Streptomyces tendae on both scales. It was shown that the process performances were equivalent with regard to biomass concentration, mannitol consumption and production of the pharmaceutical relevant fungicide nikkomycin Z up to a process time of 120 h. A high parallel reproducibility was observed on the milliliter-scale (standard deviation < 8%) with up to 48 stirred tank bioreactors operated in a magnetic inductive drive. Rheological behavior of the culture broth was measured and showed a highly viscous shear-thinning non

  3. Optimizing hydraulic retention times in denitrifying woodchip bioreactors treating recirculating aquaculture system wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The performance of wood-based denitrifying bioreactors to treat high-nitrate wastewaters from aquaculture systems has not previously been demonstrated. Four pilot-scale woodchip bioreactors (approximately 1:10 scale) were constructed and operated for 268 d to determine the optimal range of design hy...

  4. Full-scale bioreactor pretreatment of highly toxic wastewater from styrene and propylene oxide production.

    PubMed

    Dao, Linh; Grigoryeva, Tatiana; Laikov, Alexander; Devjatijarov, Ruslan; Ilinskaya, Olga

    2014-10-01

    The wastewater originating from simultaneous production of styrene and propylene oxide (SPO) is classified as highly polluted with chemical oxygen demand level in the range 5965 to 9137mgL(-1)-as well as highly toxic. The dilution factor providing for a 10 percent toxic effect of wastewater samples in a test with Paramecium caudatum was 8.0-9.5. Biological approach for pretreatment and detoxification of the wastewater under full-scale bioreactor conditions was investigated. The number of suspended microorganisms and the clean up efficiency were increased up to 5.5-6.58×10(8)CFUmL(-1) and 88 percent, respectively during the bioreactor's operation. Isolates in the Citrobacter, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, and Paracoccus genera were dominant in the mature suspended, as well as the immobilized microbial community of the bioreactor. The most dominant representatives were tested for their ability to biodegrade the major components of the SPO wastewater and evidence of their role in the treatment process was demonstrated. The investigated pretreatment process allowed the wastewater to be detoxified for conventional treatment with activated sludge and was closely related to the maturation of the bioreactor's microbial community. PMID:25086231

  5. Large-scale growth of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite in a wave bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Dalton, John P; Demanga, Corine G; Reiling, Sarah J; Wunderlich, Juliane; Eng, Jenny W L; Rohrbach, Petra

    2012-01-01

    We describe methods for the large-scale in vitro culturing of synchronous and asynchronous blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites in sterile disposable plastic bioreactors controlled by wave-induced motion (wave bioreactor). These cultures perform better than static flask cultures in terms of preserving parasite cell cycle synchronicity and reducing the number of multiple-infected erythrocytes. The straight-forward methods described here will facilitate the large scale production of malaria parasites for antigen and organelle isolation and characterisation, for the high throughput screening of compound libraries with whole cells or extracts, and the development of live- or whole-cell malaria vaccines under good manufacturing practice compliant standards. PMID:22326740

  6. Scale-down model to simulate spatial pH variations in large-scale bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Amanullah, A; McFarlane, C M; Emery, A N; Nienow, A W

    2001-06-01

    For the first time a laboratory-scale two-compartment system was used to investigate the effects of pH fluctuations consequent to large scales of operation on microorganisms. pH fluctuations can develop in production-scale fermenters as a consequence of the combined effects of poor mixing and adding concentrated reagents at the liquid surface for control of the bulk pH. Bacillus subtilis was used as a model culture since in addition to its sensitivity to dissolved oxygen levels, the production of the metabolites, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, is sensitive to pH values between 6.5 and 7.2. The scale-down model consisted of a stirred tank reactor (STR) and a recycle loop containing a plug flow reactor (PFR), with the pH in the stirred tank being maintained at 6.5 by addition of alkali in the loop. Different residence times in the loop simulated the exposure time of fluid elements to high values of pH in the vicinity of the addition point in large bioreactors and tracer experiments were performed to characterise the residence time distribution in it. Since the culture was sensitive to dissolved oxygen, for each experiment with pH control by adding base into the PFR, equivalent experiments were conducted with pH control by addition of base into the STR, thus ensuring that any dissolved oxygen effects were common to both types of experiments. The present study indicates that although biomass concentration remained unaffected by pH variations, product formation was influenced by residence times in the PFR of 60 sec or longer. These changes in metabolism are thought to be linked to both the sensitivity of the acetoin and 2,3-butanediol-forming enzymes to pH and to the inducing effects of dissociated acetate on the acetolactate synthase enzyme.

  7. Biotreatment of chlorpyrifos in a bench scale bioreactor using Psychrobacter alimentarius T14.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Saira; Hashmi, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria tolerant to high pesticide concentration could be used for designing an efficient treatment technology. Bacterial strains T14 was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil in mineral salt medium (MSM) and identified as Psychrobacter alimentarius T14 using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Bench scale bioreactor was evaluated for biotreatment of high Chlorpyrifos (CP) concentration using P. alimentarius T14. Effect of various parameters on bioreactor performance was examined and optimum removal was observed at optical density (OD600 nm): 0.8; pH: 7.2; CP concentration: 300 mg L(-1) and hydraulic retention time: 48 h. At optimum conditions, 70.3/79% of CP/chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was achieved in batch bioreactors. In addition, P. alimentarius T14 achieved 95/91, 62.3/75, 69.8/64% CP/COD removal efficiency with addition of CS (co-substrates), CS1 (yeast extract + synthetic wastewater), CS2 (glucose + synthetic wastewater) and CS3 (yeast extract), respectively. Addition of CS1 to bioreactor could accelerate CP removal rate up to many cycles with considerable efficiency. However, accumulation of 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol affects reactor performance in cyclic mode. First-order rate constant k1 0.062 h(-1) and t1/2 11.1 h demonstrates fast degradation. Change in concentration of total chlorine and nitrogen could be the result of complete mineralization. Photodegradation of CP in commercial product was more than its pure form. Commercial formulation accelerated photodegradation process; however no effect on biodegradation process was observed. After bio-photodegradation, negligible toxicity for seeds of Triticum aestivum was observed. Study suggests an efficient treatment of wastewater containing CP and its metabolites in batch bioreactors could be achieved using P. alimentarius. PMID:26144866

  8. Biotreatment of chlorpyrifos in a bench scale bioreactor using Psychrobacter alimentarius T14.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Saira; Hashmi, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria tolerant to high pesticide concentration could be used for designing an efficient treatment technology. Bacterial strains T14 was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil in mineral salt medium (MSM) and identified as Psychrobacter alimentarius T14 using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Bench scale bioreactor was evaluated for biotreatment of high Chlorpyrifos (CP) concentration using P. alimentarius T14. Effect of various parameters on bioreactor performance was examined and optimum removal was observed at optical density (OD600 nm): 0.8; pH: 7.2; CP concentration: 300 mg L(-1) and hydraulic retention time: 48 h. At optimum conditions, 70.3/79% of CP/chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was achieved in batch bioreactors. In addition, P. alimentarius T14 achieved 95/91, 62.3/75, 69.8/64% CP/COD removal efficiency with addition of CS (co-substrates), CS1 (yeast extract + synthetic wastewater), CS2 (glucose + synthetic wastewater) and CS3 (yeast extract), respectively. Addition of CS1 to bioreactor could accelerate CP removal rate up to many cycles with considerable efficiency. However, accumulation of 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol affects reactor performance in cyclic mode. First-order rate constant k1 0.062 h(-1) and t1/2 11.1 h demonstrates fast degradation. Change in concentration of total chlorine and nitrogen could be the result of complete mineralization. Photodegradation of CP in commercial product was more than its pure form. Commercial formulation accelerated photodegradation process; however no effect on biodegradation process was observed. After bio-photodegradation, negligible toxicity for seeds of Triticum aestivum was observed. Study suggests an efficient treatment of wastewater containing CP and its metabolites in batch bioreactors could be achieved using P. alimentarius.

  9. Bioprocess development for kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in semi industrial scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Dailin, Daniel Joe; Elsayed, Elsayed Ahmed; Othman, Nor Zalina; Malek, Roslinda; Phin, Hiew Siaw; Aziz, Ramlan; Wadaan, Mohamad; El Enshasy, Hesham Ali

    2016-07-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is non-pathogenic gram positive bacteria isolated from kefir grains and able to produce extracellular exopolysaccharides named kefiran. This polysaccharide contains approximately equal amounts of glucose and galactose. Kefiran has wide applications in pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, an approach has been extensively studied to increase kefiran production for pharmaceutical application in industrial scale. The present work aims to maximize kefiran production through the optimization of medium composition and production in semi industrial scale bioreactor. The composition of the optimal medium for kefiran production contained sucrose, yeast extract and K2HPO4 at 20.0, 6.0, 0.25 g L(-1), respectively. The optimized medium significantly increased both cell growth and kefiran production by about 170.56% and 58.02%, respectively, in comparison with the unoptimized medium. Furthermore, the kinetics of cell growth and kefiran production in batch culture of L. kefiranofaciens was investigated under un-controlled pH conditions in 16-L scale bioreactor. The maximal cell mass in bioreactor culture reached 2.76 g L(-1) concomitant with kefiran production of 1.91 g L(-1).

  10. A new microfluidic concept for parallel operated milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Gabi; Hortsch, Ralf; Kaufmann, Klaus; Arnold, Matthias; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Parallel miniaturized stirred tank bioreactors are an efficient tool for "high-throughput bioprocess design." As most industrial bioprocesses are pH-controlled and/or are operated in a fed-batch mode, an exact scale-down of these reactions with continuous dosing of fluids into the miniaturized bioreactors is highly desirable. Here, we present the development, characterization, and application of a novel concept for a highly integrated microfluidic device for a bioreaction block with 48 parallel milliliter-scale stirred tank reactors (V = 12 mL). The device consists of an autoclavable fluidic section to dispense up to three liquids individually per reactor. The fluidic section contains 144 membrane pumps, which are magnetically driven by a clamped-on actuator section. The micropumps are designed to dose 1.6 μL per pump lift. Each micropump enables a continuous addition of liquid with a flow rate of up to 3 mL h(-1) . Viscous liquids up to a viscosity of 8.2 mPa s (corresponds to a 60% v/v glycerine solution) can be pumped without changes in the flow rates. Thus, nearly all feeding solutions can be delivered, which are commonly used in bioprocesses. The functionality of the first prototype of this microfluidic device was demonstrated by double-sided pH-controlled cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on signals of fluorimetric sensors embedded at the bottom of the bioreactors. Furthermore, fed-batch cultivations with constant and exponential feeding profiles were successfully performed. Thus, the presented novel microfluidic device will be a useful tool for parallel and, thus, efficient optimization of controlled fed-batch bioprocesses in small-scale stirred tank bioreactors. This can help to reduce bioprocess development times drastically.

  11. Development of an Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactor to Regenerate Nutrients from Inedible Crop Residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, Barry W.; Strayer, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    Three Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactors were designed, fabricated, and operated. They utilized mixed microbial communities to bio-degrade plant residues. The continuously stirred tank reactors operated at a working volume of 8 L, and the average oxygen mass transfer coefficient, k(sub L)a, was 0.01 s(exp -1). Mixing time was 35 s. An experiment using inedible wheat residues, a replenishment rate of 0.125/day, and a solids loading rate of 20 gdw/day yielded a 48% reduction in biomass. Bioreactor effluent was successfully used to regenerate a wheat hydroponic nutrient solution. Over 80% of available potassium, calcium, and other minerals were recovered and recycled in the 76-day wheat growth experiment.

  12. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  13. Effect of aeration on stabilization of organic solid waste and microbial population dynamics in lab-scale landfill bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Sang, Nguyen Nhu; Soda, Satoshi; Sei, Kazunari; Ike, Michihiko

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated microbial population dynamics and performance in lab-scale conventional, anaerobic, and aerobic landfill bioreactors specialized for high-organic wastes. Each reactor (2.35 l) was loaded with 1.5 kg of organic solid waste made of sludge cake, dry dog food, and wood chips. The conventional reactor was operated without leachate recirculation and aeration, but the other reactors used leachate recirculation at 200 ml/d and without aeration (anaerobic bioreactor) or with aeration at 2 l/min (aerobic bioreactor). The respective final waste volumes on day 138 of the conventional, anaerobic, and aerobic reactors were approximately 75%, 65%, and 60% of the initial volumes. Leachate recirculation in the anaerobic bioreactor accelerated biochemical reactions and promoted methane production. However, leachate from the anaerobic bioreactor showed TOC and NH(4)(+)-N concentrations that were as high as those of the conventional reactor. Aeration lowered leachate production and methane concentration and decreased organic matter in solid waste and leachate. Furthermore, the MPN value of amoA gene reached 10(5) MPN-copies/g-dry in the aerobic bioreactor, where nitrogen was removed from organic solid waste and leachate. During the first 72 d, the aerobic bioreactor's MPN value of fungal 18S rDNA was the highest among reactors, but it decreased gradually. All reactors showed similar MPN values of eubacterial 16S rDNA, nirS, and nirK. PMID:19111637

  14. A pilot study for the selection of a bioreactor for remediation of groundwater from a coal tar contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2002-01-28

    Coal tars in soil at a gasworks site in South Eastern Australia led to groundwater contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-aromatic compounds (BTEX) and phenols. The scope of the study included testwork in laboratory scale bioreactors and evaluation of available commercial groundwater treatment units. Two bioreactor configurations, a submerged fixed film reactor (SFFR) and a fluidized bed bioreactor (FBR) were effective, with high efficiencies of contaminant removal (typically >90%) over a range of hydraulic retention times (HRT) (3-29 h). Specifically, concentrations of total PAH, naphthalene, pyrene and total phenols in the feedstock and effluent of the SFFR were 123, 60, 51, 1.38 and 0.004, 0.001, 0.004, 0.1mg/l, respectively. The FBR was only marginally less effective than the SFFR for the same groundwater contaminants. Discharge to sewer was the most appropriate end use for the effluent. SFFRs are regarded as being simpler in design and operation, and a commercially available unit has been identified which would be suitable for treating small volumes (<10 m(3) per day) of contaminated water collected at an interception trench at the site. PMID:11744208

  15. A pilot study for the selection of a bioreactor for remediation of groundwater from a coal tar contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2002-01-28

    Coal tars in soil at a gasworks site in South Eastern Australia led to groundwater contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mono-aromatic compounds (BTEX) and phenols. The scope of the study included testwork in laboratory scale bioreactors and evaluation of available commercial groundwater treatment units. Two bioreactor configurations, a submerged fixed film reactor (SFFR) and a fluidized bed bioreactor (FBR) were effective, with high efficiencies of contaminant removal (typically >90%) over a range of hydraulic retention times (HRT) (3-29 h). Specifically, concentrations of total PAH, naphthalene, pyrene and total phenols in the feedstock and effluent of the SFFR were 123, 60, 51, 1.38 and 0.004, 0.001, 0.004, 0.1mg/l, respectively. The FBR was only marginally less effective than the SFFR for the same groundwater contaminants. Discharge to sewer was the most appropriate end use for the effluent. SFFRs are regarded as being simpler in design and operation, and a commercially available unit has been identified which would be suitable for treating small volumes (<10 m(3) per day) of contaminated water collected at an interception trench at the site.

  16. Screening of phenylpyruvic acid producers and optimization of culture conditions in bench scale bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali; Patterson, Paul H; Elias, Ryan J

    2014-11-01

    Alpha keto acids are deaminated forms of amino acids that have received significant attention as feed and food additives in the agriculture and medical industries. To date, their production has been commonly performed at shake-flask scale with low product concentrations. In this study, production of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), which is the alpha keto acid of phenylalanine was investigated. First, various microorganisms were screened to select the most efficient producer. Thereafter, growth parameters (temperature, pH, and aeration) were optimized in bench scale bioreactors to maximize both PPA and biomass concentration in bench scale bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Among the four different microorganisms evaluated, Proteus vulgaris was the most productive strain for PPA production. Optimum temperature, pH, and aeration conditions were determined as 34.5 °C, 5.12, and 0.5 vvm for PPA production, whereas 36.9 °C, pH 6.87, and 0.96 vvm for the biomass production. Under these optimum conditions, PPA concentration was enhanced to 1,054 mg/L, which was almost three times higher than shake-flask fermentation concentrations. Moreover, P. vulgaris biomass was produced at 3.25 g/L under optimum conditions. Overall, this study demonstrated that optimization of growth parameters improved PPA production in 1-L working volume bench-scale bioreactors compared to previous studies in the literature and was a first step to scale up the production to industrial production.

  17. A specific pilot-scale membrane hybrid treatment system for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Ngo, Huu Hao; Kim, Sa Dong; Yoon, Yong Soo

    2014-10-01

    A specifically designed pilot-scale hybrid wastewater treatment system integrating an innovative equalizing reactor (EQ), rotating hanging media bioreactor (RHMBR) and submerged flat sheet membrane bioreactor (SMBR) was evaluated for its effectiveness in practical, long-term, real-world applications. The pilot system was operated at a constant flux, but with different internal recycle flow rates (Q) over a long-term operating of 475 days. At 4 Q internal recycle flow rate, BOD5, CODCr, NH4(+)-N, T-N, T-P and TSS was highly removed with efficiencies up to 99.88 ± 0.05%, 95.01 ± 1.62%, 100%, 90.42 ± 2.43%, 73.44 ± 6.03%, and 99.93 ± 0.28%, respectively. Furthermore, the effluent quality was also superior in terms of turbidity (<1 NTU), color (<15 TCU) and taste (inoffensive). The results indicated that with providing only chemically cleaned-in-place (CIP) during the entire period of operation, the membrane could continuously maintain a constant permeate flux of 22.77 ± 2.19 L/m(2)h. In addition, the power consumption was also found to be reasonably low (0.92-1.62 k Wh/m(3)).

  18. Bacterial community structure of a lab-scale anammox membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Osorio, F; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Martinez-Toledo, Maria Victoria; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Lotti, Tommaso; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-01-01

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies have proliferated through the last decade. Among these, a promising one is the membrane bioreactor (MBR) Anammox, which can achieve very high solids retention time and therefore sets a proper environment for the cultivation of anammox bacteria. In this sense, the MBR Anammox is an efficient technology for the treatment of effluents with low organic carbon and high ammonium concentrations once it has been treated under partial nitrification systems. A lab-scale MBR Anammox bioreactor has been built at the Technological University of Delft, The Netherlands and has been proven for efficient nitrogen removal and efficient cultivation of anammox bacteria. In this study, next-generation sequencing techniques have been used for the investigation of the bacterial communities of this MBR Anammox for the first time ever. A strong domination of Candidatus Brocadia bacterium and also the presence of a myriad of other microorganisms that have adapted to this environment were detected, suggesting that the MBR Anammox bioreactor might have a more complex microbial ecosystem that it has been thought. Among these, nitrate-reducing heterotrophs and primary producers, among others, were identified. Definition of the ecological roles of the OTUs identified through metagenomic analysis was discussed. PMID:25270790

  19. Large-scale clinical-grade retroviral vector production in a fixed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuyan; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Qu, Jinrong; Wasielewska, Teresa; Bartido, Shirley; Hermetet, Gregory; Sadelain, Michel; Rivière, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    The successful genetic engineering of patient T cells with γ-retroviral vectors expressing chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors for phase II clinical trials and beyond requires the large-scale manufacture of high-titer vector stocks. The production of retroviral vectors from stable packaging cell lines using roller bottles or 10- to 40-layer cell factories is limited by a narrow harvest window, labor intensity, open-system operations, and the requirement for significant incubator space. To circumvent these shortcomings, we optimized the production of vector stocks in a disposable fixed-bed bioreactor using good manufacturing practice-grade packaging cell lines. High-titer vector stocks were harvested over 10 days, representing a much broader harvest window than the 3-day harvest afforded by cell factories. For PG13 and 293Vec packaging cells, the average vector titer and the vector stocks' yield in the bioreactor were higher by 3.2- to 7.3-fold, and 5.6- to 13.1-fold, respectively, than those obtained in cell factories. The vector production was 10.4 and 18.6 times more efficient than in cell factories for PG13 and 293Vec cells, respectively. Furthermore, the vectors produced from the fixed-bed bioreactors passed the release test assays for clinical applications. Therefore, a single vector lot derived from 293Vec is suitable to transduce up to 500 patients cell doses in the context of large clinical trials using chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors. These findings demonstrate for the first time that a robust fixed-bed bioreactor process can be used to produce γ-retroviral vector stocks scalable up to the commercialization phase.

  20. Large-scale Clinical-grade Retroviral Vector Production in a Fixed-Bed Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuyan; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Qu, Jinrong; Wasielewska, Teresa; Bartido, Shirley; Hermetet, Gregory; Sadelain, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The successful genetic engineering of patient T cells with γ-retroviral vectors expressing chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors for phase II clinical trials and beyond requires the large-scale manufacture of high-titer vector stocks. The production of retroviral vectors from stable packaging cell lines using roller bottles or 10- to 40-layer cell factories is limited by a narrow harvest window, labor intensity, open-system operations, and the requirement for significant incubator space. To circumvent these shortcomings, we optimized the production of vector stocks in a disposable fixed-bed bioreactor using good manufacturing practice–grade packaging cell lines. High-titer vector stocks were harvested over 10 days, representing a much broader harvest window than the 3-day harvest afforded by cell factories. For PG13 and 293Vec packaging cells, the average vector titer and the vector stocks’ yield in the bioreactor were higher by 3.2- to 7.3-fold, and 5.6- to 13.1-fold, respectively, than those obtained in cell factories. The vector production was 10.4 and 18.6 times more efficient than in cell factories for PG13 and 293Vec cells, respectively. Furthermore, the vectors produced from the fixed-bed bioreactors passed the release test assays for clinical applications. Therefore, a single vector lot derived from 293Vec is suitable to transduce up to 500 patients cell doses in the context of large clinical trials using chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors. These findings demonstrate for the first time that a robust fixed-bed bioreactor process can be used to produce γ-retroviral vector stocks scalable up to the commercialization phase. PMID:25751502

  1. Comparison of different oxygen transfer testing procedures in full-scale membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Krause, S; Cornel, P; Wagner, M

    2003-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment offer the advantage of a complete removal of solids from the effluent. The secondary clarifier is replaced by a membrane filtration and therefore high biomass concentrations (MLSS) in the reactor are possible. The design of the aeration system is vital for an energy efficient operation of any wastewater treatment plant. Hence the exact measurement of oxygen transfer rates (OTR) and alpha-values is important. For MBRs these values reported in literature differ considerably. The OTR can be measured using non-steady state methods or using the off-gas method. The non-steady state methods additionally require the determination of the respiration rate (oxygen uptake rate OUR), which usually is measured in lab scale units. As there are differences of OUR between lab scale and full scale measurements, off-gas tests (which do not require an additional respiration test) were performed in order to compare both methods at high MLSS concentrations. Both methods result in the same average value of OTR. Due to variations in loading and wastewater composition variations of OTR in time can be pointed out using the off-gas method. For the first time a comparison of different oxygen transfer tests in full scale membrane bioreactors is presented.

  2. A pilot rating scale for vortex hazard evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoh, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A pilot rating scale is developed for subjective assessment of hazard resulting from wake vortex encounter upsets. The development of the rating scale is based on a survey of 48 pilots regarding the semantic properties of various phrases and a choice of formats for the rating scale. The rating scale can be used to define a hazard/nonhazard boundary as well as to determine a measure of the hazard.

  3. Feeding strategies enhance high cell density cultivation and protein expression in milliliter scale bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Faust, Georg; Janzen, Nils H; Bendig, Christoph; Römer, Lin; Kaufmann, Klaus; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    Miniature bioreactors under parallel fed-batch operations are not only useful screening tools for bioprocess development but also provide a suitable basis for eventual scale-up. In this study, three feeding strategies were investigated: besides the established intermittent feeding by a liquid handler, an optimized microfluidic device and a new enzymatic release system were applied for parallel fed-batch cultivation of Escherichia coli HMS174(DE3) and BL21(DE3) strains in stirred-tank bioreactors on a 10 mL scale. Lower fluctuation in dissolved oxygen (DO) and higher optical densities were measured in fed-batch processes applying the microfluidic device or the enzymatic glucose/fructose release system (conversion of intermittently added sucrose by an invertase), but no difference in dry cell weights (DCW) were observed. With all three feeding strategies high cell densities were realized on a milliliter scale with final optical density measured at 600 nm (OD600 ) of 114-133 and final DCW concentrations of 69-70 g L(-1) . The effect of feeding strategies on the expression of two heterologous proteins was investigated. Whereas no impact was observed on the expression of the spider silk protein eADF4(C16), the fluorescence of enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) was reproducibly lower, if an intermittent glucose feed was applied. Thus, the impact of feeding strategy on expression is strongly dependent on the E. coli strain and/or expressed protein. As a completely continuous feed supply is difficult to realize in miniature bioreactors, the enzymatic release approach from this study can be easily applied in all microfluidic system to reduce fluctuations of glucose supply and DO concentrations.

  4. Pilot scale evaluation of SANI process for sludge minimization and greenhouse gas reduction in saline sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; Wu, Di; Tang, Daniel T W; Chen, G H; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Ekama, G

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on a pilot trial of the SANI process (Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated process) in Hong Kong. A pilot-scale SANI plant treating saline sewage at 10 m3/day was scaled-up from a lab-scale system treating synthetic saline sewage. The plant consisted of a sulfate reduction up-flow sludge bed (SRUSB), an anoxic bioreactor (BAR1) for autotrophic denitrification utilizing dissolved sulfide produced by the SRUSB and an aerobic bioreactor (BAR2) for nitrification. The SANI pilot plant was successfully operated for 225 days and achieved average COD, TSS, TN removal of 87, 87, and 57%, respectively. The ratio of MLVSS to MLSS in the SRUSB was stable at 0.7 and the average sludge volume index (SVI) was constantly below 110 ml/g. No sludge was purposely withdrawn from the plant during 225-day plant operation. This was attributed to a very low observed sludge yield (0.02 kgVSS/kgCOD removed) of the SRUSB reactor. DNA extraction, PCA amplification results revealed that no methanogens were detected in the SRUSB. SANI can reduce 90% sludge production, 35% energy and 36% GHG compared to conventional biological nutrient removal (CBNR) process.

  5. Pilot scale evaluation of SANI process for sludge minimization and greenhouse gas reduction in saline sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; Wu, Di; Tang, Daniel T W; Chen, G H; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Ekama, G

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on a pilot trial of the SANI process (Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated process) in Hong Kong. A pilot-scale SANI plant treating saline sewage at 10 m3/day was scaled-up from a lab-scale system treating synthetic saline sewage. The plant consisted of a sulfate reduction up-flow sludge bed (SRUSB), an anoxic bioreactor (BAR1) for autotrophic denitrification utilizing dissolved sulfide produced by the SRUSB and an aerobic bioreactor (BAR2) for nitrification. The SANI pilot plant was successfully operated for 225 days and achieved average COD, TSS, TN removal of 87, 87, and 57%, respectively. The ratio of MLVSS to MLSS in the SRUSB was stable at 0.7 and the average sludge volume index (SVI) was constantly below 110 ml/g. No sludge was purposely withdrawn from the plant during 225-day plant operation. This was attributed to a very low observed sludge yield (0.02 kgVSS/kgCOD removed) of the SRUSB reactor. DNA extraction, PCA amplification results revealed that no methanogens were detected in the SRUSB. SANI can reduce 90% sludge production, 35% energy and 36% GHG compared to conventional biological nutrient removal (CBNR) process. PMID:21977633

  6. A laboratory and pilot plant scaled continuous stirred reactor separator for the production of ethanol from sugars, corn grits/starch or biomass streams

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.; Lei, S.; Zhou, C.

    1995-11-01

    An improved bio-reactor has been developed to allow the high speed, continuous, low energy conversion of various substrates to ethanol. The Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS) incorporates gas stripping of the ethanol using a recalculating gas stream between cascading stirred reactors in series. We have operated a 4 liter lab scale unit, and built and operated a 24,000 liter pilot scale version of the bioreactor. High rates of fermentation are maintained in the reactor stages using a highly flocculant yeast strain. Ethanol is recovered from the stripping gas using a hydrophobic solvent absorber (isothermal), after which the gas is returned to the bioreactor. Ethanol can then be removed from the solvent to recover a highly concentrate ethanol product. We have applied the lab scale CSRS to sugars (glucose/sucrose), molasses, and raw starch with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the starch granules (SSF). The pilot scale CCRS has been operated as a cascade reactor using dextrins as a feed. Operating data from both the lab and pilot scale CSRS are presented. Details of how the system might be applied to cellulosics, with some preliminary data are also given.

  7. A laboratory and pilot plant scaled continuous stirred reactor separator for the production of ethanol from sugars, corn grits/starch or biomass streams

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.; Lei, Shuiwang; Zhou, Chongde

    1995-10-01

    An improved bio-reactor has been developed to allow the high speed, continues, low energy conversion of various substrates to ethanol. The Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS) incorporates gas stripping of the ethanol using a recalculating gas stream between cascading stirred reactors in series. We have operated a 4 liter lab scale unit, and built and operated a 24,000 liter pilot scale version of the bioreactor. High rates of fermentation are maintained in the reactor stages using a highly flocculent yeast strain. Ethanol is recovered from the stripping gas using a hydrophobic solvent absorber (isothermal), after which the gas is returned to the bioreactor. Ethanol can then be removed from the solvent to recover a highly concentrated ethanol product. We have applied the lab scale CSRS to sugars (glucose/sucrose), molasses, and raw starch with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the starch granules (SSF). The pilot scale CSRS has been operated as a cascade reactor using dextrins as a feed. Operating data from both the lab and pilot scale CSRS are presented. Details of how the system might be applied to cellulosics, with some preliminary data are also given.

  8. A novel milliliter-scale chemostat system for parallel cultivation of microorganisms in stirred-tank bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Schmideder, Andreas; Severin, Timm Steffen; Cremer, Johannes Heinrich; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2015-09-20

    A pH-controlled parallel stirred-tank bioreactor system was modified for parallel continuous cultivation on a 10 mL-scale by connecting multichannel peristaltic pumps for feeding and medium removal with micro-pipes (250 μm inner diameter). Parallel chemostat processes with Escherichia coli as an example showed high reproducibility with regard to culture volume and flow rates as well as dry cell weight, dissolved oxygen concentration and pH control at steady states (n=8, coefficient of variation <5%). Reliable estimation of kinetic growth parameters of E. coli was easily achieved within one parallel experiment by preselecting ten different steady states. Scalability of milliliter-scale steady state results was demonstrated by chemostat studies with a stirred-tank bioreactor on a liter-scale. Thus, parallel and continuously operated stirred-tank bioreactors on a milliliter-scale facilitate timesaving and cost reducing steady state studies with microorganisms. The applied continuous bioreactor system overcomes the drawbacks of existing miniaturized bioreactors, like poor mass transfer and insufficient process control.

  9. Large-scale production of lentiviral vector in a closed system hollow fiber bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Jonathan; Beltzer, Jim; Fury, Brian; Wilczek, Katarzyna; Tobin, Steve; Falconer, Danny; Nolta, Jan; Bauer, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Lentiviral vectors are widely used in the field of gene therapy as an effective method for permanent gene delivery. While current methods of producing small scale vector batches for research purposes depend largely on culture flasks, the emergence and popularity of lentiviral vectors in translational, preclinical and clinical research has demanded their production on a much larger scale, a task that can be difficult to manage with the numbers of producer cell culture flasks required for large volumes of vector. To generate a large scale, partially closed system method for the manufacturing of clinical grade lentiviral vector suitable for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), we developed a method employing a hollow fiber bioreactor traditionally used for cell expansion. We have demonstrated the growth, transfection, and vector-producing capability of 293T producer cells in this system. Vector particle RNA titers after subsequent vector concentration yielded values comparable to lentiviral iPSC induction vector batches produced using traditional culture methods in 225 cm2 flasks (T225s) and in 10-layer cell factories (CF10s), while yielding a volume nearly 145 times larger than the yield from a T225 flask and nearly three times larger than the yield from a CF10. Employing a closed system hollow fiber bioreactor for vector production offers the possibility of manufacturing large quantities of gene therapy vector while minimizing reagent usage, equipment footprint, and open system manipulation. PMID:26151065

  10. Production of alginate by Azotobacter vinelandii grown at two bioreactor scales under oxygen-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Barrera, Alvaro; Gutierrez, Javiera; Martínez, Fabiola; Altamirano, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) was evaluated as a scale-up criterion for alginate production in 3- and 14-L stirred fermentors. Batch cultures were performed at different agitation rates (200, 300, and 600 rpm) and airflow rates (0.25, 0.5, and 1 vvm), resulting in different maximum OTR levels (OTRmax). Although the two reactors had a similar OTRmax (19 mmol L(-1) h(-1)) and produced the same alginate concentration (3.8 g L(-1)), during the cell growth period the maximum molecular weight of the alginate was 1,250 kDa in the 3-L stirred fermentor and 590 kDa in 14-L stirred fermentor. The results showed for the first time the evolution of the molecular weight of alginate and OTR profiles for two different scales of stirred fermentors. There was a different maximum specific oxygen uptake rate between the two fermenters, reaching 8.3 mmol g(-1) h(-1) in 3-L bioreactor and 10.6 mmol g(-1) h(-1) in 14-L bioreactor, which could explain the different molecular weights observed. These findings open the possibility of using [Formula: see text] instead of OTRmax as a scaling criterion to produce polymers with similar molecular weights during fermentation.

  11. Process Development of Adenoviral Vector Production in Fixed Bed Bioreactor: From Bench to Commercial Scale.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Hanna P; Heikkilä, Kati M; Lipponen, Eevi M; Valonen, Piia; Müller, Achim; Räsänen, Eva; Tuunanen, Tarja; Hassinen, Minna M; Parker, Nigel; Karhinen, Minna; Shaw, Robert; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-08-01

    Large-scale vector manufacturing for phase III and beyond has proven to be challenging. Upscaling the process with suspension cells is increasingly feasible, but many viral production applications are still applicable only in adherent settings. Scaling up the adherent system has proven to be troublesome. The iCELLis(®) disposable fixed-bed bioreactors offer a possible option for viral vector manufacturing in large quantities in an adherent environment. In this study, we have optimized adenovirus serotype 5 manufacturing using iCELLis Nano with a cultivation area up to 4 m(2). HEK293 cell cultivation, infection, and harvest of the virus (by lysing the cells inside the bioreactor) proved possible, reaching total yield of up to 1.6×10(14) viral particles (vp)/batch. The iCELLis 500 is designed to satisfy demand for large-scale requirements. Inoculating a large quantity of cell mass into the iCELLis 500 was achieved by first expanding the cell mass in suspension. Upscaling the process into an iCELLis 500/100 m(2) cultivation area cassette was practical and produced up to 6.1×10(15) vp. Flask productivity per cm(2) in iCELLis Nano and iCELLis 500 was in the same range. As a conclusion, we showed for the first time that iCELLis 500 equipment has provided an effective way to manufacture large batches of adenoviral vectors. PMID:26176404

  12. Use of Orbital Shaken Disposable Bioreactors for Mammalian Cell Cultures from the Milliliter-Scale to the 1,000-Liter Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Stettler, Matthieu; de Sanctis, Dario; Perrone, Marco; Parolini, Nicola; Discacciati, Marco; de Jesus, Maria; Hacker, David; Quarteroni, Alfio; Wurm, Florian

    Driven by the commercial success of recombinant biopharmaceuticals, there is an increasing demand for novel mammalian cell culture bioreactor systems for the rapid production of biologicals that require mammalian protein processing. Recently, orbitally shaken bioreactors at scales from 50 mL to 1,000 L have been explored for the cultivation of mammalian cells and are considered to be attractive alternatives to conventional stirred-tank bioreactors because of increased flexibility and reduced costs. Adequate oxygen transfer capacity was maintained during the scale-up, and strategies to increase further oxygen transfer rates (OTR) were explored, while maintaining favorable mixing parameters and low-stress conditions for sensitive lipid membrane-enclosed cells. Investigations from process development to the engineering properties of shaken bioreactors are underway, but the feasibility of establishing a robust, standardized, and transferable technical platform for mammalian cell culture based on orbital shaking and disposable materials has been established with further optimizations and studies ongoing.

  13. Effects of granular activated carbon on methane removal performance and methanotrophic community of a lab-scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Choi, Sun-Ah; Yi, Taewoo; Kim, Tae Gwan; Lee, Sang-Don; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Two identical lab-scale bioreactor systems were operated to examine the effects of granular activated carbon (GAC) on methane removal performance and methanotrophic community. Both bioreactor systems removed methane completely at a CH4 loading rate of 71.2 g-CH4·d(-1) for 17 days. However, the methane removal efficiency declined to 88% in the bioreactor without GAC, while the bioreactor amended with GAC showed greater methane removal efficiency of 97% at a CH4 loading rate of 107.5 g-CH4·d(-1). Although quantitative real-time PCR showed that methanotrophic populations were similar levels of 5-10 × 10(8) pmoA gene copy number·VSS(-1) in both systems, GAC addition changed the methanotrophic community composition of the bioreactor systems. Microarray assay revealed that GAC enhanced the type I methanotrophic genera including Methylobacter, Methylomicrobium, and Methylomonas of the system, which suggests that GAC probably provided a favorable environment for type I methanotrophs. These results indicated that GAC is a promising support material in bioreactor systems for CH4 mitigation.

  14. In silico multi-scale model of transport and dynamic seeding in a bone tissue engineering perfusion bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T J; Hidalgo-Bastida, L A; Cartmell, S H; Halliday, I; Care, C M

    2013-04-01

    Computer simulations can potentially be used to design, predict, and inform properties for tissue engineering perfusion bioreactors. In this work, we investigate the flow properties that result from a particular poly-L-lactide porous scaffold and a particular choice of perfusion bioreactor vessel design used in bone tissue engineering. We also propose a model to investigate the dynamic seeding properties such as the homogeneity (or lack of) of the cellular distribution within the scaffold of the perfusion bioreactor: a pre-requisite for the subsequent successful uniform growth of a viable bone tissue engineered construct. Flows inside geometrically complex scaffolds have been investigated previously and results shown at these pore scales. Here, it is our aim to show accurately that through the use of modern high performance computers that the bioreactor device scale that encloses a scaffold can affect the flows and stresses within the pores throughout the scaffold which has implications for bioreactor design, control, and use. Central to this work is that the boundary conditions are derived from micro computed tomography scans of both a device chamber and scaffold in order to avoid generalizations and uncertainties. Dynamic seeding methods have also been shown to provide certain advantages over static seeding methods. We propose here a novel coupled model for dynamic seeding accounting for flow, species mass transport and cell advection-diffusion-attachment tuned for bone tissue engineering. The model highlights the timescale differences between different species suggesting that traditional homogeneous porous flow models of transport must be applied with caution to perfusion bioreactors. Our in silico data illustrate the extent to which these experiments have the potential to contribute to future design and development of large-scale bioreactors.

  15. Pilot-scale development of anaerobic filter technology for municipal wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Genung, R.K.; Donaldson, T.L.; Reed, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    The use of anaerobic filter technology for the treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater was studied by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Knoxville, Tennessee, with a pilot-scale (e.g., 190-m/sup 3//d) facility from August 1981 to October 1983. The Knoxville project (described by the acronym ANFLOW for the anaerobic, upflow characteristics of the technology) was a tenfold scale-up of a previous ORNL study in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Pollutant loading rates used in this study ranged from 0.1 to 0.7 kg/m/sup 3/ x d for total suspended solids (TSS) and from 0.1 to 0.4 kg/m/sup 3/ x d for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD); the hydraulic retention time ranged from 9 to 10 h. Removal efficiencies for TSS and BOD were 80 and 70%, respectively. This performance was maintained in ambient cold-weather tests (water temperature, approx.12/sup 0/C), even though the rate of solids accumulation in the bioreactor was higher because of decreased biological activity, which normally converts solids to off-gas. The solids inventory in the bioreactor appeared to be diminished during warmer weather. 26 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. On the fluid dynamics of a laboratory scale single-use stirred bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Odeleye, A.O.O.; Marsh, D.T.J.; Osborne, M.D.; Lye, G.J.; Micheletti, M.

    2014-01-01

    The commercial success of mammalian cell-derived recombinant proteins has fostered an increase in demand for novel single-use bioreactor (SUB) systems that facilitate greater productivity, increased flexibility and reduced costs (Zhang et al., 2010). These systems exhibit fluid flow regimes unlike those encountered in traditional glass/stainless steel bioreactors because of the way in which they are designed. With such disparate hydrodynamic environments between SUBs currently on the market, traditional scale-up approaches applied to stirred tanks should be revised. One such SUB is the Mobius® 3 L CellReady, which consists of an upward-pumping marine scoping impeller. This work represents the first experimental study of the flow within the CellReady using a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) approach, combined with a biological study into the impact of these fluid dynamic characteristics on cell culture performance. The PIV study was conducted within the actual vessel, rather than using a purpose-built mimic. PIV measurements conveyed a degree of fluid compartmentalisation resulting from the up-pumping impeller. Both impeller tip speed and fluid working volume had an impact upon the fluid velocities and spatial distribution of turbulence within the vessel. Cell cultures were conducted using the GS-CHO cell-line (Lonza) producing an IgG4 antibody. Disparity in cellular growth and viability throughout the range of operating conditions used (80–350 rpm and 1–2.4 L working volume) was not substantial, although a significant reduction in recombinant protein productivity was found at 350 rpm and 1 L working volume (corresponding to the highest Reynolds number tested in this work). The study shows promise in the use of PIV to improve understanding of the hydrodynamic environment within individual SUBs and allows identification of the critical hydrodynamic parameters under the different flow regimes for compatibility and scalability across the range of bioreactor

  17. Biogasification of community-derived biomass and solid wastes in a pilot-scale SOLCON reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, V.J.; Biljetina, R.; Isaacson, H.R.; Hayes, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has developed a novel, solids- concentrating (SOLCON) bioreactor to convert a variety of individual or mixed feedstocks (biomass and wastes) to methane at higher rates and efficiencies than those obtained from conventional high-rate anaerobic digesters. The biogasification studies are being conducted in a pilot-scale experimental test unit (ETU) located in the Walt Disney World Resort Complex, Orlando, Florida. This paper describes the ETU facility, the logistics of feedstock integration, the SOLCON reactor design and operating techniques, and the results obtained during 4 years of stable, uninterrupted operation with different feedstocks. The SOLCON reactor consistently outperformed the conventional stirred-tank reactor by 20% to 50%.

  18. Large-Scale Expansion and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Microcarrier-Based Stirred Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Sart, Sébastien; Agathos, Spiros N

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as an important tool for tissue engineering, thanks to their differentiation potential and their broad trophic activities. However, for clinical purposes or for relevant in vitro applications, large quantities of MSCs are required, which could hardly be reached using conventional cultivation in plastic dishes. Microcarriers have high surface to volume ratio, which enables the easy scale-up of the expansion and differentiation of MSCs. In addition, the agitation in stirred tank bioreactors limits the diffusion gradient of nutrients or morphogens, thus providing a physiologically relevant environment to favor MSC production at large scale. This work describes a simple method for the mass expansion and differentiation of MSCs, including the procedures to monitor the proliferation, metabolic status and phenotype of MSCs during suspension culture. Moreover, this work proposes suitable materials for cGMP compliant culture conditions enabling the clinical grade production of MSCs.

  19. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CFCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of the characterization of organic emissions resulting from the pilot-scale incineration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) under varied feed concentrations. (NOTE: As a result of the Montreal Protocol, an international...

  20. Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control

    SciTech Connect

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

    2005-03-30

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  1. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-12-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The remaining task to be completed is to test the biofilter prior to operation, which is currently anticipated to begin in January 2004. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  2. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-05-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and construction of the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell is nearly complete with only the liquid addition system remaining. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  3. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-04-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5 acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  4. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-08-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and is scheduled to be complete by the end of August 2003. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  5. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-08-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  6. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-01-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  7. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-02-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  8. SANASA Capivari II - the first full-scale municipal membrane bioreactor in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Pagotto, R; Rossetto, R; Gasperi, R L P; Andrade, J P; Trovati, J; Vallero, M V G; Okumura, A; Arntsen, B

    2014-01-01

    The macro region of Campinas (Brazil) is rapidly evolving with new housing developments and industries, creating the challenge of finding new ways to treat wastewater to a quality that can be reused in order to overcome water scarcity problems. To address this challenge, SANASA (a publicly owned water and wastewater concessionaire from Campinas) has recently constructed the 'EPAR (Water Reuse Production Plant) Capivari II' using the GE ZeeWeed 500D(®) ultrafiltration membrane system. This is the first large-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) system in Latin America with biological tertiary treatment capability (nitrogen and phosphorus removal), being able to treat an average flow of 182 L/s in its first phase of construction. The filtration system is composed of three membrane trains with more than 36,000 m(2) of total membrane filtration area. The membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant was commissioned in April 2012 and the permeate quality has exceeded expectations. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates are around and above 97% on a consistent basis, with biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and NH3 (ammonia) concentrations at very low levels, and turbidity lower than 0.3 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU). Treated effluent is sent to a water reuse accumulation tank (from where will be distributed as reuse water), and the excess is discharged into the Capivari River. PMID:25051474

  9. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by bacterial consortium from excess sludge fermentation liquid at laboratory and pilot scales.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qianqian; Xiong, Huilei; Wang, Hui; Shi, Hanchang; Sheng, Xinying; Sun, Run; Chen, Guoqiang

    2014-11-01

    The generation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from excess sludge fermentation liquid (SFL) was studied at lab and pilot scale. A PHA-accumulated bacterial consortium (S-150) was isolated from activated sludge using simulated SFL (S-SFL) contained high concentration volatile fatty acids (VFA) and nitrogen. The maximal PHA content accounted for 59.18% in S-SFL and dropped to 23.47% in actual SFL (L-SFL) of the dry cell weight (DCW) at lab scale. The pilot-scale integrated system comprised an anaerobic fermentation reactor (AFR), a ceramic membrane system (CMS) and a PHA production bio-reactor (PHAR). The PHA content from pilot-scale SFL (P-SFL) finally reached to 59.47% DCW with the maximal PHA yield coefficient (YP/S) of 0.17 g PHA/g COD. The results indicated that VFA-containing SFL was suitable for PHA production. The adverse impact of excess nitrogen and non-VFAs in SFL might be eliminated by pilot-scale domestication, which might resulted in community structure optimization and substrate selective ability improvement of S-150.

  10. Macroscopic mass and energy balance of a pilot plant anaerobic bioreactor operated under thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Bombardiere, John; Chatfield, Mark; Domaschko, Max; Easter, Michael; Stafford, David A; Castillo-Angeles, Saul; Castellanos-Hernandez, Nehemias

    2006-01-01

    Intensive poultry production generates over 100,000 t of litter annually in West Virginia and 9 x 10(6) t nationwide. Current available technological alternatives based on thermophilic anaerobic digestion for residuals treatment are diverse. A modification of the typical continuous stirred tank reactor is a promising process being relatively stable and owing to its capability to manage considerable amounts of residuals at low operational cost. A 40-m3 pilot plant digester was used for performance evaluation considering energy input and methane production. Results suggest some changes to the pilot plant configuration are necessary to reduce power consumption although maximizing biodigester performance.

  11. Full-scale validation of an air scour control system for energy savings in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Monclús, Hèctor; Dalmau, Montserrat; Gabarrón, Sara; Ferrero, Giuliana; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi; Comas, Joaquim

    2015-08-01

    Membrane aeration represents between 35 and 50% of the operational cost of membrane bioreactors (MBR). New automatic control systems and/or module configurations have been developed for aeration optimization. In this paper, we briefly describe an innovative MBR air scour control system based on permeability evolution and present the results of a full-scale validation that lasted over a 1-year period. An average reduction in the air scour flow rate of 13% was achieved, limiting the maximum reduction to 20%. This averaged reduction corresponded to a decrease in energy consumption for membrane aeration of 14% (0.025 kWh m(-3)) with maximum saving rates of 22% (0.04 kWh m(-3)). Permeability and fouling rate evolution were not affected by the air scour control system, as very similar behavior was observed for these variables for both filtration lines throughout the entire experimental evaluation period of 1 year.

  12. Pilot aerobic membrane bioreactor and nanofiltration for municipal landfill leachate treatment.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Míriam C S; Moravia, Wagner G; Lange, Liséte C; Zico, Mariana R; Magalhães, Natalie C; Ricci, Bárbara C; Reis, Beatriz G

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the integration of the air stripping, membrane bioreactor (MBR) and nanofiltration (NF) processes for the treatment of landfill leachate (LFL). Pretreatment by air stripping, without adjustment of pH, removed 65% of N-NH3 present in LFL. After pretreatment, the effluent was treated in MBR obtaining 44% of COD removal, and part of the N-NH3 was converted to nitrite and nitrate, which was later removed in the post-treatment. Nanofiltration was shown to be an effective process to improve the removal of organic compounds, the high toxicity present in LFL and nitrite and nitrate generated in the MBR. The system (air stripping + MBR + nanofiltration) obtained great efficiency of removal in most parameters analyzed, with overall removal of COD, ammonia, color and toxicity approximately 88, 95, 100 and 100%, respectively. By this route, treated landfill leachate may be reused at the landfill as water for dust arrestment and also as earth work on construction sites.

  13. Scale-up of mouse embryonic stem cell expansion in stirred bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Fernandes-Platzgummer, Ana; Diogo, Maria M; Baptista, Ricardo P; da Silva, Cláudia Lobato; Cabral, Joaquim M S

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a robust, quality controlled and reproducible large-scale culture system using serum-free (SF) medium to obtain vast numbers of embryonic stem (ES) cells as a starting source for potential applications in tissue regeneration, as well as for drug screening studies. Mouse ES (mES) cells were firstly cultured on microcarriers in spinner flasks to investigate the effect of different parameters such as the agitation rate and the feeding regimen. Cells were successfully expanded at agitation rates up to 60 rpm using the SF medium and no significant differences in terms of growth kinetics or metabolic profiles were found between the two feeding regimens evaluated: 50% medium renewal every 24 h or 25% every 12 h. Overall, cells reached maximum concentrations of (4.2 ± 0.4) and (5.6 ± 0.8) ×10(6) cells/mL at Day 8 for cells fed once or twice per day; which corresponds to an increase in total cell number of 85 ± 7 and 108 ± 16, respectively. To have a more precise control over culture conditions and to yield a higher number of cells, the scale-up of the spinner flask culture system was successfully accomplished by using a fully controlled stirred tank bioreactor. In this case, the concentration of mES cells cultured on microcarriers increased 85 ± 15-fold over 11 days. Importantly, mES cells expanded under stirred conditions, in both spinner flask and fully controlled stirred tank bioreactor, using SF medium, retained the expression of pluripotency markers such as Oct-4, Nanog, and SSEA-1 and their differentiation potential into cells of the three embryonic germ layers.

  14. Application of multivariate analysis and mass transfer principles for refinement of a 3-L bioreactor scale-down model--when shake flasks mimic 15,000-L bioreactors better.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Sanjeev; Jain, Shilpa; Ram, Kripa

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of manufacturing processes is key to understanding the effects of process parameters on process performance and product quality. These studies are generally conducted using small-scale model systems. Because of the importance of the results derived from these studies, the small-scale model should be predictive of large scale. Typically, small-scale bioreactors, which are considered superior to shake flasks in simulating large-scale bioreactors, are used as the scale-down models for characterizing mammalian cell culture processes. In this article, we describe a case study where a cell culture unit operation in bioreactors using one-sided pH control and their satellites (small-scale runs conducted using the same post-inoculation cultures and nutrient feeds) in 3-L bioreactors and shake flasks indicated that shake flasks mimicked the large-scale performance better than 3-L bioreactors. We detail here how multivariate analysis was used to make the pertinent assessment and to generate the hypothesis for refining the existing 3-L scale-down model. Relevant statistical techniques such as principal component analysis, partial least square, orthogonal partial least square, and discriminant analysis were used to identify the outliers and to determine the discriminatory variables responsible for performance differences at different scales. The resulting analysis, in combination with mass transfer principles, led to the hypothesis that observed similarities between 15,000-L and shake flask runs, and differences between 15,000-L and 3-L runs, were due to pCO2 and pH values. This hypothesis was confirmed by changing the aeration strategy at 3-L scale. By reducing the initial sparge rate in 3-L bioreactor, process performance and product quality data moved closer to that of large scale.

  15. Development, parallelization, and automation of a gas-inducing milliliter-scale bioreactor for high-throughput bioprocess design (HTBD).

    PubMed

    Puskeiler, R; Kaufmann, K; Weuster-Botz, D

    2005-03-01

    A novel milliliter-scale bioreactor equipped with a gas-inducing impeller was developed with oxygen transfer coefficients as high as in laboratory and industrial stirred-tank bioreactors. The bioreactor reaches oxygen transfer coefficients of >0.4 s(-1). Oxygen transfer coefficients of >0.2 s(-1) can be maintained over a range of 8- to 12-mL reaction volume. A reaction block with integrated heat exchangers was developed for 48-mL-scale bioreactors. The block can be closed with a single gas cover spreading sterile process gas from a central inlet into the headspace of all bioreactors. The gas cover simultaneously acts as a sterile barrier, making the reaction block a stand-alone device that represents an alternative to 48 parallel-operated shake flasks on a much smaller footprint. Process control software was developed to control a liquid-handling system for automated sampling, titration of pH, substrate feeding, and a microtiter plate reader for automated atline pH and atline optical density analytics. The liquid-handling parameters for titration agent, feeding solution, and cell samples were optimized to increase data quality. A simple proportional pH-control algorithm and intermittent titration of pH enabled Escherichia coli growth to a dry cell weight of 20.5 g L(-1) in fed-batch cultivation with air aeration. Growth of E. coli at the milliliter scale (10 mL) was shown to be equivalent to laboratory scale (3 L) with regard to growth rate, mu, and biomass yield, Y(XS).

  16. Scale-up and cost evaluation of a foamed emulsion bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kan, E; Deshusses, M A

    2006-06-01

    In the present paper, the potential of the foamed emulsion bioreactor (FEBR), a novel biological reactor for air pollution control was evaluated. Experimental data obtained on a laboratory-scale prototype were used to scale-up the process for a hypothetical case consisting of a contaminated air flow rate of 10,000 m(3) h(-1), a toluene inlet concentration of 1 g m(-3) and minimum required treatment efficiency of 92%. Reactor design and operating issues for the full-scale FEBR were identified. They included the requirement for stable foam generation with appropriate air distributors, and recycling of the auxiliary organic phase, surfactants and cells from the discharge of the reactor. The capital and operating costs for the concept full-scale FEBR were evaluated and compared to those of competing technologies, namely biofiltration, biotrickling filtration and catalytic and thermal oxidation. All three biological techniques had significantly lower capital and operating costs. Among the biological techniques, the FEBR had the lowest estimated capital cost since its greater effectiveness allowed a smaller reactor to meet the treatment objectives. The operating costs for the FEBR were higher than those of biofilters and biotrickling filters because of the requirements for nutrients and auxiliary chemicals. Overall, the results highlight that biotreatment is much more cost effective than thermal and catalytic oxidation. They further suggest that the FEBR may an interesting alternative to biofilters and biotrickling filters where the available space for air pollution control equipment is limited.

  17. Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

  18. Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

  19. Design and operating experiences of full-scale municipal membrane bioreactors in Japan.

    PubMed

    Itokawa, H; Tsuji, K; Yamashita, K; Hashimoto, T

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, membrane bioreactor (MBRs) have been installed in 17 small-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the past 8 years, together with two recently installed MBRs for larger-scale WWTPs. In this study, design and operating data were collected from 17 of them as part of a follow-up survey, and aspects including system design, biological treatment, membrane operation, problems and costs were overviewed. Because most of the MBRs were designed according to standardized guidance, system configuration of the plants was similar; pre-denitrification using the Modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) process with membrane units submerged in aerobic tanks, following a fine screen and flow equalization tank. This led to effluent quality with biochemical oxygen demand and T-N of less than 3.5 and 7.4 mg/L, respectively, for nine plants on an annual average basis. It was a common practice in extremely under-loaded plants to operate the membrane systems intermittently. Frequency of recovery cleaning events was plant-specific, mostly ranging from 1 to 5 times/year. Cost evaluation revealed that specific construction costs for the small-scale MBRs were no more than for oxidation ditch plants. Although specific energy consumption values tended to be high in the under-loaded plants, the demonstration MBR, where several energy reducing measures had been incorporated, attained specific energy consumption of 0.39 kWh/m(3) under full-capacity operation.

  20. Full-scale assessment of the nutrient removal capabilities of membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Daigger, Glen T; Crawford, George V; Johnson, Bruce R

    2010-01-01

    Operating results from two full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) practicing biological and chemical phosphorus and biological nitrogen removal to meet stringent effluent nutrient limits are analyzed. Full-scale results and special studies conducted at these facilities resulted in the development of guidelines for the design of MBRs to achieve stringent effluent nutrient concentrations--as low as 0.05 mg/L total phosphorus and 3 mg/L total nitrogen. These guidelines include the following: (1) direct the membrane recirculation flow to the aerobic zone, (2) provide intense mixing at the inlets of the anaerobic and anoxic zones, (3) maintain internal recirculation flowrates to maintain the desired mixed liquor suspended solids distribution, and (4) carefully control supplemental metal salt addition in proportion to the phosphorus remaining after biological removal is complete. Staging the various process zones and providing effective dissolved oxygen control also enhances nutrient removal performance. The results demonstrated that process performance can be characterized by the International Water Association (London, United Kingdom) (IWA) activated sludge model number 2d (ASM2d) and the Water Environment Federation (Alexandria, Virginia) chemical phosphorus removal model. These models subsequently were used to develop unique process configurations that are currently under design and/or construction for several full-scale nutrient removal MBRs. PMID:20942336

  1. Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.

    2002-12-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the dominant method of solid waste disposal in the United States, accounting for about 217 million tons of waste annually (U.S. EPA, 1997) and has more than doubled since 1960. In spite of increasing rates of reuse and recycling, population and economic growth will continue to render landfilling as an important and necessary component of solid waste management. Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works, Division of Integrated Waste Management is demonstrating a new landfill technology called Bioreactor Landfill to better manage solid waste. In a Bioreactor Landfill, controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray-water, etc.) are added and recirculated to increase the moisture content of the waste and improve waste decomposition. As demonstrated in a small-scale demonstration project at the Yolo County Central Landfill in 1995, this process significantly increases the biodegradation rate of waste and thus decreases the waste stabilization and composting time (5 to 10 years) relative to what would occur within a conventional landfill (30 to 50 years or more). When waste decomposes anaerobically (in absence of oxygen), it produces landfill gas (biogas). Biogas is primarily a mixture of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which can be recovered for electricity or other uses. Other benefits of a bioreactor landfill composting operation include increased landfill waste settlement which increases in landfill capacity and life, improved leachate chemistry, possible reduction of landfill post-closure management time, opportunity to explore decomposed waste for landfill mining, and abatement of greenhouse gases through highly efficient methane capture over a much shorter period of time than is typical of waste management through conventional landfilling. This project also investigates the aerobic decomposition of waste of 13,000 tons of waste (2.5 acre) for

  2. The Characterization of Grade PCEA Recycle Graphite Pilot Scale Billets

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Pappano, Peter J

    2010-10-01

    Here we report the physical properties of a series specimens machined from pilot scale (~ 152 mm diameter x ~305 mm length) grade PCEA recycle billets manufactured by GrafTech. The pilot scale billets were processed with increasing amounts of (unirradiated) graphite (from 20% to 100%) introduced to the formulation with the goal of determining if large fractions of recycle graphite have a deleterious effect on properties. The properties determined include Bulk Density, Electrical Resistivity, Elastic (Young s) Modulus, and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion. Although property variations were observed to be correlated with the recycle fraction, the magnitude of the variations was noted to be small.

  3. Production of leucine amino peptidase in lab scale bioreactors using Streptomyces gedanensis.

    PubMed

    Rahulan, Raji; Dhar, Kiran S; Madhavan Nampoothiri, K; Pandey, Ashok

    2011-09-01

    Studies were conducted on the production of leucine amino peptidase (LAP) by Streptomyces gedanensis to ascertain the performance of the process in shake flask, parallel fermenter and 5-L fermenter utilizing soy bean meal as the carbon source. Experiments were conducted to analyze the effects of aeration and agitation rate on cell growth and LAP production. The results unveiled that an agitation rate of 300 rpm, 50% dissolved oxygen (DO) upholding and 0.15 vvm strategies were the optimal for the enzyme production, yielding 22.72 ± 0.11 IU/mL LAP in parallel fermenter which was comparable to flask level (24.65 ± 0.12 IU/mL LAP) fermentation. Further scale-up, in 5-L fermenter showed 50% DO and 1 vvm aeration rate was the best, producing optimum and the production was 20.09 ± 0.06 IU/mL LAP. The information obtained could be useful to design a strategy to improve a large-scale bioreactor cultivation of cells and production of LAP. PMID:21733679

  4. COOLING COIL EFFECTS ON BLENDING IN A PILOT SCALE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

    2010-08-26

    Blending, or mixing, processes in 1.3 million gallon nuclear waste tanks are complicated by the fact that miles of serpentine, vertical, cooling coils are installed in the tanks. As a step toward investigating blending interference due to coils in this type of tank, a 1/10.85 scale tank and pump model were constructed for pilot scale testing. A series of tests were performed in this scaled tank by adding blue dye to visualize blending, and by adding acid or base tracers to solution to quantify the time required to effectively blend the tank contents. The acid and base tests were monitored with pH probes, which were located in the pilot scale tank to ensure that representative samples were obtained. Using the probes, the hydronium ion concentration [H{sup +}] was measured to ensure that a uniform concentration was obtained throughout the tank. As a result of pilot scale testing, a significantly improved understanding of mixing, or blending, in nuclear waste tanks has been achieved. Evaluation of test data showed that cooling coils in the waste tank model increased pilot scale blending times by 200% in the recommended operating range, compared to previous theoretical estimates of a 10-50% increase. Below the planned operating range, pilot scale blending times were increased by as much as 700% in a tank with coils installed. One pump, rather than two or more, was shown to effectively blend the tank contents, and dual pump nozzles installed parallel to the tank wall were shown to provide optimal blending. In short, experimental results varied significantly from expectations.

  5. Reducing aeration energy consumption in a large-scale membrane bioreactor: Process simulation and engineering application.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianyu; Liang, Peng; Yan, Xiaoxu; Zuo, Kuichang; Xiao, Kang; Xia, Junlin; Qiu, Yong; Wu, Qing; Wu, Shijia; Huang, Xia; Qi, Meng; Wen, Xianghua

    2016-04-15

    Reducing the energy consumption of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is highly important for their wider application in wastewater treatment engineering. Of particular significance is reducing aeration in aerobic tanks to reduce the overall energy consumption. This study proposed an in situ ammonia-N-based feedback control strategy for aeration in aerobic tanks; this was tested via model simulation and through a large-scale (50,000 m(3)/d) engineering application. A full-scale MBR model was developed based on the activated sludge model (ASM) and was calibrated to the actual MBR. The aeration control strategy took the form of a two-step cascaded proportion-integration (PI) feedback algorithm. Algorithmic parameters were optimized via model simulation. The strategy achieved real-time adjustment of aeration amounts based on feedback from effluent quality (i.e., ammonia-N). The effectiveness of the strategy was evaluated through both the model platform and the full-scale engineering application. In the former, the aeration flow rate was reduced by 15-20%. In the engineering application, the aeration flow rate was reduced by 20%, and overall specific energy consumption correspondingly reduced by 4% to 0.45 kWh/m(3)-effluent, using the present practice of regulating the angle of guide vanes of fixed-frequency blowers. Potential energy savings are expected to be higher for MBRs with variable-frequency blowers. This study indicated that the ammonia-N-based aeration control strategy holds promise for application in full-scale MBRs.

  6. High cell density cultivation of Rhodococcus opacus for lipid production at a pilot-plant scale.

    PubMed

    Voss, I; Steinbüchel, A

    2001-05-01

    The triacylglycerol (TAG)-accumulating bacterium Rhodococcus opacus strain PD630 was investigated with respect to the fermentative production of TAGs consisting of an unusually high fraction of fatty acids with an odd-number of carbon atoms and unsaturated monoenic fatty acids from sugar beet molasses and sucrose. Fed-batch fermentations were optimized at the 30-1 scale in a stirred tank bioreactor at 30 degrees C using a mineral salts medium, which contained sugar beet molasses and sucrose as sole carbon sources. Approximately 37.5 g cell dry matter (CDM) per liter was the highest cell density that was obtained at that scale with a TAG content in the cells of 52%. This fermentative process was also applied to a 500-1 pilot-plant scale. Cell densities as high as 18.4 g CDM per liter were obtained, and 42% of the sucrose present in the medium was converted into cell mass which consisted of 38.4% TAGs. PMID:11414319

  7. Initial Scale Development: Sample Size for Pilot Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, George A.; Brooks, Gordon P.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot studies are often recommended by scholars and consultants to address a variety of issues, including preliminary scale or instrument development. Specific concerns such as item difficulty, item discrimination, internal consistency, response rates, and parameter estimation in general are all relevant. Unfortunately, there is little discussion…

  8. Advanced Remote Maintenance Design for Pilot-Scale Centrifugal Contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Law; David Meikrantz; Troy Garn; Lawrence Macaluso

    2011-02-01

    Advanced designs of used nuclear fuel recycling processes and radioactive waste treatment processes are expected to include more ambitious goals for aqueous based separations including; higher separations efficiency, high-level waste minimization, and a greater focus on continuous processes to minimize cost and footprint. Therefore, annular centrifugal contactors are destined to play a more important role for such future processing schemes. Pilot-scale testing will be an integral part of development of many of these processes. An advanced design for remote maintenance of pilot-scale centrifugal contactors has been developed and a prototype module fabricated and tested for a commercially available pilot-scale centrifugal contactor (CINC V-02, 5-cm rotor diameter). Advanced design features include air actuated clamps for holding the motor-rotor assembly in place, an integral electrical connection, upper flange o-rings, a welded bottom plate, a lifting bale, and guide pins. These design features will allow for rapid replacement of the motor rotor assembly, which can be accomplished while maintaining process equilibrium. Hydraulic testing of a three-stage prototype unit was also performed to verify that design changes did not impact performance of the centrifugal contactors. Details of the pilot-scale remote maintenance design, results of testing in a remote mockup test facility, and results of hydraulic testing of the advanced design are provided.

  9. A preliminary and qualitative study of resource ratio theory to nitrifying lab-scale bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Micol; Ofiţeru, Irina D; Beneduce, Luciano; Graham, David W; Head, Ian M; Curtis, Thomas P

    2015-05-01

    The incorporation of microbial diversity in design would ideally require predictive theory that would relate operational parameters to the numbers and distribution of taxa. Resource ratio-theory (RRT) might be one such theory. Based on Monod kinetics, it explains diversity in function of resource-ratio and richness. However, to be usable in biological engineered system, the growth parameters of all the bacteria under consideration and the resource supply and diffusion parameters for all the relevant nutrients should be determined. This is challenging, but plausible, at least for low diversity groups with simple resource requirements like the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). One of the major successes of RRT was its ability to explain the 'paradox of enrichment' which states that diversity first increases and then decreases with resource richness. Here, we demonstrate that this pattern can be seen in lab-scale-activated sludge reactors and parallel simulations that incorporate the principles of RRT in a floc-based system. High and low ammonia and oxygen were supplied to continuous flow bioreactors with resource conditions correlating with the composition and diversity of resident AOB communities based on AOB 16S rDNA clone libraries. Neither the experimental work nor the simulations are definitive proof for the application of RRT in this context. However, it is sufficient evidence that such approach might work and justify a more rigorous investigation. PMID:25874592

  10. Changes in bacterial community structure in a full-scale membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kurumi; Tsutsui, Hirofumi; Takada, Kazuki; Hamada, Hiroshi; Sakai, Kousuke; Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Yamashita, Kyoko; Tsuji, Koji; Hashimoto, Toshikazu; Ike, Michihiko

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated changes in the structure and metabolic capabilities of the bacterial community in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal wastewater. Microbial monitoring was also conducted for a parallel-running conventional activated sludge (CAS) process treating the same influent. The mixed-liquor suspended solid concentration in the MBR reached a steady-state on day 73 after the start-up. Then the MBR maintained higher rates of removal of organic compounds and nitrogen than the CAS process did. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that the bacterial community structure in the MBR was similar to that in the CAS process at the start-up, but it became very different from that in the CAS process in the steady state. The bacterial community structure of the MBR continued to change dynamically even after 20 months of the steady-state operation, while that of the CAS process was maintained in a stable condition. By contrast, Biolog assay revealed that the carbon source utilization potential of the MBR resembled that of the CAS process as a whole, although it declined transiently. Overall, the results indicate that the bacterial community of the MBR has flexibility in terms of its phylogenetic structure and metabolic activity to maintain the high wastewater treatment capability.

  11. Characterization of biofouling in a lab-scale forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (FOMBR).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaoyun; Jie, Yap Wei; Loong, Winson Lay Chee; Zhang, Jinsong; Fane, Anthony G; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Rice, Scott A; McDougald, Diane

    2014-07-01

    Forward osmosis membrane bioreactors (FOMBR) provide high quality permeate, however the propensity for membrane biofouling in FOMBRs is unknown. Here, FOMBRs were operated under high and low aeration and the membrane-associated biofilms were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and rRNA gene-tagged pyrosequencing. CLSM images revealed that there was little biofilm formed under high aeration, while thick biofilms were observed on the membranes operated under low aeration. The diversity and richness of bacterial and archaeal communities as assessed by pyrosequencing varied under high and low aeration. The composition of the bacterial suspended sludge communities and the sessile biomass on the membrane surface, as assessed by non-metric multidimensional scaling, was significantly different under high aeration, but was more similar under low aeration. SIMPER analysis indicated that Pseudomonas, Aeromonas and Fluviicola preferentially attached to the membrane. The results presented here provide a comprehensive understanding of membrane biofouling in FOMBRs, which is essential for the development of effective control strategies. PMID:24751548

  12. Characterization of biofouling in a lab-scale forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (FOMBR).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaoyun; Jie, Yap Wei; Loong, Winson Lay Chee; Zhang, Jinsong; Fane, Anthony G; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Rice, Scott A; McDougald, Diane

    2014-07-01

    Forward osmosis membrane bioreactors (FOMBR) provide high quality permeate, however the propensity for membrane biofouling in FOMBRs is unknown. Here, FOMBRs were operated under high and low aeration and the membrane-associated biofilms were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and rRNA gene-tagged pyrosequencing. CLSM images revealed that there was little biofilm formed under high aeration, while thick biofilms were observed on the membranes operated under low aeration. The diversity and richness of bacterial and archaeal communities as assessed by pyrosequencing varied under high and low aeration. The composition of the bacterial suspended sludge communities and the sessile biomass on the membrane surface, as assessed by non-metric multidimensional scaling, was significantly different under high aeration, but was more similar under low aeration. SIMPER analysis indicated that Pseudomonas, Aeromonas and Fluviicola preferentially attached to the membrane. The results presented here provide a comprehensive understanding of membrane biofouling in FOMBRs, which is essential for the development of effective control strategies.

  13. A preliminary and qualitative study of resource ratio theory to nitrifying lab-scale bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Micol; Ofiţeru, Irina D; Beneduce, Luciano; Graham, David W; Head, Ian M; Curtis, Thomas P

    2015-05-01

    The incorporation of microbial diversity in design would ideally require predictive theory that would relate operational parameters to the numbers and distribution of taxa. Resource ratio-theory (RRT) might be one such theory. Based on Monod kinetics, it explains diversity in function of resource-ratio and richness. However, to be usable in biological engineered system, the growth parameters of all the bacteria under consideration and the resource supply and diffusion parameters for all the relevant nutrients should be determined. This is challenging, but plausible, at least for low diversity groups with simple resource requirements like the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). One of the major successes of RRT was its ability to explain the 'paradox of enrichment' which states that diversity first increases and then decreases with resource richness. Here, we demonstrate that this pattern can be seen in lab-scale-activated sludge reactors and parallel simulations that incorporate the principles of RRT in a floc-based system. High and low ammonia and oxygen were supplied to continuous flow bioreactors with resource conditions correlating with the composition and diversity of resident AOB communities based on AOB 16S rDNA clone libraries. Neither the experimental work nor the simulations are definitive proof for the application of RRT in this context. However, it is sufficient evidence that such approach might work and justify a more rigorous investigation.

  14. Symbiotic relationship analysis of predominant bacteria in a lab-scale anammox UASB bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujia; Hu, Xiaomin; Jiang, Binhui; Song, Zhenhui; Ma, Yongguang

    2016-04-01

    In order to provide the comprehensive insight into the key microbial groups in anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process, high-throughput sequencing analysis has been used for the investigation of the bacterial communities of a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) anammox bioreactor. Results revealed that 109 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; out of 14,820 reads) were identified and a domination of anammox bacteria of Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis (OTU474, 35.42 %), along with heterotrophs of Limnobacter sp. MED105 (OTU951, 14.98 %), Anerolinea thermophila UNI-1 (OTU465 and OTU833, 6.60 and 3.93 %), Azoarcus sp. B72 (OTU26, 9.47 %), and Ignavibacterium sp. JCM 16511 (OTU459, 8.33 %) were detected. Metabolic pathway analysis showed that Candidatus K. stuttgartiensis encountered gene defect in synthesizing a series of metabolic cofactors for growth, implying that K. stuttgartiensis is auxotrophic. Coincidentally, the other dominant species severally showed complete metabolic pathways with full set gene encoding to corresponding cofactors presented in the surrounding environment. Furthermore, it was likely that the survival of heterotrophs in the autotrophic system indicates the existence of a symbiotic and mutual relationship in anammox system. PMID:26739990

  15. A preliminary and qualitative study of resource ratio theory to nitrifying lab-scale bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Bellucci, Micol; Ofiţeru, Irina D; Beneduce, Luciano; Graham, David W; Head, Ian M; Curtis, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of microbial diversity in design would ideally require predictive theory that would relate operational parameters to the numbers and distribution of taxa. Resource ratio-theory (RRT) might be one such theory. Based on Monod kinetics, it explains diversity in function of resource-ratio and richness. However, to be usable in biological engineered system, the growth parameters of all the bacteria under consideration and the resource supply and diffusion parameters for all the relevant nutrients should be determined. This is challenging, but plausible, at least for low diversity groups with simple resource requirements like the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). One of the major successes of RRT was its ability to explain the ‘paradox of enrichment’ which states that diversity first increases and then decreases with resource richness. Here, we demonstrate that this pattern can be seen in lab-scale-activated sludge reactors and parallel simulations that incorporate the principles of RRT in a floc-based system. High and low ammonia and oxygen were supplied to continuous flow bioreactors with resource conditions correlating with the composition and diversity of resident AOB communities based on AOB 16S rDNA clone libraries. Neither the experimental work nor the simulations are definitive proof for the application of RRT in this context. However, it is sufficient evidence that such approach might work and justify a more rigorous investigation. PMID:25874592

  16. Biogeochemistry of a Field-Scale Sulfate Reducing Bioreactor Treating Mining Influenced Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drennan, D.; Lee, I.; Landkamer, L.; Figueroa, L. A.; Webb, S.; Sharp, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    Acidity, metal release, and toxicity may be environmental health concerns in areas influenced by mining. Mining influenced waters (MIW) can be remediated through the establishment of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors (SRBRs) as part of engineered passive treatment systems. The objective of our research is an enhanced understanding of the biogeochemistry in SRBRs by combining molecular biological and geochemical techniques. Bioreactor reactive substrate, settling pond water, and effluent (from the SRBR) were collected from a field scale SRBR in Arizona, which has been in operation for approximately 3 years. Schematically, the water passes through the SRBR; combines with flow that bypasses the SRBR into the and goes into the mixing pond, and finally is released as effluent to aerobic polishing cells. High throughput sequencing of extracted DNA revealed that Proteobacteria dominated the reactive substrate (61%), settling pond (93%), and effluent (50%), with the next most abundant phylum in all samples (excluding uncultured organisms) being Bacteriodes (1-17%). However, at the superclass level, the three samples were more variable. Gammaproteobacteria dominated the reactive substrate (35%), Betaproteobacteria in the settling pond (63%) and finally the effluent was dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria (Helicobacteraceae) (43%). Diversity was most pronounced in association with the reactor matrix, and least diverse in the settling pond. Putative functional analysis revealed a modest presence of sulfate/sulfur reducing bacteria (SRB) (>5%) in both the matrix and settling pond but a much higher abundance (43%) of sulfur reducing bacteria in the effluent. Interestingly this effluent population was composed entirely of the family Helicobacteraceae (sulfur reduction II via polysulfide pathway). Other putative functions of interest include metal reduction in the matrix (3%) and effluent (3%), as well as polysaccharide degradation, which was largely abundant in all samples (21

  17. Oxygen mass transfer and scale-up studies in baffled roller bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Nikakhtari, H; Song, W; Nemati, M; Hill, G A

    2014-02-01

    Oxygen mass transfer was studied in conventional, bead mill and baffled roller bioreactors. Using central composite rotational design, impacts of size, rotation speed and working volume on the oxygen mass transfer were evaluated. Baffled roller bioreactor outperformed its conventional and bead mill counterparts, with the highest k(L)a obtained in these configurations being 0.58, 0.19, 0.41 min(-1), respectively. Performances of the bead mill and baffled roller bioreactor were only comparable when a high bead loading (40%) was applied. Regardless of configuration increase in rotation speed and decrease in working volume improved the oxygen mass transfer rate. Increase in size led to enhanced mass transfer and higher k(L)a in baffled roller bioreactor (0.49 min(-1) for 2.2 L and 1.31 min(-1) for 55 L bioreactors). Finally, the experimentally determined k(L)a in the baffled roller bioreactors of different sizes fit reasonably well to an empirical correlation describing the k(L)a in terms of dimensionless numbers.

  18. Artificial neural network based modeling to evaluate methane yield from biogas in a laboratory-scale anaerobic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Nair, Vijay V; Dhar, Hiya; Kumar, Sunil; Thalla, Arun Kumar; Mukherjee, Somnath; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-10-01

    The performance of a laboratory-scale anaerobic bioreactor was investigated in the present study to determine methane (CH4) content in biogas yield from digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). OFMSW consists of food waste, vegetable waste and yard trimming. An organic loading between 40 and 120kgVS/m(3) was applied in different runs of the bioreactor. The study was aimed to focus on the effects of various factors, such as pH, moisture content (MC), total volatile solids (TVS), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and CH4 fraction on biogas production. OFMSW witnessed high CH4 yield as 346.65LCH4/kgVS added. A target of 60-70% of CH4 fraction in biogas was set as an optimized condition. The experimental results were statistically optimized by application of ANN model using free forward back propagation in MATLAB environment. PMID:27005793

  19. Scaled-up manufacturing of recombinant antibodies produced by plant cells in a 200-L orbitally-shaken disposable bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Raven, Nicole; Rasche, Stefan; Kuehn, Christoph; Anderlei, Tibor; Klöckner, Wolf; Schuster, Flora; Henquet, Maurice; Bosch, Dirk; Büchs, Jochen; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Tobacco BY-2 cells have emerged as a promising platform for the manufacture of biopharmaceutical proteins, offering efficient protein secretion, favourable growth characteristics and cultivation in containment under a controlled environment. The cultivation of BY-2 cells in disposable bioreactors is a useful alternative to conventional stainless steel stirred-tank reactors, and orbitally-shaken bioreactors could provide further advantages such as simple bag geometry, scalability and predictable process settings. We carried out a scale-up study, using a 200-L orbitally-shaken bioreactor holding disposable bags, and BY-2 cells producing the human monoclonal antibody M12. We found that cell growth and recombinant protein accumulation were comparable to standard shake flask cultivation, despite a 200-fold difference in cultivation volume. Final cell fresh weights of 300-387 g/L and M12 yields of ∼20 mg/L were achieved with both cultivation methods. Furthermore, we established an efficient downstream process for the recovery of M12 from the culture broth. The viscous spent medium prevented clarification using filtration devices, but we used expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography with SP Sepharose as an alternative for the efficient capture of the M12 antibody. EBA was introduced as an initial purification step prior to protein A affinity chromatography, resulting in an overall M12 recovery of 75-85% and a purity of >95%. Our results demonstrate the suitability of orbitally-shaken bioreactors for the scaled-up cultivation of plant cell suspension cultures and provide a strategy for the efficient purification of antibodies from the BY-2 culture medium.

  20. Laboratory to pilot scale: Microwave extraction for polyphenols lettuce.

    PubMed

    Périno, Sandrine; Pierson, Jean T; Ruiz, Karine; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2016-08-01

    Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) technique has been applied to pilot-scale solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) of polyphenols from Lettuce sativa. Following the dictates of green extraction and with the aim to save time and energy, the lab-scale knowledge on SFME was exploited for the development of a pilot-scale process. The investigation entailed the optimization of all main parameters (temperature, time, extracted water volume, etc.) and we showed that the polyphenols composition profile under SFME was similar to the classic methods though a bit lower in total content. The energy consumption in the optimized procedure (30min) was 1W/g of fresh matrix. PMID:26988482

  1. Effect of ambient light on monoclonal antibody product quality during small-scale mammalian cell culture process in clear glass bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mallaney, Mary; Wang, Szu-Han; Sreedhara, Alavattam

    2014-01-01

    During a small-scale cell culture process producing a monoclonal antibody, a larger than expected difference was observed in the charge variants profile of the harvested cell culture fluid (HCCF) between the 2 L and larger scales (e.g., 400 L and 12 kL). Small-scale studies performed at the 2 L scale consistently showed an increase in acidic species when compared with the material made at larger scale. Since the 2 L bioreactors were made of clear transparent glass while the larger scale reactors are made of stainless steel, the effect of ambient laboratory light on cell culture process in 2 L bioreactors as well as handling the HCCF was carefully evaluated. Photoreactions in the 2 L glass bioreactors including light mediated increase in acidic variants in HCCF and formulation buffers were identified and carefully analyzed. While the acidic variants comprised of a mixture of sialylated, reduced disulfide, crosslinked (nonreducible), glycated, and deamidated forms, an increase in the nonreducible forms, deamidation and Met oxidation was predominantly observed under light stress. The monoclonal antibody produced in glass bioreactors that were protected from light behaved similar to the one produced in the larger scale. Our data clearly indicate that care should be taken when glass bioreactors are used in cell culture studies during monoclonal antibody production.

  2. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1994-06-01

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME`s) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (HEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These fiberglass filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these filters will be dissolved in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The contaminated fiberglass is converted to an aqueous stream which will be transferred to the waste tanks. The filter metal structure will be rinsed with process water before its disposal as low-level solid waste. The pilot-scale study reported here successfully demonstrated a simple one step process using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The proposed process requires the installation of a new water spray ring with 30 nozzles. In addition to the reduced waste generated, the total process time is reduced to 48 hours only (66% saving in time). The pilot-scale tests clearly demonstrated that the dissolution process of HEMEs has two stages - chemical digestion of the filter and mechanical erosion of the digested filter. The digestion is achieved by a boiling 5 wt% caustic solutions, whereas the mechanical break down of the digested filter is successfully achieved by spraying process water on the digested filter. An alternate method of breaking down the digested filter by increased air sparging of the solution was found to be marginally successful are best. The pilot-scale tests also demonstrated that the products of dissolution are easily pumpable by a centrifugal pump.

  3. Model-based energy optimisation of a small-scale decentralised membrane bioreactor for urban reuse.

    PubMed

    Verrecht, Bart; Maere, Thomas; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Nopens, Ingmar; Judd, Simon

    2010-07-01

    The energy consumption of a small-scale membrane bioreactor, treating high strength domestic wastewater for community level wastewater recycling, has been optimised using a dynamic model of the plant. ASM2d was chosen as biological process model to account for the presence of phosphate accumulating organisms. A tracer test was carried out to determine the hydraulic behaviour of the plant. To realistically simulate the aeration demand, a dedicated aeration model was used incorporating the dependency of the oxygen transfer on the mixed liquor concentration and allowing differentiation between coarse and fine bubble aeration, both typically present in MBRs. A steady state and dynamic calibration was performed, and the calibrated model was able to predict effluent nutrient concentrations and MLSS concentrations accurately. A scenario analysis (SCA) was carried out using the calibrated model to simulate the effect of varying SRT, recirculation ratio and DO set point on effluent quality, MLSS concentrations and aeration demand. Linking the model output with empirically derived correlations for energy consumption allowed an accurate prediction of the energy consumption. The SCA results showed that decreasing membrane aeration and SRT were most beneficial towards total energy consumption, while increasing the recirculation flow led to improved TN removal but at the same time also deterioration in TP removal. A validation of the model was performed by effectively applying better operational parameters to the plant. This resulted in a reduction in energy consumption by 23% without compromising effluent quality, as was accurately predicted by the model. This modelling approach thus allows the operating envelope to be reliably identified for meeting criteria based on energy demand and specific water quality determinants.

  4. Assessment of energy-saving strategies and operational costs in full-scale membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gabarrón, S; Ferrero, G; Dalmau, M; Comas, J; Rodriguez-Roda, I

    2014-02-15

    The energy-saving strategies and operational costs of stand-alone, hybrid, and dual stream full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with capacities ranging from 1100 to 35,000 m(3) day(-1) have been assessed for seven municipal facilities located in Northeast Spain. Although hydraulic load was found to be the main determinant factor for the energy consumption rates, several optimisation strategies have shown to be effective in terms of energy reduction as well as fouling phenomenon minimization or preservation. Specifically, modifications of the biological process (installation of control systems for biological aeration) and of the filtration process (reduction of the flux or mixed liquor suspended solids concentration and installation of control systems for membrane air scouring) were applied in two stand-alone MBRs. After implementing these strategies, the yearly specific energy demand (SED) in flat-sheet (FS) and hollow-fibre (HF) stand-alone MBRs was reduced from 1.12 to 0.71 and from 1.54 to 1.12 kW h(-1) m(-3), respectively, regardless of their similar yearly averaged hydraulic loads. The strategies applied in the hybrid MBR, namely, buffering the influent flow and optimisation of both biological aeration and membrane air-scouring, reduced the SED values by 14%. These results illustrate that it is possible to apply energy-saving strategies to significantly reduce MBR operational costs, highlighting the need to optimise MBR facilities to reconsider them as an energy-competitive option.

  5. Assessment of energy-saving strategies and operational costs in full-scale membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gabarrón, S; Ferrero, G; Dalmau, M; Comas, J; Rodriguez-Roda, I

    2014-02-15

    The energy-saving strategies and operational costs of stand-alone, hybrid, and dual stream full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with capacities ranging from 1100 to 35,000 m(3) day(-1) have been assessed for seven municipal facilities located in Northeast Spain. Although hydraulic load was found to be the main determinant factor for the energy consumption rates, several optimisation strategies have shown to be effective in terms of energy reduction as well as fouling phenomenon minimization or preservation. Specifically, modifications of the biological process (installation of control systems for biological aeration) and of the filtration process (reduction of the flux or mixed liquor suspended solids concentration and installation of control systems for membrane air scouring) were applied in two stand-alone MBRs. After implementing these strategies, the yearly specific energy demand (SED) in flat-sheet (FS) and hollow-fibre (HF) stand-alone MBRs was reduced from 1.12 to 0.71 and from 1.54 to 1.12 kW h(-1) m(-3), respectively, regardless of their similar yearly averaged hydraulic loads. The strategies applied in the hybrid MBR, namely, buffering the influent flow and optimisation of both biological aeration and membrane air-scouring, reduced the SED values by 14%. These results illustrate that it is possible to apply energy-saving strategies to significantly reduce MBR operational costs, highlighting the need to optimise MBR facilities to reconsider them as an energy-competitive option. PMID:24463730

  6. Mathematical modeling of ultrasound in tissue engineering: From bioreactors to the cellular scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louw, Tobias M.

    Tissue engineering seeks to provide a means to treat injuries that are beyond the body's natural ability to repair without the issues associated with allografts. Autologous cells are cultured in a bioreactor which controls the cellular environment (including mechanical stimulation) for optimal tissue growth. We investigate ultrasound as an effective means of mechanical stimulation by predicting the ultrasonic field in a bioreactor, as well as ultrasonic bioeffects at the cellular level. The Transfer Matrix Angular Spectrum Approach was found to be the most accurate and computationally efficient bioreactor model. Three critical factors influence experimental results: (1) the diameter of the tissue engineering scaffold greatly affects the ultrasonic field; (2) the position of the ultrasonic transducer and liquid level in the tissue culture well determines the maximum pressure amplitude in the bioreactor, but the pressure can be controlled by measuring the transducer input electrical impedance and manipulating the applied voltage; and (3) the position of pressure nodes are influenced by ultrasonic frequency and liquid level; this will affect the response of cells to applied ultrasound. On the cellular level, it was shown that chondrocytes respond to ultrasound with frequency dependence. A predicted resonance frequency near 5MHz matched experimental results showing maximum expression of load inducible genes at 5MHz. Mechanical stresses are concentrated near the nucleus at resonance, alluding to the possibility that the nucleus may directly sense ultrasonic stimulation. We postulate that ultrasound influences the transport of p-ERK to the nucleus or causes minor chromatin reorganization, leading to the observed frequency dependent gene expression. We linked in vitro ultrasonic stimulation to in vivo mechanical stimulation generated by natural movement. The chondrocyte's response to impact is under-damped, and the cell oscillates with a frequency close to the model

  7. Pilot scale fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber pulp mashes

    SciTech Connect

    Ziobro, G.C.; Williams, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Processing and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber pulp mashes were successfully carried out at pilot scales of 60 gallons and 1000 gallons. Whole tubers were pulped mechanically into a thick mash and fermented, using commercially available Saccharomyces cerevisiae and selected strains of Kluyveromyces fragilis. EtOH fermentation yields ranging from 50-70% of theoretical maximum were obtained in 3-4 days. Several problems regarding the processing and direct fermentation of tuber pulp mashes are discussed.

  8. Application of high-throughput mini-bioreactor system for systematic scale-down modeling, process characterization, and control strategy development.

    PubMed

    Janakiraman, Vijay; Kwiatkowski, Chris; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput systems and processes have typically been targeted for process development and optimization in the bioprocessing industry. For process characterization, bench scale bioreactors have been the system of choice. Due to the need for performing different process conditions for multiple process parameters, the process characterization studies typically span several months and are considered time and resource intensive. In this study, we have shown the application of a high-throughput mini-bioreactor system viz. the Advanced Microscale Bioreactor (ambr15(TM) ), to perform process characterization in less than a month and develop an input control strategy. As a pre-requisite to process characterization, a scale-down model was first developed in the ambr system (15 mL) using statistical multivariate analysis techniques that showed comparability with both manufacturing scale (15,000 L) and bench scale (5 L). Volumetric sparge rates were matched between ambr and manufacturing scale, and the ambr process matched the pCO2 profiles as well as several other process and product quality parameters. The scale-down model was used to perform the process characterization DoE study and product quality results were generated. Upon comparison with DoE data from the bench scale bioreactors, similar effects of process parameters on process yield and product quality were identified between the two systems. We used the ambr data for setting action limits for the critical controlled parameters (CCPs), which were comparable to those from bench scale bioreactor data. In other words, the current work shows that the ambr15(TM) system is capable of replacing the bench scale bioreactor system for routine process development and process characterization.

  9. Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria Community Dynamics in a Pilot-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohui; Wen, Xianghua; Xia, Yu; Hu, Ma; Zhao, Fang; Ding, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Background Chemoautotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have the metabolic ability to oxidize ammonia to nitrite aerobically. This metabolic feature has been widely used, in combination with denitrification, to remove nitrogen from wastewater in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, the relative influence of specific deterministic environmental factors to AOB community dynamics in WWTP is uncertain. The ecological principles underlying AOB community dynamics and nitrification stability and how they are related are also poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings The community dynamics of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in a pilot-scale WWTP were monitored over a one-year period by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). During the study period, the effluent ammonia concentrations were almost below 2 mg/L, except for the first 60 days, indicting stable nitrification. T-RFLP results showed that, during the test period with stable nitrification, the AOB community structures were not stable, and the average change rate (every 15 days) of AOB community structures was 10%±8%. The correlations between T-RFLP profiles and 10 operational and environmental parameters were tested by Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and Mantel test. The results indicated that the dynamics of AOB community correlated most strongly with Dissolved Oxygen (DO), effluent ammonia, effluent Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and temperature. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that nitrification stability is not necessarily accompanied by a stable AOB community, and provides insight into parameters controlling the AOB community dynamics within bioreactors with stable nitrification. PMID:22558415

  10. Configuration of bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Martens, Dirk E; van den End, Evert J; Streefland, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Lab-scale stirred-tank bioreactors (0.2-20 l) are used for fundamental research on animal cells and in process development and troubleshooting for large-scale production. In this chapter, different configurations of bioreactor systems are shortly discussed and setting up these different configurations is described. In addition, online measurement and control of bioreactor parameters is described, with special attention to controller settings (PID) and online measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Finally, methods for determining the oxygen transfer coefficient are described.

  11. Pilot system development in metre-scale laboratory discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochkin, Pavlo; Lehtinen, Nikolai; van Deursen, Alexander (Lex P. J.; Østgaard, Nikolai

    2016-10-01

    The pilot system development in metre-scale negative laboratory discharges is studied with ns-fast photography. The systems appear as bipolar structures in the vicinity of the negative high-voltage electrode. They appear as a result of a single negative streamer propagation and determine further discharge development. Such systems possess features like glowing beads, bipolarity, different brightness of the top and bottom parts, and mutual reconnection. A 1D model of the ionization evolution in the spark gap is proposed. In the process of the nonlinear development of ionization growth, the model shows features similar to those observed. The visual similarities between high-altitude sprites and laboratory pilots are striking and may indicate that they are two manifestations of the same natural phenomenon.

  12. Scale-up considerations: Pilot to commercial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisiger, Dan

    1996-01-01

    The success of Photovoltaic (PV) technology as a viable business enterprise depends largely on its ability to provide a competitive advantage over other current energy technologies in meeting the customers' needs. Successful commercialization of the PV technology, therefore requires, in part, an efficient and effective manufacturing strategy in order to ensure a superior quality, low cost product. Several key design considerations for process scale-up were examined associated with GPI's PV module manufacturing expansion project completed in Spring, 1994. Particular emphasis was given to product specification, process specification, process engineering design, site location selection, environmental/health/safety (EHS) factors, and plant maintenance.

  13. A xenogeneic-free bioreactor system for the clinical-scale expansion of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Francisco; Campbell, Andrew; Fernandes-Platzgummer, Ana; Andrade, Pedro Z; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Wen, Yuan; Boucher, Shayne; Vemuri, Mohan C; da Silva, Cláudia L; Cabral, Joaquim M S

    2014-06-01

    The large cell doses (>1 × 10(6)  cells/kg) used in clinical trials with mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) will require an efficient production process. Moreover, monitoring and control of MSC ex-vivo expansion is critical to provide a safe and reliable cell product. Bioprocess engineering approaches, such as bioreactor technology, offer the adequate tools to develop and optimize a cost-effective culture system for the rapid expansion of human MSC for cellular therapy. Herein, a xenogeneic (xeno)-free microcarrier-based culture system was successfully established for bone marrow (BM) MSC and adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cell (ASC) cultivation using a 1L-scale controlled stirred-tank bioreactor, allowing the production of (1.1 ± 0.1) × 10(8) and (4.5 ± 0.2) × 10(7) cells for BM MSC and ASC, respectively, after 7 days. Additionally, the effect of different percent air saturation values (%Airsat ) and feeding regime on the proliferation and metabolism of BM MSC was evaluated. No significant differences in cell growth and metabolic patterns were observed under 20% and 9%Airsat . Also, the three different feeding regimes studied-(i) 25% daily medium renewal, (ii) 25% medium renewal every 2 days, and (iii) fed-batch addition of concentrated nutrients and growth factors every 2 days-yielded similar cell numbers, and only slight metabolic differences were observed. Moreover, the immunophenotype (positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105 and negative for CD31, CD80 and HLA-DR) and multilineage differentiative potential of expanded cells were not affected upon bioreactor culture. These results demonstrated the feasibility of expanding human MSC from different sources in a clinically relevant expansion configuration in a controlled microcarrier-based stirred culture system under xeno-free conditions. The further optimization of this bioreactor culture system will represent a crucial step towards an efficient GMP-compliant clinical-scale MSC

  14. Performance characterization of a laboratory-scale bioreactor with liquid suspensions of Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, D.J.; Morse, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) was degraded in a single-stage, continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) bioreactor containing pure cultures of liquid-dispersed Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134. Phenol was supplied as the sole source of carbon and energy for induction of catabolic activities. Operating conditions were varied in a series of randomly ordered experiments. The independent variables were influent TCE concentration, influent phenol concentration, and hydraulic residence time. The dependent variable was the percent on influent TCE degraded or degradation efficiency. The highest degradation efficiency observed was 98.6%. An empirical equation was fitted to the data in the form of degradation efficiency as a function of the three independent variables. A close match was achieved between the equation and the data. This equation is valid only where the phenol was oxidized below the level of detection in the effluent (150 {mu}g/L). This equation is useful for bioreactor design and operation. Hydraulic residence time was noted to have a relatively small effect on degradation efficiency. Phenol and TCE were competitive, as expected in a cometabolism system. The implication for bioreactor operation is that phenol levels must be closely matched to TCE levels for optimum performance. 30 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Exfiltration from gravity sewers: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Vollertsen, J; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T

    2003-01-01

    Pilot-scale experiments were conducted on exfiltration of wastewater from gravity sewers. The effect of storm events, flushing of pipes and alternating infiltration/exfiltration were simulated. Exfiltration through different types of sewer leaks and into different soils were studied. It was found that the exfiltration rate became constant after some days of exfiltration. It stayed constant for the duration of the experiments, which typically spanned over some weeks. The exfiltration was governed by the development of a clogging zone at the sewer leak and could be characterized by a leakage factor. The leakage factor may then be used to estimate the risk of groundwater pollution from a sewer network.

  16. Remediation of antimony-rich mine waters: Assessment of antimony removal and shifts in the microbial community of an onsite field-scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weimin; Xiao, Enzong; Kalin, Margarete; Krumins, Valdis; Dong, Yiran; Ning, Zengping; Liu, Tong; Sun, Min; Zhao, Yanlong; Wu, Shiliang; Mao, Jianzhong; Xiao, Tangfu

    2016-08-01

    An on-site field-scale bioreactor for passive treatment of antimony (Sb) contamination was installed downstream of an active Sb mine in Southwest China, and operated for one year (including a six month monitoring period). This bioreactor consisted of five treatment units, including one pre-aerobic cell, two aerobic cells, and two microaerobic cells. With the aerobic cells inoculated with indigenous mine water microflora, the bioreactor removed more than 90% of total soluble Sb and 80% of soluble antimonite (Sb(III)). An increase in pH and decrease of oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) was also observed along the flow direction. High-throughput sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene variable (V4) region revealed that taxonomically diverse microbial communities developed in the bioreactor. Metal (loid)-oxidizing bacteria including Ferrovum, Thiomonas, Gallionella, and Leptospirillum, were highly enriched in the bioreactor cells where the highest total Sb and Sb(III) removal occurred. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that a suite of in situ physicochemical parameters including pH and Eh were substantially correlated with the overall microbial communities. Based on an UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) tree and PCoA (Principal Coordinates Analysis), the microbial composition of each cell was distinct, indicating these in situ physicochemical parameters had an effect in shaping the indigenous microbial communities. Overall, this study was the first to employ a field-scale bioreactor to treat Sb-rich mine water onsite and, moreover, the findings suggest the feasibility of the bioreactor in removing elevated Sb from mine waters. PMID:27208755

  17. Empirical correlation of volumetric mass transfer coefficient for a rectangular internal-loop airlift bioreactor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An empirical correlation of volumetric mass transfer coefficient was developed for a pilot scale internal-loop rectangular airlift bioreactor that was designed for biotechnology. The empirical correlation combines classic turbulence theory, Kolmogorov’s isotropic turbulence theory with Higbie’s pen...

  18. MTBE BIODEGRADATION IN A GRAVITY FLOW, HIGH-BIOMASS RETAINING BIOREACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE), a widely used fuel oxygenate, was investigated using a pilot-scale biomass-retaining bioreactor called a Biomass Concentrator Reactor (BCR). The reactor was operated for a year at a flow rate of 2500 L/d on Ci...

  19. Continuous, packed-bed, enzymatic bioreactor production and stability of feruloyl soy glycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of feruloyl soy glycerides was demonstrated on a pilot-scale (1 metric ton/year) in a continuous, four-column series, packed-bed, enzymatic bioreactor. Ethyl ferulate and soybean oil were combined and converted at 3.5 kg/d over Candida antartica lipase B immobilized on an acrylic rein ...

  20. Bioreactor and process design for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. It has the potential for renewable biofuel to replace current hydrogen production which rely heavily on fossil fuels. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of advances in bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. The state-of-the art of biohydrogen production is discussed emphasizing on production pathways, factors affecting biohydrogen production, as well as bioreactor configuration and operation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined.

  1. Bioreactor and process design for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. It has the potential for renewable biofuel to replace current hydrogen production which rely heavily on fossil fuels. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of advances in bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. The state-of-the art of biohydrogen production is discussed emphasizing on production pathways, factors affecting biohydrogen production, as well as bioreactor configuration and operation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined. PMID:21624834

  2. Small-Scale Perfusion Bioreactor of Red Blood Cells for Dynamic Studies of Cellular Pathways: Proof-of-Concept

    PubMed Central

    Prudent, Michel; Stauber, Frédéric; Rapin, Alexis; Hallen, Sonia; Pham, Nicole; Abonnenc, Mélanie; Marvin, Laure; Rochat, Bertrand; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Lion, Niels

    2016-01-01

    To date, the development of bioreactors for the study of red blood cells (RBCs, daily transfused in the case of disease or hemorrhage) has focused on hematopoietic stem cells. Despite the fact that mature RBCs are enucleated and do not expand, they possess complex cellular and metabolic pathways, as well as post-translation modification signaling and gas-exchange regulation. In order to dynamically study the behavior of RBCs and their signaling pathways under various conditions, a small-scale perfusion bioreactor has been developed. The most advanced design developed here consists of a fluidized bed of 7.6 mL containing 3·109 cells and perfused at 8.5 μL/min. Mimicking RBC storage conditions in transfusion medicine, as a proof-of-concept, we investigated the ex vivo aging of RBCs under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Hence, RBCs stored in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) were injected in parallel into two bioreactors and perfused with a modified SAGM solution over 14 days at room temperature under air or argon. The formation of a fluidized bed enabled easy sampling of the extracellular medium over the storage period used for the quantitation of glucose consumption and lactate production. Hemolysis and microvesiculation increased during aging and were reduced under anaerobic (argon) conditions, which is consistent with previously reported findings. Glucose and lactate levels showed expected trends, i.e., decreased and increased during the 2-week period, respectively; whereas extracellular glucose consumption was higher under aerobic conditions. Metabolomics showed depletion of glycolsis and pentose phosphate pathway metabolites, and an accumulation of purine metabolite end-products. This novel approach, which takes advantage of a fluidized bed of cells in comparison to traditional closed bags or tubes, does not require agitation and limit shear stress, and constantly segragates extracellular medium from RBCs. It thus gives access to several difficult

  3. A pilot-scale continuous-jet hydrate reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Szymcek, Phillip; McCallum, Scott; Taboada Serrano, Patricia L; Tsouris, Costas

    2008-01-01

    A three-phase, pilot-scale continuous-jet hydrate reactor (CJHR) has been developed for the production of gas hydrates. The reactor receives water and a hydrate-forming species to produce the solid gas hydrate. The CJHR has been tested for the production of CO{sub 2} hydrate for the purpose of ocean carbon sequestration. Formation of CO{sub 2} hydrate was investigated using various reactor/injector designs in a 72-l high-pressure vessel. Designs of the CJHR varied from single-capillary to multiple-capillary injectors that dispersed (1) liquid CO{sub 2} into water or (2) water into liquid CO{sub 2}. The novel injector is designed to improve the dispersion of one reactant into the other and, thus, eliminate mass transfer barriers that negatively affect conversion. An additional goal was an increase in production rates of two orders of magnitude. The designed injectors were tested in both distilled and saline water. Hydrate production experiments were conducted at different CO{sub 2} and water flow rates and for pressures and temperatures equivalent to intermediate ocean depths (1100-1700 m). The pilot-scale reactor with the novel injection system successfully increased hydrate production rates and efficiency.

  4. Kinetic modeling and scale up of lipoic acid (LA) production from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a stirred tank bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Jayakar, Shilpa S; Singhal, Rekha S

    2013-08-01

    Scale up studies for production of lipoic acid (LA) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been reported in this paper for the first time. LA production in batch mode was carried out in a stirred tank bioreactor at varying agitation and aeration with maximum LA production of 512 mg/L obtained at 350 rpm and 25 % dissolved oxygen in batch culture conditions. Thus, LA production increased from 352 mg/L in shake flask to 512 mg/L in batch mode in a 5 L stirred tank bioreactor. Biomass production under these conditions was mathematically explained using logistic equation and data obtained for LA production and substrate utilization were successfully fitted using Luedeking-Piret and Mercier's models. The kinetic studies showed LA production to be growth associated. Further enhancement of LA production was carried out using fed-batch (variable volume) and semi-continuous modes of fermentation. Semi-continuous fermentation with three feeding cycles of sucrose effectively increased the production of LA from 512 to 725 mg/L.

  5. Modeling energy consumption in membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment in north Africa.

    PubMed

    Skouterisl, George; Arnot, Tom C; Jraou, Mouna; Feki, Firas; Sayadi, Sami

    2014-03-01

    Two pilot-scale membrane bioreactors were operated alongside a full-sized activated sludge plant in Tunisia in order to compare specific energy demand and treated water quality. Energy consumption rates were measured for the complete membrane bioreactor systems and for their different components. Specific energy demand was measured for the systems and compared with the activated sludge plant, which operated at around 3 kWh m(-3). A model was developed for each membrane bioreactor based on both dynamic and steady-state mass balances, microbial kinetics and stoichiometry, and energy balance. Energy consumption was evaluated as a function of mixed-liquor suspended solids concentration, net permeate fluxes, and the resultant treated water quality. This work demonstrates the potential for using membrane bioreactors in decentralised domestic water treatment in North Africa, at energy consumption levels similar or lower than conventional activated sludge systems, with the added benefit of producing treated water suitable for unrestricted crop irrigation.

  6. Investigation on laboratory and pilot-scale airlift sulfide oxidation reactor under varying sulfide loading rate.

    PubMed

    Pokasoowan, Chanya; Kanitchaidecha, Wilawan; K C, Bal Krishna; Annachhatre, Ajit P

    2009-01-01

    Airlift bioreactor was established for recovering sulfur from synthetic sulfide wastewater under controlled dissolved oxygen condition. The maximum recovered sulfur was 14.49 g/day when sulfide loading rate, dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH values were 2.97 kgHS(-)/m(3)-day, 0.2-1.0 mg/L and 7.2-7.8, respectively. On the other hand, the increase in recovered sulfur reduced the contact surface of sulfide oxidizing bacteria which affects the recovery process. This effect caused to reduce the conversion of sulfide to sulfur. More recovered sulfur was produced at high sulfide loading rate due to the change of metabolic pathway of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria which prevented the toxicity of sulfide in the culture. The maximum activity in this system was recorded to be about 3.28 kgS/kgVSS-day. The recovered sulfur contained organic compounds which were confirmed by the results from XRD and CHN analyzer. Afterwards, by annealing the recovered sulfur at 120 degrees C for 24 hrs under ambient Argon, the percentage of carbon reduced from 4.44% to 0.30%. Furthermore, the percentage of nitrogen and hydrogen decreased from 0.79% and 0.48% to 0.00% and 0.14%, respectively. This result showed the success in increasing the purity of recovered sulfur by using the annealing technique. The pilot-scale biological sulfide oxidation process was carried out using real wastewater from Thai Rayon Industry in Thailand. The airlift reactor successfully removed sulfide more than 90% of the influent sulfide at DO concentration of less than 0.1 mg/L, whereas the elementary sulfur production was 2.37 kgS/m(3)-day at sulfide loading rate of 2.14 kgHS(-)/m(3)-day. The sulfur production was still increasing as the reactor had not yet reached its maximum sulfide loading rate. PMID:19085599

  7. Textile wastewater treatment in a bench-scale anaerobic-biofilm anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor combined with nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Selene; Piscitelli, Daniela; Mattioli, Davide; Casu, Stefania; Spagni, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the treatability of textile wastewaters in a bench-scale experimental system, comprising an anaerobic biofilter, an anoxic reactor and an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The MBR effluent was thereafter treated by a nanofiltration (NF) membrane. The proposed system was demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of the textile wastewater under the operating conditions applied in the study. The MBR system achieved a good COD (90-95%) removal; due to the presence of the anaerobic biofilter, also effective color removal was obtained (70%). The addition of the NF membrane allowed the further improvement in COD (50-80%), color (70-90%) and salt removal (60-70% as conductivity). In particular the NF treatment allowed the almost complete removal of the residual color and a reduction of the conductivity such as to achieve water quality suitable for reuse.

  8. SAES St 909 pilot scale methane cracking tests

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Sessions, H. T.

    2008-07-15

    Pilot scale (0.5 kg) SAES St 909 methane cracking tests were conducted for potential tritium process applications. Up to 1400 hours tests were done at 700 deg.C, 202.7 kPa (1520 torr) with a 0.03 sLPM feed of methane plus impurities, in a 20 vol% hydrogen, balance helium, stream. Carbon dioxide gettered by St 909 can be equated to an equivalent amount of methane gettered, but equating nitrogen to an equivalent amount of methane was nitrogen feed composition dependent. A decreased hydrogen feed increased methane getter rates while a 30 deg.C drop in one furnace zone increased methane emissions by over a factor of 30. The impact of gettered nitrogen can be somewhat minimized if nitrogen feed to the bed has been stopped and sufficient time given to recover the methane cracking rate. (authors)

  9. Gasification of pelletized biomass in a pilot scale downdraft gasifier.

    PubMed

    Simone, Marco; Barontini, Federica; Nicolella, Cristiano; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2012-07-01

    This work presents a pilot-scale investigation aimed at assessing the feasibility and reliability of biomass pellet gasification. Wood sawdust and sunflower seeds pellets were tested in a 200 kW downdraft gasifier operating with air as gasifying agent. The gasification of pelletized biomass led to rather high and unstable pressure drops, reducing the gasifier productivity and stability. Furthermore the generation of fine residues compromised the operation of wet ash removal systems. On the other hand, good syngas compositions (H(2) 17.2%, N(2) 46.0%, CH(4) 2.5%, CO 21.2%, CO(2) 12.6%, and C(2)H(4) 0.4%), specific gas production (2.2-2.4 N m(3) kg(-1)) and cold gas efficiency (67.7-70.0%) were achieved. For these reasons pelletized biomass should be considered only as complementary fuel in co-gasification with other feedstock. PMID:22537399

  10. Pilot Scale Tests Alden/Concepts NREC Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Cook; George E.Hecker; Stephen Amaral; Philip Stacy; Fangbiao Lin; Edward Taft

    2003-09-30

    Alden Research Laboratory, Inc. has completed pilot scale testing of the new Alden/Concepts NREC turbine that was designed to minimize fish injury at hydropower projects. The test program was part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems Program. The prototype turbine operating point was 1,000 cfs at 80ft head and 100 rpm. The turbine was design to: (1) limit peripheral runner speed; (2) have a high minimum pressure; (3) limit pressure change rates; (4) limit the maximum flow shear; (5) minimize the number and total length of leading blade edges; (6) maximize the distance between the runner inlet and the wicket gates and minimize clearances (i.e., gaps) between other components; and (7) maximize the size of flow passages.

  11. Pilot-scale bioreactor production and long term stability of feruloyl soy glycerides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil was transesterified with ethyl ferulate at 60 °C using the immobilized lipase Candida antartica lipase B (Novozym 435) to produce a mixture of feruloylated monoacylglycerols and feruloylated diacylglycerols homologues, collectively referred to as feruloylated soy glycerides (FSG). A 1-to...

  12. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LABORATORY AND PILOT-SCALE COMBUSTION OF SOME CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors governing the occurence of trace amounts of residual organic substance emmissions (ROSEs) in full-scale incierators are not fully understood. Pilot-scale spray combustion expereiments involving some liquid chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) and their dilute mixtures with hy...

  13. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  14. Bioreactors and bioseparation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siliang; Cao, Xuejun; Chu, Ju; Qian, Jiangchao; Zhuang, Yingping

    2010-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of life science, great attention has been increasingly given to the biotechnological products of cell cultivation technology. In the course of industrialization, bioreactor and bioproduct separation techniques are the two essential technical platforms. In this chapter, the current situation and development prospects of bioreactor techniques in China are systematically discussed, starting with the elucidation of bioreactor processes and the principle of process optimization. Separation technology for biological products is also briefly introduced.At present, a series of bioreactors made by Chinese enterprises have been widely used for laboratory microbial cultivation, process optimization studies, and large-scale production. In the course of bioprocess optimization studies, the complicated bioprocesses in a bioreactor could be resolved into different reaction processes on three scales, namely genetic, cellular, and bioreactor scales. The structural varieties and nonlinear features of various scales of bioprocess systems was discussed through considering the mutual effects of different scale events, namely material flux, energy flux, and information flux, and the optimization approach for bioprocesses was proposed by taking the analysis of metabolic flux and multiscale consideration as a core strategy.In order to realize such an optimization approach, a bioreactor system based on association analysis of multiscale parameters was elaborated, and process optimization of many biological products were materialized, which resulted in great improvement in production efficiency. In designing and manufacturing large-scale bioreactors, the principle of scaling up a process incorporated with flow field study and physiological features in a bioreactor was suggested according to the criterion for the scale-up of cellular physiological and metabolic traits. The flow field features of a bioreactor were investigated through computational fluid

  15. Bioreactors and bioseparation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siliang; Cao, Xuejun; Chu, Ju; Qian, Jiangchao; Zhuang, Yingping

    2010-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of life science, great attention has been increasingly given to the biotechnological products of cell cultivation technology. In the course of industrialization, bioreactor and bioproduct separation techniques are the two essential technical platforms. In this chapter, the current situation and development prospects of bioreactor techniques in China are systematically discussed, starting with the elucidation of bioreactor processes and the principle of process optimization. Separation technology for biological products is also briefly introduced.At present, a series of bioreactors made by Chinese enterprises have been widely used for laboratory microbial cultivation, process optimization studies, and large-scale production. In the course of bioprocess optimization studies, the complicated bioprocesses in a bioreactor could be resolved into different reaction processes on three scales, namely genetic, cellular, and bioreactor scales. The structural varieties and nonlinear features of various scales of bioprocess systems was discussed through considering the mutual effects of different scale events, namely material flux, energy flux, and information flux, and the optimization approach for bioprocesses was proposed by taking the analysis of metabolic flux and multiscale consideration as a core strategy.In order to realize such an optimization approach, a bioreactor system based on association analysis of multiscale parameters was elaborated, and process optimization of many biological products were materialized, which resulted in great improvement in production efficiency. In designing and manufacturing large-scale bioreactors, the principle of scaling up a process incorporated with flow field study and physiological features in a bioreactor was suggested according to the criterion for the scale-up of cellular physiological and metabolic traits. The flow field features of a bioreactor were investigated through computational fluid

  16. Geophysical monitoring of a field-scale biostimulation pilot project.

    PubMed

    Lane, John W; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Casey, Clifton C

    2006-01-01

    The USGS conducted a geophysical investigation in support of a U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southern Division field-scale biostimulation pilot project at Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), down-gradient of the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota. The goal of the pilot project is to evaluate subsurface injection of vegetable oil emulsion (VOE) to stimulate microbial degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. To monitor the emplacement and movement of the VOE and changes in water chemistry resulting from VOE dissolution and/or enhanced biological activity, the USGS acquired cross-hole radar zero-offset profiles, travel-time tomograms, and borehole geophysical logs during five site visits over 1.5 years. Analysis of pre- and postinjection data sets using petrophysical models developed to estimate VOE saturation and changes in total dissolved solids provides insights into the spatial and temporal distribution of VOE and ground water with altered chemistry. Radar slowness-difference tomograms and zero-offset slowness profiles indicate that the VOE remained close to the injection wells, whereas radar attenuation profiles and electromagnetic induction logs indicate that bulk electrical conductivity increased down-gradient of the injection zone, diagnostic of changing water chemistry. Geophysical logs indicate that some screened intervals were located above or below zones of elevated dissolved solids; hence, the geophysical data provide a broader context for interpretation of water samples and evaluation of the biostimulation effort. Our results include (1) demonstration of field and data analysis methods for geophysical monitoring of VOE biostimulation and (2) site-specific insights into the spatial and temporal distributions of VOE at the ACP.

  17. Geophysical monitoring of a field-scale biostimulation pilot project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Casey, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    The USGS conducted a geophysical investigation in support of a U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southern Division field-scale biostimulation pilot project at Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), downgradient of the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota. The goal of the pilot project is to evaluate subsurface injection of vegetable oil emulsion (VOE) to stimulate microbial degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. To monitor the emplacement and movement of the VOE and changes in water chemistry resulting from VOE dissolution and/or enhanced biological activity, the USGS acquired cross-hole radar zero-offset profiles, traveltime tomograms, and borehole geophysical logs during five site visits over 1.5 years. Analysis of pre- and postinjection data sets using petrophysical models developed to estimate VOE saturation and changes in total dissolved solids provides insights into the spatial and temporal distribution of VOE and ground water with altered chemistry. Radar slowness-difference tomograms and zero-offset slowness profiles indicate that the VOE remained close to the injection wells, whereas radar attenuation profiles and electromagnetic induction logs indicate that bulk electrical conductivity increased downgradient of the injection zone, diagnostic of changing water chemistry. Geophysical logs indicate that some screened intervals were located above or below zones of elevated dissolved solids; hence, the geophysical data provide a broader context for interpretation of water samples and evaluation of the biostimulation effort. Our results include (1) demonstration of field and data analysis methods for geophysical monitoring of VOE biostimulation and (2) site-specific insights into the spatial and temporal distributions of VOE at the ACP. ?? 2006 National Ground Water Association.

  18. Pilot scale production of cellulolytic enzymes by Trichoderma reesei

    SciTech Connect

    Warzywoda, M.; Chevron, F.; Ferre, V.; Pourquie, J.

    1983-01-01

    The French substitute fuels program aims at the substitution of part of gasoline by methanol. In order to avoid phase separation of the gasoline-methanol blend, a cosolvant has to be added; one of the most efficient cosolvants is the mixture of acetone and butanol produced by anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation. The Institut Francais du Petrole is thus implementing a research and development program on the production of acetone butanol from biomass, either sugar crops (fodder beets and Jerusalem artichoke) or lignocellulosic (corn stover and wheat straw). Production of sugars from lignocellulosics is a major part of this program. The enzymatic hydrolysis route, based on Trichoderma reesei cellulolytic enzymes, has been chosen since it does not cause any degradation of C/sub 5/ sugars which are good substrates of the acetone butanol fermentation. Efficient and cheap large-scale production of cellulolytic enzymes is thus a key step in this process. This paper reports on production of cellulases by Trichoderma reesei in a 3-m/sup 3/ pilot fermentor under conditions which should facilitate the scaling-up of the process. 7 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Full- and pilot-scale GAC adsorption of organic micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Anthony M; Reinert, Allison M; Knappe, Detlef R U; Ferrer, Imma; Summers, R Scott

    2015-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption of 30 environmentally relevant micropollutants (MP) from four surface waters was investigated at the pilot-scale with empty bed contact times (EBCTs) of 7 and 15 min. An increase in background dissolved organic matter resulted in more and earlier MP breakthrough. Compared to an EBCT of 7 min, MP breakthrough at an EBCT of 15 min demonstrated 52% later breakthrough on average for five MPs on a throughput basis. A regression model was developed with data from three waters to predict MP throughput in bed volumes to 10% breakthrough (BV10%) based on the influent dissolved organic carbon concentration and the MP pH-dependent octanol-water partition coefficient, polarizability, and molecular volume. The regression model over predicted full-scale BV10% values when applied to a wastewater-water impacted water source and to GAC with a larger particle diameter, for which a particle size adjustment was able to account for most of the difference. PMID:25462732

  20. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Enid J; Kwon, Soondong; Katz, Lynn; Kinney, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ

  1. Heavy-metal toxicity phenomena in laboratory-scale ANFLOW bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, A.L.

    1982-04-01

    An energy-conserving wastewater treatment system was developed based on an anaerobic, upflow (ANFLOW) bioreactor. Since many applications of the ANFLOW process could involve the treatment of wastewaters containing heavy metals, the potentially toxic effects of these metals on the biological processes occurring in ANFLOW columns (primarily acetogenesis and methanogenesis) were investigated. Both step and pulse inputs of zinc ranging from 100 to 1000 mg/L were added to synthetic wastewaters being treated in ANFLOW columns with 0.057-m/sup 3/ volumes. Column responses were used to develop descriptive models for toxicity phenomena in such systems. It was found that an inhibition function could be defined and used to modify a model based on plugflow with axial dispersion and first-order kinetics for soluble substrate removal. The inhibitory effects of zinc on soluble substrate removal were found to be predominantly associated with its sorption by biosolids. Sorption initially occurred in the lower regions of the column, but was gradually observed in higher regions as the sorption capacity of the lower regions was exhausted. Sorption phenomena could be described with the Freundlich equation. Sorption processes were accompanied by shifts of biological processes to regions higher in the columns. A regenerative process was observed when feeding of wastewaters without zinc was resumed. It was postulated that regeneration could be based on sloughing of layers of biofilms, or other biosolids involved in zinc sorption, followed by continued growth of lower layers of biofilms not involved in heavy-metal sorption.

  2. Photosynthetic biomass and H2 production by green algae: from bioengineering to bioreactor scale-up.

    PubMed

    Hankamer, Ben; Lehr, Florian; Rupprecht, Jens; Mussgnug, Jan H; Posten, Clemens; Kruse, Olaf

    2007-09-01

    The development of clean borderless fuels is of vital importance to human and environmental health and global prosperity. Currently, fuels make up approximately 67% of the global energy market (total market = 15 TW year(-1)) (Hoffert et al. 1998). In contrast, global electricity demand accounts for only 33% (Hoffert et al. 1998). Yet, despite the importance of fuels, almost all CO(2) free energy production systems under development are designed to drive electricity generation (e.g. clean-coal technology, nuclear, photovoltaic, wind, geothermal, wave and hydroelectric). In contrast, and indeed almost uniquely, biofuels also target the much larger fuel market and so in the future will play an increasingly important role in maintaining energy security (Lal 2005). Currently, the main biofuels that are at varying stages of development include bio-ethanol, liquid carbohydrates [e.g. biodiesel or biomass to liquid (BTL) products], biomethane and bio-H(2). This review is focused on placing bio-H(2) production processes into the context of the current biofuels market and summarizing advances made both at the level of bioengineering and bioreactor design.

  3. Analysis of microbial community composition in a lab-scale membrane distillation bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Q; Shuwen, G; Zhang, J; Fane, AG; Kjelleberg, S; Rice, SA; McDougald, D

    2015-01-01

    Aims Membrane distillation bioreactors (MDBR) have potential for industrial applications where wastewater is hot or waste heat is available, but the role of micro-organisms in MDBRs has never been determined, and thus was the purpose of this study. Methods and Results Microbial communities were characterized by bacterial and archaeal 16S and eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene tag-encoded pyrosequencing of DNA obtained from sludge. Taxonomy-independent analysis revealed that bacterial communities had a relatively low richness and diversity, and community composition strongly correlated with conductivity, total nitrogen and bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Taxonomy-dependent analysis revealed that Rubrobacter and Caldalkalibacillus were abundant members of the bacterial community, but no archaea were detected. Eukaryotic communities had a relatively high richness and diversity, and both changes in community composition and abundance of the dominant genus, Candida, correlated with bound EPS. Conclusions Thermophilic MDBR communities were comprised of a low diversity bacterial community and a highly diverse eukaryotic community with no archea detected. Communities exhibited low resilience to changes in operational parameters. Specifically, retenatate nutrient composition and concentration was strongly correlated with the dominant species. Significance and Impact of the Study This study provides an understanding of microbial community diversity in an MDBR, which is fundamental to the optimization of reactor performance. PMID:25604265

  4. Efficient large-scale generation of functional hepatocytes from mouse embryonic stem cells grown in a rotating bioreactor with exogenous growth factors and hormones

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Embryonic stem (ES) cells are considered a potentially advantageous source of hepatocytes for both transplantation and the development of bioartificial livers. However, the efficient large-scale generation of functional hepatocytes from ES cells remains a major challenge, especially for those methods compatible with clinical applications. Methods In this study, we investigated whether a large number of functional hepatocytes can be differentiated from mouse ES (mES) cells using a simulated microgravity bioreactor. mES cells were cultured in a rotating bioreactor in the presence of exogenous growth factors and hormones to form embryoid bodies (EBs), which then differentiated into hepatocytes. Results During the rotating culture, most of the EB-derived cells gradually showed the histologic characteristics of normal hepatocytes. More specifically, the expression of hepatic genes and proteins was detected at a higher level in the differentiated cells from the bioreactor culture than in cells from a static culture. On further growing, the EBs on tissue-culture plates, most of the EB-derived cells were found to display the morphologic features of hepatocytes, as well as albumin synthesis. In addition, the EB-derived cells grown in the rotating bioreactor exhibited higher levels of liver-specific functions, such as glycogen storage, cytochrome P450 activity, low-density lipoprotein, and indocyanine green uptake, than did differentiated cells grown in static culture. When the EB-derived cells from day-14 EBs and the cells’ culture supernatant were injected into nude mice, the transplanted cells were engrafted into the recipient livers. Conclusions Large quantities of high-quality hepatocytes can be generated from mES cells in a rotating bioreactor via EB formation. This system may be useful in the large-scale generation of hepatocytes for both cell transplantation and the development of bioartificial livers. PMID:24294908

  5. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  6. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  7. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  8. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  9. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  10. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  11. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  13. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator (BTR) holds fixed tissue culture bags at 4 degrees C to preserve them for return to Earth and postflight analysis. The cultures are used in research with the NASA Bioreactor cell science program. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  14. Reduction of product-related species during the fermentation and purification of a recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist at the laboratory and pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Emily B; Golden, Kathryn; Xu, Jin; Milling, Jesse; Murillo, Alec; Lowden, Patricia; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Hou, Jinzhao; Kovalchin, Joseph T; Masci, Allyson; Collins, Kathryn; Zarbis-Papastoitsis, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Through a parallel approach of tracking product quality through fermentation and purification development, a robust process was designed to reduce the levels of product-related species. Three biochemically similar product-related species were identified as byproducts of host-cell enzymatic activity. To modulate intracellular proteolytic activity, key fermentation parameters (temperature, pH, trace metals, EDTA levels, and carbon source) were evaluated through bioreactor optimization, while balancing negative effects on growth, productivity, and oxygen demand. The purification process was based on three non-affinity steps and resolved product-related species by exploiting small charge differences. Using statistical design of experiments for elution conditions, a high-resolution cation exchange capture column was optimized for resolution and recovery. Further reduction of product-related species was achieved by evaluating a matrix of conditions for a ceramic hydroxyapatite column. The optimized fermentation process was transferred from the 2-L laboratory scale to the 100-L pilot scale and the purification process was scaled accordingly to process the fermentation harvest. The laboratory- and pilot-scale processes resulted in similar process recoveries of 60 and 65%, respectively, and in a product that was of equal quality and purity to that of small-scale development preparations. The parallel approach for up- and downstream development was paramount in achieving a robust and scalable clinical process.

  15. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  16. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  17. Modeling full-scale osmotic membrane bioreactor systems with high sludge retention and low salt concentration factor for wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Hyuk; Park, Beomseok; Shon, Ho Kyong; Kim, Suhan

    2015-08-01

    A full-scale model was developed to find optimal design parameters for osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) and reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid system for wastewater reclamation. The model simulates salt accumulation, draw solution dilution and water flux in OMBR with sludge concentrator for high retention and low salt concentration factor. The full-scale OMBR simulation results reveal that flat-sheet module with spacers exhibits slightly higher flux than hollow-fiber; forward osmosis (FO) membrane with high water permeability, low salt permeability, and low resistance to salt diffusion shows high water flux; an optimal water recovery around 50% ensures high flux and no adverse effect on microbial activity; and FO membrane cost decreases and RO energy consumption and product water concentration increases at higher DS flow rates and concentrations. The simulated FO water flux and RO energy consumption ranges from 3.03 to 13.76LMH and 0.35 to 1.39kWh/m(3), respectively. PMID:25840775

  18. Modeling full-scale osmotic membrane bioreactor systems with high sludge retention and low salt concentration factor for wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Hyuk; Park, Beomseok; Shon, Ho Kyong; Kim, Suhan

    2015-08-01

    A full-scale model was developed to find optimal design parameters for osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) and reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid system for wastewater reclamation. The model simulates salt accumulation, draw solution dilution and water flux in OMBR with sludge concentrator for high retention and low salt concentration factor. The full-scale OMBR simulation results reveal that flat-sheet module with spacers exhibits slightly higher flux than hollow-fiber; forward osmosis (FO) membrane with high water permeability, low salt permeability, and low resistance to salt diffusion shows high water flux; an optimal water recovery around 50% ensures high flux and no adverse effect on microbial activity; and FO membrane cost decreases and RO energy consumption and product water concentration increases at higher DS flow rates and concentrations. The simulated FO water flux and RO energy consumption ranges from 3.03 to 13.76LMH and 0.35 to 1.39kWh/m(3), respectively.

  19. SAES ST 909 PILOT SCALE METHANE CRACKING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J; Henry Sessions, H

    2007-07-02

    Pilot scale (500 gram) SAES St 909 methane cracking tests were conducted to determine material performance for tritium process applications. Tests that ran up to 1400 hours have been performed at 700 C, 202.7 kPa (1520 torr) with a 30 sccm feed of methane, with various impurities, in a 20 vol% hydrogen, balance helium, stream. A 2.5 vol% methane feed was reduced below 30 ppm for 631 hours. A feed of 1.1 vol% methane plus 1.4 vol% carbon dioxide was reduced below 30 ppm for 513 hours. The amount of carbon dioxide gettered by St 909 can be equated to an equivalent amount of methane gettered to estimate a reduced bed life for methane cracking. The effect of 0.4 vol % and 2.1 vol% nitrogen in the feed reduced the time to exceed 30 ppm methane to 362 and 45 hours, respectively, but the nitrogen equivalence to reduced methane gettering capacity was found to be dependent on the nitrogen feed composition. Decreased hydrogen concentrations increased methane getter rates while a drop of 30 C in one bed zone increased methane emissions by over a factor of 30. The impact of gettered nitrogen can be somewhat minimized if the nitrogen feed to the bed has been stopped and sufficient time given to recover the methane cracking rate.

  20. Supervisory control of a pilot-scale cooling loop

    SciTech Connect

    Kris Villez; Venkat Venkatasubramanian; Humberto Garcia

    2011-08-01

    We combine a previously developed strategy for Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) with a supervisory controller in closed loop. The combined method is applied to a model of a pilot-scale cooling loop of a nuclear plant, which includes Kalman filters and a model-based predictive controller as part of normal operation. The system has two valves available for flow control meaning that some redundancy is available. The FDI method is based on likelihood ratios for different fault scenarios which in turn are derived from the application of the Kalman filter. A previously introduced extension of the FDI method is used here to enable detection and identification of non-linear faults like stuck valve problems and proper accounting of the time of fault introduction. The supervisory control system is designed so to take different kinds of actions depending on the status of the fault diagnosis task and on the type of identified fault once diagnosis is complete. Some faults, like sensor bias and drift, are parametric in nature and can be adjusted without need for reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. Other faults, like a stuck valve problem, require reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. The whole strategy is demonstrated for several scenarios.

  1. Lightweight alumina refractory aggregate. Phase 2, Pilot scale development

    SciTech Connect

    Swansiger, T.G.; Pearson, A.

    1994-11-01

    Kilogram quantities of refractory aggregate were prepared from both a paste and a pelletized form of extruder feed material in both bench and pilot-scale equipment. The 99{sup +} % alumina aggregate exhibited a bulk density approaching 2.5 g/cm{sup 3} and a fired strength slightly lower than fused alumina. Based on initial evaluation by two refractory manufacturers in brick or castable applications, the new aggregate offered adequate strength with thermal conductivity reductions up to 34%, depending on the temperature and application of the new aggregate in these initial trials. The new aggregate was simply substituted for Tabular{trademark} in the refractory formulation. Thus, there is room for improvement through formulation optimization with the lightweight aggregate. The new aggregate offers a unique combination of density, strength, and thermal properties not available in current aggregate. To this point in time, technical development has led to a pelletized formulation with borderline physical form leaving the Eirich mixer. The formulation requires further development to provide more latitude for the production of pelletized material without forming paste, while still reducing the bulk density slightly to reach the 2.5 g/cm{sup 3} target. The preferred, pelletized process flowsheet was outlined and a preliminary economic feasibility study performed based on a process retrofit into Alcoa`s Arkansas tabular production facilities. Based on an assumed market demand of 20,000 mt/year and an assumed selling price of $0.65/lb (25% more than the current selling price of Tabular{trademark}, on a volume basis), economics were favorable. Decision on whether to proceed into Phase 3 (full- scale demonstration) will be based on a formal market survey in 1994 October.

  2. Bioreactor principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. Comparison of microbial communities of activated sludge and membrane biofilm in 10 full-scale membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sung Jun; Kwon, Hyeokpil; Jeong, So-Yeon; Lee, Chung-Hak; Kim, Tae Gwan

    2016-09-15

    Operation of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment is hampered by the membrane biofouling resulting from microbial activities. However, the knowledge of the microbial ecology of both biofilm and activated sludge in MBRs has not been sufficient. In this study, we scrutinized microbial communities of biofilm and activated sludge from 10 full-scale MBR plants. Overall, Flavobacterium, Dechloromonas and Nitrospira were abundant in order of abundance in biofilm, whereas Dechloromonas, Flavobacterium and Haliscomenobacter in activated sludge. Community structure was analyzed in either biofilm or activated sludge. Among MBRs, as expected, not only diversity of microbial community but also its composition was different from one another (p < 0.05). Between the biofilm and activated sludge, community composition made significant difference, but its diversity measures (i.e., alpha diversity, e.g., richness, diversity and evenness) did not (p > 0.05). Effects of ten environmental factors on community change were investigated using Spearman correlation. MLSS, HRT, F/M ratio and SADm explained the variation of microbial composition in the biofilm, whereas only MLSS did in the activated sludge. Microbial networks were constructed with the 10 environmental factors. The network results revealed that there were different topological characteristics between the biofilm and activated sludge networks, in which each of the 4 factors had different associations with microbial nodes. These results indicated that the different microbial associations were responsible for the variation of community composition between the biofilm and activated sludge.

  4. Multi-Scale Spatio-Temporal Modeling: Lifelines of Microorganisms in Bioreactors and Tracking Molecules in Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapin, Alexei; Klann, Michael; Reuss, Matthias

    Agent-based models are rigorous tools for simulating the interactions of individual entities, such as organisms or molecules within cells and assessing their effects on the dynamic behavior of the system as a whole. In context with bioprocess and biosystems engineering there are several interesting and important applications. This contribution aims at introducing this strategy with the aid of two examples characterized by striking distinctions in the scale of the individual entities and the mode of their interactions. In the first example a structured-segregated model is applied to travel along the lifelines of single cells in the environment of a three-dimensional turbulent field of a stirred bioreactor. The modeling approach is based on an Euler-Lagrange formulation of the system. The strategy permits one to account for the heterogeneity present in real reactors in both the fluid and cellular phases, respectively. The individual response of the cells to local variations in the extracellular concentrations is pictured by a dynamically structured model of the key reactions of the central metabolism. The approach permits analysis of the lifelines of individual cells in space and time.

  5. Monitoring the variations of the oxygen transfer rate in a full scale membrane bioreactor using daily mass balances.

    PubMed

    Racault, Y; Stricker, A-E; Husson, A; Gillot, S

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen transfer in biological wastewater treatment processes with high sludge concentration, such as membrane bioreactor (MBR), is an important issue. The variation of alpha-factor versus mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration was investigated in a full scale MBR plant under process conditions, using mass balances. Exhaustive data from the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) and from additional online sensors (COD, DO, MLSS) were used to calculate the daily oxygen consumption (OC) using a non-steady state mass balance for COD and total N on a 24-h basis. To close the oxygen balance, OC has to match the total oxygen transfer rate (OTRtot) of the system, which is provided by fine bubble (FB) diffusers in the aeration tank and coarse bubbles (CB) in separate membrane tanks. First assessing OTR(CB) then closing the balance OC = OTRtot allowed to calculate OTR(FB) and to fit an exponential relationship between OTR(FB) and MLSS. A comparison of the alpha-factor obtained by this balance method and by direct measurements with the off-gas method on the same plant is presented and discussed. PMID:22049761

  6. Quantitative response of nitrifying and denitrifying communities to environmental variables in a full-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Silván, C; Vílchez-Vargas, R; Arévalo, J; Gómez, M A; González-López, J; Pieper, D H; Rodelas, B

    2014-10-01

    The abundance and transcription levels of specific gene markers of total bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira-like) and denitrifiers (N2O-reducers) were analyzed using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and reverse-transcription qPCR during 9 months in a full-scale membrane bioreactor treating urban wastewater. A stable community of N-removal key players was developed; however, the abundance of active populations experienced sharper shifts, demonstrating their fast adaptation to changing conditions. Despite constituting a small percentage of the total bacterial community, the larger abundances of active populations of nitrifiers explained the high N-removal accomplished by the MBR. Multivariate analyses revealed that temperature, accumulation of volatile suspended solids in the sludge, BOD5, NH4(+) concentration and C/N ratio of the wastewater contributed significantly (23-38%) to explain changes in the abundance of nitrifiers and denitrifiers. However, each targeted group showed different responses to shifts in these parameters, evidencing the complexity of the balance among them for successful biological N-removal.

  7. Seasonal variations in fate and removal of trace organic chemical contaminants while operating a full-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Trang; van den Akker, Ben; Coleman, Heather M; Stuetz, Richard M; Drewes, Jörg E; Le-Clech, Pierre; Khan, Stuart J

    2016-04-15

    Trace organic chemical (TrOC) contaminants are of concern for finished water from water recycling schemes because of their potential adverse environmental and public health effects. Understanding the impacts of seasonal variations on fate and removal of TrOCs is important for proper operation, risk assessment and management of treatment systems for water recycling such as membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Accordingly, this study investigated the fate and removal of a wide range of TrOCs through a full-scale MBR plant during summer and winter seasons. TrOCs included 12 steroidal hormones, 3 xeno-estrogens, 2 pesticides and 23 pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Seasonal differences in the mechanisms responsible for removing some of the TrOCs were evident. In particular the contribution of biotransformation and biomass adsorption to the overall removal of estrone, bisphenol A, 17β-estradiol and triclosan were consistently different between the two seasons. Substantially higher percentage removal via biotransformation was observed during the summer sampling period, which compensated for a reduction in removal attributed to biomass adsorption. The opposite was observed during winter, where the contribution of biotransformation to the overall removal of these TrOCs had decreased, which was offset by an improvement in biomass adsorption. The exact mechanisms responsible for this shift are unknown, however are likely to be temperature related as warmer temperatures can lower sorption efficiency, yet enhance biotransformation of these TrOCs.

  8. Quantitative response of nitrifying and denitrifying communities to environmental variables in a full-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Silván, C; Vílchez-Vargas, R; Arévalo, J; Gómez, M A; González-López, J; Pieper, D H; Rodelas, B

    2014-10-01

    The abundance and transcription levels of specific gene markers of total bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira-like) and denitrifiers (N2O-reducers) were analyzed using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and reverse-transcription qPCR during 9 months in a full-scale membrane bioreactor treating urban wastewater. A stable community of N-removal key players was developed; however, the abundance of active populations experienced sharper shifts, demonstrating their fast adaptation to changing conditions. Despite constituting a small percentage of the total bacterial community, the larger abundances of active populations of nitrifiers explained the high N-removal accomplished by the MBR. Multivariate analyses revealed that temperature, accumulation of volatile suspended solids in the sludge, BOD5, NH4(+) concentration and C/N ratio of the wastewater contributed significantly (23-38%) to explain changes in the abundance of nitrifiers and denitrifiers. However, each targeted group showed different responses to shifts in these parameters, evidencing the complexity of the balance among them for successful biological N-removal. PMID:25043345

  9. Low-level waste vitrification pilot-scale system need report

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.; Whitney, L.D.

    1996-03-01

    This report examines the need for pilot-scale testing in support of the low-level vitrification facility at Hanford. In addition, the report examines the availability of on-site facilities to contain a pilot-plant. It is recommended that a non-radioactive pilot-plant be operated for extended periods. In addition, it is recommended that two small-scale systems, one processing radioactive waste feed and one processing a simulated waste feed be used for validation of waste simulants. The actual scale of the pilot-plant will be determined from the technologies included in conceptual design of the plant. However, for the purposes of this review, a plant of 5 to 10 metric ton/day of glass production was assumed. It is recommended that a detailed data needs package and integrated flowsheet be developed in FY95 to clearly identify data requirements and identify relationships with other TWRS elements. A pilot-plant will contribute to the reduction of uncertainty in the design and initial operation of the vitrification facility to an acceptable level. Prior to pilot-scale testing, the components will not have been operated as an integrated system and will not have been tested for extended operating periods. Testing for extended periods at pilot-scale will allow verification of the flowsheet including the effects of recycle streams. In addition, extended testing will allow evaluation of wear, corrosion and mechanical reality of individual components, potential accumulations within the components, and the sensitivity of the process to operating conditions. Also, the pilot facility will provide evidence that the facility will meet radioactive and nonradioactive environmental release limits, and increase the confidence in scale-up. The pilot-scale testing data and resulting improvements in the vitrification facility design will reduce the time required for cold chemical testing in the vitrification facility.

  10. Taxonomic and functional metagenomic analysis of anodic communities in two pilot-scale microbial fuel cells treating different industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Kiseleva, Larisa; Garushyants, Sofya K; Ma, Hongwu; Simpson, David J W; Fedorovich, Viatcheslav; Cohen, Michael F; Goryanin, Igor

    2015-10-06

    The combined processes of microbial biodegradation accompanied by extracellular electron transfer make microbial fuel cells (MFCs) a promising new technology for cost-effective and sustainable wastewater treatment. Although a number of microbial species that build biofilms on the anode surfaces of operating MFCs have been identified, studies on the metagenomics of entire electrogenic communities are limited. Here we present the results of whole-genome metagenomic analysis of electrochemically active robust anodic microbial communities, and their anaerobic digester (AD) sludge inocula, from two pilot-scale MFC bioreactors fed with different distillery wastewaters operated under ambient conditions in distinct climatic zones. Taxonomic analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were abundant in AD sludge from distinct climatic zones, and constituted the dominant core of the MFC microbiomes. Functional analysis revealed species involved in degradation of organic compounds commonly present in food industry wastewaters. Also, accumulation of methanogenic Archaea was observed in the electrogenic biofilms, suggesting a possibility for simultaneous electricity and biogas recovery from one integrated wastewater treatment system. Finally, we found a range of species within the anode communities possessing the capacity for extracellular electron transfer, both via direct contact and electron shuttles, and show differential distribution of bacterial groups on the carbon cloth and activated carbon granules of the anode surface. Overall, this study provides insights into structural shifts that occur in the transition from an AD sludge to an MFC microbial community and the metabolic potential of electrochemically active microbial populations with wastewater-treating MFCs.

  11. Taxonomic and functional metagenomic analysis of anodic communities in two pilot-scale microbial fuel cells treating different industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Kiseleva, Larisa; Garushyants, Sofya K; Ma, Hongwu; Simpson, David J W; Fedorovich, Viatcheslav; Cohen, Michael F; Goryanin, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The combined processes of microbial biodegradation accompanied by extracellular electron transfer make microbial fuel cells (MFCs) a promising new technology for cost-effective and sustainable wastewater treatment. Although a number of microbial species that build biofilms on the anode surfaces of operating MFCs have been identified, studies on the metagenomics of entire electrogenic communities are limited. Here we present the results of whole-genome metagenomic analysis of electrochemically active robust anodic microbial communities, and their anaerobic digester (AD) sludge inocula, from two pilot-scale MFC bioreactors fed with different distillery wastewaters operated under ambient conditions in distinct climatic zones. Taxonomic analysis showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were abundant in AD sludge from distinct climatic zones, and constituted the dominant core of the MFC microbiomes. Functional analysis revealed species involved in degradation of organic compounds commonly present in food industry wastewaters. Also, accumulation of methanogenic Archaea was observed in the electrogenic biofilms, suggesting a possibility for simultaneous electricity and biogas recovery from one integrated wastewater treatment system. Finally, we found a range of species within the anode communities possessing the capacity for extracellular electron transfer, both via direct contact and electron shuttles, and show differential distribution of bacterial groups on the carbon cloth and activated carbon granules of the anode surface. Overall, this study provides insights into structural shifts that occur in the transition from an AD sludge to an MFC microbial community and the metabolic potential of electrochemically active microbial populations with wastewater-treating MFCs. PMID:26673789

  12. Effect of PAC dosage in a pilot-scale PAC-MBR treating micro-polluted surface water.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingyi; Shang, Ran; Deng, Huiping; Heijman, Sebastiaan G J; Rietveld, Luuk C

    2014-02-01

    To address the water scarcity issue and advance the traditional drinking water treatment technique, a powdered activated carbon-amended membrane bioreactor (PAC-MBR) is proposed for micro-polluted surface water treatment. A pilot-scale study was carried out by initially dosing different amounts of PAC into the MBR. Comparative results showed that 2g/L performed the best among 0, 1, 2 and 3g/L PAC-MBR regarding organic matter and ammonia removal as well as membrane flux sustainability. 1g/L PAC-MBR exhibited a marginal improvement in pollutant removal compared to the non-PAC system. The accumulation of organic matter in the bulk mixture of 3g/L PAC-MBR led to poorer organic removal and severer membrane fouling. Molecular weight distribution of the bulk liquid in 2g/L PAC-MBR revealed the synergistic effects of PAC adsorption/biodegradation and membrane rejection on organic matter removal. Additionally, a lower amount of soluble extracellular polymer substances in the bulk can be secured in 21 days operation.

  13. Effect of PAC dosage in a pilot-scale PAC-MBR treating micro-polluted surface water.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingyi; Shang, Ran; Deng, Huiping; Heijman, Sebastiaan G J; Rietveld, Luuk C

    2014-02-01

    To address the water scarcity issue and advance the traditional drinking water treatment technique, a powdered activated carbon-amended membrane bioreactor (PAC-MBR) is proposed for micro-polluted surface water treatment. A pilot-scale study was carried out by initially dosing different amounts of PAC into the MBR. Comparative results showed that 2g/L performed the best among 0, 1, 2 and 3g/L PAC-MBR regarding organic matter and ammonia removal as well as membrane flux sustainability. 1g/L PAC-MBR exhibited a marginal improvement in pollutant removal compared to the non-PAC system. The accumulation of organic matter in the bulk mixture of 3g/L PAC-MBR led to poorer organic removal and severer membrane fouling. Molecular weight distribution of the bulk liquid in 2g/L PAC-MBR revealed the synergistic effects of PAC adsorption/biodegradation and membrane rejection on organic matter removal. Additionally, a lower amount of soluble extracellular polymer substances in the bulk can be secured in 21 days operation. PMID:24412856

  14. A pilot-scale radioactive test using in situ vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Timmerman, C.L.; Oma, K.M.

    1985-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing in situ vitrification (ISV) as a potential remedial action technique for previously disposed radioactive liquid drain sites. The process melts the contaminated soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form and encapsulates the radionuclides. The development of this alternative technology is being performed for the US Department of Energy. The results of an ISV pilot-scale test conducted in June 1983 are discussed in which soils contaminated with actual radioactive transuranic and mixed fission product elements were vitrified. The test successfully demonstrated the containment of radionuclides during processing, both within the vitrified mass and in the off-gas system. No environmental release of radioactive material was detectable during testing operations. The vitrified soil retained >99% of all radionuclides. Losses to the offgas system varied from less than or equal to 0.03% for particulate materials (plutonium and strontium) to 0.8% for cesium, which is a more volatile element. The off-gas system effectively contained both volatile and entrained radioactive materials. Analysis of the vitrified soil revealed that all radionuclides were distributed throughout the vitrified zone, some more uniformly than others. Analysis of soil samples taken adjacent to the block indicated that no migration of radionuclides outside the vitrification zone occurred. Leaching studies have shown that the ISV process generates a highly durable waste form, comparable to Pyrex and granite. Based on geologic data from the hydration of obsidian, which is chemically similar to the ISV glass, the hydration or weathering rate is predicted to be much less than 1 mm in 10,000 yr.

  15. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE INCINERATION OF ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes experiments performed on a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator to investigate the emissions and operational behavior during the incineration of consumer electronics waste. These experiments were targeted at destroying the organic components of printed circuit ...

  16. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals: Pilot-Scale Operation

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    This project focuses on the development and pilot-scale testing of technologies that will enable the development of a biorefinery capable of economically deriving high-value chemicals and oils from lower value corn fiber.

  17. NOX REMOVAL WITH COMBINED SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION AND SELECTIVE NONCATALYTIC REDUCTION: PILOT- SCALE TEST RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-scale tests were conducted to develop a combined nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction technology using both selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR). A commercially available vanadium-and titatnium-based composite honeycomb catalyst and enh...

  18. Production of biosurfactant by Bacillus subtilis LB5a on a pilot scale using cassava wastewater as substrate.

    PubMed

    Barros, Francisco Fábio Cavalcante; Ponezi, Alexandre Nunes; Pastore, Gláucia Maria

    2008-09-01

    The main characteristic of biosurfactants is their property of reducing the superficial and interfacial tension between two immiscible liquids of different polarities. The main obstacle to the application of biosurfactants is the high production costs, the use of alternative substrates being indicated to solve this problem. This work report the production of biosurfactant by Bacillus subtilis LB5a on a pilot scale using cassava wastewater as the substrate, and the study of the parameters related to its production. The cassava wastewater was heated, centrifuged and poured into a 40-liter batch pilot bioreactor adapted for simultaneous foam collection during the fermentative process. The temperature was maintained at 35 degrees C, agitation at 150 rpm and aeration 0.38 vvm during the first 12 h, and 0.63 vvm for the rest of the process. Samples of liquid fermentate were collected at regular intervals for the analysis of total carbohydrates, reducing sugars, pH, CFU/mL count and superficial tension. The foam was centrifuged and the biosurfactant purified. The kinetic data of the process showed that both the microbial population, which reached a maximum after about 24 h, and the foam production of 10.6 L, peaked between 24 and 36 h, coinciding with the greatest production of biosurfactant. The yield of semi-purified surfactant in the foam was 2.4 g/L. The superficial tension of the medium was reduced from 51 to 27 mN/m and the critical micellar concentration was 11 mg/L, which, in principle, characterizes it as a good tensoactive agent. As a function of its composition and productivity, cassava wastewater was identified as a good substrate for the production of the biosurfactant.

  19. Influence of bioreactor scale and complex medium on probing control of glucose feeding in cultivations of recombinant strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Velut, Stéphane; Castan, Andreas; Short, Kevin A; Axelsson, Jan Peter; Hagander, Per; Zditosky, Barry A; Rysenga, Christopher W; de Maré, Lena; Haglund, Jan

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of a feedback glucose control strategy (the probing strategy) in production relevant bioreactors with complex and mineral media. Experimental results from fed-batch cultivations with two recombinant Escherichia coli constructs expressing two different human therapeutic proteins were used to assess the performance and limitations of the glucose probing technique. Even though the performance of the probing strategy was affected by scale and complex media, this methodology rapidly identified a glucose feed protocol similar to an experimentally derived feed regime. This methodology may serve as a powerful tool for industrial process development and in optimization of glucose feed regimes when transferring process technology from one bioreactor system to another.

  20. Bacterial Community Dynamics in Full-Scale Activated Sludge Bioreactors: Operational and Ecological Factors Driving Community Assembly and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Valentín-Vargas, Alexis; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Massol-Deyá, Arturo A.

    2012-01-01

    The assembling of bacterial communities in conventional activated sludge (CAS) bioreactors was thought, until recently, to be chaotic and mostly unpredictable. Studies done over the last decade have shown that specific, and often, predictable random and non-random factors could be responsible for that process. These studies have also motivated a “structure–function” paradigm that is yet to be resolved. Thus, elucidating the factors that affect community assembly in the bioreactors is necessary for predicting fluctuations in community structure and function. For this study activated sludge samples were collected during a one-year period from two geographically distant CAS bioreactors of different size. Combining community fingerprinting analysis and operational parameters data with a robust statistical analysis, we aimed to identify relevant links between system performance and bacterial community diversity and dynamics. In addition to revealing a significant β-diversity between the bioreactors’ communities, results showed that the largest bioreactor had a less dynamic but more efficient and diverse bacterial community throughout the study. The statistical analysis also suggests that deterministic factors, as opposed to stochastic factors, may have a bigger impact on the community structure in the largest bioreactor. Furthermore, the community seems to rely mainly on mechanisms of resistance and functional redundancy to maintain functional stability. We suggest that the ecological theories behind the Island Biogeography model and the species-area relationship were appropriate to predict the assembly of bacterial communities in these CAS bioreactors. These results are of great importance for engineers and ecologists as they reveal critical aspects of CAS systems that could be applied towards improving bioreactor design and operation. PMID:22880016

  1. Feasibility study to upgrade a textile wastewater treatment plant by a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor for effluent reuse.

    PubMed

    Malpei, F; Bonomo, L; Rozzi, A

    2003-01-01

    A pilot plant membrane bioreactor has been tested in parallel with a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant fed on the wastewater from a textile factory. The possibility to upgrade the final effluent for internal reuse was investigated. The pilot and full-scale plants are located in a textile factory (Boselli & C., Olgiate Comasco, North Italy) which manufactures and finishes polyester fabric. The activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is an extended aeration system. The MBR pilot plant is a ZW-10 bench hollow fibre module (membrane surface area: 0.93 m2) submerged in a 200 L tank. Performance and operation of the membrane bioreactor (MBR) were evaluated in terms of permeate characteristics and variability (COD, colour, total N and P, microbiological counts), of membrane specific flux (l m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1)) and other operational parameters (sludge growth and yield).

  2. Evaluation of parallel milliliter-scale stirred-tank bioreactors for the study of biphasic whole-cell biocatalysis with ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Dennewald, Danielle; Hortsch, Ralf; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    As clear structure-activity relationships are still rare for ionic liquids, preliminary experiments are necessary for the process development of biphasic whole-cell processes involving these solvents. To reduce the time investment and the material costs, the process development of such biphasic reaction systems would profit from a small-scale high-throughput platform. Exemplarily, the reduction of 2-octanone to (R)-2-octanol by a recombinant Escherichia coli in a biphasic ionic liquid/water system was studied in a miniaturized stirred-tank bioreactor system allowing the parallel operation of up to 48 reactors at the mL-scale. The results were compared to those obtained in a 20-fold larger stirred-tank reactor. The maximum local energy dissipation was evaluated at the larger scale and compared to the data available for the small-scale reactors, to verify if similar mass transfer could be obtained at both scales. Thereafter, the reaction kinetics and final conversions reached in different reactions setups were analysed. The results were in good agreement between both scales for varying ionic liquids and for ionic liquid volume fractions up to 40%. The parallel bioreactor system can thus be used for the process development of the majority of biphasic reaction systems involving ionic liquids, reducing the time and resource investment during the process development of this type of applications.

  3. Modeling of Pilot-Scale Salt-cake Dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Toghiani, R.K.; Smith, L.T.; Lindner, J.S.; Tachiev, G.I.; Yaari, G.

    2006-07-01

    Large portions of the high-level waste present at the Hanford Site and Savannah River Site are comprised of porous salts with associated interstitial liquors. Various processes have been proposed wherein the aqueous phase is removed followed by dissolution of the salt with further mixing or blending of the resulting stream in a receiver tank. This leads to a large reduction in the radioactivity for the dissolved salt-cake; however, the interstitial retrieval process is hindered by capillary forces within the salt-cake pores and large aqueous phase fractions may remain. Thus, the interim stabilized or low-curie salt processes may have less separation effectiveness than desired. In addition, based on the initial extent of pretreatment of the waste, the salt-cake may be either unsaturated or hydraulically saturated. Different interactions are expected based on the contact of the diluent with the salt and/or on mixing the diluent with the salt and some fraction of interstitial liquid. The initial approximation is that the dissolution is governed by the associated thermodynamics of the system. This may be correct assuming sufficient time for contact between the salt and diluent has occurred. Pilot-scale simulant salt-cake dissolution experiments have been conducted by the Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University. As part of a companion program, these experiments have been modeled at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL, Mississippi State University) using the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP, OLI Systems, Inc.). Hanford simulant compositions were examined under unsaturated and saturated conditions. To account for channeling that occurred during the unsaturated experiment, additional operations were required for the process flowsheet. Direct modeling of the saturated bed was possible without this consideration. The results have impacts on the salt-cake retrieval process. First, depending on the extent of interstitial

  4. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    PubMed

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  5. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    PubMed

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality. PMID:22380105

  6. Multi-scale spatio-temporal modeling: lifelines of microorganisms in bioreactors and tracking molecules in cells.

    PubMed

    Lapin, Alexei; Klann, Michael; Reuss, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Agent-based models are rigorous tools for simulating the interactions of individual entities, such as organisms or molecules within cells and assessing their effects on the dynamic behavior of the system as a whole. In context with bioprocess and biosystems engineering there are several interesting and important applications. This contribution aims at introducing this strategy with the aid of two examples characterized by striking distinctions in the scale of the individual entities and the mode of their interactions. In the first example a structured-segregated model is applied to travel along the lifelines of single cells in the environment of a three-dimensional turbulent field of a stirred bioreactor. The modeling approach is based on an Euler-Lagrange formulation of the system. The strategy permits one to account for the heterogeneity present in real reactors in both the fluid and cellular phases, respectively. The individual response of the cells to local variations in the extracellular concentrations is pictured by a dynamically structured model of the key reactions of the central metabolism. The approach permits analysis of the lifelines of individual cells in space and time.The second application of the individual modeling approach deals with dynamic modeling of signal transduction pathways in individual cells. Usually signal transduction networks are portrayed as being wired together in a spatially defined manner. Living circuitry, however, is placed in highly malleable internal architecture. Creating a homogenous bag of molecules, a well-mixed system, the dynamic behavior of which is modeled with a set of ordinary differential equations is normally not valid. The dynamics of the MAP kinase and a steroid hormone pathway serve as examples to illustrate how single molecule tracking can be linked with the stochasticity of biochemical reactions, where diffusion and reaction occur in a probabilistic manner. The problem of hindered diffusion caused by

  7. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BENGART AND MEMEL (BENCH-SCALE), GULFPORT (BENCH AND PILOT-SCALE), MONTANA POLE (BENCH-SCALE), AND WESTERN PROCESSING (BENCH-SCALE) TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents summary data on the results of various treatability studies (bench and pilot scale), conducted at three different sites where soils were contaminated with dioxins or PCBs. The synopsis is meant to show rough performance levels under a variety of differen...

  8. Scale-up of osmotic membrane bioreactors by modeling salt accumulation and draw solution dilution using hollow-fiber membrane characteristics and operation conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suhan

    2014-08-01

    A full-scale osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) model was developed to simulate salt accumulation, draw solution (DS) dilution, and water flux over the hollow-fiber membrane length. The model uses the OMBR design parameters, DS properties, and forward osmosis (FO) membrane characteristics obtained from lab-scale tests. The modeling results revealed a tremendous water flux decline (10→0.82LMH) and short solids retention time (SRT: 5days) due to salt accumulation and DS dilution when OMBR is scaled up using commercially available DS and FO membrane. Simulated water flux is a result of interplay among reverse salt flux, internal and external concentration polarization (ICP and ECP). ECP adversely impacts water flux considerably in full-scale OMBR although it is often ignored in previous works. The OMBR model makes it possible to select better DS properties (higher flow rate and salt concentration) and FO membranes with higher water flux propensity in full-scale operation.

  9. Scale-up of osmotic membrane bioreactors by modeling salt accumulation and draw solution dilution using hollow-fiber membrane characteristics and operation conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suhan

    2014-08-01

    A full-scale osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) model was developed to simulate salt accumulation, draw solution (DS) dilution, and water flux over the hollow-fiber membrane length. The model uses the OMBR design parameters, DS properties, and forward osmosis (FO) membrane characteristics obtained from lab-scale tests. The modeling results revealed a tremendous water flux decline (10→0.82LMH) and short solids retention time (SRT: 5days) due to salt accumulation and DS dilution when OMBR is scaled up using commercially available DS and FO membrane. Simulated water flux is a result of interplay among reverse salt flux, internal and external concentration polarization (ICP and ECP). ECP adversely impacts water flux considerably in full-scale OMBR although it is often ignored in previous works. The OMBR model makes it possible to select better DS properties (higher flow rate and salt concentration) and FO membranes with higher water flux propensity in full-scale operation. PMID:24746768

  10. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  11. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  12. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  13. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  14. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

  15. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  16. Virus removal retention challenge tests performed at lab scale and pilot scale during operation of membrane units.

    PubMed

    Humbert, H; Machinal, C; Labaye, Ivan; Schrotter, J C

    2011-01-01

    The determination of the virus retention capabilities of UF units during operation is essential for the operators of drinking water treatment facilities in order to guarantee an efficient and stable removal of viruses through time. In previous studies, an effective method (MS2-phage challenge tests) was developed by the Water Research Center of Veolia Environnement for the measurement of the virus retention rates (Log Removal Rate, LRV) of commercially available hollow fiber membranes at lab scale. In the present work, the protocol for monitoring membrane performance was transferred from lab scale to pilot scale. Membrane performances were evaluated during pilot trial and compared to the results obtained at lab scale with fibers taken from the pilot plant modules. PFU culture method was compared to RT-PCR method for the calculation of LRV in both cases. Preliminary tests at lab scale showed that both methods can be used interchangeably. For tests conducted on virgin membrane, a good consistency was observed between lab and pilot scale results with the two analytical methods used. This work intends to show that a reliable determination of the membranes performances based on RT-PCR analytical method can be achieved during the operation of the UF units.

  17. Laboratory and pilot scale pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse by acidified aqueous glycerol solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhanying; Wong, Heng H; Albertson, Peter L; Doherty, William O S; O'Hara, Ian M

    2013-06-01

    Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with acidified aqueous glycerol solution was evaluated at both laboratory and pilot scales. Laboratory scale pretreatment (4.00 g dry mass in 40.00 g liquid) with glycerol solutions containing ≤ 20 wt.% water and 1.2 wt.% HCl at 130°C for 60 min resulted in biomass having glucan digestibilities of ≥ 88%. Comparable glucan enzymatic digestibility of 90% was achieved with bagasse pretreated at pilot scale (10 kg dry mass in 60 kg liquid) using a glycerol solution containing 0.4 wt.% HCl and 17 wt.% water at 130°C for 15 min. We attribute more efficient pretreatment at pilot scale (despite shorter reaction time and reduced acid content) to improved mixing and heat transfer in a horizontal reactor. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with acid-catalysed glycerol solutions likely produces glycerol-glycosides, which together with hydrolysed lignin are potential substrates for the production of biopolymers.

  18. Optimization of process parameters for pilot-scale liquid-state bioconversion of sewage sludge by mixed fungal inoculation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Roshanida A; Molla, Abul Hossain; Barghash, Hind F A; Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun

    2016-01-01

    Liquid-state bioconversion (LSB) technique has great potential for application in bioremediation of sewage sludge. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimum level of LSB process of sewage sludge treatment by mixed fungal (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum) inoculation in a pilot-scale bioreactor. The optimization of process factors was investigated using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design considering hydraulic retention time (HRT) and substrate influent concentration (S0) on nine responses for optimizing and fitted to the regression model. The optimum region was successfully depicted by optimized conditions, which was identified as the best fit for convenient multiple responses. The results from process verification were in close agreement with those obtained through predictions. Considering five runs of different conditions of HRT (low, medium and high 3.62, 6.13 and 8.27 days, respectively) with the range of S0 value (the highest 12.56 and the lowest 7.85 g L(-1)), it was monitored as the lower HRT was considered as the best option because it required minimum days of treatment than the others with influent concentration around 10 g L(-1). Therefore, optimum process factors of 3.62 days for HRT and 10.12 g L(-1) for S0 were identified as the best fit for LSB process and its performance was deviated by less than 5% in most of the cases compared to the predicted values. The recorded optimized results address a dynamic development in commercial-scale biological treatment of wastewater for safe and environment-friendly disposal in near future.

  19. Optimization of process parameters for pilot-scale liquid-state bioconversion of sewage sludge by mixed fungal inoculation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Roshanida A; Molla, Abul Hossain; Barghash, Hind F A; Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun

    2016-01-01

    Liquid-state bioconversion (LSB) technique has great potential for application in bioremediation of sewage sludge. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimum level of LSB process of sewage sludge treatment by mixed fungal (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum) inoculation in a pilot-scale bioreactor. The optimization of process factors was investigated using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design considering hydraulic retention time (HRT) and substrate influent concentration (S0) on nine responses for optimizing and fitted to the regression model. The optimum region was successfully depicted by optimized conditions, which was identified as the best fit for convenient multiple responses. The results from process verification were in close agreement with those obtained through predictions. Considering five runs of different conditions of HRT (low, medium and high 3.62, 6.13 and 8.27 days, respectively) with the range of S0 value (the highest 12.56 and the lowest 7.85 g L(-1)), it was monitored as the lower HRT was considered as the best option because it required minimum days of treatment than the others with influent concentration around 10 g L(-1). Therefore, optimum process factors of 3.62 days for HRT and 10.12 g L(-1) for S0 were identified as the best fit for LSB process and its performance was deviated by less than 5% in most of the cases compared to the predicted values. The recorded optimized results address a dynamic development in commercial-scale biological treatment of wastewater for safe and environment-friendly disposal in near future. PMID:26111620

  20. Pilot-scale constructed wetlands for petroleum-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Bedessem, Marjorie E; Ferro, Ari M; Hiegel, Trevor

    2007-06-01

    A pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using constructed treatment wetlands to remediate recovered groundwater from the subsurface of a former refinery site. The pilot system consisted of four subsurface flow treatment cells operated in an upward vertical flow mode and equipped with subsurface aeration lines. The treatment system showed minimal capability for methyl-tert-butyl ether removal, but did effectively remove total petroleum hydrocarbons-deisel range organics and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, m-, and p-xylenes (total BTEX). Effluent benzene concentrations were less than 0.05 mg/L in 70% of the samples from a treatment cell using subsurface aeration and a wetland sod amendment. Based on 1 year of operating data, cumulative mass removal approached 80% for benzene and 88% for total BTEX.

  1. Cr(VI) and COD removal from landfill leachate by polyculture constructed wetland at a pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Madera-Parra, C A; Peña, M R; Peña, E J; Lens, P N L

    2015-09-01

    Four subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) at a pilot scale planted with a polyculture of the tropical plants Gynerium sagittatum (Gs), Colocasia esculenta (Ce) and Heliconia psittacorum (He) were evaluated for 7 months. The CW cells with an area of 17.94 m(2) and 0.60 m (h) each and 0.5 m of gravel were operated at continuous gravity flow (Q = 0.5 m(3) day(-1)) and a theoretical HRT of 7 days each and treating landfill leachate for the removal of filtered chemical oxygen demand (CODf), BOD5, TKN, NH4 (+), NO3 (-), PO4 (3-)-P and Cr(VI). Three CWs were divided into three sections, and each section (5.98 m(2)) was seeded with 36 cuttings of each species (plant density of six cuttings per square metre). The other unit was planted randomly. The final distributions of plants in the bioreactors were as follows: CW I (He-Ce-Gs), CW II (randomly), CW III (Ce-Gs-He) and CW IV (Gs-He-Ce). The units received effluent from a high-rate anaerobic pond (BLAAT®). The results show a slightly alkaline and anoxic environment in the solid-liquid matrix (pH = 8.0; 0.5-2 mg L(-1) dissolved oxygen (DO)). CODf removal was 67 %, BOD5 80 %, and TKN and NH4 (+) 50-57 %; NO3 (-) effluents were slightly higher than the influent, PO4 (3-)-P (38 %) and Cr(VI) between 50 and 58 %. CW IV gave the best performance, indicating that plant distribution may affect the removal capacity of the bioreactors. He and Gs were the plants exhibiting a translocation factor (TF) of Cr(VI) >1. The evaluated plants demonstrated their suitability for phytoremediation of landfill leachate, and all of them can be categorized as Cr(VI) accumulators. The CWs also showed that they could be a low-cost operation as a secondary system for treatment of intermediated landfill leachate (LL).

  2. Cr(VI) and COD removal from landfill leachate by polyculture constructed wetland at a pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Madera-Parra, C A; Peña, M R; Peña, E J; Lens, P N L

    2015-09-01

    Four subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) at a pilot scale planted with a polyculture of the tropical plants Gynerium sagittatum (Gs), Colocasia esculenta (Ce) and Heliconia psittacorum (He) were evaluated for 7 months. The CW cells with an area of 17.94 m(2) and 0.60 m (h) each and 0.5 m of gravel were operated at continuous gravity flow (Q = 0.5 m(3) day(-1)) and a theoretical HRT of 7 days each and treating landfill leachate for the removal of filtered chemical oxygen demand (CODf), BOD5, TKN, NH4 (+), NO3 (-), PO4 (3-)-P and Cr(VI). Three CWs were divided into three sections, and each section (5.98 m(2)) was seeded with 36 cuttings of each species (plant density of six cuttings per square metre). The other unit was planted randomly. The final distributions of plants in the bioreactors were as follows: CW I (He-Ce-Gs), CW II (randomly), CW III (Ce-Gs-He) and CW IV (Gs-He-Ce). The units received effluent from a high-rate anaerobic pond (BLAAT®). The results show a slightly alkaline and anoxic environment in the solid-liquid matrix (pH = 8.0; 0.5-2 mg L(-1) dissolved oxygen (DO)). CODf removal was 67 %, BOD5 80 %, and TKN and NH4 (+) 50-57 %; NO3 (-) effluents were slightly higher than the influent, PO4 (3-)-P (38 %) and Cr(VI) between 50 and 58 %. CW IV gave the best performance, indicating that plant distribution may affect the removal capacity of the bioreactors. He and Gs were the plants exhibiting a translocation factor (TF) of Cr(VI) >1. The evaluated plants demonstrated their suitability for phytoremediation of landfill leachate, and all of them can be categorized as Cr(VI) accumulators. The CWs also showed that they could be a low-cost operation as a secondary system for treatment of intermediated landfill leachate (LL). PMID:25253061

  3. Strategy using bioreactors and specially selected microorganisms for bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with creosote and pentachlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E.; Ross, D.; Colvin, R.J.; Middaugh, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    A two-stage, continuous-flow, sequential inoculation bioreactor strategy for the bioremediation of ground water contaminated with creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) was evaluated at the bench- and pilot-scale levels. Performance of continually stirred tank reactors (CSTR) using specially-selected microorganisms was assessed according to chemical analyses of system influent, effluent and bioreactor residues, performing a mass balance evaluation, and comparative biological toxicity and teratogenicity measurements. When specially-selected bacteria capable of utilizing (mineralizing) high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW PAHs) as primary growth substrates were used in pilot-sale bioreactors (120 gal), the concentration of creosote constituents was reduced from ca. 1,000 ppm in the ground water feed (flow rate = 30 GPD) to <7 ppm in the system effluent (removal efficiency of >99%). Notably, the cumulative concentration of 8 HMS PAHs (containing 4 or more fused rings) was reduced from 368 ppm in the ground water fed to 5.2 ppm in the system effluent. Moreover, the toxicity and teratogenicity of the bioreactor effluent was significantly reduced. Biodegradation of PCP was limited (ca. 18%) due in large part to poor inoculation and a high degree of abiotic loss (bioaccumulation and adsorption). In general, field data correlated well with those obtained from bench-scale studies.

  4. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump-and-treat testing at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. The test will be conducted in fulfillment of interim Milestone M-15-06E to begin pilot-scale pump-and-treat operations by August 1994. The scope of the test was determined based on the results of lab/bench-scale tests (WHC 1993a) conducted in fulfillment of Milestone M-15-06B. These milestones were established per agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and documented on Hanford Federal of Ecology Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form M-15-93-02. This test plan discusses a pilot-scale pump-and-treat test for the chromium plume associated with the D Reactor portion of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. Data will be collected during the pilot test to assess the effectiveness, operating parameters, and resource needs of the ion exchange (IX) pump-and-treat system. The test will provide information to assess the ability to remove contaminants by extracting groundwater from wells and treating extracted groundwater using IX. Bench-scale tests were conducted previously in which chromium VI was identified as the primary contaminant of concern in the 100-D reactor plume. The DOWEX 21K{trademark} resin was recommended for pilot-scale testing of an IX pump-and-treat system. The bench-scale test demonstrated that the system could remove chromium VI from groundwater to concentrations less than 50 ppb. The test also identified process parameters to monitor during pilot-scale testing. Water will be re-injected into the plume using wells outside the zone of influence and upgradient of the extraction well.

  5. Assessment of mass transfer and mixing in rigid lab-scale disposable bioreactors at low power input levels.

    PubMed

    van Eikenhorst, Gerco; Thomassen, Yvonne E; van der Pol, Leo A; Bakker, Wilfried A M

    2014-01-01

    Mass transfer, mixing times and power consumption were measured in rigid disposable stirred tank bioreactors and compared to those of a traditional glass bioreactor. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient and mixing times are usually determined at high agitation speeds in combination with sparged aeration as used for single cell suspension and most bacterial cultures. In contrast, here low agitation speeds combined with headspace aeration were applied. These settings are generally used for cultivation of mammalian cells growing adherent to microcarriers. The rigid disposable vessels showed similar engineering characteristics compared to a traditional glass bioreactor. On the basis of the presented results appropriate settings for adherent cell culture, normally operated at a maximum power input level of 5 W m(-3) , can be selected. Depending on the disposable bioreactor used, a stirrer speed ranging from 38 to 147 rpm will result in such a power input of 5 W m(-3) . This power input will mix the fluid to a degree of 95% in 22 ± 1 s and produce a volumetric mass transfer coefficient of 0.46 ± 0.07 h(-1) .

  6. Assessment of mass transfer and mixing in rigid lab-scale disposable bioreactors at low power input levels.

    PubMed

    van Eikenhorst, Gerco; Thomassen, Yvonne E; van der Pol, Leo A; Bakker, Wilfried A M

    2014-01-01

    Mass transfer, mixing times and power consumption were measured in rigid disposable stirred tank bioreactors and compared to those of a traditional glass bioreactor. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient and mixing times are usually determined at high agitation speeds in combination with sparged aeration as used for single cell suspension and most bacterial cultures. In contrast, here low agitation speeds combined with headspace aeration were applied. These settings are generally used for cultivation of mammalian cells growing adherent to microcarriers. The rigid disposable vessels showed similar engineering characteristics compared to a traditional glass bioreactor. On the basis of the presented results appropriate settings for adherent cell culture, normally operated at a maximum power input level of 5 W m(-3) , can be selected. Depending on the disposable bioreactor used, a stirrer speed ranging from 38 to 147 rpm will result in such a power input of 5 W m(-3) . This power input will mix the fluid to a degree of 95% in 22 ± 1 s and produce a volumetric mass transfer coefficient of 0.46 ± 0.07 h(-1) . PMID:25139070

  7. Nitrosamines in pilot-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment plants with ozonation.

    PubMed

    Gerrity, Daniel; Pisarenko, Aleksey N; Marti, Erica; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Gerringer, Fred; Reungoat, Julien; Dickenson, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Ozone-based treatment trains offer a sustainable option for potable reuse applications, but nitrosamine formation during ozonation poses a challenge for municipalities seeking to avoid reverse osmosis and high-dose ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Six nitrosamines were monitored in full-scale and pilot-scale wastewater treatment trains. The primary focus was on eight treatment trains employing ozonation of secondary or tertiary wastewater effluents, but two treatment trains with chlorination or UV disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent and another with full advanced treatment (i.e., reverse osmosis and advanced oxidation) were also included for comparison. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were the most prevalent nitrosamines in untreated (up to 89 ng/L and 67 ng/L, respectively) and treated wastewater. N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were detected at one facility each, while N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPrA) and N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) were less than their method reporting limits (MRLs) in all samples. Ozone-induced NDMA formation ranging from <10 to 143 ng/L was observed at all but one site, but the reasons for the variation in formation remain unclear. Activated sludge, biological activated carbon (BAC), and UV photolysis were effective for NDMA mitigation. NMOR was also removed with activated sludge but did not form during ozonation. PMID:25037928

  8. Nitrosamines in pilot-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment plants with ozonation.

    PubMed

    Gerrity, Daniel; Pisarenko, Aleksey N; Marti, Erica; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Gerringer, Fred; Reungoat, Julien; Dickenson, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Ozone-based treatment trains offer a sustainable option for potable reuse applications, but nitrosamine formation during ozonation poses a challenge for municipalities seeking to avoid reverse osmosis and high-dose ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Six nitrosamines were monitored in full-scale and pilot-scale wastewater treatment trains. The primary focus was on eight treatment trains employing ozonation of secondary or tertiary wastewater effluents, but two treatment trains with chlorination or UV disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent and another with full advanced treatment (i.e., reverse osmosis and advanced oxidation) were also included for comparison. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were the most prevalent nitrosamines in untreated (up to 89 ng/L and 67 ng/L, respectively) and treated wastewater. N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were detected at one facility each, while N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPrA) and N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) were less than their method reporting limits (MRLs) in all samples. Ozone-induced NDMA formation ranging from <10 to 143 ng/L was observed at all but one site, but the reasons for the variation in formation remain unclear. Activated sludge, biological activated carbon (BAC), and UV photolysis were effective for NDMA mitigation. NMOR was also removed with activated sludge but did not form during ozonation.

  9. Summary of pilot-scale activities with resorcinol ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Sargent, T.N.; Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, J.P.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-10-02

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating vitrification technology for treatment of low level mixed wastes (LLMW). They have chartered the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to study vitrification of the wastes through an Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan (TTP). SRTC`s efforts have included crucible-scale studies and pilot scale testing on simulated LLMW sludges, resins, soils, and other solid wastes. Results from the crucible-scale studies have been used as the basis for the pilot-scale demonstrations. As part of the fiscal year (FY) 1995 activities, SRTC performed crucible-scale studies with organic resins. This waste stream was selected because of the large number of DOE sites, as well as commercial industries, that use resins for treatment of liquid wastes. Pilot-scale studies were to be completed in FY 1995, but could not be due to a reduction in funding. Instead, a compilation of pilot-scale tests with organic resins performed under the guidance of SRTC was provided in this report. The studies which will be discussed used a resorcinol- formaldehyde resin loaded with non-radioactive cesium, which was fed with simulated wastewater treatment sludge feed. The first study was performed at the SRTC in the mini-melter, 1/100th scale of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter, and also involved limited crucible-scale studies to determine the resin loading obtainable. The other study was performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research (Center) and involved both crucible and pilot-scale testing in the Stir-Melter stirred-melter. Both studies were successful in vitrifying the resin in simulated radioactive sludge and glass additive feeds.

  10. Multimembrane Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Toohyon; Shuler, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Set of hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes in bioreactor allows product of reaction to be separated, while nutrients fed to reacting cells and byproducts removed from them. Separation process requires no externally supplied energy; free energy of reaction sufficient. Membranes greatly increase productivity of metabolizing cells by continuously removing product and byproducts, which might otherwise inhibit reaction, and by continuously adding oxygen and organic nutrients.

  11. Two new disposable bioreactors for plant cell culture: The wave and undertow bioreactor and the slug bubble bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier; Hénault, Nicolas; Cuvier, Arnaud; Bastin, Maryse; Aknin, Aziz; Dubreuil, Julien; Pétiard, Vincent

    2007-04-01

    The present article describes two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors. The first one, the WU bioreactor, is based on the principle of a wave and undertow mechanism that provides agitation while offering convenient mixing and aeration to the plant cell culture contained within the bioreactor. The second one is a high aspect ratio bubble column bioreactor, where agitation and aeration are achieved through the intermittent generation of large diameter bubbles, "Taylor-like" or "slug bubbles" (SB bioreactor). It allows an easy volume increase from a few liters to larger volumes up to several hundred liters with the use of multiple units. The cultivation of tobacco and soya cells producing isoflavones is described up to 70 and 100 L working volume for the SB bioreactor and WU bioreactor, respectively. The bioreactors being disposable and pre-sterilized before use, cleaning, sterilization, and maintenance operations are strongly reduced or eliminated. Both bioreactors represent efficient and low cost cell culture systems, applicable to various cell cultures at small and medium scale, complementary to traditional stainless-steel bioreactors.

  12. REMOVAL OF METHYL T-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) FROM WATER BY PERVAPORATION: BENCH-SCALE AND PILOT SCALE EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of pervaporation to remove methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) from water was evaluated at bench- and pilot-scales. Process parameters studied included flow rate, temperature, MTBE concentration, membrane module type, and permeate pressure. Pervaporation performance was ass...

  13. Modeling bioaugmentation with nitrifiers in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, Alberto; Munz, Giulio; Mori, Gualtiero; Makinia, Jacek; Lubello, Claudio; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2015-01-01

    Bioaugmentation with nitrifiers was studied using two pilot-scale membrane bioreactors, with the purpose of assessing the suitability of state-of-the-art activated sludge models (ASMs) in predicting the efficiency of bioaugmentation as a function of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that the temperature difference between seeding and seeded reactors (ΔT) affects bioaugmentation efficiency. Experimental data were accurately predicted when ΔT was within a range of up to 10 °C at the higher range, and when the temperature was significantly lower in the seeded reactor compared to the seeding one, standard ASMs overestimated the efficiency of bioaugmentation. A modified ASM, capable of accurately representing the behavior of seeded nitrifying biomass in the presence of high ΔT, would require the inclusion of the effect of temperature time gradients on nitrifiers. A simple linear correlation between ΔT and the Arrhenius coefficient was proposed as a preliminary step.

  14. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  15. Development of a Pilot-Scale Facility for Melt-Dilute Treatment of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, H.

    2002-09-17

    Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) developed the melt-dilute process for treating spent fuel. Using laboratory concepts, SRTC designed and constructed a pilot-scale facility for processing radioactive fuel. Start-up testing of the facility confirmed cell operations and remote handling of fuel assemblies. In early 2002, the DOE decided to shut down the L-Area facility at SRS prior to melting any irradiated fuel. The modular facility is now in cold stand-by. This paper discusses the design and testing of the pilot-scale facility.

  16. A pilot rating scale for evaluating failure transients in electronic flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindson, William S.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.; Eshow, Michelle M.

    1990-01-01

    A pilot rating scale was developed to describe the effects of transients in helicopter flight-control systems on safety-of-flight and on pilot recovery action. The scale was applied to the evaluation of hardovers that could potentially occur in the digital flight-control system being designed for a variable-stability UH-60A research helicopter. Tests were conducted in a large moving-base simulator and in flight. The results of the investigation were combined with existing airworthiness criteria to determine quantitative reliability design goals for the control system.

  17. Swine manure-based pilot-scale algal biomass production system for fuel production and wastewater treatment--a case study.

    PubMed

    Min, Min; Hu, Bing; Mohr, Michael J; Shi, Aimin; Ding, Jinfeng; Sun, Yong; Jiang, Yongcheng; Fu, Zongqiang; Griffith, Richard; Hussain, Fida; Mu, Dongyan; Nie, Yong; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang; Ruan, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Integration of wastewater treatment with algae cultivation is one of the promising ways to achieve an economically viable and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel production on a commercial scale. This study focused on pilot-scale algal biomass production system development, cultivation process optimization, and integration with swine manure wastewater treatment. The areal algal biomass productivity for the cultivation system that we developed ranged from 8.08 to 14.59 and 19.15-23.19 g/m(2) × day, based on ash-free dry weight and total suspended solid (TSS), respectively, which were higher than or comparable with those in literature. The harvested algal biomass had lipid content about 1.77-3.55%, which was relatively low, but could be converted to bio-oil via fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis system developed in our lab. The lipids in the harvested algal biomass had a significantly higher percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids than those grown in lab conditions, which may be attributed to the observed temperature and light fluctuations. The nutrient removal rate was highly correlated to the biomass productivity. The NH₃-N, TN, COD, and PO₄-P reduction rates for the north-located photo-bioreactor (PBR-N) in July were 2.65, 3.19, 7.21, and 0.067 g/m(2) × day, respectively, which were higher than those in other studies. The cultivation system had advantages of high mixotrophic growth rate, low operating cost, as well as reduced land footprint due to the stacked-tray bioreactor design used in the study. PMID:24203276

  18. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2014-09-15

    Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15°C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day(-1) in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day(-1) in slurry bioreactors for C16-C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction were comparable in these two systems.

  19. Consecutive anaerobic-aerobic treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and lignocellulosic materials in laboratory-scale landfill-bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Pellera, Frantseska-Maria; Pasparakis, Emmanouil; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2016-10-01

    The scope of this study is to evaluate the use of laboratory-scale landfill-bioreactors, operated consecutively under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, for the combined treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with two different co-substrates of lignocellulosic nature, namely green waste (GW) and dried olive pomace (DOP). According to the results such a system would represent a promising option for eventual larger scale applications. Similar variation patterns among bioreactors indicate a relatively defined sequence of processes. Initially operating the systems under anaerobic conditions would allow energetic exploitation of the substrates, while the implementation of a leachate treatment system ultimately aiming at nutrient recovery, especially during the anaerobic phase, could be a profitable option for the whole system, due to the high organic load that characterizes this effluent. In order to improve the overall effectiveness of such a system, measures towards enhancing methane contents of produced biogas, such as substrate pretreatment, should be investigated. Moreover, the subsequent aerobic phase should have the goal of stabilizing the residual materials and finally obtain an end material eventually suitable for other purposes. PMID:27497587

  20. Consecutive anaerobic-aerobic treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and lignocellulosic materials in laboratory-scale landfill-bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Pellera, Frantseska-Maria; Pasparakis, Emmanouil; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2016-10-01

    The scope of this study is to evaluate the use of laboratory-scale landfill-bioreactors, operated consecutively under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, for the combined treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with two different co-substrates of lignocellulosic nature, namely green waste (GW) and dried olive pomace (DOP). According to the results such a system would represent a promising option for eventual larger scale applications. Similar variation patterns among bioreactors indicate a relatively defined sequence of processes. Initially operating the systems under anaerobic conditions would allow energetic exploitation of the substrates, while the implementation of a leachate treatment system ultimately aiming at nutrient recovery, especially during the anaerobic phase, could be a profitable option for the whole system, due to the high organic load that characterizes this effluent. In order to improve the overall effectiveness of such a system, measures towards enhancing methane contents of produced biogas, such as substrate pretreatment, should be investigated. Moreover, the subsequent aerobic phase should have the goal of stabilizing the residual materials and finally obtain an end material eventually suitable for other purposes.

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of kitchen waste and fruit/vegetable waste: lab-scale and pilot-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Shen, Fei; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Li, Xiujin

    2014-12-01

    The anaerobic digestion performances of kitchen waste (KW) and fruit/vegetable waste (FVW) were investigated for establishing engineering digestion system. The study was conducted from lab-scale to pilot-scale, including batch, single-phase and two-phase experiments. The lab-scale experimental results showed that the ratio of FVW to KW at 5:8 presented higher methane productivity (0.725 L CH4/g VS), and thereby was recommended. Two-phase digestion appeared to have higher treatment capacity and better buffer ability for high organic loading rate (OLR) (up to 5.0 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1)), compared with the low OLR of 3.5 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1) for single-phase system. For two-phase digestion, the pilot-scale system showed similar performances to those of lab-scale one, except slightly lower maximum OLR of 4.5 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1) was allowed. The pilot-scale system proved to be profitable with a net profit of 10.173$/ton as higher OLR (⩾ 3.0 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1)) was used.

  2. Demonstrating Functional Equivalence of Pilot and Production Scale Freeze-Drying of BCG.

    PubMed

    Ten Have, R; Reubsaet, K; van Herpen, P; Kersten, G; Amorij, J-P

    2016-01-01

    Process analytical technology (PAT)-tools were used to monitor freeze-drying of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) at pilot and production scale. Among the evaluated PAT-tools, there is the novel use of the vacuum valve open/close frequency for determining the endpoint of primary drying at production scale. The duration of primary drying, the BCG survival rate, and the residual moisture content (RMC) were evaluated using two different freeze-drying protocols and were found to be independent of the freeze-dryer scale evidencing functional equivalence. The absence of an effect of the freeze-dryer scale on the process underlines the feasibility of the pilot scale freeze-dryer for further BCG freeze-drying process optimization which may be carried out using a medium without BCG. PMID:26981867

  3. Demonstrating Functional Equivalence of Pilot and Production Scale Freeze-Drying of BCG

    PubMed Central

    ten Have, R.; Reubsaet, K.; van Herpen, P.; Kersten, G.; Amorij, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Process analytical technology (PAT)-tools were used to monitor freeze-drying of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) at pilot and production scale. Among the evaluated PAT-tools, there is the novel use of the vacuum valve open/close frequency for determining the endpoint of primary drying at production scale. The duration of primary drying, the BCG survival rate, and the residual moisture content (RMC) were evaluated using two different freeze-drying protocols and were found to be independent of the freeze-dryer scale evidencing functional equivalence. The absence of an effect of the freeze-dryer scale on the process underlines the feasibility of the pilot scale freeze-dryer for further BCG freeze-drying process optimization which may be carried out using a medium without BCG. PMID:26981867

  4. Bag Bioreactor Based on Wave-Induced Motion: Characteristics and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibl, Regine; Werner, Sören; Eibl, Dieter

    Today wave-mixed bag bioreactors are common devices in modern biotechnological processes where simple, safe and flexible production has top priority. Numerous studies that have been published on ex vivo generation of cells, viruses and therapeutic agents during the last 10 years have confirmed their suitability and even superiority to stirred bioreactors made from glass or stainless steel for animal as well as plant cell cultivations. In these studies the wave-mixed bag bioreactors enabled middle to high cell density and adequate productivity in laboratory and pilot scale. This mainly results from low-shear conditions and highly efficient oxygen transfer for cell cultures, as demonstrated for the widely used BioWave®.Starting with an overview of wave-mixed bag bioreactors and their common operation strategies, this chapter delineates engineering aspects of BioWave®, which like Wave Reactor™ and BIOSTAT®CultiBag RM originates from the prototype of a wave-mixed bag bioreactor introduced in 1998. Subsequently, the second part of the chapter focuses on reported BioWave® applications. Conditions and results from cultivations with animal cells, plant cells, microbial cells and nematodes are presented and discussed.

  5. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in

  6. Complexity and Pilot Workload Metrics for the Evaluation of Adaptive Flight Controls on a Full Scale Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Burken, John J.; Larson, David; Johnson, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Flight research has shown the effectiveness of adaptive flight controls for improving aircraft safety and performance in the presence of uncertainties. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project designed and conducted a series of flight experiments to study the impact of variations in adaptive controller design complexity on performance and handling qualities. A novel complexity metric was devised to compare the degrees of simplicity achieved in three variations of a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) for NASA's F-18 (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (Gen-2A) aircraft. The complexity measures of these controllers are also compared to that of an earlier MRAC design for NASA's Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project and flown on a highly modified F-15 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). Pilot comments during the IRAC research flights pointed to the importance of workload on handling qualities ratings for failure and damage scenarios. Modifications to existing pilot aggressiveness and duty cycle metrics are presented and applied to the IRAC controllers. Finally, while adaptive controllers may alleviate the effects of failures or damage on an aircraft's handling qualities, they also have the potential to introduce annoying changes to the flight dynamics or to the operation of aircraft systems. A nuisance rating scale is presented for the categorization of nuisance side-effects of adaptive controllers.

  7. ON-SITE ENGINEERING REPORT OF THE SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR PILOT-SCALE TESTING ON CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of pilot-scale bioslurry treatment on creosote-contaminated soil was evaluated. Five reactors containing 66 L of slurry (30% soil by weight), were operated in parallel. The soil was a sandy soil with minor gravel content. The pilot-scale phase utilized an inoculum...

  8. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF BROMINE ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports on a study to evaluate organic combustion by-product emissions while feeding varying amounts of bromine (Br) and chlorine (Cl) into a pilot-scale incinerator burning surrogate waste materials. (NOTE: Adding brominated organic compounds to a pilot-scale incinerat...

  9. PILOT SCALE REACTOR FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL DECHLORINATION OF MODEL CHLORINATED CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrochemical degradation (ECD) is a promising technology for in-situ remediation of diversely contaminated submarine matrices, by the application of low level DC electric fields. This study, prompted by successful bench-scale electrochemical dechlorination of Trichloroe...

  10. A pilot scale electrical infrared dry-peeling system for tomatoes: design and performance evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pilot scale infrared dry-peeling system for tomatoes was designed and constructed. The system consisted of three major sections including the IR heating, vacuum, and pinch roller sections. The peeling performance of the system was examined under different operational conditions using tomatoes with...

  11. SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM AT THE ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation or SITE Program, an evaluation was made of the Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System during 17 separate test runs under varying operating conditions. The tests were conducted at the Demode Road Superfund site in Ros...

  12. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF NEW RESIN APPLICATION EQUIPMENT FOR FIBER- REINFORCED PLASTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of a pilot-scale evaluation of new resin application equipment for fiber- reinforced plastics. The study, an evaluation and comparison of styrene emissions, utilized Magnum's FIT(TM) nozzle with conventional spray guns and flow coaters (operated at both ...

  13. FATE OF SEX HORMONES IN TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormon...

  14. REVIEW OF BENCH-, PILOT-, AND FULL-SCALE ORIMULSION (R) COMBUSTION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a review of bench-, pilot-, and full-scale Orimulsion combustion tests. A fossil fuel marketed by its producer, Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA), since the late 1980s as an alternative to coal and heavy fuel oil, Orimulsion is a bitumen-in-water em...

  15. A Flexible Pilot-Scale Setup for Real-Time Studies in Process Systems Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panjapornpon, Chanin; Fletcher, Nathan; Soroush, Masoud

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript describes a flexible, pilot-scale setup that can be used for training students and carrying out research in process systems engineering. The setup allows one to study a variety of process systems engineering concepts such as design feasibility, design flexibility, control configuration selection, parameter estimation, process and…

  16. Anaerobic digestion of gelatinous water at laboratory and pilot scale and nitrogen inhibition.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sosa, D; Rafrafi, Y; Torrijos, M; Bernet, N; Buitron, G; Bosque, F; Delgenès, J P

    2008-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of the liquid residue (gelatinous water) coming from the production of fat from animal residue, was studied at laboratory and pilot scale. Biodegradability (>98%) and biogas potential (675 mL of biogas/g of COD(applied)) of this wastewater are very high. However, due to the high content on nitrogen, an inhibition of the anaerobic activity was observed for quite low concentrations of N-NH(3). Dilution of the wastewater and pH regulation in the reactor around 7.3 are the 2 solutions which were investigated to overcome the nitrogen inhibition at industrial scale. These two solutions were validated at laboratory scale in an anaerobic SBR and then onsite at pilot scale in a continuous reactor. A stable anaerobic digestion was observed in both reactors showing that no nitrogen inhibition was obtained when N-NH(3) concentration in the reactor was kept low.

  17. Physical-chemical treatment of rainwater runoff in recovery and recycling companies: Pilot-scale optimization.

    PubMed

    Blondeel, Evelyne; Depuydt, Veerle; Cornelis, Jasper; Chys, Michael; Verliefde, Arne; Van Hulle, Stijin Wim Henk

    2015-01-01

    Pilot-scale optimisation of different possible physical-chemical water treatment techniques was performed on the wastewater originating from three different recovery and recycling companies in order to select a (combination of) technique(s) for further full-scale implementation. This implementation is necessary to reduce the concentration of both common pollutants (such as COD, nutrients and suspended solids) and potentially toxic metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly-chlorinated biphenyls frequently below the discharge limits. The pilot-scale tests (at 250 L h(-1) scale) demonstrate that sand anthracite filtration or coagulation/flocculation are interesting as first treatment techniques with removal efficiencies of about 19% to 66% (sand anthracite filtration), respectively 18% to 60% (coagulation/flocculation) for the above mentioned pollutants (metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly chlorinated biphenyls). If a second treatment step is required, the implementation of an activated carbon filter is recommended (about 46% to 86% additional removal is obtained).

  18. Intensification of sonochemical degradation of phenol using additives at pilot scale operation.

    PubMed

    Khokhawala, Ismail M; Gogate, Parag R

    2011-01-01

    The present work reports the use of sonochemical reactors for the degradation of phenol in the presence of additives with an objective of enhancing the rates of degradation at a pilot scale operation. Process intensification studies have been carried out using additives such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (0.5-2.0 g/L), sodium chloride (0.5-1.5 g/L) and solid particles viz. cupric oxide (CuO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) (0.5-2.5 g/L). Optimum concentration for H2O2 and sodium chloride has been observed beyond which no beneficial effects are obtained even with additional loadings. Maximum extent of degradation has been observed by using ultrasound/H2O2/CuO approach at a solid loading of 1.5 g/L followed by ultrasound/H2O2/TiO2 approach at a loading of 2.0 g/L. The obtained results at pilot scale operation in the current work are very important especially due to the fact that the majority of earlier studies are at laboratory scale which cannot provide the design related information for large scale operation as required scale up ratios are quite high adding a degree of uncertainty in the design. The novelty of the present work lies in the fact that it highlights successful application of sonochemical reactors for wastewater treatment at pilot scale operation.

  19. Methane production in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfill.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiyong; Jin, Xiao; Ma, Zeyu; Tao, Huchun; Ko, Jae Hac

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study a hybrid bioreactor landfill technology for landfill methane production from municipal solid waste. Two laboratory-scale columns were operated for about ten months to simulate an anaerobic and a hybrid landfill bioreactor, respectively. Leachate was recirculated into each column but aeration was conducted in the hybrid bioreactor during the first stage. Results showed that leachate pH in the anaerobic bioreactor maintained below 6.5, while in the hybrid bioreactor quickly increased from 5.6 to 7.0 due to the aeration. The temporary aeration resulted in lowering COD and BOD5 in the leachate. The volume of methane collected from the hybrid bioreactor was 400 times greater than that of the anaerobic bioreactor. Also, the methane production rate of the hybrid bioreactor was improved within a short period of time. After about 10 months' operation, the total methane production in the hybrid bioreactor was 212 L (16 L/kgwaste).

  20. Oxygen transfer in membrane bioreactors treating synthetic greywater.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Jochen; Lemac, Mladen; Wagner, Martin; Cornel, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Mass transfer coefficients (k(L)a) were studied in two pilot scale membrane bioreactors (MBR) with different setup configurations treating 200L/h of synthetic greywater with mixed liquor suspended solids' (MLSS) concentrations ranging from 4.7 to 19.5g/L. Besides the MLSS concentration, mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants of the sludge were measured. Although the pilot plants differed essentially in their configurations and aeration systems, similar alpha-factors at the same MLSS concentration could be determined. A comparison of the results to the published values of other authors showed that not the MLSS concentration but rather the MLVSS concentration seems to be the decisive parameter which influences the oxygen transfer in activated sludge systems operating at a high sludge retention time (SRT).

  1. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D.

    2009-05-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin hydraulic cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Sixteen of these cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column (1/2 scale column). Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 3 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale IX system. The RF resin bed showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. The hydraulic and chemical performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins. The pilot-scale testing indicates that the RF resin is durable and should hold up to many hydraulic cycles in actual radioactive Cesium (Cs) separation.

  2. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils: LEFPC appendices, volume 1, appendix I-IV

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This document contains Appendix I-IV for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are calibration records; quality assurance; soils characterization; pilot scale trial runs.

  3. Production and antigenic properties of influenza virus from suspension MDCK-siat7e cells in a bench-scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chia; Lugovtsev, Vladimir; Lewis, Andrew; Betenbaugh, Michael; Shiloach, Joseph

    2010-10-18

    In efforts to overcome limitations associated with egg-based influenza vaccines, mammalian cell substrates have gradually emerged as potential production platforms. Recently, a suspension Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line for influenza virus production was created by expressing the human siat7e gene. To examine the broad susceptibility of this novel cell line, the scalability of the production process, and the antigenic stability of cell-derived progeny viruses, infection experiments using four current influenza vaccine strains (A/California/07/2009 X-179A H1N1, A/Brisbane/59/2007 IVR-148 H1N1, A/Uruguay/716/2007 X-175C H3N2, and B/Brisbane/60/2008) were performed. In small-scale experiments, this cell line was found to support high-titer replication of all four virus strains. Subsequently, production in a bench-scale bioreactor and the antigenic characteristics of progeny viruses were assessed. High titers of hemagglutinin (at least 1:512) were produced in a 2-L bench-scale bioreactor with all four strains. Immunoblot results demonstrated higher yields in the cells than those obtained in chicken embryonated eggs with three of the four tested strains. Progeny viruses collected after serial passages in this cell line exhibited minimal mutations in the HA-encoding gene. Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays using ferret antiserum confirmed the antigenic stability. As a proof-of-concept this work demonstrates that by using a proper strategy, high yields of biologically active hemagglutinin can be produced from scalable cultures of suspension MDCK-siat7e cells. PMID:20800699

  4. Large-scale data mining pilot project in human genome

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, R.; Fidelis, R.; Slezak, T.

    1997-05-01

    This whitepaper briefly describes a new, aggressive effort in large- scale data Livermore National Labs. The implications of `large- scale` will be clarified Section. In the short term, this effort will focus on several @ssion-critical questions of Genome project. We will adapt current data mining techniques to the Genome domain, to quantify the accuracy of inference results, and lay the groundwork for a more extensive effort in large-scale data mining. A major aspect of the approach is that we will be fully-staffed data warehousing effort in the human Genome area. The long term goal is strong applications- oriented research program in large-@e data mining. The tools, skill set gained will be directly applicable to a wide spectrum of tasks involving a for large spatial and multidimensional data. This includes applications in ensuring non-proliferation, stockpile stewardship, enabling Global Ecology (Materials Database Industrial Ecology), advancing the Biosciences (Human Genome Project), and supporting data for others (Battlefield Management, Health Care).

  5. Test report for the trial burn of Dinoseb in a pilot-scale incinerator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oberacker, D.; Wool, M.; Villa, F.; Mason, H.

    1989-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has determined that the herbicide Dinoseb represents a significant human health hazard. EPA estimates that there are approximately 5 million gallons affected by this action. As part of a program by the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to determine which technically viable disposal option is appropriate, pilot-scale test burns were made of a mixture of Dinoseb products at the John Zink Company Research Incineration Facility in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The mixture represented the various Dinoseb products to be destroyed. The rationale for doing the pilot-scale test was that specific performance data were needed to address, with confidence, any public or permitting questions that may arise in authorizing a full-scale incineration disposal operation. The test burns were successfully performed between February 18 and February 26, 1988. The report gives an overall summary of the test program.

  6. Scale-up from shake flasks to bioreactor, based on power input and Streptomyces lividans morphology, for the production of recombinant APA (45/47 kDa protein) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Suasnavart, Ramsés A; Marín-Palacio, Luz D; Martínez-Sotelo, José A; Espitia, Clara; Servín-González, Luis; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A

    2013-08-01

    Culture conditions in shake flasks affect filamentous Streptomyces lividans morphology, as well the productivity and O-mannosylation of recombinant Ala-Pro-rich O-glycoprotein (known as the 45/47 kDa or APA antigen) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to scale up from previous reported shake flasks to bioreactor, data from the literature on the effect of agitation on morphology of Streptomyces strains were used to obtain gassed volumetric power input values that can be used to obtain a morphology of S. lividans in bioreactor similar to the morphology previously reported in coiled/baffled shake flasks by our group. Morphology of S. lividans was successfully scaled-up, obtaining similar mycelial sizes in both scales with diameters of 0.21 ± 0.09 mm in baffled and coiled shake flasks, and 0.15 ± 0.01 mm in the bioreactor. Moreover, the specific growth rate was successfully scaled up (0.09 ± 0.02 and 0.12 ± 0.01 h(-1), for bioreactors and flasks, respectively), and the recombinant protein productivity measured by densitometry, as well. More interestingly, the quality of the recombinant glycoprotein measured as the amount of mannoses attached to the C-terminal of APA was also scaled- up; with up to five mannose residues in cultures carried out in shake flasks; and six in the bioreactor. However, final biomass concentration was not similar, indicating that although the process can be scaled-up using the power input, others factors like oxygen transfer rate, tip speed or energy dissipation/circulation function can be an influence on bacterial metabolism.

  7. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J; Fitzgerald, Curtis L; Lind, Randall F; Elkins, James G; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L; Watkins, Thomas R; Ivanov, Ilia N; Graham, David E

    2016-09-01

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale (≤ 24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of pilot-plant scale experiments were performed using 100-L and 900-L reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2-nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5 g L(-1), similar to the small-scale batches. The 900-L pilot plant reactor produced ~320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width × 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic, and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98 % of the buffer chemical costs. The final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, TEM, FTIR, PL, DLS, HPLC, and C/N analyses, which confirmed that the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS. PMID:27118014

  8. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J; Fitzgerald, Curtis L; Lind, Randall F; Elkins, James G; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L; Watkins, Thomas R; Ivanov, Ilia N; Graham, David E

    2016-09-01

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale (≤ 24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of pilot-plant scale experiments were performed using 100-L and 900-L reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2-nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5 g L(-1), similar to the small-scale batches. The 900-L pilot plant reactor produced ~320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width × 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic, and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98 % of the buffer chemical costs. The final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, TEM, FTIR, PL, DLS, HPLC, and C/N analyses, which confirmed that the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS.

  9. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Qureshi, Z.

    2011-01-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that MST can be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations).

  10. Characterization of double-shell slurry feed grout produced in a pilot-scale test

    SciTech Connect

    Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.; Shade, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    Current plans for disposal of the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes at Hanford, Washington include grouting. Grout disposal in this context is the process of mixing low-level liquid waste with cementitious powders. and pumping the resultant slurry to near-surface, underground concrete vaults. Once the slurry is in the vaults. the hydration reactions that occur result in the formation of a highly impermeable solid product that binds and encapsulates the radioactive and hazardous constituents. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) operates the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Pacific Northwest Laboratory(a) (PNL) provides support to the Grout Disposal Program through laboratory support activities, radioactive grout leach testing. performance assessments, and pilot-scale tests. A pilot-scale test was conducted in November 1988 using a simulated Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) waste. The main objective of the pilot-scale test was to demonstrate the processability of a DSSF grout formulation that was developed using laboratory equipment and to provide information on scale-up. The dry blend used in this test included 47 wt% class F fly ash, 47 wt% blast furnace slag, and 6 wt% type I/II portland cement. The dry blend was mixed with the simulated waste at a ratio of 9 lb/gal and pumped to a 2800-gal, insulated tank at about 10.4 gpm. Samples of simulated DSSF waste. dry blend, grout slurry, and cured grout were obtained during and after the pilot-scale test for testing and product characterization. Major conclusions of these activities are included.

  11. Effects of mixing on methane production during thermophilic anaerobic digestion of manure: lab-scale and pilot-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Buendia, Inmaculada; Ellegaard, Lars; Angelidakia, Irini

    2008-07-01

    The effect of mixing on anaerobic digestion of manure was evaluated in lab-scale and pilot-scale experiments at 55 degrees C. The effect of continuous (control), minimal (mixing for 10 min prior to extraction/feeding) and intermittent mixing (withholding mixing for 2h prior to extraction/feeding) on methane production was investigated in three lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactors. On comparison to continuous mixing, intermittent and minimal mixing strategies improved methane productions by 1.3% and 12.5%, respectively. Pilot-scale studies also supported the lab-scale results with an average 7% increase in biogas yields during intermittent mixing compared to continuous mixing. The effect of mixing intensities (minimal, gentle or vigorous) in batch assays at 55 degrees C showed that when the process was overloaded by high substrate to inoculum ratio (40/60), gentle (35 times per minute) or minimal mixing (10 min mixing before feeding) was advantageous compared to vigorous mixing (110 times per minute). On the other hand, under low substrate to inoculum ratio (10/90), gentle mixing was the best. The study thus indicated that mixing schemes and intensities have some effect on anaerobic digestion of manures.

  12. Production of recombinant proteins in microalgae at pilot greenhouse scale.

    PubMed

    Gimpel, Javier A; Hyun, James S; Schoepp, Nathan G; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-02-01

    Recombinant protein production in microalgae chloroplasts can provide correctly folded proteins in significant quantities and potentially inexpensive costs compared to other heterologous protein production platforms. The best results have been achieved by using the psbA promoter and 5' untranslated region (UTR) to drive the expression of heterologous genes in a psbA-deficient, non-photosynthetic, algal host. Unfortunately, using such a strategy makes the system unviable for large scale cultivation using natural sunlight for photosynthetic growth. In this study we characterized eight different combinations of 5' regulatory regions and psbA coding sequences for their ability to restore photosynthesis in a psbA-deficient Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, while maintaining robust accumulation of a commercially viable recombinant protein driven by the psbA promoter/5'UTR. The recombinant protein corresponded to bovine Milk Amyloid A (MAA), which is present in milk colostrum and could be used to prevent infectious diarrhea in mammals. This approach allowed us to identify photosynthetic strains that achieved constitutive production of MAA when grown photosynthetically in 100 L bags in a greenhouse. Under these conditions, the maximum MAA expression achieved was 1.86% of total protein, which corresponded to 3.28 mg/L of culture medium. Within our knowledge, this is the first report of a recombinant protein being produced this way in microalgae. PMID:25116083

  13. Nitrogen removal and spatial distribution of denitrifier and anammox communities in a bioreactor for mine drainage treatment.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Roger B; Winbjörk, Harry; Hellman, Maria; Hallin, Sara

    2014-12-01

    Mine drainage water may contain high levels of nitrate (NO3(-)) due to undetonated nitrogen-based explosives. The removal of NO3(-) and nitrite (NO2(-)) in cold climates through the microbial process of denitrification was evaluated using a pilot-scale fixed-bed bioreactor (27 m(3)). Surface water was diverted into the above-ground bioreactor filled with sawdust, crushed rock, and sewage sludge. At hydraulic residence times of ca.15 h and with the addition of acetate, NO3(-) and NO2(-) were removed to below detection levels at a NO3(-) removal rate of 5-10 g N m(-3) (bioreactor material) d(-1). The functional groups contributing to nitrogen removal in the bioreactor were studied by quantifying nirS and nirK present in denitrifying bacteria, nosZI and nosZII genes from the nitrous oxide - reducing community, and a taxa-specific part of the16S rRNA gene for the anammox community. The abundances of nirS and nirK were almost 2 orders of magnitude greater than the anammox specific 16S rRNA gene, indicating that denitrification was the main process involved in nitrogen removal. The spatial distribution of the quantified genes was heterogeneous in the bioreactor, with trends observed in gene abundance as a function of depth, distance from the bioreactor inlet, and along specific flowpaths. There was a significant relationship between the abundance of nirS, nirK, and nosZI genes and depth in the bioreactor, such that the abundance of organisms containing these genes may be controlled by oxygen diffusion and substrate supply in the partially or completely water-saturated material. Among the investigated microbial functional groups, nirS and anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes exhibited a systematic trend of decreasing and increasing abundance, respectively, with distance from the inlet, which suggested that the functional groups respond differently to changing environmental conditions. The greater abundance of nirK along central flowpaths may indicate that the bioreactor

  14. Nitrogen removal and spatial distribution of denitrifier and anammox communities in a bioreactor for mine drainage treatment.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Roger B; Winbjörk, Harry; Hellman, Maria; Hallin, Sara

    2014-12-01

    Mine drainage water may contain high levels of nitrate (NO3(-)) due to undetonated nitrogen-based explosives. The removal of NO3(-) and nitrite (NO2(-)) in cold climates through the microbial process of denitrification was evaluated using a pilot-scale fixed-bed bioreactor (27 m(3)). Surface water was diverted into the above-ground bioreactor filled with sawdust, crushed rock, and sewage sludge. At hydraulic residence times of ca.15 h and with the addition of acetate, NO3(-) and NO2(-) were removed to below detection levels at a NO3(-) removal rate of 5-10 g N m(-3) (bioreactor material) d(-1). The functional groups contributing to nitrogen removal in the bioreactor were studied by quantifying nirS and nirK present in denitrifying bacteria, nosZI and nosZII genes from the nitrous oxide - reducing community, and a taxa-specific part of the16S rRNA gene for the anammox community. The abundances of nirS and nirK were almost 2 orders of magnitude greater than the anammox specific 16S rRNA gene, indicating that denitrification was the main process involved in nitrogen removal. The spatial distribution of the quantified genes was heterogeneous in the bioreactor, with trends observed in gene abundance as a function of depth, distance from the bioreactor inlet, and along specific flowpaths. There was a significant relationship between the abundance of nirS, nirK, and nosZI genes and depth in the bioreactor, such that the abundance of organisms containing these genes may be controlled by oxygen diffusion and substrate supply in the partially or completely water-saturated material. Among the investigated microbial functional groups, nirS and anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes exhibited a systematic trend of decreasing and increasing abundance, respectively, with distance from the inlet, which suggested that the functional groups respond differently to changing environmental conditions. The greater abundance of nirK along central flowpaths may indicate that the bioreactor

  15. Modeling the Pyrochemical Reduction of Spent UO2 Fuel in a Pilot-Scale Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Steven D. Herrmann; Michael F. Simpson

    2006-08-01

    A kinetic model has been derived for the reduction of oxide spent nuclear fuel in a radial flow reactor. In this reaction, lithium dissolved in molten LiCl reacts with UO2 and fission product oxides to form a porous, metallic product. As the reaction proceeds, the depth of the porous layer around the exterior of each fuel particle increases. The observed rate of reaction has been found to be only dependent upon the rate of diffusion of lithium across this layer, consistent with a classic shrinking core kinetic model. This shrinking core model has been extended to predict the behavior of a hypothetical, pilot-scale reactor for oxide reduction. The design of the pilot-scale reactor includes forced flow through baskets that contain the fuel particles. The results of the modeling indicate that this is an essential feature in order to minimize the time needed to achieve full conversion of the fuel.

  16. Pilot-scale base hydrolysis processing of HMX-based plastic-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Flesner, R.L.; Dell`orco, P.C.; Spontarelli, T.; Bishop, R.L.; Skidmore, C.; Uher, K.J.; Kramer, J.F.

    1996-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated that many energetic materials can be rendered non-energetic via reaction with sodium hydroxide or ammonia. This process is known as base hydrolysis. A pilot scale reactor has been developed to process up to 20 kg of plastic bonded explosive in a single batch operation. In this report, we discuss the design and operation of the pilot scale reactor for the processing of PBX 9404, a standard Department of Energy plastic bonded explosive containing HMX and nitrocellulose. Products from base hydrolysis, although non-energetic, still require additional processing before release to the environment Decomposition products, destruction efficiencies, and rates of reaction for base hydrolysis will be presented. Hydrothermal processing, previously known as supercritical water oxidation, has been proposed for converting organic products from hydrolysis to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide. Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing may yield a viable alternative to open burning/open detonation for destruction of many energetic materials.

  17. Pilot-scale equipment development for pyrochemical treatment of spent oxide fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, S. D.

    1999-06-08

    Fundamental objectives regarding spent nuclear fuel treatment technologies include, first, the effective distribution of spent fuel constituents among product and stable waste forms and, second, the minimization and standardization of waste form types and volumes. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical treatment of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in an uranium product and two stable waste forms, i.e. ceramic and metallic. Engineering efforts are underway at ANL to develop pilot-scale equipment which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel via pyrochemical processing and subsequently allow for electrometallurgical treatment of such non-metallic fuels into standard product and waste forms. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel treatment with existing electrometallurgical processes. System designs and technical bases for development of pilot-scale oxide reduction equipment are also described.

  18. Pilot-scale base hydrolysis processing of HMX-based plastic-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Flesner, R.L.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Spontarelli, T.; Bishop, R.L.; Skidmore, C.B.; Uher, K.; Kramer, J.F.

    1997-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated that many energetic materials can be rendered non-energetic via reaction with sodium hydroxide or ammonia. This process is known as base hydrolysis. A pilot scale reactor has been developed to process up to 20 kg of plastic bonded explosive in a single batch operation. In this report, we discuss the design and operation of the pilot scale reactor for the processing of PBX 9404, a standard Department of Energy plastic bonded explosive containing HMX and nitrocellulose. Products from base hydrolysis, although non-energetic, still require additional processing before release to the environment. Decomposition products, destruction efficiencies, and rates of reaction for base hydrolysis will be presented. Hydrothermal processing, previously known as supercritical water oxidation, has been proposed for converting organic products from hydrolysis to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide. Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing may yield a viable alternative to open burning/open detonation for destruction of many energetic materials.

  19. Pilot-scale production of microbial lipid using starch wastewater as raw material.

    PubMed

    Xue, Feiyan; Gao, Bin; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xu; Feng, Wei; Tan, Tianwei

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a cost-effective pilot-scale fermentation process for lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis using starch wastewater. A temperature range of 30-37 degrees C, and an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) higher than 30,000 mg/L, were optimal for growth and lipid synthesis in flask culture. Cultivation in a 5-L fermenter yielded more than 60 g/L biomass with a 30% (w/w) lipid content after 60 h. Pilot-scale production of microbial lipid in a 300-L fermenter using starch wastewater without sterilization and pH adjustment yielded 40 g/L biomass and 35% lipid content with 80% COD degradation after only 30-40 h of cultivation. Transesterification experiments demonstrated that lipids can be used for biodiesel production. PMID:20371176

  20. Transformation of Bisphenol A in Water Distribution Systems, A Pilot-scale Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Halogenations of bisphenol A (BPA) in a pilot-scale water distribution system (WDS) of cement-lined ductile cast iron pipe were investigated under the condition: pH 7.3±0.3, water flow velocity of 1.0 m/s, and 25 °C ± 1 °C in water temperature. The testing water was chlorinated f...

  1. Natural and Man-Made Chemicals in North American Soils--Continental-Scale Pilot Study Completed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada recently completed a continental-scale pilot study for a proposed geochemical survey of North American soils. This survey will provide baseline soil chemistry data against which future changes in soil composition can be measured and that can be used by Federal, State/Provincial, and local agencies when making risk-assessment and land-use decisions.

  2. Smouldering Remediation (STAR) Technology: Field Pilot Tests and First Full Scale Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, J.; Kinsman, L.; Torero, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    STAR (Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation) is an innovative remediation technology based on the principles of smoldering combustion where the contaminants are the fuel. The self-sustaining aspect means that a single, local ignition event can result in many days of contaminant destruction in situ. Presented research to date has focused on bench scale experiments, numerical modelling and process understanding. Presented here is the maturation of the in situ technology, including three field pilot tests and a full-scale implementation to treat coal tar-impacted soils. The first pilot determined a Radius of Influence (ROI) for a single ignition of approximately eight feet with an average propagation rate of the reaction of approximately one foot per day. TPH concentrations in soils were reduced from 10,000 milligrams per kilogram to a few hundred milligrams per kilogram. The second pilot was conducted in an area of significant void spaces created through the anthropogenic deposition of clay bricks and tiles. The void spaces led to pre-mature termination of the combustion reaction, limiting ROI and the effectiveness of the technology in this setting. The third case study involved the pilot testing, design, and full-scale implementation of STAR at a 37-acre former chemical manufacturing facility. Three phases of pilot testing were conducted within two hydrogeologic units at the site (i.e., surficial fill and deep alluvial sand units). Pilot testing within the fill demonstrated self-sustained coal tar destruction rates in excess of 800 kg/day supported through air injection at a single well. Deep sand unit testing (twenty-five feet below the water table) resulted in the treatment of a targeted six-foot layer of impacted fine sands to a radial distance of approximately twelve feet. These results (and additional parameters) were used to develop a full-scale STAR design consisting of approximately 1500 surficial fill ignition points and 500 deep sand ignition

  3. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  4. 106-AN grout pilot-scale test HGTP-93-0501-02

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaasen, L M

    1993-05-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) at Hanford, Washington will process the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes into a cementitious waste form. This facility, which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), mixes liquid waste with cementitious materials to produce a waste form that immobilizes hazardous constituents through chemical reactions and/or microencapsulation. Over 1,000,000 gal of Phosphate/Sulfate Waste were solidified in the first production campaign with this facility. The next tank scheduled for treatment is 106-AN. After conducting laboratory studies to select the grout formulation, part of the normal formulation verification process is to conduct tests using the 1/4-scale pilot facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The major objectives of these pilot-scale tests were to determine if the proposed grout formulation could be processed in the pilot-scale equipment and to collect thermal information to help determine the best way to manage the grout hydration heat.

  5. Pilot-scale investigation of drinking water ultrafiltration membrane fouling rates using advanced data analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Peldszus, Sigrid; Peiris, Ramila H; Ruhl, Aki S; Mehrez, Renata; Jekel, Martin; Legge, Raymond L; Huck, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale investigation of the performance of biofiltration as a pre-treatment to ultrafiltration for drinking water treatment was conducted between 2008 and 2010. The objective of this study was to further understand the fouling behaviour of ultrafiltration at pilot scale and assess the utility of different foulant monitoring tools. Various fractions of natural organic matter (NOM) and colloidal/particulate matter of raw water, biofilter effluents, and membrane permeate were characterized by employing two advanced NOM characterization techniques: liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEM) combined with principal component analysis (PCA). A framework of fouling rate quantification and classification was also developed and utilized in this study. In cases such as the present one where raw water quality and therefore fouling potential vary substantially, such classification can be considered essential for proper data interpretation. The individual and combined contributions of various NOM fractions and colloidal/particulate matter to hydraulically reversible and irreversible fouling were investigated using various multivariate statistical analysis techniques. Protein-like substances and biopolymers were identified as major contributors to both reversible and irreversible fouling, whereas colloidal/particulate matter can alleviate the extent of irreversible fouling. Humic-like substances contributed little to either reversible or irreversible fouling at low level fouling rates. The complementary nature of FEEM-PCA and LC-OCD for assessing the fouling potential of complex water matrices was also illustrated by this pilot-scale study.

  6. Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Produced by 200-L Scale Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System Provides Cross-Protective Efficacy in Human SCARB2 Transgenic Mouse.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Ho; Liu, Wan-Hsin; Tai, Hsiu-Fen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yung-Tsung; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Chan, Chi-Hsien; Chang, Ching-Chuan; Liu, Chung-Cheng; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chen, Juine-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4) virus. The viruses were produced in Vero cells in a 200 L bioreactor with serum-free medium, and the viral titer reached 10(7) TCID50/mL 10 days after infection when using an MOI of 10(-4). The EV71 virus particles were harvested and purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Fractions containing viral particles were pooled based on ELISA and SDS-PAGE. TEM was used to characterize the morphologies of the viral particles. To evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the EV71 vaccine, the pooled antigens were combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX) or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and tested in human SCARB2 transgenic (Tg) mice. The Tg mice immunized with either the AddaVAX- or AlPO4-adjuvanted EV71 vaccine were fully protected from challenges by the subgenotype C2 and C4 viruses, and surviving animals did not show any degree of neurological paralysis symptoms or muscle damage. Vaccine treatments significantly reduced virus antigen presented in the central nervous system of Tg mice and alleviated the virus-associated inflammatory response. These results strongly suggest that this preparation results in an efficacious vaccine and that the microcarrier/bioreactor platform offers a superior alternative to the previously described roller-bottle system. PMID:26287531

  7. Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Produced by 200-L Scale Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System Provides Cross-Protective Efficacy in Human SCARB2 Transgenic Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Ho; Liu, Wan-Hsin; Tai, Hsiu-Fen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yung-Tsung; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Chan, Chi-Hsien; Chang, Ching-Chuan; Liu, Chung-Cheng; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chen, Juine-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4) virus. The viruses were produced in Vero cells in a 200 L bioreactor with serum-free medium, and the viral titer reached 107 TCID50/mL 10 days after infection when using an MOI of 10−4. The EV71 virus particles were harvested and purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Fractions containing viral particles were pooled based on ELISA and SDS-PAGE. TEM was used to characterize the morphologies of the viral particles. To evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the EV71 vaccine, the pooled antigens were combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX) or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and tested in human SCARB2 transgenic (Tg) mice. The Tg mice immunized with either the AddaVAX- or AlPO4-adjuvanted EV71 vaccine were fully protected from challenges by the subgenotype C2 and C4 viruses, and surviving animals did not show any degree of neurological paralysis symptoms or muscle damage. Vaccine treatments significantly reduced virus antigen presented in the central nervous system of Tg mice and alleviated the virus-associated inflammatory response. These results strongly suggest that this preparation results in an efficacious vaccine and that the microcarrier/bioreactor platform offers a superior alternative to the previously described roller-bottle system. PMID:26287531

  8. Effect of high levels of the rotifer Lecane inermis on the ciliate community in laboratory-scale sequencing batch bioreactors (SBRs).

    PubMed

    Fyda, Janusz; Babko, Roman; Fiałkowska, Edyta; Pajdak-Stós, Agnieszka; Kocerba-Soroka, Wioleta; Sobczyk, Mateusz; Sobczyk, Łukasz

    2015-10-01

    Due to its ability to feed on filamentous bacteria, the rotifer Lecane inermis has already been recognized as a potential control agent of activated sludge bulking, which is usually caused by the excessive growth of filamentous microorganisms. However, their effectiveness depends, in part, on their abundance. We studied the influence of high densities of L. inermis on the protozoan community in activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in 4 laboratory-scale sequencing batch bioreactors (SBRs). Two treatments and two controls were subjected to nutrient removal system in process similar to that used in a WWTP. The experiment lasted 9 days and was repeated in 24-h cycles, including phases of agitation with feeding, aeration and agitation and sedimentation with decantation at the end of the cycle. In total, 32 taxa were identified, among which 25 were ciliated protozoa, 4 were amoebae, 2 were flagellates, and one was a nematode. Rotifers were then introduced to 2 bioreactors at a final concentration of 500ind.mL(-1), and the taxonomic composition and abundance of the activated sludge microfauna were assessed 2, 5 and 8 days thereafter. The mean density of ciliates on the first day of experiment was 12,610ind.mL(-1) and diminished to 4868±432ind.mL-±432ind.mL(-1) in the control and 5496±638ind.mL(-1) in the rotifer-treated group on the last day. Thus, even extremely high densities of artificially introduced rotifers did not negatively affect the protozoan community. On the contrary, the protozoan community was more diverse in the treatment group than in the control.

  9. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  10. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  11. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Fitzgerald Jr, Curtis L.; Lind, Randall F.; Elkins, James G.; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C.; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L.; Watkins, Thomas R.; et al

    2016-04-27

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale ( ≤24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of meso-scale experiments were performed using 100-l and 900-l reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot-plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2 nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5g L-1, similar to small-scale batches. The 900-Lmore » pilot plant reactor produced ~ 320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98% of the buffer chemical costs. In conclusion, the final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, FTIR, DLS, and C/N analyses, which confirmed the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS.« less

  12. Pilot-scale submersed cultivation of R. microsporus var. oligosporus in thin stillage, a dry-grind corn-to-ethanol co-product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Daniel Thomas

    An innovative process to add value to a corn-to-ethanol co-product, Thin stillage, was studied for pilot-scale viability. A 1500L bioreactor was designed, operated, and optimized to cultivate Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus via submersed fermentation in Thin Stillage. The biomass was harvested and processed into a feed suitable for storage and ultimately for animal feeding trials. Characterization of the biomass and feed trials revealed that there is substantial potential as a nutrient dense feed supplement with 41.1% protein, 26.3% fat, and metabolizable energy on s dried basis. The amino acid profile is superior to that of DDGS, with most notably 1.7% Lys on dried basis. This process produces a significantly more nutrient dense product than DDGS, and could increase water-reclaimation in a dry-grind corn to ethanol plant. Industrially it would replace the energy intensive process of converting thin stillage into syrup that adds only $10-25/ton to DDG, while maintaining production of DDG. Using thin stillage as used a growth media for R. microsporus var. oligosporus, should not only lead to saving in energy costs, but also generate a high-value co-product which could lead to economic gains. Also there is still unexplored potential of enzymes, chitin, and co-culturing to further add value.

  13. The color removal and fate of organic pollutants in a pilot-scale MBR-NF combined process treating textile wastewater with high water recovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Jianxing; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    A combination of membrane bioreactor (MBR) and nanofiltration (NF) was tested at pilot-scale treating textile wastewater from the wastewater treatment station of a textile mill in Wuqing District of Tianjin (China). The MBR-NF process showed a much better treatment efficiency on the removal of the chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, color and turbidity in comparison with the conventional processes. The water recovery rate was enhanced to over 90% through the recycling of NF concentrate to the MBR, while the MBR-NF showed a stable permeate water quality that met with standards and could be directly discharged or further reused. The recycled NF concentrate caused an accumulation of refractory compounds in the MBR, which significantly influenced the treatment efficiency of the MBR. However, the sludge characteristics showed that the activated sludge activity was not obviously inhibited. The results of fluorescence spectra and molecular weight distribution indicated that those recalcitrant pollutants were mostly protein-like substances and a small amount of humic acid-like substances (650-6,000 Da), which contributed to membrane fouling of NF. Although the penetrated protein-like substances caused the residual color in NF permeate, the MBR-NF process was suitable for the advanced treatment and reclamation of textile wastewater under high water yield.

  14. The color removal and fate of organic pollutants in a pilot-scale MBR-NF combined process treating textile wastewater with high water recovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Jianxing; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    A combination of membrane bioreactor (MBR) and nanofiltration (NF) was tested at pilot-scale treating textile wastewater from the wastewater treatment station of a textile mill in Wuqing District of Tianjin (China). The MBR-NF process showed a much better treatment efficiency on the removal of the chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, color and turbidity in comparison with the conventional processes. The water recovery rate was enhanced to over 90% through the recycling of NF concentrate to the MBR, while the MBR-NF showed a stable permeate water quality that met with standards and could be directly discharged or further reused. The recycled NF concentrate caused an accumulation of refractory compounds in the MBR, which significantly influenced the treatment efficiency of the MBR. However, the sludge characteristics showed that the activated sludge activity was not obviously inhibited. The results of fluorescence spectra and molecular weight distribution indicated that those recalcitrant pollutants were mostly protein-like substances and a small amount of humic acid-like substances (650-6,000 Da), which contributed to membrane fouling of NF. Although the penetrated protein-like substances caused the residual color in NF permeate, the MBR-NF process was suitable for the advanced treatment and reclamation of textile wastewater under high water yield. PMID:27003085

  15. Pilot-scale study on nitrogen and aromatic compounds removal in printing and dyeing wastewater by reinforced hydrolysis-denitrification coupling process and its microbial community analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Ren, Hongqiang; Yin, Erqin; Tang, Siyuan; Li, Yi; Cao, Jiashun

    2015-06-01

    Aiming to efficiently dispose printing and dyeing wastewater with "high organic nitrogen and aromatic compounds, but low carbon source quality", the reinforced anaerobic hydrolysis-denitrification coupling process, based on improved UASB reactors and segregated collection-disposition strategy, was designed and applied at the pilot scale. Results showed that the coupling process displayed efficient removal for these two kinds of pollutants (nitrogen and aromatics), since the concentration of NH3-N (shortened as ρ (NH3-N)) < 8 mg/L, ρ (TN) < 15 mg/L with long-term stability for the effluent, and both species and abundances of aromatics reduced greatly by UASBs according to GC-MS. Microbial community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria were the dominant communities in the bioreactors and some kinds of VFAs-producing, denitrifying and aromatic ring opening microorganisms were discovered. Further, the nirK and bcrA genes quantification also indicated the coupling process owned outstanding denitrification and aromatic compound-degrading potential, which demonstrates that the coupling process owns admirable applicability for this kind of wastewater treatment.

  16. Pilot-scale field tests for the methanotrophic technology cometabolic bioreactor demonstration at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, T.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Jennings, H.L.; Herbes, S.E.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes a demonstration of cometabolic technology for bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated and aromatic solvents conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The technology demonstration is located at a seep from the K-1070-C/D Classified Burial Ground at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Funding for this demonstration is provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Program, Office of Technology Development.

  17. Comprehensive clone screening and evaluation of fed-batch strategies in a microbioreactor and lab scale stirred tank bioreactor system: application on Pichia pastoris producing Rhizopus oryzae lipase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Pichia pastoris bioprocess engineering, classic approaches for clone selection and bioprocess optimization at small/micro scale using the promoter of the alcohol oxidase 1 gene (PAOX1), induced by methanol, present low reproducibility leading to high time and resource consumption. Results An automated microfermentation platform (RoboLector) was successfully tested to overcome the chronic problems of clone selection and optimization of fed-batch strategies. Different clones from Mut+P. pastoris phenotype strains expressing heterologous Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL), including a subset also overexpressing the transcription factor HAC1, were tested to select the most promising clones. The RoboLector showed high performance for the selection and optimization of cultivation media with minimal cost and time. Syn6 medium was better than conventional YNB medium in terms of production of heterologous protein. The RoboLector microbioreactor was also tested for different fed-batch strategies with three clones producing different lipase levels. Two mixed substrates fed-batch strategies were evaluated. The first strategy was the enzymatic release of glucose from a soluble glucose polymer by a glucosidase, and methanol addition every 24 hours. The second strategy used glycerol as co-substrate jointly with methanol at two different feeding rates. The implementation of these simple fed-batch strategies increased the levels of lipolytic activity 80-fold compared to classical batch strategies used in clone selection. Thus, these strategies minimize the risk of errors in the clone selection and increase the detection level of the desired product. Finally, the performance of two fed-batch strategies was compared for lipase production between the RoboLector microbioreactor and 5 liter stirred tank bioreactor for three selected clones. In both scales, the same clone ranking was achieved. Conclusion The RoboLector showed excellent performance in clone selection of P

  18. Pilot-scale production and characterization of PEGylated human FGF-21 analog.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xianlong; Qi, Jianying; Yu, Dan; Li, Shujie; Wu, Qiang; Wu, Yunzhou; Ren, Guiping; Han, Jun; Li, Deshan

    2016-06-20

    FGF-21 has become a potential drug candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have demonstrated that PEGylation of FGF-21 could significantly increase its in vivo half-life and provide its long-lasting blood glucose-lowering effect. To accelerate the development of PEGylated FGF-21 for clinical application as a long-acting antidiabetes drug, we prepared ahmFGF-21 (FGF-21 mutant) and PEGylated ahmFGF-21 in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) by high cell density fermentation at a 50-L scale and pilot-scale purification. The physical and chemical properties of the purified proteins were analyzed in this study, including purity, molecular weight, isoelectric point, bacterial endotoxin, PEGylated site and second structure. As well as the in vitro glucose uptake activity and in vivo anti-diabetic effect were evaluated. Under the optimal fermentation and purification conditions, the average bacterial yield and expression level of target protein of three batches attained 52.2±4.6g/L and 223.92±5.41mg/L, respectively. The purity of pilot product was above 98% by SDS-PAGE (non-reducing or reducing) and HPLC (SEC or RPC) analysis and the final yield of PEGylated ahmFGF-21 was 87.91±1.49mg/L, which indicated that the pilot-scale production process was relatively stable. N-terminal sequencing and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy results showed that modification site of PEGylated ahmFGF-21 was alanine at N-terminal and the second structure of ahmFGF-21 had no obvious changes after PEGylation. Compared with ahmFGF-21, the long-acting hypoglycemic effect of PEGylated ahmFGF-21 prepared in the pilot-scale production was significantly improved in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Our results demonstrated that the pilot-scale production process of PEGylated ahmFGF-21 was successfully established, which was very important for the clinical application. PMID:27109774

  19. Pilot-scale production and characterization of PEGylated human FGF-21 analog.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xianlong; Qi, Jianying; Yu, Dan; Li, Shujie; Wu, Qiang; Wu, Yunzhou; Ren, Guiping; Han, Jun; Li, Deshan

    2016-06-20

    FGF-21 has become a potential drug candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Previous studies have demonstrated that PEGylation of FGF-21 could significantly increase its in vivo half-life and provide its long-lasting blood glucose-lowering effect. To accelerate the development of PEGylated FGF-21 for clinical application as a long-acting antidiabetes drug, we prepared ahmFGF-21 (FGF-21 mutant) and PEGylated ahmFGF-21 in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) by high cell density fermentation at a 50-L scale and pilot-scale purification. The physical and chemical properties of the purified proteins were analyzed in this study, including purity, molecular weight, isoelectric point, bacterial endotoxin, PEGylated site and second structure. As well as the in vitro glucose uptake activity and in vivo anti-diabetic effect were evaluated. Under the optimal fermentation and purification conditions, the average bacterial yield and expression level of target protein of three batches attained 52.2±4.6g/L and 223.92±5.41mg/L, respectively. The purity of pilot product was above 98% by SDS-PAGE (non-reducing or reducing) and HPLC (SEC or RPC) analysis and the final yield of PEGylated ahmFGF-21 was 87.91±1.49mg/L, which indicated that the pilot-scale production process was relatively stable. N-terminal sequencing and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy results showed that modification site of PEGylated ahmFGF-21 was alanine at N-terminal and the second structure of ahmFGF-21 had no obvious changes after PEGylation. Compared with ahmFGF-21, the long-acting hypoglycemic effect of PEGylated ahmFGF-21 prepared in the pilot-scale production was significantly improved in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Our results demonstrated that the pilot-scale production process of PEGylated ahmFGF-21 was successfully established, which was very important for the clinical application.

  20. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger. Task 2, Pilot scale IFGT testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jankura, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of Task 2 (IFGT Pilot-Scale Tests at the B&W Alliance Research Center) is to evaluate the emission reduction performance of the Integrated flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) process for coal-fired applications. The IFGT system is a two-stage condensing heat exchanger that captures multiple pollutants - while recovering waste heat. The IFGT technology offers the potential of a addressing the emission of SO{sub 2} and particulate from electric utilities currently regulated under the Phase I and Phase II requirements defined in Title IV, and many of the air pollutants that will soon be regulated under Title III of the Clean Air Act. The performance data will be obtained at pilot-scale conditions similar to full-scale operating systems. The task 2 IFGT tests have been designed to investigate several aspects of IFGT process conditions at a broader range of variable than would be feasible at a larger scale facility. The performance parameters that will be investigated are as follows: SO{sub 2} removal; particulate removal; removal of mercury and other heavy metals; NO{sub x} removal; HF and HCl removal; NH{sub 3} removal; ammonia-sulfur compounds generation; and steam injection for particle removal. For all of the pollutant removal tests, removal efficiency will be based on measurements at the inlet and outlet of the IFGT facility. Heat recovery measurements will also be made during these tests to demonstrate the heat recovery provided by the IFGT technology. This report provides the Final Test Plan for the first coal tested in the Task 2 pilot-scale IFGT tests.

  1. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Topical report: Bioreactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, R.; Klasson, K.T.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the proposed research is to develop a technically and economically feasible process for biologically producing H{sub 2} from synthesis gas while, at the same time, removing harmful sulfur gas compounds. Six major tasks are being studied: culture development, where the best cultures are selected and conditions optimized for simultaneous hydrogen production and sulfur gas removal; mass transfer and kinetic studies in which equations necessary for process design are developed; bioreactor design studies, where the cultures chosen in Task 1 are utilized in continuous reaction vessels to demonstrate process feasibility and define operating conditions; evaluation of biological synthesis gas conversion under limiting conditions in preparation for industrial demonstration studies; process scale-up where laboratory data are scaled to larger-size units in preparation for process demonstration in a pilot-scale unit; and economic evaluation, where process simulations are used to project process economics and identify high cost areas during sensitivity analyses. The purpose of this report is to present results from bioreactor studies involving H{sub 2} production by water gas shift and H{sub 2}S removal to produce elemental sulfur. Many of the results for H{sub 2} production by Rhodospirillum rubrum have been presented during earlier contracts. Thus, this report concentrates mainly on H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur by R. rubrum.

  2. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-09

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  3. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D

    2006-11-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12 inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24 inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  4. Membrane bio-reactor for textile wastewater treatment plant upgrading.

    PubMed

    Lubello, C; Gori, R

    2005-01-01

    Textile industries carry out several fiber treatments using variable quantities of water, from five to forty times the fiber weight, and consequently generate large volumes of wastewater to be disposed of. Membrane Bio-reactors (MBRs) combine membrane technology with biological reactors for the treatment of wastewater: micro or ultrafiltration membranes are used for solid-liquid separation replacing the secondary settling of the traditional activated sludge system. This paper deals with the possibility of realizing a new section of one existing WWTP (activated sludge + clariflocculation + ozonation) for the treatment of treating textile wastewater to be recycled, equipped with an MBR (76 l/s as design capacity) and running in parallel with the existing one. During a 4-month experimental period, a pilot-scale MBR proved to be very effective for wastewater reclamation. On average, removal efficiency of the pilot plant (93% for COD, and over 99% for total suspended solids) was higher than the WWTP ones. Color was removed as in the WWTP. Anionic surfactants removal of pilot plant was lower than that of the WWTP (90.5 and 93.2% respectively), while the BiAS removal was higher in the pilot plant (98.2 vs. 97.1). At the end cost analysis of the proposed upgrade is reported.

  5. Advances in biotreatment of acid mine drainage and biorecovery of metals: 2. Membrane bioreactor system for sulfate reduction.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Henry H; Govind, Rakesh

    2003-12-01

    Several biotreatmemt techniques for sulfate conversion by the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have been proposed in the past, however few of them have been practically applied to treat sulfate containing acid mine drainage (AMD). This research deals with development of an innovative polypropylene hollow fiber membrane bioreactor system for the treatment of acid mine water from the Berkeley Pit, Butte, MT, using hydrogen consuming SRB biofilms. The advantages of using the membrane bioreactor over the conventional tall liquid phase sparged gas bioreactor systems are: large microporous membrane surface to the liquid phase; formation of hydrogen sulfide outside the membrane, preventing the mixing with the pressurized hydrogen gas inside the membrane; no requirement of gas recycle compressor; membrane surface is suitable for immobilization of active SRB, resulting in the formation of biofilms, thus preventing washout problems associated with suspended culture reactors; and lower operating costs in membrane bioreactors, eliminating gas recompression and gas recycle costs. Information is provided on sulfate reduction rate studies and on biokinetic tests with suspended SRB in anaerobic digester sludge and sediment master culture reactors and with SRB biofilms in bench-scale SRB membrane bioreactors. Biokinetic parameters have been determined using biokinetic models for the master culture and membrane bioreactor systems. Data are presented on the effect of acid mine water sulfate loading at 25, 50, 75 and 100 ml/min in scale-up SRB membrane units, under varied temperatures (25, 35 and 40 degrees C) to determine and optimize sulfate conversions for an effective AMD biotreatment. Pilot-scale studies have generated data on the effect of flow rates of acid mine water (MGD) and varied inlet sulfate concentrations in the influents on the resultant outlet sulfate concentration in the effluents and on the number of SRB membrane modules needed for the desired sulfate conversion in

  6. Advances in biotreatment of acid mine drainage and biorecovery of metals: 2. Membrane bioreactor system for sulfate reduction.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Henry H; Govind, Rakesh

    2003-12-01

    Several biotreatmemt techniques for sulfate conversion by the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) have been proposed in the past, however few of them have been practically applied to treat sulfate containing acid mine drainage (AMD). This research deals with development of an innovative polypropylene hollow fiber membrane bioreactor system for the treatment of acid mine water from the Berkeley Pit, Butte, MT, using hydrogen consuming SRB biofilms. The advantages of using the membrane bioreactor over the conventional tall liquid phase sparged gas bioreactor systems are: large microporous membrane surface to the liquid phase; formation of hydrogen sulfide outside the membrane, preventing the mixing with the pressurized hydrogen gas inside the membrane; no requirement of gas recycle compressor; membrane surface is suitable for immobilization of active SRB, resulting in the formation of biofilms, thus preventing washout problems associated with suspended culture reactors; and lower operating costs in membrane bioreactors, eliminating gas recompression and gas recycle costs. Information is provided on sulfate reduction rate studies and on biokinetic tests with suspended SRB in anaerobic digester sludge and sediment master culture reactors and with SRB biofilms in bench-scale SRB membrane bioreactors. Biokinetic parameters have been determined using biokinetic models for the master culture and membrane bioreactor systems. Data are presented on the effect of acid mine water sulfate loading at 25, 50, 75 and 100 ml/min in scale-up SRB membrane units, under varied temperatures (25, 35 and 40 degrees C) to determine and optimize sulfate conversions for an effective AMD biotreatment. Pilot-scale studies have generated data on the effect of flow rates of acid mine water (MGD) and varied inlet sulfate concentrations in the influents on the resultant outlet sulfate concentration in the effluents and on the number of SRB membrane modules needed for the desired sulfate conversion in

  7. Comprehensive bench- and pilot-scale investigation of trace organic compounds rejection by forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Nathan T; Xu, Pei; Heil, Dean M; Bellona, Christopher; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2011-10-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a membrane separation technology that has been studied in recent years for application in water treatment and desalination. It can best be utilized as an advanced pretreatment for desalination processes such as reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) to protect the membranes from scaling and fouling. In the current study the rejection of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, plasticizers, and flame-retardants by FO and a hybrid FO-RO system was investigated at both the bench- and pilot-scales. More than 30 compounds were analyzed, of which 23 nonionic and ionic TOrCs were identified and quantified in the studied wastewater effluent. Results revealed that almost all TOrCs were highly rejected by the FO membrane at the pilot scale while rejection at the bench scale was generally lower. Membrane fouling, especially under field conditions when wastewater effluent is the FO feed solution, plays a substantial role in increasing the rejection of TOrCs in FO. The hybrid FO-RO process demonstrated that the dual barrier treatment of impaired water could lead to more than 99% rejection of almost all TOrCs that were identified in reclaimed water.

  8. A pilot-scale trial of an improved galvanic deoxidation process for refining molten copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soral, P.; Pal, U.; Larson, H. R.; Schroeder, B.

    1999-04-01

    A laboratory-scale galvanic deoxidation technology developed by earlier workers has been improved, with the aim of developing a prototype pilot-scale deoxidation unit. Each deoxidation cell consists of a one end-closed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) tube coated with a Ni-YSZ cermet anode on the inner walls. The YSZ tube is immersed, with its closed end in the metallic melt, and an oxygen-chemical-potential gradient across the tube is established by passing a reducing gas through the tube. The melt is then deoxidized by short circuiting it with the anode. Through laboratory experimentation, the nature of the anode/electrolyte interface adhesion was identified to be an important factor in obtaining enhanced deoxidation kinetics. The kinetics of oxygen removal from the melt was increased by an order of magnitude with an improved anode/electrolyte interface. A pilot-scale refining unit consisting of 53 cells with the improved anode/electrolyte interface was manufactured, and a field evaluation of the galvanic deoxidation of copper was conducted. The deoxidation-process model was modified to include multiple deoxidation cells, which were required for the pilot-scale trials, and to analyze the effect of electrolyte/electrode adhesion on deoxidation kinetics. Preliminary studies on process component lifetimes were conducted by investigating the thermal cycling, corrosion behavior of the electrolyte, and stability of the cermet anode structure. Based on the results of the field trial and the analyses of the process component lifetime, future work needed toward commercializing the technology is discussed.

  9. Exploring the links between population dynamics of total and active bacteria and the variables influencing a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Silván, C; Arévalo, J; González-López, J; Rodelas, B

    2014-06-01

    Long-term dynamics of total and active bacterial populations in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating urban wastewater were monitored during nine months by temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) of partial 16S-rRNA genes, amplified from community DNA and RNA templates. The bacterial community, dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, displayed the required characteristics for a successful and steady contaminant removal under real operating conditions. The evolution of population dynamics showed that a fully-stable microbial community was not developed even after technical stabilization and steady performance of the MBR were achieved. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and BIO-ENV demonstrated that the trends of the populations were often mostly explained by temperature, followed by the concentration of volatile suspended solids and C/N ratio of the influent. These variables were mainly responsible for triggering the shifts between functionally redundant populations. These conclusions contribute to the prediction of the complex profiles of adaptation and response of bacterial populations under changing conditions.

  10. Exploring the links between population dynamics of total and active bacteria and the variables influencing a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Silván, C; Arévalo, J; González-López, J; Rodelas, B

    2014-06-01

    Long-term dynamics of total and active bacterial populations in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating urban wastewater were monitored during nine months by temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) of partial 16S-rRNA genes, amplified from community DNA and RNA templates. The bacterial community, dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, displayed the required characteristics for a successful and steady contaminant removal under real operating conditions. The evolution of population dynamics showed that a fully-stable microbial community was not developed even after technical stabilization and steady performance of the MBR were achieved. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and BIO-ENV demonstrated that the trends of the populations were often mostly explained by temperature, followed by the concentration of volatile suspended solids and C/N ratio of the influent. These variables were mainly responsible for triggering the shifts between functionally redundant populations. These conclusions contribute to the prediction of the complex profiles of adaptation and response of bacterial populations under changing conditions. PMID:24747388

  11. Bio-reactor chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Joseph A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A bioreactor for cell culture is disclosed which provides for the introduction of fresh medium without excessive turbulent action. The fresh medium enters the bioreactor through a filter with a backwash action which prevents the cells from settling on the filter. The bioreactor is sealed and depleted medium is forced out of the container as fresh medium is added.

  12. Characterization of oxygen transfer in miniature and lab-scale bubble column bioreactors and comparison of microbial growth performance based on constant k(L)a.

    PubMed

    Doig, Steven D; Ortiz-Ochoa, Kenny; Ward, John M; Baganz, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This work describes the engineering characterization of miniature (2 mL) and laboratory-scale (100 mL) bubble column bioreactors useful for the cultivation of microbial cells. These bioreactors were constructed of glass and used a range of sintered glass gas diffusers with differently sized pores to disperse humidified air within the liquid biomedium. The effect of the pressure of this supplied air on the breakthrough point for gas diffusers with different pore sizes was examined and could be predicted using the Laplace-Young equation. The influence of the superficial gas velocity (u(g)) on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) was determined, and values of up to 0.09 s(-1) were observed in this work. Two modeling approaches were considered in order to predict and provide comparison criteria. The first related the volumetric power consumption (P/V) to the k(L)a and a good correlation was obtained for differently sized reactors with a given pore size, but this correlation was not satisfactory for bubble columns with different gas diffusers. Values for P/V ranged from about 10 to 400 W.m(-3). Second, a model was developed predicting bubble size (d(b)), bubble rising velocity (u(b)), gas hold-up (phi), liquid side mass transfer coefficient (k(L)), and thus the k(L)a using established theory and empirical correlations. Good agreement was found with our experimental data at different scales and pore sizes. Values for d(b) varied from 0.1 to 0.6 mm, and k(L) values between 1.7 and 9.8 x 10(-4) m.s(-1) were determined. Several E. coli cultivations were performed in the miniature bubble column at low and high k(L)a values, and the results were compared to those from a conventional stirred tank operated under identical k(L)a values. Results from the two systems were similar in terms of biomass growth rate and carbon source utilization.

  13. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Wittreich, C.D.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology, as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-UP-1 Operable Unit interim remedial measure (IRM) proposed plan be developed for use in preparing an interim action record of decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of the testing described in this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-UP-1 Operable Unit activities (e.g., limited field investigation, development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the interim action ROD will specify the interim action for groundwater contamination at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are uranium and technetium-99; the secondary contaminant of concern is nitrate. The pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this test plan has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume.

  14. Pilot-Scale Production and Characterization of Paramyosin, a Vaccine Candidate for Schistosomiasis Japonica▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Jiz, Mario; Wu, Hai-Wei; Meng, Rui; Pond-Tor, Sunthorn; Reynolds, Mindy; Friedman, Jennifer F.; Olveda, Remigio; Acosta, Luz; Kurtis, Jonathan D.

    2008-01-01

    Despite effective chemotherapy, schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in the developing world, with at least 200 million active infections resulting in significant morbidity. Rapid reinfection after treatment, accompanied by extensive residual morbidity, mandates alternative control strategies, including vaccine development. Paramyosin, a myofibrillar protein found only in invertebrates, has been widely studied as a vaccine candidate for both Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum. Recently, we demonstrated that Th2-biased immune responses to paramyosin are associated with resistance to reinfection with S. japonicum in humans; however, challenges in the pilot-scale production of schistosome paramyosin have hampered further studies of this promising vaccine candidate. Here we report a method for the pilot-scale expression and purification of recombinant S. japonicum paramyosin (rSj97). rSj97 was extracted from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies and purified with sequential anion-exchange, hydroxyapatite, and size exclusion chromatography. The purified rSj97 was >95% pure as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis and was free of significant endotoxin contamination. We demonstrate that, like native paramyosin, rSj97 adopts an alpha-helical coiled-coil tertiary structure and binds immunoglobulin and collagen. Naïve mice infected with S. japonicum produce anti-rSj97 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies as early as 4 weeks postinfection, while sera collected from S. japonicum-infected individuals contain anti-rSj97 IgE antibodies. Our method for pilot-scale production of recombinant full-length paramyosin will facilitate preclinical evaluation of paramyosin as a vaccine for schistosomiasis. PMID:18426875

  15. Solar photocatalytic degradation of some hazardous water-soluble pesticides at pilot-plant scale.

    PubMed

    Oller, I; Gernjak, W; Maldonado, M I; Pérez-Estrada, L A; Sánchez-Pérez, J A; Malato, S

    2006-12-01

    The technical feasibility and performance of photocatalytic degradation of six water-soluble pesticides (cymoxanil, methomyl, oxamyl, dimethoate, pyrimethanil and telone) have been studied at pilot-plant scale in two well-defined systems which are of special interest because natural solar UV light can be used: heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide and homogeneous photocatalysis by photo-Fenton. TiO(2) photocatalysis tests were performed in a 35L solar pilot plant with three Compound Parabolic Collectors (CPCs) under natural illumination and a 75L solar pilot plant with four CPC units was used for homogeneous photocatalysis tests. The initial pesticide concentration studied was 50 mg L(-1) and the catalyst concentrations employed were 200 mg L(-1) of TiO(2) and 20 mg L(-1) of iron. Both toxicity (Vibrio fischeri, Biofix) and biodegradability (Zahn-Wellens test) of the initial pesticide solutions were also measured. Total disappearance of the parent compounds and nearly complete mineralization were attained with all pesticides tested. Treatment time, hydrogen peroxide consumption and release of heteroatoms are discussed.

  16. Training pilots to visualize large-scale spatial relationships in a stereoscopic display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowafy, Lyn; Thurman, Richard A.

    1993-09-01

    In flying air intercepts, a fighter pilot must plan most tactical maneuvers well before acquiring visual contact. Success depends on one's ability to create an accurate mental model of dynamic 3D spatial relationships from 2D information displays. This paper describes an Air Force training program for visualizing large- scale dynamic spatial relationships. It employs a low-cost, portable system in which the helmet-mounted stereoscopic display reveals the unobservable spatial relationships in a virtual world. We also describe recent research which evaluated the training effectiveness of this interactive three-dimensional display technology. Three display formats have been tested for their impact on the pilot's ability to encode, retain and recall functionally relevant spatial information: (1) a set of 2D orthographic plan views, (2) a flat panel 3D perspective rendering and, (3) the 3D virtual environment. Trainees flew specified air intercepts and reviewed the flights in one of the display formats. Experts' trajectories were provided for comparison. After training, flight performance was tested on a new set of scenarios. Differences in pilots' performances under the three formats suggest how virtual environment displays can aid people learning to visualize 3D spatial relationships from 2D information.

  17. Pilot-scale subcritical solvent extraction of curcuminoids from Curcuma long L.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Lim; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-10-15

    Curcuminoids consisted curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, were extracted from turmeric using subcritical solvent by varying conditions of temperature (110-150 °C), time (1-10 min), pressure (5-100 atm), solid-to-solvent ratio, and mixing ratio of solvent. Preliminary lab-scale experiments were conducted to determine the optimum extraction temperature and mixing ratio of water and ethanol for the pilot-scale extraction. The maximum yield of curcuminoids in the pilot-scale system was 13.58% (curcumin 4.94%, demethoxycurcumin 4.73%, and bisdemethoxycurcumin 3.91% in dried extracts) at 135 °C/5 min with water/ethanol mixture (50:50, v/v) as a solvent. On the other hand, the extraction yields of curcuminoids were obtained as 10.49%, 13.71% and 13.96% using the 50%, 95% and 100% ethanol, respectively, at the atmospheric condition (60 °C/120 min). Overall results showed that the subcritical solvent extraction is much faster and efficient extraction method considering extracted curcuminoids contents and has a potential to develop a commercial process for the extraction of curcuminoids.

  18. Final Report: Pilot-scale Cross-flow Filtration Test - Envelope A + Entrained Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-06-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company.This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. This plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  19. Removals of pharmaceutical compounds from hospital wastewater in membrane bioreactor operated under short hydraulic retention time.

    PubMed

    Prasertkulsak, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Itonaga, T; Yamamoto, K

    2016-05-01

    Pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) was operated at a short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 h for the treatment of hospital wastewater. The removals of eleven pharmaceutical compounds in MBR operated at different mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) level were investigated during which nitrification degree was differed. The results experiments revealed the importance of immediate adsorption onto the colloidal particles in supernatant of MBR sludge and subsequently removed by membrane filtration for the recalcitrant pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, the removals through biodegradation during short HRT were also found significant for some compounds. DGGE profile revealed the development of pharmaceutical degrading microorganisms in MBR. PMID:26852096

  20. Comparative study of emerging micropollutants removal by aerobic activated sludge of large laboratory-scale membrane bioreactors and sequencing batch reactors under low-temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Kruglova, Antonina; Kråkström, Matilda; Riska, Mats; Mikola, Anna; Rantanen, Pirjo; Vahala, Riku; Kronberg, Leif

    2016-08-01

    Four emerging micropollutants ibuprofen, diclofenac, estrone (E1) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were studied in large laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with high nitrifying activity. Activated sludge (AS) with sludge retention times (SRTs) of 12days and 14days in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and 30days, 60days and 90days in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were examined at 8°C and 12°C. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals and their main metabolites were analysed in liquid phase and solid phase of AS by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A remarkable amount of contaminants were detected in solids of AS, meaning the accumulation of micropollutants in bacterial cells. The biodegradation rate constants (Kbiol) were affected by SRT and temperature. MBR with a 90-day SRT showed the best results of removal. Conventional SBR process was inefficient at 8°C showing Kbiol values lower than 0.5lgSS(-1)d(-1) for studied micropollutants. PMID:27128192

  1. Comparative study of emerging micropollutants removal by aerobic activated sludge of large laboratory-scale membrane bioreactors and sequencing batch reactors under low-temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Kruglova, Antonina; Kråkström, Matilda; Riska, Mats; Mikola, Anna; Rantanen, Pirjo; Vahala, Riku; Kronberg, Leif

    2016-08-01

    Four emerging micropollutants ibuprofen, diclofenac, estrone (E1) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were studied in large laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with high nitrifying activity. Activated sludge (AS) with sludge retention times (SRTs) of 12days and 14days in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and 30days, 60days and 90days in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were examined at 8°C and 12°C. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals and their main metabolites were analysed in liquid phase and solid phase of AS by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A remarkable amount of contaminants were detected in solids of AS, meaning the accumulation of micropollutants in bacterial cells. The biodegradation rate constants (Kbiol) were affected by SRT and temperature. MBR with a 90-day SRT showed the best results of removal. Conventional SBR process was inefficient at 8°C showing Kbiol values lower than 0.5lgSS(-1)d(-1) for studied micropollutants.

  2. Pilot-scale studies on biological treatment of hypersaline wastewater at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Peng, Y Z; Zhu, G B; Wang, S Y; Yu, D S; Cui, Y W; Meng, X S

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of biological treatment of hypersaline wastewater produced from toilet flushing with seawater at low temperature, pilot-scale studies were established with plug-flow activated sludge process at low temperature (5-9 degrees C) based on bench-scale experiments. The critical salinity concentration of 30 g/L, which resulted from the cooperation results of the non-halophilic bacteria and the halophilic bacteria, was drawn in bench-scale experiments. Pilot-scale studies showed that high COD removal efficiency, higher than 80%, was obtained at low temperature when 30 percent seawater was introduced. The salinity improved the settleability of activated sludge, and average sludge value dropped down from 38% to 22.5% after adding seawater. Seawater salinity had a strong negative effect on notronomonas and nitrobacter growth, but much more on the nitrobacter. The nitrification action was mainly accomplished by nitrosomonas. Bench-scale experiments using two SBRs were carried out for further investigation under different conditions of salinities, ammonia loadings and temperatures. Biological nitrogen removal via nitrite pathway from wastewater containing 30 percent seawater was achieved, but the ammonia removal efficiency was strongly related not only to the influent ammonia loading at different salinities but also to temperature. When the ratio of seawater to wastewater was 30 percent, and the ammonia loading was below the critical value of 0.15 kgNH4+-N/(kgMLSS.d), the ammonia removal efficiency via nitrite pathway was above 90%. The critical level of ammonia loading was 0.15, 0.08 and 0.03 kgNH4+-N/(kgMLSS.d) respectively at the different temperature 30 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 20 degrees C when the influent ammonia concentration was 60-80 mg/L and pH was 7.5-8.0. PMID:16459784

  3. Performance of membrane bioreactors used for the treatment of wastewater from the chemical and textile industries.

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, S; Schröder, H F; Pinnekamp, J

    2006-01-01

    Within the scope of the study, nine waste waters from the chemical and textile industries were treated in bench-scale (laboratory scale) and small-scale (pilot scale) membrane bioreactors. Depending on wastewater characteristics, the resulting performance varied significantly. It was observed that MBR effectiveness was determined primarily by the degree of biodegradability of the wastewater. In the course of several months of operation, no significant changes associated with the complete retention of the biomass by the membranes were observed. In some cases, it was possible to improve effluent quality by using smaller molecular separation sizes. The flux performance of the membrane modules was dependent on wastewater composition. Occasionally, non-degradable macromolecular substances concentrated in the bioreactor, resulting in strongly reduced filterability and flow performance of the membrane modules, consequently also reducing the economic viability of the process. The results demonstrate that wastewater-specific pilot tests are absolutely necessary, in particular if the technology is to be used for new applications.

  4. Manufacturing Cost Analysis for YSZ-Based FlexCells at Pilot and Full Scale Production Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Swartz; Lora Thrun; Robin Kimbrell; Kellie Chenault

    2011-05-01

    Significant reductions in cell costs must be achieved in order to realize the full commercial potential of megawatt-scale SOFC power systems. The FlexCell designed by NexTech Materials is a scalable SOFC technology that offers particular advantages over competitive technologies. In this updated topical report, NexTech analyzes its FlexCell design and fabrication process to establish manufacturing costs at both pilot scale (10 MW/year) and full-scale (250 MW/year) production levels and benchmarks this against estimated anode supported cell costs at the 250 MW scale. This analysis will show that even with conservative assumptions for yield, materials usage, and cell power density, a cost of $35 per kilowatt can be achieved at high volume. Through advancements in cell size and membrane thickness, NexTech has identified paths for achieving cell manufacturing costs as low as $27 per kilowatt for its FlexCell technology. Also in this report, NexTech analyzes the impact of raw material costs on cell cost, showing the significant increases that result if target raw material costs cannot be achieved at this volume.

  5. Changes in the structure and function of microbial communities in drinking water treatment bioreactors upon addition of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Upadhyaya, Giridhar; Yuen, Wangki; Brown, Jess; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2010-11-01

    Phosphorus was added as a nutrient to bench-scale and pilot-scale biologically active carbon (BAC) reactors operated for perchlorate and nitrate removal from contaminated groundwater. The two bioreactors responded similarly to phosphorus addition in terms of microbial community function (i.e., reactor performance), while drastically different responses in microbial community structure were detected. Improvement in reactor performance with respect to perchlorate and nitrate removal started within a few days after phosphorus addition for both reactors. Microbial community structures were evaluated using molecular techniques targeting 16S rRNA genes. Clone library results showed that the relative abundance of perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB) Dechloromonas and Azospira in the bench-scale reactor increased from 15.2% and 0.6% to 54.2% and 11.7% after phosphorus addition, respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) experiments revealed that these increases started within a few days after phosphorus addition. In contrast, after phosphorus addition, the relative abundance of Dechloromonas in the pilot-scale reactor decreased from 7.1 to 0.6%, while Zoogloea increased from 17.9 to 52.0%. The results of this study demonstrated that similar operating conditions for bench-scale and pilot-scale reactors resulted in similar contaminant removal performances, despite dramatically different responses from microbial communities. These findings suggest that it is important to evaluate the microbial community compositions inside bioreactors used for drinking water treatment, as they determine the microbial composition in the effluent and impact downstream treatment requirements for drinking water production. This information could be particularly relevant to drinking water safety, if pathogens or disinfectant-resistant bacteria are detected in the bioreactors.

  6. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-09-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g(-1) VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH₄ recovery of 189 L kg(-1) VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH₄ and 38% CO₂ was recorded. PMID:26393620

  7. CFD Modeling of Flow, Temperature, and Concentration Fields in a Pilot-Scale Rotary Hearth Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Su, Fu-Yong; Wen, Zhi; Li, Zhi; Yong, Hai-Quan; Feng, Xiao-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical model for simulation of flow, temperature, and concentration fields in a pilot-scale rotary hearth furnace (RHF) has been developed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software, FLUENT. The layer of composite pellets under the hearth is assumed to be a porous media layer with CO source and energy sink calculated by an independent mathematical model. User-defined functions are developed and linked to FLUENT to process the reduction process of the layer of composite pellets. The standard k-ɛ turbulence model in combination with standard wall functions is used for modeling of gas flow. Turbulence-chemistry interaction is taken into account through the eddy-dissipation model. The discrete ordinates model is used for modeling of radiative heat transfer. A comparison is made between the predictions of the present model and the data from a test of the pilot-scale RHF, and a reasonable agreement is found. Finally, flow field, temperature, and CO concentration fields in the furnace are investigated by the model.

  8. Pilot-scale reverse osmosis testing for the F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, J.L.

    1984-09-27

    Pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) tests were completed with a 10 gpm unit to demonstrate the performance of RO in the F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF). RO will be used in the WMETF to remove soluble salts and soluble radioactivity. The advantage of using RO (over ion exchange) is that it is nondescriminanting and removes virtually all dissolved solids species, regardless of ionic charge. RO also generates less than half the waste volume produced by ion exchange. Test results using a 200-Area nonradioactive effluent simulant demonstrated salt rejections of 98% and water recoveries of 94% by using recycle on a single stage pilot unit. For a full-scale, multi-staged unit overall salt rejections will be 95% (DF = 20) while obtaining a 94% water recovery (94% discharge, 6% concentrated waste stream). Identical performance is expected on actual radioactive streams, based on shielded cells testing performed by Motyka and Stimson. Similarly, if the WMETF RO system is configured in the same manner as the SRL ECWPF, a DF of 20 and a water recvery of 94% should be obtained.

  9. Evaluation of the thermal stability POHC incinerability ranking in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.; Whitworth, W.E.; Carroll, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the thermal stability-based POHC incinerability ranking. In the tests, mixtures of 12 POHCs with predicted incinerability spanning the range of most to least difficult to incinerate class were combined with a clay-based sorbent and batch-fed to the facility's pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator via a fiberpack drum ram feeder. Kiln operating conditions were varied to include a baseline operating condition, three modes of attempted incineration failure, and a worst case combination of the three failure modes. Kiln exit POHC DREs were in the 99.99 percent range for the volatile POHCs for the baseline, mixing failure (increased charge mass), and matrix failure (decreased feed H/C) tests. Semivolatile POHCs were not detected in the kiln exit for these tests; corresponding DREs were generally greater than 99.999 percent. The thermal failure (low kiln temperature) and worst case (combination of thermal, mixing, and matrix failure) tests resulted in substantially decreased kiln exit POHC DREs. These ranged from 99 percent or less for Freon 113 to greater than 99.999 percent for the less stable-ranked semivolatile POHCs. General agreement between relative kiln exit POHC DRE and predicted incinerability class was observed.

  10. Energy saving membrane treatment of high organic load industrial effluents: from lab to pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mafalda Pessoa; Xin, Gang; Crespo, João G

    2013-12-15

    In this study, a nanofiltration unit was implemented at an industrial site, for the treatment of industrial wastewater generated during rubber tubing extrusion. The aim was to reduce the energy input required, while assuring a final effluent quality that meets the requirements of environmental legislation. In a first stage, two membrane process treatments, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, were evaluated at laboratory scale in order to assess the rejection of pollutants and maximise permeate throughput. Permeate generated from nanofiltration using either an NF90 or an NF270 membrane were shown to meet the effluent discharge requirements (<2000 mg COD/l). The less restrictive membrane, NF270, was chosen for study in a pilot plant at the industrial site, due to its higher membrane permeability. The pilot nanofiltration unit was integrated into the treatment plant operation aiming at optimising the process in terms of the efficiency of pollutant removal with minimal energy input. A feasibility study was performed for this case-study and it was concluded that the energy expenditure of the new process represents only 62% of the current energy consumption of the treatment plant. The proposed solution in this work may be retrofitted to full scale wastewater treatment processes, and may be applicable to industries that employ similar manufacturing processes, and face similar difficulties. PMID:24161805

  11. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded. PMID:26393620

  12. [Pilot-scale cultivation of Spirulina plantensis with digested piggery wastewater ].

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing-qing; Liu, Rui; Luo, Jin-fei; Wang, Gen-rong; Chen, Lii-jun; Liu, Xiao

    2014-09-01

    The swine waste pretreated with coagulation sedimentation was used for the outdoor pilot-scale cultivation of Spirulina platensis isolated from digested piggery wastewater (DPW) in a raceway pond. The growth of S. platensis and removal of nitrogen/ phosphorus were studied, moreover, the conversion efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) or total phosphorus (TP) from DPW to S. platensis was calculated. On this basis, the existing problems and countermeasures during outdoor pilot-scale culture were analyzed and summarized combined with the laboratory research. We conducted 6 batches culture experiments, only 3 of which could reach the S. platensis harvest requirements (D560 >0. 8). Meanwhile, the 3 successful batches achieved removal of COD, ammonia nitrogen, TN, TP with corresponding 28. 6% -48. 5% , 0.4% -48. 5% , 41. 8% -48. 6% , 14. 3% -94. 5% , and the conversion efficiency of TN or TP from DPW to S. platensis reached 12. 1% -98. 5% , 21.2% -83.7% , respectively. High concentration of ammonia nitrogen and insect attack of remaining egg hatching in the pretreated swine waste were the main factors to cause the slow-growing of the 3 batches of S. platensis. Therefore, it is highly necessary for the removal of ammonia nitrogen with biological treatment technology and insect eggs with membrane to achieve a stable high productivity. PMID:25518669

  13. Pilot-scale fluoride-containing wastewater treatment by the ballasted flocculation process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin-Yuan; Chen, Zhong-Lin; Zhu, Jia; Shen, Ji-Min; Han, Ying

    2013-01-01

    A pilot-scale ballasted flocculation system was used to remove fluoride from one type of industrial wastewater. The system included the formation of calcium fluoride (CaF2) using calcium hydroxide followed by coagulation sedimentation. Calcium fluoride was recycled as nuclei for enhancing CaF2 precipitation and as a ballasting agent for improving fluoride removal and flocculation efficiency. Factors affecting fluoride and turbidity removal efficiencies, including pH in the CaF2-reacting tank and coagulation-mixing tank, sludge recycling ratio, and dosages of FeCl3 and polyacrylamide (PAM), were investigated in the pilot-scale system. The recycled CaF2 precipitates improved CaF2 formation kinetics, enhanced fluoride removal and flocculation performance. Under the optimized condition, the ballast flocculation process reduced fluoride concentration from 288.9 to 10.67 mg/L and the turbidity from 129.6 NTU to below 2.5 NTU. PMID:23823549

  14. Pilot scale thin film plate reactors for the photocatalytic treatment of sugar refinery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Saran, S; Kamalraj, G; Arunkumar, P; Devipriya, S P

    2016-09-01

    Pilot scale thin film plate reactors (TFPR) were fabricated to study the solar photocatalytic treatment of wastewater obtained from the secondary treatment plant of a sugar refinery. Silver-impregnated titanium dioxide (TiO2) was prepared by a facile chemical reduction method, characterized, and immobilized onto the surface of ceramic tiles used in the pilot scale reactors. On 8 h of solar irradiation, percentage reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wastewater by Ag/TiO2, pure TiO2, and control (without catalyst) TFPR was about 95, 86, and 22 % respectively. The effects of operational parameters such as, flow rate, pH, and addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were optimized as they influence the rate of COD reduction. Under 3 h of solar irradiation, 99 % COD reduction was observed at an optimum flow rate of 15 L h(-1), initial pH of 2, and addition of 5 mM of H2O2. The results show that Ag/TiO2 TFPR could be effectively used for the tertiary treatment of sugar refinery effluent using sunlight as the energy source. The treated water could be reused for industrial purposes, thus reducing the water footprint of the industry. Graphical Abstract Sugar refinery effluent treatment by solar photocatalytic TFPR. PMID:27246562

  15. Fermentative lactic acid production from coffee pulp hydrolysate using Bacillus coagulans at laboratory and pilot scales.

    PubMed

    Pleissner, Daniel; Neu, Anna-Katrin; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the lignocellulosic residue coffee pulp was used as carbon source in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production using Bacillus coagulans. After thermo-chemical treatment at 121°C for 30min in presence of 0.18molL(-1) H2SO4 and following an enzymatic digestion using Accellerase 1500 carbon-rich hydrolysates were obtained. Two different coffee pulp materials with comparable biomass composition were used, but sugar concentrations in hydrolysates showed variations. The primary sugars were (gL(-1)) glucose (20-30), xylose (15-25), sucrose (5-11) and arabinose (0.7-10). Fermentations were carried out at laboratory (2L) and pilot (50L) scales in presence of 10gL(-1) yeast extract. At pilot scale carbon utilization and lactic acid yield per gram of sugar consumed were 94.65% and 0.78gg(-1), respectively. The productivity was 4.02gL(-1)h(-1). Downstream processing resulted in a pure formulation containing 937gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid with an optical purity of 99.7%. PMID:27359065

  16. Pilot-scale bioelectrochemical system for efficient conversion of 4-chloronitrobenzene.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; You, Shi-Jie; Zhang, Jin-Na; Gong, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Xiu-Heng; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2015-01-01

    4-Chloronitrobenzene (4-CNB) is one of the highly toxic contaminants that may lead to acute, chronic or persistent physiological toxicity to ecology and environment. Conventional methods for removing 4-CNB from aquatic environment may be problematic due to inefficiency, high cost and low sustainability. This study develops a pilot-scale bioelectrochemical system (BES, effective volume of 18 L) and examines its performance of bioelectrochemical transformation of 4-CNB to 4-chloroaniline (4-CAN) under continuous operation. The results demonstrate that the initial 4-CNB concentration in the influent and hydraulic retention time (HRT) has a significant impact on 4-CNB reduction and 4-CAN formation. Compared with the conventional anaerobic process in the absence of external power supplied, the 4-CNB conversion efficiency can be enhanced with power supplied due to microbial-mediated electron transfer at the negative cathode potential. At a voltage of 0.4 V and HRT of 48 h, the 4-CNB reduction and 4-CAN formation efficiency reached 99% and 94.1%, respectively. Based on a small external voltage applied, the pilot-scale BES is effective in the conversion of 4-CNB to 4-CAN, an intermediate that is of less toxicity and higher bioavailability for subsequent treatment. This study provides a new strategy and methods for eliminating 4-CNB, making wastewater treatment more economical and more sustainable. PMID:25650667

  17. Pilot scale thin film plate reactors for the photocatalytic treatment of sugar refinery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Saran, S; Kamalraj, G; Arunkumar, P; Devipriya, S P

    2016-09-01

    Pilot scale thin film plate reactors (TFPR) were fabricated to study the solar photocatalytic treatment of wastewater obtained from the secondary treatment plant of a sugar refinery. Silver-impregnated titanium dioxide (TiO2) was prepared by a facile chemical reduction method, characterized, and immobilized onto the surface of ceramic tiles used in the pilot scale reactors. On 8 h of solar irradiation, percentage reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wastewater by Ag/TiO2, pure TiO2, and control (without catalyst) TFPR was about 95, 86, and 22 % respectively. The effects of operational parameters such as, flow rate, pH, and addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were optimized as they influence the rate of COD reduction. Under 3 h of solar irradiation, 99 % COD reduction was observed at an optimum flow rate of 15 L h(-1), initial pH of 2, and addition of 5 mM of H2O2. The results show that Ag/TiO2 TFPR could be effectively used for the tertiary treatment of sugar refinery effluent using sunlight as the energy source. The treated water could be reused for industrial purposes, thus reducing the water footprint of the industry. Graphical Abstract Sugar refinery effluent treatment by solar photocatalytic TFPR.

  18. Fermentative lactic acid production from coffee pulp hydrolysate using Bacillus coagulans at laboratory and pilot scales.

    PubMed

    Pleissner, Daniel; Neu, Anna-Katrin; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the lignocellulosic residue coffee pulp was used as carbon source in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production using Bacillus coagulans. After thermo-chemical treatment at 121°C for 30min in presence of 0.18molL(-1) H2SO4 and following an enzymatic digestion using Accellerase 1500 carbon-rich hydrolysates were obtained. Two different coffee pulp materials with comparable biomass composition were used, but sugar concentrations in hydrolysates showed variations. The primary sugars were (gL(-1)) glucose (20-30), xylose (15-25), sucrose (5-11) and arabinose (0.7-10). Fermentations were carried out at laboratory (2L) and pilot (50L) scales in presence of 10gL(-1) yeast extract. At pilot scale carbon utilization and lactic acid yield per gram of sugar consumed were 94.65% and 0.78gg(-1), respectively. The productivity was 4.02gL(-1)h(-1). Downstream processing resulted in a pure formulation containing 937gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid with an optical purity of 99.7%.

  19. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.

    2011-05-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to resuspend the MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles so that they can be removed from the tank, and to suspend the MST so it can contact strontium and actinides. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5, B3, and B1). Previous testing showed that three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank, and to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST and CST that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 84% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (2) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST, CST, and simulated sludge that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 82% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (3) A contact time of 6-12 hours is needed for strontium sorption by MST in a jet mixed tank with cooling coils, which is consistent with bench-scale testing and actinide removal process (ARP) operation.

  20. Pilot-scale equipment development for lithium-based reduction of spent oxide fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, S. D.

    1998-04-24

    An integral function of the electrometallurgical conditioning of DOE spent nuclear fuel is the standardization of waste forms. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical conditioning of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in uranium, ceramic waste, and metal waste forms. Engineering studies are underway at ANL in support of pilot-scale equipment development, which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel and likewise demonstrate the application of electrometallurgical conditioning to such non-metallic fuels. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel conditioning with existing electrometallurgical processes. Additionally, technical bases for engineering activities to support a scale up of an oxide reduction process are described.

  1. UV/chlorine control of drinking water taste and odour at pilot and full-scale.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ding; Bolton, James R; Andrews, Susan A; Hofmann, Ron

    2015-10-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) can be used to destroy taste and odour-causing compounds in drinking water. This work investigated both pilot- and full-scale performance of the novel ultraviolet (UV)/chlorine AOP for the destruction of geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and caffeine (as a surrogate) in two different surface waters. The efficiency of the UV/chlorine process at pH 7.5 and 8.5 was comparable to that of the UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) process under parallel conditions, and was superior at pH 6.5. Caffeine was found to be a suitable surrogate for geosmin and MIB, and could be used as a more economical alternative to geosmin or MIB spiking for site-specific full-scale testing.

  2. Production and basic morphology of struvite crystals from a pilot-scale crystallization process.

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Mavinic, D S; Lo, K V; Koch, F A

    2006-03-01

    A pilot-scale, struvite crystallization process was operated using anaerobic digester supernatants from two, full-scale, treatment plants as influent. It was found that the produced struvite crystals were easily separated from the process and were composed of very pure struvite (91.2 % to 94.1 % purity), with small amounts of calcium and carbonate, and traces of iron and aluminum. Most of the harvested struvite crystals, which were an aggregation of numerous fine crystals, were round, hard and larger than 1.5 mm in mean diameter. The crystal retention time in the reactor and the magnesium dosage in the supernatant appeared to have a significant effect on the crystal size, hardness and morphology. PMID:16548204

  3. Creative use of pilot points to address site and regional scale heterogeneity in a variable-density model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dausman, Alyssa M.; Doherty, John; Langevin, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot points for parameter estimation were creatively used to address heterogeneity at both the well field and regional scales in a variable-density groundwater flow and solute transport model designed to test multiple hypotheses for upward migration of fresh effluent injected into a highly transmissive saline carbonate aquifer. Two sets of pilot points were used within in multiple model layers, with one set of inner pilot points (totaling 158) having high spatial density to represent hydraulic conductivity at the site, while a second set of outer points (totaling 36) of lower spatial density was used to represent hydraulic conductivity further from the site. Use of a lower spatial density outside the site allowed (1) the total number of pilot points to be reduced while maintaining flexibility to accommodate heterogeneity at different scales, and (2) development of a model with greater areal extent in order to simulate proper boundary conditions that have a limited effect on the area of interest. The parameters associated with the inner pilot points were log transformed hydraulic conductivity multipliers of the conductivity field obtained by interpolation from outer pilot points. The use of this dual inner-outer scale parameterization (with inner parameters constituting multipliers for outer parameters) allowed smooth transition of hydraulic conductivity from the site scale, where greater spatial variability of hydraulic properties exists, to the regional scale where less spatial variability was necessary for model calibration. While the model is highly parameterized to accommodate potential aquifer heterogeneity, the total number of pilot points is kept at a minimum to enable reasonable calibration run times.

  4. Near-Tank Treatment of Hanford Tank Waste: Pilot-Scale Testing - 12107

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, P.P.; Edwards, M.K.; Shimskey, R.W.; Peterson, R.A.; Smith, C.; Tranbarger, R.

    2012-07-01

    In order to reduce the number of high level waste canisters that will have to be produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, supplemental waste treatment technologies are being investigated. One such technology is the Near-Tank Treatment System, which uses continuous sludge leaching, filtration, and ion exchange to process the waste in a simple, compact system. The Near Tank Treatment System is ideally suited for handling Hanford tanks with large amounts of boehmite, a difficult aluminum phase to dissolve. A pilot-scale Near Tank Treatment System was constructed and tested with a boehmite and iron oxyhydroxide waste simulant to evaluate the robustness and effectiveness of the system. The data from the pilot-scale tests were also used to assess scale-up from previously performed bench-scale tests. It should be noted that any work involving the use of simulated HLW has inherent limitations. For this work, every attempt was made to ensure that the simulant mimicked the actual waste performance as closely as possible. However, there are always limitations in the ability to The NTTS Demonstration Test established that all the subsystems could be operated concurrently to process the waste simulant. The NTTS had a stable performance during the Demonstration Test that required very little external manipulation once a steady state was achieved. The CSL demonstrated effectively 90% dissolution of the hard to leach boehmite phase. The cross flow filtration system was able to deliver decontaminated salt solution to the NTCR system. The NTCR system exceeded the design basis by providing effluent below the detection limit beyond the design basis required time. The NTTS system was successfully demonstrated and has shown that leaching and decontamination of the subsequent permeate can be readily achieved using relatively small footprint equipment in an at tank application. (authors)

  5. Liquid-phase bioreactor for degradation of trichloroethylene and benzene. Final report, 11 January 1993-30 December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Guarini, B.; Folsom, B.

    1996-04-01

    The major objective was to demonstrate the efficacy of a dual-stage bioreactor system for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with fuels and solvents. Under this SBIR Phase II, the number of chemicals to be treated during the field demonstration was expanded to include TCE, BTEX, and dichlorobenzenes (DCBs). A pilot-scale dual-stage bioreactor system was operated at Robins AFB GA to establish proof-of-concept and to develop operational and economic information for full-scale implementation. The system included a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR), an air stripper, and a TCE gas-phase bioreactor (GPR). Due to the enhanced performance of the FBR towards TCE, the demonstration essentially became a test of two independent pilot systems, one for treatment of contaminated water in the FBR and the second for treatment of contaminated air in the GPR. Operation of the system demonstrated effective treatment of not only BTEX and DCB, but also TCE. Over 210,000 gallons of contaminated groundwater were effectively treated during the demonstration. All hazardous chemicals were treated to concentrations near or below drinking water standards. An economic evaluation of the FBR to UV-peroxidation, air stripping with carbon adsorption, wet carbon adsorption and air stripping followed by PURUS adsorption suggests a significant cost savings over the life of a typical project.

  6. Scaling Down to Scale Up: A Health Economic Analysis of Integrating Point-of-Care Syphilis Testing into Antenatal Care in Zambia during Pilot and National Rollout Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Ncube, Alexander Tshaka; Sweeney, Sedona; Fleischer, Colette; Mumba, Grace Tembo; Gill, Michelle M.; Strasser, Susan; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Terris-Prestholt, Fern

    2015-01-01

    Maternal syphilis results in an estimated 500,000 stillbirths and neonatal deaths annually in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the existence of national guidelines for antenatal syphilis screening, syphilis testing is often limited by inadequate laboratory and staff services. Recent availability of inexpensive rapid point-of-care syphilis tests (RST) can improve access to antenatal syphilis screening. A 2010 pilot in Zambia explored the feasibility of integrating RST within prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV services. Following successful demonstration, the Zambian Ministry of Health adopted RSTs into national policy in 2011. Cost data from the pilot and 2012 preliminary national rollout were extracted from project records, antenatal registers, clinic staff interviews, and facility observations, with the aim of assessing the cost and quality implications of scaling up a successful pilot into a national rollout. Start-up, capital, and recurrent cost inputs were collected, including costs of extensive supervision and quality monitoring during the pilot. Costs were analysed from a provider’s perspective, incremental to existing antenatal services. Total and unit costs were calculated and a multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. Our accompanying qualitative study by Ansbro et al. (2015) elucidated quality assurance and supervisory system challenges experienced during rollout, which helped explain key cost drivers. The average unit cost per woman screened during rollout ($11.16) was more than triple the pilot unit cost ($3.19). While quality assurance costs were much lower during rollout, the increased unit costs can be attributed to several factors, including higher RST prices and lower RST coverage during rollout, which reduced economies of scale. Pilot and rollout cost drivers differed due to implementation decisions related to training, supervision, and quality assurance. This study explored the cost of integrating RST into antenatal care in

  7. Scaling Down to Scale Up: A Health Economic Analysis of Integrating Point-of-Care Syphilis Testing into Antenatal Care in Zambia during Pilot and National Rollout Implementation.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Katharine D; Ansbro, Éimhín M; Ncube, Alexander Tshaka; Sweeney, Sedona; Fleischer, Colette; Tembo Mumba, Grace; Gill, Michelle M; Strasser, Susan; Peeling, Rosanna W; Terris-Prestholt, Fern

    2015-01-01

    Maternal syphilis results in an estimated 500,000 stillbirths and neonatal deaths annually in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the existence of national guidelines for antenatal syphilis screening, syphilis testing is often limited by inadequate laboratory and staff services. Recent availability of inexpensive rapid point-of-care syphilis tests (RST) can improve access to antenatal syphilis screening. A 2010 pilot in Zambia explored the feasibility of integrating RST within prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV services. Following successful demonstration, the Zambian Ministry of Health adopted RSTs into national policy in 2011. Cost data from the pilot and 2012 preliminary national rollout were extracted from project records, antenatal registers, clinic staff interviews, and facility observations, with the aim of assessing the cost and quality implications of scaling up a successful pilot into a national rollout. Start-up, capital, and recurrent cost inputs were collected, including costs of extensive supervision and quality monitoring during the pilot. Costs were analysed from a provider's perspective, incremental to existing antenatal services. Total and unit costs were calculated and a multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. Our accompanying qualitative study by Ansbro et al. (2015) elucidated quality assurance and supervisory system challenges experienced during rollout, which helped explain key cost drivers. The average unit cost per woman screened during rollout ($11.16) was more than triple the pilot unit cost ($3.19). While quality assurance costs were much lower during rollout, the increased unit costs can be attributed to several factors, including higher RST prices and lower RST coverage during rollout, which reduced economies of scale. Pilot and rollout cost drivers differed due to implementation decisions related to training, supervision, and quality assurance. This study explored the cost of integrating RST into antenatal care in

  8. Scaling Down to Scale Up: A Health Economic Analysis of Integrating Point-of-Care Syphilis Testing into Antenatal Care in Zambia during Pilot and National Rollout Implementation.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Katharine D; Ansbro, Éimhín M; Ncube, Alexander Tshaka; Sweeney, Sedona; Fleischer, Colette; Tembo Mumba, Grace; Gill, Michelle M; Strasser, Susan; Peeling, Rosanna W; Terris-Prestholt, Fern

    2015-01-01

    Maternal syphilis results in an estimated 500,000 stillbirths and neonatal deaths annually in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the existence of national guidelines for antenatal syphilis screening, syphilis testing is often limited by inadequate laboratory and staff services. Recent availability of inexpensive rapid point-of-care syphilis tests (RST) can improve access to antenatal syphilis screening. A 2010 pilot in Zambia explored the feasibility of integrating RST within prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV services. Following successful demonstration, the Zambian Ministry of Health adopted RSTs into national policy in 2011. Cost data from the pilot and 2012 preliminary national rollout were extracted from project records, antenatal registers, clinic staff interviews, and facility observations, with the aim of assessing the cost and quality implications of scaling up a successful pilot into a national rollout. Start-up, capital, and recurrent cost inputs were collected, including costs of extensive supervision and quality monitoring during the pilot. Costs were analysed from a provider's perspective, incremental to existing antenatal services. Total and unit costs were calculated and a multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. Our accompanying qualitative study by Ansbro et al. (2015) elucidated quality assurance and supervisory system challenges experienced during rollout, which helped explain key cost drivers. The average unit cost per woman screened during rollout ($11.16) was more than triple the pilot unit cost ($3.19). While quality assurance costs were much lower during rollout, the increased unit costs can be attributed to several factors, including higher RST prices and lower RST coverage during rollout, which reduced economies of scale. Pilot and rollout cost drivers differed due to implementation decisions related to training, supervision, and quality assurance. This study explored the cost of integrating RST into antenatal care in

  9. PILOT SCALE TESTING OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE MIXING FOR THE SRS SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS - 11224

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.; Steeper, T.

    2011-01-25

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and select actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the requirements for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that they can contact the strontium and actinides in the liquid and be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of SRS Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). The conclusions from this work follow: (i) Neither two standard slurry pumps nor two quad volute slurry pumps will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. (ii) Two Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. However, the testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is close to the maximum discharge velocity of the pump (within 12%). (iii) Three SMPs will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 66% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (iv) Three SMPs are needed to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 77% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. Two SMPs are not sufficient to resuspend MST that settled under these

  10. A review of advanced small-scale parallel bioreactor technology for accelerated process development: current state and future need.

    PubMed

    Bareither, Rachel; Pollard, David

    2011-01-01

    The pharmaceutical and biotech industries face continued pressure to reduce development costs and accelerate process development. This challenge occurs alongside the need for increased upstream experimentation to support quality by design initiatives and the pursuit of predictive models from systems biology. A small scale system enabling multiple reactions in parallel (n ≥ 20), with automated sampling and integrated to purification, would provide significant improvement (four to fivefold) to development timelines. State of the art attempts to pursue high throughput process development include shake flasks, microfluidic reactors, microtiter plates and small-scale stirred reactors. The limitations of these systems are compared to desired criteria to mimic large scale commercial processes. The comparison shows that significant technological improvement is still required to provide automated solutions that can speed upstream process development.

  11. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiao; Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei; Gao Xingbao; Qiao Wei; Zhou Yingjun

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  12. Estimation of soil air permeability components at a laboratory-scale pilot.

    PubMed

    Boudouch, Otmane; Esrael, Daoud; Kacem, Mariem; Benadda, Belkacem

    2012-01-01

    Soil air permeability is a key parameter in the design of soil vapour extraction. The purpose of this study is to verify the applicability of different analytical solutions, developed to determine soil characteristics in field conditions, to estimate soil air permeability in a small-scale pilot, since field testing may be expensive. A laboratory tridirectional pilot and a unidirectional column were designed in order to achieve the objectives of this work. Use of a steady-state unconfined analytical solution was found to be an appropriate method to determine soil air permeability components for the pilot conditions. Using pressure data collected under open, steady-state conditions, the average values of radial and vertical permeability were found to be, respectively, 9.97 x 10(-7) and 8.74 x 10(-7) cm2. The use of semi-confined analytical solutions may not be suitable to estimate soil parameters since a significant difference was observed between simulated and observed vacuums. Air permeability was underestimated when transient solutions were used, in comparison with methods based on steady-state solutions. The air radial and vertical permeability was found to be, respectively, 7.06 x 10(-7) and 4.93 x 10(-7) cm2, in the open scenario, and 2.30 x 10(-7) and 1.51 x 10(-7) cm2 in the semi-confined scenario. However, a good estimate of soil porosity was achieved using the two transient methods. The average values were predicted to be 0.482, in the open scenario, and 0.451 in the semi-confined scenario, which was in good agreement with the real value.

  13. Optimization of a catchment-scale coupled surface-subsurface hydrological model using pilot points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danapour, Mehrdis; Stisen, Simon; Lajer Højberg, Anker

    2016-04-01

    Transient coupled surface-subsurface models are usually complex and contain a large amount of spatio-temporal information. In the traditional calibration approach, model parameters are adjusted against only few spatially aggregated observations of discharge or individual point observations of groundwater head. However, this approach doesn't enable an assessment of spatially explicit predictive model capabilities at the intermediate scale relevant for many applications. The overall objectives of this project is to develop a new model calibration and evaluation framework by combining distributed model parameterization and regularization with new types of objective functions focusing on optimizing spatial patterns rather than individual points or catchment scale features. Inclusion of detailed observed spatial patterns of hydraulic head gradients or relevant information obtained from remote sensing data in the calibration process could allow for a better representation of spatial variability of hydraulic properties. Pilot Points as an alternative to classical parameterization approaches, introduce great flexibility when calibrating heterogeneous systems without neglecting expert knowledge (Doherty, 2003). A highly parameterized optimization of complex distributed hydrological models at catchment scale is challenging due to the computational burden that comes with it. In this study the physically-based coupled surface-subsurface model MIKE SHE is calibrated for the 8,500 km2 area of central Jylland (Denmark) that is characterized by heterogeneous geology and considerable groundwater flow across topographical catchment boundaries. The calibration of the distributed conductivity fields is carried out with a pilot point-based approach, implemented using the PEST parameter estimation tool. To reduce the high number of calibration parameters, PEST's advanced singular value decomposition combined with regularization was utilized and a reduction of the model's complexity was

  14. Alternative energy efficient membrane bioreactor using reciprocating submerged membrane.

    PubMed

    Ho, J; Smith, S; Roh, H K

    2014-01-01

    A novel membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot system, using membrane reciprocation instead of air scouring, was operated at constant high flux and daily fluctuating flux to demonstrate its application under peak and diurnal flow conditions. Low and stable transmembrane pressure was achieved at 40 l/m(2)/h (LMH) by use of repetitive membrane reciprocation. The results reveal that the inertial forces acting on the membrane fibers effectively propel foulants from the membrane surface. Reciprocation of the hollow fiber membrane is beneficial for the constant removal of solids that may build up on the membrane surface and inside the membrane bundle. The membrane reciprocation in the reciprocating MBR pilot consumed less energy than coarse air scouring used in conventional MBR systems. Specific energy consumption for the membrane reciprocation was 0.072 kWh/m(3) permeate produced at 40 LMH flux, which is 75% less than for a conventional air scouring system as reported in literature without consideration of energy consumption for biological aeration (0.29 kWh/m(3)). The daily fluctuating flux test confirmed that the membrane reciprocation is effective to handle fluctuating flux up to 50 LMH. The pilot-scale reciprocating MBR system successfully demonstrated that fouling can be controlled via 0.43 Hz membrane reciprocation with 44 mm or higher amplitude.

  15. Alternative energy efficient membrane bioreactor using reciprocating submerged membrane.

    PubMed

    Ho, J; Smith, S; Roh, H K

    2014-01-01

    A novel membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot system, using membrane reciprocation instead of air scouring, was operated at constant high flux and daily fluctuating flux to demonstrate its application under peak and diurnal flow conditions. Low and stable transmembrane pressure was achieved at 40 l/m(2)/h (LMH) by use of repetitive membrane reciprocation. The results reveal that the inertial forces acting on the membrane fibers effectively propel foulants from the membrane surface. Reciprocation of the hollow fiber membrane is beneficial for the constant removal of solids that may build up on the membrane surface and inside the membrane bundle. The membrane reciprocation in the reciprocating MBR pilot consumed less energy than coarse air scouring used in conventional MBR systems. Specific energy consumption for the membrane reciprocation was 0.072 kWh/m(3) permeate produced at 40 LMH flux, which is 75% less than for a conventional air scouring system as reported in literature without consideration of energy consumption for biological aeration (0.29 kWh/m(3)). The daily fluctuating flux test confirmed that the membrane reciprocation is effective to handle fluctuating flux up to 50 LMH. The pilot-scale reciprocating MBR system successfully demonstrated that fouling can be controlled via 0.43 Hz membrane reciprocation with 44 mm or higher amplitude. PMID:25521136

  16. Tapered fluidized bed bioreactor for environmental control and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C. D.; Hancher, C. W.; Arcuri, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    Fluidized bed bioreactors are under development for use in environmental control and energy production. The most effective systems utilize a tapered portion either throughout the column or at the top of the column. This taper allows a wide range of operating conditions without loss of the fluidized particulates, and in general, results in more stable operation. The system described here utilize fixed films of microorganisms that have attached themselves to the fluidized particles. Preliminary investigations of the attachment indicate that reactor performance is related to film thickness. The biological denitrification of aqueous waste streams is typical of processes under development that utilize fluidized bed bioreactors. This development has progressed to the pilot plant scale where two 20-cm-diam x 800-cm fluidized beds in series accept aqueous wastes with nitrate concentrations as high as 10,000 mg/l and denitrification rates greater than 50 g/l/day using residence times of less than 30 minutes in each reactor. Other applications include aerobic degradation of phenolic wastes at rates greater than 25 g/l/day and the conversion of glucose to ethanol.

  17. Pilot-Scale Laboratory Instruction for Chemical Engineering: The Specific Case of the Pilot-Unit Leading Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billet, Anne-Marie; Camy, Severine; Coufort-Saudejaud, Carole

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an original approach for Chemical Engineering laboratory teaching that is currently applied at INP-ENSIACET (France). This approach, referred to as "pilot-unit leading group" is based on a partial management of the laboratories by the students themselves who become temporarily in charge of one specific laboratory. In addition…

  18. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of

  19. Nitrogen removal from wastewater using a hybrid membrane-biofilm process: pilot-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Downing, Leon S; Bibby, Kyle J; Esposito, Kathleen; Fascianella, Tom; Tsuchihashi, Ryujiro; Nerenberg, Robert

    2010-03-01

    The hybrid membrane biofilm process (HMBP) is a new approach to achieving total nitrogen removal from wastewater. Air-filled, hollow-fiber membranes are placed into an activated sludge basin and bulk aeration is suppressed. A nitrifying biofilm develops on the membranes, exporting nitrate and nitrite to the bulk liquid. The nitrate and nitrite are reduced by suspended biomass using influent BOD as the electron donor. Previous research demonstrated the HMBP concept at the bench scale and explored process fundamentals. This research explored the HMBP at the pilot scale, with a 120-L reaction tank, real wastewater, and a potentially scalable configuration. Nitrification rates averaged 0.5 g N m(-2)/d(-1), which were lower than found at the bench scale, and lower than predicted by a mathematical model, but still allowed effluent total nitrogen concentrations below 6 mg N/L with an average influent total nitrogen concentration of 25 mg N/L and a hydraulic retention time of 12 hours. More than 75% of the produced nitrate and nitrite was reduced with an average influent sCOD of only 68 mg/L and an average C:N ratio of 3.1. Mass balances on carbon and nitrogen suggest that nitrogen removal via nitrite occurred. This research confirms that the HMBP process is effective for BOD and nitrogen removal from wastewater, and suggests that the grid configuration is viable for scale-up.

  20. Bioreactors for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huang-Chi; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2006-09-01

    Bioreactors are essential in tissue engineering, not only because they provide an in vitro environment mimicking in vivo conditions for the growth of tissue substitutes, but also because they enable systematic studies of the responses of living tissues to various mechanical and biochemical cues. The basic principles of bioreactor design are reviewed, the bioreactors commonly used for the tissue engineering of cartilage, bone and cardiovascular systems are assessed in terms of their performance and usefulness. Several novel bioreactor types are also reviewed. PMID:16955350

  1. Proteins causing membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Taro; Nagai, Yuhei; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Kimura, Katsuki; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the details of proteins causing membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) treating real municipal wastewater were investigated. Two separate pilot-scale MBRs were continuously operated under significantly different operating conditions; one MBR was a submerged type whereas the other was a side-stream type. The submerged and side-stream MBRs were operated for 20 and 10 days, respectively. At the end of continuous operation, the foulants were extracted from the fouled membranes. The proteins contained in the extracted foulants were enriched by using the combination of crude concentration with an ultrafiltration membrane and trichloroacetic acid precipitation, and then separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). The N-terminal amino acid sequencing analysis of the proteins which formed intensive spots on the 2D-PAGE gels allowed us to partially identify one protein (OmpA family protein originated from genus Brevundimonas or Riemerella anatipestifer) from the foulant obtained from the submerged MBR, and two proteins (OprD and OprF originated from genus Pseudomonas) from that obtained from the side-stream MBR. Despite the significant difference in operating conditions of the two MBRs, all proteins identified in this study belong to β-barrel protein. These findings strongly suggest the importance of β-barrel proteins in developing membrane fouling in MBRs.

  2. Proteins causing membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Taro; Nagai, Yuhei; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Kimura, Katsuki; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the details of proteins causing membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) treating real municipal wastewater were investigated. Two separate pilot-scale MBRs were continuously operated under significantly different operating conditions; one MBR was a submerged type whereas the other was a side-stream type. The submerged and side-stream MBRs were operated for 20 and 10 days, respectively. At the end of continuous operation, the foulants were extracted from the fouled membranes. The proteins contained in the extracted foulants were enriched by using the combination of crude concentration with an ultrafiltration membrane and trichloroacetic acid precipitation, and then separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). The N-terminal amino acid sequencing analysis of the proteins which formed intensive spots on the 2D-PAGE gels allowed us to partially identify one protein (OmpA family protein originated from genus Brevundimonas or Riemerella anatipestifer) from the foulant obtained from the submerged MBR, and two proteins (OprD and OprF originated from genus Pseudomonas) from that obtained from the side-stream MBR. Despite the significant difference in operating conditions of the two MBRs, all proteins identified in this study belong to β-barrel protein. These findings strongly suggest the importance of β-barrel proteins in developing membrane fouling in MBRs. PMID:26360742

  3. Reduction of combustion emissions using hydrogen peroxide in a pilot scale combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.I.; Corredor, L.F.; Tamara, W.

    1997-12-31

    A hydrogen peroxide injection system was designed and installed in the stack of a 5,274 million J/hr industrial pilot plant scale combustion chamber using natural gas as fuel. The concentration of peroxide in the gas stream was precisely controlled by continuous injection using an electromagnetic dosage pump, the liquid 50% peroxide solution was finely dispersed into the gases by a water cooled custom designed delivery system with a spray nozzle at the tip. Residence times between 0.1 and 1.8 seconds and concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} between 280 ppm and 4,000 ppm were used during the test runs. CEMS for total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, as well as an ultrasonic gas flow monitor were used to measure the effect of hydrogen peroxide in reducing the emissions of these pollutants. Destruction removal efficiencies between 25% and 100% were observed for hydrocarbons, and concentrations of CO, as well as NO{sub x}. were reduced about 50%. The results indicate that this labscale proved technology yields similar results in reducing combustion emissions in pilot applications, and also a reliable injection system has been developed and tested successfully.

  4. Effect on orange juice of batch pasteurization in an improved pilot-scale microwave oven.

    PubMed

    Cinquanta, L; Albanese, D; Cuccurullo, G; Di Matteo, M

    2010-01-01

    The effects on orange juice batch pasteurization in an improved pilot-scale microwave (MW) oven was evaluated by monitoring pectin methyl-esterase (PME) activity, color, carotenoid compounds and vitamin C content. Trials were performed on stirred orange juice heated at different temperatures (60, 70, 75, and 85 degrees C) during batch process. MW pilot plant allowed real-time temperature control of samples using proportional integrative derivative (PID) techniques based on the infrared thermography temperature read-out. The inactivation of heat sensitive fraction of PME, that verifies orange juice pasteurization, showed a z-value of 22.1 degrees C. Carotenoid content, responsible for sensorial and nutritional quality in fresh juices, decreased by about 13% after MW pasteurization at 70 degrees C for 1 min. Total of 7 carotenoid compounds were quantified during MW heating: zeaxanthin and beta-carotene content decreased by about 26%, while no differences (P < 0.05) were found for beta-cryptoxanthin in the same trial. A slight decrease in vitamin C content was monitored after MW heating. Results showed that MW heating with a fine temperature control could result in promising stabilization treatments.

  5. Energy efficient treatment of A-stage effluent: pilot-scale experiences with shortcut nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Seuntjens, D; Bundervoet, B L M; Mollen, H; De Mulder, C; Wypkema, E; Verliefde, A; Nopens, I; Colsen, J G M; Vlaeminck, S E

    2016-01-01

    Energy autarky of sewage treatment plants, while reaching chemical oxygen demand (COD) and N discharge limits, can be achieved by means of shortcut N-removal. This study presents the results of a shortcut N-removal pilot, located at the biological two-'stage (high/low rate) wastewater treatment plant of Breda, The Netherlands. The pilot treated real effluent of a high-rate activated sludge (COD/N = 3), fed in a continuous mode at realistic loading rates (90-100 g N/(m(3)·d)). The operational strategy, which included increased stress on the sludge settling velocity, showed development of a semi-granular sludge, with average particle size of 280 μm (ø(4,3)), resulting in increased suppression of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. The process was able to remove part of the nitrogen (51 ± 23%) over nitrite, with COD/N removal ratios of 3.2 ± 0.9. The latter are lower than the current operation of the full-scale B-stage in Breda (6.8-9.4), showing promising results for carbon-efficient N-removal, while producing a well settling sludge (SVI(30) < 100 mL/g). PMID:27148716

  6. Enrichment of Plasticicumulans acidivorans at pilot-scale for PHA production on industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tamisa, Jelmer; Lužkov, Kätlin; Jiang, Yang; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2014-12-20

    A PHA producing microbial culture dominated by Plasticicumulans acidivorans was enriched in a pilot plant using fermented wastewater from the Mars candy bar factory. The pilot plant comprised (1) anaerobic fermentation, (2) enrichment of a PHA-producing microbial community and (3) accumulation for maximization of the cellular PHA content. After anaerobic fermentation, the wastewater contained mainly VFAs (0.64 ± 0.15 gCOD/gCOD) and ethanol (0.22 ± 0.13 gCOD/gCOD). In the enrichment reactor (cycle 12 h, SRT 24 h) a feast-famine pattern was established with a feast phase of around 35 ± 5 min. The culture was able to accumulate 0.70 ± 0.05 gPHA/gVSS. The difference with previous lab-scale results from P. acidivorans, in which a PHA content of 0.90 gPHA/gVSS was achieved, could be attributed to the presence of solids in the influent, the growth of a side population and the accumulation of non-PHA storage compounds that appeared to be related to ethanol consumption. PMID:25456060

  7. Membrane bio-reactor for advanced textile wastewater treatment and reuse.

    PubMed

    Lubello, C; Gori, R

    2004-01-01

    Textile wastewater contains slowly- or non-biodegradable organic substances whose removal or transformation calls for advanced tertiary treatments downstream Activated Sludge Treatment Plants (ASTP). This work is focused on the treatment of textile industry wastewater using Membrane Bio-reactor (MBR) technology. An experimental activity was carried out at the Baciacavallo Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) (Prato, Italy) to verify the efficiency of a pilot-scale MBR for the treatment of municipal wastewater, in which textile industry wastewater predominates. In the Baciacavallo WWTP the biological section is followed by a coagulation-flocculation treatment and ozonation. During the 5 months experimental period, the pilot-scale MBR proved to be very effective for wastewater reclamation. On average, removal efficiency of the pilot plant (93% for COD, 96% for ammonium and 99% for total suspended solids) was higher than the WWTP ones. Color was removed as in the WWTP. Anionic surf actants removal of pilot plant and WWTP were very similar (92.5 and 93.3% respectively), while the non-ionic surfactants removal was higher in the pilot plant (99.2 vs. 97.1). In conclusion the MBR technology demonstrated to be effective for textile wastewater reclamation, leading both to an improvement of pollutants removal and to a draw-plate simplification.

  8. Microbial bio-based plastics from olive-mill wastewater: Generation and properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates from mixed cultures in a two-stage pilot scale system.

    PubMed

    Ntaikou, I; Valencia Peroni, C; Kourmentza, C; Ilieva, V I; Morelli, A; Chiellini, E; Lyberatos, G

    2014-10-20

    The operational efficiency of a two stage pilot scale system for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from three phase olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated in this study. A mixed anaerobic, acidogenic culture derived from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, was used in the first stage, aiming to the acidification of OMW. The effluent of the first bioreactor that was operated in continuous mode, was collected in a sedimentation tank in which partial removal of the suspended solids was taking place, and was then forwarded to an aerobic reactor, operated in sequential batch mode under nutrient limitation. In the second stage an enriched culture of Pseudomonas sp. was used as initial inoculum for the production of PHAs from the acidified waste. Clarification of the acidified waste, using aluminium sulphate which causes flocculation and precipitation of solids, was also performed, and its effect on the composition of the acidified waste as well as on the yields and properties of PHAs was investigated. It was shown that clarification had no significant qualitative or quantitative effect on the primary carbon sources, i.e. short chain fatty acids and residual sugars, but only on the values of total suspended solids and total chemical oxygen demand of the acidified waste. The type and thermal characteristics of the produced PHAs were also similar for both types of feed. However the clarification of the waste seemed to have a positive impact on final PHAs yield, measured as gPHAs/100g of VSS, which reached up to 25%. Analysis of the final products via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the existence of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyoctanoate (HO) units, leading to the conclusion that the polymer could be either a blend of P3HB and P3HO homopolymers or/and the 3HB-co-3HO co-polymer, an unusual polymer occurring in nature with advanced properties.

  9. Membrane bioreactors for final treatment of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Galil, N I; Sheindorf, Ch; Stahl, N; Tenenbaum, A; Levinsky, Y

    2003-01-01

    The full-scale existing treatment plant in a paper mill in Hedera, Israel, includes equalization, solids separation by either straining or by dissolved air flotation and biological treatment by activated sludge. The operation of the existing biological process is often characterized by disturbances, mainly bad settling, voluminous bioflocs, followed by wash-out of the biosolids. This paper summarizes the results obtained in a study based on a pilot plant including a membrane biological reactor (MBR) compared to the "conventional" activated sludge process in the aerobic treatment of the effluent obtained from an anaerobic reactor. During the pilot operation period (about 90 days after achieving steady state) the MBR system provided steady operation performance, while the activated sludge produced effluent characterized by oscillatory values. The results are based on average values and indicate much lower levels of suspended solids in the MBR effluent, 2.5 mg/L, as compared to 37 mg/L in the activated sludge. As a result, the total organic mater content was also substantially lower in the MBR effluent, 129 vs 204 mg/L as COD, and 7.1 vs 83 mg/L as BOD. The MBR enabled better nitrification. The ability to develop and maintain a concentration of over 11,000 mg/L of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids in the MBR bioreactor enabled an intensive bioprocess at relatively high cell residence time. As a result the biosolids which had to be removed as excess sludge were characterized by relatively low volatile/total suspended solids ratio, around 0.78. This could facilitate and lower the cost of biosolids treatment and handling. The results of this comparative study indicate that in the case of MBR there will be no need for further treatment, while after activated sludge additional filtration will be required. The study leads to the conclusion that MBR will be the best technology for aerobic treatment of the anaerobic effluent of the paper mill.

  10. Slag Characterization: A Necessary Tool for Modeling and Simulating Refractory Corrosion on a Pilot Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregurek, D.; Wenzl, C.; Reiter, V.; Studnicka, H. L.; Spanring, A.

    2014-09-01

    The slag in pyrometallurgical operations plays a major role affecting the life of furnace refractory. As such, comprehensive mineralogical and chemical slag examination, physical property determination including the slag melting point or liquidus, and viscosity are necessary for precise understanding of a slag. At the RHI Technology Center Leoben, Austria, the main objective of slag characterization work is to reach a better understanding of refractory corrosion. This corrosion testwork is performed at the laboratory and pilot scale. Typically, corrosion tests are performed in an induction furnace or rotary kiln, with the main purpose being the improved selection of the most suitable refractory products to improve refractory performance in operating metallurgical furnaces. This article focuses on characterization of samples of six non-ferrous, customer-provided slags. This includes slag from a copper Peirce-Smith converter, a short rotary furnace for lead smelting, a titania-processing furnace, and a Ni-Cu top blowing rotary converter (TBRC) plant.

  11. Recovery of phosphorus from dairy manure: a pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Lo, Victor K; Thompson, James R; Koch, Frederic A; Liao, Ping H; Lobanov, Sergey; Mavinic, Donald S; Atwater, James W

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus was recovered from dairy manure via a microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP) followed by struvite crystallization in a pilot-scale continuous flow operation. Soluble phosphorus in dairy manure increased by over 50% after the MW/H2O2-AOP, and the settleability of suspended solids was greatly improved. More than 50% of clear supernatant was obtained after microwave treatment, and the maximum volume of supernatant was obtained at a hydrogen peroxide dosage of 0.3% and pH 3.5. By adding oxalic acid into the supernatant, about 90% of calcium was removed, while more than 90% of magnesium was retained. As a result, the resulting solution was well suited for struvite crystallization. Nearly 95% of phosphorus in the treated supernatant was removed and recovered as struvite.

  12. Influence of particle size on performance of a pilot-scale fixed-bed gasification system.

    PubMed

    Yin, Renzhan; Liu, Ronghou; Wu, Jinkai; Wu, Xiaowu; Sun, Chen; Wu, Ceng

    2012-09-01

    The effect of particle size on the gasification performance of a pilot-scale (25 kg/h) downdraft fixed bed gasification system was investigated using prunings from peach trees at five different size fractions (below 1, 1-2, 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 cm). The gas and hydrocarbon compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. With increasing particle size, gas yield increased while tar and dust content decreased. The lower heating value of the gas decreased slightly with particle size. At a smaller particle size, more hydrocarbons were detected in the producer gas. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide contents increased with the decrease in particle size, reaching 16.09% and 14.36% at particle size below 1cm, respectively. Prunings with a particle size of 1-2 cm were favorable for gasification in the downdraft gasifier used in this study.

  13. Vermicomposting of a lignocellulosic waste from olive oil industry: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Benítez, E; Sainz, H; Melgar, R; Nogales, R

    2002-04-01

    The vermicomposting with Eisenia andrei of dry olive cake, a lignocellulosic waste produced during the extraction of olive oil, either alone or mixed with municipal biosolids, was studied in a nine-month pilot scale experiment. Number and biomass of earthworms and enzyme activities were periodically monitored and relevant properties of the final products were determined. In the assayed substrates, the total biomass of earthworms increased at the end of the experimental period between 9 and 12-fold respectively in comparison with the earthworm biomass initially inoculated. The increase in hydrolytic enzymes and overall microbial activity during the vermicomposting process indicated the biodegradation of the olive cake and resulted in the disappearance of the initial phytotoxicity of the substrate. However, the recalcitrant lignocellulosic nature of the dry olive cake prevented suitable humification during the vermicomposting process. For this reason, in addition to organic amendments, other management procedures should be considered. PMID:12058819

  14. Design and analysis of a pilot scale biofiltration system for odorous air

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, J.J.; Young, J.S.; Bottcher, R.W.; Westerman, P.W.

    2000-02-01

    Three pilot-scale biofilters and necessary peripheral equipment were built to clean odorous air from the pit of a swine gestation building at North Carolina State University. A computer measured temperatures, flow rates, and pressure drops. It also controlled and measured the moisture content of a biofilter medium comprised of a 3:1 mixture of yard waste compost to wood chips mixture (by volume). The system was evaluated to ensure that the biofilters would be useful for performing scientific experiments concerning the reduction of swine odor on future research projects. The capability of the biofilters to remove odor was measured using a cotton swatch absorption method and an odor panel. The average odor reductions measured by odor intensity, irritation intensity, and unpleasantness for five tests were 61%, 58%, and 84%, respectively. No significant differences in odor reduction performance were found between the biofilters.

  15. Hanford Waste Vitrification program pilot-scale ceramic melter Test 23

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, R.W.; Nakaoka, R.K.

    1990-02-01

    The pilot-scale ceramic melter test, was conducted to determine the vitrification processing characteristics of simulated Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant process slurries and the integrated performance of the melter off-gas treatment system. Simulated melter feed was prepared and processed to produce glass. The vitrification system, achieved an on-stream efficiency of greater than 98%. The melter off-gas treatment system included a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber, demister, high-efficiency mist eliminator, preheater, and high-efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA). Evaluation of the off-gas system included the generation, nature, and capture efficiency of gross particulate, semivolatile, and noncondensible melter products. 17 refs., 48 figs., 61 tabs.

  16. HWVP pilot-scale vitrification system campaign: LFCM-8 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.M.; Whitney, L.D.; Buchmiller, W.C.; Daume, J.T.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to treat the high-level radiative waste (HLW) stored in underground storage tanks as an alkaline sludge. Tank waste will first be retrieved and pretreated to minimize solids requiring vitrification as HLW. The glass product resulting from HWVP operations will be stored onsite in stainless steel canisters until the HLW repository is available for final disposal. The first waste stream scheduled to be processed by the HWVP is the neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) stored in double-shell storage tanks. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by providing research, development, and engineering expertise in defined areas. As a part of this support, pilot-scale testing is being conducted to support closure of HWVP design and development issues. Testing results will verify equipment design performance, establish acceptable and optimum process parameters, and support product qualification activities.

  17. Co-gasification of hardwood chips and crude glycerol in a pilot scale downdraft gasifier.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lin; Pordesimo, Lester O; Haryanto, Agus; Wooten, James

    2011-05-01

    Seeking appropriate approaches to utilize the crude glycerol produced in biodiesel production is very important for the economic viability and environmental impacts of biodiesel industry. Gasification may be one of options for addressing this issue. Co-gasification of hardwood chips blending with crude glycerol in various loading levels was undertaken in the study involving a pilot scale fixed-bed downdraft gasifier. The results indicated that crude glycerol loading levels affected the gasifier's performance and the quality of syngas produced. When crude glycerol loading level increased, the CO, CH(4), and tar concentrations of the syngas also increased but particle concentration decreased. Though further testing is suggested, downdraft gasifiers could be run well with hardwood chips blending with liquid crude glycerol up to 20 (wt%). The syngas produced had relatively good quality for fueling internal combustion engines. This study provides a considerable way to utilize crude glycerol. PMID:21435871

  18. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2015-02-01

    Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite.

  19. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m(3) of biogas per m(3) of POME which was utilized for electricity generation. PMID:26167485

  20. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2015-02-01

    Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite. PMID:25497055

  1. [Pilot-scale study on riparian mixed plant zones treating polluted river water].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-hua; Guan, Yun-tao; He, Miao; Hu, Hong-yin; Jiang, Zhan-peng

    2006-04-01

    The polluted river water is treated with pilot-scale riparian zones of no aquatic plant, Vetiveria zizanioides + submerged plants, and weed+ Typha angustifolia L. + Phragmites communis. It is shown that the vegetation water zones are better than the no vegetation water zone and Vetiveria zizanioides + submerged plants zone is the best in improving water quality. The average removals of the Vetiveria zizanioides + submerged plant zone is 43.5% COD, 71.1% ammonia and 69.3% total phosphorus respectively. The dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature of effluents from the three water zones are also investigated. It shows that DO of effluent from the vegetation zones are more stable than that of effluent from the no vegetation zone, and the temperature of the effluent from the vegetation zones are lower than that from the no vegetation zones. The submerged plants have special role in water quality improvement, and should be studied further. PMID:16767981

  2. Mercury emissions control by wet FGD systems: EPRI pilot-scale results

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.R.; Hargrove, O.W. Jr.; Seeger, D.M.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents results from pilot-scale tests that investigated mercury removal across wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The program was conducted at EPRIs Environmental Control Technology Center, located in Barker, NY. The test results showed that mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) was efficiently removed across the FGD system, while elemental mercury was not collected. The practical implication of this study is that although FGD systems efficiently remove some forms of mercury from flue gas, the overall mercury removal efficiency, and therefore the total mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant equipped with an FGD system, will depend on the chemical form of the mercury in the flue gas. Unfortunately, no validated gas sampling method is available for speciating the different forms of mercury in flue gas. It is, therefore, difficult to predict mercury removal across FGD systems and to interpret any mercury removal data that have been collected.

  3. Scale-down assessment of the sensitivity of Yarrowia lipolytica to oxygen transfer and foam management in bioreactors: investigation of the underlying physiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kar, Tambi; Destain, Jacqueline; Thonart, Philippe; Delvigne, Frank

    2012-02-01

    A scale-down investigation of the impact of local dissolved oxygen limitation on lipase production by Y. lipolytica has been performed. One of the major issues encountered during this kind of process is foam formation, requiring a reduction of the overall oxygen transfer efficiency of the system in order to keep antifoam consumption to a reasonable level. A regulation strategy involving oxygen enrichment of the air flow through the reactor has allowed this issue to be partly overcome. For a second time, the scale dependency of the process operated with air enrichment has been investigated by a combination of scale-down and pilot-scale cultivation tests. The scale-down apparatus considered in this work comprised a well-mixed part connected to a plug-flow part subjected to dissolved oxygen limitation. Surprisingly, foaming intensity was greatly reduced in the case of the test performed in scale-down reactors (SDRs) while maintaining the same stirring and aeration intensities in the stirred part of the reactor. For mean residence time of 100 s in the recycle loop of the reactor, foam formation was significantly reduced while cell growth and lipase production were both unaltered. When the residence time in the recycle loop was raised to 200 s, the foam phenomena was also reduced, but the lipase yield was altered as well as lip2 gene transcription and translation as shown by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and reporter gene activity, respectively. Our results clearly show the importance of primarily taking into account cell physiology for the scaling-up procedure.

  4. Pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fow, C.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; Hymas, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    Plans are underway at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to convert the low-level fraction of radioactive liquid wastes to a grout form for permanent disposal. Grout is a mixture of liquid waste and grout formers, including portland cement, fly ash, and clays. In the plan, the grout slurry is pumped to subsurface concrete vaults on the Hanford Site, where the grout will solidify into large monoliths, thereby immobilizing the waste. A similar disposal concept is being planned at the Savannah River Laboratory site. The underground disposal of grout was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1966 and 1984. Design and construction of grout processing and disposal facilities are underway. The Transportable Grout Facility (TGF), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) for the Department of Energy (DOE), is scheduled to grout Phosphate/Sulfate N Reactor Operations Waste (PSW) in FY 1988. Phosphate/Sulfate Waste is a blend of two low-level waste streams generated at Hanford's N Reactor. Other wastes are scheduled to be grouted in subsequent years. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is verifying that Hanford grouts can be safely and efficiently processed. To meet this objective, pilot-scale grout process equipment was installed. On July 29 and 30, 1986, PNL conducted a pilot-scale grout production test for Rockwell. During the test, 16,000 gallons of simulated nonradioactive PSW were mixed with grout formers to produce 22,000 gallons of PSW grout. The grout was pumped at a nominal rate of 15 gpm (about 25% of the nominal production rate planned for the TGF) to a lined and covered trench with a capacity of 30,000 gallons. Emplacement of grout in the trench will permit subsequent evaluation of homogeneity of grout in a large monolith. 12 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  6. Transformation of bisphenol A in water distribution systems: a pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Wang, Zilong; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Liu, Jingqing; Mao, Xinwei; Zhang, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Halogenations of bisphenol A (BPA) in a pilot-scale water distribution system (WDS) of a cement-lined ductile cast iron pipe were investigated. The water in the pilot-scale WDS was chlorinated with a free chlorine concentration of 0.7 mg L(-1) using sodium hypochlorite, and with an initial BPA concentration of 100 μg L(-1) was spiked in the WDS. Halogenated compounds in the BPA experiments were identified using EI/GC/MS and GC. Several BPA congeners, including 2-chlorobisphenol A (MCBPA), dichlorobisphenol A (D2-CBPA), 2,2',6-trichlorobisphenol A (T3CBPA), 2,2',6,6'-tetrachlorobisphenol A (T4CBPA), 2-bromobisphenol A (MBBPA), and bromochlorobisphenol A (MBMCBPA) were found. Moreover, further halogenation yielded other reaction intermediates, including 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (T3CP), dichlorobisphenol A, bromodichlorophenol, and dibromochlorophenol. After halogenation for 120min, most of the abovementioned reaction intermediates disappeared and were replaced by trihalomethanes (THMs). Based on these experimental findings, the halogenation process of BPA oxidation in a WDS includes three stages: (1) halogenation on the aromatic ring; (2) chlorine or bromine substitution followed by cleavage of the α-C bond on the isopropyl moiety with a positive partial charge and a β'-C bond on the benzene moiety with a negative partial charge; and (3) THMs and a minor HAA formation from phenolic intermediates through the benzene ring opening with a chlorine and bromine substitution of the hydrogen on the carbon atoms. The oxidation mechanisms of the entire transformation from BPA to THM/HAA in the WDS were proposed.

  7. PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-09-11

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

  8. Bench- and pilot-scale thermal desorption treatability studies on pesticide-contaminated soils from Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Swanstrom, C.P.; Besmer, M.

    1995-03-09

    Thermal desorption is being considered as a potential remediation technology for pesticide-contaminated soils at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in Denver, Colorado. From 1988 through 1992, numerous laboratory- and bench-scale indirect-heated thermal desorption (IHTD) treatability studies have been performed on various soil medium groups from the arsenal. RMA has contracted Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a pilot-scale direct-fired thermal desorption (DFTD) treatability study on pesticide-contaminated RMA soil. The purpose of this treatability study is to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the DFTD technology on contaminated RMA soils and to provide data upon which future conceptual design assumptions and cost estimates for a full-scale system can be made. The equipment used in the DFTD treatability study is of large enough scale to provide good full-scale design parameters and operating conditions. The study will also provide valuable-emissions and materials-handling data. Specifically this program will determine if DFTD can achieve reductions in soil contamination below the RMA preliminary remediation goals (PRGs), define system operating conditions for achieving the PRGs, and determine the fate of arsenic and other hazardous metals at these operating conditions. This paper intends to compare existing data from a bench-scale IHTD treatability study using equipment operated in the batch mode to new data from a pilot-scale DFTD operated in a parallel-flow continuous mode. Delays due to materials-handling problems and permit issues have delayed the start of the pilot-scale DFTD testing. The first pilot-scale test is scheduled for the flat week in January 1995. The available data will be presented March 9, 1995, at the Seventh Annual Gulf Coast Environmental Conference in Houston, Texas.

  9. Performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Daniel Joseph

    With the discovery of vast fossil resources, and the subsequent development of the fossil fuel and petrochemical industry, the role of biomass-based products has declined. However, concerns about the finite and decreasing amount of fossil and mineral resources, in addition to health and climate impacts of fossil resource use, have elevated interest in innovative methods for converting renewable biomass resources into products that fit our modern lifestyle. Thermal conversion through gasification is an appealing method for utilizing biomass due to its operability using a wide variety of feedstocks at a wide range of scales, the product has a variety of uses (e.g., transportation fuel production, electricity production, chemicals synthesis), and in many cases, results in significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions. In spite of the advantages of gasification, several technical hurdles have hindered its commercial development. A number of studies have focused on laboratory-scale and atmospheric biomass gasification. However, few studies have reported on pilot-scale, woody biomass gasification under pressurized conditions. The purpose of this research is an assessment of the performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The 200 kWth fluidized bed gasifier is capable of operation using solid feedstocks at feedrates up to 65 lb/hr, bed temperatures up to 1600°F, and pressures up to 8 atm. Gasifier performance was assessed under various temperatures, pressure, and feedstock (untreated woody biomass, dark and medium torrefied biomass) conditions by measuring product gas yield and composition, residue (e.g., tar and char) production, and mass and energy conversion efficiencies. Elevated temperature and pressure, and feedstock pretreatment were shown to have a significant influence on gasifier operability, tar production, carbon conversion, and process efficiency. High-pressure and temperature gasification of dark torrefied biomass

  10. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  11. PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL - APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, a pilot-scale demonstration of a slurry-phase bioremediation process was performed May 1991 at the EPA’s Test & Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, OH. In this...

  12. Underground tank vitrification: A pilot-scale in situ vitrification test of a tank containing a simulated mixed waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.E.; Powell, T.D.; Tixier, J.S.; Miller, M.C.; Owczarski, P.C.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents research on sludge vitrification. The first pilot scale in-situ vitrification test of a simulated underground tank was successfully completed by researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The vitrification process effectively immobilized the vast majority of radionuclides simulants and toxic metals were retained in the melt and uniformly distributed throughout the monolith.

  13. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF BROMINE ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The addition of brominated organic compounds to the feed of a pilot-scale incinerator burning chlorinated waste has been found previously, under some circumstances, to enhance emissions of volatile and semivolatile organic chlorinated products of incomplete combustion (PiCs) incl...

  14. A PILOT-SCALE STUDY OF THE PRECURSORS LEADING TO THE FORMATION OF MIXED BROMO-CHLORO DIOXINS AND FURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of experiments in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator where a mixture of chlorinated and brominated surrogate waste was burned in the presence of injected fly-ash from a coal-fired utility boiler. Measurements were made of semivolatile products...

  15. DETERMINATION OF SEX HORMONES AND NONYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATES IN THE AQUEOUS MATRIXES OF TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two analytical methods were developed and refined for the detection and quantitation of two groups of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the liquid matrixes of two pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants. The targeted compounds are seven sex hormones (estradiol, ...

  16. INACTIVATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN A PILOT-SCALE OZONE BUBBLE-DIFFUSER CONTACTOR - II: MODEL VALIDATION AND APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ADR model developed in Part I of this study was successfully validated with experimenta data obtained for the inactivation of C. parvum and C. muris oocysts with a pilot-scale ozone-bubble diffuser contactor operated with treated Ohio River water. Kinetic parameters, required...

  17. Development and Validation of a Pilot Scale Enhanced Biosafety Level Two Containment for Performance Evaluation of Produce Disinfection Technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development and validation of the enhanced Biosafety Level Two containment system located at the produce pilot plant facility of the U.S. Department of Agriculture - Eastern Regional Research Center is presented. This multi-purpose containment is used to enclose commercial-scale processing equi...

  18. RECYCLING A NONIONIC AQUEOUS-BASED METAL-CLEANING SOLUTION WITH A CERAMIC MEMBRANE: PILOT SCALE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of a zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) membrane filter was evaluated for recycling a nonionic aqueous metal cleaning bath under real-world conditions. The pilot-scale study consisted of four 7- to 16-day filtration runs, each processed a portion of the cleaning bath duri...

  19. Monitoring Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in Pilot-Scale Warehouses Treated with B-Cyfluthrin: Are Residual Insecticides and Trapping Compatible?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management strategies for cereal processing facilities often include both pheromone-baited pitfall traps and crack and crevice applications of a residual insecticide like cyfluthrin. In replicated pilot-scale warehouses, a 15-week long experiment was conducted to compare population ...

  20. Performance of an anaerobic, static bed, fixed film bioreactor for chlorinated solvent treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles; Graves, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic, fixed film, bioreactors bioaugmented with a dechlorinating microbial consortium were evaluated as a potential technology for cost effective, sustainable, and reliable treatment of mixed chlorinated ethanes and ethenes in groundwater from a large groundwater recovery system. Bench- and pilot-scale testing at about 3 and 13,500 L, respectively, demonstrated that total chlorinated solvent removal to less than the permitted discharge limit of 100 μg/L. Various planned and unexpected upsets, interruptions, and changes demonstrated the robustness and reliability of the bioreactor system, which handled the operational variations with no observable change in performance. Key operating parameters included an adequately long hydraulic retention time for the surface area, a constant supply of electron donor, pH control with a buffer to minimize pH variance, an oxidation reduction potential of approximately −200 millivolts or lower, and a well-adapted biomass capable of degrading the full suite of chlorinated solvents in the groundwater. Results indicated that the current discharge criteria can be met using a bioreactor technology that is less complex and has less downtime than the sorption based technology currently being used to treat the groundwater.

  1. Performance of an anaerobic, static bed, fixed film bioreactor for chlorinated solvent treatment.

    PubMed

    Lorah, Michelle M; Walker, Charles; Graves, Duane

    2015-09-01

    Anaerobic, fixed film, bioreactors bioaugmented with a dechlorinating microbial consortium were evaluated as a potential technology for cost effective, sustainable, and reliable treatment of mixed chlorinated ethanes and ethenes in groundwater from a large groundwater recovery system. Bench- and pilot-scale testing at about 3 and 13,500 L, respectively, demonstrated that total chlorinated solvent removal to less than the permitted discharge limit of 100 μg/L. Various planned and unexpected upsets, interruptions, and changes demonstrated the robustness and reliability of the bioreactor system, which handled the operational variations with no observable change in performance. Key operating parameters included an adequately long hydraulic retention time for the surface area, a constant supply of electron donor, pH control with a buffer to minimize pH variance, an oxidation reduction potential of approximately -200 millivolts or lower, and a well-adapted biomass capable of degrading the full suite of chlorinated solvents in the groundwater. Results indicated that the current discharge criteria can be met using a bioreactor technology that is less complex and has less downtime than the sorption based technology currently being used to treat the groundwater.

  2. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION FOR NOx ON MERCURY SPECIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Laudal; John H. Pavlish; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Gregory F. Weber; Everett Sondreal

    2000-12-01

    Full-scale tests in Europe and bench-scale tests in the United States have indicated that the catalyst, normally vanadium/titanium metal oxide, used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x}, may promote the formation of Hg{sup 2+} and/or particulate-bound mercury (Hg{sub p}). To investigate the impact of SCR on mercury speciation, pilot-scale screening tests were conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center. The primary research goal was to determine whether the catalyst or the injection of ammonia in a representative SCR system promotes the conversion of Hg{sup 0} to Hg{sup 2+} and/or Hg{sub p} and, if so, which coal types and parameters (e.g., rank and chemical composition) affect the degree of conversion. Four different coals, three eastern bituminous coals and a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, were tested. Three tests were conducted for each coal: (1) baseline, (2) NH{sub 3} injection, and (3) SCR of NO{sub x}. Speciated mercury, ammonia slip, SO{sub 3}, and chloride measurements were made to determine the effect the SCR reactor had on mercury speciation. It appears that the impact of SCR of NO{sub x} on mercury speciation is coal-dependent. Although there were several confounding factors such as temperature and ammonia concentrations in the flue gas, two of the eastern bituminous coals showed substantial increases in Hg{sub p} at the inlet to the ESP after passing through an SCR reactor. The PRB coal showed little if any change due to the presence of the SCR. Apparently, the effects of the SCR reactor are related to the chloride, sulfur and, possibly, the calcium content of the coal. It is clear that additional work needs to be done at the full-scale level.

  3. Residence time distribution measurements in a pilot-scale poison tank using radiotracer technique.

    PubMed

    Pant, H J; Goswami, Sunil; Samantray, J S; Sharma, V K; Maheshwari, N K

    2015-09-01

    Various types of systems are used to control the reactivity and shutting down of a nuclear reactor during emergency and routine shutdown operations. Injection of boron solution (borated water) into the core of a reactor is one of the commonly used methods during emergency operation. A pilot-scale poison tank was designed and fabricated to simulate injection of boron poison into the core of a reactor along with coolant water. In order to design a full-scale poison tank, it was desired to characterize flow of liquid from the tank. Residence time distribution (RTD) measurement and analysis was adopted to characterize the flow dynamics. Radiotracer technique was applied to measure RTD of aqueous phase in the tank using Bromine-82 as a radiotracer. RTD measurements were carried out with two different modes of operation of the tank and at different flow rates. In Mode-1, the radiotracer was instantaneously injected at the inlet and monitored at the outlet, whereas in Mode-2, the tank was filled with radiotracer and its concentration was measured at the outlet. From the measured RTD curves, mean residence times (MRTs), dead volume and fraction of liquid pumped in with time were determined. The treated RTD curves were modeled using suitable mathematical models. An axial dispersion model with high degree of backmixing was found suitable to describe flow when operated in Mode-1, whereas a tanks-in-series model with backmixing was found suitable to describe flow of the poison in the tank when operated in Mode-2. The results were utilized to scale-up and design a full-scale poison tank for a nuclear reactor.

  4. Characterization of pilot-scale dilute acid pretreatment performance using deacetylated corn stover

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising process technology for the deconstruction of low-lignin lignocellulosic biomass, capable of producing high yields of hemicellulosic sugars and enhancing enzymatic yields of glucose as part of a biomass-to-biofuels process. However, while it has been extensively studied, most work has historically been conducted at relatively high acid concentrations of 1 - 4% (weight/weight). Reducing the effective acid loading in pretreatment has the potential to reduce chemical costs both for pretreatment and subsequent neutralization. Additionally, if acid loadings are sufficiently low, capital requirements associated with reactor construction may be significantly reduced due to the relaxation of requirements for exotic alloys. Despite these benefits, past efforts have had difficulty obtaining high process yields at low acid loadings without supplementation of additional unit operations, such as mechanical refining. Results Recently, we optimized the dilute acid pretreatment of deacetylated corn stover at low acid loadings in a 1-ton per day horizontal pretreatment reactor. This effort included more than 25 pilot-scale pretreatment experiments executed at reactor temperatures ranging from 150 – 170°C, residence times of 10 – 20 minutes and hydrolyzer sulfuric acid concentrations between 0.15 – 0.30% (weight/weight). In addition to characterizing the process yields achieved across the reaction space, the optimization identified a pretreatment reaction condition that achieved total xylose yields from pretreatment of 73.5% ± 1.5% with greater than 97% xylan component balance closure across a series of five runs at the same condition. Feedstock reactivity at this reaction condition after bench-scale high solids enzymatic hydrolysis was 77%, prior to the inclusion of any additional conversion that may occur during subsequent fermentation. Conclusions This study effectively characterized a range of pretreatment reaction

  5. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. using raw dairy wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production: Characteristics comparison of indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale cultures.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weidong; Wang, Zhongming; Wang, Xuewei; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-09-01

    The biomass productivity and nutrient removal capacity of simultaneous Chlorella sp. cultivation for biodiesel production and nutrient removal in raw dairy wastewater (RDW) in indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale photobioreactors were compared. Results from the current work show that maximum biomass productivity in indoor bench-scale cultures can reach 260 mg L(-1) day(-1), compared to that of 110 mg L(-1) day(-1) in outdoor pilot-scale cultures. Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) removal rate obtained in indoor conditions was 88.38, 38.34, and 2.03 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, this compared to 41.31, 6.58, and 2.74 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, for outdoor conditions. Finally, dominant fatty acids determined to be C16/C18 in outdoor pilot-scale cultures indicated great potential for scale up of Chlorella sp. cultivation in RDW for high quality biodiesel production coupling with RDW treatment.

  6. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. using raw dairy wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production: Characteristics comparison of indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale cultures.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weidong; Wang, Zhongming; Wang, Xuewei; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-09-01

    The biomass productivity and nutrient removal capacity of simultaneous Chlorella sp. cultivation for biodiesel production and nutrient removal in raw dairy wastewater (RDW) in indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale photobioreactors were compared. Results from the current work show that maximum biomass productivity in indoor bench-scale cultures can reach 260 mg L(-1) day(-1), compared to that of 110 mg L(-1) day(-1) in outdoor pilot-scale cultures. Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) removal rate obtained in indoor conditions was 88.38, 38.34, and 2.03 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, this compared to 41.31, 6.58, and 2.74 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, for outdoor conditions. Finally, dominant fatty acids determined to be C16/C18 in outdoor pilot-scale cultures indicated great potential for scale up of Chlorella sp. cultivation in RDW for high quality biodiesel production coupling with RDW treatment. PMID:26056780

  7. Final report for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    IT Corporation (IT) was contracted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to perform a pilot-scale demonstration of the effectiveness of thermal desorption as a remedial technology for removing mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain soil. Previous laboratory studies by Energy Systems suggested that this technology could reduce mercury to very low levels. This pilot-scale demonstration study was initiated to verify on an engineering scale the performance of thermal desorption. This report includes the details of the demonstration study, including descriptions of experimental equipment and procedures, test conditions, sampling and analysis, quality assurance (QA), detailed test results, and an engineering assessment of a conceptual full-scale treatment facility. The specific project tasks addressed in this report were performed between October 1993 and June 1994. These tasks include soil receipt, preparation, and characterization; prepilot (bench-scale) desorption tests; front-end materials handling tests; pilot tests; back-end materials handling tests; residuals treatment; and engineering scale-up assessment.

  8. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-06-15

    Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1-89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1-34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m(2). The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11-12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures.

  9. Monitoring granulation rate processes using three PAT tools in a pilot-scale fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Tok, Ai Tee; Goh, Xueping; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze and compare the responses of three Process Analytical Technology (PAT) techniques applied simultaneously to monitor a pilot-scale fluidized bed granulation process. Real-time measurements using focused beam reflectance measurement (Lasentec FBRM) and near-infra red spectroscopy (Bruker NIR) were taken by inserting in-line probes into the fluidized bed. Non-intrusive acoustic emission measurements (Physical Acoustic AE) were performed by attaching piezoelectric sensors on the external wall of the fluidized bed. Powder samples were collected at regular intervals during the granulation process and characterized offline using laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, stereo-optical microscopy and loss on drying method. PAT data comprising chord length distribution and chord count (from FBRM), absorption spectra (from NIR) and average signal levels and counts (from AE) were compared with the particle properties measured using offline samples. All three PAT techniques were able to detect the three granulation regimes or rate processes (wetting and nucleation, consolidation and growth, breakage) to varying degrees of sensitivity. Being dependent on optical signals, the sensitivities of the FBRM and NIR techniques were susceptible to fouling on probe windows. The AE technique was sensitive to background fluidizing air flows and external interferences. The sensitivity, strengths and weaknesses of the PAT techniques examined may facilitate the selection of suitable PAT tools for process development and scale-up studies.

  10. Development and demonstration of a pilot-scale debris washing system

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, M.L.; Barkley, N.P.

    1991-01-01

    Metallic, masonry, and other solid debris that may be contaminated with hazardous chemicals litter numerous hazardous waste sites in the United States. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), pesticides, lead or other metals are some of the contaminants of concern. In some cases cleanup standards have been established (e.g., 10 micrograms PCB's/100 sq cm for surfaces to which humans may be frequently exposed). Decontaminated debris could be either returned to the site as 'clean' fill, or, in the case of the metallic debris, sold to a metal smelter. The project involves the development and demonstration of a technology specifically for performing on-site decontamination of debris. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale versions of a debris washing system (DWS) have been designed, constructed and demonstrated. The DWS entails the application of an aqueous solution during a high-pressure spray cycle, followed by turbulent wash and rinse cycles. The aqueous cleaning solution is recovered and reconditioned for reuse concurrently with the debris-cleaning process, which minimizes the quantity of process water required to clean the debris.

  11. Integrated production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) with municipal wastewater and sludge treatment at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Sagastume, F; Hjort, M; Cirne, D; Gérardin, F; Lacroix, S; Gaval, G; Karabegovic, L; Alexandersson, T; Johansson, P; Karlsson, A; Bengtsson, S; Arcos-Hernández, M V; Magnusson, P; Werker, A

    2015-04-01

    A pilot-scale process was operated over 22 months at the Brussels North Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in order to evaluate polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production integration with services of municipal wastewater and sludge management. Activated sludge was produced with PHA accumulation potential (PAP) by applying feast-famine selection while treating the readily biodegradable COD from influent wastewater (average removals of 70% COD, 60% CODsol, 24% nitrogen, and 46% phosphorus). The biomass PAP was evaluated to be in excess of 0.4gPHA/gVSS. Batch fermentation of full-scale WWTP sludge at selected temperatures (35, 42 and 55 °C) produced centrate (6-9.4 gCODVFA/L) of consistent VFA composition, with optimal fermentation performance at 42 °C. Centrate was used to accumulate PHA up to 0.39 gPHA/gVSS. The centrate nutrients are a challenge to the accumulation process but producing a biomass with 0.5 gPHA/gVSS is considered to be realistically achievable within the typically available carbon flows at municipal waste management facilities.

  12. Personal abilities in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. A pilot study using the existence scale.

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, Johannes P; Kopriva-Altfahrt, Gertrude; Söllner, Wolfgang; König, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Personality psychology is increasingly used in various clinical medicine settings to help in decision-making in difficult situations, especially in chronic disease. Patients with chronic renal disease are very dependent on modern medicine, and psychological aspects could help give answers in certain circumstances. Logotherapy and Existence analysis, after Viktor Frankl (Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy), is the theory of the possibilities and conditions for a fulfilled existence and evaluates a different aspect of personality psychology, namely meaning (in life). We used the existence scale questionnaire in this pilot study to investigate the personal abilities self-distancing, self-transcendence, freedom and responsibility in dialysis patients and compared a group of hemodialysis (HD) patients with patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). We studied a mixed dialysis cohort (24 HD, 24 CAPD) at two Austrian centers (Innsbruck Medical University Hospital and Wilhelminenspital of the City of Vienna). Overall, results for dialysis patients (n = 48) were very close to those reported for healthy persons; however, CAPD patients scored significantly better than HD patients (p = 0.017) on the subscale self-distancing. This significant difference was also seen in the overall scores (p = 0.045). Our results might indicate that contented CAPD patients have personal abilities that predestine them for this type of treatment. The existence scale might help decide between CAPD and HD treatment alternatives.

  13. Design of a novel automated methanol feed system for pilot-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Hamaker, Kent H; Johnson, Daniel C; Bellucci, Joseph J; Apgar, Kristie R; Soslow, Sherry; Gercke, John C; Menzo, Darrin J; Ton, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris requires a large volume of methanol feed during the induction phase. However, a large volume of methanol feed is difficult to use in the processing suite because of the inconvenience of constant monitoring, manual manipulation steps, and fire and explosion hazards. To optimize and improve safety of the methanol feed process, a novel automated methanol feed system has been designed and implemented for industrial fermentation of P. pastoris. Details of the design of the methanol feed system are described. The main goals of the design were to automate the methanol feed process and to minimize the hazardous risks associated with storing and handling large quantities of methanol in the processing area. The methanol feed system is composed of two main components: a bulk feed (BF) system and up to three portable process feed (PF) systems. The BF system automatically delivers methanol from a central location to the portable PF system. The PF system provides precise flow control of linear, step, or exponential feed of methanol to the fermenter. Pilot-scale fermentations with linear and exponential methanol feeds were conducted using two Mut(+) (methanol utilization plus) strains, one expressing a recombinant therapeutic protein and the other a monoclonal antibody. Results show that the methanol feed system is accurate, safe, and efficient. The feed rates for both linear and exponential feed methods were within ± 5% of the set points, and the total amount of methanol fed was within 1% of the targeted volume.

  14. Electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachates at pilot scale: evaluation of energy needs.

    PubMed

    Anglada, A; Ortiz, D; Urtiaga, A M; Ortiz, I

    2010-01-01

    Two of the main drawbacks to be overcome before full scale implementation of boron-doped diamond electro-oxidation were addressed in this work; its energy consumption and hazard of formation of chlorinated organics. This was framed within a study in which the technical and economic feasibility of BDD electro-oxidation of landfill leachate was evaluated at pilot scale. On one hand, its technical feasibility was assessed based on COD and NH(4)(+) removal, allowing the selection of the operation conditions that provide optimal energy efficiency, and special attention was paid to the risk of formation of undesired by-products such as nitrite, nitrate ions and trihalomethanes. On the other hand, treatment costs were estimated based on energy consumption required to reach the disposal limits to natural watercourses established by legislation. The results were compared with those of other commonly used AOPs. Under the operating conditions studied, the concentration of COD decreased below the disposal limit (160 mg L(-1)) and ammonia concentration reached values as low as 30 mg L(-1). The energy consumption needed was estimated at 54 kWh/m(3) and the formation of chlorination by-products appeared to be low as the maximum total trihalomethane concentration detected was 432 microg/L. PMID:20418616

  15. Developing eThread Pipeline Using SAGA-Pilot Abstraction for Large-Scale Structural Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Ragothaman, Anjani; Feinstein, Wei; Jha, Shantenu; Kim, Joohyun

    2014-01-01

    While most of computational annotation approaches are sequence-based, threading methods are becoming increasingly attractive because of predicted structural information that could uncover the underlying function. However, threading tools are generally compute-intensive and the number of protein sequences from even small genomes such as prokaryotes is large typically containing many thousands, prohibiting their application as a genome-wide structural systems biology tool. To leverage its utility, we have developed a pipeline for eThread—a meta-threading protein structure modeling tool, that can use computational resources efficiently and effectively. We employ a pilot-based approach that supports seamless data and task-level parallelism and manages large variation in workload and computational requirements. Our scalable pipeline is deployed on Amazon EC2 and can efficiently select resources based upon task requirements. We present runtime analysis to characterize computational complexity of eThread and EC2 infrastructure. Based on results, we suggest a pathway to an optimized solution with respect to metrics such as time-to-solution or cost-to-solution. Our eThread pipeline can scale to support a large number of sequences and is expected to be a viable solution for genome-scale structural bioinformatics and structure-based annotation, particularly, amenable for small genomes such as prokaryotes. The developed pipeline is easily extensible to other types of distributed cyberinfrastructure. PMID:24995285

  16. [Effect of pilot UASB-SFSBR-MAP process for the large scale swine wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Chen, Chong-Jun; Chen, Ying-Xu; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a treatment process consisted of UASB, step-fed sequencing batch reactor (SFSBR) and magnesium ammonium phosphate precipitation reactor (MAP) was built to treat the large scale swine wastewater, which aimed at overcoming drawbacks of conventional anaerobic-aerobic treatment process and SBR treatment process, such as the low denitrification efficiency, high operating costs and high nutrient losses and so on. Based on the treatment process, a pilot engineering was constructed. It was concluded from the experiment results that the removal efficiency of COD, NH4(+) -N and TP reached 95.1%, 92.7% and 88.8%, the recovery rate of NH4(+) -N and TP by MAP process reached 23.9% and 83.8%, the effluent quality was superior to the discharge standard of pollutants for livestock and poultry breeding (GB 18596-2001), mass concentration of COD, TN, NH4(+) -N, TP and SS were not higher than 135, 116, 43, 7.3 and 50 mg x L(-1) respectively. The process developed was reliable, kept self-balance of carbon source and alkalinity, reached high nutrient recovery efficiency. And the operating cost was equal to that of the traditional anaerobic-aerobic treatment process. So the treatment process could provide a high value of application and dissemination and be fit for the treatment pf the large scale swine wastewater in China.

  17. Pilot-scale study of powdered activated carbon recirculation for micropollutant removal.

    PubMed

    Meinel, F; Sperlich, A; Jekel, M

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) is a promising technique for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) from treated wastewater. To enhance the adsorption efficiency, PAC is recycled back into the adsorption stage. This technique was examined in pilot scale in comparison to a reference without recirculation. Coagulation with Fe(3+) was carried out simultaneously to adsorption. Extensive OMP measurements showed that recirculation significantly increased OMP eliminations. Thus, significant PAC savings were feasible. The PAC concentration in the contact reactor proved to be an important operating parameter that can be surrogated by the easily measurable total suspended solids (TSS) concentration. OMP eliminations increased with increasing TSS concentrations. At 20 mg PAC L(-1) and 2.8 g TSS L(-1) in the contact reactor, well-adsorbable carbamazepine was eliminated by 97%, moderately adsorbable diclofenac was eliminated by 92% and poorly-adsorbable acesulfame was eliminated by 54% in comparison to 49%, 35% and 18%, respectively, without recirculation. The recirculation system represents an efficient technique, as the PAC's adsorption capacity is practically completely used. Small PAC dosages yield high OMP eliminations. Poorly-adsorbable gabapentin was eliminated to an unexpectedly high degree. A laboratory-scale biomass inhibition study showed that aerobic biodegradation removed gabapentin in addition to adsorption. PMID:27533867

  18. Semi-pilot Scale Microbial Oil Production by Trichosporon cutaneum Using Medium Containing Corncob Acid Hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Qi, Gao-Xiang; Huang, Chao; Chen, Xue-Fang; Xiong, Lian; Wang, Can; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Shi, Si-Lan; Yang, Dan; Chen, Xin-De

    2016-06-01

    In this study, semi-pilot scale microbial oil production by Trichosporon cutaneum using medium containing corncob acid hydrolysate was carried out in a 50-L fermentor. Scale up showed no negative influence on lipid fermentation that no obvious lag phase was observed. Both glucose and xylose could be utilized simultaneously by T. cutaneum, but the utilization rate of xylose was much slower than that of glucose. After 7.6 days of fermentation, the biomass, lipid content, and lipid yield were 21.8 g/L, 53.7 %, and 11.7 g/L, respectively. Also, a high lipid coefficient (lipid yield on sugars consumption) of 26.3 was obtained. Besides microbial oil, polysaccharide was another main product of lipid fermentation that the remaining biomass residue full of polysaccharides after lipid extraction could be one important by-product in future. Overall, this study showed the great potential of industrialization for lipid production by T. cutaneum on low-cost substrates especially for lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:26906119

  19. Design of a novel automated methanol feed system for pilot-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Hamaker, Kent H; Johnson, Daniel C; Bellucci, Joseph J; Apgar, Kristie R; Soslow, Sherry; Gercke, John C; Menzo, Darrin J; Ton, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris requires a large volume of methanol feed during the induction phase. However, a large volume of methanol feed is difficult to use in the processing suite because of the inconvenience of constant monitoring, manual manipulation steps, and fire and explosion hazards. To optimize and improve safety of the methanol feed process, a novel automated methanol feed system has been designed and implemented for industrial fermentation of P. pastoris. Details of the design of the methanol feed system are described. The main goals of the design were to automate the methanol feed process and to minimize the hazardous risks associated with storing and handling large quantities of methanol in the processing area. The methanol feed system is composed of two main components: a bulk feed (BF) system and up to three portable process feed (PF) systems. The BF system automatically delivers methanol from a central location to the portable PF system. The PF system provides precise flow control of linear, step, or exponential feed of methanol to the fermenter. Pilot-scale fermentations with linear and exponential methanol feeds were conducted using two Mut(+) (methanol utilization plus) strains, one expressing a recombinant therapeutic protein and the other a monoclonal antibody. Results show that the methanol feed system is accurate, safe, and efficient. The feed rates for both linear and exponential feed methods were within ± 5% of the set points, and the total amount of methanol fed was within 1% of the targeted volume. PMID:21485036

  20. Suppression of dioxins by S-N inhibitors in pilot-scale experiments.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ming-Xiu; Fu, Jian-Ying; Chen, Tong; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yan, Jian-Hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2016-08-01

    S-N inhibitors like thiourea and sewage sludge decomposition gases (SDG) are relatively novel dioxins suppressants and their efficiencies are proven in numerous lab-scale experiments. In this study, the suppression effects of both thiourea and SDG on the formation of dioxins are systematically tested in a pilot-scale system, situated at the bypass of a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI). Moreover, a flue gas recirculation system is used to get high dioxin suppression efficiencies. Operating experience shows that this system is capable of stable operation and to keep gaseous suppressant compounds at a high and desirable molar ratio (S + N)/Cl level in the flue gas. The suppression efficiencies of dioxins are investigated in flue gas both without and with addition of S-N inhibitors. A dioxin reduction of more than 80 % is already achieved when the (S + N)/Cl molar ratio is increased to ca. 2.20. When this (S + N)/Cl molar ratio has augmented to 4.18 by applying suppressant recirculation, the residual PCDD/Fs concentration in the flue gas shrank from 1.22 to 0.08 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). Furthermore, the congener distribution of dioxins is analysed to find some possible explanation or suppression mechanism. In addition, a correlation analysis between (S + N)/Cl molar ratios and PCDD/Fs is also conducted to investigate the chief functional compounds for dioxin suppression. PMID:27164888

  1. Evaluation of pilot-scale air pollution control devices on a municipal waterfall incinerator. Project report, June 1978-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.D.; Bruck, J.M.; Albrinck, D.N.

    1985-10-01

    The project report describes the results of a program for the testing of two pilot-scale pollution control devices, a fabric filter, and a venturi scrubber at the Braintree, Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator. It includes operation, sampling, and analytical efforts and outlines the plant operating conditions at the time of testing of the two pilot control devices. The Braintree Municipal Incinerator is a mass-burn, water-wall type consisting of two furnaces, each designed to burn 4.7 Mg (5 tons) per hour of unprocessed refuse.

  2. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  3. Dust exposure during small-scale mining in Tanzania: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bratveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E; Mashalla, Yohana J S; Maalim, Hatua

    2003-04-01

    Small-scale mining in developing countries is generally labour-intensive and carried out with low levels of mechanization. In the Mererani area in the northern part of Tanzania, there are about 15000 underground miners who are constantly subjected to a poor working environment. Gemstones are found at depths down to 500 m. The objectives of this pilot study were to monitor the exposure to dust during work processes, which are typical of small-scale mining in developing countries, and to make a rough estimation of whether there is a risk of chronic pulmonary diseases for the workers. Personal sampling of respirable dust (n = 15) and 'total' dust (n = 5) was carried out during three consecutive days in one mine, which had a total of 50 workers in two shifts. Sampling started immediately before the miners entered the shaft, and lasted until they reappeared at the mine entrance after 5-8 h. The median crystalline silica content and the combustible content of the respirable dust samples were 14.2 and 5.5%, respectively. When drilling, blasting and shovelling were carried out, the exposure measurements showed high median levels of respirable dust (15.5 mg/m(3)), respirable crystalline silica (2.4 mg/m(3)), respirable combustible dust (1.5 mg/m(3)) and 'total' dust (28.4 mg/m(3)). When only shovelling and loading of sacks took place, the median exposures to respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica were 4.3 and 1.1 mg/m(3). This study shows that the exposure to respirable crystalline silica was high during underground small-scale mining. In the absence of personal protective equipment, the miners in the Mererani area are presumably at a high risk of developing chronic silicosis.

  4. Dust exposure during small-scale mining in Tanzania: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bratveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E; Mashalla, Yohana J S; Maalim, Hatua

    2003-04-01

    Small-scale mining in developing countries is generally labour-intensive and carried out with low levels of mechanization. In the Mererani area in the northern part of Tanzania, there are about 15000 underground miners who are constantly subjected to a poor working environment. Gemstones are found at depths down to 500 m. The objectives of this pilot study were to monitor the exposure to dust during work processes, which are typical of small-scale mining in developing countries, and to make a rough estimation of whether there is a risk of chronic pulmonary diseases for the workers. Personal sampling of respirable dust (n = 15) and 'total' dust (n = 5) was carried out during three consecutive days in one mine, which had a total of 50 workers in two shifts. Sampling started immediately before the miners entered the shaft, and lasted until they reappeared at the mine entrance after 5-8 h. The median crystalline silica content and the combustible content of the respirable dust samples were 14.2 and 5.5%, respectively. When drilling, blasting and shovelling were carried out, the exposure measurements showed high median levels of respirable dust (15.5 mg/m(3)), respirable crystalline silica (2.4 mg/m(3)), respirable combustible dust (1.5 mg/m(3)) and 'total' dust (28.4 mg/m(3)). When only shovelling and loading of sacks took place, the median exposures to respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica were 4.3 and 1.1 mg/m(3). This study shows that the exposure to respirable crystalline silica was high during underground small-scale mining. In the absence of personal protective equipment, the miners in the Mererani area are presumably at a high risk of developing chronic silicosis. PMID:12639837

  5. PERSPECTIVE: REDD pilot project scenarios: are costs and benefits altered by spatial scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.

    2009-09-01

    area (Forest Carbon Portal 2009). From a time-series of Landsat satellite images, Gaveau et al calculate deforestation rates from 1990-2000 and 2000-2006. They apply these annual rates to deforestation probability maps, generated from forest condition in 2006 and six static spatial variables, to predict potential locations of future deforestation through 2030 under three different scenarios: (i) a business-as- usual with no REDD project; (ii) the current 7500 km2 project; and (iii) an extensive 65 000 km2 REDD scheme extending across the Aceh and Sumatra Utara provinces. Gaveau et al's chief contribution is identifying locations where forest carbon projects potentially have the greatest benefits for forest and orangutan conservation. By processing Landsat satellite imagery - now freely available - with relatively few spatial model inputs, this approach also has great potential for widespread application in tropical countries developing historical deforestation baselines. Yet Landsat satellite data also impose limitations for REDD. For example, Gaveau et al are unable to calculate forest degradation, which is highly problematic both to define and detect with Landsat imagery, yet critical especially in Indonesia with extensive logged forests (Curran et al 2004, Ramankutty et al 2007, Asner et al 2006). Nevertheless, Landsat remains one of the most appropriate satellite data products available for countries calculating previous rates of forest change. Assuming that technical roadblocks to REDD are overcome, another challenge surrounds assessing the feasibility of emission reduction scenarios, including those presented by Gaveau et al. Their estimates show that carbon and biodiversity gains would be 6- to 7-fold greater if the pilot project encompassed the 65 000 km2 northern Sumatra region. Yet, developers chose to implement this REDD project across 7500 km2, ~ 10% of Gaveau et al's expanded scenario region. If REDD programs are to be realized across large spatial scales

  6. Pilot-scale production of fuel ethanol from concentrated food waste hydrolysates using Saccharomyces cerevisiae H058.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shoubao; Chen, Xiangsong; Wu, Jingyong; Wang, Pingchao

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a bioprocess to produce ethanol from food waste at laboratory, semipilot and pilot scales. Laboratory tests demonstrated that ethanol fermentation with reducing sugar concentration of 200 g/L, inoculum size of 2 % (Initial cell number was 2 × 10⁶ CFU/mL) and addition of YEP (3 g/L of yeast extract and 5 g/L of peptone) was the best choice. The maximum ethanol concentration in laboratory scale (93.86 ± 1.15 g/L) was in satisfactory with semipilot scale (93.79 ± 1.11 g/L), but lower than that (96.46 ± 1.12 g/L) of pilot-scale. Similar ethanol yield and volumetric ethanol productivity of 0.47 ± 0.02 g/g, 1.56 ± 0.03 g/L/h and 0.47 ± 0.03 g/g, 1.56 ± 0.03 g/L/h after 60 h of fermentation in laboratory and semipilot fermentors, respectively, however, both were lower than that (0.48 ± 0.02 g/g, 1.79 ± 0.03 g/L/h) of pilot reactor. In addition, simple models were developed to predict the fermentation kinetics during the scale-up process and they were successfully applied to simulate experimental results.

  7. Denitrification of high strength nitrate waste from a nuclear industry using acclimatized biomass in a pilot scale reactor.

    PubMed

    Dhamole, Pradip B; Nair, Rashmi R; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Lele, S S

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the performance of acclimatized biomass for denitrification of high strength nitrate waste (10,000 mg/L NO3) from a nuclear industry in a continuous laboratory scale (32 L) and pilot scale reactor (330 L) operated over a period of 4 and 5 months, respectively. Effect of substrate fluctuations (mainly C/NO3-N) on denitrification was studied in a laboratory scale reactor. Incomplete denitrification (95-96 %) was observed at low C/NO3-N (≤2), whereas at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25) led to ammonia formation. Ammonia production increased from 1 to 9 % with an increase in C/NO3-N from 2.25 to 6. Complete denitrification and no ammonia formation were observed at an optimum C/NO3-N of 2.0. Microbiological studies showed decrease in denitrifiers and increase in nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25). Pilot scale studies were carried out with optimum C/NO3-N, and sustainability of the process was checked on the pilot scale for 5 months.

  8. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING / FEASIBILITY STUDIES FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    SPRITZER,M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC36-00GO10529 for the Department of Energy, General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The Key potential advantages of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reaching and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carreid out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an acitvated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low

  9. Bioreactors: design and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, C.L.

    1983-02-11

    The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry. This paper examines the strategy for selection and design of bioreactors and identifies the limits and constraints in their use. 25 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Pilot-scale ISCO treatment of a MtBE contaminated site using a Fenton-like process.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Ivan; Verginelli, Iason; Massetti, Felicia; Piscitelli, Daniela; Gavasci, Renato; Baciocchi, Renato

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports about a pilot-scale feasibility study of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) application based on the use of stabilized hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by naturally occurring iron minerals (Fenton-like process) to a site formerly used for fuel storage and contaminated by MtBE. The stratigraphy of the site consists of a 2-3 meter backfill layer followed by a 3-4 meter low permeability layer, that confines the main aquifer, affected by a widespread MtBE groundwater contamination with concentrations up to 4000 μg/L, also with the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. The design of the pilot-scale treatment was based on the integration of the results obtained from experimental and numerical modeling accounting for the technological and regulatory constraints existing in the site to be remediated. In particular, lab-scale batch tests allowed the selection of the most suitable operating conditions. Then, this information was implemented in a numerical software that allowed to define the injection and monitoring layout and to predict the propagation of hydrogen peroxide in groundwater. The pilot-scale field results confirmed the effective propagation of hydrogen peroxide in nearly all the target area (around 75 m(2) using 3 injection wells). As far as the MtBE removal is concerned, the ISCO application allowed us to meet the clean-up goals in an area of 60 m(2). Besides, the concentration of TBA, i.e. a potential by-product of MtBE oxidation, was actually reduced after the ISCO treatment. The results of the pilot-scale test suggest that ISCO may be a suitable option for the remediation of the groundwater plume contaminated by MtBE, providing the background data for the design and cost-estimate of the full-scale treatment. PMID:24518270

  11. Pilot-scale ISCO treatment of a MtBE contaminated site using a Fenton-like process.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Ivan; Verginelli, Iason; Massetti, Felicia; Piscitelli, Daniela; Gavasci, Renato; Baciocchi, Renato

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports about a pilot-scale feasibility study of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) application based on the use of stabilized hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by naturally occurring iron minerals (Fenton-like process) to a site formerly used for fuel storage and contaminated by MtBE. The stratigraphy of the site consists of a 2-3 meter backfill layer followed by a 3-4 meter low permeability layer, that confines the main aquifer, affected by a widespread MtBE groundwater contamination with concentrations up to 4000 μg/L, also with the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. The design of the pilot-scale treatment was based on the integration of the results obtained from experimental and numerical modeling accounting for the technological and regulatory constraints existing in the site to be remediated. In particular, lab-scale batch tests allowed the selection of the most suitable operating conditions. Then, this information was implemented in a numerical software that allowed to define the injection and monitoring layout and to predict the propagation of hydrogen peroxide in groundwater. The pilot-scale field results confirmed the effective propagation of hydrogen peroxide in nearly all the target area (around 75 m(2) using 3 injection wells). As far as the MtBE removal is concerned, the ISCO application allowed us to meet the clean-up goals in an area of 60 m(2). Besides, the concentration of TBA, i.e. a potential by-product of MtBE oxidation, was actually reduced after the ISCO treatment. The results of the pilot-scale test suggest that ISCO may be a suitable option for the remediation of the groundwater plume contaminated by MtBE, providing the background data for the design and cost-estimate of the full-scale treatment.

  12. Closure for milliliter scale bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Klein, David L.; Laidlaw, Robert D.; Andronaco, Gregory; Boyer, Stephen G.

    2010-12-14

    A closure for a microreactor includes a cap that is configured to be inserted into a well of the microreactor. The cap, or at least a portion of the cap, is compliant so as to form a seal with the well when the cap is inserted. The cap includes an aperture that provides an airway between the inside of the well to the external environment when the cap is inserted into the well. A porous plug is inserted in the aperture, e.g., either directly or in tube that extends through the aperture. The porous plug permits gas within the well to pass through the aperture while preventing liquids from passing through to reduce evaporation and preventing microbes from passing through to provide a sterile environment. A one-way valve may also be used to help control the environment in the well.

  13. A semi-pilot-scale procedure for isolating and purifying soybean (Glycine max) lectin.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Yewande O; Swaisgood, Harold E; Garlich, Jim D; Classen, Henry L

    2003-07-30

    Availability of gram quantities of purified soybean lectin (SBL) to scientists will foster discovery of novel biomedical applications of the lectin and provide the opportunity to investigate the antinutritional effects of SBL in soybean-consuming food animals and poultry. Therefore, a semi-pilot-scale procedure for isolating and purifying SBL was designed. Defatted soyflour was extracted overnight with 0.9% NaCl at 4 degrees C. The extract obtained was filtered (0.45 microm membrane) and subjected to affinity chromatography using a column containing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine resin that is specific for SBL. Bound SBL was eluted off the column with 0.14 M galactose solution. The eluent was ultrafiltered (30 kDa), and the resulting solution (SBL and water) was freeze-dried. Electrophoretic analysis and hemagglutination assay revealed that the freeze-dried SBL was similar to Sigma-grade SBL in purity and activity (35 and 33 HU/mg protein, respectively). The procedure yielded 141 mg of SBL/100 g of soyflour. PMID:14705873

  14. Analysis of operating costs for producing biodiesel from palm oil at pilot-scale in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Juan C; Hernández, Jorge A; Valdés, Carlos F; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the operating costs of biodiesel production using palm oil in a pilot-scale plant with a capacity of 20,000 L/day (850 L/batch). The production plant uses crude palm oil as a feedstock, and methanol in a molar ratio of 1:10. The process incorporated acid esterification, basic transesterification, and dry washing with absorbent powder. Production costs considered in the analysis were feedstock, supplies, labor, electricity, quality and maintenance; amounting to $3.75/gal ($0.99/L) for 2013. Feedstocks required for biodiesel production were among the highest costs, namely 72.6% of total production cost. Process efficiency to convert fatty acids to biodiesel was over 99% and generated a profit of $1.08/gal (i.e., >22% of the total income). According to sensitivity analyses, it is more economically viable for biodiesel production processes to use crude palm oil as a feedstock and take advantage of the byproducts such as glycerine and fertilizers.

  15. Disinfection of bacterial biofilms in pilot-scale cooling tower systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P.; Packman, Aaron I.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of continuous chlorination and periodic glutaraldehyde treatment on planktonic and biofilm microbial communities was evaluated in pilot-scale cooling towers operated continuously for 3 months. The system was operated at a flow rate of 10,080 l day−1. Experiments were performed with a well-defined microbial consortium containing three heterotrophic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. The persistence of each species was monitored in the recirculating cooling water loop and in biofilms on steel and PVC coupons in the cooling tower basin. The observed bacterial colonization in cooling towers did not follow trends in growth rates observed under batch conditions and, instead, reflected differences in the ability of each organism to remain attached and form biofilms under the high-through flow conditions in cooling towers. Flavobacterium was the dominant organism in the community, while P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae did not attach well to either PVC or steel coupons in cooling towers and were not able to persist in biofilms. As a result, the much greater ability of Flavobacterium to adhere to surfaces protected it from disinfection, whereas P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were subject to rapid disinfection in the planktonic state. PMID:21547755

  16. Treatment of Pulp Mill D-Stage Bleaching Effluent Using a Pilot-Scale Electrocoagulation System.

    PubMed

    Perng, Yuan-Shing; Wang, Eugene I-Chen

    2016-03-01

    A pilot-scale study was conducted using electrocoagulation technology to treat chlorine dioxide bleaching-stage effluent of a local pulp mill, with the purpose of evaluating the treatment performance. The operating variables were the current density (0 ~ 133.3 A/m(2)) and hydraulic retention time (HRT, 6.5 ~ 16.25 minutes). Water quality indicators investigated were the conductivity, suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), true color, and hardness. The results showed that electrocoagulation technology can be used to treat D-stage bleaching effluent for water reuse. Under the operating conditions studied, the removal of conductivity and COD always increased with increases in either the current density or HRT. The highest removals obtained at 133.3 A/m(2) and an HRT of 16.25 minutes for conductivity, SS, COD, true color, and hardness were respectively 44.2, 98.5, 75.0, 85.9, and 36.9% with aluminum electrodes. Iron electrodes were not applicable to the D-stage effluent due to formation of dark-colored ferric complexes.

  17. Development of pilot scale nanofiltration system for yeast industry wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of the yeast industry wastewater was investigated by nanofiltration (NF) membrane process on a pilot scale. Two wastewaters were used as feed: (i) dilute wastewater with COD 2000 mg/L and (ii) concentrate wastewater with COD 8000 mg/L. The permeate flux, COD retention, color and electrical conductivity (EC) removal were evaluated in relation to trans-membrane pressure and long-term filtration. A linear growth in permeate flux was found with increasing in trans-membrane pressure for wastewaters. In addition, the COD retention, color and EC removal increased with trans-membrane pressure enhancement. The results obtained from the long-term nanofiltration of dilute wastewater indicated that the permeate flux decreased from 2300 L/day to 1250 L/day and COD retention increased from 86% to 92%. The quality of the permeate in term of COD is lower than the discharge standard in river (200 mg/L). Thus, this process is useful for treatment of wastewaters produced by yeast industry. PMID:24593865

  18. Pilot-scale spiral wound membrane assessment for THM precursor rejection from upland waters

    PubMed Central

    Golea, D.; Sutherland, S.; Jarvis, P.; Judd, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The outcomes of a pilot-scale study of the rejection of trihalomethanes (THMs) precursors by commercial ultrafiltration/nanofiltration (UF/NF) spiral-wound membrane elements are presented based on a single surface water source in Scotland. The study revealed the expected trend of increased flux and permeability with increasing pore size for the UF membranes; the NF membranes provided similar fluxes despite the lower nominal pore size. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) passage decreased with decreasing molecular weight cut-off, with a less than one-third the passage recorded for the NF membranes than for the UF ones. The yield (weight % total THMs per DOC) varied between 2.5% and 8% across all membranes tested, in reasonable agreement with the literature, with the aromatic polyamide membrane providing both the lowest yield and lowest DOC passage. The proportion of the hydrophobic (HPO) fraction removed was found to increase with decreasing membrane selectivity (increasing pore size), and THM generation correlated closely (R 2 = 0.98) with the permeate HPO fractional concentration.

  19. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-29

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH{sub 4}/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH{sub 4}: 81.23% and CO{sub 2}: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  20. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  1. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  2. Pilot-scale spiral wound membrane assessment for THM precursor rejection from upland waters

    PubMed Central

    Golea, D.; Sutherland, S.; Jarvis, P.; Judd, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The outcomes of a pilot-scale study of the rejection of trihalomethanes (THMs) precursors by commercial ultrafiltration/nanofiltration (UF/NF) spiral-wound membrane elements are presented based on a single surface water source in Scotland. The study revealed the expected trend of increased flux and permeability with increasing pore size for the UF membranes; the NF membranes provided similar fluxes despite the lower nominal pore size. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) passage decreased with decreasing molecular weight cut-off, with a less than one-third the passage recorded for the NF membranes than for the UF ones. The yield (weight % total THMs per DOC) varied between 2.5% and 8% across all membranes tested, in reasonable agreement with the literature, with the aromatic polyamide membrane providing both the lowest yield and lowest DOC passage. The proportion of the hydrophobic (HPO) fraction removed was found to increase with decreasing membrane selectivity (increasing pore size), and THM generation correlated closely (R 2 = 0.98) with the permeate HPO fractional concentration. PMID:27695148

  3. Bench- and pilot-scale evaluation of mercury speciation measurement methods

    SciTech Connect

    Laudal, D.L.; Heidt, M.K.; Nott, B.R.; Brown, T.D.

    1996-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess the health risks associated with mercury. Since the rate of mercury deposition and the type of control strategies used may depend on the type of mercury species emitted, a proven sampling method that can reliably and accurately speciate mercury at the very low concentrations found in coal combustion flue gas is necessary. A number of mercury speciation methods have been proposed, including wet-chemistry methods, such as EPA Method 29, the Ontario Hydro method, and the tris-buffer method, as well as dry methods such as the Mercury Speciation Absorption method (MESA). In addition, a number of companies are developing continuous emissions monitors to speciate mercury by difference. Bench- and pilot-scale tests, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), are currently under way at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to determine the most accurate and precise mercury speciation method available. The overall objective of the test program is to determine whether EPA Method 29 or other sampling methods can reliably quantify and speciate mercury in flue gas from coal-fired boilers at both the inlet and outlet of a particulate control device such as a pulse-jet baghouse. A specific goal of the project is to determine the precision and bias of the various mercury speciation methods as a function of process variables.

  4. Leachate/domestic wastewater aerobic co-treatment: A pilot-scale study using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, F M; Bruni, A T; Povinelli, J; Vieira, E M

    2016-01-15

    Multivariate analysis was used to identify the variables affecting the performance of pilot-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors treating old leachate from a landfill and from domestic wastewater. Raw leachate was pre-treated using air stripping to partially remove the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). The control AS reactor (AS-0%) was loaded only with domestic wastewater, whereas the other reactor was loaded with mixtures containing leachate at volumetric ratios of 2 and 5%. The best removal efficiencies were obtained for a ratio of 2%, as follows: 70 ± 4% for total suspended solids (TSS), 70 ± 3% for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 70 ± 4% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 51 ± 9% for the leachate slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed that most of the SBOM was removed by partial biodegradation rather than dilution or adsorption of organics in the sludge. Nitrification was approximately 80% in the AS-0% and AS-2% reactors. No significant accumulation of heavy metals was observed for any of the tested volumetric ratios. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) indicated that the data dimension could be reduced and that TAN, SCOD, DOC and nitrification efficiency were the main variables that affected the performance of the AS reactors.

  5. Operating a pilot-scale nitrification/distillation plant for complete nutrient recovery from urine.

    PubMed

    Fumasoli, Alexandra; Etter, Bastian; Sterkele, Bettina; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Udert, Kai M

    2016-01-01

    Source-separated urine contains most of the excreted nutrients, which can be recovered by using nitrification to stabilize the urine before concentrating the nutrient solution with distillation. The aim of this study was to test this process combination at pilot scale. The nitrification process was efficient in a moving bed biofilm reactor with maximal rates of 930 mg N L(-1) d(-1). Rates decreased to 120 mg N L(-1) d(-1) after switching to more concentrated urine. At high nitrification rates (640 mg N L(-1) d(-1)) and low total ammonia concentrations (1,790 mg NH4-N L(-1) in influent) distillation caused the main primary energy demand of 71 W cap(-1) (nitrification: 13 W cap(-1)) assuming a nitrogen production of 8.8 g N cap(-1) d(-1). Possible process failures include the accumulation of the nitrification intermediate nitrite and the selection of acid-tolerant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Especially during reactor start-up, the process must therefore be carefully supervised. The concentrate produced by the nitrification/distillation process is low in heavy metals, but high in nutrients, suggesting a good suitability as an integral fertilizer.

  6. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  7. Characterization of membrane foulants in a pilot-scale tunnel construction wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Jeong, Se-Uk; Cho, Hyun Uk; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Young Mo

    2014-11-01

    A pilot-scale combination of a microfiltration (MF) and a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane system was applied on-site to treat tunnel construction wastewater. The MF membrane system initially removed contaminants (turbidity of less than 0.3 NTU) in the form of particulate materials in the feed water, thereby allowing the combined MF-RO system to efficiently remove more than 99% of known organic and inorganic contaminants and qualify the reclaimed water for reuse. The MF membrane autopsy analysis using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) revealed that the dominant foulants were inorganic deposits involving Si, Al and Fe, comprising the main components of cement materials, as well as deposits involving heavy metals such as Mn, Cu and Zn in the form of particles. Thus, thick cake contaminants shown by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images might be induced via suspended solids consisting of cement and clay materials and metals.

  8. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH4/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH4: 81.23% and CO2: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  9. Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M. Suleman

    2012-01-01

    Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter test facility where lime stone dust is separated from air at ambient conditions. Results reveal that filtration velocity significantly affects filter pressure drop as well as cake properties; cake density and specific cake resistance. Cake density is slightly affected by dust concentration. Specific resistance of filter cake increases with velocity, slightly affected by dust concentration, changes inversely with the upper pressure drop limit and decreases over a prolonged use (aging). Specific resistance of filter media is independent of upper pressure drop limit and increases linearly over a prolonged use. PMID:24415802

  10. Pilot-scale ultrafiltration testing for the F and H area effluent treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, J.L.

    1984-09-25

    An F and H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF) is being designed to treat low activity aqueous effluents which are produced from F and H Area daily operations. The treatment scheme for the F/H ETF will include pretreatment (pH adjustment and filtration) followed by Reverse Osmosis and/or Ion Exchange to remove dissolved species. Several alternative treatment processes are being considered for the F/H ETF. One of the alternatives in the pretreatment step is tubular Ultrafiltration (UF), using a dynamically formed zirconium oxide membrane supported on a porous stainless steel backing. Pilot-scale testing with a single membrane module (13 ft/sup 2/ area) and 200-Area effluent simulant has demonstrated that UF is a viable filtration option for the F/H ETF. UF testing at TNX has defined the operating conditions necessary for extended operation and also demonstrated excellent filtration performance (filtrate SDI <1). UF operates at a 100 GFD (gallons/ft/sup 2//day) flux and will provide excellent pretreatment for both reverse osmosis and ion exchange. 2 refs.

  11. Pilot-scale evaluation of the thermal-stability POHC incinerability anking

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.W.; Whitworth, W.E.; Waterland, L.R.

    1992-04-01

    A test series were performed at the U.S. EPA Incineration Research Facility (IRF) to evaluate the thermal-stability-based principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) incinerability ranking. Mixtures of twelve POHCs with predicted incinerabilities spanning the range of most- to least-difficult-to-incinerate classes were combined with a clay-based sorbent matrix and fed to the facility's pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator. Kiln operating conditions were varied to include a baseline operating condition, three modes of attempted incineration failure, and a worst-case combination of the three failure modes. Kiln-exit POHC destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) were in the 99.99% range for the volatile POHCs during the baseline, mixing failure and matrix failure tests. Semivolatile POHCs were not detected at the kiln exit for these tests; corresponding DREs were generally greater than 99.999%. The thermal failure and worst-case tests resulted in substantially decreased kiln-exit POHC DREs, ranging from less than 99% to greater than 99.999%. General agreement between measured and predicted relative kiln-exit POHC DREs was observed for those two tests.

  12. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m3 of biogas per m3 of POME which was utilized for electricity generation. PMID:26167485

  13. Analysis of operating costs for producing biodiesel from palm oil at pilot-scale in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Juan C; Hernández, Jorge A; Valdés, Carlos F; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the operating costs of biodiesel production using palm oil in a pilot-scale plant with a capacity of 20,000 L/day (850 L/batch). The production plant uses crude palm oil as a feedstock, and methanol in a molar ratio of 1:10. The process incorporated acid esterification, basic transesterification, and dry washing with absorbent powder. Production costs considered in the analysis were feedstock, supplies, labor, electricity, quality and maintenance; amounting to $3.75/gal ($0.99/L) for 2013. Feedstocks required for biodiesel production were among the highest costs, namely 72.6% of total production cost. Process efficiency to convert fatty acids to biodiesel was over 99% and generated a profit of $1.08/gal (i.e., >22% of the total income). According to sensitivity analyses, it is more economically viable for biodiesel production processes to use crude palm oil as a feedstock and take advantage of the byproducts such as glycerine and fertilizers. PMID:25660089

  14. Ammonia Oxidizers in a Pilot-Scale Multilayer Rapid Infiltration System for Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Yingli; Xu, Meiying; Zhong, Yuming; Yang, Yongqiang; Chen, Fanrong; Guo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale multilayer rapid infiltration system (MRIS) for domestic wastewater treatment was established and efficient removal of ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved in this study. The microbial community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were investigated. Efficient biofilms of ammonia oxidizers in the stationary phase (packing material) was formed successfully in the MRIS without special inoculation. DGGE and phylogenetic analyses revealed that proteobacteria dominated in the MRIS. Relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) showed contrary tendency. In the flowing phase (water effluent), AOA diversity was significantly correlated with the concentration of dissolve oxygen (DO), NO3-N and NH3-N. AOB abundance was significantly correlated with the concentration of DO and chemical oxygen demand (COD). NH3-N and COD were identified as the key factors to shape AOB community structure, while no variable significantly correlated with that of AOA. AOA might play an important role in the MRIS. This study could reveal key environmental factors affecting the community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in the MRIS. PMID:25479611

  15. Bioremediation of benzene-, MTBE- and ammonia-contaminated groundwater with pilot-scale constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Eva M; Kuschk, Peter; Fazekas, Helga; Grathwohl, Peter; Kaestner, Matthias

    2011-12-01

    In this pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) study for treating groundwater contaminated with benzene, MTBE, and ammonia-N, the performance of two types of CWs (a wetland with gravel matrix and a plant root mat) was investigated. Hypothesized stimulative effects of filter material additives (charcoal, iron(III)) on pollutant removal were also tested. Increased contaminant loss was found during summer; the best treatment performance was achieved by the plant root mat. Concentration decrease in the planted gravel filter/plant root mat, respectively, amounted to 81/99% for benzene, 17/82% for MTBE, and 54/41% for ammonia-N at calculated inflow loads of 525/603 mg/m(2)/d, 97/112 mg/m(2)/d, and 1167/1342 mg/m(2)/d for benzene, MTBE, and ammonia-N. Filter additives did not improve contaminant depletion, although sorption processes were observed and elevated iron(II) formation indicated iron reduction. Bacterial and stable isotope analysis provided evidence for microbial benzene degradation in the CW, emphasizing the promising potential of this treatment technique.

  16. Soluble microbial products in pilot-scale drinking water biofilters with acetate as sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ye, Chengsong; Gong, Song; Wei, Gu; Yu, Xin; Feng, Lin

    2013-04-01

    A comprehensive study on formation and characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMP) during drinking water biofiltration was made in four parallel pilot-scale ceramic biofilters with acetate as the substrate. Excellent treatment performance was achieved while microbial biomass and acetate carbon both declined with the depth of filter. The SMP concentration was determined by calculating the difference between the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and acetate carbon. The results revealed that SMP showed an obvious increase from 0 to 100 cm depth of the filter. A rising specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) was also found, indicating that benzene or carbonyl might exist in these compounds. SMP produced during this drinking water biological process were proved to have weak mutagenicity and were not precursors of by-products of chlorination disinfection. The volatile parts of SMP were half-quantity analyzed and most of them were dicarboxyl acids, others were hydrocarbons or benzene with 16-17 carbon atoms.

  17. Pilot scale study on steam explosion and mass balance for higher sugar recovery from rice straw.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Kumar, Ravindra; Gaur, Ruchi; Agrawal, Ruchi; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Das, Biswapriya

    2015-01-01

    Pretreatment of rice straw on pilot scale steam explosion has been attempted to achieve maximum sugar recovery. Three different reaction media viz. water, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid (0.5%, w/w) were explored for pretreatment by varying operating temperature (160, 180 and 200°C) and reaction time (5 and 10min). Using water and 0.5% SA showed almost similar sugar recovery (∼87%) at 200 and 180°C respectively. However, detailed studies showed that the former caused higher production of oligomeric sugars (13.56g/L) than the later (3.34g/L). Monomeric sugar, followed the reverse trend (7.83 and 11.62g/L respectively). Higher oligomers have a pronounced effect in reducing enzymatic sugar yield as observed in case of water. Mass balance studies for water and SA assisted SE gave total saccharification yield as 81.8% and 77.1% respectively. However, techno-economical viability will have a trade-off between these advantages and disadvantages offered by the pretreatment medium.

  18. Pilot scale-SO{sub 2} control by dry sodium bicarbonate injection and an electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Pliat, M.J.; Wilder, J.M.

    2007-10-15

    A 500 actual cubic feet gas per minute (acfm) pilot-scale SO{sub 2} control study was undertaken to investigate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by dry sodium sorbents in 400{sup o}F (204.5{sup o}C) flue gases emitted from a coal fired boiler with flue gas concentrations between 350 and 2500 ppm SO{sub 2}. Powdered sodium alkaline reagents were injected into the hot flue gas downstream of the air preheater and the spent reagents were collected using an electrostatic precipitator. Three different sorbents were used: processed sodium bicarbonate of two particle sizes; solution mined sodium bicarbonate, and processed sodium sesquicarbonate. SO{sub 2} concentrations were measured upstream of the reagent injection, 25-ft (7.62 m) downstream of the injection point, and downstream of the electrostatic precipitator. SO{sub 2} collection efficiencies ranged from 40 to 80% using sodium bicarbonate stoichiometric ratios from 0.5 to 3.0. Much of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal occurred during the first second of reagent reaction time, indicating that the sulfur dioxide-sodium reaction rates may be faster than have been measured for fixed bed measurements reported in the literature.

  19. Disinfection of bacterial biofilms in pilot-scale cooling tower systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Packman, Aaron I

    2011-04-01

    The impact of continuous chlorination and periodic glutaraldehyde treatment on planktonic and biofilm microbial communities was evaluated in pilot-scale cooling towers operated continuously for 3 months. The system was operated at a flow rate of 10,080 l day(-1). Experiments were performed with a well-defined microbial consortium containing three heterotrophic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. The persistence of each species was monitored in the recirculating cooling water loop and in biofilms on steel and PVC coupons in the cooling tower basin. The observed bacterial colonization in cooling towers did not follow trends in growth rates observed under batch conditions and, instead, reflected differences in the ability of each organism to remain attached and form biofilms under the high-through flow conditions in cooling towers. Flavobacterium was the dominant organism in the community, while P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae did not attach well to either PVC or steel coupons in cooling towers and were not able to persist in biofilms. As a result, the much greater ability of Flavobacterium to adhere to surfaces protected it from disinfection, whereas P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were subject to rapid disinfection in the planktonic state.

  20. Leachate/domestic wastewater aerobic co-treatment: A pilot-scale study using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, F M; Bruni, A T; Povinelli, J; Vieira, E M

    2016-01-15

    Multivariate analysis was used to identify the variables affecting the performance of pilot-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors treating old leachate from a landfill and from domestic wastewater. Raw leachate was pre-treated using air stripping to partially remove the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). The control AS reactor (AS-0%) was loaded only with domestic wastewater, whereas the other reactor was loaded with mixtures containing leachate at volumetric ratios of 2 and 5%. The best removal efficiencies were obtained for a ratio of 2%, as follows: 70 ± 4% for total suspended solids (TSS), 70 ± 3% for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 70 ± 4% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 51 ± 9% for the leachate slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed that most of the SBOM was removed by partial biodegradation rather than dilution or adsorption of organics in the sludge. Nitrification was approximately 80% in the AS-0% and AS-2% reactors. No significant accumulation of heavy metals was observed for any of the tested volumetric ratios. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) indicated that the data dimension could be reduced and that TAN, SCOD, DOC and nitrification efficiency were the main variables that affected the performance of the AS reactors. PMID:26551262

  1. Pilot-scale ceramic melter 1985-1986 rebuild: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, S.S.

    1987-07-01

    The pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) was subsequently dismantled, and the damaged and corroded components were repaired or replaced. The PSCM rebuild ensures that the melter will be available for an additional three to five years of planned testing. An analysis of the corrosion products and the failed electrodes indicated that the electrode bus connection welds may have failed due to a combination of chemical and mechanical effects. The electrodes were replaced with a design similar to the original electrodes, but with improved electrical bus connections. The implications of the PSCM electrode corrosion evaluation are that, although Inconel 690 has excellent corrosion resistance to molten glass, corrosion at the melt line in stagnant regions is a significant concern. Functional changes made during the rebuild included increases in wall and floor insulation to better simulate well-insulated melters, a decrease in the lid height for more prototypical plenum and off-gas conditions, and installation of an Inconel 690 trough and dam to improve glass pouring and prevent glass seepage. 9 refs., 33 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. A pilot-scale homogenization-assisted negative pressure cavitation extraction of Astragalus polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiao; Wei, Fu-Yao; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Fu, Yu-Jie; Ma, Wei

    2014-06-01

    This paper reported a new, green and effective extraction technique for polysaccharides, namely homogenization-assisted negative pressure cavitation extraction (HNPCE), which succeeded in the extraction of Astragalus polysaccharides (APs). Central composite design and kinetic model were applied to optimize the extraction conditions, and the optimal parameters were obtained as follows: homogenization time 70s, negative pressure -0.068MPa, extraction temperature 64.8°C, ratio of water to material 13.4 and extraction time 53min. The proposed method exhibited considerable predominance in terms of higher APs yield (16.74%) with much lower temperature and shorter duration, as against the reported hot water extraction method (14.33% of APs yield with 100°C and 3h). Moreover, FT-IR results showed that HNPCE method did not alter the primary structure of polysaccharides. Furthermore, the pilot-scale application of HNPCE was successfully performed with 16.62% of APs yield. Thus, HNPCE is an excellent alternative method for the extraction of polysaccharides from Astragalus or other plant materials in industry.

  3. Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M Suleman

    2012-07-01

    Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter test facility where lime stone dust is separated from air at ambient conditions. Results reveal that filtration velocity significantly affects filter pressure drop as well as cake properties; cake density and specific cake resistance. Cake density is slightly affected by dust concentration. Specific resistance of filter cake increases with velocity, slightly affected by dust concentration, changes inversely with the upper pressure drop limit and decreases over a prolonged use (aging). Specific resistance of filter media is independent of upper pressure drop limit and increases linearly over a prolonged use.

  4. Treatment of Pulp Mill D-Stage Bleaching Effluent Using a Pilot-Scale Electrocoagulation System.

    PubMed

    Perng, Yuan-Shing; Wang, Eugene I-Chen

    2016-03-01

    A pilot-scale study was conducted using electrocoagulation technology to treat chlorine dioxide bleaching-stage effluent of a local pulp mill, with the purpose of evaluating the treatment performance. The operating variables were the current density (0 ~ 133.3 A/m(2)) and hydraulic retention time (HRT, 6.5 ~ 16.25 minutes). Water quality indicators investigated were the conductivity, suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), true color, and hardness. The results showed that electrocoagulation technology can be used to treat D-stage bleaching effluent for water reuse. Under the operating conditions studied, the removal of conductivity and COD always increased with increases in either the current density or HRT. The highest removals obtained at 133.3 A/m(2) and an HRT of 16.25 minutes for conductivity, SS, COD, true color, and hardness were respectively 44.2, 98.5, 75.0, 85.9, and 36.9% with aluminum electrodes. Iron electrodes were not applicable to the D-stage effluent due to formation of dark-colored ferric complexes. PMID:26931536

  5. Pilot scale studies on nitritation-anammox process for mainstream wastewater at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Trojanowicz, Karol; Plaza, Elzbieta; Trela, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Process of partial nitritation-anammox for mainstream wastewater at low temperature was run in a pilot scale moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system for about 300 days. The biofilm history in the reactor was about 3 years of growth at low temperature (down to 10 °C). The goal of the studies presented in this paper was to achieve effective partial nitritation-anammox process. Influence of nitrogen loading rate, hydraulic retention time, aeration strategy (continuous versus intermittent) and sludge recirculation (integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) mode) on deammonification process' efficiency and microbial activity in the examined system was tested. It was found that the sole intermittent aeration strategy is not a sufficient method for successful suppression of nitrite oxidizing bacteria in MBBR. The best performance of the process was achieved in IFAS mode. The highest recorded capacity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria in biofilm was 1.4 gN/m(2)d and 0.5 gN/m(2)d, respectively, reaching 51% in nitrogen removal efficiency. PMID:26901718

  6. Ozonation kinetics of winery wastewater in a pilot-scale bubble column reactor.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Marco S; Peres, José A; Lan, Bing Yan; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2009-04-01

    The degradation of organic substances present in winery wastewater was studied in a pilot-scale, bubble column ozonation reactor. A steady reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was observed under the action of ozone at the natural pH of the wastewater (pH 4). At alkaline and neutral pH the degradation rate was accelerated by the formation of radical species from the decomposition of ozone. Furthermore, the reaction of hydrogen peroxide (formed from natural organic matter in the wastewater) and ozone enhances the oxidation capacity of the ozonation process. The monitoring of pH, redox potential (ORP), UV absorbance (254 nm), polyphenol content and ozone consumption was correlated with the oxidation of the organic species in the water. The ozonation of winery wastewater in the bubble column was analysed in terms of a mole balance coupled with ozonation kinetics modeled by the two-film theory of mass transfer and chemical reaction. It was determined that the ozonation reaction can develop both in and across different kinetic regimes: fast, moderate and slow, depending on the experimental conditions. The dynamic change of the rate coefficient estimated by the model was correlated with changes in the water composition and oxidant species.

  7. Microbial community structure of a pilot-scale thermophilic anaerobic digester treating poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ami M; Sharma, Deepak; Lappin-Scott, Hilary; Burton, Sara; Huber, David H

    2014-03-01

    The microbial community structure of a stable pilot-scale thermophilic continuous stirred tank reactor digester stabilized on poultry litter was investigated. This 40-m(3) digester produced biogas with 57% methane, and chemical oxygen demand removal of 54%. Bacterial and archaeal diversity were examined using both cloning and pyrosequencing that targeted 16S rRNA genes. The bacterial community was dominated by phylum Firmicutes, constituting 93% of the clones and 76% of the pyrotags. Of the Firmicutes, class Clostridia (52% pyrotags) was most abundant followed by class Bacilli (13% pyrotags). The bacterial libraries identified 94 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and pyrosequencing identified 577 OTUs at the 97% minimum similarity level. Fifteen OTUs were dominant (≥2% abundance), and nine of these were novel unclassified Firmicutes. Several of the dominant OTUs could not be classified more specifically than Clostridiales, but were most similar to plant biomass degraders, including Clostridium thermocellum. Of the rare pyrotag OTUs (<0.5% abundance), 75% were Firmicutes. The dominant methanogen was Methanothermobacter which has hydrogenotrophic metabolism, and accounted for >99% of the archaeal clones. Based on the primary methanogen, as well as digester chemistry (high VA and ammonia levels), we propose that bacterial acetate oxidation is the primary pathway in this digester for the control of acetate levels.

  8. Pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whyatt, G.A.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) waste performed in November 1988, and the subsequent thermal behavior of the grout as it cured in a large, insulated vessel. The report was issued in draft form in April 1989 and comments were subsequently received; however, the report was not finalized until 1994. In finalizing this report, references or information gained after the report was drafted in April 1989 have not been incorporated to preserve the report`s historical perspective. This report makes use of criteria from Ridelle (1987) to establish formulation criteria. This document has since been superseded by a document prepared by Reibling and Fadeef (1991). However, the reference to Riddelle (1987) and any analysis based on its content have been maintained within this report. In addition, grout is no longer being considered as the waste form for disposal of Hanford`s low-level waste. However, grout disposal is being maintained as an option in case there is an emergency need to provide additional tank space. Current plans are to vitrify low-level wastes into a glass matrix.

  9. Design of pilot-scale constructed wetlands for tertiary treatment of refinery effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, P.B.; Vergel, N.R.; Hawkins, W.B.; Dunn, A.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Two pilot-scale constructed wetlands (4:1 length:width aspect) were designed for tertiary treatment of refinery effluent. As requirements for removal of contaminants from NPDES effluents become more stringent, cost-effective technological approaches are needed to achieve the necessary treatment levels and be efficient, effective and low maintenance. The fundamental design of these constructed wetlands was based on biogeochemical principles that regulate the fate and persistence of the targeted elements (Cu, Zn, Pb). In order to maximize opportunities to learn more about the internal function of the wetlands, they were built to operate in series or in parallel permitting hydraulic retention times of 24 to 48 hours. The wetlands were lined with {approximately}76 cm of compacted clay as well as a 30 mil polyethylene liner. The hydrosoil selected for use in the constructed wetlands is 74.1% sand, 25.6% silt, 0.3% clay. Based on laboratory studies, this hydrosoil achieves a redox of 250 to {approximately}300 mv and a pH of 7.5 in the presence of Scirpus californicus. These conditions should enhance the ability of the constructed wetlands to retain and sequester the target elements and control chronic toxicity from the effluent.

  10. Pilot-scale constructed wetlands for tertiary treatment of refinery effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, W.B.; Dunn, A.W.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr.; Dorn, P.B.

    1995-12-31

    Two pilot-scale wetlands were designed and constructed for tertiary treatment of refinery effluent with the goal of removing Cu, Pb, and Zn. The wetlands were built to operate in series or in parallel, with hydraulic retention times of 24 and 48 hours, respectively. The wetlands were lined with a 76 cm layer of compacted clay which is covered with a non-porous 60-mil polyethylene liner. The hydrosoil selected for use in the constructed wetlands was an alluvial sediment consisting of 74.1% sand, 25.6% silt, and 0.3% clay. Scirpus californicus (Giant Bulrush) was planted in both wetlands with an average initial plant density of 9 plants per m{sup 2} and average initial heights of 0.3 m. After six months of wetland operation, the desired design characteristics have been achieved and have aided in metal removals. The hydrosoil developed an average redox potential of {minus}170 mV and a ph of 7.0. S. californicus increased to an average density of 42 plants per m{sup 2} and grew to an average height of 2.7 m. These wetland characteristics have resulted in removals of approximately 67% of the Cu, 89% of the Pb, and 98% of the Zn from the refinery effluent in preliminary monitoring. Additional studies to evaluate operating efficiencies under different conditions are in progress.

  11. Benzalkonium runoff from roofs treated with biocide products - In situ pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Gromaire, M C; Van de Voorde, A; Lorgeoux, C; Chebbo, G

    2015-09-15

    Roof maintenance practices often involve the application of biocide products to fight against moss, lichens and algae. The main component of these products is benzalkonium chloride, a mixture of alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chlorides with mainly C12 and C14 alkyl chain lengths, which is toxic for the aquatic environment. This paper describes, on the basis of an in-situ pilot scale study, the evolution of roof runoff contamination over a one year period following the biocide treatment of roof frames. Results show a major contamination of roof runoff immediately after treatment (from 5 to 30 mg/L), followed by an exponential decrease. 175-375 mm of cumulated rainfall is needed before the runoff concentrations become less than EC50 values for fish (280 μg/l). The residual concentration in the runoff water remains above 4 μg/L even after 640 mm of rainfall. The level of benzalkonium ions leaching depends on the roofing material, with lower concentrations and total mass leached from ceramic tiles than from concrete tiles, and on the state of the tile (new or worn out). Mass balance calculations indicate that a large part of the mass of benzalkonium compounds applied to the tiles is lost, probably due to biodegradation processes.

  12. Disinfection of bacterial biofilms in pilot-scale cooling tower systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Packman, Aaron I

    2011-04-01

    The impact of continuous chlorination and periodic glutaraldehyde treatment on planktonic and biofilm microbial communities was evaluated in pilot-scale cooling towers operated continuously for 3 months. The system was operated at a flow rate of 10,080 l day(-1). Experiments were performed with a well-defined microbial consortium containing three heterotrophic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. The persistence of each species was monitored in the recirculating cooling water loop and in biofilms on steel and PVC coupons in the cooling tower basin. The observed bacterial colonization in cooling towers did not follow trends in growth rates observed under batch conditions and, instead, reflected differences in the ability of each organism to remain attached and form biofilms under the high-through flow conditions in cooling towers. Flavobacterium was the dominant organism in the community, while P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae did not attach well to either PVC or steel coupons in cooling towers and were not able to persist in biofilms. As a result, the much greater ability of Flavobacterium to adhere to surfaces protected it from disinfection, whereas P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were subject to rapid disinfection in the planktonic state. PMID:21547755

  13. Completing Pre-Pilot Tasks To Scale Up Biomass Fractionation Pretreatment Apparatus From Batch To Continuous

    SciTech Connect

    Dick Wingerson

    2004-12-15

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) was the recipient of a $200,000 Invention and Innovations (I&I) grant from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to complete prepilot tasks in order to scale up its patented biomass fractionation pretreatment apparatus from batch to continuous processing. The initial goal of the I&I program, as detailed in PureVision's original application to the DOE, was to develop the design criteria to build a small continuous biomass fractionation pilot apparatus utilizing a retrofitted extruder with a novel screw configuration to create multiple reaction zones, separated by dynamic plugs within the reaction chamber that support the continuous counter-flow of liquids and solids at elevated temperature and pressure. Although the ultimate results of this 27-month I&I program exceeded the initial expectations, some of the originally planned tasks were not completed due to a modification of direction in the program. PureVision achieved its primary milestone by establishing the design criteria for a continuous process development unit (PDU). In addition, PureVision was able to complete the procurement, assembly, and initiate shake down of the PDU at Western Research Institute (WRI) in Laramie, WY during August 2003 to February 2004. During the month of March 2004, PureVision and WRI performed initial testing of the continuous PDU at WRI.

  14. Ammonium removal from groundwater using a zeolite permeable reactive barrier: a pilot-scale demonstration.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengpin; Huang, Guoxin; Kong, Xiangke; Yang, Yingzhao; Liu, Fei; Hou, Guohua; Chen, Honghan

    2014-01-01

    In situ remediation of ammonium-contaminated groundwater is possible through a zeolite permeable reactive barrier (PRB); however, zeolite's finite sorption capacity limits the long-term field application of PRBs. In this paper, a pilot-scale PRB was designed to achieve sustainable use of zeolite in removing ammonium (NH(4)(+)-N) through sequential nitrification, adsorption, and denitrification. An oxygen-releasing compound was added to ensure aerobic conditions in the upper layers of the PRB where NH(4)(+)-N was microbially oxidized to nitrate. Any remaining NH(4)(+)-N was removed abiotically in the zeolite layer. Under lower redox conditions, nitrate formed during nitrification was removed by denitrifying bacteria colonizing the zeolite. During the long-term operation (328 days), more than 90% of NH(4)(+)-N was consistently removed, and approximately 40% of the influent NH(4)(+)-N was oxidized to nitrate. As much as 60% of the nitrate formed in the PRB was reduced in the zeolite layer after 300 days of operation. Removal of NH(4)(+)-N from groundwater using a zeolite PRB through bacterial nitrification and abiotic adsorption is a promising approach. The zeolite PRB has the advantage of achieving sustainable use of zeolite and immediate NH(4)(+)-N removal.

  15. Disposable bioreactors for inoculum production and protein expression.

    PubMed

    Eibl, Regine; Löffelholz, Christian; Eibl, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Disposable bioreactors have been increasingly implemented over the past ten years. This relates to both R & D and commercial manufacture, in particular, in animal cell-based processes. Among the numerous disposable bioreactors which are available today, wave-mixed bag bioreactors and stirred bioreactors are predominant. Whereas wave-mixed bag bioreactors represent the system of choice for inoculum production, stirred systems are often preferred for protein expression. For this reason, the authors present protocols instructing the reader how to use the wave-mixed BIOSTAT CultiBag RM 20 L for inoculum production and the stirred UniVessel SU 2 L for recombinant protein production at benchtop scale. All methods described are based on a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) suspension cell line expressing the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP).

  16. HANFORD MEDIUM-LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT ALTERNATIVES PROJECT FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION PILOT SCALE TESTING FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-09-16

    The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated.

  17. PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-08-02

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

  18. Characterization of double-shell slurry feed grout produced in a pilot-scale test. Hanford Grout Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.; Shade, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    Current plans for disposal of the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes at Hanford, Washington include grouting. Grout disposal in this context is the process of mixing low-level liquid waste with cementitious powders. and pumping the resultant slurry to near-surface, underground concrete vaults. Once the slurry is in the vaults. the hydration reactions that occur result in the formation of a highly impermeable solid product that binds and encapsulates the radioactive and hazardous constituents. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) operates the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Pacific Northwest Laboratory(a) (PNL) provides support to the Grout Disposal Program through laboratory support activities, radioactive grout leach testing. performance assessments, and pilot-scale tests. A pilot-scale test was conducted in November 1988 using a simulated Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) waste. The main objective of the pilot-scale test was to demonstrate the processability of a DSSF grout formulation that was developed using laboratory equipment and to provide information on scale-up. The dry blend used in this test included 47 wt% class F fly ash, 47 wt% blast furnace slag, and 6 wt% type I/II portland cement. The dry blend was mixed with the simulated waste at a ratio of 9 lb/gal and pumped to a 2800-gal, insulated tank at about 10.4 gpm. Samples of simulated DSSF waste. dry blend, grout slurry, and cured grout were obtained during and after the pilot-scale test for testing and product characterization. Major conclusions of these activities are included.

  19. Space Bioreactor Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and a slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells. Applications of microcarrier cultures, development of the first space bioreactor flight system, shear and mixing effects on cells, process control, and methods to monitor cell metabolism and nutrient requirements are among the topics covered.

  20. Bioreactor design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, William

    1987-01-01

    Two parallel lines of work are underway in the bioreactor laboratory. One of the efforts is devoted to the continued development and utilization of a laboratory research system. That system's design is intended to be fluid and dynamic. The sole purpose of such a device is to allow testing and development of equipment concepts and procedures. Some of the results of those processes are discussed. A second effort is designed to produce a flight-like bioreactor contained in a double middeck locker. The result of that effort has been to freeze a particular bioreactor design in order to allow fabrication of the custom parts. The system is expected to be ready for flight in early 1988. However, continued use of the laboratory system will lead to improvements in the space bioreactor. Those improvements can only be integrated after the initial flight series.