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  1. Treatment of cricopharyngeal dysfunction: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Arenaz Búa, Beatriz; Olsson, Rolf; Westin, Ulla; Rydell, Roland; Ekberg, Olle

    2015-07-10

    Cricopharyngeal dysfunction is a narrowing at the level of the upper oesophageal sphincter caused by failed or incomplete sphincter opening as a result of lack of pharyngoesophageal coordination or reduction in the muscular compliance of the upper oesophageal sphincter. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a typical symptom. Videomanometry allows direct comparison of pressure readings with dynamic anatomy during swallowing. This is a prospective randomized pilot study that compares the effect of balloon dilatation and laser myotomy in cricopharyngeal dysfunction. We used videomanometry as an objective measure and the Swedish version of Sydney Swallowing Questionnaire as patient's self-assessment at baseline and 1 and 6 months after treatment. The UES sagittal diameter increased from 5.6 mm pre-operatively to 8.4 mm 6 months post-operatively with no differences between treatment groups. Preoperative mean Sydney Swallowing Questionnaire score was 770 and 6 months post-operative score 559, with no difference between the treatments in our cohort. Cricopharyngeal dysfunction treatment by either laser myotomy or balloon dilatation improved upper oesophageal sphincter opening during at least 6 months. ISRCTN84905610, date: 081214.

  2. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  3. Stress management and erectile dysfunction: a pilot comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzidou, I; Venetikou, M S; Konstadinidis, K; Artemiadis, A K; Chrousos, G; Darviri, C

    2014-08-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a complex disorder with various biopsychosocial implications leading the individual into a state of chronic stress that further worsens ED symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a 8-week stress management programme on erectile dysfunction (ED). A convenience sample of 31 newly diagnosed men with ED, aged between 20 and 55 years, was recruited during a period of 5 months to receive either tadalafil (12 patients) or tadalafil and the 8-week stress management programme. Both groups showed statistical significant improvement of both perceived stress and erectile function scores. Men practising stress management showed a statistical significant reduction in perceived stress score compared with men receiving tadalafil alone. No other statistical significant differences were noted between the two groups, although the stress management group showed a lower daily exposure to cortisol compared with the control group after 8 weeks. Finally, perceived stress and cortisol showed some interesting correlations with sexual function measurements. These findings provide important insight into the role of stress management, as part of the recommended biopsychosocial approach, in ED. Future studies should focus on randomised, controlled trials with larger samples and longer follow-up time.

  4. Comparative in vitro efficacy of antimicrobial shampoos: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Young, Rebecca; Buckley, Laura; McEwan, Neil; Nuttall, Tim

    2012-02-01

    This study compared the antimicrobial efficacy of shampoos against meticillin-sensitive Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP), meticillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP), antibiotic-sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa (MDR-PA) and Malassezia pachydermatis. Three isolates were incubated for 10, 30 and 60 min with each shampoo diluted in phosphate-buffered saline. Aliquots were then incubated for 16-18 h on sheep blood agar (bacteria) or for 3 days on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (Malassezia). The minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for chlorhexidine products (Malaseb(®), Pyoderm(®)/Microbex(®) and Hibiscrub(®)) were 1:1,024-1:2,048 for MSSP and MRSP, 1:512-1:1,024 for PA and MDR-PA, and 1:2,048-1:5,096 for Malassezia at all time points. The MBCs for benzoyl peroxide (Paxcutol(®)) for MSSP and MRSP were 1:2-1:8 at 10 min, and 1:256 after 30 and 60 min. A 1:2 dilution was effective against Pseudomonas, and 1:512-1:1,024 dilutions were effective against Malassezia at all time points. The MBCs for ethyl lactate (Etiderm(®)) for MSSP and MRSP were 1:2 at 10 min, and 1:2-1:16 after 30 and 60 min. A 1:2 dilution was effective against Pseudomonas, and a 1:512 dilution was effective against Malassezia at all time points. Chloroxylenol (Coatex(®)) and acetic acid-boric acid (Malacetic(®)) were not effective against MSSP, MRSP or Pseudomonas. Both were effective against Malassezia at 1:8-1:16 dilution at 10 min, and at 1:8-1:32 dilution after 30 and 60 min. In conclusion, chlorhexidine appeared to be the most effective topical biocide, and MRSP and MDR-PA were no less susceptible than antibiotic-sensitive organisms. These results should, however, be confirmed with larger numbers of isolates.

  5. Pharmaceuticals Safety Practices-A Comparative Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Kamilia A.; Jabeen, Arshia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The safety of medicine is essential for the safety of patients. Inappropriate drug storage, expiration dates, sharing prescription drugs, self medication habits and misuse of some drugs are contributing factors affecting medication safety. One or more of these factors may lead to serious health complications and even death. Objectives The purpose of this study was to highlight the common errors and pharmaceutical malpractices that people usually engage in on a daily basis and to correlate these to culture, gender and educational levels. This may spread awareness in an easy and understandable manner and provide certain guidelines to drug consumers ensuring that pharmaceutical preparations are used correctly and safely. Methods Two hundred questionnaires were randomly distributed in two countries; Saudi Arabia and India. The collected data were statistically analyzed. Outcomes and conclusion Results showed that alarming percentages of various participants were using pharmaceuticals inappropriately due to carelessness, unawareness or intentional mistakes. Therefore, active participation by health care professionals is essential for the prevention of drug misuse. Increasing population awareness about self medication, products expiration, pharmaceuticals labels and optimum storage conditions would minimize the adverse effects and may even be life saving. PMID:24533025

  6. Pharmaceuticals safety practices-a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Kamilia A; Jabeen, Arshia

    2013-11-01

    The safety of medicine is essential for the safety of patients. Inappropriate drug storage, expiration dates, sharing prescription drugs, self medication habits and misuse of some drugs are contributing factors affecting medication safety. One or more of these factors may lead to serious health complications and even death. The purpose of this study was to highlight the common errors and pharmaceutical malpractices that people usually engage in on a daily basis and to correlate these to culture, gender and educational levels. This may spread awareness in an easy and understandable manner and provide certain guidelines to drug consumers ensuring that pharmaceutical preparations are used correctly and safely. Two hundred questionnaires were randomly distributed in two countries; Saudi Arabia and India. The collected data were statistically analyzed. Results showed that alarming percentages of various participants were using pharmaceuticals inappropriately due to carelessness, unawareness or intentional mistakes. Therefore, active participation by health care professionals is essential for the prevention of drug misuse. Increasing population awareness about self medication, products expiration, pharmaceuticals labels and optimum storage conditions would minimize the adverse effects and may even be life saving.

  7. Comparative metabolomic study of Penicillium chrysogenum during pilot and industrial penicillin fermentations.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ming-Zhu; Lu, Hua; Cheng, Jing-Sheng; Chen, Yao; Jiang, Jing; Qiao, Bin; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2012-11-01

    Comparative metabolomics was carried out to investigate the metabolic differences of Penicillium chrysogenum in the pilot and industrial fermentations that resulted from the scale-up. By principal component analysis, the early stages of two fermentation processes were clearly distinguished, whereas the middle and final stages were clustered together. It indicated that the different metabolisms of cells in the pilot and industrial fermentations mainly existed during the early stage. Furthermore, the levels of polyamines, polyols, glycolysis, and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, which changed more dramatically during the pilot process, were all higher in the pilot than in the industrial fermentation during the early stage. This indicated that the fermentation conditions of the early stage should be the focus of process management which is aimed at increasing penicillin production. Additionally, the comparative accumulations of the precursors of penicillin (valine, cysteine, and lysine) revealed that penicillin biosynthesis in the industrial process was more affected during the middle stage of fermentation. These findings provide new insights to further regulate the industrial process and improve the production of penicillin. More generally, this study attempts to address the scarcity of studies that contrast the metabolic outcomes between commercial- and pilot-scale conditions.

  8. A PILOT STUDY TO COMPARE MICROBIAL AND CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limitations exist in applying traditional microbial methods for the detection of human fecal contamination of water. A pilot study was undertaken to compare the microbial and chemical indicators of human fecal contamination of water. Sixty-four water samples were collected in O...

  9. A PILOT STUDY TO COMPARE MICROBIAL AND CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limitations exist in applying traditional microbial methods for the detection of human fecal contamination of water. A pilot study was undertaken to compare the microbial and chemical indicators of human fecal contamination of water. Sixty-four water samples were collected in O...

  10. The Internet and Some International Regulatory Issues Relating to Content: A Pilot Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Broadcasting Authority.

    In December 1996 UNESCO commissioned the Australian Broadcasting Authority to conduct a pilot study which considered a range of online issues; this report outlines the findings of the pilot study, based on data collected between February and May 1997 and updated in July 1997. The objective is to identify the main types of Internet content which…

  11. A pilot study comparing mouse and mouse-emulating interface devices for graphic input.

    PubMed

    Kanny, E M; Anson, D K

    1991-01-01

    Adaptive interface devices make it possible for individuals with physical disabilities to use microcomputers and thus perform many tasks that they would otherwise be unable to accomplish. Special equipment is available that purports to allow functional access to the computer for users with disabilities. As technology moves from purely keyboard applications to include graphic input, it will be necessary for assistive interface devices to support graphics as well as text entry. Headpointing systems that emulate the mouse in combination with on-screen keyboards are of particular interest to persons with severe physical impairment such as high level quadriplegia. Two such systems currently on the market are the HeadMaster and the Free Wheel. The authors have conducted a pilot study comparing graphic input speed using the mouse and two headpointing interface systems on the Macintosh computer. The study used a single subject design with six able-bodied subjects, to establish a baseline for comparison with persons with severe disabilities. Results of these preliminary data indicated that the HeadMaster was nearly as effective as the mouse and that it was superior to the Free Wheel for graphics input. This pilot study, however, demonstrated several experimental design problems that need to be addressed to make the study more robust. It also demonstrated the need to include the evaluation of text input so that the effectiveness of the interface devices with text and graphic input could be compared.

  12. A pilot study of positive mood induction in euthymic bipolar subjects compared with healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Anne; Lam, Dominic; Sahakian, Barbara; Roiser, Jonathon; Burke, Ailbhe; O'Neill, Nathan; Keating, Sam; Smith, Georgia Powell; McGuffin, Peter

    2006-09-01

    Demonstrating differences between euthymic bipolar subjects and healthy controls in response to positive (happy) mood induction may help elucidate how mania evolves. This pilot study evaluates the Go task in a reward paradigm as a method for inducing a happy mood state and compares the response of euthymic bipolar subjects and healthy controls. The Sense of Hyperpositive Self Scale, the Tellegen positive and negative adjectives, the Global-Local task and a visual analogue scale for measuring positive affect were administered to 15 euthymic bipolar subjects and 19 age-and-sex-matched healthy control subjects before and after they had performed the Go task in a reward paradigm. Significant differences were found between subjects and controls on several measures at each time-point but there were no differences across the groups across time except for the visual analogue scales, where subjects had a more sustained duration in self-reported happiness compared with controls. This pilot study has shown that a positive affect can be induced in bipolar subjects and controls which can be demonstrated by changes in scores on several tasks. However, only the visual analogue scales showed a significant difference between cases and controls over time. Such tests may prove valuable in furthering understanding about the evolution of manic mood states.

  13. Managerial span of control: a pilot study comparing departmental complexity and number of direct reports.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Katreena Collette; Pepper, Ginette; Blegen, Mary

    2013-09-01

    Nurse managers play pivotal roles in hospitals. However, restructuring has resulted in nurse managers having wider span of control and reduced visibility. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare two methods of measuring span of control: departmental complexity and number of direct reports. Forty-one nurse managers across nine hospitals completed The Ottawa Hospital Clinical Manager Span of Control Tool (TOH-SOC) and a demographic survey. A moderate positive relationship between number of direct reports and departmental complexity score was identified (r=.49, p=<.01). Intensive care departments were more likely to be classified differently, using departmental complexity compared to number of direct reports (54%). TOH-SOC is a reliable instrument (Cronbach's alpha = .838). Using departmental complexity rather than direct reports may more accurately reflect the full scope of nurse managers' responsibility. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.

  14. Comparing diet, oral hygiene and caries status of adult methamphetamine users and nonusers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Morio, Kimberly A; Marshall, Teresa A; Qian, Fang; Morgan, Teresa A

    2008-02-01

    Methamphetamine users are reported to have marginal dietary habits and high caries rates. The authors compared retrospective dietary patterns, oral hygiene behaviors and current oral health status of methamphetamine users and nonusers in a pilot study. Eighteen adults with a history of methamphetamine use (methamphetamine users) and 18 age- and sex-matched control subjects (nonusers) completed retrospective questionnaires concerning meal patterns, food group intakes, beverage habits, oral hygiene behaviors, smoking behaviors and drug use. The authors performed oral examinations to identify the number of remaining teeth, the number of teeth with obvious decay and presence of visible plaque. Methamphetamine users were more likely to snack without eating defined meals (P = .026), consume regular soda pop (that is, carbonated beverage with sugar) (P = .018), never brush their teeth (P < .001) and smoke (P < .001) than were nonusers. Users had more visible plaque (P < .001), fewer molars (P = .001) and more decay on anterior teeth (P < .001), premolars (P < .001) and molars (P < .001) than did nonusers. The results of this pilot study are consistent with anecdotal reports; methamphetamine users have more gross caries than do nonusers. Marginal dietary and oral hygiene behaviors associated with methamphetamine use likely increase caries risk. Patients at risk or suspected of using methamphetamine require detailed oral hygiene instruction and extensive dietary counseling.

  15. Lower nucleotide excision repair capacity in newborns compared to their mothers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vande Loock, Kim; Decordier, Ilse; Plas, Gina; Ciardelli, Roberta; Haumont, Dominique; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the potential vulnerability of children and newborns and protection of their health is essential, especially regarding to genotoxic compounds. Benzo(a)pyrene B(a)P a commonly found carcinogen, and its metabolite BPDE, are known to cross the placenta. To investigate how well newborns are able to cope with BPDE-induced DNA damage, a recent developed nucleotide excision repair cell phenotype assay was applied in a pilot study of 25 newborn daughters and their mothers, using the Alkaline Comet Assay and taking demographic data into account. Newborns seemed to be less able to repair BPDE-induced DNA damage since lower repair capacity levels were calculated compared to their mothers although statistical significance was not reached. Assessment of repair capacity in combination with genotypes will provide important information to support preventive strategies in neonatal care and to define science based exposure limits for pregnant women and children.

  16. In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Lotus Root and Cucumber: A Pilot Comparative Study in Aged Subjects.

    PubMed

    Ji, L; Gao, W; Wei, J; Pu, L; Yang, J; Guo, C

    2015-08-01

    To compare the effects of lotus root and cucumber on antioxidant function in aged subjects. Pilot comparative study. Research setting with vegetable intervention. Healthy aged subjects over the age of sixty. 30-day supplementation of lotus root or cucumber powder. Plasma value of ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, activity of antioxidant enzymes, contents of some antioxidants, oxidation products, hemolysis, blood mononuclear cell DNA damage and urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine were measured before and after the intervention. Plasma glutathione peroxidase activity, contents of vitamin C, total phenolics were significantly increased, while plasma uric acid content significantly decreased in both groups at the end of the intervention. Meanwhile, hemolysis was significantly reduced in both groups and DNA injury rate of blood mononuclear cells in lotus root group and the ratio of comet tail length to total length in cucumber group were also declined significantly post-intervention. However, plasma value of ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, contents of reduced glutathione, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, oxidized low density lipoprotein, carbonyls and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase were not changed significantly in both group after the intervention. These results suggest that lotus root and cucumber are not remarkably different in improving antioxidant function in aged subjects, though they are significantly different in antioxidant capacity in vitro. The benefits observed in this study may come from the additive or synergistic combinations of antioxidants contained in vegetables.

  17. Using E-Learning to Enhance the Learning of Additional Languages--A Pilot Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Gillian L. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a small pilot study to ascertain the use of, and changes in the use of e-learning to promote the learning of foreign and additional languages in a variety of countries in Europe. It was undertaken by individual researchers in an attempt to examine how the drive towards the teaching of new languages, encouraged by the…

  18. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A pilot study comparing the DuoFertility® monitor with ultrasound in infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Rollason, Jennie CB; Outtrim, Joanne G; Mathur, Raj S

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of ovulation detection by the DuoFertility® monitor compared with transvaginal ultrasound in infertile women with regular menstrual cycles. Methods Eight infertile patients, aged 27–40 years, with a body mass index of 19–29, regular menses, normal ovaries on pelvic ultrasound scan, and normal early follicular luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin were recruited from infertility clinics in primary and secondary care for this pilot, prospective, observational study. The patients were asked to use the DuoFertility monitor for the whole cycle, with investigators and patients blind to DuoFertility data. Daily urine LH monitoring commenced on cycle day 8, with daily transvaginal ultrasound following the first positive LH until ovulation was observed. Ovulation was further confirmed by serum progesterone. The main outcome measure was detection of ovulation by the DuoFertility monitor, and correlation between day of ovulation assessed by DuoFertility and ultrasound. Results DuoFertility identified ovulation as having occurred within one day of that determined via ultrasound in all cycles. The sensitivity of ovulation detection was 100% (95% confidence interval 82–100). The specificity could not be concluded from the data. Conclusion In infertile women with regular cycles, the DuoFertility monitor appears to accurately identify ovulatory cycles and the day of ovulation. PMID:25075200

  20. Biodiesel versus diesel: a pilot study comparing exhaust exposures for employees at a rural municipal facility.

    PubMed

    Traviss, Nora; Thelen, Brett Amy; Ingalls, Jaime Kathryn; Treadwell, Melinda Dawn

    2010-09-01

    Many organizations interested in renewable, domestic energy have switched from petroleum diesel to biodiesel blends for use in transportation and heavy-duty equipment. Although considerable evidence exists on the negative health effects of petroleum diesel exhaust exposures in occupational settings, there has been little research examining biodiesel exposures. Working collaboratively with a local municipality, concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and other air toxics were measured at a recycling facility in southwestern New Hampshire while heavy equipment operated first on petroleum diesel and then on a B20 blend (20% soy-based biodiesel/80% petroleum diesel). This pilot study used a combination of established industrial hygiene and environmental air monitoring methods to estimate occupational exposure profiles to PM and air toxics from combustion of petroleum diesel and biodiesel. Results indicate that B20 use dramatically reduces work area respirable particle, PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter), and formaldehyde levels compared with petroleum diesel. Some volatile organic compound concentrations were higher for petroleum diesel and others were higher for the B20 blend. Overall, this study suggests that biodiesel blends reduce worker exposure to and health risk from petroleum diesel exhaust, but additional exposure research is recommended.

  1. Pilot study on lower nitrosamine smokeless tobacco products compared with medicinal nicotine.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Baumgart, M Irene; Tulunay, Ozlem E; Hecht, Stephen S; Zhang, Yan; Murphy, Sharon; Le, Chap; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2007-12-01

    Smokeless tobacco (ST) products have the potential to be used as a harm reduction method for cigarette smokers. These products can deliver significantly less toxicants than cigarettes, although they are not toxicant free nor harmless. It is important to examine potential health risks and benefits of these products. These two small pilot studies examined the effects of two different ST products (Exalt and Ariva) compared with medicinal nicotine, another potential harm reduction product. Dependent, healthy adult cigarette smokers, who were motivated to quit smoking, underwent 1 week of baseline smoking measurement. They were then asked to quit smoking and were randomly assigned to use either an ST product or a medicinal nicotine lozenge (MNL, Commit) for 2 weeks, then crossed over to use the other product for 2 weeks. In the last week, following the sampling phase, subjects could choose the product they wished to use. Assessments were made repeatedly during baseline cigarette use and throughout the 5 weeks of treatment. Outcome measures included biomarkers for tobacco exposure and subjective, physiological, and behavioral responses. Tobacco-specific carcinogen uptake was greater from Exalt than from the MNL, and was comparable between the MNL and Ariva. Physiological effects and subjective effects on withdrawal and craving were comparable among Exalt, Ariva, and the MNL. Ariva was preferred over the MNL, which was preferred over Exalt. With the exception of medicinal nicotine products, low-nitrosamine ST products have the greatest potential to result in reduced toxicant exposure compared with other combustible reduced exposure products and have promise for reducing individual risk for disease. However, the population effect of marketing of such products as reduced exposure/reduced risk is unknown. The need for further research in this area and regulation of tobacco products is evident.

  2. A pilot study to assess oral health literacy by comparing a word recognition and comprehension tool.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khadija; Ruby, Brendan; Goldblatt, Ruth S; Schensul, Jean J; Reisine, Susan

    2014-11-18

    Oral health literacy is important to oral health outcomes. Very little has been established on comparing word recognition to comprehension in oral health literacy especially in older adults. Our goal was to compare methods to measure oral health literacy in older adults by using the Rapid Estimate of Literacy in Dentistry (REALD-30) tool including word recognition and comprehension and by assessing comprehension of a brochure about dry mouth. 75 males and 75 females were recruited from the University of Connecticut Dental practice. Participants were English speakers and at least 50 years of age. They were asked to read the REALD-30 words out loud (word recognition) and then define them (comprehension). Each correctly-pronounced and defined word was scored 1 for total REALD-30 word recognition and REALD-30 comprehension scores of 0-30. Participants then read the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research brochure "Dry Mouth" and answered three questions defining dry mouth, causes and treatment. Participants also completed a survey on dental behavior. Participants scored higher on REALD-30 word recognition with a mean of 22.98 (SD = 5.1) compared to REALD-30 comprehension with a mean of 16.1 (SD = 4.3). The mean score on the brochure comprehension was 5.1 of a possible total of 7 (SD = 1.6). Pearson correlations demonstrated significant associations among the three measures. Multivariate regression showed that females and those with higher education had significantly higher scores on REALD-30 word-recognition, and dry mouth brochure questions. Being white was significantly related to higher REALD-30 recognition and comprehension scores but not to the scores on the brochure. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of using the REALD-30 and a brochure to assess literacy in a University setting among older adults. Participants had higher scores on the word recognition than on comprehension agreeing with other studies that recognition does

  3. Comparing diffuse optical tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging signals during a cognitive task: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martin, Estefania; Marcano, Francisco; Casanova, Oscar; Modroño, Cristian; Plata-Bello, Julio; González-Mora, Jose Luis

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) measures concentration changes in both oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin providing three-dimensional images of local brain activations. A pilot study, which compares both DOT and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) volumes through t-maps given by canonical statistical parametric mapping (SPM) processing for both data modalities, is presented. The DOT series were processed using a method that is based on a Bayesian filter application on raw DOT data to remove physiological changes and minimum description length application index to select a number of singular values, which reduce the data dimensionality during image reconstruction and adaptation of DOT volume series to normalized standard space. Therefore, statistical analysis is performed with canonical SPM software in the same way as fMRI analysis is done, accepting DOT volumes as if they were fMRI volumes. The results show the reproducibility and ruggedness of the method to process DOT series on group analysis using cognitive paradigms on the prefrontal cortex. Difficulties such as the fact that scalp-brain distances vary between subjects or cerebral activations are difficult to reproduce due to strategies used by the subjects to solve arithmetic problems are considered. T-images given by fMRI and DOT volume series analyzed in SPM show that at the functional level, both DOT and fMRI measures detect the same areas, although DOT provides complementary information to fMRI signals about cerebral activity.

  4. Comparative Assessment of Lixisenatide, Exenatide, and Liraglutide Pen Devices: A Pilot User-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Stauder, Udo; Enginee, Diplom; Elton, Hina; Penfornis, Alfred; Edelman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a relatively recent addition to the treatment options for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and are administered using prefilled pen devices. In this open-label task and interview-based pilot study, 3 GLP-1 receptor agonist pen devices-exenatide (Byetta(®), Bristol-Myers Squibb/AstraZeneca), liraglutide (Victoza(®), Novo Nordisk), and lixisenatide (Lyxumia(®), Sanofi-Aventis)-were comparatively assessed in a randomized order in 30 participants with T2DM for ease of use, using a series of key performance measures (time taken to complete a series of tasks, number of user errors [successful performance], and user satisfaction rating). Linear and logistic regression analysis was conducted for the lixisenatide and liraglutide pens versus the exenatide pen. Participants' mean age was 60 years; 27% and 20% of the participants had visual impairments and reduced manual dexterity, respectively. Tasks were completed faster (P < .001) and with higher successful performance (P = .001) with the lixisenatide pen than with the exenatide pen, whereas the liraglutide pen was not statistically significant versus the exenatide pen on these parameters. Overall, user satisfaction was statistically higher for the lixisenatide and liraglutide pens versus the exenatide pen (P < .001 for both). Lixisenatide and liraglutide pens are associated with higher user satisfaction compared with the exenatide pen. In addition, the lixisenatide pen is faster and results in fewer errors than its comparator (exenatide). The lixisenatide pen may therefore be a suitable choice for patients with T2DM, including older and pen device-naïve patients, and those with visual impairments and reduced manual dexterity. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. Vitamin D2 versus vitamin D3 supplementation in hemodialysis patients: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Daroux, Maïté; Shenouda, Milhad; Bacri, Jean-Louis; Lemaitre, Vincent; Vanhille, Philippe; Bataille, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease, vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent. It can be corrected by supplementation with either vitamin D(2) or vitamin D3. Recent studies in patients without impaired kidney function suggest that vitamin D(3) is more efficient than vitamin D(2) in correcting vitamin D insufficiency. However, no direct comparison has been made in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Thirty-nine HD patients with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels =20 ng/mL were enrolled in this comparative, prospective pilot study. They were divided into 3 groups and treated over a 3-month period. Each patient received oral doses of 200,000 international units (IU) vitamin D per month according to the following treatment schedule: (i) vitamin D(2) in small fractionated doses at each HD session, 3 times per week (group D2S); (ii) vitamin D(2) once a month (group D2M); or (iii) vitamin D(3) once a month (group D3M). Changes in serum 25(OH)D levels were measured at the end of the study. Posttreatment serum 25(OH)D levels increased significantly in all groups. The mean ± SD serum 25(OH)D value for group D3M patients (40 ± 13 ng/mL) was significantly higher than that for groups D2M (25 ± 9 ng/mL, p<0.01) and D2S patients (25 ± 9 ng/mL, p<0.01). Serum 25(OH)D increased to levels >30 ng/mL in 84% of group D3M patients, but in only 15% and 27% of group D2M and D2S subjects, respectively. Vitamin D(3) is more effective than vitamin D(2) in providing adequate 25(OH)D serum levels in HD patients.

  6. Randomized controlled pilot study to compare Homeopathy and Conventional therapy in Acute Otitis Media.

    PubMed

    Sinha, M N; Siddiqui, V A; Nayak, C; Singh, Vikram; Dixit, Rupali; Dewan, Deepti; Mishra, Alok

    2012-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of Homeopathy and Conventional therapy in Acute Otitis Media (AOM). A randomized placebo-controlled parallel group pilot study of homeopathic vs conventional treatment for AOM was conducted in Jaipur, India. Patients were randomized by a computer generated random number list to receive either individualized homeopathic medicines in fifty millesimal (LM) potencies, or conventional treatment including analgesics, antipyretics and anti-inflammatory drugs. Patients who did not improve were prescribed antibiotics at the 3rd day. Outcomes were assessed by the Acute Otitis Media-Severity of Symptoms (AOM-SOS) Scale and Tympanic Membrane Examination over 21 days. 81 patients were included, 80 completed follow-up: 41 for conventional and 40 for homeopathic treatment. In the Conventional group, all 40 (100%) patients were cured, in the Homeopathy group, 38 (95%) patients were cured while 02 (5%) patients were lost to the last two follow-up. By the 3rd day of treatment, 4 patients were cured in Homeopathy group but in Conventional group only one patient was cured. In the Conventional group antibiotics were prescribed in 39 (97.5%), no antibiotics were required in the Homeopathy group. 85% of patients were prescribed six homeopathic medicines. Individualized homeopathy is an effective conventional treatment in AOM, there were no significant differences between groups in the main outcome. Symptomatic improvement was quicker in the Homeopathy group, and there was a large difference in antibiotic requirements, favouring homeopathy. Further work on a larger scale should be conducted. Copyright © 2011 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative study of two antimicrobial dressings in infected leg ulcers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mosti, G; Magliaro, A; Mattaliano, V; Picerni, P; Angelotti, N

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of a microorganism-binding (MB) dressing with a silver-containing hydrofiber (SCH) dressing in controlling the bacterial loads of heavily colonised or locally infected chronic venous leg ulcers, before surgical management with homologous skin grafts. A randomised comparative single centre study recruited patients presenting with hard-to-heal critically colonised or locally infected leg ulcers, who could be treated with skin grafting. Inclusion criteria included; ulcers of vascular aetiology, over 18 years old, a wound duration ≥6 months and ankle brachial index (ABPI) >0.6. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with SCH dressings (Aquacel Ag) or MB dressing (Cutimed Sorbact). Dressings were changed daily over a four-day observation period, after which they were taken for a skin grafting procedure. Swab samples from ulcer beds were taken in order to quantify the bacterial load at inclusion (D0) and at the end of the observation period day 4 (D4). No antibiotics were administered before or during the evaluation period. Both groups (n=20 SCH, n=20 MB) were similar in gender, age, pathophysiology (both had 15 patients with venous leg ulcers and 5 with arterial leg ulcers), ulcer surface, ulcer duration, treatment-related pain and initial bacterial load. Analysing bacterial load variation showed a significant reduction of bacterial burden at D4 in both groups. In the SCH group, we found an average bacterial load reduction of 41.6%, with an average reduction of 73.1% in the MB group (p< 0.00001). No serious adverse events were reported. Our evaluation confirmed that MB and SCH dressings are effective in reducing the bacterial burden in critically colonised or locally infected chronic leg ulcers, without inducing adverse events, with MB dressings significantly more effective. There were no external sources of funding for this study. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

  8. Comparative study between two techniques for alveolar bone loss assessment: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Lira-Júnior, Ronaldo; Freires, Irlan de Almeida; de Oliveira, Isabelle LinsMacêdo; da Silva, Ennyo Sobral Crispim; da Silva, SeverinoCelestino; de Brito, Roberto Lira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a comparative study between two techniques for assessment of alveolar bone loss. Materials and Methods: Absolute and relative techniques were evaluated. The sample consisted of 16 radiographs supposed to meet a single criterion: The reference points applied (Cementum-enamel junction (CEJ) alveolar bone crest and root apex) should be visible. Bone height was measured in the selected radiographs as the percentage of root length through both techniques. Data were submitted to the Statistical Package for Social Science software. Results obtained by both methods were converted into bone loss index values and then categorized. Sensitivity and specificity of the relative technique, compared to the absolute technique, were calculated. Wilcoxon test and the Bland and Altman's method were employed for comparisons. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: For the absolute and relative techniques, means of bone loss index were respectively of 4.81 (±2.25) and 4.75 (±1.80). Bone loss index ≥6 (alveolar bone loss ≥50%) was found in 5 (31.2%) teeth, in the absolute technique, and in 4 (25%) teeth, according to the relative technique. There was no statistically significant difference between both methods (P>0.05). According to the Bland and Altman's method, it was verified a bias of 0.06, and limits of upper and lower agreement of, respectively, 1.58 and –1.45. Sensitivity of 0.8 and specificity of 1 were found for the relative technique compared to the absolute one. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between the techniques evaluated, and the relative technique was found to be reliable for measuring alveolar bone loss. PMID:23633780

  9. Autonomic dysfunction: A comparative study of patients with Alzheimer's and frontotemporal dementia – A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Issac, Thomas Gregor; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Gupta, Neelesh; Rukmani, Malligurki Raghurama; Deepika, S.; Sathyaprabha, T. N.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), central autonomic structures get affected early. An insight into autonomic functions in these patients is likely to be of diagnostic importance and thus help in prognosticating and also probably explain unexplained sudden death in some of these patients. Objectives: The objective of this study is to identify autonomic dysfunction prevailing in patients. Then, if there is dysfunction, is the pattern same or different in these two conditions. And if different it will serve as an additional biomarker for specific diagnosis. Patients and Methods: There were 25 patients and 25 controls and six patients and three controls in AD and FTD groups, respectively. The participants who were recruited were assessed for heart rate variability and conventional cardiac autonomic function testing. The parameters were analyzed using LabChart version 7 software and compared with control population using appropriate statistical methods using SPSS version 22 software. Results: The mean overall total power was low in the FTD group (P < 0.001), and there was significant reduction in the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals and root mean square of successive differences (P < 0.001) with elevated sympathovagal balance in the FTD group (P = 0.04). Patients with AD also showed sympathetic dominance, but there was in addition parasympathetic suppression unlike in the FTD group. Conclusion: This study reveals autonomic dysfunction in patients with FTD and AD. Both conditions show sympathetic dominance, probably consecutive to the involvement of central autonomic regulatory structures as a shared domain. It remains to be confirmed if these findings are the cause or effect of neurodegeneration and might open up newer territories of research based on the causal role of neurotransmitters in these regions and thus lead to novel therapeutic options such as yoga. The presence of parasympathetic suppression in AD in

  10. A pilot study using machine learning and domain knowledge to facilitate comparative effectiveness review updating.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Siddhartha R; Shekelle, Paul G; Hempel, Susanne; Newberry, Sydne J; Motala, Aneesa; Shetty, Kanaka D

    2013-04-01

    Comparative effectiveness and systematic reviews require frequent and time-consuming updating. of earlier screening should be useful in reducing the effort needed to screen relevant articles. We collected 16,707 PubMed citation classification decisions from 2 comparative effectiveness reviews: interventions to prevent fractures in low bone density (LBD) and off-label uses of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAP). We used previously written search strategies to guide extraction of a limited number of explanatory variables pertaining to the intervention, outcome, and We empirically derived statistical models (based on a sparse generalized linear model with convex penalties [GLMnet] and a gradient boosting machine [GBM]) that predicted article relevance. We evaluated model sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and screening workload reductions using 11,003 PubMed citations retrieved for the LBD and AAP updates. Results. GLMnet-based models performed slightly better than GBM-based models. When attempting to maximize sensitivity for all relevant articles, GLMnet-based models achieved high sensitivities (0.99 and 1.0 for AAP and LBD, respectively) while reducing projected screening by 55.4% and 63.2%. The GLMnet-based model yielded sensitivities of 0.921 and 0.905 and PPVs of 0.185 and 0.102 when predicting articles relevant to the AAP and LBD efficacy/effectiveness analyses, respectively (using a threshold of P ≥ 0.02). GLMnet performed better when identifying adverse effect relevant articles for the AAP review (sensitivity = 0.981) than for the LBD review (0.685). The system currently requires MEDLINE-indexed articles. We evaluated statistical classifiers that used previous classification decisions and explanatory variables derived from MEDLINE indexing terms to predict inclusion decisions. This pilot system reduced workload associated with screening 2 simulated comparative effectiveness review updates by more than 50% with minimal loss of relevant articles.

  11. Multimodal group rehabilitation compared to usual care for patients with chronic neck pain: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Julie Sarah; Ryan, Cormac Gerard

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to compare multimodal group rehabilitation to usual care physiotherapy for patients with chronic neck pain (CNP). Participants (n=14) were randomly assigned to one of two interventions, multimodal group rehabilitation or usual care physiotherapy. Multimodal group rehabilitation involved stability, strengthening and proprioceptive exercises along with an educational programme. Patients attended for 1h, once a week for six weeks. The usual care group was treated as deemed appropriate by their physiotherapist. A blinded assessor recorded baseline and post-intervention scores of disability and pain using the neck disability index (NDI) and the 0-10 pain numerical rating scale (NRS), respectively. One participant from each group dropped out before receiving any intervention. Post-intervention both groups significantly improved in both function and pain scores (p ≤ 0.01). The mean change in the NDI scores for the multimodal group versus the usual care group were 12.3 ± 5.3% and 7.4 ± 4.8%, and pain NRS score changes were 4.6 ± 2.3 and 4.5 ± 2.2, respectively. There was no significant difference in improvements in disability (p = 0.84) or pain (p = 0.67) between groups. These results warrant further investigation of multimodal group rehabilitation for CNP, and provide data to inform an appropriately powered full-scale RCT with long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Double-blind, randomized, controlled, pilot study comparing classic ayurvedic medicine, methotrexate, and their combination in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Furst, Daniel E; Venkatraman, Manorama M; McGann, Mary; Manohar, P Ram; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Sarin, Reshmi; Sekar, P G; Raveendran, K G; Mahapatra, Anita; Gopinath, Jidesh; Kumar, P R Krishna

    2011-06-01

    To compare classic Ayurveda, methotrexate (MTX), and their combination in a double-blind, randomized, double-dummy, pilot trial in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for 36 weeks. Forty-three seropositive RA patients by American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria with disease duration of less than 7 years were assigned to the following treatment groups: MTX plus Ayurvedic placebo (n = 14), Ayurveda plus MTX placebo (n = 12), or Ayurveda plus MTX (n = 17). Outcomes included the Disease Activity Score (DAS28-CRP), ACR20/50/70, and Health Assessment Questionnaire--Disability Index. All measures were obtained every 12 weeks for 36 weeks. Analyses included descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, χ², or Student t test. The unique features of this study included the development of placebos for each Ayurvedic pharmacological dosage form and individualization of Ayurvedic therapy. All groups were comparable at baseline in demographics and disease characteristics. There were no statistically significant differences among the 3 groups on the efficacy measures. ACR20 results were MTX 86%, Ayurveda 100%, and combination 82%, and DAS28-CRP response were MTX -2.4, Ayurveda -1.7, and combination -2.4. Differences in adverse events among groups were also not statistically significant, although the MTX groups experienced more adverse event (MTX 174, Ayurveda 112, combination 176). No deaths occurred. In this first-ever, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study comparing Ayurveda, MTX, and their combination, all 3 treatments were approximately equivalent in efficacy, within the limits of a pilot study. Adverse events were numerically fewer in the Ayurveda-only group. This study demonstrates that double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized studies are possible when testing individualized classic Ayurvedic versus allopathic treatment in ways acceptable to western standards and to Ayurvedic physicians. It also justifies the need for larger studies.

  13. Comparing counseling and dignity therapies in home care patients: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rudilla, David; Galiana, Laura; Oliver, Amparo; Barreto, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have successfully tested psychosocial interventions in palliative care patients. Counseling is the technique most often employed. Dignity therapy (DT) has recently emerged as a tool that can be utilized to address patients' needs at the end of life. The aims of our study were to examine the effects of DT and counseling and to offer useful information that could be put into practice to better meet patients' needs. We developed a pilot randomized controlled trial at the Home Care Unit of the General University Hospital of Valencia (Spain). Some 70 patients were assigned to two therapy groups. The measurement instruments employed included the Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS), the GES Questionnaire, the Duke-UNC-11 Functional Social Support Questionnaire, and two items from the EORTC Quality of Life C30 Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30). The results of repeated-measures t tests showed statistically significant differences with respect to the dimensions of dignity, anxiety, spirituality, and quality of life for both groups. However, depression increased in the DT group after the intervention, and there were no differences with respect to resilience. Therapy in the counseling group did not negatively affect depression, and resilience did improve. When post-intervention differences between groups were calculated, statistically significant differences in anxiety were found, with lower scores in the counseling group (t(68) = -2.341, p = 0.022, d = 0.560). Our study provided evidence for the efficacy of dignity therapy and counseling in improving the well-being of palliative home care patients, and it found better results in the counseling therapy group with respect to depression, resilience, and anxiety.

  14. Piloted rover technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrasher, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    This is the May 25, 1990 summary report for Space Transfer Concepts and Analyses (STCA) Study, special study task 9.1, Piloted Rovers Technology Study. Piloted rover concepts, mission scenarios, and the requirements necessary for completion of these missions resulting in the establishment of a lunar base. These tasks were intended to lead to a logical conclusion concerning which piloted rovers technologies are needed to accomplish the various missions, along with a recommended schedule for the development of these technologies.

  15. Student Achievement and Attitudes in a Pilot Study Comparing an Interactive Videodisc Simulation to Conventional Dissection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Richard T.; Kinzie, Mable B.

    1994-01-01

    Many assert that the use of animals for dissections in the secondary and undergraduate class is unnecessary. This article describes a study conducted to compare the attitudes and achievement of students who use interactive methods instead of conventional dissection. (ZWH)

  16. Effects of quetiapine and olanzapine in patients with psychosis and violent behavior: a pilot randomized, open-label, comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Gabriella; Comai, Stefano; Debonnel, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients suffering from psychosis are more likely than the general population to commit aggressive acts, but the therapeutics of aggressive behavior are still a matter of debate. Methods This pilot randomized, open-label study compared the efficacy of quetiapine versus olanzapine in reducing impulsive and aggressive behaviors (primary endpoints) and psychotic symptoms (secondary endpoints) from baseline to days 1, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70, in 15 violent schizophrenic patients hospitalized in a maximum-security psychiatric hospital. Results Quetiapine (525±45 mg) and olanzapine (18.5±4.8 mg) were both efficacious in reducing Impulsivity Rating Scale from baseline to day 70. In addition, both treatments reduced the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Clinical Global Impression Scale scores at day 70 compared to baseline, and no differences were observed between treatments. Moreover, quetiapine, but not olanzapine, yielded an improvement of depressive symptoms in the items “depression” in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and “blunted affect” in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Modified Overt Aggression Scale scores were also decreased from baseline to the endpoint, but due to the limited number of patients, it was not possible to detect a significant difference. Conclusion In this pilot study, quetiapine and olanzapine equally decreased impulsive and psychotic symptoms after 8 weeks of treatment. Double-blind, large studies are needed to confirm the validity of these two treatments in highly aggressive and violent schizophrenic patients. PMID:24855361

  17. Investigating the Efficacy of Practical Skill Teaching: A Pilot-Study Comparing Three Educational Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a…

  18. Investigating the Efficacy of Practical Skill Teaching: A Pilot-Study Comparing Three Educational Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a…

  19. A PILOT STUDY COMPARING TWO BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COLLECTION METHODS FOR BIOASSESSMENT OF WADEABLE STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study compared the results of collecting and analyzing macroinvertebrate data using a composite versus a three single sample method. It was conducted as part of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Indicator Development Project of the U.S. Environmenta...

  20. A Double-Blind Randomized Pilot Study Comparing Quetiapine and Divalproex for Adolescent Mania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbello, Melissa P.; Kowatch, Robert A.; Adler, Caleb M.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Barzman, Drew H.; Nelson, Erik; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the comparative efficacy of quetiapine and divalproex for the treatment of adolescent mania. Method: Fifty adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with bipolar I disorder, manic or mixed episode, were randomized to quetiapine (400-600 mg/day) or divalproex (serum level 80-120 [micro]g/mL) for 28 days for this double-blind study,…

  1. Comparing systemic therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Hunger, Christina; Hilzinger, Rebecca; Koch, Theresa; Mander, Johannes; Sander, Anja; Bents, Hinrich; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2016-03-31

    Social anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent anxiety disorders in the general population. The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorders is well demonstrated. However, only three studies point to the efficacy of systemic therapy (ST) in anxiety disorders, and only two of them especially focus on social anxiety disorders. These ST studies either do not use a good comparator but minimal supportive therapy, they do not use a multi-person ST but a combined therapy, or they do not especially focus on social anxiety disorders but mood and anxiety disorders in general. Though ST was approved as evidence based in Germany for a variety of disorders in 2008, evidence did not include anxiety disorders. This is the first pilot study that will investigate multi-person ST, integrating a broad range of systemic methods, specifically for social anxiety disorders and that will compare ST to the "gold standard" CBT. This article describes the rationale and protocol of a prospective, open, interventive, balanced, bi-centric, pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT). A total of 32 patients with a primary SCID diagnosis of social anxiety disorder will be randomized to either CBT or ST. Both treatments will be manualized. The primary outcome will include social anxiety symptoms at the end of therapy. Therapy will be restricted to no more than 26 hours (primary endpoint). Secondary outcomes will include psychological, social systems and interpersonal functioning, symptom adjustment, and caregiver burden, in addition to change measures, therapist variables and treatment adherence. At the secondary endpoints, 9 and 12 months after the beginning of therapy, we will again assess all outcomes. The study is expected to pilot test a RCT which will be the first to directly compare CBT and multi-person ST, integrating a broad range of systemic methods, for social anxiety disorders, and it will provide empirical evidence for the calculation of the number of

  2. Comparative cost analysis of inpatient integrative medicine-Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Thomas; Lauche, Romy; Cramer, Holger; Dobos, Gustav

    2017-06-01

    Costs of integrative treatment alone and in comparison with other treatment approaches have scarcely been reported in the past. This study presents results of a comparative cost analysis of an inpatient integrative medicine treatment costs. Data from 2006 for inpatients referred to a Department of Integrative Medicine in Germany were used. Case-related treatment costs were calculated, and transformed into Casemix-Indices and revenues per DRG. Costs were compared between departments at the same hospital and between different hospitals using univariate statistics and Chi-Square tests. In total 1253 inpatients (81.4% female, 61.1±14.4years) were included in the current analysis. Most patients were treated for diseases of the musculoskeletal system (57.2%), followed by diseases of the digestive system (11.4%), and diseases of the nervous system (10.4%). The department received an additional payment for most of the patients (88.0%), which led to an effective appreciation of 10.8% per case compared to the standardized Casemix-Index. In-house comparisons with other departments found the department in close vicinity to the departments of Internal medicine with regards to CMI and mean revenue, however the Patient Clinical Complexity Level was significantly lower in the Integrative medicine department. The interhospital comparison revealed comparable Casemix-Index and DRG-revenue, however the additional payment increased the mean revenue significantly. Modern integrative in-patient treatment is mostly cost-equivalent to conventional treatment. Cost effectiveness studies should be considered to further investigate the potential of integrative in patient treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Topical treatment of tinea pedis using 6% coriander oil in unguentum leniens: a randomized, controlled, comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Beikert, F C; Anastasiadou, Z; Fritzen, B; Frank, U; Augustin, M

    2013-01-01

    The antifungal activity of coriander oil has already been demonstrated in vitro. Evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of 6% coriander oil in unguentum leniens in the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis. Half-side comparative pilot study on subjects with symmetric, bilateral interdigital tinea pedis. Active drug and placebo control were applied twice daily on the affected areas, and follow-up visits were performed on days 14 and 28. 40 participants (mean age 52.5 years, 60% male) were included in the study. For 6% coriander oil in unguentum leniens, a highly significant improvement of the clinical signs (p < 0.0001) was observed during the entire observation period; the number of positive fungal cultures also tended to decrease (p = 0.0654). The tolerability of the tested substances was good. Coriander oil is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Comparative evaluation of two different vestibuloplasty surgical procedures in cleft patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Ana Lúcia Pompéia Fraga; Pedro, Patrícia Franco; Kogawa, Evelyn Mikaela; Pereira, Tatiana; de Barros Carrilho, Guilherme Paes; Aiello, Carlos Alberto; Freitas, Patrícia Zambonato

    2005-07-01

    Patients with a cleft lip or palate often present alterations in the labial aspect of the ridge, resulting in a shallow vestibule. This study compares the results of two different surgical procedures on deepening of the labial sulcus. Ten patients with a cleft lip and palate were separated into two groups and underwent different vestibuloplasty procedures. An experimental group used a removable retention splint. Preoperative and 4-month postoperative sulcus heights were measured and analyzed statistically. No statistically significant differences could be detected between groups. The results indicated that to reach consistent results, a larger number of patients must be submitted to this evaluation.

  5. Comparing routine neurorehabilitation program with trunk exercises based on Bobath concept in multiple sclerosis: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Keser, Ilke; Kirdi, Nuray; Meric, Aydin; Kurne, Asli Tuncer; Karabudak, Rana

    2013-01-01

    This study compared trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept with routine neurorehabilitation approaches in multiple sclerosis (MS). Bobath and routine neurorehabilitation exercises groups were evaluated. MS cases were divided into two groups. Both groups joined a 3 d/wk rehabilitation program for 8 wk. The experimental group performed trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept, and the control group performed routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Additionally, both groups performed balance and coordination exercises. All patients were evaluated with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) before and after the physiotherapy program. In group analysis, TIS, BBS, ICARS, and MSFC scores and strength of abdominal muscles were significantly different after treatment in both groups (p < 0.05). When the groups were compared, no significant differences were found in any parameters (p > 0.05). Although trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept are rarely applied in MS rehabilitation, the results of this study show that they are as effective as routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Therefore, trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept can be beneficial in MS rehabilitation programs.

  6. Pilot study comparing market orientation culture of businesses and schools of business.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Harry A; Webster, Robert L; Hammond, Kevin L

    2003-08-01

    A market orientation culture has been described as one that blends an organization's commitment to customer value with a process of continuously creating superior value for customers. Developing such a culture is further described as (1) obtaining information about customers, competitors, and markets, (2) examining the gathered information from a total organizational perspective, (3) deciding how to deliver superior customer value, and (4) implementing actions to provide value to customers. A market orientation culture focuses on the customer, identifies issues in the competitive environment, and coordinates all functional areas to achieve organizational objectives. Research has found businesses with higher market orientation are more successful in achieving organizational objectives. The measurement of market orientation within businesses has been empirically tested and validated. However, empirical research on market orientation in nonprofit organizations such as universities has not been examined. This study investigated market orientation within the university setting, specifically Schools of Business Administration, and compared these data with previously published data within the business sector. Data for comparative purposes were collected via a national survey. Hypothesis testing was conducted. Results indicated significantly lower market orientation culture within the schools of business as reported by AACSB Business School Deans vis-à-vis managers of business enterprises.

  7. Comparative effectiveness of CBT interventions for co-morbid chronic pain & insomnia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pigeon, Wilfred R; Moynihan, Jan; Matteson-Rusby, Sara; Jungquist, Carla R; Xia, Yinglin; Tu, Xin; Perlis, Michael L

    2012-11-01

    Chronic pain is difficult to treat and often precedes or exacerbates sleep disturbances such as insomnia. Insomnia, in turn, can amplify the pain experience. Both conditions are associated with inflammatory processes, which may be involved in the bi-directional relationship between pain and sleep. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for pain and CBT for insomnia are evidence based interventions for, respectively, chronic pain and insomnia. The study objectives were to determine the feasibility of combining CBT for pain and for insomnia and to assess the effects of the combined intervention and the stand alone interventions on pain, sleep, and mood outcomes compared to a control condition. Twenty-one adults with co-occurring chronic pain and chronic insomnia were randomized to either CBT for pain, CBT for insomnia, combined CBT for pain and insomnia, or a wait-list control condition. The combined CBT intervention was feasible to deliver and produced significant improvements in sleep, disability from pain, depression and fatigue compared to the control condition. Overall, the combined intervention appeared to have a strong advantage over CBT for pain on most outcomes, modest advantage over both CBT for insomnia in reducing insomnia severity in chronic pain patients. CBT for pain and CBT for insomnia may be combined with good results for patients with co-occurring chronic pain and insomnia. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Comparative Genomic Hybridization Selection of Blastocysts for Repeated Implantation Failure Treatment: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Ermanno; Bono, Sara; Ruberti, Alessandra; Lobascio, Anna Maria; Greco, Pierfrancesco; Biricik, Anil; Spizzichino, Letizia; Greco, Alessia; Tesarik, Jan; Minasi, Maria Giulia; Fiorentino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if the use of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and transfer of a single euploid blastocyst in patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF) can improve clinical results. Three patient groups are compared: 43 couples with RIF for whom embryos were selected by array CGH (group RIF-PGS), 33 couples with the same history for whom array CGH was not performed (group RIF NO PGS), and 45 good prognosis infertile couples with array CGH selected embryos (group NO RIF PGS). A single euploid blastocyst was transferred in groups RIF-PGS and NO RIF PGS. Array CGH was not performed in group RIF NO PGS in which 1-2 blastocysts were transferred. One monoembryonic sac with heartbeat was found in 28 patients of group RIF PGS and 31 patients of group NO RIF PGS showing similar clinical pregnancy and implantation rates (68.3% and 70.5%, resp.). In contrast, an embryonic sac with heartbeat was only detected in 7 (21.2%) patients of group RIF NO PGS. In conclusion, PGS by array CGH with single euploid blastocyst transfer appears to be a successful strategy for patients with multiple failed IVF attempts. PMID:24779011

  9. Electronic Cigarette and Electronic Hookah: A Pilot Study Comparing Two Vaping Products☆

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Shanta R.; Pathak, Sarita; Nyman, Amy L.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of e-cigarettes into the U.S. market, the number and variety of vaping products have proliferated. E-hookahs are long, pen-like vaping devices that debuted in U.S. markets in 2014. By applying the Host, Agent, Vector, Environment (HAVE) model, the objective of this exploratory study was to assess differences between e-cigarettes and e-hookahs to help inform tobacco regulatory science and practice. In June–August 2014, a total of 54 unique manufactured e-cigarette and e-hookah products were identified at point of sales (POS) around three college campuses in Southeast U.S. Documented characteristics included brand name, disposable, rechargeable, nicotine containing, packaging, and flavor type. Descriptive analyses were conducted October to November 2014 to assess frequency and percent of product type across POS and specific characteristics. Among 54 products, 70.4% was e-cigarettes and 29.6% was e-hookahs. Across POS, drug stores and grocery stores carried e-cigarettes exclusively, while gas stations carried the greatest proportion of e-hookahs. Compared to e-hookahs, a greater proportion of e-cigarettes were non-disposable and contained nicotine; a greater proportion of e-hookahs came in fruit and other types of flavors compared to e-cigarettes. The present study suggests that e-cigarettes and e-hookahs differ by specific product characteristics and by places where they are sold. Despite these differences, the products are used for similar purposes warranting careful monitoring of industry manufacturing and marketing, because the safety of both products is still undetermined. Additional research is needed to understand the uptake and continued use of these products. PMID:26740911

  10. Sleep Quality: A Pilot Study Comparing Patients With and Without Injection-Related Venous Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Barbara; Templin, Thomas N

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) compare sleep quality of persons with and without injection-related venous ulcers (VU) and (b) examine associations between global sleep quality with age, sex, comorbidities, pain, nutrition, physical health rating, fatigue, emotional problems, health-related quality of life, attitude toward physical activity, and number of ulcers. This study used a cross-sectional design. The participants included 31 patients with VU and 30 without VU (men [n = 35] and women; mean age = 54 years) who were attending an indigent clinic for wound care or general health. Participants were recruited from an urban clinic when they came for primary care or wound care. Questionnaires were administered at that time and included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Mini Nutrition Assessment, Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) questions about general physical health, fatigue, emotional problems, and quality of life, Brief Pain Inventory worst pain rating, Positive Attitude and Motivation for Physical Activity Scale, wound assessment, and demographic factors. The 2 groups did not differ on the PSQI in terms of time going to bed, minutes to fall asleep, time awakening, hours slept, and time in bed. Those with VU compared to without VU took more medications to help sleep (P≤ .03). There were no significant differences in PSQI correlations across groups. All study variables except age, gender, and quality of life were significantly related to Global sleep disturbance score. A higher number of comorbid conditions, worse pain, poorer nutrition, poor physical health rating, greater fatigue, more emotional problems, and poor attitude toward physical activity were related to greater sleep disturbances for all participants. Both groups had mean Global PSQI scores greater than 5 (with VU = 7.83 and without VU = 8.2), indicating sleep problems. Study findings suggest that sleep disturbances may be a concern in persons with VU

  11. A pilot study of myofascial release therapy compared to Swedish massage in Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Liptan, Ginevra; Mist, Scott; Wright, Cheryl; Arzt, Anna; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2017-01-01

    Summary Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread muscle pain and soft tissue tenderness. However, a lack of definitive muscle pathology has made FM both a diagnostic and a treatment puzzle. Much of the evidence for pathology in FM lies in the central nervous system – in particular abnormal amplification of pain signals in the spinal cord – a manifestation of central sensitization. An emerging body of evidence posits that peripheral pain generated from the muscles and fascia may trigger and maintain central sensitization in FM. Since FM patients so frequently seek manual therapy to relieve muscle symptoms, the present study compared two different manual therapy techniques in a parallel study of women with FM. Eight subjects received myofascial release (MFR) while four subjects received Swedish massage, 90 min weekly for four weeks. Overall symptom burden and physical function were assessed by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised (FIQ-R). A unique challenge for the manual therapist in treating conditions involving central sensitization is to determine if localized pain reduction can be achieved with targeted therapy in the context of ongoing widespread pain. Localized pain improvement was measured by a novel questionnaire developed for this study, the modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Between-group differences in FIQ-R did not reach statistical significance, but the total change scores on FIQ-R for the MFR group (mean = 10.14, SD = 16.2) trended in the hypothesized and positive direction compared to the Swedish massage group (mean = 0.33, SD = 4.93) yielding a positive Aikin separation test. Although overall modified NMQ scores improved in both groups there were no consistent focal areas of improvement for the Swedish massage group. In contrast, the MFR group reported consistent pain reductions in the neck and upper back regions on the NMQ. These data support the need for larger randomized controlled trials of MFR versus other

  12. A pilot study of myofascial release therapy compared to Swedish massage in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Liptan, Ginevra; Mist, Scott; Wright, Cheryl; Arzt, Anna; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2013-07-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread muscle pain and soft tissue tenderness. However, a lack of definitive muscle pathology has made FM both a diagnostic and a treatment puzzle. Much of the evidence for pathology in FM lies in the central nervous system - in particular abnormal amplification of pain signals in the spinal cord - a manifestation of central sensitization. An emerging body of evidence posits that peripheral pain generated from the muscles and fascia may trigger and maintain central sensitization in FM. Since FM patients so frequently seek manual therapy to relieve muscle symptoms, the present study compared two different manual therapy techniques in a parallel study of women with FM. Eight subjects received myofascial release (MFR) while four subjects received Swedish massage, 90 min weekly for four weeks. Overall symptom burden and physical function were assessed by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised (FIQ-R). A unique challenge for the manual therapist in treating conditions involving central sensitization is to determine if localized pain reduction can be achieved with targeted therapy in the context of ongoing widespread pain. Localized pain improvement was measured by a novel questionnaire developed for this study, the modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Between-group differences in FIQ-R did not reach statistical significance, but the total change scores on FIQ-R for the MFR group (mean = 10.14, SD = 16.2) trended in the hypothesized and positive direction compared to the Swedish massage group (mean = 0.33, SD = 4.93) yielding a positive Aikin separation test. Although overall modified NMQ scores improved in both groups there were no consistent focal areas of improvement for the Swedish massage group. In contrast, the MFR group reported consistent pain reductions in the neck and upper back regions on the NMQ. These data support the need for larger randomized controlled trials of MFR versus other

  13. Reasons for adherence and nonadherence: a pilot study comparing first- and multi-episode schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Sapra, Mamta; Weiden, Peter J; Schooler, Nina R; Sunakawa-McMillan, Ayako; Uzenoff, Sarah; Burkholder, Page

    2014-01-01

    Most first-episode schizophrenia patients will stop their medication after their acute symptoms improve. Understanding the salient motivations and attitudes that drive adherence--as well as nonadherence--is an important part of developing strategies to prevent or delay nonadherence during the early phases of the illness. Self-reported reasons for adherence and nonadherence among first-episode and multi-episode patients with schizophrenia were obtained from cross-sectional adherence interviews from two prospective adherence studies: one composed of a first-episode sample (n=33) and the other with recently relapsing multi-episode patients (n=16). Both groups received the Rating of Medication Influences (ROMI) Scale at approximately 16 to 20 weeks after an acute psychotic episode. The specific ROMI items were ranked in order of percentage (%) strong, and were compared both within each patient group for rank order of importance, and also compared between groups to determine the differences in specific adherence and nonadherence influences. The doctor-patient relationship was more likely to be endorsed as a strong adherence influence in the first-episode sample (74%) than in the multi-episode sample (13%, X²=18.07, p<.01). Change in physical appearance attributed to medication was a more commonly endorsed nonadherence influence for the multi-episode sample (25%) relative to the first-episode sample (0%, X²=9.2, p<.01). The doctor-patient relationship stands out as being the major reason for ongoing adherence for first-episode schizophrenia patients. Our post hoc interpretation is that lack of prior experience with medication and treatment elevates the importance of the relationship with the treating clinician for first-episode patients.

  14. Midazolam premedication in children: a pilot study comparing intramuscular and intranasal administration.

    PubMed

    Lam, Christy; Udin, Richard D; Malamed, Stanley F; Good, David L; Forrest, Jane L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of intramuscular and intranasal midazolam used as a premedication before intravenous conscious sedation. Twenty-three children who were scheduled to receive dental treatment under intravenous sedation participated. The patients ranged in age from 2 to 9 years (mean age, 5.13 years) and were randomly assigned to receive a dose of 0.2 mg/kg of midazolam premedication via either intramuscular or intranasal administration. All patients received 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen inhalation sedation and local anesthetic (0.2 mL of 4% prilocaine hydrochloride) before venipuncture. The sedation level, movement, and crying were evaluated at the following time points: 10 minutes after drug administration and at the times of parental separation, passive papoose board restraint, nitrous oxide nasal hood placement, local anesthetic administration, and initial venipuncture attempt. Mean ratings for the behavioral parameters of sedation level, degree of movement, and degree of crying were consistently higher but not significant in the intramuscular midazolam group at all 6 assessment points. Intramuscular midazolam was found to be statistically more effective in providing a better sedation level and less movement at the time of venipuncture than intranasal administration. Our findings indicate a tendency for intramuscular midazolam to be more effective as a premedication before intravenous sedation.

  15. Midazolam Premedication in Children: A Pilot Study Comparing Intramuscular and Intranasal Administration

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Christy; Udin, Richard D; Malamed, Stanley F; Good, David L; Forrest, Jane L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of intramuscular and intranasal midazolam used as a premedication before intravenous conscious sedation. Twenty-three children who were scheduled to receive dental treatment under intravenous sedation participated. The patients ranged in age from 2 to 9 years (mean age, 5.13 years) and were randomly assigned to receive a dose of 0.2 mg/kg of midazolam premedication via either intramuscular or intranasal administration. All patients received 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen inhalation sedation and local anesthetic (0.2 mL of 4% prilocaine hydrochloride) before venipuncture. The sedation level, movement, and crying were evaluated at the following time points: 10 minutes after drug administration and at the times of parental separation, passive papoose board restraint, nitrous oxide nasal hood placement, local anesthetic administration, and initial venipuncture attempt. Mean ratings for the behavioral parameters of sedation level, degree of movement, and degree of crying were consistently higher but not significant in the intramuscular midazolam group at all 6 assessment points. Intramuscular midazolam was found to be statistically more effective in providing a better sedation level and less movement at the time of venipuncture than intranasal administration. Our findings indicate a tendency for intramuscular midazolam to be more effective as a premedication before intravenous sedation. PMID:16048152

  16. Investigating the efficacy of practical skill teaching: a pilot-study comparing three educational methods.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Stephen; Storr, Michael; Paynter, Sophie; Morgan, Prue; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-03-01

    Effective education of practical skills can alter clinician behaviour, positively influence patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of patient harm. This study compares the efficacy of two innovative practical skill teaching methods, against a traditional teaching method. Year three pre-clinical physiotherapy students consented to participate in a randomised controlled trial, with concealed allocation and blinded participants and outcome assessment. Each of the three randomly allocated groups were exposed to a different practical skills teaching method (traditional, pre-recorded video tutorial or student self-video) for two specific practical skills during the semester. Clinical performance was assessed using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The students were also administered a questionnaire to gain the participants level of satisfaction with the teaching method, and their perceptions of the teaching methods educational value. There were no significant differences in clinical performance between the three practical skill teaching methods as measured in the OSCE, or for student ratings of satisfaction. A significant difference existed between the methods for the student ratings of perceived educational value, with the teaching approaches of pre-recorded video tutorial and student self-video being rated higher than 'traditional' live tutoring. Alternative teaching methods to traditional live tutoring can produce equivalent learning outcomes when applied to the practical skill development of undergraduate health professional students. The use of alternative practical skill teaching methods may allow for greater flexibility for both staff and infrastructure resource allocation.

  17. Targeting clinician concerns about exposure therapy: A pilot study comparing standard vs. enhanced training.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Nicholas R; Kemp, Joshua J; Blakey, Shannon M; Meyer, Johanna M; Deacon, Brett J

    2016-10-01

    Owing to concerns about the safety and tolerability of exposure therapy, many clinicians deliver the treatment in an overly cautious manner, which may limit its effectiveness. Although didactic training in exposure reduces clinician concerns about the treatment to a moderate extent, improved training strategies are needed to minimize these concerns and improve exposure delivery. The present study compared the effectiveness of a standard (i.e., didactic) exposure therapy training model to an "enhanced" training paradigm encompassing strategies derived from social-cognitive theory on attitude change. Clinicians (N = 49) were assigned to one of the two training approaches. Relative to standard training, clinicians who received enhanced training showed: (a) significantly greater reductions in concerns about exposure from pre- to post-training, and (b) superior self-reported delivery of the treatment. Reduction in concerns during training mediated the effects of training condition on clinicians' self-reported exposure delivery. These findings underscore the importance of addressing clinician concerns about exposure therapy in training contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A pilot study comparing the outcome of scaling/root planing with and without Perioscope™ technology.

    PubMed

    Blue, Christine M; Lenton, Patricia; Lunos, Scott; Poppe, Kjersta; Osborn, Joy

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of a periodontal endoscope improves periodontal outcomes of scaling/root planing when compared to scaling/root planing alone. Thirty subjects with moderate periodontitis were recruited from the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry. Of these, 26 completed the study. A randomized split mouth design was used to evaluate periodontal outcomes at 6 to 8 weeks and 3 month intervals after sites within 2 quadrants of each subject were scaled and root planed with or without the use of the Perioscope™. Paired t-tests were used to test whether there were within-patient differences in improvement between Perioscope™ and non-Perioscope™ sites as measured by periodontal measurements (probing depth, clinical attachment level) and indices of gingival inflammation, including bleeding on probing (BOP) and gingival inflammation (GI). P-values less than 0.05 were declared to be statistically significant. Less BOP and GI were found in the Perioscope™ sites at visit 1 and visit 2. Reduction in pocket depth and clinical attachment loss was achieved for all sites but probing depth and clinical attachment level changes were found to be unrelated to the use of the Perioscope™. Mean probing depth (SD) was reduced from 5.29 mm (0.4) to 3.55 mm (0.8) in the Perioscope™ sites and 5.39 mm (0.5) to 3.83 mm (1.2) in non-Perioscope™ sites from baseline measurements to visit 2. The adjunctive use of the periodontal endoscope improved periodontal outcomes with respect to gingival inflammation and bleeding upon probing. The adjunctive use of the Perioscope™ was not found to be superior to traditional scaling and root planing with regard to pocket depth reduction and clinical attachment loss.

  19. A Pilot Study Comparing Two Field Tests with the Treadmill Run Test in Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Tan, Frankie H. Y.; Teh, Kong Chuan

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the performances obtained during soccer-specific field tests of the 20 m multistage shuttle run test (MST) and the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (YIET), with the measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) obtained in both field tests as well as that obtained in the traditional test of running to exhaustion on a treadmill (TRT), in young trained soccer players. Twenty-one National-level youth players performed, in random order, the MST and YIET to determine the relationship between the two field tests. From these, eight randomly chosen players performed their field tests as well as a TRT, equipped with an ambulatory gas exchange measurement device. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis showed that the players’ performance (i.e. distance covered) in the MST and YIET was correlated (r = 0.65, p < 0.01). Players’ performance in the YIET was not significantly correlated with the measured VO2max obtained in the same YIET nor with the measured VO2max obtained in the MST and in the TRT (all p > 0.05). In contrast, significant correlations were observed between the players’ performance in the MST with the measured VO2max obtained in the same MST and in the YIET (both p < 0.05); and attained almost statistical significance with the measured VO2max in the TRT (p = 0.06). The lack of association between distances covered in the YIET with all the measured VO2max values suggest that measured VO2max per se may not be suitable to characterize soccer players’ intermittent endurance performance. In comparison with the MST, the YIET may be a more favourable field-based assessment of soccer player’s endurance performance. Key PointsBoth the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test and 20m multistage shuttle run test are valid measures of aerobic exertion in soccer playersMeasured VO2max per se may not be suitable to characterize soccer players’ intermittent endurance performance.In comparison with the MST, the YIET may be a more favourable field

  20. Comparing culturally accommodated versus standard group CBT for Latino adolescents with substance use disorders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J; Wrona, Megan

    2012-10-01

    Studies comparing empirically supported substance abuse treatments versus their culturally accommodated counterparts with participants from a specific ethnic minority group are lacking in the literature. To address this gap, this pilot study was conducted to compare the feasibility and relative efficacy of an empirically supported standard version of cognitive-behavioral substance abuse treatment (S-CBT) to a culturally accommodated version (A-CBT) with a sample of Latino adolescents. This study was guided by a Cultural Accommodation Model for Substance Abuse Treatment (CAM-SAT). Thirty-five Latino adolescents (mean age = 15.49) were randomly assigned to one of two 12-week group-based treatment conditions (S-CBT = 18; A-CBT = 17) with assessments conducted at pretreatment, posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. Results indicated similar retention and satisfaction rates for participants in both treatment conditions. In addition, participants in both conditions demonstrated significant decreases in substance use from pre- to posttreatment with slight increases at 3-month follow-up; however, substance use outcomes were moderated by two cultural variables: ethnic identity and familism. Implications of these findings within the context of conducting clinical trials with Latino adolescents are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy for somatic symptom disorders in later life: a prospective comparative explorative pilot study in two clinical populations.

    PubMed

    Verdurmen, Michelle Jh; Videler, Arjan C; Kamperman, Astrid M; Khasho, David; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2017-01-01

    Elderly patients with somatic symptom disorder (SSD) put a great burden on the health care delivery system. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in adults with SSD. However, no studies have been conducted yet into CBT for SSD in later life. We explored the feasibility of CBT for SSD in the elderly. This is a prospective pilot study comparing two outpatient specialty mental health settings for adults (<60 years; n=13) and for elderly patients (≥60 years; n=9) with SSD. Intervention was 18 structured, protocoled, and supervised CBT sessions. Outcomes were somatic symptoms, pain intensity, pain disability, quality of life, depressive symptoms, and generalized anxiety symptoms. Feasibility of the CBT intervention was explored with self-developed questions, both for the therapists and the patients. Both therapists and elderly patients evaluated the treatment as positive. Somatic symptoms improved significantly in the adult group but not in the elderly group. There was a large, significant decrease in pain intensity and pain disability in elderly patients compared to the adults. Social functioning, vitality, and anxiety symptoms improved significantly in the adults. Presence of chronic medical conditions did not influence these results. This study shows that CBT is feasible as a treatment for SSD in older adults and has encouraging results. Replication in an RCT is warranted.

  2. A Pilot Study Comparing Two Nonword Repetition Tasks for Use in a Formal Test Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tattersall, Patricia J.; Nelson, Nickola Wolf; Tyler, Ann A.

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of nonwords (with and without true morphemes) were compared for their ability to differentiate students in Grades 1 through 12 with and without language impairment (36 each; N = 72) on a nonword repetition task. Results indicated that either nonword type could contribute to differential diagnosis.

  3. A Pilot Study Comparing Two Nonword Repetition Tasks for Use in a Formal Test Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tattersall, Patricia J.; Nelson, Nickola Wolf; Tyler, Ann A.

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of nonwords (with and without true morphemes) were compared for their ability to differentiate students in Grades 1 through 12 with and without language impairment (36 each; N = 72) on a nonword repetition task. Results indicated that either nonword type could contribute to differential diagnosis.

  4. Evaluation of computer-assisted jaw reconstruction with free vascularized fibular flap compared to conventional surgery: a clinical pilot study.

    PubMed

    Modabber, Ali; Legros, Christina; Rana, Majeed; Gerressen, Marcus; Riediger, Dieter; Ghassemi, Alireza

    2012-06-01

    The introduction of computer-assisted surgery was a milestone in functional reconstructions of facial skeletal defects. We compared five computer-assisted and five conventional reconstructions with fibular grafts in the course of a pilot study. A rapid prototyping guide translated the computer-assisted surgery plan into intraoperative utilizable models. We intraoperatively measured the time needed for shaping the graft to the recipient site and the ischaemic time. Furthermore, the size of donor site defect compared to the required transplant length was evaluated. Shaping procedure and ischaemic time turned out significantly shorter when compared to conventional surgery without cutting guide (p = 0.014). Using surgical guides, there was no change between the defect size of the fibula and the necessary transplant size. In conventional surgery, a mean change of 1.92 cm occurred (p = 0.001). The surgical guide significantly reduced shaping time and consequently ischaemic time. These factors can influence flap survival. The fibular donor site defect was downsized. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Improved Team Performance During Pediatric Resuscitations After Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice Compared With Traditional Debriefing: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Daniel S; Fielder, Elaine K; Hsu, Deborah C; Doughty, Cara B

    2016-10-06

    Simulation-based medical education (SBME) improves medical knowledge compared with no intervention. In traditional SBME, more time is spent debriefing than practicing skills. Rapid cycle deliberate practice (RCDP) simulation allows learners to practice skills repetitively, receive brief interspersed feedback, and has been shown to improve individual performance of resuscitation skills in simulation; it has not been compared with traditional simulation methods. The aim of the study was to compare traditional and RCDP SBME. Four pediatric resuscitation cases (3 for teaching and 1 for testing) were developed. For the RCDP arm, traditional cases were deconstructed into sequences of progressively difficult rounds. The last RCDP round served as the traditional arm scenario.Learners received 1 type of instruction on 2 separate days. Pretest and posttest performance during simulation were video recorded and scored using the Simulation Team Assessment Tool; satisfaction surveys were collected. Pretest team performance was similar in both groups. Simulation Team Assessment Tool score improvement for RCDP was 7.2% (95% confidence interval, 3.4% to 11%) and traditional was 0.8% (95% confidence interval, -11% to 13%). The difference in improvement of the human factors subscore was statistically significant; RCDP improved 10.2% and traditional improved 1.7% (P = 0.013). The RCDP technique was well received by learners but caused fatigue. This pilot study showed a trend toward greater improvement in team performance and significantly greater improvement for human factors with RCDP compared with traditional simulation. Future studies comparing RCDP with other methods are needed to identify best practices and applications of RCDP, including which learners and learning objectives are best suited to RCDP.

  6. A pilot study comparing in vitro efficacy of topical preparations against veterinary pathogens.

    PubMed

    Uri, Maarja; Buckley, Laura M; Marriage, Louise; McEwan, Neil; Schmidt, Vanessa M

    2016-06-01

    Topical antimicrobial agents are important for the management of cutaneous infections. For topical antimicrobial agents, in vitro efficacy data are limited. To determine and compare the minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations (MBCs/MFCs) of several topical antimicrobial agents against veterinary pathogens. Two chlorhexidine, two oxychlorine based products (NaOCl & HOCl) lime sulfur (LS), manuka honey (MH) and hydrocortisone aceponate (HCA) were tested against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinical isolates: meticillin susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP), qac A/B carrying MSSP, antimicrobial susceptible and extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Malassezia pachydermatis. The MBCs/MFCs were measured, where available, using a broth microdilution method; isolates were incubated for 3 and 10 min. Chlorhexidine and isopropyl alcohol (Chl(1) ) showed significantly lower MBCs (0.46 mg/L -937.50 mg/L, P = 0.027) compared to chlorhexidine and climbazole (Chl², 58.59 mg/L-1875 mg/L). NaOCl and HOCl showed excellent antimicrobial activity with HOCl having significantly lower MBCs compared to NaOCl (0.03 mg/L-1.72 mg/L and 0.03 mg/L-1.95 mg/L, respectively, P = 0.042). The detectable MBCs for LS and HCA were high, being close to the starting concentration (5,000 mg/L and 146 mg/L, respectively). The MBC/MFC for MH was not detectable. Amongst all test products there was no significant effect of contact time or isolate resistance status. Chlorhexidine, NaOCl and HOCl demonstrated low MBCs against tested organisms, suggesting potential in vivo efficacy. The selection of an appropriate antimicrobial agent, however, cannot be based exclusively upon MBC/MFC data; other factors should be considered. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. A Pilot Comparative Study of 26 Biochemical Markers in Seminal Plasma and Serum in Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Rui-Xiang; Lu, Jin-Chun; Zhang, Hong-Ye; Lü, Nian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The relationships of the biochemical components in seminal plasma and serum, and their origins and physiological effects in male reproductive system have been poorly understood. Methods. Based on the calibration and quality control measures, 26 biochemical markers, in seminal plasma and serum samples from 36 male infertility patients with nonazoospermia were detected and compared. Results. Only PA was undetectable in all seminal plasma samples. There were significant differences of all other 24 biochemical markers in seminal plasma and serum (P < 0.05) except for UA (P = 0.214). There were rich proteins in seminal plasma, and globulin accounted for about 90%. There were also abundant enzymes in seminal plasma, and the activities of ALT, AST, AKP, GGT, LDH, CK, and αHBDH in seminal plasma were significantly higher than those in serum while ADA was inversely lower. There were relatively low levels of Glu, TG, TC, and hsCRP in seminal plasma, but Glu was undetectable in 8 of 36 cases. Conclusions. The differences of the levels of biochemical markers in seminal plasma and serum might be associated with the selective secretion of testis, epididymis and male accessory glands, and the specific environment needed for sperm metabolism and function maintenance. PMID:26539526

  8. Efficacy of Selected Electrical Therapies on Chronic Low Back Pain: A Comparative Clinical Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rajfur, Joanna; Pasternok, Małgorzata; Rajfur, Katarzyna; Walewicz, Karolina; Fras, Beata; Bolach, Bartosz; Dymarek, Robert; Rosinczuk, Joanna; Halski, Tomasz; Taradaj, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Background In the currently available research publications on electrical therapy of low back pain, generally no control groups or detailed randomization were used, and such studies were often conducted with relatively small groups of patients, based solely on subjective questionnaires and pain assessment scales (lacking measurement methods to objectify the therapeutic progress). The available literature also lacks a comprehensive and large-scale clinical study. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of treating low back pain using selected electrotherapy methods. The study assesses the influence of individual electrotherapeutic treatments on reduction of pain, improvement of the range of movement in lower section of the spine, and improvement of motor functions and mobility. Material/Methods The 127 patients qualified for the therapy (ultimately, 123 patients completed the study) and assigned to 6 comparison groups: A – conventional TENS, B – acupuncture-like TENS, C – high-voltage electrical stimulation, D – interferential current stimulation, E – diadynamic current, and F – control group. Results The research showed that using electrical stimulation with interferential current penetrating deeper into the tissues results in a significant and more efficient elimination of pain, and an improvement of functional ability of patients suffering from low back pain on the basis of an analysis of both subjective and objective parameters. The TENS currents and high voltage were helpful, but not as effective. The use of diadynamic currents appears to be useless. Conclusions Selected electrical therapies (interferential current, TENS, and high voltage) appear to be effective in treating chronic low back pain. PMID:28062862

  9. Comparing Self-Injection Teaching Strategies for Patients With Breast Cancer and Their Caregivers: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Cartlidge, Erica; Romanoff, Sonya; Thom, Bridgette; Burrows Walters, Chasity

    2016-10-01

    A prospective, quasiexperimental pilot study with a sequential design was performed to compare two methods of teaching self-injection. The study examined 50 patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant or neoadjuvant treatment and their caregivers to determine if simulation during the teaching experience affects patient/caregiver satisfaction, worry, and self-confidence, as well as nurse satisfaction. Structured questionnaires were administered before the teaching, immediately after the teaching, and after the injection was performed at home. Nurses who performed the teaching also completed a questionnaire after the teaching. Use of simulation did not affect patient/caregiver satisfaction, worry, or self-confidence. The largest impact on learner worry was the actual teaching experience, regardless of the methodology used. Nurses reported greater levels of satisfaction when simulation was part of the teaching. Patient/caregiver satisfaction with the teaching experience decreased after performing the injection at home. Additional research is needed to identify the best methodology for teaching patients and caregivers self-injection. Data from this study revealed that the addition of simulation during teaching does not always translate to better education. In addition, based on patient/caregiver reports, no substitution exists for actual injection administration.

  10. [Mindfulness-based stimulation in advanced Alzheimer's disease: A comparative, non-inferiority, clinical pilot study].

    PubMed

    Quintana Hernández, Domingo Jesús; Miró Barrachina, María Teresa; Ibáñez Fernández, Ignacio; Santana del Pino, Angelo; Rojas Hernández, Jaime; Rodríguez García, Javier; Quintana Montesdeoca, María del Pino

    2015-01-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted in order to analyze the feasibility, safety, and effects of the practice of mindfulness, relaxation and cognitive stimulation on the evolution of Alzheimer's disease, with the aim of testing the equivalence of these interventions. There were a total of 168 participants with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) treated with donepezil. In the present article, the 21 participants with advanced AD who completed a follow-up period of 24 months are presented. The participants were grouped into three experimental groups (mindfulness, relaxation, and cognitive stimulation) and one control group. Each group carried out three weekly sessions with bi-annual follow-up measurements (cognition: CAMCOG and MMSE; functionality: RDRS; psychopathology: NPI). Non-parametric analyses were performed. The cognitive function and functionality scores showed no significant differences between the groups. However, the scores in cognitive function of the mindfulness group and the cognitive stimulation group did not decrease in an intra-group analysis. In NPI, there were significant differences between the mindfulness group and the control group by the end of the study (P<.017). The data showed that the treatment with donepezil in combination with mindfulness or cognitive stimulation presented a better clinical evolution than the pharmacological treatment alone or combined with relaxation. These data suggest that these therapeutic alternatives should be investigated further, and that the non-pharmacological treatments should be recommended in clinical practice in order to control the evolution of AD in the long term. In order to confirm these findings, a larger study is necessary. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Personality disorders in alcoholics: a comparative pilot study between the IPDE and the MCMI-II.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Landa, Natalia; López-Goñi, José J; Lorea, Iñaki

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, the most frequent personality disorders (PDs) related to alcoholism are described. 105 participants took part in the study (50 consecutively recruited treatment-seeking alcoholics and 55 subjects from the general population). All subjects were assessed with the IPDE and the MCMI-II. According to the results in the IPDE, 22% of alcoholics, versus 7.27% of the normal sample, showed at least one PD. The most prevalent PDs were the Avoidance personality disorder (10%), followed by the Non-specified (8%) and Borderline (6%). When the MCMI-II was used a significantly higher prevalence of PDs was observed (52% in alcoholics and 18.1% in the normal sample), without coincidence in the kind of PDs diagnosed. This lack of consistency is probably related to the assessment tools, mainly the IPDE, which is more accurate and conservative than self-report inventories, which present a tendency for over-diagnosis.

  12. Onset of mandible and tibia osteoradionecrosis – a comparative pilot study in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Damek-Poprawa, Monika; Both, Stefan; Wright, Alexander C.; Maity, Amit; Akintoye, Sunday O.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is common in the jaws following radiotherapy. We hypothesized that mandible is more susceptible to ORN than tibia based on site-disparity in hypoxic-hypocellular-hypovascular tissue breakdown. Study Design Twelve rats received 50 Gy irradiation to mandible or tibia; 4 of 12 rats further received minor surgical trauma to the irradiated sites. Structural and cellular skeletal changes were assessed with computer tomography, histology and immunostaining. Results Mandible developed ORN with 70% mean bone loss 10 weeks post-irradiation (p < 0.05) while tibia was structurally and radiological intact for 20 weeks post-irradiation. Hypocellularity, hypoxia and oxidative stress were higher in irradiated mandible (p < 0.001) than tibia (p < 0.01) but vascular damage was similar at both skeletal sites. Combined effects of radiation and minor trauma promoted mandibular alveolar bone loss and tibial fracture Conclusion ORN has a more rapid onset in mandible relative to tibia in the rat PMID:23254371

  13. Low Motor Assessment: A Comparative Pilot Study with Young Children With and Without Motor Impairment.

    PubMed

    Ruiter, Selma Anne José; Nakken, Han; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F; Lunenborg, Carolien B

    2010-02-01

    Most of the developmental instruments that measure cognitive development in children rely heavily on fine motor skills, especially for young children whose language skills are not yet well developed. This is problematic when evaluating the cognitive development of young children with motor impairment. The purpose of this study is to assess the need for a Low Motor adapation of a standardized instrument when testing children with motor impairment. To accomplish this, we have adapted the procedures, item instructions and play material of a widely used and standardized instrument, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Second Edition (BSID-II, Bayley 1993). The Original and the Low Motor versions were administered to 20 children experiencing typical development and 19 children with motor impairment within a period of two weeks. Results showed that children with motor impairments scored significantly higher on the Low Motor version of the Bayley Mental Scale than on the Original version: a difference of between 5 and 10 points when the score is expressed in terms of a developmental index score. Results from children with typical development support the assumption that item content and difficulty remain unchanged in the Low Motor version.

  14. Cephalic versus digital plethysmographic variability index measurement: a comparative pilot study in cardiac surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marc-Olivier; Pellissier, Arnaud; Saplacan, Vladimir; Gérard, Jean-Louis; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Fellahi, Jean-Luc

    2014-12-01

    Noninvasive measurement of digital plethysmographic variability index (PVI(digital)) has been proposed to predict fluid responsiveness, with conflicting results. The authors tested the hypothesis that cephalic sites of PVI measurement (namely PVI(ear) and PVI(forehead)) could be more discriminant than PVI(digital) to predict fluid responsiveness after cardiac surgery. A prospective observational study. A cardiac surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital. Fifty adult patients. Investigation before and after fluid challenge. Patients were prospectively included within the first 6-hour postoperative period and investigated before and after fluid challenge. A positive response to fluid challenge was defined as a 15% increase in cardiac index. PVI(digital), PVI(ear), PVI(forehead), and invasive arterial pulse-pressure variation (PPV) measurements were recorded simultaneously, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were built. Forty-one (82%) patients were responders and 9 (18%) patients were nonresponders to fluid challenge. ROCAUC were 0.74 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.60-0.86), 0.81 (95% CI: 0.68-0.91), 0.88 (95% CI: 0.75-0.95) and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.75-0.95) for PVI(digital), PVI(ear), PVI(forehead), and PPV, respectively. Significant differences were observed between PVI(forehead) and PVI(digital) (absolute difference in ROCAUC = 0.134 [95% CI: 0.003-0.265], p = 0.045) and between PPV and PVI(digital) (absolute difference in ROCAUC = 0.129 [95% CI: 0.011-0.247], p = 0.033). The percentage of patients within the inconclusive class of response was 46%, 70%, 44%, and 26% for PVI(digital), PVI(ear), PVI(forehead), and PPV, respectively. PVI(forehead) was more discriminant than PVI(digital) and could be a valuable alternative to arterial PPV in predicting fluid responsiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative observations of learning engagement by students with developmental disabilities using an Ipad and computer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Arthanat, Sajay; Curtin, Christine; Knotak, David

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of the Apple iPad for learning by children with developmental disabilities (DD), including those on the autism spectrum. A single case design was used to record the participation of four students with DD when taught with their standard computer at baseline, followed by the introduction of the iPad. A six-component participation scale was developed to quantify observations of these students during the learning sessions. Visual analysis of data indicated no differences in participation with the iPad as compared to the computer for three of the four subjects. One subject appeared to have notably higher participation with the iPad. Individual variations were identified in each student along with some common concerns with attention, task persistence, and goal directed behavior with use of the iPad. Student academic scores improved during the course of iPad use. Nevertheless, the findings drawn from this pilot study do not justify the use of the iPad over the computer (and vice versa) for achieving academic goals in students with DD. The need to document best practices and barriers in use of emerging touch-tablet devices to support individualized education was clearly evident.

  16. Comparing hospital staff and patient perceptions of customer service: a pilot study utilizing survey and focus group data.

    PubMed

    Fottler, Myron D; Dickson, Duncan; Ford, Robert C; Bradley, Kenneth; Johnson, Lee

    2006-02-01

    The measurement of patient satisfaction is crucial to enhancing customer service and competitive advantage in the health-care industry. While there are numerous approaches to such measurement, this paper provides a case study which compares and contrasts patient and staff perceptions of customer service using both survey and focus group data. Results indicate that there is a high degree of correlation between staff and patient perceptions of customer service based on both survey and focus group data. However, the staff and patient subgroups also provided complementary information regarding patient perceptions of their service experience. Staff members tended to have more negative perceptions of service attributes than did the patients themselves. The focus group results provide complementary information to survey results in terms of greater detail and more managerially relevant information. While these results are derived from a pilot study, they suggest that diversification of data sources beyond patient surveys may enhance the utility of customer service information. If further research can affirm these findings, they create exciting possibilities for gathering valid, reliable and cost-effective customer service information.

  17. Fast neutrons compared with megavoltage x-rays in the treatment of patients with supratentorial glioblastoma: a controlled pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Catterall, M.; Bloom, H.J.G.; Ash, D.V.; Walsh, L.; Richardson, A.; Uttley, D.; Gowing, N.F.C.; Lewis, P.; Chaucer, B.

    1980-03-01

    The radioresistance of glioblastoma presumably results from the presence of hypoxic cells. In an attempt to overcome this problem, fast neutrons were compared in a controlled pilot study with conventional megavoltage x-rays (photons). 63 patients entered the study between January, 1973 and July, 1976, 30 patients received neutron and 33 received x-ray therapy. The overall mean survival was 11.4 months for those who received photon and 10 months for those who received neutron therapy. Survival rates at 6 and 12 months were 72 and 36% respectively for photon treated patients, and 77 and 30% for those treated with neutrons. Although neutron therapy did not improve overall survival, examination of the histological material indicated a considerably greater antitumor effect after neutron therapy than after treatment with photons. In the neutron treated group, at post-mortem examination no tumor or only minimal tumor was found in 10 of 12 patients and in one of 4 patients where tissue was obtained from a second craniotomy. In some cases, there was evidence of diffuse damage to normal brain which was in keeping with a clinical syndrome of progressive dementia without localizing signs. Dose, time, and volume factors for neutron therapy to the brain and possible ways of improving results are discussed.

  18. Disaster Response Team FAST Skills Training with a Portable Ultrasound Simulator Compared to Traditional Training: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Paddock, Michael T.; Bailitz, John; Horowitz, Russ; Khishfe, Basem; Cosby, Karen; Sergel, Michelle J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pre-hospital focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) has been effectively used to improve patient care in multiple mass casualty events throughout the world. Although requisite FAST knowledge may now be learned remotely by disaster response team members, traditional live instructor and model hands-on FAST skills training remains logistically challenging. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of a novel portable ultrasound (US) simulator with traditional FAST skills training for a deployed mixed provider disaster response team. Methods We randomized participants into one of three training groups stratified by provider role: Group A. Traditional Skills Training, Group B. US Simulator Skills Training, and Group C. Traditional Skills Training Plus US Simulator Skills Training. After skills training, we measured participants’ FAST image acquisition and interpretation skills using a standardized direct observation tool (SDOT) with healthy models and review of FAST patient images. Pre- and post-course US and FAST knowledge were also assessed using a previously validated multiple-choice evaluation. We used the ANOVA procedure to determine the statistical significance of differences between the means of each group’s skills scores. Paired sample t-tests were used to determine the statistical significance of pre- and post-course mean knowledge scores within groups. Results We enrolled 36 participants, 12 randomized to each training group. Randomization resulted in similar distribution of participants between training groups with respect to provider role, age, sex, and prior US training. For the FAST SDOT image acquisition and interpretation mean skills scores, there was no statistically significant difference between training groups. For US and FAST mean knowledge scores, there was a statistically significant improvement between pre- and post-course scores within each group, but again there was not a statistically

  19. Disaster response team FAST skills training with a portable ultrasound simulator compared to traditional training: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Michael T; Bailitz, John; Horowitz, Russ; Khishfe, Basem; Cosby, Karen; Sergel, Michelle J

    2015-03-01

    Pre-hospital focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) has been effectively used to improve patient care in multiple mass casualty events throughout the world. Although requisite FAST knowledge may now be learned remotely by disaster response team members, traditional live instructor and model hands-on FAST skills training remains logistically challenging. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of a novel portable ultrasound (US) simulator with traditional FAST skills training for a deployed mixed provider disaster response team. We randomized participants into one of three training groups stratified by provider role: Group A. Traditional Skills Training, Group B. US Simulator Skills Training, and Group C. Traditional Skills Training Plus US Simulator Skills Training. After skills training, we measured participants' FAST image acquisition and interpretation skills using a standardized direct observation tool (SDOT) with healthy models and review of FAST patient images. Pre- and post-course US and FAST knowledge were also assessed using a previously validated multiple-choice evaluation. We used the ANOVA procedure to determine the statistical significance of differences between the means of each group's skills scores. Paired sample t-tests were used to determine the statistical significance of pre- and post-course mean knowledge scores within groups. We enrolled 36 participants, 12 randomized to each training group. Randomization resulted in similar distribution of participants between training groups with respect to provider role, age, sex, and prior US training. For the FAST SDOT image acquisition and interpretation mean skills scores, there was no statistically significant difference between training groups. For US and FAST mean knowledge scores, there was a statistically significant improvement between pre- and post-course scores within each group, but again there was not a statistically significant difference between

  20. Evaluating facility-based antiretroviral therapy programme effectiveness: a pilot study comparing viral load suppression and retention rates.

    PubMed

    Duber, Herbert C; Roberts, D Allen; Ikilezi, Gloria; Fullman, Nancy; Gasasira, Anne; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Haakenstad, Annie; J Levine, Aubrey; Achan, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Increased demand for antiretroviral therapy (ART) services combined with plateaued levels of development assistance for HIV/AIDS requires that national ART programmes monitor programme effectiveness. In this pilot study, we compared commonly utilised performance metrics of 12- and 24-month retention with rates of viral load (VL) suppression at 15 health facilities in Uganda. Retrospective chart review from which 12- and 24-month retention rates were estimated, and parallel HIV RNA VL testing on consecutive adult patients who presented to clinics and had been on ART for a minimum of six months. Rates of VL suppression were then calculated at each facility and compared to retention rates to assess the correlation between performance metrics. Multilevel logistic regression models predicting VL suppression and 12- and 24-month retention were constructed to estimate facility effects. We collected VL samples from 2961 patients and found that 88% had a VL ≤1000 copies/ml. Facility rates of VL suppression varied between 77% and 96%. When controlling for patient mix, a significant variation in facility performance persisted. Retention rates at 12 and 24 months were 91% and 79%, respectively, with a comparable facility-level variation. However, neither 12-month (ρ = 0.16) nor 24-month (ρ = -0.19) retention rates were correlated with facility rates of VL suppression. Retaining patients in care and suppressing VL are both critical outcomes. Given the lack of correlation noted in this study, the utilisation of VL monitoring may be necessary to truly assess the effectiveness of health facilities delivering ART services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Intravitreal triamcinolone versus laser photocoagulation as a primary treatment for diabetic macular oedema--a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Norlaili, Mustapha; Bakiah, Shaharuddin; Zunaina, Embong

    2011-11-23

    Diabetic macular oedema is the leading causes of blindness. Laser photocoagulation reduces the risk of visual loss. However recurrences are common and despite laser treatment, patients with diabetic macular oedema experienced progressive loss of vision. Stabilization of the blood retinal barrier introduces a rationale for intravitreal triamcinolone treatment in diabetic macular oedema. This study is intended to compare the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the macular oedema index (MEI) at 3 month of primary treatment for diabetic macular oedema between intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) and laser photocoagulation. This comparative pilot study consists of 40 diabetic patients with diabetic macular oedema. The patients were randomized into two groups using envelope technique sampling procedure. Treatment for diabetic macular oedema was based on the printed envelope technique selected for every patient. Twenty patients were assigned for IVTA group (one injection of IVTA) and another 20 patients for LASER group (one laser session). Main outcome measures were mean BCVA and mean MEI at three months post treatment. The MEI was quantified using Heidelberg Retinal Tomography II. The mean difference for BCVA at baseline [IVTA: 0.935 (0.223), LASER: 0.795 (0.315)] and at three months post treatment [IVTA: 0.405 (0.224), LASER: 0.525 (0.289)] between IVTA and LASER group was not statistically significant (p = 0.113 and p = 0.151 respectively). The mean difference for MEI at baseline [IVTA: 2.539 (0.914), LASER: 2.139 (0.577)] and at three months post treatment [IVTA: 1.753 (0.614), LASER: 1.711 (0.472)] between IVTA and LASER group was also not statistically significant (p = 0.106 and p = 0.811 respectively). IVTA demonstrates good outcome comparable to laser photocoagulation as a primary treatment for diabetic macular oedema at three months post treatment. ISRCTN05040192 (http://www.controlled-trial.com).

  2. Three-month treatment with triptorelin, letrozole and ulipristal acetate before hysteroscopic resection of uterine myomas: prospective comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Nicolò; Ghirardi, Valentina; Remorgida, Valentino; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Ferrero, Simone

    2015-09-01

    To compare the usefulness of preoperative treatment with triptorelin, letrozole or ulipristal acetate or no treatment before hysteroscopic removal of uterine submucosal myomas. Single center prospective non-randomized comparative pilot study. The study included consecutive premenopausal patients undergoing hysteroscopic resection of myomas graded as type 0, type 1 or type 2 according to the FIGO classification with diameter between 20 and 35 mm. Exclusion criteria were: associated polyps, associated non-hysteroscopic surgical procedures, >2 myomas requiring hysteroscopic resection. This study enrolled patients who underwent either direct surgery (group S; n=23) or 3-month preoperative treatment with triptorelin (3.75 mg every 28 days; group T; n=20), letrozole (2.5 mg/day; group L; n=11) or ulipristal acetate (5 mg/day; group U; n=7). Patients underwent hysteroscopic resection of the myomas. All medical treatments caused a significant decrease in the volume of myomas (group T, p<.001; group L, p<.001; group U, p=.006); however, the percentage decrease in myoma volume was lower in group U than in group T (p=.001) and in group L (p=.010). The hysteroscopy time was higher in group S than in group T (p<.001) and in group L (p=.001); there was no significant difference in the hysteroscopy time between group S and group U (p=.206). Fluid absorption was lower in group T than in group S (p=.002) and in group L than in group S (p=.048); fluid absorption was similar in group S and group U (p=.110). Intra- and postoperative complications, postoperative pain, and patient satisfaction were similar in the four study groups. Surgeon's evaluation of operative difficulty was better in group T than in group S (p<.005). Preoperative treatment with triptorelin and letrozole decreases the hysteroscopy time and the volume of fluid absorbed during hysteroscopic resection of uterine submucosal myomas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of 3D Visual Simulator on Children’s Visual Acuity - A Pilot Study Comparing Two Different Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Mariko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Miyao, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate the efficacy of two non-surgical interventions of vision improvement in children. Methods : A prospective, randomized, pilot study to compare fogging method and the use of head mounted 3D display. Subjects were children, between 5 to 15 years old, with normal best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and up to -3D myopia. Subjects played a video game as near point work, and received one of the two methods of treatments. Measurements of uncorrected far visual acuity (UCVA), refraction with autorefractometer, and subjective accommodative amplitude were taken 3 times, at the baseline, after the near work, and after the treatment. Results : Both methods applied after near work, improved UCVA. Head mounted 3D display group showed significant improvement in UCVA and resulted in better UCVA than baseline. Fogging group showed improvement in subjective accommodative amplitude. While 3D display group did not show change in the refraction, fogging group’s myopic refraction showed significant increase indicating the eyes showed myopic change of eyes after near work and treatment. Discussion : Despite our lack of clear knowledge in the mechanisms, both methods improved UCVA after the treatments. The improvement in UCVA was not correlated to measured refraction values. Conclusion : UCVA after near work can be improved by repeating near and distant accommodation by fogging and 3D image viewing, although at the different degrees. Further investigation on mechanisms of improvements and their clinical significance are warranted. PMID:24222810

  4. Development of a novel mindfulness and cognitive behavioral intervention for stress-eating: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Corsica, Joyce; Hood, Megan M; Katterman, Shawn; Kleinman, Brighid; Ivan, Iulia

    2014-12-01

    Stress-related eating is increasingly cited as a difficulty in managing healthy eating behaviors and weight. However few interventions have been designed to specifically target stress-related eating. In addition, the optimal target of such an intervention is unclear, as the target might be conceptualized as overall stress reduction or changing emotional eating-related thoughts and behaviors. This pilot study compared the effects of three interventions targeting those components individually and in combination on stress-related eating, perceived stress, and weight loss to determine whether the two intervention components are effective alone or are more effective when combined. Fifty-three overweight participants (98% female) who reported elevated levels of stress and stress-eating and were at risk for obesity were randomly assigned to one of three six-week interventions: a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention, a cognitive behavioral stress-eating intervention (SEI), and a combined intervention that included all MBSR and SEI components. All three interventions significantly reduced perceived stress and stress-eating, but the combination intervention resulted in greater reductions and also produced a moderate effect on short term weight loss. Benefits persisted at six week follow-up.The pattern of results preliminarily suggests that the combination intervention (MBSR+SEI) may yield promise in the treatment of stress-related eating.

  5. A Pilot Study Comparing the Effect of Flaxseed, Aromatase Inhibitor, and the Combination on Breast Tumor Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Susan E.; Edge, Stephen B.; Hicks, David G.; Thompson, Lilian U.; Morrison, Carl D.; Fetterly, Gerald; Andrews, Christopher; Clark, Kim; Wilton, John; Kulkarni, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Use of complementary approaches is common among breast cancer survivors. Potential interactions between aromatase inhibitors (AI) and high phytoestrogen foods, such as flaxseed (FS) are not often described. We conducted a pilot 2×2 factorial, randomized intervention study between tumor biopsy and resection, in 24 postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer, to assess the effects of flaxseed and anastrozole, and possible interactions between them, on serum steroid hormone and tumor-related characteristics associated with long-term survival (Roswell Park Cancer Institute, 2007–2010). The effect of each treatment vs placebo on outcomes was determined by linear regression adjusting for pre-treatment measure, stage, and grade. Although not statistically significant, mean ERβ expression was approximately 40% lower from pre- to post-intervention in the FS+AI group only. We observed a statistically significant negative association (β±SE −0.3±0.1; p=0.03) for androstenedione in the FS+AI group vs placebo and for DHEA with AI treatment (β±SE −1.6±0.6; p=0.009). Enterolactone excretion was much lower in the FS+AI group compared to the FS group. Our results do not support strong effects of flaxseed on AI activity for selected breast tumor characteristics or serum steroid hormone levels, but suggest AI therapy might reduce the production of circulating mammalian lignans from flaxseed. PMID:24669750

  6. A study of airline pilot morbidity.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Adrian J; Larsen, Peter D; Griffiths, Robin F; Aldington, Sarah

    2012-10-01

    It has long been believed that airline pilots are healthier than the general population. There are a number of reasons why this should be the case. However, there is very little evidence to support this belief as fact. This study investigates the health of the pilot population of an Oceanic based airline compared to the health of the general population. Pilots who conducted their medical certificate renewal at the airline's medical unit between 1 November 2009 and 31 October 2010 were included. A medical questionnaire was completed by each pilot at the time of their medical certificate renewal. Data from the questionnaire was entered into a database as well as the pilot's BMI, blood pressure, lipid profile, and blood glucose level. The comparison population was the population who completed the New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS) between 2006-2007. Demographic, lifestyle characteristics, and health status data from the pilots was compared to the NZHS using a Chi-squared test. Included in the study were 595 pilots. With respect to most medical conditions, pilots had a lower prevalence when compared to the general population. Pilots had a higher prevalence of kidney disease (3.3% vs 0.6%) and melanoma skin cancer (19 per 1000 vs 0.4 per 1000). This study suggests that pilots in New Zealand are healthier than the general population with respect to most medical conditions. The two medical conditions that were identified as being overrepresented in pilots may be the result of the occupational environment.

  7. A prospective double-blinded comparative analysis of framycetin and silver sulphadiazine as topical agents for burns: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Gupta, Amit; Gur, Renu

    2009-08-01

    Burn wound sepsis remains the leading cause of mortality if conservative methods of wound management are employed. Topical agents are still the mainstay of such wound management in the developing world. Non availability of agents like Mafenide or silver ion dressings in the developing world due to corporate strategies or cost concerns necessitates a search for alternatives to silver sulphadiazine, which is the gold standard. We report the use of framycetin 1% cream (Soframycin) in 20 patients of major burns (ranging from 15% to 40% TBSA), and in a double blinded study quantitatively comparing the bacterial load on day 4 and day 7 with a group of similar patients in whom silver sulphadiazine was used. The age group of the 40 patients was 10-50 years and they were without any co-morbid condition. All bacterial isolates from the 40 patients were also tested for framycetin sensitivity. Serial kidney function tests were done on all patients, and patients in the framycetin group underwent an audiometric testing at a mean time of 28 days. All results were statistically analyzed. It was noted that there was no statistically significant difference in the colony counts on days 4 and 7 between the two groups. As a corollary, it was also evident that there was no statistically significant difference in the rise in colony counts from day 4 to day 7 in the two groups. Sixty-four percent of all bacterial isolates were sensitive to framycetin, although, this could not be compared with sensitivity to silver sulphadiazine. It was not possible to do assays for framycetin levels in blood but no patient developed nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity with its use. According to our pilot study results framycetin appears to be an alternative to silver suphadiazine as a topical agent for major burns. Framycetin application is also painless and it leads to no discoloration of the wound.

  8. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  9. Is rheumatoid arthritis a disease that starts in the intestine? A pilot study comparing an elemental diet with oral prednisolone

    PubMed Central

    Podas, Thrasyvoulos; Nightingale, Jeremy M D; Oldham, Roger; Roy, S; Sheehan, Nicholas J; Mayberry, John F

    2007-01-01

    Objectives This pilot study aimed to determine if an elemental diet could be used to treat patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and to compare its effect to that of oral prednisolone. Methods Thirty patients with active rheumatoid arthritis were randomly allocated to 2 weeks of treatment with an elemental diet (n = 21) or oral prednisolone 15 mg/day (n = 9). Assessments of duration of early morning stiffness (EMS), pain on a 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS), the Ritchie articular index (RAI), swollen joint score, the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire, global patient and physician assessment, body weight, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C‐reactive protein (CRP) and haemoglobin, were made at 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Results All clinical parameters improved in both groups (p<0.05) except the swollen joint score in the elemental diet group. An improvement of greater than 20% in EMS, VAS and RAI occurred in 72% of the elemental diet group and 78% of the prednisolone group. ESR, CRP and haemoglobin improved in the steroid group only (p<0.05). Conclusions An elemental diet for 2 weeks resulted in a clinical improvement in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis, and was as effective as a course of oral prednisolone 15 mg daily in improving subjective clinical parameters. This study supports the concept that rheumatoid arthritis may be a reaction to a food antigen(s) and that the disease process starts within the intestine. PMID:17308218

  10. The Pilot Training Study: Personnel Flow and the PILOT Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooz, W. E.

    The results of the Rand study of pilot flows and the computer-operated decision model, called the PILOT model, are described. The flows of pilots within the Air Force are caused by policies that require the career-development rotation of pilots from cockpit jobs to desk jobs, the maintenance of a supplement of pilots in excess of cockpit-related…

  11. Pilot study comparing simulation-based and didactic lecture-based critical care teaching for final-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Solymos, Orsolya; O'Kelly, Patrick; Walshe, Criona M

    2015-10-21

    Simulation-based medical education has rapidly evolved over the past two decades, despite this, there are few published reports of its use in critical care teaching. We hypothesised that simulation-based teaching of a critical care topic to final-year medical students is superior to lecture-based teaching. Thirty-nine final-year medical students were randomly assigned to either simulation-based or lecture-based teaching in the chosen critical care topic. The study was conducted over a 6-week period. Efficacy of each teaching method was compared through use of multiple choice questionnaires (MCQ) - baseline, post-teaching and 2 week follow-up. Student satisfaction was evaluated by means of a questionnaire. Feasibility and resource requirements were documented by teachers. Eighteen students were randomised to simulation-based, and 21 to lecture-based teaching. There were no differences in age and gender between groups (p > 0.05). Simulation proved more resource intensive requiring specialised equipment, two instructors, and increased duration of teaching sessions (126.7 min (SD = 4.71) vs 68.3 min (SD = 2.36)). Students ranked simulation-based teaching higher with regard to enjoyment (p = 0.0044), interest (p = 0.0068), relevance to taught subject (p = 0.0313), ease of understanding (p = 0.0476) and accessibility to posing questions (p = 0.001). Both groups demonstrated improvement in post-teaching MCQ from baseline (p = 0.0002), with greater improvement seen among the simulation group (p = 0.0387), however, baseline scores were higher among the lecture group. The results of the 2-week follow-up MCQ and post-teaching MCQ were not statistically significant when each modality were compared. Simulation was perceived as more enjoyable by students. Although there was a greater improvement in post-teaching MCQ among the simulator group, baseline scores were higher among lecture group which limits interpretation of efficacy

  12. Mood fluctuations in Parkinson’s disease: a pilot study comparing the effects of intravenous and oral levodopa administration

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Irene Hegeman; Frank, Samuel; LaDonna, Kori A; Wang, Hongkun; McDermott, Michael P; Kurlan, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Objectives Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with motor fluctuations that have been shown to improve when stable plasma levodopa levels are achieved with continuous levodopa infusions. Many patients also develop mood fluctuations. In this pilot study, we gathered preliminary information about the relationship between changing mood states and plasma levodopa levels. Methods Six patients with idiopathic PD and histories of motor and mood fluctuations participated in a double-blind levodopa infusion study. Subjects received active oral carbidopa/levodopa and a placebo levodopa infusion on one day and placebo oral carbidopa/levodopa and an active levodopa infusion on the other day, in a randomly determined order. Evaluations included serial plasma levodopa levels and assessments of mood and motor states. Results Only 4 of the 6 subjects demonstrated mood fluctuations on at least one of the treatment days. All subjects achieved more stable plasma levodopa levels on the active infusion day. Two subjects experienced fewer mood fluctuations on the active infusion day and two experienced fewer on the oral day. Conclusions The results of this pilot study suggest that the relationship between mood state and plasma levodopa level may vary among PD patients. PMID:18568104

  13. A prospective pilot study of B2A-coated ceramic granules (Amplex) compared to autograft for ankle and hindfoot arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Glazebrook, Mark; Younger, Alastair; Wing, Kevin; Lalonde, Karl-Andre

    2013-08-01

    To reduce fusion nonunion, autogenous bone graft is often incorporated into foot and ankle fusion procedures. B2A peptide-coated ceramic granules, with encouraging results in pilot studies of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, were here reformulated into Amplex with a coating concentration of 225 μg B2A/cm(3) ceramic granules (B2A-granule) with the goal of eliminating autogenous bone graft in foot and ankle arthrodesis. The purpose of this study was to perform a multicenter prospective randomized pilot clinical trial designed to compare the safety and effectiveness of B2A-granule to autogenous bone graft in patients undergoing foot and ankle arthrodesis surgery. This study was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, pilot clinical trial designed to compare safety and effectiveness of B2A-granule to autogenous bone graft in patients undergoing foot and ankle arthrodesis surgery. Twenty-four patients were enrolled and randomized (1:1) into 2 groups: autogenous bone graft control and B2A-granule. Primary outcome measures at 6 months (with follow-up at 9 and 12 months) included radiographic fusion assessed by computerized tomography and Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale scores for pain and disability. Radiographic fusion success rates were similar in both groups (100% in the B2A-granule group, 92% autograft). Both the B2A-granule group and the autograft group had improvements in the pain and disability scores over the course of the study. Graft harvest-site pain affected only autograft-treated patients. There were no adverse events attributed to the graft material in either the B2A-granule or autograft group. The results of this pilot study are supportive of a larger clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of B2A-granule as a bone graft substitute in foot and ankle fusions. Level II, prospective comparative study.

  14. Comparative studies on the antioxidant properties and polyphenolic content of wine from different growing regions and vintages, a pilot study to investigate chemical markers for climate change.

    PubMed

    Stockham, Katherine; Sheard, Amanda; Paimin, Rohani; Buddhadasa, Saman; Duong, Samantha; Orbell, John D; Murdoch, Travis

    2013-10-01

    Many health benefits of wine result from specific polyphenolic compounds. Factors such as climate, CO2 levels and region are known to affect polyphenolic compounds in wine; therefore a pilot study was conducted to focus on the Australian climate which has shifted from El Niño to La Niña. This research paper presents the influence of climate conditions and growing regions on the in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant capacity of red and white wine and the profile and concentration of polyphenols in these wines from the 2008 and 2009 vintages. The ORAC and polyphenolic data show that warmer climate wines had lower in vitro antioxidant capacity values but retained good bioavailability based on data from the RBC ex vivo assay compared to cool climate wines. Based on this pilot study, further research is being conducted at the National Measurement Institute, Australia (NMIA) with the goal of determining more polyphenolic compounds which appear to be affected by climate conditions.

  15. A Pilot Study Comparing Observational and Questionnaire Surrogate Measures of Pesticide Exposure Among Residents Impacted by the Ecuadorian Flower Industry.

    PubMed

    Handal, Alexis J; McGough-Maduena, Alison; Páez, Maritza; Skipper, Betty; Rowland, Andrew S; Fenske, Richard A; Harlow, Siobán D

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported measures of residential pesticide exposure are commonly used in epidemiological studies, especially when financial and logistical resources are limited. However, self-reporting is prone to misclassification bias. This pilot study assesses the agreement between self-report of residential pesticide exposure with direct observation measures, in an agricultural region of Ecuador, as a cross-validation method in 26 participants (16 rose workers and 10 controls), with percent agreement and kappa statistics calculated. Proximity of homes to nearby flower farms was found to have only fair agreement (kappa =.35). The use of discarded plastics (kappa =.06) and wood (kappa =.13) were found to have little agreement. Results indicate that direct observation or measurement may provide more accurate appraisals of residential exposures, such as proximity to industrial farmland and the use of discarded materials obtained from the flower farms.

  16. Comparative study of clozapine versus risperidone in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Sukhtej; Chavan, B S; Sidana, Ajeet; Kalra, Priyanka; Kaur, Gurjit

    2016-11-01

    Clozapine may be more useful in treatment-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia for better symptoms control and improving quality of life. The current study was carried out to compare the efficacy and tolerability of clozapine versus risperidone in treatment-naive, first-episode patients of schizophrenia. This was a comparative, open-label, six months prospective study of treatment-naive, first-episode patients with schizophrenia between the age group of 18 and 40 yr diagnosed as per the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) criteria. A total of 63 patients were recruited and randomly assigned to clozapine group or risperidone group using computer-generated random number tables. Eight patients were lost to follow up. The dosages of the respective drugs were kept in therapeutic range of 200-600 mg/day and 4-8 mg/day orally for clozapine and risperidone, respectively. On general psychopathology score, after six months of intervention, clozapine led to 60.32 per cent mean reduction in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for Schizophrenia total score while risperidone led to 56.35 per cent mean reduction in PANSS total score, which meant more improvement with clozapine. Clozapine group was found to have significant improvement in quality of life (P = 0.04339). On Glasgow Antipsychotic Side-effect Scale, clozapine was superior to risperidone. The most common side effects observed in clozapine group were oversedation (78.96%) and dizziness (55.23%), and in risperidone group, common side effects were rigidity (62.36%), sedation (38.69%), tremors (65.69%) and menstrual irregularities in 80.25 per cent of female patients. The findings of this preliminary study showed clozapine as a better choice than risperidone in terms of efficacy, tolerability and better quality of life in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia. However, further studies need to be done on a larger group of patients to confirm the findings.

  17. Self-awareness rehabilitation after Traumatic Brain Injury: A pilot study to compare two group therapies.

    PubMed

    Rigon, Jessica; Burro, Roberto; Guariglia, Cecilia; Maini, Manuela; Marin, Dario; Ciurli, Paola; Bivona, Umberto; Formisano, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Deficits of self-awareness (SA) are very common after severe acquired brain injury (sABI), especially in traumatic brain injury (TBI), playing an important role in the efficacy of the rehabilitation process. This pilot study provides information regarding two structured group therapies for disorders of SA. Nine patients with severe TBI were consecutively recruited and randomly assigned to one SA group therapy programme, according either to the model proposed by Ben-Yishay & Lakin (1989) (B&L Group), or by Sohlberg & Mateer (1989) (S&M Group). Neuropsychological tests and self-awareness questionnaires were administered before and after a 10 weeks group therapy. Results showed that both SA and neuropsychological functioning significantly improved in both groups. It is important to investigate and treat self-awareness, also to improve the outcome of neuropsychological disorders. The two group therapies proposed seem to be specific for impulsivity and emotional dyscontrol and for cognitive disorders.

  18. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.

    1991-12-06

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot test in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate-reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been preferentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. During this quarter an additional tracer study was performed in the field to determine pre-treatment flow paths and the first nutrients were injected. 2 figs.

  19. Microbial Field Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the first year of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology and characterization, facility and treatment design, core experiments, bacterial mobility, and mathematical modeling are addressed. To facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the target reservoir analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. A preliminary design of facilities for the operation of the field pilot test was prepared. In addition, procedures for facilities installation and for injection treatments are described. The Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU), the site of the proposed field pilot study, is described physically, historically, and geologically. The fields current status is presented and the ongoing reservoir simulation is discussed. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. Two possible mechanisms, relative permeability effects and changes in the capillary number, are discussed and related to four Berea core experiments' results. The experiments were conducted at reservoir temperature using SEVVSU oil, brine, and bacteria. The movement and activity of bacteria in porous media were investigated by monitoring the growth of bacteria in sandpack cores under no flow conditions. The rate of bacteria advancement through the cores was determined. A mathematical model of the MEOR process has been developed. The model is a three phase, seven species, one dimensional model. Finite difference methods are used for solution. Advection terms in balance equations are represented with a third- order upwind differencing scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and oscillations. The model is applied to a batch fermentation example. 52 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year`s report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  1. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  2. A prospective, randomized, single - blind study comparing intraplaque injection of thiocolchicine and verapamil in Peyronie's Disease: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, I. L.; Rezende, M.V.; Mello, L. F.; Pires, L.; Paulillo, D.; Glina, S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To compare the response to tiocolchicine and verapamil injection in the plaque of patients with Peyronie's disease. Materials and Methods: Prospective, single-blind, randomized study, selecting patients who have presented Peyronie's disease for less than 18 months. Thiocolchicine 4mg or verapamil 5mg were given in 7 injections (once a week). Patients who had received any treatment for Peyronie's disease in the past three months were excluded. The parameters used were the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) score, analysis of the curvature on pharmaco-induced erections and size of the plaque by ultrasonography. Results: Twenty-five patients were randomized, 13 received thiocolchicine and 12 were treated with verapamil. Both groups were statistically similar. The mean curvature was 46.7° and 36.2° before and after thiocolchicine, respectively (p=0.019) and 50.4° and 42.08° before and after verapamil, respectively (p=0.012). The curvature improved in 69% of patients treated with thiocolchicine and in 66% of those who received verapamil. Regarding sexual function, there was an increase in the IIEF-5 from 16.69 to 20.85 (p=0.23) in the thiocolchicine group. In the verapamil group the IIEF-5 score dropped from 17.50 to 16.25 (p=0.58). In the thiocolchicine group, the plaque was reduced in 61% of patients. In the verapamil group, 8% presented decreased plaque size. No adverse event was associated to thiocolchicine. Conclusion: The use of thiocolchicine in Peyronie's disease demonstrated improvement on penile curvature and reduction in plaque size. Thiocolchicine presented similar results to verapamil in curvature assessment. No significant side effects were observed with the use of tiocolchicine. PMID:24893912

  3. Pilot Field Test Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherriff, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The Field Test study is currently in full swing, preceded by the successful completion of the Pilot Field Test study that paved the way for collecting data on the astronauts in the medical tent in Kazakhstan. Abigail Sherriff worked alongside Logan Dobbe on one Field Test aspect to determine foot clearance over obstacles (5cm, 10cm, and 15cm) using APDM Inc. Internal Measurement Units (IMU) worn by the astronauts. They created a program to accurately calculate foot clearance using the accelerometer, magnetometer, and gyroscope data with the IMUs attached to the top of the shoes. To validate the functionality of their program, they completed a successful study on test subjects performing various tasks in an optical motion studio, considered a gold standard in biomechanics research. Future work will include further validation and expanding the program to include other analyses.

  4. [Prevalence of dental caries: national pilot study comparing the severity of decay (CAO) vs ICDAS index in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Aidara, A W; Bourgeois, D

    2014-03-01

    This pilot study has for main objective to measure the applicability and the utility of ICDAS index in a context of prevention in developing countries. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated among schoolchildren using DMF (WHO basic method) vs. ICDAS index in Senegal. A representative stratified random cluster sample of 677 primary and college schoolchildren aged 12 and 15 years was examined for caries prevalence. The clinical examination was conducted in two steps for each. The investigator proceeded at first to the inventory of the number of teeth decayed (D), missing (M) or filled (F) according to the WHO basic method. Then, after cleaning and drying all teeth, a two-digit ICDAS code was used to record data at each dental surface. Caries prevalence (96%) was higher than expected in Senegal. ICDAS index provides 43% moreover information than DMF. The need for prevention (ICDAS1: 66%/72% and ICDAS2: 54%/58%) and intercept (ICDAS3: 40%/42% and ICDAS4: 31%/33%) are higher than the need of curative treatment (ICDAS5: 18%/23% and ICDAS6: 27%/33%) respectively among primary and college schoolchildren. Preventive programs are urgently needed in Senegal. It's necessary to lead epidemiological studies in other African countries for determining caries prevalence using the ICDAS criteria to harmonize oral health regional planning.

  5. A pilot study comparing two weight loss maintenance interventions among low-income, mid-life women.

    PubMed

    Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Johnston, Larry F; Gizlice, Ziya; Garcia, Beverly A; Lindsley, Sara C; Gold, Alison D; Braxton, Danielle F; Keyserling, Thomas C

    2013-07-15

    Despite high obesity prevalence rates, few low-income midlife women participate in weight loss maintenance trials. This pilot study aims to assess the effectiveness of two weight loss maintenance interventions in this under-represented population. Low-income midlife women who completed a 16-week weight loss intervention and lost  ≥ 8 lbs (3.6 kg) were eligible to enroll in one of two 12-month maintenance programs. The programs were similar in content and had the same number of total contacts, but were different in the contact modality (Phone + Face-to-Face vs. Face-to-Face Only). Two criteria were used to assess successful weight loss maintenance at 12 months: (1) retaining a loss of  ≥ 5% of body weight from the start of the weight loss phase and (2) a change in body weight of  < 3%, from the start to the end of the maintenance program. Outcome measures of changes in physiologic and psychosocial factors, and evaluations of process measures and program acceptability (measured at 12 months) are also reported. For categorical variables, likelihood ratio or Fisher's Exact (for small samples) tests were used to evaluate statistically significant relationships; for continuous variables, t-tests or their equivalents were used to assess differences between means and also to identify correlates of weight loss maintenance. Overall, during the 12-month maintenance period, 41% (24/58) of participants maintained a loss of  ≥ 5% of initial weight and 43% (25/58) had a <3% change in weight. None of the comparisons between the two maintenance programs were statistically significant. However, improvements in blood pressure and dietary behaviors remained significant at the end of the 12-month maintenance period for participants in both programs. Participant attendance and acceptability were high for both programs. The effectiveness of two pilot 12-month maintenance interventions provides support for further research in weight loss maintenance among high

  6. A pilot study comparing two weight loss maintenance interventions among low-income, mid-life women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite high obesity prevalence rates, few low-income midlife women participate in weight loss maintenance trials. This pilot study aims to assess the effectiveness of two weight loss maintenance interventions in this under-represented population. Methods Low-income midlife women who completed a 16-week weight loss intervention and lost ≥ 8 lbs (3.6 kg) were eligible to enroll in one of two 12-month maintenance programs. The programs were similar in content and had the same number of total contacts, but were different in the contact modality (Phone + Face-to-Face vs. Face-to-Face Only). Two criteria were used to assess successful weight loss maintenance at 12 months: (1) retaining a loss of ≥ 5% of body weight from the start of the weight loss phase and (2) a change in body weight of < 3%, from the start to the end of the maintenance program. Outcome measures of changes in physiologic and psychosocial factors, and evaluations of process measures and program acceptability (measured at 12 months) are also reported. For categorical variables, likelihood ratio or Fisher’s Exact (for small samples) tests were used to evaluate statistically significant relationships; for continuous variables, t-tests or their equivalents were used to assess differences between means and also to identify correlates of weight loss maintenance. Results Overall, during the 12-month maintenance period, 41% (24/58) of participants maintained a loss of ≥ 5% of initial weight and 43% (25/58) had a <3% change in weight. None of the comparisons between the two maintenance programs were statistically significant. However, improvements in blood pressure and dietary behaviors remained significant at the end of the 12-month maintenance period for participants in both programs. Participant attendance and acceptability were high for both programs. Conclusions The effectiveness of two pilot 12-month maintenance interventions provides support for further research

  7. Self-awareness rehabilitation after Traumatic Brain Injury: A pilot study to compare two group therapies

    PubMed Central

    Rigon, Jessica; Burro, Roberto; Guariglia, Cecilia; Maini, Manuela; Marin, Dario; Ciurli, Paola; Bivona, Umberto; Formisano, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Deficits of self-awareness (SA) are very common after severe acquired brain injury (sABI), especially in traumatic brain injury (TBI), playing an important role in the efficacy of the rehabilitation process. This pilot study provides information regarding two structured group therapies for disorders of SA. Methods: Nine patients with severe TBI were consecutively recruited and randomly assigned to one SA group therapy programme, according either to the model proposed by Ben-Yishay & Lakin (1989) (B&L Group), or by Sohlberg & Mateer (1989) (S&M Group). Neuropsychological tests and self-awareness questionnaires were administered before and after a 10 weeks group therapy. Results: Results showed that both SA and neuropsychological functioning significantly improved in both groups. Conclusion: It is important to investigate and treat self-awareness, also to improve the outcome of neuropsychological disorders. The two group therapies proposed seem to be specific for impulsivity and emotional dyscontrol and for cognitive disorders. PMID:28059799

  8. Randomized, comparative pilot study of pituitary suppression with depot leuprorelin versus cetrorelix acetate 3 mg in gonadotropin stimulation protocols for oocyte donors.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Fracisca; Clua, Elisabeth; Santmartí, Paula; Boada, Montserrat; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Coroleu, Buenaventura

    2010-11-01

    In a pilot study, implantation and pregnancy rates per transfer were favorable in recipients of donated eggs treated with a single dose of cetrorelix acetate 3 mg compared with recipients of donated eggs treated with the long protocol (42.3% vs. 30.5%, and 71.0% vs. 46.7%, respectively; NS). The stimulation protocol based on gonadotropins and a single dose of cetrorelix acetate 3 mg is adequate in terms of safety and comfort of donors and the likelihood of pregnancy among recipients, although these favorable results require confirmation in future studies. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparative study of the industrial discharges effect on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both experimental and pilot-plant scales.

    PubMed

    Saddoud, Ahlem; Abdelkafi, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of industrial discharges on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both laboratory and pilot-plant scales at mesophilic conditions. The laboratory experiment results have shown the low process efficiency of anaerobic treatment of DW by the use of an adapted or a non-adapted methanogenic inoculum. These experiments performed in batch digesters were further confirmed by scaling up to a pilot-plant anaerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The treatment inefficiency in both laboratory and pilot-plant experiments could be related to the presence of toxic compounds due to the wastewater contamination by industrial discharges. The toxic character of DW was proved by the phytotoxicity and microtoxicity tests. Indeed, the luminescence inhibition percentages started at an average of 21% in the morning and reached more than 84% in the late afternoon. Moreover, the toxicity results have shown a direct relation with methanization results. Indeed, when the average microtoxicity increased to 73%, the average germination index value and the methanization efficiency expressed as the average methane percentage in the produced biogas decreased to 0% and 14.5%, respectively.

  10. The Comparative Validity of Interactive Multimedia Questionnaires to Paper-Administered Questionnaires for Beverage Intake and Physical Activity: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Riebl, Shaun K; Paone, Allyson C; Hedrick, Valisa E; Zoellner, Jamie M; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Background Brief, valid, and reliable dietary and physical activity assessment tools are needed, and interactive computerized assessments (ie, those with visual cues, pictures, sounds, and voiceovers) can reduce administration and scoring burdens commonly encountered with paper-based assessments. Objective The purpose of this pilot investigation was to evaluate the comparative validity and reliability of interactive multimedia (IMM) versions (ie, IMM-1 and IMM-2) compared to validated paper-administered (PP) versions of the beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ-15) and Stanford Leisure-Time Activity Categorical Item (L-Cat); a secondary purpose was to evaluate results across two education attainment levels. Methods Adults 21 years or older (n=60) were recruited to complete three laboratory sessions, separated by three to seven days in a randomly assigned sequence, with the following assessments–demographic information, two IMM and one paper-based (PP) version of the BEVQ-15 and L-Cat, health literacy, and an IMM usability survey. Results Responses across beverage categories from the IMM-1 and PP versions (validity; r=.34-.98) and the IMM-1 and IMM-2 administrations (reliability; r=.61-.94) (all P<.001) were significantly correlated. Paired t tests revealed significant differences in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) grams and kcal (P=.02 and P=.01, respectively) and total beverage kcal (P=.03), on IMM-1 and IMM-2; however, comparative validity was demonstrated between IMM-2 and the PP version suggesting familiarization with the IMM tool may influence participant responses (mean differences: SSB 63 grams, SEM 87; P=.52; SSB 21 kcal, SEM 33; P=.48; total beverage 65 kcal, SEM 49; P=.19). Overall mean scores between the PP and both IMM versions of the L-Cat were different (both P<.001); however, responses on all versions were correlated (P<.001). Differences between education categories were noted at each L-Cat administration (IMM-1: P=.008; IMM-2: P=.001; PP: P=.002

  11. Comparability of ophthalmic diagnoses by clinical and Reading Center examiners in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Sperduto, R D; Hiller, R; Podgor, M J; Palmberg, P; Ferris, F L; Wentworth, D

    1986-12-01

    Technologic advances in ophthalmic equipment offer the possibility of replacing direct clinical examinations with Reading Center evaluations of data recorded in epidemiologic studies. Clinical and Reading Center examiners made independent ophthalmic diagnoses of 133 right and 132 left eyes of 138 adults in the Visual Acuity Impairment Survey Pilot Study, carried out in three US cities, Boston, Detroit, and Minneapolis, in August 1981-December 1982. The Reading Center diagnosed eye conditions using only photographic and visual field data collected at the time of the clinical examination. In the comparisons of clinical and Reading Center evaluations reported here, only eyes judged by the examiners to have pathology severe enough to reduce visual acuity to 6/9 or worse were classified as having pathology. (No visual acuity criterion was required for the diagnosis of glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy.) There was agreement in diagnostic assessments between clinical and Reading Center examiners in about 80% of eyes. The kappa statistic, which adjusts for chance agreement, was in the fair to good range: 0.60 for 133 right eyes and 0.62 for 132 left eyes. When the Reading Center examiners were provided with additional information on medical history, refractive error and best corrected visual acuity, the agreement between clinical and Reading Center assessments among the subset of eyes with 6/9 or worse vision again was in the fair to good range, with kappas of 0.61 for 45 right eyes and 0.68 for 48 left eyes. Inter-observer agreement between Reading Center examiners in diagnosing pathology was in the good to excellent range. Use of Reading Centers in future epidemiologic studies should be considered, but elimination of the clinical examinations is not recommended until modifications in the protocol described here have been made and shown to improve levels of agreement between clinical and Reading Center examiners.

  12. A pilot comparative study of topical latanoprost and tacrolimus in combination with narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy and microneedling for the treatment of nonsegmental vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Korobko, Igor V; Lomonosov, Konstantin M

    2016-11-01

    Prostaglandins and their analogues are beneficial as topical agents in vitiligo treatment, yet neither of the previous study addressed their comparative efficiency with conventional topical agents used in vitiligo treatment. In this pilot (24 patients) left-right comparative study we addressed efficiency of prostaglandin F2α analogue latanoprost versus tacrolimus when combined with narrow-band ultraviolet B and microneedling in repigmentation of nonsegmental vitiligo lesions. Our results confirm potency of prostaglandins, in particular, that of latanoprost, in inducing repigmentation, with the efficiency being at least comparable to that of tacrolimus, while contribution of microneedling remains unclear. In summary, results of our study provide further evidences for justified use of prostaglandins, in particular, latanoprost, in vitiligo treatment. In turn, this warrants future studies on the topic aiming to conclusively introduce prostaglandin-based formulations as conventional agents for vitiligo management. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A comparative proteomic study of plasma in feline pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis to identify diagnostic biomarkers: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Meachem, Melissa D.; Snead, Elisabeth R.; Kidney, Beverly A.; Jackson, Marion L.; Dickinson, Ryan; Larson, Victoria; Simko, Elemir

    2015-01-01

    While pancreatitis is now recognized as a common ailment in cats, the diagnosis remains challenging due to discordant results and suboptimal sensitivity of ultrasound and specific feline pancreatic lipase (Spec fPL) assay. Pancreatitis also shares similar clinical features with pancreatic carcinoma, a rare but aggressive disease with a grave prognosis. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the plasma proteomes of normal healthy cats (n = 6), cats with pancreatitis (n = 6), and cats with pancreatic carcinoma (n = 6) in order to identify potential new biomarkers of feline pancreatic disease. After plasma protein separation by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, protein spots were detected by Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 staining and identified by mass spectrometry. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1), and apolipoprotein-A1 precursor (Pre Apo-A1) appeared to be differentially expressed, which suggests the presence of a systemic acute-phase response and alteration of lipid metabolism in cats with pancreatic disease. Future studies involving greater case numbers are needed in order to assess the utility of these proteins as potential biomarkers. More sensitive proteomic techniques may also be helpful in detecting significant but low-abundance proteins. PMID:26130850

  14. Pilot randomized crossover study comparing the efficacy of transnasal disposable endosheath with standard endoscopy to detect Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Mohammed K; Varghese, Sibu; O'Donovan, Maria; Abdullahi, Zarah; Liu, Xinxue; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; di Pietro, Massimiliano

    2016-02-01

    The transnasal endosheath endoscope is a new disposable technology with potential applicability to the primary care setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transnasal endosheath endoscopy (TEE) for the detection of Barrett's esophagus, by comparing the diagnostic accuracy of TEE with that of standard endoscopy. This was a prospective, randomized, crossover study performed in a single tertiary referral center. Consecutive patients undergoing surveillance for Barrett's esophagus or referred for diagnostic assessment were recruited. All patients were randomized to undergo TEE followed by standard endoscopy or the reverse. Endoscopy experiences and patient preferences were evaluated using a questionnaire. Endoscopic and histologic diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus, and optical image quality of both endoscopic procedures, were compared. A total of 21 of 25 patients completed the study. TEE had sensitivity and specificity of 100 % for an endoscopic diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus, and of 66.7 % and 100 %, respectively, for the histologic diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus. The mean optical quality of standard endoscopy was significantly better than that of TEE (7.11 ± 0.42 vs. 4.06 ± 0.27; P < 0.0001). However, following endoscopy, patients reported a significantly better experience with TEE compared with standard endoscopy (7.05 ± 0.49 vs. 4.35 ± 0.53; P = 0.0006), with 60 % preferring TEE and 25 % preferring sedated standard endoscopy. In this study, TEE had equal accuracy for an endoscopic diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus compared with standard endoscopy, at the expense of reduced image quality and a lower yield of intestinal metaplasia on biopsy. TEE was better tolerated and preferred by patients. Hence, TEE needs further evaluation in primary care as an initial diagnostic tool. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Comparing telehealth-based and clinic-based group cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with depression and anxiety: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Nasreen; Marziali, Elsa; Tchernikov, Illia; Shepherd, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary objective of this pilot study was to demonstrate reliable adherence to a group cognitive behavioral (CBT) therapy protocol when delivered using on-line video conferencing as compared with face-to-face delivery of group CBT. A secondary aim was to show comparability of changes in subject depression inventory scores between on-line and face-to-face delivery of group CBT. Methods We screened 31 individuals, 18 of whom met the criteria for a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) diagnosis of mood and/or anxiety disorder. All qualifying participants had the necessary equipment (computer, webcam, Internet) for participation in the study, but could exercise their preference for either the on-line or face-to-face format. Eighteen completed the 13 weekly session intervention program (ten face-to-face; eight video conferencing). We coded adherence to protocol in both intervention formats and generated pre–post changes in scores on the Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II) for each participant. Results Application of the CBT protocol coding system showed reliable adherence to the group CBT intervention protocol in both delivery formats. Similarly, qualitative analysis of the themes in group discussion indicated that both groups addressed similar issues. Pre–post intervention scores for the BDI-II were comparable across the two delivery formats, with 60% of participants in each group showing a positive change in BDI-II severity classification (eg, from moderate to low symptoms). Conclusion This pilot study demonstrates that group CBT could be delivered in a technology-supported environment (on-line video conferencing) and can meet the same professional practice standards and outcomes as face-to-face delivery of the intervention program. PMID:24855345

  16. Sub-epithelial connective tissue graft for root coverage in nonsmokers and smokers: A pilot comparative clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Dwarakanath, Chini Doraswamy; Divya, Bheemavarapu; Sruthima, Gottumukkala Naga Venkata Satya; Penmetsa, Gautami Subadra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gingival recession is a common condition and is more prevalent in smokers. It is widely believed that root coverage procedures in smokers result in less desirable outcome compared to nonsmokers', and there are few controlled studies in literature to support this finding. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the outcome of root coverage with sub-epithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) in nonsmokers and smokers. Materials and Methods: A sample of twenty subjects, 10 nonsmokers and 10 smokers were selected each with at least 1 Miller's Class I or II recession on a single rooted tooth. Clinical measurements of probing depth, clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival recession total surface area (GRTSA), depth of recession (RD), width of recession (RW), and width of keratinized tissue were determined at baseline, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Results: The treatment of gingival recession with SCTG and coronally advanced flap showed a decrease in the GRTSA, RD, RW, and an increase in CAL and width of keratinized gingiva in both the groups. However, the intergroup comparison of the clinical parameters showed no statistical significance. About 6 out of 10 nonsmokers (60%) and 3 smokers (30%) showed complete root coverage. The mean percentage of root coverage of 71.2% in nonsmokers and 38% in smokers was observed. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that smoking may negatively influence gingival recession reduction and CAL gain. In addition, smokers may exhibit fewer chances of complete root coverage. Overall, nonsmokers showed better improvements in all the parameters compared to smokers at the end of 6 months.

  17. Comparing intra-abdominal pressures in different body positions via a urinary catheter and nasogastric tube: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is most commonly measured via the bladder with the patient in the supine position. In the ICU, patients are nursed with the head of the bed elevated at 30° (HOB30) to reduce the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia. This study investigated whether gastric pressure at HOB30 can be used as a surrogate measure of IAP via the bladder in the supine position. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted in a single-centre intensive care unit. A total of 20 patients were included. IAP was recorded simultaneously via the bladder catheter (bladder pressure, IBP) and via nasogastric tube (gastric pressures, IGP) in the supine and HOB30 position. Each patient had three sets of IAP measurements performed at least 4 h apart. Results In the supine position, mean IBP was 12.3 ± 4.5 mmHg compared to IGP of 11.8 ± 4.7 mmHg. The bias between the two groups was 0.5 and precision of 3.7 (LA, -6.8 to 7.5 mmHg). At 30 degrees, mean IBP was 15.8 ± 4.9 mmHg compared to IGP of 13.1 ± 6.1 mmHg. The bias between both groups was 2.7 with a precision of 5.5 (LA, -8.0 to 13.5). Comparing IBP in the supine position with IGP at 30° showed a bias of -0.8 and precision of 5.6 (LA, -10.1 to 11.6 mmHg). Conclusion IAP measured via a nasogastric tube was less influenced by changing the body position from supine to HOB30 than was bladder pressure. PMID:22873412

  18. Comparing intra-abdominal pressures in different body positions via a urinary catheter and nasogastric tube: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rooban, Nirooshan; Regli, Adrian; Davis, Wendy A; De Keulenaer, Bart L

    2012-07-05

    Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is most commonly measured via the bladder with the patient in the supine position. In the ICU, patients are nursed with the head of the bed elevated at 30° (HOB30) to reduce the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia. This study investigated whether gastric pressure at HOB30 can be used as a surrogate measure of IAP via the bladder in the supine position. A prospective observational study was conducted in a single-centre intensive care unit. A total of 20 patients were included. IAP was recorded simultaneously via the bladder catheter (bladder pressure, IBP) and via nasogastric tube (gastric pressures, IGP) in the supine and HOB30 position. Each patient had three sets of IAP measurements performed at least 4 h apart. In the supine position, mean IBP was 12.3 ± 4.5 mmHg compared to IGP of 11.8 ± 4.7 mmHg. The bias between the two groups was 0.5 and precision of 3.7 (LA, -6.8 to 7.5 mmHg). At 30 degrees, mean IBP was 15.8 ± 4.9 mmHg compared to IGP of 13.1 ± 6.1 mmHg. The bias between both groups was 2.7 with a precision of 5.5 (LA, -8.0 to 13.5). Comparing IBP in the supine position with IGP at 30° showed a bias of -0.8 and precision of 5.6 (LA, -10.1 to 11.6 mmHg). IAP measured via a nasogastric tube was less influenced by changing the body position from supine to HOB30 than was bladder pressure.

  19. Assessment of biophysical therapy in the management of pain in current medical practice compared with ibuprofen and placebo: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Foletti, A; Baron, P; Sclauzero, E; Bucci, G; Rinaudo, A; Rocco, R

    2014-01-01

    Pain management is a daily part of current medical practice. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a biophysical procedure (Med Select 729) compared to a usual pain killer drug (Ibuprofen), and to placebo in order to disclose some effective procedures to be employed especially in elderly people with multiple comorbidities, in patients with allergy to chemical drugs or previous side effects, in non-responders to usual medications, and in chronic diseases to reduce overload. A total of 66 patients were divided in 3 groups. After one week of biophysical therapy they showed similar effect to ibuprofen and after one month the statistical significance was achieved with p less than 0.02 in comparison to placebo. We conclude that biophysical therapy was shown to be an effective and safe procedure for the management of pain in current medical practice.

  20. Randomised controlled trial comparing hypnotherapy versus gabapentin for the treatment of hot flashes in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    MacLaughlan David, Shannon; Salzillo, Sandra; Bowe, Patrick; Scuncio, Sandra; Malit, Bridget; Raker, Christina; Gass, Jennifer S; Granai, C O; Dizon, Don S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy of hypnotherapy versus gabapentin for the treatment of hot flashes in breast cancer survivors, and to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a clinical trial comparing a drug with a complementary or alternative method (CAM). Design Prospective randomised trial. Setting Breast health centre of a tertiary care centre. Participants 15 women with a personal history of breast cancer or an increased risk of breast cancer who reported at least one daily hot flash. Interventions Gabapentin 900 mg daily in three divided doses (control) compared with standardised hypnotherapy. Participation lasted 8 weeks. Outcome measures The primary endpoints were the number of daily hot flashes and hot flash severity score (HFSS). The secondary endpoint was the Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale (HFRDIS). Results 27 women were randomised and 15 (56%) were considered evaluable for the primary endpoint (n=8 gabapentin, n=7 hypnotherapy). The median number of daily hot flashes at enrolment was 4.5 in the gabapentin arm and 5 in the hypnotherapy arm. HFSS scores were 7.5 in the gabapentin arm and 10 in the hypnotherapy arm. After 8 weeks, the median number of daily hot flashes was reduced by 33.3% in the gabapentin arm and by 80% in the hypnotherapy arm. The median HFSS was reduced by 33.3% in the gabapentin arm and by 85% in the hypnotherapy arm. HFRDIS scores improved by 51.6% in the gabapentin group and by 55.2% in the hypnotherapy group. There were no statistically significant differences between groups. Conclusions Hypnotherapy and gabapentin demonstrate efficacy in improving hot flashes. A definitive trial evaluating traditional interventions against CAM methods is feasible, but not without challenges. Further studies aimed at defining evidence-based recommendations for CAM are necessary. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00711529). PMID:24022390

  1. Effects of trunk-hip strengthening on standing in children with spastic diplegia: a comparative pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joong-Hwi; Seo, Hye-Jung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of trunk-hip strengthening exercise on trunk-hip activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing in children with spastic diplegia and compared the improvement of pelvic tilt between the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise and conventional exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Ten ambulant children with spastic diplegia were randomized to the modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise (n = 5) or conventional exercise (n = 5) group. The intervention consisted of a 6-week modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise 3 times per week. The children were tested for trunk-hip muscles activation and pelvic tilt motion during standing by surface electromyography and an inclinometer before and after the intervention. [Results] The anterior pelvic tilt angle and activation of the extensor spinae, rectus femoris, and semitendinosus during standing decreased significantly in the modified exercise group. The activation of extensor spinae differed significantly between groups. [Conclusion] Compared to the conventional exercise, the modified exercise was more effective for trunk-hip activation improvement and anterior pelvic tilt motion decrease during standing in children with spastic diplegia. We suggest clinicians use an individually tailored modified trunk-hip strengthening exercise for strengthening the weakest muscle groups in children with standing ability problems. PMID:26157214

  2. Evaluation of a Comprehensive Delivery Room Neonatal Resuscitation and Adaptation Score (NRAS) Compared to the Apgar Score: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Jurdi, Shadi R; Jayaram, Archana; Sima, Adam P; Hendricks Muñoz, Karen D

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the interrater reliability and perceived importance of components of a developed neonatal adaption score, Neonatal Resuscitation Adaptation Score (NRAS), for evaluation of resuscitation need in the delivery room for extremely premature to term infants. Similar to the Apgar, the NRAS highest score was 10, but greater weight was given to respiratory and cardiovascular parameters. Evaluation of provider (N = 17) perception and scoring pattern was recorded for 5 clinical scenarios of gestational ages 23 to 40 weeks at 1 and 5 minutes and documenting NRAS and Apgar score. Providers assessed the tool twice within a 1-month interval. NRAS showed superior interrater reliability (P < .001) and respiratory component reliability (P < .001) for all gestational ages compared to the Apgar score. These findings identify an objective tool in resuscitation assessment of infants, especially those of smaller gestation age, allowing for greater discrimination of postbirth transition in the delivery room.

  3. Ethical issues in patient-centered outcomes research and comparative effectiveness research: a pilot study of community dialogue.

    PubMed

    Brody, Howard; Croisant, Sharon A; Crowder, Jerome W; Banda, Jonathan P

    2015-02-01

    Community bioethics dialogues were held on the topic of patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) and comparative effectiveness research (CER). Participants were 65 and older and represented either a lower income, African American group (A) or a higher income White group (B). Participants were presented with a variety of background reading and study materials. Meetings were held 2 hr per week for 6 weeks. The groups showed both independence in judgment from the investigators and diversity of opinion between the two groups. Group B addressed more topics than Group A and in some instances explored additional policy nuances. Members of Group A appeared more cognizant of issues of social justice that affect vulnerable populations and appeared leery of approaches that suggested possible disrespect for their own personal experiences. Future plans call for both repeating the dialogue with additional, diverse community groups and repeating community bioethics dialogues on new topics with the same groups.

  4. Reconstructed ACLs have different cross-sectional areas compared to the native contralaterals on postoperative MRIs. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vermesan, D; Prejbeanu, R; Trocan, I; Birsasteanu, F; Florescu, S; Balanescu, A; Abbinante, A; Caprio, M; Potenza, A; Dipalma, G; Cagiano, R; Inchingolo, F; Haragus, H

    2015-04-01

    The current trends in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction aim not only to restore the position and footprint of the native ACL, but also its shape and biomechanical function. The objective of our study was to determine whether the in vivo shape of the healed graft differs from the native ACL. We performed bilateral MRI examinations on patients with successful unilateral ACL reconstruction for an average period of 3 years. The imaging acquisitions were performed using 1.5 T field strength and T2 FSE axial oblique sequence at 2 mm spacing. We than averaged the ratio between the maximum width and thickness as well as the surface area in pixels using ImageJ (National Institutes for Health) and compared it with the native ACLs using the paired t-test. For both quadrupled hamstrings and B-PT-B neoligaments, the mid-portion area was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the native contralateral ACL: 41.82/31.39 mm2 and 37.05/32.08 mm2, respectively. The surface area of the neoligaments mid-portion was on average 33.23% higher than the native ACL for the quadrupled hamstrings and 15.49% for the B-PT-B, respectively. The native contralateral ACL was also significantly thinner throughout the mid-portion (p < 0.001) than both B-PT-B and quadrupled hamstrings neoligaments, with a width-thickness ratio of 2.57 vs 1.97 and 2.57 vs 1.39, respectively. Our study showed that, several years after successful anatomic single bundle ACL reconstruction using an ipsilateral autograft, the mid-portion shape and cross-sectional area are not restored compared to the uninjured contralateral knee. This effect was more prevalent with hamstrings and less prominent when B-PT-B were used.

  5. Workbooks to virtual worlds: a pilot study comparing educational tools to foster a culture of safety and respect in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Mallette, Claire; Duff, Margaret; McPhee, Carolyn; Pollex, Heather; Wood, Anya

    2011-01-01

    Nurses frequently experience horizontal violence in their interactions with nursing colleagues within the workplace. By definition, horizontal violence includes such disrespectful behaviours as intimidation, coercion, bullying, criticism, exclusion or belittling. Educational programs addressing horizontal violence have been developed, but few have been evaluated with respect to knowledge acquisition and transfer. The purpose of this paper is to describe an experimental effectiveness study, using a pre/post design with a control group (total N=164). The research evaluated an innovative educational program in which nurses, using avatars, role-played strategies to address horizontal violence within a virtual nursing unit developed on the Second Life platform. The results of participating in this program were compared with more traditional educational methodologies, such as a workbook and a self-directed e-learning module. While all strategies were perceived by participants as beneficial, the findings from this study suggest that learning through the self-directed e-learning module followed with practice in a virtual world is an effective way of acquiring knowledge, skills and abilities to better address horizontal violence.

  6. A pilot study comparing the effect of orally administered esomeprazole and omeprazole on gastric fluid pH in horses.

    PubMed

    Huxford, K E; Dart, A J; Perkins, N R; Bell, R; Jeffcott, L B

    2017-08-07

    AIMS To compare the efficacy of an enteric coated esomeprazole paste with an enteric coated omeprazole paste to increase gastric pH after oral administration in horses. METHODS Nine adult Standardbred horses were randomly assigned to three groups, each containing three horses, for a study comprising three phases of 10 days, with an 18-day washout period between each phase. In each phase, three horses received either 0.5 mg/kg esomeprazole, 1 mg/kg omeprazole or a placebo, as an oral paste, once daily for 10 days (Days 0-9). Over the course of study all horses received all three treatments. Gastric fluid samples were collected using a gastroscope on Days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10, with food and water withheld for 16 hours prior to collection of samples. The pH of all samples was measured immediately after collection. RESULTS Mean pH (3.38; SD 1.75) of the gastric fluid samples in the horses that received the placebo was lower than in the horses that received esomeprazole (6.28; SD 1.75) or omeprazole (6.13; SD 1.75) (p<0.001). There was no difference in the mean pH between horses receiving esomeprazole and those receiving omeprazole (p=0.56). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Under these study conditions, esomeprazole paste was equally as effective as omeprazole paste in increasing gastric pH in horses. Enteric coated esomeprazole, may be a therapeutic alternative to omeprazole for the prevention of gastric ulcers in horses.

  7. Comparing open and minimally invasive surgical procedures for oesophagectomy in the treatment of cancer: the ROMIO (Randomised Oesophagectomy: Minimally Invasive or Open) feasibility study and pilot trial.

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Chris; Avery, Kerry; Berrisford, Richard; Barham, Paul; Noble, Sian M; Fernandez, Aida Moure; Hanna, George; Goldin, Robert; Elliott, Jackie; Wheatley, Timothy; Sanders, Grant; Hollowood, Andrew; Falk, Stephen; Titcomb, Dan; Streets, Christopher; Donovan, Jenny L; Blazeby, Jane M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Localised oesophageal cancer can be curatively treated with surgery (oesophagectomy) but the procedure is complex with a risk of complications, negative effects on quality of life and a recovery period of 6-9 months. Minimal-access surgery may accelerate recovery. OBJECTIVES The ROMIO (Randomised Oesophagectomy: Minimally Invasive or Open) study aimed to establish the feasibility of, and methodology for, a definitive trial comparing minimally invasive and open surgery for oesophagectomy. Objectives were to quantify the number of eligible patients in a pilot trial; develop surgical manuals as the basis for quality assurance; standardise pathological processing; establish a method to blind patients to their allocation in the first week post surgery; identify measures of postsurgical outcome of importance to patients and clinicians; and establish the main cost differences between the surgical approaches. DESIGN Pilot parallel three-arm randomised controlled trial nested within feasibility work. SETTING Two UK NHS departments of upper gastrointestinal surgery. PARTICIPANTS Patients aged ≥ 18 years with histopathological evidence of oesophageal or oesophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma, squamous cell cancer or high-grade dysplasia, referred for oesophagectomy or oesophagectomy following neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy. INTERVENTIONS Oesophagectomy, with patients randomised to open surgery, a hybrid open chest and minimally invasive abdomen or totally minimally invasive access. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The primary outcome measure for the pilot trial was the number of patients recruited per month, with the main trial considered feasible if at least 2.5 patients per month were recruited. RESULTS During 21 months of recruitment, 263 patients were assessed for eligibility; of these, 135 (51%) were found to be eligible and 104 (77%) agreed to participate, an average of five patients per month. In total, 41 patients were allocated to open surgery, 43 to the

  8. New bone formation and trabecular bone microarchitecture of highly porous tantalum compared to titanium implant threads: A pilot canine study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Whan; Wen, Hai Bo; Gubbi, Prabhu; Romanos, Georgios E

    2017-10-02

    This study evaluated new bone formation activities and trabecular bone microarchitecture within the highly porous region of Trabecular Metal™ Dental Implants (TM) and between the threads of Tapered Screw-Vent® Dental Implants (TSV) in fresh canine extraction sockets. Eight partially edentulated dogs received four implants (4.1 mmD × 13 mmL) bilaterally in mandibular fresh extraction sockets (32 TM, 32 TSV implants), and allowed to heal for 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Calcein was administered to label mineralizing bone at 11 and 4 days before euthanasia for dogs undergoing all four healing periods. Biopsies taken at each time interval were examined histologically. Histomorphometric assay was conducted for 64 unstained and 64 stained slides at the region of interest (ROI) (6 mm long × 0.35 mm deep) in the midsections of the implants. Topographical and chemical analyses were also performed. Histomorphometry revealed significantly more new bone in the TM than in the TSV implants at each healing time (p = .0014, .0084, .0218, and .0251). Calcein-labeled data showed more newly mineralized bone in the TM group than in the TSV group at 2, 8, and 12 weeks (p = .045, .028, .002, respectively) but not at 4 weeks (p = .081). Histologically TM implants exhibited more bone growth and dominant new immature woven bone at an earlier time point than TSV implants. The parameters representing trabecular bone microarchitecture corroborated faster new bone formation in the TM implants when compared to the TSV implants. TM exhibited an irregular faceted topography compared to a relatively uniform microtextured surface for TSV. Chemical analysis showed peaks associated with each implant's composition material, and TSV also showed peaks reflecting the elements of the calcium phosphate blasting media. Results suggest that the healing pathway associated with the highly porous midsection of TM dental implant could enable faster and stronger secondary implant stability than

  9. Comparative genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the oral antidiabetic drugs sitagliptin, rosiglitazone, and pioglitazone in patients with type-2 diabetes: a cross-sectional, observational pilot study.

    PubMed

    Oz Gul, Ozen; Cinkilic, Nilufer; Gul, Cuma Bulent; Cander, Soner; Vatan, Ozgur; Ersoy, Canan; Yılmaz, Dilek; Tuncel, Ercan

    2013-09-18

    This cross-sectional, observational pilot study was designed to investigate the frequency of different endpoints of genotoxicity (sister-chromatid exchange, total chromosome aberrations, and micronucleus formation) and cytotoxicity (mitotic index, replication index, and nuclear division index) in the peripheral lymphocytes of patients with type-2 diabetes treated with different oral anti-diabetic agents for 6 months. A total of 104 patients who met the American Diabetes Association criteria for type-2 diabetes were enrolled in the study. Of the 104 patients, 33 were being treated with sitagliptin (100mg/day), 25 with pioglitazone (30mg/day), 22 with rosiglitazone (4mg/day), and 24 with medical nutrition therapy (control group). The results for all the genotoxicity endpoints were significantly different across the four study groups. Post hoc analysis revealed that the genotoxicity observed in the sitagliptin group was significantly higher than that observed in the medical nutrition therapy group, but lower than that occurring in subjects who received thiazolidinediones. All of the three cytotoxicity endpoints were significantly lower in patients treated by oral anti-diabetic agents compared with those who received medical nutrition therapy. However, the three indexes did not differ significantly in the sitagliptin, rosiglitazone, and pioglitazone groups. Taken together, these pilot data indicate that sitagliptin and thiazolidinediones may exert genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in patients with type-2 diabetes. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the possible long-term differences between oral anti-diabetic drugs in terms of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, and how these can modulate the risk of developing diabetic complications in general and cancer in particular.

  10. Comparative analysis of ultrasound changes in the vastus lateralis muscle following myofascial release and thermotherapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Kazuna; Takei, Hitoshi; Usa, Hideyuki; Mitomo, Shoh; Ogawa, Daisuke

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of myofascial release (MFR) and hot pack therapy (HPT) on fascial gliding and flexibility of the vastus lateralis muscle. Three treatments were applied to the left vastus lateralis muscles of each participant (12 healthy males): MFR for 4 min, superficial HPT for 10 min, and superficial HPT for 20 min. Deep fascial motion was measured by B-mode ultrasound, whereas muscle stiffness was measured by real-time elastography (RTE) and a durometer before and after the interventions. Only MFR resulted in changes in both deep fascial motion and muscle stiffness measured by RTE. Durometer-measured muscle stiffness revealed changes following both MFR and 20-min HPT but not 10-min HPT. HPT may produce only superficial effects. Because MFR improved all measured parameters, continuous stretching and pressure are probably important for improving fascial gliding and flexibility of the vastus lateralis muscle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative evaluation of long-term monotherapies & combination therapies in patients with chronic hepatitis B: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Manjita; Singh, Neha; Dixit, Vinod Kumar; Nath, Gopal; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Reduction of viraemia in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection using nucleoside/nucleotide analogues reduces fatal liver disease-related events, but development of resistance in virus presents serious clinical challenge. Therefore, comparative evaluation of prolonged antiviral monotherapy and combination therapies was prospectively studied to assess their influence on viral suppression, rapidity of response, development of drug resistance and surfacing mutants in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. Methods: A total of 158 (62eAg-ve) chronic hepatitis B patients were prospectively studied for 24 months. Final analysis was performed on patients treated with lamivudine (LAM, n = 28), adefovirdipivoxil (ADV, n = 24), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, n = 26), entecavir (ETV, n = 25), LAM + ADV (n = 28) and LAM + TDF (n = 27). Quantitative hepatitis B virus DNA was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Multiple comparisons among drugs and genotypic mutations were analyzed. Results: Progressive biochemical and virological response were noted with all the regimens at 24 months except LAM and ADV which were associated with viral breakthrough (VBT) in 46.4 and 25 per cent, respectively. Mutations: rtM204V (39.3%), M204V+L180M (10.7%) while rtA181V (8.1%) and rtN236T (8.3%) were observed with LAM and ADV regimen, respectively. LAM + ADV combination therapy revealed VBT in seven per cent of the cases without mutations whereas TDF, ETV and LAM + TDF therapies neither showed VBT nor mutations. Interpretation & conclusions: LAM was the least potent drug among all therapeutic options followed by ADV. TDF and ETV were genetically stable antivirals with a strong efficacy. Among newer combination therapies, LAM + TDF revealed more efficacy in virological remission and acted as a profound genetic barrier on long term. Hence, newer generation molecules (TDF, ETV) and effective combination therapy should be a certain choice

  12. Comparative evaluation of the stability of two different dental implant designs and surgical protocols-a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Simmons, David E; Maney, Pooja; Teitelbaum, Austin G; Billiot, Susan; Popat, Lomesh J; Palaiologou, A Archontia

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a parallel wall design implant to a tapered apex design implant when placed in the posterior maxilla using two different surgical protocols. Twenty-seven patients (30 implants) were divided into three groups. All implants were 4 mm wide in diameter and 8 mm long. Group A received 10 tapered implants (OSPTX) (Astra Tech OsseoSpeed TX™) using the soft bone surgical protocol (TXSoft). Group B received 10 tapered implants (OSPTX) (AstraTech OsseoSpeedTX™) using the standard surgical protocol (TXStd). Group C received 10 parallel wall implants (OSP) (AstraTech OsseoSpeed™) using the standard surgical protocol (OStd). All implants were placed in the posterior maxilla in areas with a minimum of 8-mm crestal bone height. Resonance frequency measurements (implant stability quotient (ISQ)) and torque values were recorded to determine initial implant stability. All implants were uncovered 6 weeks after placement and restored with a functionally loaded resin provisional screw-retained crown. Resonance frequency measurements were recorded at the time of implant placement, at 6 weeks and 6 and 12 months. Twelve months after implant placement, the stability of the implants was recorded and the final restorations were placed using custom CAD/CAM fabricated abutments and cement-retained PFM DSIGN porcelain crowns. After implant restoration, bone levels were measured at 6 and 12 months with standardized radiographs. Radiographic mean bone loss was less than 0.5 mm in all groups, with no statistically significant differences between the groups. Implant survival rate at 1 year was 93.3%, with 2/30 implants failing to integrate prior to functional loading at 6 weeks. No statistically significant difference was found between ISQ measurements between the three groups at all time intervals measured. Strong positive correlations were found between overall bone loss at 6 months and insertion torque at time of placement. A very weak

  13. Quality of Life and Neutropenia in Patients with Early Stage Breast Cancer: A Randomized Pilot Study Comparing Additional Treatment with Mistletoe Extract to Chemotherapy Alone

    PubMed Central

    Tröger, Wilfried; Jezdić, Svetlana; Ždrale, Zdravko; Tišma, Nevena; Hamre, Harald J.; Matijašević, Miodrag

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy for breast cancer often deteriorates quality of life, augments fatigue, and induces neutropenia. Mistletoe preparations are frequently used by cancer patients in Central Europe. Physicians have reported better quality of life in breast cancer patients additionally treated with mistletoe preparations during chemotherapy. Mistletoe preparations also have immunostimulant properties and might therefore have protective effects against chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective randomized open label pilot study with 95 patients randomized into three groups. Two groups received Iscador® M special (IMS) or a different mistletoe preparation, respectively, additionally to chemotherapy with six cycles of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, and 5-fluoro-uracil (CAF). A control group received CAF with no additional therapy. Here we report the comparison IMS (n = 30) vs. control (n = 31). Quality of life including fatigue was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30). Neutropenia was defined as neutrophil counts <1,000/μl and assessed at baseline and one day before each CAF cycle. Results: In the descriptive analysis all 15 scores of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 showed better quality of life in the IMS group compared to the control group. In 12 scores the differences were significant (p < 0.02) and nine scores showed a clinically relevant and significant difference of at least 5 points. Neutropenia occurred in 3/30 IMS patients and in 8/31 control patients (p = 0.182). Conclusions: This pilot study showed an improvement of quality of life by treating breast cancer patients with IMS additionally to CAF. CAF-induced neutropenia showed a trend to lower frequency in the IMS group. PMID:21556248

  14. Use of an optical comparator for radiographic measurement of bone loss around endosseous implants: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, A A; Caudill, R; Beatty, K

    1995-01-01

    A technique for the measurement of bone loss around endosseous implants using an optical comparator was investigated. Five operators were asked to measure the mesial and distal alveolar bone levels around a screw type dental implant on a periapical radiograph mounted on an optical comparator. The known size of a threaded implant was used as a reference. The bone loss around the implant was calculated by taking the average of the mesial and distal measurements. Statistical analysis at the 95 percent confidence level demonstrated that there was no significant difference among the measurements. Although the initial results are encouraging, additional research is necessary with a larger sample size to validate the accuracy of optical comparator readings and compare the efficacy of this technique with other currently used methods for determining bone loss around root form implants.

  15. Effects of mobile augmented reality learning compared to textbook learning on medical students: randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Urs-Vito; Folta-Schoofs, Kristian; Behrends, Marianne; von Jan, Ute

    2013-08-20

    ARble, fatigue (z=2.214, P=.03) and numbness (z=2.07, P=.04) decreased with statistical significance when comparing pre- and post-tests. Vigor rose slightly, while irritability did not increase significantly. Changes in the control group were insignificant. Regarding hedonic quality (identification, stimulation, attractiveness), there were significant differences between mARble (mean 1.179, CI -0.440 to 0.440) and the book chapter (mean -0.982, CI -0.959 to 0.959); the pragmatic quality mean only differed slightly. The mARble group performed considerably better regarding learning efficiency; there are hints for activating components of the mAR concept that may serve to fascinate the participants and possibly boost interest in the topic for the remainder of the class. While the small sample size reduces our study's conclusiveness, its design seems appropriate for determining the effects of interactive eLearning material with respect to emotions, learning efficiency, and hedonic and pragmatic qualities using a larger group. German Clinical Trial Register (DRKS), DRKS-ID: DRKS00004685; https://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00004685.

  16. Louisiana Adult Performance Level Pilot Study: A Comparative Analysis of APL Competency-Based Instructional Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauzat, Sam V.

    Adults enrolled in local adult basic education programs at six sites in Louisiana were used to compare the credibility of Adult Performance Level (APL) competency-based instructional programs (experimental group) with traditional adult education instructional activities (control group). Focus was on determining the correlation between grade level…

  17. Cardiac Autonomic Function at Baseline and under Stress and Its Relationship to Circulatory Markers of Inflammation in Obese Compared to Nonobese Children: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hursh, Brenden E; Fazeli, Mir Sohail; Wang, Sarah; Marchant, Elizabeth A; Woo, Paula; Elango, Rajavel; Lavoie, Pascal M; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Collet, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) provides neurogenic control of inflammatory reactions. ANS changes in obesity may result in inflammation. This study sought to gain insight into cardiac autonomic dysfunction and inflammation in childhood obesity, and to gather pilot data on the potential relationship between altered ANS and inflammation. Fifteen obese children and adolescents without metabolic complications and 15 nonobese controls underwent heart rate variability and impedance cardiography testing during rest, mental stress, and physical stress. Inflammatory cytokines and immune reactivity were measured. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in cardiac ANS testing at rest or in response to stress. Median high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was higher in the obese group [obese 2.6 mg/l (IQR 1.6-11.9); nonobese 0.3 mg/l (IQR 0.2-0.7); p < 0.001]. Interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α were similar between groups. Immune reactivity testing (in vitro Toll-like receptor stimulation) revealed a strong, but comparable, inflammatory response in both groups. Obese children and adolescents without metabolic complications did not have cardiac ANS dysfunction. While hsCRP was elevated, systemic cytokines were not raised. Compared to prior studies, which often focused on children with obesity and its complications, it is encouraging that obese children without metabolic complications may not yet have autonomic dysfunction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Comparative analysis of the visual performance and aberrometric outcomes with a new hybrid and two silicone hydrogel multifocal contact lenses: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Piñero, David P; Carracedo, Gonzalo; Ruiz-Fortes, Pedro; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the visual performance achieved with a new multifocal hybrid contact lens and to compare it with that obtained with two other currently available multifocal soft contact lenses. This pilot prospective comparative study comprised a total of 16 presbyopic eyes of eight patients ranging in age from 43 to 58 years. All patients were fitted with three different models of multifocal contact lens: Duette multifocal (SynergEyes), Air Optix AQUA multifocal (Alcon) and Biofinity multifocal (CooperVision). Fittings were performed randomly in each patient according to a random number sequence, with a wash-out period between fittings of seven days. At two weeks post-fitting, visual, photopic contrast sensitivity and ocular aberrometry were evaluated. No statistically significant differences were found in distance and near visual acuity achieved with the three different types of multifocal contact lens (p ≥ 0.05). Likewise, no significant differences between lenses were found in the monocular and binocular defocus curve (p ≥ 0.10). Concerning contrast sensitivity, better monocular contrast sensitivities for 6, 12 and 18 cycles per degree were found with the Duette and Air Optix multifocal compared to Biofinity (p = 0.02). Binocularly, differences between lenses were not significant (p ≥ 0.27). Furthermore, trefoil aberration was significantly higher with Biofinity multifocal (p < 0.01) and Air Optix (p = 0.01) multifocal compared to Duette. The Duette multifocal hybrid contact lens seems to provide similar visual quality outcomes in presbyopic patients with low corneal astigmatism, when compared with other soft multifocal contact lenses. This preliminary result should be confirmed in studies with larger samples. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  19. A randomized pilot study comparing zero-calorie alternate-day fasting to daily caloric restriction in adults with obesity.

    PubMed

    Catenacci, Victoria A; Pan, Zhaoxing; Ostendorf, Danielle; Brannon, Sarah; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Mattson, Mark P; Martin, Bronwen; MacLean, Paul S; Melanson, Edward L; Troy Donahoo, William

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the safety and tolerability of alternate-day fasting (ADF) and to compare changes in weight, body composition, lipids, and insulin sensitivity index (Si) with those produced by a standard weight loss diet, moderate daily caloric restriction (CR). Adults with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) , age 18-55) were randomized to either zero-calorie ADF (n = 14) or CR (-400 kcal/day, n = 12) for 8 weeks. Outcomes were measured at the end of the 8-week intervention and after 24 weeks of unsupervised follow-up. No adverse effects were attributed to ADF, and 93% completed the 8-week ADF protocol. At 8 weeks, ADF achieved a 376 kcal/day greater energy deficit; however, there were no significant between-group differences in change in weight (mean ± SE; ADF -8.2 ± 0.9 kg, CR -7.1 ± 1.0 kg), body composition, lipids, or Si. After 24 weeks of unsupervised follow-up, there were no significant differences in weight regain; however, changes from baseline in % fat mass and lean mass were more favorable in ADF. ADF is a safe and tolerable approach to weight loss. ADF produced similar changes in weight, body composition, lipids, and Si at 8 weeks and did not appear to increase risk for weight regain 24 weeks after completing the intervention. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  20. A PILOT STUDY COMPARING THE BLOCK SYSTEM AND THE INTERMITTENT SYSTEM OF SCHEDULING SPEECH CORRECTION CASES IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WEAVER, JOHN B.; WOLLERSHEIM, JANET P.

    TO DETERMINE THE MOST EFFICIENT USES OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SPEECH CORRECTIONIST'S SKILLS AND TIME, A STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE INTERMITTENT SYSTEM AND THE BLOCK SYSTEM OF SCHEDULING SPEECH CASES. WITH THE INTERMITTENT SYSTEM THE CORRECTIONIST IS ASSIGNED TO A NUMBER OF SCHOOLS AND GENERALLY SEES CHILDREN TWICE A…

  1. Comparative Observations of Learning Engagement by Students with Developmental Disabilities Using an iPad and Computer: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthanat, Sajay; Curtin, Christine; Knotak, David

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of the Apple iPad for learning by children with developmental disabilities (DD), including those on the autism spectrum. A single case design was used to record the participation of four students with DD when taught with their standard computer at baseline, followed by the introduction of the iPad. A six-component…

  2. A Pilot Study to Compare a Mushroom-Soy-Beef Burger to an All-Beef Burger in School Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Amber C.; Smith, Paul; Ezike, Adaora; Frutchey, Robin; Fahle, Jenna; DeVries, Eva; Taylor, Jarrett; Cheskin, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if mushroom blended recipes are an acceptable option for use in the school food program. The palatability and acceptance of mushroom-soy-beef blend burgers among school-aged children was tested. Methods: Students in grades 2 through 8 were invited to participate in a taste test.…

  3. Comparative Observations of Learning Engagement by Students with Developmental Disabilities Using an iPad and Computer: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthanat, Sajay; Curtin, Christine; Knotak, David

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of the Apple iPad for learning by children with developmental disabilities (DD), including those on the autism spectrum. A single case design was used to record the participation of four students with DD when taught with their standard computer at baseline, followed by the introduction of the iPad. A six-component…

  4. A Pilot Study to Compare a Mushroom-Soy-Beef Burger to an All-Beef Burger in School Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Amber C.; Smith, Paul; Ezike, Adaora; Frutchey, Robin; Fahle, Jenna; DeVries, Eva; Taylor, Jarrett; Cheskin, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if mushroom blended recipes are an acceptable option for use in the school food program. The palatability and acceptance of mushroom-soy-beef blend burgers among school-aged children was tested. Methods: Students in grades 2 through 8 were invited to participate in a taste test.…

  5. Effects of Mobile Augmented Reality Learning Compared to Textbook Learning on Medical Students: Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background By adding new levels of experience, mobile Augmented Reality (mAR) can significantly increase the attractiveness of mobile learning applications in medical education. Objective To compare the impact of the heightened realism of a self-developed mAR blended learning environment (mARble) on learners to textbook material, especially for ethically sensitive subjects such as forensic medicine, while taking into account basic psychological aspects (usability and higher level of emotional involvement) as well as learning outcomes (increased learning efficiency). Methods A prestudy was conducted based on a convenience sample of 10 third-year medical students. The initial emotional status was captured using the “Profile of Mood States” questionnaire (POMS, German variation); previous knowledge about forensic medicine was determined using a 10-item single-choice (SC) test. During the 30-minute learning period, the students were randomized into two groups: the first group consisted of pairs of students, each equipped with one iPhone with a preinstalled copy of mARble, while the second group was provided with textbook material. Subsequently, both groups were asked to once again complete the POMS questionnaire and SC test to measure changes in emotional state and knowledge gain. Usability as well as pragmatic and hedonic qualities of the learning material was captured using AttrakDiff2 questionnaires. Data evaluation was conducted anonymously. Descriptive statistics for the score in total and the subgroups were calculated before and after the intervention. The scores of both groups were tested against each other using paired and unpaired signed-rank tests. An item analysis was performed for the SC test to objectify difficulty and selectivity. Results Statistically significant, the mARble group (6/10) showed greater knowledge gain than the control group (4/10) (Wilcoxon z=2.232, P=.03). The item analysis of the SC test showed a difficulty of P=0.768 (s=0.09) and a

  6. Sources of evidence in HIV/AIDS care: pilot study comparing family physicians and AIDS service organization staff

    PubMed Central

    Stefanski, Kasia E; Tracy, C Shawn; Upshur, Ross EG

    2004-01-01

    Background The improvement of the quality of the evidence used in treatment decision-making is especially important in the case of patients with complicated disease processes such as HIV/AIDS for which multiple treatment strategies exist with conflicting reports of efficacy. Little is known about the perceptions of distinct groups of health care workers regarding various sources of evidence and how these influence the clinical decision-making process. Our objective was to investigate how two groups of treatment information providers for people living with HIV/AIDS perceive the importance of various sources of treatment information. Methods Surveys were distributed to staff at two local AIDS service organizations and to family physicians at three community health centres treating people living with HIV/AIDS. Participants were asked to rate the importance of 10 different sources of evidence for HIV/AIDS treatment information on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Mean rating scores and relative rankings were compared. Results Findings suggest that a discordance exists between the two health information provider groups in terms of their perceptions of the various sources of evidence. Furthermore, AIDS service organization staff ranked health care professionals as the most important source of information whereas physicians deemed AIDS service organizations to be relatively unimportant. The two groups appear to share a common mistrust for information from pharmaceutical industries. Conclusions Discordance exists between medical "experts" from different backgrounds relating to their perceptions of evidence. Further investigation is warranted in order to reveal any effects on the quality of treatment information and implications in the decision-making process. Possible effects on collaboration and working relationships also warrant further exploration. PMID:15245578

  7. A pilot study comparing the pain sensations during PpIX build-up and clearance phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajewska, P.; Juzeniene, A.; Iani, V.; Sollund, H.; Norsang, G.; Moan, J.

    2009-06-01

    It has been speculated that topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or methyl 5-aminolevulinate (MAL) may be more painful during light exposure after longer application times of the compounds than after shorter times, even though the same levels of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is produced in both cases. The aim of our study was to investigate pain induction in the build-up and clearance phases of PpIX in the skin of healthy volunteers. 0.6 mmol/g of ALA (10% wt/wt) and MAL (11% wt/wt) creams were applied on the volunteers. The creams were maintained on the spots for 20- 24 hours and then wiped off. Subsequently, fresh creams were applied on the other arm of the volunteers for 4- 6 hours. Fluorescence emission spectra for all spots were measured every hour until the fluorescence levels were similar in both arms for ALA and MAL. Then the test areas were exposed to light until pain occurred. Time for pain to occur was recorded. The fluorescence of PpIX was measured before and after light exposure. PDT in the clearance phase seems to induce pain faster than in the build-up phase for ALA and MAL. Due to large interpersonal variations between volunteers further investigation is needed.

  8. A Randomized Clinical Trial on Treatment of Chronic Constipation by Traditional Persian Medicine Recommendations Compared to Allopathic Medicine: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Alorizi, Seyed Morteza Emami; Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M.; Parvizi, Mohammad Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and side effects of lactulose plus traditional Persian medicine with only lactulose on the functional chronic constipation. Methods: Participants included 20 patients (10 in each group) aged 18–80 years, with major inclusion criteria of ROME III. They were assigned into two parallel therapeutic groups, including the intervention group (lactulose plus traditional Persian medicine [TPM] advices) and control group (only lactulose) through a block randomization. Weekly follow-up was done for 1 month for both groups. Results: After the intervention, the frequency of bowel habit increased significantly in patients of both groups (P = 0.001), and the frequency of hard stool defecation, sensation of painful defecation, sensation of incomplete evacuation, sensation of anorectal obstruction, and manual maneuver for evacuation were decreased significantly in patients of both groups (P < 0.001 for all comparisons and 0.025 for manual maneuver). However, the only significant difference between the two groups was more reduction in the sensation of painful defecation in the lactulose group versus lactulose plus TPM advices (P = 0.014). Conclusions: Based on the pilot study, no significant difference was shown between TPM with lactulose and lactulose only in the management of chronic functional constipation. However, the easy recommendations of TPM can be useful in improving chronic constipation. PMID:28757927

  9. Eliciting preferences for priority setting in genetic testing: a pilot study comparing best-worst scaling and discrete-choice experiments

    PubMed Central

    Severin, Franziska; Schmidtke, Jörg; Mühlbacher, Axel; Rogowski, Wolf H

    2013-01-01

    Given the increasing number of genetic tests available, decisions have to be made on how to allocate limited health-care resources to them. Different criteria have been proposed to guide priority setting. However, their relative importance is unclear. Discrete-choice experiments (DCEs) and best-worst scaling experiments (BWSs) are methods used to identify and weight various criteria that influence orders of priority. This study tests whether these preference eliciting techniques can be used for prioritising genetic tests and compares the empirical findings resulting from these two approaches. Pilot DCE and BWS questionnaires were developed for the same criteria: prevalence, severity, clinical utility, alternatives to genetic testing available, infrastructure for testing and care established, and urgency of care. Interview-style experiments were carried out among different genetics professionals (mainly clinical geneticists, researchers and biologists). A total of 31 respondents completed the DCE and 26 completed the BWS experiment. Weights for the levels of the six attributes were estimated by conditional logit models. Although the results derived from the DCE and BWS experiments differed in detail, we found similar valuation patterns in the DCE and BWS experiments. The respondents attached greatest value to tests with high clinical utility (defined by the availability of treatments that reduce mortality and morbidity) and to testing for highly prevalent conditions. The findings from this study exemplify how decision makers can use quantitative preference eliciting methods to measure aggregated preferences in order to prioritise alternative clinical interventions. Further research is necessary to confirm the survey results. PMID:23486538

  10. Conducting pilot and feasibility studies.

    PubMed

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-03-01

    Planning a well-designed research study can be tedious and laborious work. However, this process is critical and ultimately can produce valid, reliable study findings. Designing a large-scale randomized, controlled trial (RCT)-the gold standard in quantitative research-can be even more challenging. Even the most well-planned study potentially can result in issues with research procedures and design, such as recruitment, retention, or methodology. One strategy that may facilitate sound study design is the completion of a pilot or feasibility study prior to the initiation of a larger-scale trial. This article will discuss pilot and feasibility studies, their advantages and disadvantages, and implications for oncology nursing research. 
.

  11. Framework for planning and conducting pilot studies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lisa Janette; Harrison, Margaret B

    2009-12-01

    Researchers working with partners in home care to plan a pragmatic multicenter community-based, randomized, controlled trial for leg ulcer compression treatment realized a smaller pilot study would be necessary. Because no framework for conducting pilot studies could be found, the authors developed a framework for pilot study methodology to inform the planning of such research. To this end, an integrative literature review was conducted, guided by an explicit search strategy, retrieval procedures, and appraisal process, to identify recognized pilot study aims, processes, and methodologies used in previously reported community pilot studies. Factors influencing study inclusion were recognized pilot study aims and purposes and a concise working definition of pilot study. Methodologies used in previously conducted community pilot studies were reviewed. Although relevant published research was limited, 11 pilot studies met the inclusion criteria for this review and contained suggestions to further develop or improve plans for larger definitive trials to enable a better fit of protocols within the delivery systems and scopes of practice. Pilot research processes could be divided into two stages: early planning and pilot trial. Direction for procedures and methods was gained relative to planning for an effective pilot study regarding eligibility, recruitment and data collection, management, and analysis. The results were used to develop an organizing framework for the authors' pilot study and named the Pilot Research Process (PReP) Framework. The process was instrumental in working with the authors' research team and clinical partners in the planning of their leg ulcer treatment pilot study. This framework may provide a foundation for others to analyze or develop a pilot study methodology in planning a large-scale study.

  12. A Pilot Study Comparing HPV-Positive and HPV-Negative Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas by Whole Exome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Anthony C.; Chan-Seng-Yue, Michelle; Yoo, John; Xu, Wei; Dhaliwal, Sandeep; Basmaji, John; Szeto, Christopher C. T.; Dowthwaite, Samuel; Todorovic, Biljana; Starmans, Maud H. W.; Lambin, Philippe; Palma, David A.; Fung, Kevin; Franklin, Jason H.; Wehrli, Bret; Kwan, Keith; Koropatnick, James; Mymryk, Joe S.; Boutros, Paul; Barrett, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Next-generation sequencing of cancers has identified important therapeutic targets and biomarkers. The goal of this pilot study was to compare the genetic changes in a human papillomavirus- (HPV-)positive and an HPV-negative head and neck tumor. Methods. DNA was extracted from the blood and primary tumor of a patient with an HPV-positive tonsillar cancer and those of a patient with an HPV-negative oral tongue tumor. Exome enrichment was performed using the Agilent SureSelect All Exon Kit, followed by sequencing on the ABI SOLiD platform. Results. Exome sequencing revealed slightly more mutations in the HPV-negative tumor (73) in contrast to the HPV-positive tumor (58). Multiple mutations were noted in zinc finger genes (ZNF3, 10, 229, 470, 543, 616, 664, 638, 716, and 799) and mucin genes (MUC4, 6, 12, and 16). Mutations were noted in MUC12 in both tumors. Conclusions. HPV-positive HNSCC is distinct from HPV-negative disease in terms of evidence of viral infection, p16 status, and frequency of mutations. Next-generation sequencing has the potential to identify novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers in HNSCC. PMID:23304554

  13. [Pilot study to assess and compare the eating habits and nutrition knowledge in school-age Italians and Finns, using specific questionnaires].

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, M; Opizzi, A; Faliva, M; Monteferrario, F; Perna, S; Viale, M; Ashorn, M; Giacosa, A

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, the American diet has emerged in our country as a reference model food, particularly among young people, to the detriment of the Mediterranean diet, an healthy eating pattern rich in fruits and vegetables, olive oil, whole grains and fish. Even in Europe, North American habits are widespread at the expense of traditional northern nutritional powers, characterized by a lot of fish, wild game meat that are much thinner than from farm animals, rye, oats, cabbage, root vegetables. Given this background, in Pavia (Italy) and Tampere (Finland) we conducted a pilot study with the objective to assess and compare the eating habits and nutrition knowledge in school-age children using 2 questionnaires entitled "what do you eat?" and "what do you know about diet and health?". The results of the first questionnaire clearly shows that, among young people of both countries, there is the loss of traditional food: the Mediterranean and the Finnish diet. All the boys wear it with a low frequency fish, fruit and vegetables, and instead a high frequency of adverse health foods, such as potato chips and sweet drinks. The answers to questions which relate to nutrients and their properties, show that children of all groups have little knowledge about these topics. The use of questionnaires, such as those administered by us, can be easily performed to investigate the dietary habits and the nutritional level of culture, due to make nutrition education interventions aimed at correcting poor eating habits.

  14. Two center, randomized pilot study of migraine prophylaxis comparing paradigms using pre-emptive frovatriptan or daily topiramate: research and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Cady, Roger K; Voirin, James; Farmer, Kathleen; Browning, Rebecca; Beach, M E; Tarrasch, Jeanne

    2012-05-01

    To compare the efficacy and clinical benefit of 2 paradigms of migraine prevention using pre-emptive frovatriptan and daily topiramate. The study compares the paradigms of pre-emptive use of frovatriptan, a drug approved for acute migraine, and the daily use of topiramate, a Federal Drug Administration-approved and -accepted standard for migraine prophylaxis. Traditionally, preventive treatment of migraine required daily medication. However, recent studies suggest that pre-emptive prophylaxis may be beneficial to those migraineurs who can predict an attack of migraine based on premonitory symptoms and treat during that phase. A total of 76 adult subjects with a diagnosis of migraine were screened for the study. During a 1-month baseline period, subjects demonstrated through a daily diary that they predicted at least 50% of migraine attacks during the premonitory phase and treated with their usual medication. Of these, 55 were randomized to either Group A (daily topiramate) or Group B (frovatriptan during premonitory symptoms); 44 completed the study. The treatment period lasted 2 months. The subjects answered the Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire at randomization, and at Weeks 4 and 8. The revised Patient Perception of Migraine Questionnaire was answered 24 hours after taking frovatriptan (Group A, for break-through headaches; Group B, treatment during premonitory symptoms). The number of migraine attacks and headache days per month decreased significantly from baseline for both Groups A and B. Subjects in Group A had considerably more adverse events leading to study withdrawal than in Group B (18% vs 4%). Though this study was not powered to directly compare the efficacy of the 2 drugs, topiramate showed superiority over frovatriptan at Month 2 in reduction of headache days, which was a secondary end point in the study (P = .036). This pilot study demonstrated that statistical benefit for reduction of headache days over baseline for both pre

  15. Distal radius plate of CFR-PEEK has minimal effect compared to titanium plates on bone parameters in high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Joost J A; Lataster, Arno; van Rietbergen, Bert; Arts, Jacobus J; Geusens, Piet P; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Willems, Paul C

    2017-02-27

    Carbon-fiber-reinforced poly-ether-ether-ketone (CFR-PEEK) has superior radiolucency compared to other orthopedic implant materials, e.g. titanium or stainless steel, thus allowing metal-artifact-free postoperative monitoring by computed tomography (CT). Recently, high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HRpQCT) proved to be a promising technique to monitor the recovery of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), micro-architecture and biomechanical parameters in stable conservatively treated distal radius fractures. When using HRpQCT to monitor unstable distal radius fractures that require volar distal radius plating for fixation, radiolucent CFR-PEEK plates may be a better alternative to currently used titanium plates to allow for reliable assessment. In this pilot study, we assessed the effect of a volar distal radius plate made from CFR-PEEK on bone parameters obtained from HRpQCT in comparison to two titanium plates. Plates were instrumented in separate cadaveric human fore-arms (n = 3). After instrumentation and after removal of the plates duplicate HRpQCT scans were made of the region covered by the plate. HRpQCT images were visually checked for artifacts. vBMD, micro-architectural and biomechanical parameters were calculated, and compared between the uninstrumented and instrumented radii. No visible image artifacts were observed in the CFR-PEEK plate instrumented radius, and errors in bone parameters ranged from -3.2 to 2.6%. In the radii instrumented with the titanium plates, severe image artifacts were observed and errors in bone parameters ranged between -30.2 and 67.0%. We recommend using CFR-PEEK plates in longitudinal in vivo studies that monitor the healing process of unstable distal radius fractures treated operatively by plating or bone graft ingrowth.

  16. Comparing Auditory Noise Treatment with Stimulant Medication on Cognitive Task Performance in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Söderlund, Göran B. W.; Björk, Christer; Gustafsson, Peik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent research has shown that acoustic white noise (80 dB) can improve task performance in people with attention deficits and/or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This is attributed to the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in which a certain amount of noise can improve performance in a brain that is not working at its optimum. We compare here the effect of noise exposure with the effect of stimulant medication on cognitive task performance in ADHD. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of auditory noise exposure with stimulant medication for ADHD children on a cognitive test battery. A group of typically developed children (TDC) took the same tests as a comparison. Methods: Twenty children with ADHD of combined or inattentive subtypes and twenty TDC matched for age and gender performed three different tests (word recall, spanboard and n-back task) during exposure to white noise (80 dB) and in a silent condition. The ADHD children were tested with and without central stimulant medication. Results: In the spanboard- and the word recall tasks, but not in the 2-back task, white noise exposure led to significant improvements for both non-medicated and medicated ADHD children. No significant effects of medication were found on any of the three tasks. Conclusion: This pilot study shows that exposure to white noise resulted in a task improvement that was larger than the one with stimulant medication thus opening up the possibility of using auditory noise as an alternative, non-pharmacological treatment of cognitive ADHD symptoms. PMID:27656153

  17. Lanthanum carbonate delays progression of coronary artery calcification compared with calcium-based phosphate binders in patients on hemodialysis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ohtake, Takayasu; Kobayashi, Shuzo; Oka, Machiko; Furuya, Rei; Iwagami, Masao; Tsutsumi, Daimu; Mochida, Yasuhiro; Maesato, Kyoko; Ishioka, Kunihiro; Moriya, Hidekazu; Hidaka, Sumi

    2013-09-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is associated with future cardiovascular events and/or death of patients on hemodialysis (HD). We investigated whether progression of CAC in patients on HD could be delayed by switching from a calcium (Ca)-based phosphate (Pi) binder to lanthanum carbonate. The CAC scores were evaluated at study enrollment and after 6 months in 52 patients on HD using calcium carbonate (CC) as a Pi binder. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups assigned to receive either CC or lanthanum carbonate (LC), and the CAC scores were evaluated after a 6-month treatment period. Progression of CAC was assessed, as were serum levels of Ca, Pi, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH). Forty-two patients completed the study (23 receiving CC and 19 receiving LC). In the 6 months prior to randomization, all patients were treated with CC. During this 6-month period, the CAC scores increased significantly in all 42 patients. Once randomized, there was significantly less progression in the group treated with LC than with CC. Changes in CAC scores from 6 to 12 months were significantly smaller in the LC group than the CC group (-288.9 ± 1176.4 vs 107.1 ± 559.6, P = .036), and percentage changes were also significantly different (-6.4% vs 41.2%, P = .024). Serum Ca, Pi, and iPTH levels were similar in both groups during the study period. This pilot study suggested that LC delayed progression of CAC in patients on HD compared with CC.

  18. Training symmetry of weight distribution after stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study comparing task-related reach, Bobath and feedback training approaches.

    PubMed

    Mudie, M H; Winzeler-Mercay, U; Radwan, S; Lee, L

    2002-09-01

    To determine (1) the most effective of three treatment approaches to retrain seated weight distribution long-term after stroke and (2) whether improvements could be generalized to weight distribution in standing. Inpatient rehabilitation unit. Forty asymmetrical acute stroke subjects were randomly allocated to one of four groups in this pilot study. Changes in weight distribution were compared between the 10 subjects of each of three treatment groups (task-specific reach, Bobath, or Balance Performance Monitor [BPM] feedback training) and a no specific treatment control group. One week of measurement only was followed by two weeks of daily training sessions with the treatment to which the subject was randomly allocated. Measurements were performed using the BPM daily before treatment sessions, two weeks after cessation of treatment and 12 weeks post study. Weight distribution was calculated in terms of mean balance (percentage of total body weight) or the mean of 300 balance points over a 30-s data run. In the short term, the Bobath approach was the most effective treatment for retraining sitting symmetry after stroke (p = 0.004). Training with the BPM and no training were also significant (p = 0.038 and p = 0.035 respectively) and task-specific reach training failed to reach significance (p = 0.26). At 12 weeks post study 83% of the BPM training group, 38% of the task-specific reach group, 29% of the Bobath group and 0% of the untrained group were found to be distributing their weight to both sides. Some generalization of symmetry training in sitting to standing was noted in the BPM training group which appeared to persist long term. Results should be treated with caution due to the small group sizes. However, these preliminary findings suggest that it might be possible to restore postural symmetry in sitting in the early stages of rehabilitation with therapy that focuses on creating an awareness of body position.

  19. Transfer Readiness Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Skillman, Thelma; And Others

    The California Community Colleges (CCC) has implemented a prototype model for determining student transfer readiness as a primary means of assessing community college transfer effectiveness. This report provides definitions of transfer readiness and guidelines for colleges participating in the CCC transfer readiness study. First, a memorandum from…

  20. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  1. [E-learning in orthopedics and traumatology. A comparative pilot study on acceptance and knowledge acquisition among users and non-users].

    PubMed

    Hoff, E; Haberstroh, N; Sostmann, K; Perka, C; Putzier, M; Schmidmaier, G; Back, D A

    2014-07-01

    Additional internet-based learning tools (e-learning) are successfully used in the curricula of many disciplines and are highly accepted among students. However, in orthopedics and traumatology e-learning is underrepresented and scientific papers are rare. The aim of the present pilot study was to evaluate the acceptance of the e-learning module network for students in traumatology and orthopedics (NESTOR) among users and non-users and to analyze the effect of this additional learning tool on knowledge acquisition. A total of 544 students were asked to complete evaluation questionnaires at the end of two semesters using different ones for NESTOR users and non-users. The gain of knowledge was analyzed by two written knowledge tests (pre-post test, 20 multiple choice questions) at the beginning and end of the semester comparing these two groups. A total of 191 students took part in the evaluation and 152 completed both written tests. The NESTOR users showed a high acceptance of the e-learning system and non-users considered e-learning beneficial as well. Reasons given for not using NESTOR were lack of time, lack of information about the existence of NESTOR and a lack of interest in this discipline and e-learning in general. Both groups significantly increased their level of knowledge during the course of the semester (p < 0.01), whereas users scored significantly higher in the post-test (p < 0.05). The presented data support the high acceptance among users and the benefit of the e-learning project NESTOR in teaching students in orthopedics and traumatology. Based on experience and these results the permanent implementation of an additional e-learning module in the curriculum can be recommended for other faculties. In this process the critical comments of the non-users determined in the present study should be addressed.

  2. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  3. Comparing the relative peripheral refraction effect of single vision and multifocal contact lenses measured using an autorefractor and an aberrometer: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bakaraju, Ravi C.; Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Ho, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the contributions of single vision (SVCL) and multifocal contact lenses (MFCL) to the relative peripheral refraction (RPR) profiles obtained via an autorefractor and an aberrometer in a pilot study. Methods Two instruments, Shin-Nippon NVision K5001 (SN) and COAS-HD, were modified to permit open field PR measurements. Two myopic adults (CF, RB) were refracted (cycloplegia) under eight conditions: baseline (no CL); three SVCLs: Focus Dailies® (Alcon, USA), PureVision® (Bausch & Lomb, USA) and AirOptix® (Alcon, USA); and four MFCLs: AirOptix® (Alcon, USA), Proclear® Distant and Near (Cooper Vision, USA), and PureVision® (Bausch & Lomb, USA). CLs had a distance prescription of −2.00D and for MFCLs, a +2.50D Add was selected. Five independent measurements were performed at field angles from −40° to +40° in 10° increments with both instruments. The COAS-HD measures were analyzed at 3 mm pupil diameter. Results are reported as a change in the relative PR profile, as refractive power vector components: M, J180, and J45. Results Overall, at baseline, M, J180 and J45 measures obtained with SN and COAS-HD were considerably different only for field angles ≥±30°, which agreed well with previous studies. With respect to M, this observation held true for most SVCLs with a few exceptions. The J180 measures obtained with COAS-HD were considerably greater in magnitude than those acquired with SN. For SVCLs, the greatest difference was found at −40° for AirOptix SV (ΔCF = 3.20D, ΔRB = 1.56D) and for MFCLs it was for Proclear Distance at −40° (ΔCF = 2.58D, ΔRB = 1.39D). The J45 measures obtained with SN were noticeably different to the respective measures with COAS-HD, both in magnitude and sign. The greatest difference was found with AirOptix Multifocal in subject RB at −40°, where the COAS-HD measurement was 1.50D more positive. In some cases, the difference in the RPR profiles observed between subjects appeared to be

  4. Comparing the relative peripheral refraction effect of single vision and multifocal contact lenses measured using an autorefractor and an aberrometer: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bakaraju, Ravi C; Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Ho, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    To compare the contributions of single vision (SVCL) and multifocal contact lenses (MFCL) to the relative peripheral refraction (RPR) profiles obtained via an autorefractor and an aberrometer in a pilot study. Two instruments, Shin-Nippon NVision K5001 (SN) and COAS-HD, were modified to permit open field PR measurements. Two myopic adults (CF, RB) were refracted (cycloplegia) under eight conditions: baseline (no CL); three SVCLs: Focus Dailies(®) (Alcon, USA), PureVision(®) (Bausch & Lomb, USA) and AirOptix(®) (Alcon, USA); and four MFCLs: AirOptix(®) (Alcon, USA), Proclear(®) Distant and Near (Cooper Vision, USA), and PureVision(®) (Bausch & Lomb, USA). CLs had a distance prescription of -2.00D and for MFCLs, a +2.50D Add was selected. Five independent measurements were performed at field angles from -40° to +40° in 10° increments with both instruments. The COAS-HD measures were analyzed at 3mm pupil diameter. Results are reported as a change in the relative PR profile, as refractive power vector components: M, J180, and J45. Overall, at baseline, M, J180 and J45 measures obtained with SN and COAS-HD were considerably different only for field angles ≥±30°, which agreed well with previous studies. With respect to M, this observation held true for most SVCLs with a few exceptions. The J180 measures obtained with COAS-HD were considerably greater in magnitude than those acquired with SN. For SVCLs, the greatest difference was found at -40° for AirOptix SV (ΔCF=3.20D, ΔRB=1.56D) and for MFCLs it was for Proclear Distance at -40° (ΔCF=2.58D, ΔRB=1.39D). The J45 measures obtained with SN were noticeably different to the respective measures with COAS-HD, both in magnitude and sign. The greatest difference was found with AirOptix Multifocal in subject RB at -40°, where the COAS-HD measurement was 1.50D more positive. In some cases, the difference in the RPR profiles observed between subjects appeared to be associated with CL decentration. For most test

  5. A comparative proteomic study of sera in paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients and in healthy controls using MALDI-TOF-TOF and LC MS–A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE) exhibits an aggressive clinical phenotype with severe complications and overall poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyse differential expression of low molecular weight (LMW) serum protein molecules of pSLE patients with active disease in comparison to sera of healthy age matched controls. Further, some of the differential expressed spots were characterised and identified by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC-MS). Methods 2D-PAGE was performed using pooled sera of active pSLE and age matched healthy controls. Gels were silver-stained and differentially expressed protein spots were detected by automated image master platinum 2D software. 79 ± 17 protein spots were detected for control gels and 78 ± 17 protein spots for patient gels. Of these eleven protein spots were selected randomly and characterized by MALDI-TOF MS (five protein spots) and LC MS (six protein spots) techniques. Results Out of the 11 protein spots, 5 protein spots were significantly upregulated viz., leiomodin 2 (LMOD2); epidermal cytokeratin 2; immunoglobulin kappa light chain variable region; keratin 1 and transthyretin (TTR). Three protein spots were significantly down regulated e.g., apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1); chain B human complement component C3c; campath antibody antigen complex. Two protein spots (complement component C3; retinol binding protein (RBP) were found to be expressed only in disease and one protein spot cyclohydrolase 2 was only expressed in controls. Conclusions We conclude that 2-D maps of patients with active pSLE and controls differ significantly. In this pilot study, using proteomic approach we have identified differential expressed proteins (of LMW) e.g., RBP, LMOD 2, TTR, Component C3c Chain B and APO A1. However, in future, further studies need to confirm the physiological and pathological role of these

  6. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in commercial airline pilots: a cohort study of 2630 pilots.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, S; Venemans-Jellema, A; Cannegieter, S C; van Haften, M; Middeldorp, S; Büller, H R; Rosendaal, F R

    2014-08-01

    Airline pilots may be at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) because air travel has recently been established as a risk factor for VTE. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of VTE in a cohort of Dutch airline pilots. Airline pilots who had been active members of the Dutch aviation society (VNV) were questioned for the occurrence of VTE, presence of risk factors for VTE and number of flight hours per year and rank. Incidence rates among pilots were compared with those of the general Dutch population and with a population of frequently flying employees of multinational organizations. A total of 2630 male pilots were followed-up for a total of 20420 person-years (py). Six venous thromboses were reported, yielding an incidence rate of 0.3 per 1000 py. The standardized morbidity ratio, comparing these pilots with the general Dutch population adjusted for age, was 0.8. Compared with the international employee cohort, the standardized morbidity ratio was 0.7 when all employees were included and 0.6 when only the frequently travelling employees were included. The incidence rate did not increase with number of flight hours per year and did not clearly vary by rank. We conclude that the risk of VTE is not increased amongst airline pilots. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  7. A pilot study to compare the effect of memory training and health training interventions on affective and cognitive function with a group of cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather; Acee, Taylor W.; Vaughan, Phillip W.; Delville, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer survivors over 65 years of age experience treatment-induced memory impairments. However, clinicians are often at a loss on how to intervene for these cognitive problems. This paper describes the findings from a pilot study of a memory vs. health training intervention and its adaptability for cancer survivors. Design and Methods A convenience sample of older adults was enrolled in a longitudinal study of a memory and health training intervention and tested on five occasions for 2 years post-intervention. The memory training was designed to reduce anxiety, decrease negative attributions, promote health, and increase self-efficacy. In this analysis we included change over time for the first four of the five data collection points. We calculated means and standard deviations on the memory measures for cancer survivors in the intervention (n=8) and comparison (n=14) groups. The analysis consisted of a mixed design ANOVA comparing the two intervention groups across 4 time periods for twelve months. Results The typical cancer survivor in the sample was a 74-year old Caucasian female; 14% were minorities. Because of the small sample, some of the effects were not statistically significant. Moderate to large effects were revealed in everyday and verbal memory performance scores, memory self-efficacy, strategy use, and memory complaints. There were also moderate effects for group by time interactions on the visual memory performance measure, the memory self-efficacy measure, the depression, the trait anxiety measure, and the complaints subscale. The memory intervention group tended to improve more than the health training group, although this was not always consistent. The results suggested that the participants benefited from the memory training intervention. Implications Clinicians are often at a loss on how to intervene with cancer survivors who are experiencing cognitive problems following chemotherapy treatment. Evidenced-based interventions for this aspect of

  8. 90% Compliance Pilot Studies Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    In early 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced an opportunity for states to participate in energy code compliance evaluation pilot studies. DOE worked with five Regional Energy Efficiency Organizations (REEOs, formerly referred to as Energy Efficiency Partnerships, or EEPs) to fund pilot studies covering nine states. This report details conclusions stated in individual state reports, as well as conclusions drawn by DOE based on their oversight of the pilot studies, and based on discussions held with the REEOs and representatives from the pilot study states and their contractors.

  9. Degradation of imidacloprid in water by photo-Fenton and TiO2 photocatalysis at a solar pilot plant: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Malato, S; Caceres, J; Agüera, A; Mezcua, M; Hernando, D; Vial, J; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2001-11-01

    The technical feasibility, mechanisms, and performance of degradation of aqueous imidacloprid have been studied at pilot scale in two well-defined photocatalytic systems of special interest because natural UV light can be used: heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide and homogeneous photocatalysis by photo-Fenton. Equivalent pilot-scale and field conditions used for both allowed adequate comparison of the degree of mineralization and toxicity achieved as well as the transformation products generated in route to mineralization by both systems. Ninety-five percent of mineralization (<2.0 mg/L) was reached after 250 min of photocatalytic treatment with Fenton and 450 min with TiO2, meaning that TOC disappears 2.4 times faster with photo-Fenton photocatalytic treatment than with TiO2. The Daphnia Magna test for final residual TOC does not reveal anytoxic behavior. Transformation products evaluated by GC-MS/AED after two SPE procedures and LC-IC were the same in both cases. The main differences between the two processes are in the amount of transformation products (TPs) generated, not in the TPs detected which were always the same. At the end of both processes low concentration (<0.1 mg/L) of 2 pyrrolidinone (transformation product) remains in the dissolution and around 1 mg/L of formate in the case of photo-Fenton.

  10. Classroom acoustics: Three pilot studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaldino, Joseph J.

    2005-04-01

    This paper summarizes three related pilot projects designed to focus on the possible effects of classroom acoustics on fine auditory discrimination as it relates to language acquisition, especially English as a second language. The first study investigated the influence of improving the signal-to-noise ratio on the differentiation of English phonemes. The results showed better differentiation with better signal-to-noise ratio. The second studied speech perception in noise by young adults for whom English was a second language. The outcome indicated that the second language learners required a better signal-to-noise ratio to perform equally to the native language participants. The last study surveyed the acoustic conditions of preschool and day care classrooms, wherein first and second language learning occurs. The survey suggested an unfavorable acoustic environment for language learning.

  11. A pilot study comparing observational and questionnaire measures as surrogates of residential pesticide exposures among residents impacted by the Ecuadorian Cut-Flower Farming industry

    PubMed Central

    Handal, Alexis J.; McGough-Maduena, Alison; Páez, Maritza; Skipper, Betty; Rowland, Andrew S.; Fenske, Richard A.; Harlow, Siobán D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-reported measures of residential pesticide exposure are commonly used in epidemiological studies, especially when financial and logistical resources are limited. However, self-reporting is prone to misclassification bias. This pilot study assesses the agreement between self-report of take-home pesticide exposure with direct observation measures, in an agricultural region of Ecuador, as a cross-validation method in 26 participants (16 rose workers and 10 controls), with percent agreement and kappa statistics calculated. Proximity of homes to nearby flower farms was found to have only fair agreement (kappa = 0.35). The use of discarded plastics (kappa = 0.06) and wood (kappa = 0.13) were found to have little agreement. Results indicate that direct observation or measurement may provide more accurate appraisals of residential exposures, such as proximity to industrial farmland and the use of discarded materials obtained from the flower farms. PMID:24455979

  12. Adolescent Project Pilot for an Outcome Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louden, Jenifer H.; Kamara, Sheku G.

    This report describes a 7-week pilot study conducted to estimate probable participation rates for a planned substance abuse treatment outcomes study. The pilot program tested whether acceptable response rates might be obtained by contacting clients whose records had been examined by an earlier study (retrospective) or by contacting current clients…

  13. A pilot study comparing the level of sickle cell disease knowledge in a university in southeastern Texas and a university in Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Ogamdi, S O; Onwe, F

    2000-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is the most commonly inheritable blood disorder in man. Sickle cell anemia affects approximately one in 375 Blacks in the United States. There is yet no known cure for this disease. Families of sickle cell patients continue to be financially and emotionally devastated by sickle cell disease complications. A high level of sickle cell disease knowledge will encourage non-directional sickle cell disease counseling that would reduce the incidence of this disease. A pilot study to determine the level of sickle cell disease knowledge in a university in southeastern Texas and a university in Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria, West Africa found that there was a need to improve retention of sickle cell disease factual information.

  14. A Pharmacist's Impact on 30-Day Readmission Rates When Compared to the Current Standard of Care Within a Patient-Centered Medical Home: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Gary W; McConaha, Jamie L; Skomo, Monica L; Higginbotham, Suzanne K

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effect transition of care follow-up and counseling performed by a pharmacist, within a physician's practice, can have on 30-day hospital readmissions among Medicare patients when compared to the current standard of care A pharmacist telephonically contacted patients ≥65 years with Medicare insurance following hospital discharge to perform medication reconciliation, review discharge instructions, and schedule a follow-up appointment (n = 34). At this follow-up appointment, the pharmacist reviewed the patient's electronic medical record (EMR) and communicated recommendations to the physician. The current standard of care, which does not involve a pharmacist, at a similar local physician practice was used as a comparative group (n = 45) RESULTS: The difference in 30-day readmission rates did not reach statistical significance (P = .27); however, there was a trending decrease in the percentage of patients readmitted between the control and the intervention groups (26.7% vs 14.7%). Additionally, there was nearly a statistically significant decrease in readmission rates for those patients who interacted with the pharmacist face to face versus only telephonically (P = .05) CONCLUSIONS: These results impact the decision to continue and expand the pilot program and demonstrate that pharmacists in the ambulatory setting based within a patient-centered medical home have a potential role in decreasing 30-day hospital readmissions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Assessment of free fetal DNA concentration in maternal plasma during the first trimester of pregnancy: comparative study between EDTA and PPT tubes - pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chadud, Carolina Schneider; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Martinhago, Ciro Dresh; Andari, Viviane Cristina Mello; Tedesco, Giselle Darahem; Bussamra, Luiz Claudio Silva; Aoki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    To compare ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) tubes and plasma preparation tubes (PPT) for evaluating maternal plasma during the first trimester of pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 24 male fetuses in women between 6 and 14 weeks of pregnancy. Blood samples (10 mL) were collected and stored in EDTA and PPT tubes. Subsequently, the samples were centrifuged and sent for free fetal DNA extraction by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The reactions were performed in a real time PCR machine for detecting the amplification products. The genome region chosen for performing the PCR reactions was a target specific for the Y chromosome, in which the DYS-14 marker was amplified only when the DNA was of male sex. The free fetal DNA concentration was given by the threshold cycle (TC). To compare the tubes, the paired Student t-test was used. The mean gestational age was 11.08 ± 2.30 weeks (range: 6-14). The mean TC for PPT was 30.08 ± 1.05 (range: 27.08-32.61) and for EDTA, 30.23 ± 0.96 (range: 28.01-32.09), but without statistical significance (p=0.357). We did not observe any statistically significant difference in free fetal DNA concentration between the EDTA and PPT tubes.

  16. Open-label pilot study comparing quantitative ultrasound and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to assess corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Grabe, Darren W; Chan, Marcia; Eisele, George

    2006-02-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) might be at high risk for bone disease. Decreased functional kidney mass contributes to renal osteodystrophy, which might be exacerbated by certain drug therapies. Long-term (> or = 6 months) corticosteroid treatment is commonly prescribed in patients with glomerular disease, possibly causing bone loss both indirectly and directly, putting the patient at increased risk for fracture. The dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the current "gold standard" for measuring osteoporosis-related fractures and works by passing ultrasound waves through bone to determine the structural anisotropy in the heel. This pilot study was designed to determine whether there is a correlation between DXA and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in detecting corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. This open-label pilot study was conducted at the Medical Center Nephrology Clinic, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York. Female patients aged > or = 18 years with a diagnosis of CKD and/or a history of kidney transplantation and who were receiving long-term corticosteroid treatment were enrolled. Each patient served as her own control and underwent DXA of the hip and spine (DXA-hip and DXA-spine, respectively) and QUS of the dominant and nondominant heels (QUS-dominant and QUS-nondominant, respectively), within 1 week so that conditions were similar in each patient. Eight patients were included in the study (mean [SD] age, 50.2 [11.2] years). A positive correlation was found between DXA-hip and QUS-nondominant (r2=0.76; P=0.009); however, no correlation was found with DXA-spine. Similarly, a positive correlation was found between DXA-hip and QUS-dominant (r2=0.75; P=0.009), but no correlation with DXA-spine was found (r2=0.22). In this small, selected population, QUS showed a fair correlation with DXA-hip but no correlation with DXA-spine. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness in other populations.

  17. Biological monitoring of smoke exposure among wildland firefighters: a pilot study comparing urinary methoxyphenols with personal exposures to carbon monoxide, particular matter, and levoglucosan.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, R; Naeher, L P; Paulsen, M; Dunn, K; Stock, A; Simpson, C D

    2009-05-01

    Urinary methoxyphenols (MPs) have been proposed as biomarkers of woodsmoke exposure. However, few field studies have been undertaken to evaluate the relationship between woodsmoke exposure and urinary MP concentrations. We conducted a pilot study at the US Forest Service-Savannah River Site, in which carbon monoxide (CO), levoglucosan (LG), and particulate matter (PM(2.5)) exposures were measured in wildland firefighters on prescribed burn days. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from each subject, and cross-shift changes in creatinine-corrected urinary MP concentrations were calculated. Correlations between exposure measures and creatine-adjusted urinary MP concentrations were explored, and regression models were developed relating changes in urinary MP concentrations to measured exposure levels. Full-shift measurements were made on 13 firefighters over 20 work shifts in winter 2004 at the US Forest Service Savannah River site, a National Environmental Research Park. The average workshift length across the 20 measured shifts was 701+/-95 min. LG and CO exposures were significantly correlated for samples where the filter measurement captured at least 60% of the work shift (16 samples), as well as for the smaller set of full-shift exposure samples (n=9). PM(2.5) and CO exposures were not significantly correlated, and LG and PM(2.5) exposures were only significantly correlated for samples representing at least 60% of the work shift. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations for 20 of the 22 MPs showed cross-shift increases, with 14 of these changes showing statistical significance. Individual and summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MPs were highly associated with CO (and, to a lesser degree, LG) exposure levels, and random-effects regression models including CO and LG exposure levels explained up to 80% of the variance in cross-shift changes in summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MP concentrations. Although limited by the small sample

  18. Biological monitoring of smoke exposure among wildland firefighters: A pilot study comparing urinary methoxyphenols with personal exposures to carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and levoglucosan.

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, R.; Naeher, L., P.; Paulsen, M.; Dunn, R.; Stock, A.; Simpson, C., D.

    2009-04-01

    Urinary methoxyphenols (MPs) have been proposed as biomarkers of woodsmoke exposure. However, few field studies have been undertaken to evaluate the relationship between woodsmoke exposure and urinary MP concentrations. We conducted a pilot study at the US Forest Service Savannah River Site, in which carbon monoxide (CO), levoglucosan (LG), and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures were measured in wildland firefighters on prescribed burn days. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from each subject, and cross-shift changes in creatinine-corrected urinary MP concentrations were calculated. Correlations between exposure measures and creatine-adjusted urinary MP concentrations were explored, and regression models were developed relating changes in urinary MP concentrations to measured exposure levels. Full-shift measurements were made on 13 firefighters over 20 work shifts in winter 2004 at the US Forest Service Savannah River site, a National Environmental Research Park. The average workshift length across the 20 measured shifts was 701±95 min. LG and CO exposures were significantly correlated for samples where the filter measurement captured at least 60% of the work shift (16 samples), as well as for the smaller set of full-shift exposure samples (n¼9). PM2.5 and CO exposures were not significantly correlated, and LG and PM2.5 exposures were only significantly correlated for samples representing at least 60% of the work shift. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations for 20 of the 22 MPs showed cross-shift increases, with 14 of these changes showing statistical significance. Individual and summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MPs were highly associated with CO (and, to a lesser degree, LG) exposure levels, and random-effects regression models including CO and LG exposure levels explained up to 80% of the variance in cross-shift changes in summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MP concentrations. Although limited by the small sample size

  19. Biological monitoring of smoke exposure among wildland firefighters: A pilot study comparing urinary methoxyphenols with personal exposures to carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and levoglucosan.

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, R.; Naeher, L., P.; Paulsen, M.; Dunn, R.; Stock, A.; Simpson, C., D.

    2009-04-01

    Urinary methoxyphenols (MPs) have been proposed as biomarkers of woodsmoke exposure. However, few field studies have been undertaken to evaluate the relationship between woodsmoke exposure and urinary MP concentrations. We conducted a pilot study at the US Forest ServiceFSavannah River Site, in which carbon monoxide (CO), levoglucosan (LG), and particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures were measured in wildland firefighters on prescribedburn days. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from each subject, and cross-shift changes in creatinine-corrected urinary MP concentrations were calculated. Correlations between exposure measures and creatine-adjusted urinary MP concentrations were explored, and regression models were developed relating changes in urinary MP concentrations to measured exposure levels. Full-shift measurements were made on 13 firefighters over 20 work shifts in winter 2004 at the US Forest Service Savannah River site, a National Environmental Research Park. The average workshift length across the 20 measured shifts was 701±95 min. LG and CO exposures were significantly correlated for samples where the filter measurement captured at least 60% of the work shift (16 samples), as well as for the smaller set of full-shift exposure samples (n¼9). PM2.5 and CO exposures were not significantly correlated, and LG and PM2.5 exposures were only significantly correlated for samples representing at least 60% of the work shift. Creatinine-corrected urinary concentrations for 20 of the 22 MPs showed cross-shift increases, with 14 of these changes showing statistical significance. Individual and summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MPs were highly associated with CO (and, to a lesser degree, LG) exposure levels, and random-effects regression models including CO and LG exposure levels explained up to 80% of the variance in cross-shift changes in summed creatinine-adjusted guaiacol urinary MP concentrations. Although limited by the small sample size

  20. Piloted simulation study of two tilt-wing control concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1992-01-01

    A two phase piloted simulation study was conducted to investigate alternative wing and flap controls for tilt-wing aircraft. The initial phase of the study compared the flying qualities of both a conventional (programmed) flap and an innovative geared flap. The second phase of the study introduced an alternate method of pilot control for the geared flap and further studied the flying qualities of the programmed flap, and two geared flap configurations. In general, the pilot ratings showed little difference between the programmed flap and the geared flap control concepts, although differences between the two control concepts were noticed and are discussed in this paper. The addition of pitch attitude stabilization in the second phase of the study greatly enhanced the aircraft flying qualities. This paper describes the simulated tilt-wing aircraft and the flap control concepts, and presents the results of both the first and second phases of the piloted simulation study.

  1. Cellular Components, Including Stem-Like Cells, of Preterm Mother's Mature Milk as Compared with Those in Her Colostrum: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kaingade, Pankaj; Somasundaram, Indumathi; Sharma, Akshita; Patel, Darshan; Marappagounder, Dhanasekaran

    2017-09-01

    Purpose and Study Objective: Whether the preterm mothers' mature milk retains the same cellular components as those in colostrum including stem-like cell, cell adhesion molecules, and immune cells. A total of five preterm mothers were recruited for the study having an average age of 30.2 years and gestational age of 29.8 weeks from the Pristine Women's Hospital, Kolhapur. Colostrum milk was collected within 2-5 days and matured milk was collected 20-30 days after delivery from the same mothers. Integral cellular components of 22 markers including stem cells, immune cells, and cell adhesion molecules were measured using flowcytometry. Preterm mature milk was found to possess higher expressions of hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem-like cells, immune cells, few cell adhesion molecules, and side population cells than colostrum. The increased level of these different cell components in mature milk may be important in the long-term preterm baby's health growth. Further similar research in a larger population of various gestational ages and lactation stages of preterm mothers is warranted to support these pilot findings.

  2. Community parenteral therapy project: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Foster, L; McMurray, A

    1998-01-01

    The pilot study reported in this paper was devised to develop and compare service delivery models that would achieve the provision of high quality parenteral therapy care to patients in the Gold Coast District Health Service community. All data were collected on 113 patients for a 12-month period, January to December 1996. The study compared the provision of outreach nursing services and contracted nursing services on measures of satisfaction and cost. The study showed that patient and carers indicated a preference for community care, medical officers advocated the benefits of administering parenteral therapies in the community, general practitioners were interested in managing future community parenteral therapies, and contracted (nurse) service providers endorsed the development of a parenteral therapy resource centre. The findings also revealed considerable potential cost savings in community-based care.

  3. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  4. A pilot study comparing the development of EIAV Env-specific antibodies induced by DNA/recombinant vaccinia-vectored vaccines and an attenuated Chinese EIAV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qinglai; Lin, Yuezhi; Ma, Jian; Ma, Yan; Zhao, Liping; Li, Shenwei; Yang, Kai; Zhou, Jianhua; Shen, Rongxian; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Shao, Yiming

    2012-12-01

    Data from successful attenuated lentiviral vaccine studies indicate that fully mature Env-specific antibodies characterized by high titer, high avidity, and the predominant recognition of conformational epitopes are associated with protective efficacy. Although vaccination with a DNA prime/recombinant vaccinia-vectored vaccine boost strategy has been found to be effective in some trials with non-human primate/simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) models, it remains unclear whether this vaccination strategy could elicit mature equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) Env-specific antibodies, thus protecting vaccinated horses against EIAV infection. Therefore, in this pilot study we vaccinated horses using a strategy based on DNA prime/recombinant Tiantan vaccinia (rTTV)-vectored vaccines encoding EIAV env and gag genes, and observed the development of Env-specific antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and p26-specific antibodies. Vaccination with DNA induced low titer, low avidity, and the predominant recognition of linear epitopes by Env-specific antibodies, which was enhanced by boosting vaccinations with rTTV vaccines. However, the maturation levels of Env-specific antibodies induced by the DNA/rTTV vaccines were significantly lower than those induced by the attenuated vaccine EIAV(FDDV). Additionally, DNA/rTTV vaccines did not elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies. After challenge with a virulent EIAV strain, all of the vaccinees and control horses died from EIAV disease. These data indicate that the regimen of DNA prime/rTTV vaccine boost did not induce mature Env-specific antibodies, which might have contributed to immune protection failure.

  5. A Pilot Study Comparing the Development of EIAV Env-Specific Antibodies Induced by DNA/Recombinant Vaccinia-Vectored Vaccines and an Attenuated Chinese EIAV Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qinglai; Lin, Yuezhi; Ma, Jian; Ma, Yan; Zhao, Liping; Li, Shenwei; Yang, Kai; Zhou, Jianhua; Shen, Rongxian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Data from successful attenuated lentiviral vaccine studies indicate that fully mature Env-specific antibodies characterized by high titer, high avidity, and the predominant recognition of conformational epitopes are associated with protective efficacy. Although vaccination with a DNA prime/recombinant vaccinia-vectored vaccine boost strategy has been found to be effective in some trials with non-human primate/simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) models, it remains unclear whether this vaccination strategy could elicit mature equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) Env-specific antibodies, thus protecting vaccinated horses against EIAV infection. Therefore, in this pilot study we vaccinated horses using a strategy based on DNA prime/recombinant Tiantan vaccinia (rTTV)-vectored vaccines encoding EIAV env and gag genes, and observed the development of Env-specific antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and p26-specific antibodies. Vaccination with DNA induced low titer, low avidity, and the predominant recognition of linear epitopes by Env-specific antibodies, which was enhanced by boosting vaccinations with rTTV vaccines. However, the maturation levels of Env-specific antibodies induced by the DNA/rTTV vaccines were significantly lower than those induced by the attenuated vaccine EIAVFDDV. Additionally, DNA/rTTV vaccines did not elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies. After challenge with a virulent EIAV strain, all of the vaccinees and control horses died from EIAV disease. These data indicate that the regimen of DNA prime/rTTV vaccine boost did not induce mature Env-specific antibodies, which might have contributed to immune protection failure. PMID:23171359

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Changes in Brain Activity and Cognitive Function of Edentulous Patients, with Dentures and Two-Implant Supported Mandibular Overdenture-Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Banu R, Fathima; Veeravalli, Padmanabhan T; Kumar V, Anand

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between brain and prosthesis was previously assessed either by improving denture function or in fixed implant retained, wherein brain function was assessed only after crown placement. To prospectively analyze the changes in brain activity and cognitive function of completely edentulous patients in edentulous state, with dentures and two-implant supported mandibular overdenture before and after loading, along with the effect of mastication in the change - a pilot study. Ten completely edentulous (CE) non-denture wearers were selected. The mandibular prosthesis was loaded with two 3.3 mm × 13 mm myriad snap fit implants. To assess the brain activity and cognitive function, Electroencephalogram (Neurofax EEG 1000 Ver 05-90, Nihon Kohden corporation, Tokyo, Japan) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) questionnaire, respectively, were taken during the process of rehabilitation. EEG assessment was analyzed using Matlab 2011A 7.9 signal processing tool box. The results were statistically analyzed with SPSS 17.0 version using Wilcoxon signed rank and Friedman test Amplitude, power of alpha waves and cognitive scores increased gradually with highest mean rank for implant supported overdenture (IOD). The bivariate analysis between two groups showed there was significant difference between all the groups (p < 0.05) except for groups CE-I (completely edentulous - implant placement) and CD- I (complete denture insertion - implant placement) in amplitude of alpha waves while in group CD-I with respect to power of alpha waves. MMSE revealed the mean of cognitive scores in Complete Edentulous was 17.40, Complete Denture was 18.30 and finally with Implant Overdenture was 23.80. The present study has enlightened the significance of two implant supported mandibular overdenture in improving the mental state of an individual and that the enhancement was due to functional improvement with prosthesis when loaded with implants and not due to mere

  7. Technical Writing Redesign and Assessment: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Gaye Bush

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare scores on writing assignments from traditional, fully online courses in technical writing to pilot, hybrid courses at a southern university. A total of 232 students' assignments were compared in this study. All writing assignments were scored by six trained instructors of English using the same five point…

  8. A pilot study comparing in-person and web-based motivational interviewing among adults with a first-time DUI offense.

    PubMed

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Paddock, Susan M; Leininger, Thomas J; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Ewing, Brett A; Watkins, Katherine E

    2015-09-03

    Driving under the influence (DUI) is a significant problem, and there is a pressing need to develop interventions that reduce future risk. We pilot-tested the acceptance and efficacy of web-motivational interviewing (MI) and in-person MI interventions among a diverse sample of individuals with a first-time DUI offense. Participants (N = 159) were 65 percent male, 40 percent Hispanic, and an average age of 30 (SD = 9.8). They were enrolled at one of three participating 3-month DUI programs in Los Angeles County and randomized to usual care (UC)-only (36-h program), in-person MI plus UC, or a web-based intervention using MI (web-MI) plus UC. Participants were assessed at intake and program completion. We examined intervention acceptance and preliminary efficacy of the interventions on alcohol consumption, DUI, and alcohol-related consequences. Web-MI and in-person MI participants rated the quality of and satisfaction with their sessions significantly higher than participants in the UC-only condition. However, there were no significant group differences between the MI conditions and the UC-only condition in alcohol consumption, DUI, and alcohol-related consequences. Further, 67 percent of our sample met criteria for alcohol dependence, and the majority of participants in all three study conditions continued to report alcohol-related consequences at follow-up. Participants receiving MI plus UC and UC-only had similar improvements, and a large proportion had symptoms of alcohol dependence. Receiving a DUI and having to deal with the numerous consequences related to this type of event may be significant enough to reduce short-term behaviors, but future research should explore whether more intensive interventions are needed to sustain long-term changes.

  9. Brain volume and white matter in youth with type 2 diabetes compared to obese and normal weight, non-diabetic peers: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rofey, Dana L; Arslanian, Silva A; El Nokali, Nermeen E; Verstynen, Timothy; Watt, Jennifer C; Black, Jessica J; Sax, Rebecca; Krall, Jodi S; Proulx, Chelsea; Dillon, Meredith; Erickson, Kirk I

    2015-11-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and obesity are linked to specific patterns of subcortical brain atrophy and decreased microstructural integrity of white matter. Fifteen adolescents (12-21-years-old, 80% Caucasian, 15% African American, mean BMI=32)-five with T2DM confirmed by oral glucose tolerance test, five matched obese adolescent controls without diabetes (OBCN), and five matched (race, sex) normal-weight controls (NWCN)-underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for the collection of gray matter volume and white matter integrity. Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs) of the neuroimaging data revealed significant differences in caudate nucleus volume [F(2,12)=7.79, p<0.05] such that the normal-weight group had significantly greater volume than the obese and T2DM groups (NWCN>OBCN, p=0.020; OBCN>T2DM, p=0.042; and NWCN>T2DM; p=0.003) after controlling for participant Body Mass Index (BMI). Similarly, there was a main effect for the volume of the thalamus [F(2,12)=4.39, p<0.05] with greater volume for both the NWC and the OBC groups in comparison to the T2DM group (NWC>T2DM, p=0.020; OBC>T2DM; p=0.040). Finally, an examination of white matter integrity among the three groups illustrated a pattern of white matter integrity reduction between normal-weight participants and both obese controls and T2DM participants, with T2DM demonstrating the greatest deficit in functional anisotropy (FA) volume, but these results were not significant after further controlling for BMI. Results from the current pilot study illuminate a host of brain morphology differences between youth with T2DM, obese youth, and normal-weight controls; future research with a larger sample size is critical. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. BIMOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  11. BIMOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  12. Ballet and stress. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tomei, G; Casale, T; Rosati, M V; Melcarne, R; Sinibaldi, F; Capozzella, A; Di Giorgio, V; Giubilati, R; Sacco, C; Tomei, F; Sancini, A

    2015-01-01

    Work-related stress is a complex problem requiring a work environment-based assessment. Artists like dancers represent a category of atypical workers potentially at high risk for work-related stress. Aim of our pilot study is to evaluate organizational stress in a population of professional dancers, using the HSE Indicator Tool for Work Related Stress. We administered the Italian version of the HSE Indicator Tool to 38 ballet dancers, males and females. The questionnaire evaluates 7 key organizational dimensions: demand, control, managers' support, peer support, relationships, role and change. The standards required-ideal conditions are achieved in none of the above-mentioned dimensions. Change is the only dimension for which results fall between the 20th and the 50th percentile, while for other dimensions results fall below the 20th percentile suggesting the need for immediate corrective action. In male dancers an acceptable situation is highlighted for the dimension "change" compared to female dancers. In both sexes there is a high frequency of subjects complaining of verbal abuse, bullying and harassment. Despite the small sample size, our pilot study highlights the presence of heightened levels of organizational stress. Preventive measures targeted towards improving communication between managers and dancers and aimed at team building should be implemented.

  13. Serum levels of endothelial glycocalyx constituents in women at 20 weeks' gestation who later develop gestational diabetes mellitus compared to matched controls: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Weilin; Taylor, Rennae S; McCowan, Lesley M E

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this pilot study was to determine the serum concentration of heparan sulfate, hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate and syndecan-1 and if these serum concentrations can be used to identify women at 20 weeks' gestation who later develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design Nested case–control study from Auckland, New Zealand participants in the prospective cohort Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Setting Auckland, New Zealand. Participants 20 pregnant women (70% European, 15% Indian, 10% Asian, 5% Pacific Islander) at 20 weeks' gestation without any hypertensive complications who developed GDM by existing New Zealand criteria defined as a fasting glucose ≥5.5 mmol/L and/or 2 hours ≥9.0 mmol/L after a 75 g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Women not meeting these criteria were excluded from this study. The patients with GDM were matched with 20 women who had uncomplicated pregnancies and negative screening for GDM and matched for ethnicity, maternal age and BMI. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary measures were the serum concentrations of syndecan-1, heparan sulfate, hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate determined by quantitative ELISA. There were no secondary outcome measures. Results Binary logistic regression was performed to determine if serum concentrations of endothelial glycocalyx layer constituents in women at 20 weeks' gestation would be useful in predicting the subsequent diagnosis of GDM. The model was not statistically significant χ2=12.5, df=8, p=0.13, which indicates that the model was unable to distinguish between pregnant women at 20 weeks' gestation who later developed GDM and those who did not. Conclusions Serum concentrations of syndecan-1, heparan sulfate, hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate in pregnant women at 20 weeks' gestation were not associated with later development of GDM. To further explore whether there is any relationship between endothelial glycocalyx constituents and GDM

  14. Preparations for New and Pilot Courses in Secondary Social Studies. Curriculum Project #43-C. Anthropology, Geographic Patterns, Comparative Religions, Introduction to American Studies, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Darrel W., Ed.; And Others

    Curriculum guides for four social studies instruction modules at the secondary level are included in this document. The general format for each twelve week course includes a diagram of concept relationships, prefatory remarks, and an outline of concepts coordinated with activities and instructional resources. The first module, Geographic Patterns,…

  15. Comparing oxytocin and cortisol regulation in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, hydrocortisone challenge pilot study in children with autism and typical development.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Blythe A; Bales, Karen L; Swain, Deanna; Sanders, Kevin; Weinstein, Tamara A R; Muglia, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show marked impairment in social functioning and poor adaptation to new and changing contexts, which may be influenced by underlying regulatory processes. Oxytocin (OT) and cortisol are key neuromodulators of biological and behavioral responses, show a synergistic effect, and have been implicated in the neuropathological profile in ASD. However, they are rarely investigated together. The purpose of the pilot study was to evaluate the relationship between cortisol and OT in children with ASD under baseline and physiological stress (hydrocortisone challenge) conditions. Arginine vasopressin (AVP), structurally similar to OT, was also examined. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomly assigned, crossover design was employed in 25 children 8-to-12 years with ASD (N = 14) or typical development (TD, N = 11). A low dose of hydrocortisone and placebo were administered via liquid suspension. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine the within-subject factor "Condition" (hydrocortisone/placebo) and "Time" (pre and post) and the between-subject factor "Group" (ASD vs. TD). Pearson correlations examined the relationship between hormone levels and clinical profile. There was a significant Time × Condition × Group interaction F (1.23) = 4.18, p = 0.05 showing a rise in OT during the experimental condition (hydrocortisone) and a drop during the placebo condition for the TD group but not the ASD group. There were no group differences for AVP. Hormone levels were associated with social profiles. For the TD group, an inverse relationship was observed. OT increased during physiological challenge suggesting that OT played a stress-buffering role during cortisol administration. In contrast for the ASD group, OT remained unchanged or decreased during both the physiological challenge and the placebo condition, suggesting that OT failed to serve as a stress buffer under conditions of physiological stress. While

  16. Alterations in the infrared spectral signature of avian feathers reflect potential chemical exposure: a pilot study comparing two sites in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Llabjani, Valon; Malik, Riffat N; Trevisan, Júlio; Hoti, Valmira; Ukpebor, Justina; Shinwari, Zabta K; Moeckel, Claudia; Jones, Kevin C; Shore, Richard F; Martin, Francis L

    2012-11-01

    protein and lipid regions in IR spectra. Additionally, LDF showed that the classification rate of spectral categories correlated well with the two chemical exposure patterns (93.6% for Trimu feathers and 91.77% for Mailsi feathers). This pilot study suggests that IR spectra derived from feathers reflect background chemical exposure and points to a novel monitoring tool for contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative study between chitin/polyacrylic acid (PAA) dressing, lipido-colloid absorbent dressing and alginate wound dressing: a pilot study in the treatment of partial-thickness wound.

    PubMed

    Angspatt, Apichai; Tanvatcharaphan, Puttan; Channasanon, Somruethai; Tanodekaew, Siriporn; Chokrungvaranont, Prayuth; Sirimaharaj, Wimol

    2010-06-01

    Polyacrylic acid grafted chitin (Chitin-PAA) contains a hydrogel characteristic that makes it more suitable for wound dressing application. In animal models, Chitin-PAA dressing exhibited properties as a promising dressing. Epithelization promotion, rapid reduction of wound size, reduction of inflammatory cell response, and less toxicity had been noted. Carryout a pilot clinical comparative study of Chitin-PAA dressing, lipido-colloid absorbent dressing, and alginate wound dressing in the treatment of partial-thickness wound. Between June 2006 and March 2007, 36 partial-thickness wounds were randomized into three groups and three different types of dressing were used. Each wound was treated until it was completely healed, and a visual analogue scale was used for the pain evaluation. The present study shows the visual analogue pain score in the Chitin-PAA group seems to be a bit higher than the Urgocell group but not statistically different. The completely healed day is not significantly different. Three patients in the lipido-colloid absorbent dressing groups had wound infection but eventually healed after treatment. There was no statistical difference in terms of visual analogue pain score and healing time between the lipido-colloid absorbent dressing, alginate dressing, and chitin-PAA dressing.

  18. Piloted simulation study of two tilt-wing control concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1994-01-01

    A two-phase piloted simulation study was conducted to investigate alternative wing and flap controls for tilt-wing aircraft. The initial phase of the study compared the flying qualities of both a conventional (programmed) flap and an innovative geared flap. The second phase of the study introduced an alternate method of pilot control for the geared flap and further studied the flying qualities of the programmed flap, and two geared flap configurations. In general, the pilot rating showed little variation between the programmed flap and the geared flap control concepts. Some differences between the two concepts were noticed and are discussed in this paper. The addition of pitch attitude stabilization in the second phase of the study greatly enhanced the aircraft flying qualities. This paper describes the simulated tilt-wing aircraft and the flap control concepts and presents the results of both phases of the simulation study.

  19. Ultra-low-dose computed tomographic angiography with model-based iterative reconstruction compared with standard-dose imaging after endovascular aneurysm repair: a prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Sailen G; Kriegshauser, J Scott; Paden, Robert G; He, Miao; Wu, Qing; Hara, Amy K

    2014-12-01

    An ultra-low-dose radiation protocol reconstructed with model-based iterative reconstruction was compared with our standard-dose protocol. This prospective study evaluated 20 men undergoing surveillance-enhanced computed tomography after endovascular aneurysm repair. All patients underwent standard-dose and ultra-low-dose venous phase imaging; images were compared after reconstruction with filtered back projection, adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction, and model-based iterative reconstruction. Objective measures of aortic contrast attenuation and image noise were averaged. Images were subjectively assessed (1 = worst, 5 = best) for diagnostic confidence, image noise, and vessel sharpness. Aneurysm sac diameter and endoleak detection were compared. Quantitative image noise was 26% less with ultra-low-dose model-based iterative reconstruction than with standard-dose adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and 58% less than with ultra-low-dose adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction. Average subjective noise scores were not different between ultra-low-dose model-based iterative reconstruction and standard-dose adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (3.8 vs. 4.0, P = .25). Subjective scores for diagnostic confidence were better with standard-dose adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction than with ultra-low-dose model-based iterative reconstruction (4.4 vs. 4.0, P = .002). Vessel sharpness was decreased with ultra-low-dose model-based iterative reconstruction compared with standard-dose adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (3.3 vs. 4.1, P < .0001). Ultra-low-dose model-based iterative reconstruction and standard-dose adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction aneurysm sac diameters were not significantly different (4.9 vs. 4.9 cm); concordance for the presence of endoleak was 100% (P < .001). Compared with a standard-dose technique, an ultra-low-dose model-based iterative reconstruction protocol provides

  20. Hearing loss in civilian airline and helicopter pilots compared to air traffic control personnel.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Anthony S; Arva, Per

    2009-10-01

    In order to investigate possible hearing loss as a consequence of aviation noise, a comparative analysis of audiometric data from Norwegian Air Traffic Control (ATC) personnel, airline (fixed-wing) pilots, and helicopter pilots was performed. The results may be of use in giving advice regarding preventive measures. Male ATC, airline, and helicopter pilots were selected randomly from the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) medical files. There were 182 subjects included in the study: 50, 81, and 51 subjects for ATC, helicopter, and airline pilots, respectively. Two audiograms with a 2-3-yr interval were analyzed for each individual. Age correction was performed using data from ISO 7129. Threshold changes per year for the frequencies 3, 4, and 6 kHz were examined in particular after age correction. For all three groups, mean hearing threshold levels were above (worse than) ISO 7129 predictions for most frequencies. As expected, hearing thresholds increased with age in the group as a whole. Looking at the 3-, 4-, and 6-kHz frequencies in particular, all groups had small but highly significant increases in hearing thresholds at 4 kHz between the first and second audiogram. The mean hearing thresholds for this group of aviation personnel are higher than International Standard ISO-7129 would predict according to age. Highly significant changes in hearing threshold after age correction, indicating possible noise-induced hearing loss, were found in all groups at 4 kHz. The fact that helicopter pilots had similar hearing loss to their other aviation colleagues indicates that current hearing protection for these pilots is effective in counteracting the increased noise levels in helicopters.

  1. Comparative Assessment of the Efficacy and Safety of Sertaconazole (2%) Cream Versus Terbinafine Cream (1%) Versus Luliconazole (1%) Cream In Patients with Dermatophytoses: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jerajani, HR; Janaki, C; Kumar, Sharath; Phiske, Meghana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sertaconazole is a new, broad spectrum, fungicidal and fungistatic imidazole with added antipruritic and anti-inflammatory activity that would provide greater symptomatic relief and hence would be beneficial in improving the quality of life for the patient with dermatophytoses. Aims and Objectives: To compare efficacy and safety of sertaconazole, terbinafine and luliconazole in patients with dermatophytoses. Materials and Methods: 83 patients with tinea corporis and tinea cruris infections were enrolled in this multicentre, randomized, open label parallel study. The initial ‘Treatment Phase’ involved three groups receiving either sertaconazole 2% cream applied topically twice daily for four weeks, terbinafine 1% cream once daily for two weeks, luliconazole 1% cream once daily for two weeks. At the end of treatment phase, there was a ‘Follow-up Phase’ at end of 2 weeks, where the patients were assessed clinically and mycologically for relapse. Results: Of the 83 patients, 62 completed the study, sertaconazole (n = 20), terbinafine (n = 22) and luliconazole (n = 20). The primary efficacy variables including change in pruritus, erythema, vesicle, desquamation and mycological cure were significantly improved in all the three groups, as compared to baseline, in the Treatment and Follow-up phase. Greater proportion of patients in sertaconazole group (85%) showed resolution of pruritus as compared to terbinafine (54.6%); and luliconazole (70%), (P < 0.05 sertaconazole vs terbinafine). There was a greater reduction in mean total composite score (pruritus, erythema, vesicle and desquamation) in sertaconazole group (97.1%) as compared to terbinafine (91.2%) and luliconazole (92.9%). All groups showed equal negative mycological assessment without any relapses. All three study drugs were well tolerated. Only one patient in sertaconazole group withdrew from the study due to suspected allergic contact dermatitis. Conclusion: Sertaconazole was better than

  2. Heightened vagal activity during high-calorie food presentation in obese compared with non-obese individuals--results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; Weinberger, Andrea H; Grilo, Carlos M; Brownell, Kelly D; DiLeone, Ralph J; Lampert, Rachel; Matlin, Samantha L; Yanagisawa, Katherine; McKee, Sherry A

    2014-01-01

    Eating behaviours are highly cue-dependent. Changes in mood states and exposure to palatable food both increase craving and consumption of food. Vagal activity supports adaptive modulation of physiological arousal and has an important role in cue-induced appetitive behaviours. Using high-frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV), this preliminary study compared vagal activity during positive and negative mood induction, and presentation of preferred high-calorie food items between obese (n = 12; BMI ≥ 30) and non-obese individuals (n = 14; 18.5 < BMI < 30). Participants completed two laboratory sessions (negative vs. positive mood conditions). Following 3-h of food deprivation, all participants completed a mood induction, and then were exposed to their preferred high-calorie food items. HF HRV was assessed throughout. Obese and non-obese individuals were not significantly different in HF HRV during positive or negative mood induction. Obese individuals showed significantly greater levels of HF HRV during presentation of their preferred high-calorie food items than non-obese individuals, particularly in the positive mood condition. This is the first study to demonstrate increased vagal activity in response to food cues in obese individuals compared with non-obese individuals. Our findings warrant further investigation on the potential role of vagally-mediated cue reactivity in overeating and obesity. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PILOT STUDY: THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools for children in the age range of 1-5 years old. The pilot study focused on (a) simple, cost-...

  4. Rebamipide May Be Comparable to H2 Receptor Antagonist in Healing Iatrogenic Gastric Ulcers Created by Endoscopic Mucosal Resection: A Prospective Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Jin; Lee, Sang Kil; Kim, Jie Hyun; Lee, Yong Chan

    2010-01-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) results in the formation of iatrogenic gastric ulcers and the optimal treatments for such ulcers are still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of rebamipide in the management of EMR-induced ulcers by comparing it with an H2 receptor antagonist. After EMR, patients were randomly assigned into either rebamipide or famotidine groups. All patients received a one-week lansoprazole 30 mg q.d. therapy followed by three-week famotidine (20 mg b.i.d.) or rebamipide (100 mg t.i.d.) therapy. Four weeks after the treatments, ulcer sizes, stages, bleeding rates, and ulcer-related symptoms were compared using endoscopy and a questionnaire. A total of 63 patients were enrolled in this study. Finally, 51 patients were analyzed, 26 in rebamipide and 25 in famotidine group. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. Four weeks after EMR, the two groups were comparable in terms of ulcer reduction ratio (P=0.297), and ulcer stage (P=1.000). Moreover, no difference was observed with regard to ulcer-related symptoms, drug compliance, adverse drug event rates, and bleeding rates. Our data suggest that rebamipide is not inferior to famotidine in healing iatrogenic gastric ulcers, and could be a therapeutic option in the treatment of such ulcers. PMID:20358002

  5. Heightened Vagal Activity during High-Calorie Food Presentation in Obese compared with Non-obese Individuals - Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Udo, Tomoko; Weinberger, Andrea H.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Brownell, Kelly D.; DiLeone, Ralph J.; Lampert, Rachel; Matlin, Samantha L.; Yanagisawa, Katherine; McKee, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Eating behaviors are highly cue-dependent. Changes in mood states and exposure to palatable food both increase craving and consumption of food. Vagal activity supports adaptive modulation of physiological arousal and has an important role in cue-induced appetitive behaviors. Using high-frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV), this preliminary study compared vagal activity during positive and negative mood induction, and presentation of preferred high-calorie food items between obese (n = 12; BMI ≥ 30) and non-obese individuals (n = 14; 18.5 < BMI < 30). Participants completed two laboratory sessions (negative vs. positive mood conditions). Following 3-hours of food deprivation, all participants completed a mood induction, and then were exposed to their preferred high-calorie food items. HF HRV was assessed throughout. Obese and non-obese individuals were not significantly different in HF HRV during positive or negative mood induction. Obese individuals showed significantly greater levels of HF HRV during presentation of their preferred high-calorie food items than non-obese individuals, particularly in the positive mood condition. This is the first study to demonstrate increased vagal activity in response to food cues in obese individuals compared with non-obese individuals. Our findings warrant further investigation on the potential role of vagally-mediated cue reactivity in overeating and obesity. PMID:24847667

  6. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Mindfulness for Health-Related Quality of Life: Comparing Treatments for Parents of Children with Chronic Conditions - A Pilot Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Anclair, Malin; Hjärthag, Fredrik; Hiltunen, Arto Juhani

    2017-01-01

    Background: Research on parents of children with chronic conditions has shown that this parent group frequently suffers from psychological problems such as deteriorating life quality and stress-related disorders. Objective: The present feasibility study focuses on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and life satisfaction of parents of children with chronic conditions. Method: The study was conducted using a repeated measures design and applied either group-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT; n = 10) or a group-based mindfulness programme (MF; n = 9). The study participants were wait-listed for six months. Results: The results indicate improvements for participants in both treatment groups regarding certain areas of HRQOL and life satisfaction. After eight group therapy sessions, parents in the two treatment groups significantly improved their Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores as well as their scores on the mental subscales Vitality, Social functioning, Role emotional and Mental health. In addition, some of the physical subscales, Role physical, Bodily pain and General health, showed considerable improvement for the MF group. When testing for clinical significance by comparing the samples with mean values of a norm population, the MCS scores were significantly lower at pre-measurements, but no significant differences were observed post-measurement. For the Physical component summary (PCS) scores, a significantly higher score was observed at post-measurement when compared to the norm population. Moreover, the results indicate improvement in life satisfaction regarding Spare time, Relation to child and Relation to partner. Conclusion: The study concludes that CBT and mindfulness may have a positive effect on areas of HRQOL and life satisfaction. PMID:28217146

  7. Combined insulin pump therapy with real-time continuous glucose monitoring significantly improves glycemic control compared to multiple daily injection therapy in pump naïve patients with type 1 diabetes; single center pilot study experience.

    PubMed

    Lee, Scott W; Sweeney, Tom; Clausen, Debbie; Kolbach, Celia; Hassen, Allen; Firek, Anthony; Brinegar, Charles; Petrofsky, Jerrold

    2007-05-01

    This study assessed the safety and clinical effectiveness of the training protocol for initiating insulin pump therapy with real-time continuous glucose monitoring (MiniMed Paradigm REAL-Time System) in a stepwise approach on pump naive subjects with type 1 diabetes compared to a control group who remained on multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy. This was a 15-week treat-to-target pilot study of 16 adult subjects (n = 50% male, age 45.9 +/- 16 years) with type 1 diabetes (duration of diabetes 21.9 +/- 11 years) on MDI therapy with hemoglobin A1c levels at or above 7.5% at baseline. Subjects were randomized to either the study arm (using a combined insulin pump and real-time continuous glucose monitoring system) or the control arm [which continued on MDI therapy with self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) only]. All subjects dosed insulin according to results of SMBG by finger stick and uploaded data into the CareLink data management software. Significant improvements in glycemic control were observed from baseline in both study groups-study arm: pre-A1c 9.45 +/- 0.55 and post-A1c 7.4 +/- 0.66 (p = 0.00037); control arm: pre-A1c 8.58 +/- 1.30 and post-A1c 7.5 +/-1.01 (p = 0.04). Both arms had no incidence of severe hypoglycemia. In this pilot study, the Paradigm REAL-Time System was initiated safely and effectively in type 1 diabetes patients who were pump naïve using a stepwise educational protocol.

  8. Combined Insulin Pump Therapy with Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring Significantly Improves Glycemic Control Compared to Multiple Daily Injection Therapy in Pump Naïve Patients with Type 1 Diabetes; Single Center Pilot Study Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Scott W.; Sweeney, Tom; Clausen, Debbie; Kolbach, Celia; Hassen, Allen; Firek, Anthony; Brinegar, Charles; Petrofsky, Jerrold

    2007-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed the safety and clinical effectiveness of the training protocol for initiating insulin pump therapy with real-time continuous glucose monitoring (MiniMed Paradigm REAL-Time System) in a stepwise approach on pump naive subjects with type 1 diabetes compared to a control group who remained on multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy. Methods This was a 15-week treat-to-target pilot study of 16 adult subjects (n = 50% male, age 45.9 ± 16 years) with type 1 diabetes (duration of diabetes 21.9 ± 11 years) on MDI therapy with hemoglobin A1c levels at or above 7.5% at baseline. Subjects were randomized to either the study arm (using a combined insulin pump and real-time continuous glucose monitoring system) or the control arm [which continued on MDI therapy with self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) only]. All subjects dosed insulin according to results of SMBG by finger stick and uploaded data into the CareLink data management software. Results Significant improvements in glycemic control were observed from baseline in both study groups—study arm: pre-A1c 9.45 ± 0.55 and post-A1c 7.4 ± 0.66 (p = 0.00037); control arm: pre-A1c 8.58 ± 1.30 and post-A1c 7.5 ±1.01 (p = 0.04). Both arms had no incidence of severe hypoglycemia. Conclusion In this pilot study, the Paradigm REAL-Time System was initiated safely and effectively in type 1 diabetes patients who were pump naïve using a stepwise educational protocol. PMID:19885096

  9. A Non-inferiority Pilot Study Comparing the Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Generic Wide-spectrum Antibiotic Use in Septic Oncology Patients.

    PubMed

    Araya, I; Fasce, G; Núñez, E; Opazo, J L; Saez, E; Hurtado, V; Contreras, S; Quiñones, L A

    2015-12-01

    The present study is a non-inferiority study based on a descriptive and comparative case series for comparison of generic vs. original intravenous antimicrobials in septic oncology patients at an oncology private ICU. 1906 cancer patients admitted to Arturo Lopez Perez Foundation, Chile, were included in this study. After recruitment, a first retrospective group of 206 septic cancer patients recorded from 1st January, 2008 until July 14th, 2010, treated with original antibiotics (cefoperazone-sulbactam, imipenem-cilastatin, piperacillin-tazobactam) were included for analyses and a second prospective group of 143 septic cancer patients recorded from July 15th, 2010 until January 02, 2013, treated with the same but generic antibiotics were also included for comparisons. The trial protocol was developed in accordance with Helsinki and Good Clinical Practices recommendations. The results of this study showed no significant differences between the 2 groups in days of treatment, rate of success and lab test determinations (white cell count, PCR and procalcitonin), with lower, but not significant, total bed days and CPU bed days for generic antibiotics. Therefore, we conclude that the safety and efficacy of the generic antibiotics cefactam®, imipen® and Piperazam® are not inferior to original antibiotics for the treatment of severe sepsis in hospitalised patients at the Arturo Lopez Perez Foundation.

  10. Leadership in Dental Hygiene Degree Completion Programs: A Pilot Study Comparing Stand-Alone Leadership Courses and Leadership-Infused Curricula.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle L; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Farnsworth, Tracy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to define the extent to which leadership and leadership skills are taught in dental hygiene degree completion programs by comparing stand-alone leadership courses/hybrid programs with programs that infuse leadership skills throughout the curricula. The study involved a mixed-methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course, a hybrid program, or leadership-infused courses in these programs. A quantitative comparison of course syllabi determined differences in the extent of leadership content and experiences between stand-alone leadership courses and leadership-infused curricula. Of the 53 U.S. dental hygiene programs that offer degree completion programs, 49 met the inclusion criteria, and 19 programs provided course syllabi. Of the program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course or leadership-infused curriculum, 16 participated in the interview portion of the study. The results suggested that competencies related to leadership were not clearly defined or measurable in current teaching. Reported barriers to incorporating a stand-alone leadership course included overcrowded curricula, limited qualified faculty, and lack of resources. The findings of this study provide a synopsis of leadership content and gaps in leadership education for degree completion programs. Suggested changes included defining a need for leadership competencies and providing additional resources to educators such as courses provided by the American Dental Education Association and the American Dental Hygienists' Association.

  11. The analgesic effect of combined treatment with intranasal S-ketamine and intranasal midazolam compared with morphine patient-controlled analgesia in spinal surgery patients: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Riediger, Christine; Haschke, Manuel; Bitter, Christoph; Fabbro, Thomas; Schaeren, Stefan; Urwyler, Albert; Ruppen, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Ketamine is a well-known analgesic and dose-dependent anesthetic used in emergency and disaster medicine. Recently, a new formulation of S-ketamine, as an intranasal spray, was developed and tested in our institution in healthy volunteers. The authors investigated the effect of intranasal S-ketamine spray combined with midazolam intranasal spray in postoperative spinal surgery patients. Materials and methods In this prospective, computer-randomized, double-blinded noninferiority study in spinal surgery patients, the effects of intranasal S-ketamine and midazolam were compared with standard morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). The primary end point was the numeric rating scale pain score 24 hours after surgery. Results Twenty-two patients finished this study, eleven in each group. There were similar numeric rating scale scores in the morphine PCA and the S-ketamine-PCA groups at 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery during rest as well as in motion. There were no differences in the satisfaction scores at any time between the groups. The number of bolus demands and deliveries was not significantly different. Discussion In our study, we found that an S-ketamine intranasal spray combined with intra-nasal midazolam was similar in effectiveness, satisfaction, number of demands/deliveries of S-ketamine and morphine, and number/severity of adverse events compared with standard intravenous PCA with morphine. S-ketamine can be regarded as an effective alternative for a traditional intravenous morphine PCA in the postoperative setting. PMID:25709497

  12. Comparative effects of A1 versus A2 beta-casein on gastrointestinal measures: a blinded randomised cross-over pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ho, S; Woodford, K; Kukuljan, S; Pal, S

    2014-09-01

    At present, there is debate about the gastrointestinal effects of A1-type beta-casein protein in cows' milk compared with the progenitor A2 type. In vitro and animal studies suggest that digestion of A1 but not A2 beta-casein affects gastrointestinal motility and inflammation through the release of beta-casomorphin-7. We aimed to evaluate differences in gastrointestinal effects in a human adult population between milk containing A1 versus A2 beta-casein. Forty-one females and males were recruited into this double-blinded, randomised 8-week cross-over study. Participants underwent a 2-week dairy washout (rice milk replaced dairy), followed by 2 weeks of milk (750 ml/day) that contained beta-casein of either A1 or A2 type before undergoing a second washout followed by a final 2 weeks of the alternative A1 or A2 type milk. The A1 beta-casein milk led to significantly higher stool consistency values (Bristol Stool Scale) compared with the A2 beta-casein milk. There was also a significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency on the A1 diet (r=0.520, P=0.001), but not the A2 diet (r=-0.13, P=0.43). The difference between these two correlations (0.52 versus -0.13) was highly significant (P<0.001). Furthermore, some individuals may be susceptible to A1 beta-casein, as evidenced by higher faecal calprotectin values and associated intolerance measures. These preliminary results suggest differences in gastrointestinal responses in some adult humans consuming milk containing beta-casein of either the A1 or the A2 beta-casein type, but require confirmation in a larger study of participants with perceived intolerance to ordinary A1 beta-casein-containing milk.

  13. A randomised pilot study comparing 13 G vacuum-assisted biopsy and conventional 14 G core needle biopsy of axillary lymph nodes in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, A J; Bundred, N J; Harvey, J; Hunt, R; Morris, J; Lim, Y Y

    2016-06-01

    To compare the acceptability, safety, and feasibility of vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) and core needle biopsy (CNB) of axillary lymph nodes in women with breast cancer. This parallel, non-blinded, randomised study was approved by the National Research Ethics Service. Following written informed consent, women with abnormal appearing axillary lymph nodes and radiologically malignant breast masses were randomised 1:1 to lymph node sampling under local anaesthetic with either 14 G CNB or 13 G VAB in a single UK centre. Primary outcomes were study uptake rate and patient willingness to undergo a repeat procedure if necessary. Procedure duration, immediate and post-procedure pain scores, diagnostic yield, complications, and surgical histopathology were recorded. Ninety-five women were approached; 81 (85.3%) consented and were randomised. Forty underwent CNB; 40 underwent VAB; one was excluded. Median age was 57 years. The median procedure time was 2 minutes for both techniques. The median number of samples obtained was three for CNB and four for VAB. Median pain scores for the procedure and first 3 days were 1/10 and 1/10 for CNB and 1/10 and 2/10 for VAB (p=0.11 and 0.04). More women were prepared to undergo repeat CNB compared to VAB, but the difference was not significant (38/39 versus 33/39; p=0.11). Two patients developed a haematoma after VAB. One CNB and six VABs failed to yield adequate tissue (p=0.11), but the sensitivity was similar at 79% and 78%. Study uptake was high. Acceptability of the two procedures was similar, but VAB was associated with more post-procedure pain. The sensitivity appears to be similar. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Five-dimensional long bones biometry for estimation of femur length and fetal weight at term compared to two-dimensional ultrasound: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Laban, Mohamed; Alanwar, Ahmed A; Etman, Mohamed K; Elsokkary, Mohammed S; Elkotb, Ahmed M; Hasanien, Ahmad S; KhalafAllah, Ali E; Noah, Nancy M

    2017-07-27

    This study aimed to evaluate accuracy of five-dimensional long bones (5D LB) compared to two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) biometry to predict fetal weight among normal term women. Fifty six normal term women were recruited at Ain Shams Maternity Hospital, Egypt from 14 May to 30 November 2015. Fetal weight was estimated by Hadlock's IV formula using 2DUS and 5D LB. Estimated fetal weights (EFW) by 2DUS and 5D LB were compared with actual birth weights (ABW). Mean femur length (FL) was 7.07 ± 0.73 cm and 6.74 ± 0.67 cm by 2DUS and 5D LB (p = .02). EFW was 3309.86 ± 463.06 g by 2DUS and 3205.46 ± 447.85 g by 5D LB (p = .25). No statistical difference was observed between ABW and EFW by 2DUS (p = .7) or 5D LB (p = .45). Positive correlation was found between EFW by 2DUS, 5D LB, and ABW (r = 0.67 and 0.7; p < .001). There was strong agreement between FL measured by 2DUS and 5D LB (ICC = 0.78), and perfect agreement between EFW by 2DUS and EFW by 5D LB (ICC = 0.918). 2DUS and 5D LB showed mean absolute percentage error for EFW of 10 ± 7% and 8 ± 7% compared to ABW (p = .15). 2DUS and 5D LB had same accuracy for fetal weight estimation at normal term pregnancy.

  15. Post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent in waste stabilization ponds and in horizontal flow constructed wetlands: a comparative study in pilot scale in Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bastos, R K X; Calijuri, M L; Bevilacqua, P D; Rios, E N; Dias, E H O; Capelete, B C; Magalhães, T B

    2010-01-01

    The results of a 20-month period study in Brazil were analyzed to compare horizontal-flow constructed wetlands (CW) and waste stabilization pond (WSP) systems in terms of land area requirements and performance to produce effluent qualities for surface water discharge, and for wastewater use in agriculture and/or aquaculture. Nitrogen, E. coli and helminth eggs were more effectively removed in WSP than in CW. It is indicated that CW and WSP require similar land areas to achieve a bacteriological effluent quality suitable for unrestricted irrigation (10(3) E. coli per 100 mL), but CW would require 2.6 times more land area than ponds to achieve quite relaxed ammonia effluent discharge standards (20 mg NH(3) L(-1)), and, by far, more land than WSP to produce an effluent complying with the WHO helminth guideline for agricultural use (< or =1 egg per litre).

  16. Comparative evaluation of soft and hard tissue dimensions in the anterior maxilla using radiovisiography and cone beam computed tomography: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mallikarjun, Savita; Babu, Harsha Mysore; Das, Sreedevi; Neelakanti, Abhilash; Dawra, Charu; Shinde, Sachin Vaijnathrao

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess and compare the thickness of gingiva in the anterior maxilla using radiovisiography (RVG) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and its correlation with the thickness of underlying alveolar bone. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study included 10 male subjects in the age group of 20–45 years. Materials and Methods: After analyzing the width of keratinized gingiva of the maxillary right central incisor, the radiographic assessment was done using a modified technique for RVG and CBCT, to measure the thickness of both the labial gingiva and labial plate of alveolar bone at 4 predetermined locations along the length of the root in each case. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation test, with the help of statistical software (SPSS V13). Results: No statistically significant differences were obtained in the measurement made using RVG and CBCT. The results of the present study also failed to reveal any significant correlation between the width of gingiva and the alveolar bone in the maxillary anterior region. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that both CBCT and RVG can be used as valuable tools in the assessment of the soft and hard tissue dimensions. PMID:27143830

  17. Comparative evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate and bioaggregate as apical barrier material in traumatized nonvital, immature teeth: A clinical pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tuloglu, N; Bayrak, S

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research examining the use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as an apical barrier material are limited, and no studies have so far examined the clinical performance of BioAggregate as apical barrier material in nonvital immature teeth. This study was aimed to provide a comparative evaluation of the clinical and radiographic success of MTA and BioAggregate as an apical barrier material in children with traumatized nonvital, immature permanent maxillary incisors. A total of 26 maxillary incisor teeth in 20 children aged 7-11 were chosen for this study. Teeth were randomly divided into two groups according to the material to be applied, and the apical barrier was performed. Following treatment, for 24-month, teeth were clinically and radiographically evaluated once every 3- and 6-month, respectively. All teeth treated with MTA and BioAggregate were clinically and radiographically successful throughout the 24-month follow-up period. Similar success was achieved in the apical barrier that using BioAggregate and MTA. BioAggregate would be considered suitable materials for apical barrier technique and can be used as an alternative to MTA.

  18. Maxillary sinus lift using osteoinductive simvastatin combined with β-TCP versus β-TCP - a comparative pilot study to evaluate simvastatin enhanced and accelerated bone formation.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Ayman; Helal, Eman; Ali, Sherif; Bakry, Saleh; Yassin, Salah

    2017-09-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate available bone quality and quantity after performing sinus augmentation using simvastatin/β-TCP combination versus β-TCP alone. This study included eight sinus lift procedures conducted on six patients. The sinuses were divided into two equal groups. The patients were recalled one, two weeks two, five, nine months post-operatively for post-operative evaluation. Radiographic evaluation involved cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) radiographs taken for every patient one week and nine months post-operatively to evaluate the changes in bone height, while histomorphometric evaluation involved transcortical bone biopsies taken after nine months during the second-stage surgery for implant placement. The histomorphometric results showed that the amount of newly formed bone was higher in the simvastatin group when compared to the β-TCP group nine months after the surgery; the difference between the two groups was statistically significant. On the other hand, the radiographic evaluation showed that the rate of resorption of the simvastatin group was found to be higher than the control group; however, the difference between both groups was statistically insignificant. These results showed that Simvastatin is safe to be used in sinus lift with promising osteoinductive capacity, yet further studies using larger sample size is needed.

  19. A pilot study comparing the antispasmodic effects of inhaled salmeterol, salbutamol and ipratropium bromide using different aerosol devices on muscarinic bronchoconstriction in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Leemans, Jérôme; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Bernaerts, Frédérique; Clercx, Cécile; Cambier, Carole; Gustin, Pascal

    2009-05-01

    This study compared the duration and magnitude of the antispasmodic effects of salmeterol (SLM), salbutamol (SAL), ipratropium bromide (IB) and the combination of SAL and IB (SAL/IB) against carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction in healthy cats, and investigated the gain in efficacy using a two or fourfold increase in drug dosages. The drug regimens used were: (1) SLM 25 microg, SAL 100 microg, IB 20 microg and SAL/IB 100 microg/20 microg for bronchodilators delivered by a metered-dose inhaler (MDI); (2) SAL 3.75 mg and IB 62.5 microg for nebulised (NEB) medications. To monitor the bronchodilator effect, airway responsiveness was assessed at different time points using barometric whole-body plethysmography and calculation of the concentration of inhaled carbachol inducing a 300% increase of baseline Penh (enhanced pause), an estimator of airflow limitation. Maximum C-Penh300 was recorded 15 min after NEB SAL, IB MDI, NEB IB and 1h after SAL MDI and 4h after SLM MDI, respectively. C-Penh300 was significantly different from control values (without treatment) up to 24h for SLM MDI, 8h for IB MDI and 4h for other drugs. In terms of efficacy, SAL/IB MDI showed a synergistic antispasmodic effect at 15 min, 4h and 8h after administration. A fourfold increase of the initial dose of IB MDI and NEB IB significantly increased C-Penh300. Despite a fourfold dose increase, SLM displayed the weakest degree of bronchoprotection compared to other bronchodilators. The study provides evidence that inhaled bronchodilators are efficient at preventing muscarinic-induced bronchospasm in healthy cats and that SAL and IB appear to be short-acting bronchodilators in contrast to SLM.

  20. Microbial field pilot study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m{sup 3}) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO{sub 2} content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  1. A pilot exercise on comparative risk assessment in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cebrian, M.E.; Albores, A.; Sierra, A.

    1996-12-31

    Concern in the Mexican government and academic institutions about human health problems derived from exposure to environmental contaminants has been increasing. This interest prompted us to perform a pilot study to identify and rank potentially problematic environmental situations. We were given access to files from the Instituto Nacional de Ecologia. We screened about 2,500 documents and selected about 200 reports for further analysis. We adapted methodologies developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1993) and ATSDR (1992) to analyze environmental data. San Luis Potosi City and Region Lagunera were the areas posing greater risks. We chose San Luis Potosi City to perform a more detailed study, since here a smelting complex is located within an urban zone. The high levels of As, Pb, and Cd in environmental media resulted in a higher body burden in exposed children than children living 7 km away. Multiple regression analysis suggested that alterations in sensorial nerve transmission were mainly related to As in urine (AsU), whereas those in motor nerves were mainly related to Pb in blood (PbB). No apparent relationships associated with CdU were found. Slower auditory nerve conduction was associated with both AsU and PbB. These findings suggest that exposed children are also at high risk of suffering other adverse health effects. This exercise illustrates the need to perform studies aimed at identifying and ranking environmental contamination problems in industrializing countries. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Human Challenge Pilot Study with Cyclospora cayetanensis

    PubMed Central

    Eberhard, Mark L.; Seed, John R.; Weber, David J.; Won, Kimberly Y.; Nace, Eva K.; Moe, Christine L.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a pilot study that attempted to infect human volunteers with Cyclospora cayetanensis. Seven healthy volunteers ingested an inoculum of Cyclospora oocysts (approximately 200–49,000 oocysts). The volunteers did not experience symptoms of gastroenteritis, and no oocysts were detected in any stool samples during the 16 weeks volunteers were monitored. PMID:15200870

  3. Understanding nutritional health in older adults. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Callen, Bonnie

    2004-01-01

    A pilot study of adults ages 65 and older admitted to an acute care setting was conducted to compare nutritional risk as measured by hospital dieticians with two Nutrition Screening Initiative tools, the DETERMINE Your Nutritional Health Checklist and the Level I Screen, and to elicit from patients their own perceptions of nutritional health. Ten community-living older adults were interviewed. Although all 10 were at nutritional risk as measured by both hospital assessment and nutritional risk screening tools, none of these patients believed themselves to be at risk. One conclusion of this pilot is that interventions and education need to be tailored to the perceptions of targeted individuals.

  4. Reliability of goniometric measurements in children with cerebral palsy: A comparative analysis of universal goniometer and electronic inclinometer. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Even though technological progress has provided us with more and more sophisticated equipment for making goniometric measurements, the most commonly used clinical tools are still the universal goniometer and, to a lesser extent, the inclinometer. There is, however, no published study so far that uses an inclinometer for measurements in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The objective of this study was two-fold: to independently assess the intra and inter-examiner reliability for measuring the hip abduction range of motion in children with CP using two different instruments, the universal two-axis goniometer and electronic inclinometer. A pool of 5 examiners with different levels of experience as paediatric physiotherapists participated. The study did not compare both instruments because the measurement procedure and the hip position were different for each. Methods A prospective, observational study of goniometery was carried out with 14 lower extremities of 7 children with spastic CP. The inclinometer study was carried out with 8 lower extremities of 4 children with spastic CP. This study was divided into two independent parts: a study of the reliability of the hip abduction range of motion measured with a universal goniometer (hip at 0° flexion) and with an electronic inclinometer (hip at 90° flexion). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was calculated to analyse intra and inter-examiner agreement for each instrument. Results For the goniometer, the intra-examiner reliability was excellent (>0.80), while the inter-examiner reliability was low (0.375 and 0.475). For the inclinometer, both the intra-examiner (0.850-0.975) and inter-examiner reliability were excellent (0.965 and 0.979). Conclusions The inter-examiner reliability for goniometric measurement of hip abduction in children with CP was low, in keeping with other results found in previous publications. The inclinometer has proved to be a highly reliable tool for measuring the hip

  5. Reliability of goniometric measurements in children with cerebral palsy: a comparative analysis of universal goniometer and electronic inclinometer. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Pablo; Carrera, Patricia; García, Elena; Gómez-Trullén, Eva M; Oliván-Blázquez, Bárbara

    2011-07-10

    Even though technological progress has provided us with more and more sophisticated equipment for making goniometric measurements, the most commonly used clinical tools are still the universal goniometer and, to a lesser extent, the inclinometer. There is, however, no published study so far that uses an inclinometer for measurements in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The objective of this study was two-fold: to independently assess the intra and inter-examiner reliability for measuring the hip abduction range of motion in children with CP using two different instruments, the universal two-axis goniometer and electronic inclinometer. A pool of 5 examiners with different levels of experience as paediatric physiotherapists participated. The study did not compare both instruments because the measurement procedure and the hip position were different for each. A prospective, observational study of goniometery was carried out with 14 lower extremities of 7 children with spastic CP. The inclinometer study was carried out with 8 lower extremities of 4 children with spastic CP. This study was divided into two independent parts: a study of the reliability of the hip abduction range of motion measured with a universal goniometer (hip at 0° flexion) and with an electronic inclinometer (hip at 90° flexion). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was calculated to analyse intra and inter-examiner agreement for each instrument. For the goniometer, the intra-examiner reliability was excellent (>0.80), while the inter-examiner reliability was low (0.375 and 0.475). For the inclinometer, both the intra-examiner (0.850-0.975) and inter-examiner reliability were excellent (0.965 and 0.979). The inter-examiner reliability for goniometric measurement of hip abduction in children with CP was low, in keeping with other results found in previous publications. The inclinometer has proved to be a highly reliable tool for measuring the hip abduction range of motion in children with

  6. Alternative treatments for oral bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: a pilot study comparing fibrin rich in growth factors and teriparatide.

    PubMed

    Pelaz, Alejandro; Junquera, Luis; Gallego, Lorena; García-Consuegra, Luis; Junquera, Sonsoles; Gómez, Carlos

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and compare the evolution of recurrent bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) in patients treated with plasma rich in growth factors or teriparatide. Two different types of treatments were applied in patients diagnosed of recurrent BRONJ in a referral hospital for 1.100.000 inhabitants. In the group A, plasma rich in growth factors was applied during the surgery. In the group B, the treatment consisted in the subcutaneous administration of teriparatide. All the cases of BRONJ should meet the following conditions: recurrent BRONJ, impossibility of surgery in stage 3 Ruggiero classification and absence of diagnosed neoplastic disease. Clinical and radiographic evolution of the patients from both groups was observed. Nine patients were included, 5 in group A and 4 in group B. All the patients were women on oral bisphosphonate therapy for primary osteoporosis (5 patients) or osteoporosis-related to the use of corticosteroids (4 patients). Alendronate was the most common oral bisphosphonate associated with BRONJ in our study (four patients in group A and two in group B). The mean age was 72,8 years in the group A and 73,5 years in the group B. All the patients from group A showed a complete resolution of their BRONJ. Only one patient in the group B showed the same evolution. In our series, the plasma rich in growth factors showed better results than the teriparatide in the treatment of recurrent BRONJ.

  7. Comparative prognostic relevance of breast intra-tumoral microvessel density evaluated by CD105 and CD146: A pilot study of 42 cases.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Leandro Marcelo; Labovsky, Vivian; Calcagno, María de Luján; Davies, Kevin Mauro; Rivello, Hernán Garcia; Wernicke, Alejandra; Calvo, Juan Carlos; Chasseing, Norma Alejandra

    2016-04-01

    Angiogenesis is a key process for metastatic progression. While it has been established that the evaluation of breast tumoral microvessel density by CD105 marker is a potential prognostic parameter, its evaluation by CD146 marker has been poorly studied. The purpose of this study was to compare the prognostic value of intra-tumoral microvessel density assayed by CD105 and CD146 in early breast cancer patients. 42 women with breast infiltrative ductal carcinoma (I and II-stages) were retrospectively reviewed. Intra-tumoral microvessel density was immunohistochemically examined using antibodies anti-CD105 and CD146 in paraffin-embedded tissues, and their association with classical prognostic-markers, metastatic recurrence, metastasis-free survival and overall survival was analyzed. High microvessel density assessed by CD146 was significantly associated with a higher risk of developing metastasis (p=0.0310) and a shorter metastasis-free survival (p=0.0197). In contrast, when we used the CD105-antibody, we did not find any significant association. Finally, CD146 showed to be an independent predictive indicator for metastasis-free survival (p=0.0055). Our data suggest that the intra-tumoral microvessel density evaluated by CD146 may be a more suitable predictor of metastatic development than that evaluated by CD105 in early breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. 18F-FDG silicon photomultiplier PET/CT: A pilot study comparing semi-quantitative measurements with standard PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sonya Young; Hatami, Negin; Davidzon, Guido; Srinivas, Shyam; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Iagaru, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate if the new Discovery Molecular Insights (DMI) PET/CT scanner provides equivalent results compared to the standard of care PET/CT scanners (GE Discovery 600 or GE Discovery 690) used in our clinic and to explore any possible differences in semi-quantitative measurements. Methods The local Institutional Review Board approved the protocol and written informed consent was obtained from each patient. Between September and November 2016, 50 patients underwent a single 18F-FDG injection and two scans: the clinical standard PET/CT followed immediately by the DMI PET/CT scan. We measured SUVmax and SUVmean of different background organs and up to four lesions per patient from data acquired using both scanners. Results DMI PET/CT identified all the 107 lesions detected by standard PET/CT scanners, as well as additional 37 areas of focal increased 18F-FDG uptake. The SUVmax values for all 107 lesions ranged 1.2 to 14.6 (mean ± SD: 2.8 ± 2.8), higher on DMI PET/CT compared with standard of care PET/CT. The mean lesion:aortic arch SUVmax ratio and mean lesion:liver SUVmax ratio were 0.2–15.2 (mean ± SD: 3.2 ± 2.6) and 0.2–8.5 (mean ± SD: 1.9 ± 1.4) respectively, higher on DMI PET/CT than standard PET/CT. These differences were statistically significant (P value < 0.0001) and not correlated to the delay in acquisition of DMI PET data (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Our study shows high performance of the new DMI PET/CT scanner. This may have a significant role in diagnosing and staging disease, as well as for assessing and monitoring responses to therapies. PMID:28582472

  9. 18F-FDG silicon photomultiplier PET/CT: A pilot study comparing semi-quantitative measurements with standard PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Baratto, Lucia; Park, Sonya Young; Hatami, Negin; Davidzon, Guido; Srinivas, Shyam; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Iagaru, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate if the new Discovery Molecular Insights (DMI) PET/CT scanner provides equivalent results compared to the standard of care PET/CT scanners (GE Discovery 600 or GE Discovery 690) used in our clinic and to explore any possible differences in semi-quantitative measurements. The local Institutional Review Board approved the protocol and written informed consent was obtained from each patient. Between September and November 2016, 50 patients underwent a single 18F-FDG injection and two scans: the clinical standard PET/CT followed immediately by the DMI PET/CT scan. We measured SUVmax and SUVmean of different background organs and up to four lesions per patient from data acquired using both scanners. DMI PET/CT identified all the 107 lesions detected by standard PET/CT scanners, as well as additional 37 areas of focal increased 18F-FDG uptake. The SUVmax values for all 107 lesions ranged 1.2 to 14.6 (mean ± SD: 2.8 ± 2.8), higher on DMI PET/CT compared with standard of care PET/CT. The mean lesion:aortic arch SUVmax ratio and mean lesion:liver SUVmax ratio were 0.2-15.2 (mean ± SD: 3.2 ± 2.6) and 0.2-8.5 (mean ± SD: 1.9 ± 1.4) respectively, higher on DMI PET/CT than standard PET/CT. These differences were statistically significant (P value < 0.0001) and not correlated to the delay in acquisition of DMI PET data (P < 0.0001). Our study shows high performance of the new DMI PET/CT scanner. This may have a significant role in diagnosing and staging disease, as well as for assessing and monitoring responses to therapies.

  10. A randomized pilot study comparing the role of PEEP, O2 flow, and high-flow air for weaning of ventilatory support in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-Yo; Yang, Mei-Chin; Chu, Shih-Ming; Chiang, Ming-Chou; Lien, Reyin

    2017-09-06

    There is a lack of evidence to guide step-wise weaning of positive pressure respiratory support for premature infants. This study sought to compare the efficacy of three weaning protocols we designed to facilitate weaning of very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) preterm infants from nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) support. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of VLBW preterm infants who received positive pressure ventilatory support in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from April 2008 through March 2009. When these infants were weaned to CPAP as their last step of respiratory support, they would be randomly assigned to one of the following three groups as their further weaning methods (M): (M1) CPAP group, (M2) O2 flow group, and (M3) air flow group. The time period they needed to wean off any kind of respiratory support, as well as the likelihood of developing relevant prematurity related morbidities, were compared among patients using different weaning modalities. 181 patients were enrolled in the study. Their gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW) were 29.1 ± 2.5, 28.7 ± 2.4, 28.7 ± 2.4 (mean ± SD) weeks and 1142 ± 232, 1099 ± 234, 1083 ± 219 g, in M1, M2 and M3, respectively. The time (period) needed to wean off support was 16.0 ± 10.0 days (M1), 11.6 ± 6.4 days (M2), and 15.0 ± 8.9 days (M3), respectively (p = .033). Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were both significantly higher in the O2 flow group (p = .048). Although using low oxygen flow significantly shortens CPAP weaning time, it may increase risks of BPD and ROP, both known to be related to oxygen toxicity. Unless the infant has BPD and is O2-dependent, clinicians should consider using air flow or just splinting with no support at all when weaning NCPAP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. In Vitro Comparative Evaluation of Different Types of Impression Trays and Impression Materials on the Accuracy of Open Tray Implant Impressions: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sonam; Balakrishnan, Dhanasekar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. For a precise fit of multiple implant framework, having an accurate definitive cast is imperative. The present study evaluated dimensional accuracy of master casts obtained using different impression trays and materials with open tray impression technique. Materials and Methods. A machined aluminum reference model with four parallel implant analogues was fabricated. Forty implant level impressions were made. Eight groups (n = 5) were tested using impression materials (polyether and vinylsiloxanether) and four types of impression trays, two being custom (self-cure acrylic and light cure acrylic) and two being stock (plastic and metal). The interimplant distances were measured on master casts using a coordinate measuring machine. The collected data was compared with a standard reference model and was statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results. Statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the two impression materials. However, the difference seen was small (36 μm) irrespective of the tray type used. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed between varied stock and custom trays. Conclusions. The polyether impression material proved to be more accurate than vinylsiloxanether impression material. The rigid nonperforated stock trays, both plastic and metal, could be an alternative for custom trays for multi-implant impressions when used with medium viscosity impression materials. PMID:28348595

  12. In Vitro Comparative Evaluation of Different Types of Impression Trays and Impression Materials on the Accuracy of Open Tray Implant Impressions: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sonam; Narayan, Aparna Ichalangod; Balakrishnan, Dhanasekar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. For a precise fit of multiple implant framework, having an accurate definitive cast is imperative. The present study evaluated dimensional accuracy of master casts obtained using different impression trays and materials with open tray impression technique. Materials and Methods. A machined aluminum reference model with four parallel implant analogues was fabricated. Forty implant level impressions were made. Eight groups (n = 5) were tested using impression materials (polyether and vinylsiloxanether) and four types of impression trays, two being custom (self-cure acrylic and light cure acrylic) and two being stock (plastic and metal). The interimplant distances were measured on master casts using a coordinate measuring machine. The collected data was compared with a standard reference model and was statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results. Statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the two impression materials. However, the difference seen was small (36 μm) irrespective of the tray type used. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed between varied stock and custom trays. Conclusions. The polyether impression material proved to be more accurate than vinylsiloxanether impression material. The rigid nonperforated stock trays, both plastic and metal, could be an alternative for custom trays for multi-implant impressions when used with medium viscosity impression materials.

  13. Comparative Assessment of Intelligence Quotient among Children Living in High and Low Fluoride Areas of Kutch, India-a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Pujara, Piyush; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Aapaliya, Pankaj; Bhanushali, Nikhil

    2013-08-01

    Long-term ingestion of large amounts of fluoride can lead to potentially severe skeletal problems and neurological consequences. The study was conducted to assess and compare intelligence quotient of children living in high and low fluoride areas in Kutch, Gujarat, India. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 100 school children aged 8 to 10 years, living in Kutch District, Gujarat, India during July 2012. Mundra (2.4 to 3.5 mg/L) and Bhuj (0.5mg/L) were the two villages randomly selected to represent the high and low water fluoride areas respectively. Seguin Form Board Test was used to assess the intelligence quotient (IQ) level of children. Descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test was used for analysis. Mean scores for average, shortest and total timing category were found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) among children living in Mundra (30.45±4.97) than those living in Bhuj (23.20±6.21). Mean differences at 95% confidence interval for these timings were found to be 7.24, 7.28 and 21.78 respectively. In both the villages, females had lower mean timing scores than males but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride in water was observed to be associated with lower intelligence quotient.

  14. The use of an adjustable electrode housing unit to compare electrode alignment and contact variation with myoelectric prosthesis functionality: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Head, John S; Howard, David; Hutchins, Stephen W; Kenney, Laurence; Heath, Glyn Harvey; Aksenov, Andrey Yurievitch

    2016-02-01

    Usable myoelectric control relies on secure and intimate contact at all times between the electrode, the socket and the residual limb. At present, there is little post-fitting socket adjustment available to prosthetists with respect to electrode contact security or alignment. Failure to provide secure electrode contact could result in the development of motion artefacts, poor prehensor response and subsequent prosthesis non-usage. To establish the effect of alteration to electrode contract security and alignment on prosthesis functionality using a bespoke electrode housing unit. This study investigated the effect of electrode contact security and alignment on upper limb myoelectric prosthesis functionality. Four different electrode housing arrangements were assessed within prosthetic sockets fitted to six transradial prosthesis subjects using the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure, which is a reliable and validated prosthesis functionality assessment tool. Significantly higher functionality scores were achieved with the bespoke housing unit compared to when using conventional electrode housings. Myoelectric prosthesis functionality is closely linked to electrode contact security and to electrode alignment with respect to the residual limb. Both of these factors can be improved locally using an adjustable electrode housing unit. Provision of an electrode housing system that enables adjustments to be made to electrode orientation can improve prosthesis functionality, particularly in cases where tight-fitting sockets are not possible, and/or where the prosthetist may be inexperienced with regard to myoelectric prosthesis fitting. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  15. A switch therapy protocol with intravenous azithromycin and ciprofloxacin combination for severe, relapsing chronic bacterial prostatitis: a prospective non-comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kolumbić Lakos, A; Skerk, V; Maleković, G; Dujnić Spoljarević, T; Kovacic, D; Pasini, M; Markotić, A; Magri, V; Perletti, G

    2011-12-01

    Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is characterized by intense clinical symptoms, frequent relapse episodes and poor quality of life. Aggressive antibacterial therapy is warranted to eradicate the causative pathogens and to achieve a permanent cure. We administered a "switch-therapy" protocol to 30 patients showing severe CBP symptoms and two or more relapse episodes in the previous 12 months. Patients received intravenous azithromycin (500 mg/day) and ciprofloxacin (800 mg/day) for 3 days, followed by oral ciprofloxacin (1 g/day) for 25 days.Twenty-seven (90%) patients showed pathogen eradication at test-of-cure (TOC) visit. Five cases of infection relapse were detected at follow-up. At the TOC visit, 25 patients (83%) showed mild/absent symptoms, measured with the NIH-chronic prostatitis symptom index.These results indicate the efficacy of a "switch-therapy" protocol, based on combined azithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Comparative studies on larger CBP patient populations are warranted to confirm these encouraging results.

  16. Detection of Medical Errors in Kidney Transplantation: A Pilot Study Comparing Proactive Clinician Debriefings to a Hospital-Wide Incident Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Lisa M.; Daud, Amna; Lapin, Brittany; Ross, Olivia; Woods, Donna M.; Skaro, Anton; Holl, Jane L.; Ladner, Daniela P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rates of medical errors and adverse events remain high for kidney transplant patients, who are particularly vulnerable due to the complexity of their disease and the kidney transplant procedure. Although institutional incident reporting systems are utilized in hospitals around the country, they often fail to capture a substantial proportion of medical errors. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of a proactive, web-based clinician safety debriefing to augment the information about medical errors and adverse events obtained via traditional incident reporting systems. Methods Debriefings were sent to all individuals listed on operating room personnel reports for kidney transplantation surgeries between April 2010 and April 2011 and incident reports were collected for the same time period. The World Health Organization International Classification for Patient Safety was used to classify all issues reported. Results A total of 270 debriefings reported 334 patient safety issues (179 safety incidents, 155 contributing factors), and 57 incident reports reported 92 patient safety issues (56 safety incidents, 36 contributing factors). Compared to incident reports, more attending physicians completed the debriefings (32.0 vs. 3.5%). Discussion The use of a proactive, web-based debriefing to augment an incident reporting system in assessing safety risks in kidney transplantation demonstrated increased information, more perspectives of a single safety issue, and increased breadth of participants. PMID:25444312

  17. Pilot study comparing multi-family therapy to single family therapy for adults with anorexia nervosa in an intensive eating disorder program.

    PubMed

    Dimitropoulos, Gina; Farquhar, Jamie C; Freeman, Victoria Emily; Colton, Patricia Anne; Olmsted, Marion Patricia

    2015-07-01

    Multi-family therapy (MFT) has yet to be evaluated in families of adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). The study aims were: (i) assess the feasibility of MFT for AN; and, (ii) assess whether MFT is associated with improved outcomes for families compared with single-family therapy (SFT). Adult patients with AN consecutively referred to an eating disorder treatment program were assigned (non-randomly) to receive eight sessions of SFT or MFT. Assessment occurred pre-therapy, immediately post-therapy, and at 3-month follow-up. A total of 37 female patients (13 SFT, 24 MFT) and 45 family members (16 SFT, 29 MFT) completed treatment. There were significant time effects for patients' BMI, eating disorder-related psychopathology and multiple family outcome measures. There were no differences between MFT and SFT on family outcome measures at end of treatment and 3 months post treatment. MFT is a feasible intervention that can be used in adult intensive treatment for those with AN.

  18. Alternative treatments for oral bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: A pilot study comparing fibrin rich in growth factors and teriparatide

    PubMed Central

    Pelaz, Alejandro; Gallego, Lorena; García-Consuegra, Luis; Junquera, Sonsoles; Gómez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to describe and compare the evolution of recurrent bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) in patients treated with plasma rich in growth factors or teriparatide. Material and Methods: Two different types of treatments were applied in patients diagnosed of recurrent BRONJ in a referral hospital for 1.100.000 inhabitants. In the group A, plasma rich in growth factors was applied during the surgery. In the group B, the treatment consisted in the subcutaneous administration of teriparatide. All the cases of BRONJ should meet the following conditions: recurrent BRONJ, impossibility of surgery in stage 3 Ruggiero classification and absence of diagnosed neoplastic disease. Clinical and radiographic evolution of the patients from both groups was observed. Results: Nine patients were included, 5 in group A and 4 in group B. All the patients were women on oral bis-phosphonate therapy for primary osteoporosis (5 patients) or osteoporosis-related to the use of corticosteroids (4 patients). Alendronate was the most common oral bisphosphonate associated with BRONJ in our study (four patients in group A and two in group B). The mean age was 72,8 years in the group A and 73,5 years in the group B. All the patients from group A showed a complete resolution of their BRONJ. Only one patient in the group B showed the same evolution. Conclusions: In our series, the plasma rich in growth factors showed better results than the teriparatide in the treatment of recurrent BRONJ. Key words:Osteonecrosis, oral bisphosphonate, treatment, teriparatide, plasma rich in growth factors. PMID:24608203

  19. The efficacy of acetaminophen-caffeine compared to Ibuprofen in the control of postoperative pain after periodontal surgery: a crossover pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rashwan, Weam A M

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies showed that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have significant benefits in the control of pain after periodontal surgery. Acetaminophen (centrally acting NSAID) is believed to provide less analgesic efficacy than ibuprofen (centrally and peripherally acting NSAID). This study compared an alternative combination of acetaminophen, 500 mg, with caffeine, 30 mg, to ibuprofen, 400 mg, in pain management after periodontal surgeries. A prospective, randomized, double-masked crossover clinical trial was conducted on 15 patients. Open flap debridement was performed on two quadrants with a 3-week interval in between. Each quadrant was randomly assigned to acetaminophen, 500 mg, with caffeine, 30 mg, or ibuprofen, 400 mg, immediately after surgery and 8 hours after the first dose. Postoperative pain was assessed during the first 8 hours and on the following day using the 101-point numeric rate scale (NRS-101) and the four-point verbal rating scale (VRS-4). Using the NRS-101, the acetaminophen-caffeine group showed statistically significantly lower mean pain scores than the ibuprofen group at 1 and 2 hours (P = 0.002), whereas at 6, 7, and 8 hours, the ibuprofen group showed statistically significantly lower mean pain scores (P <0.001). Using the VRS-4, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups at all periods (P >0.05). Acetaminophen, 500 mg, with caffeine, 30 mg, can be used efficiently in controlling postoperative pain after open flap debridement, especially in patients with gastric ulcers or bleeding tendency because acetaminophen is less hazardous than ibuprofen.

  20. A Comparative Evaluation of Condylar Guidance Value from Radiograph with Interocclusal Records made During Jaw Relation and Try-in: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Shilpa; Satish Babu, C L; Tambake, Deepti; Surendra Kumar, G P; Setpal, Abhishek T

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of programming the articulator using the radiographs and the interocclusal records made during Jaw relation (Arrow point tracing) and Try-in stage. The study comprised of 15 edentulous subjects with well formed maxillary and mandibular ridges, with no signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders and neuromuscular disorders. Digital Orthopantomograph was taken for all the subjects. The condylar guidance angles were traced on Orthopantomograph for right and left sides and the values were recorded. The protrusive interocclusal records were made at jaw relation stage and at try-in stage using bite registration paste (Bitrex- vinyl polysiloxane) for all subjects. These interocclusal records were used to programme the Semi-adjustable articulator (Hanau Wide Vue) and the condylar guidance values on the right and left sides were recorded. The condylar guidance values so obtained were compared with the values obtained by Orthopantomograph. The condylar guidance values obtained by the various procedures were subjected to statistical analysis. The results showed statistically significant difference between the condylar guidance values obtained from Orthopantomograph (Radiograph) and the condylar guidance values obtained at the stage of jaw relation and also between Orthopantomograph and condylar guidance values obtained at the stage of Try-in. Condylar guidance values obtained from the Radiographs were higher than those obtained at the stage of Jaw relation and at the stage of Try-in. However, we notice that the mean condylar guidance values obtained at the stage of Try-in were nearer to the mean condylar guidance values obtained on the Radiographs.

  1. A clinical pilot study comparing traditional acupuncture to combined acupuncture for treating headache, trigeminal neuralgia and retro-auricular pain in facial palsy.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chang-Beohm; Lee, Sang-Ju; Lee, Jang-Cheon; Fossion, Jean Pierre J; Sant'Ana, Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Traditional acupuncture (TA) and ear acupuncture (EA) are used for treatment of headache, trigeminal neuralgia, and retro-auricular pain. The purpose of this study is to develop effective treatment using combined acupuncture (CA) which consists of TA and EA and to set clinical protocols for future trials. Participants were divided into TA (n = 15) control and CA (n = 34) experimental groups. Obligatory points among Korean Five Element Acupuncture and optional individual points along with symptom points were used in the TA group. The CA group was exposed to ear points of Fossion and TA. Acupuncture treatment consisted of six mandatory sessions per patient over 3 weeks and extended to 12 sessions. Pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale. We compared TA to CA and researched their relevant publications. No significant difference was observed between the two groups (p = 0.968) which showed pain-alleviating tendency. Pain alleviation was significantly different after the fifth and sixth sessions (p = 0.021, p = 0.025), with headache being the most significantly relieved (F = 4.399, p = 0.018) among the diseases. When assessing pain intensity, both the Headache Impact Test and the Migraine Disability Assessment Scale should be adopted for headache and the fractal electroencephalography method be used in pain diseases. In the future, studies should consist of TA, EA, and CA groups; each group having 20 patients. Treatment number should to be no less than 10 sessions. Korean Five Element Acupuncture should be a compulsory inclusion along with individual points being optional inclusion in TA. EA could be selected from Nogier, Fossion and so forth. In conclusion, acupuncture treatment, whether TA or CA, showed pain alleviation in headache, trigeminal neuralgia, and retro-auricular pain, but no significant difference was seen between groups. Prospective, well-controlled, and relevant protocols using multimodal strategies to define the role of TA, EA, and CA are

  2. The use of a novel perfusion-based cadaveric simulation model with cerebrospinal fluid reconstitution comparing dural repair techniques: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bakhsheshian, Joshua; Strickland, Ben A; Patel, Neil N; Jakoi, Andre M; Minneti, Michael; Zada, Gabriel; Acosta, Frank L; Hsieh, Patrick C; Wang, Jeffrey C; Liu, John C; Pham, Martin H

    2017-09-01

    Watertight dural repair is crucial for both incidental durotomy and closure after intradural surgery. The study aimed to describe a perfusion-based cadaveric simulation model with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reconstitution and to compare spine dural repair techniques. The study is set in a fresh tissue dissection laboratory. The sample includes eight fresh human cadavers. A watertight closure was achieved when pressurized saline up to 40 mm Hg did not cause further CSF leakage beyond the suture lines. Fresh human cadaveric specimens underwent cannulation of the intradural cervical spine for intrathecal reconstitution of the CSF system. The cervicothoracic dura was then exposed from C7-T12 via laminectomy. The entire dura was then opened in six cadavers (ALLSPINE) and closed with 6-0 Prolene (n=3) or 4-0 Nurolon (n=3), and pressurized with saline via a perfusion system to 60 mm Hg to check for leakage. In two cadavers (INCISION), six separate 2-cm incisions were made and closed with either 6-0 Prolene or 4-0 Nurolon, and then pressurized. A hydrogel sealant was then added and the closure was pressurized again to check for further leakage. Spinal laminectomy with repair of intentional durotomy was successfully performed in eight cadavers. The operative microscope was used in all cases, and the model provided a realistic experience of spinal durotomy repair. For ALLSPINE cadavers (mean: 240 mm dura/cadaver repaired), the mean pressure threshold for CSF leakage was observed at 66.7 (±2.9) mm Hg in the 6-0 Prolene group and at 43.3 (±14.4) mm Hg in the 4-0 Nurolon group (p>.05). For INCISION cadavers, the mean pressure threshold for CSF leakage without hydrogel sealant was significantly higher in 6-0 Prolene group than in the 4-0 Nurolon group (6-0 Prolene: 80.0±4.5 mm Hg vs. 4-0 Nurolon: 32.5±2.7 mm Hg; p<.01). The mean pressure threshold for CSF leakage with the hydrogel sealants was not significantly different (6-0 Prolene: 100.0±0.0

  3. Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Therapy Does Not Improve Hypotension Compared to Sodium Bicarbonate for Tricyclic Antidepressant Toxicity: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study in a Swine Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Therapy Does Not Improve Hypotension Compared to Sodium Bicarbonate for Tricyclic Antidepressant ...Maria Castaneda, MS Abstract Objectives: Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are highly lipophilic medications used to treat posttraumatic stress disorder...Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Therapy Does Not Improve Hypotension Compared to Sodium Bicarbonate for Tricyclic Antidepressant Toxicity: A Randomized, Controlled

  4. A Comparative Pilot Study to Evaluate the Adjunctive Role of Levosulpride with Trigger Point Injection Therapy in the Management of Myofascial Pain Syndrome of Orofacial Region.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pranav; Singh, Virendra; Sethi, Sujata; Kumar, Arun

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of therapy with levosulpride combined with conventional trigger point injection therapy in terms of pain and depression in the chronic myofascial pain syndrome patients. This was a comparative prospective study in which subjects with at least one trigger point and symptom duration of at least 3 months were recruited and randomized into two groups. Group A subjects received trigger point injections with 0.5 % bupivacaine and tablet levosulpride and group B received trigger point injections and a placebo. Subjects were assessed for pain with visual analog scale (VAS) and depression with Beck's depression inventory (BDI) at the follow-up periods of 1, 4, 6 and 12 weeks. The treatment effect was measured in terms of mean difference of BDI and VAS scores at various studied intervals from the baseline values. The sample was composed of 15 subjects with 8 in group A (6 females and 2 males, with a mean age of 41.88 ± 15.13 years, disease duration of 12.37 ± 16.11 months) and 7 in group B (6 females and 1 male, with a mean age of 43.86 ± 12.34 years, disease duration of 9.64 ± 9.34 months). The mean baseline VAS score and BDI score was 6.75 ± 1.03 in group A and 6.86 ± 1.06 in group B and 24.25 ± 10.20 in group A and 24.43 ± 11.16 in group B respectively. The mean difference of VAS scores at 12th week interval from the baseline values was highly significant. Although the mean difference of VAS scores at all the other intervals and mean difference of BDI scores at all the intervals was statistically nonsignificant, there was improvement in the mean differences at all the follow-up intervals in terms of both pain as well as depression. The combined therapy with conventional trigger point injection and levosulpride as antidepressant significantly reduce pain and depression in the study subjects suffering from chronic myofascial pain with moderate to severe depression in the orofacial region.

  5. A prospective randomised clinical pilot study to compare the effectiveness of Biobrane® synthetic wound dressing, with or without autologous cell suspension, to the local standard treatment regimen in paediatric scald injuries.

    PubMed

    Wood, F; Martin, L; Lewis, D; Rawlins, J; McWilliams, T; Burrows, S; Rea, S

    2012-09-01

    Scald is the most common cause of burn in children in Australia. The time taken by the burn wound to heal impacts on scar outcome. Commonly scald injuries are treated conservatively; in our unit the practice is that if healing does not occur within 10 days, surgery is used to aid healing with the aim of improving scar outcome. This randomised controlled pilot study compares early treatment regimens to facilitate tissue salvage and reduce the incidence of definitive surgery at 10 days following scald injury. All paediatric patients with partial thickness scald injury were clinically assessed between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2010. A burn of 2% TBSAB or more and deemed not to heal within 10 days, were considered for the trial. These patients were randomised to one of three treatment arms: the local standard treatment (Intrasite™, Acticoat™ and Duoderm(®) dressings every 2-3 days) with surgery at 10 days, Biobrane(®) only or Biobrane(®) and autologous cell suspension using the ReCell(®) kit. The primary outcome was surgery performed after 10 days; secondary outcomes were rates of healing, pain experienced, and scar outcomes. 15% of scald presentations in the 12 month period met the eligibility criteria. 13 patients were recruited into the pilot study; early intervention was associated with a decreased time to healing with fewer dressing changes, less pain and better scar outcomes. Investment of surgical resources in the acute stages within 4 days of injury saved on nursing time, dressing, analgesic and scar management costs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative evaluation of workload estimation techniques in piloting tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierwille, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques to measure operator workload in a wide range of situations and tasks were examined. The sensitivity and intrusion of a wide variety of workload assessment techniques in simulated piloting tasks were investigated. Four different piloting tasks, psychomotor, perceptual, mediational, and communication aspects of piloting behavior were selected. Techniques to determine relative sensitivity and intrusion were applied. Sensitivity is the relative ability of a workload estimation technique to discriminate statistically significant differences in operator loading. High sensitivity requires discriminable changes in score means as a function of load level and low variation of the scores about the means. Intrusion is an undesirable change in the task for which workload is measured, resulting from the introduction of the workload estimation technique or apparatus.

  7. A pilot animal and clinical study of autologous blood solution compared with normal saline for use as an endoscopic submucosal cushion

    PubMed Central

    WEN, WEI; SHI, CHUANBING; SHI, YAN; JI, GUOZHONG; WU, PING; FAN, ZHINING; ZHANG, FAMING

    2012-01-01

    Normal saline is the most popular agent used during endoscopic submucosal injection. However, endoscopists have never identified an optimal submucosal injection solution, which is not only safe and cost-effective but has a unique lifting ability with endoscopic submucosal cushion and causes less tissue damage. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and microscopic characteristics of a blood solution, including whole blood and plasma solution, as a submucosal cushioning agent, compared with normal saline. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) procedures in pig stomachs were performed by injecting plasma solution (n=4) and normal saline (n=4). A total of 38 patients with gastrointestinal neoplasms underwent endoscopic musocal resection (EMR) procedures. Of 38 EMRs, 7 used whole blood injection, and 31 of 38 acting as the control group used normal saline. A tissue damage scoring system was developed based on injection-induced hydrops and tears for the evaluation of tissue damage. In animal experiments, the lifting time of the injection with normal saline in the pig colon was shorter than that of the group with plasma solution (18.25±5.44 min vs. 6.5±2.38 min, P=0.007). In animal experiments with ESD procedures in the stomach, the hydrops in the normal saline injection group were more extensive than those in the group with plasma (P=0.011). The degree of tearing in the group with normal saline was observed to be less than that in the group with plasma (P=0.008). In patients with EMR, using the histological scoring method, it was determined that the degree of hydrops in the group with normal saline injection was more extensive than that in the group with whole blood (P<0.001). The effective submucosal tearing in the group with normal saline was less than that in the group with blood (P<0.001). The blood solution, including whole blood and plasma solution, as a novel submucosal injection agent, may outperform normal saline with a unique lifting ability, less

  8. Post-uterine artery embolization pain and clinical outcomes for symptomatic myomas using gelfoam pledgets alone versus embospheres plus gelfoam pledgets: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vilos, Angelos G; Vilos, George A; Hollett-Caines, Jackie; Garvin, Greg; Kozak, Roman; Abu-Rafea, Basim

    2014-11-01

    Contexte : Évaluer l’efficacité et la douleur post-interventionnelle associées à l’embolisation de l’artère utérine (EAU) au seul moyen du produit Gelfoam, par comparaison avec l’utilisation combinée des produits Embosphere et Gelfoam, chez des femmes présentant des fibromes utérins symptomatiques. Méthode : Nous avons mené une étude pilote non randomisée prospective. Une EAU par voie transfémorale guidée par fluoroscopie a été menée seulement au moyen de tampons Gelfoam ou au moyen des produits Embosphere (500-700 mg) et Gelfoam, sous sédation consciente et anesthésie locale, le tout ayant été suivi par la mise en œuvre d’une analgésie contrôlée par la patiente (ACP) pendant la nuit suivant l’intervention (au moyen d’une pompe à morphine). La douleur post-interventionnelle a été évaluée en fonction de la quantité moyenne de morphine auto-administrée au moyen de la pompe d’ACP (ml) entre 0 et 19 heures au sein de chaque groupe. Les volumes moyens de l’utérus et du fibrome dominant ont été calculés par échographie au départ, à trois mois, à six mois et à 12 mois. Résultats : Au total, 17 femmes ont participé à l’étude. Une occlusion bilatérale de l’artère utérine a été menée chez huit femmes en n’utilisant que le produit Gelfoam et la même intervention a été menée au moyen des produits Embosphere et Gelfoam chez neuf autres femmes. Une des femmes du groupe « Embosphere et Gelfoam » en est venue à présenter un hématome au point de ponction ayant nécessité une autre intervention, une semaine plus tard. La quantité moyenne (σ) de morphine auto-administrée au moyen de la pompe d’ACP à 0, à 1 et à 2 heures a été de 3,4 mg (3,1), de 2,9 mg (2,2) et de 2,4 mg (3,3), au sein du groupe « Gelfoam seulement », et de 6,1 mg (3,0), de 9,6 mg (7,1) et de 5,3 mg (4,4), au sein du groupe « Embosphere et Gelfoam », respectivement. Après trois heures, la quantit

  9. Image processing of angiograms: A pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, L. E.; Evans, R. A.; Roehm, J. O., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The technology transfer application this report describes is the result of a pilot study of image-processing methods applied to the image enhancement, coding, and analysis of arteriograms. Angiography is a subspecialty of radiology that employs the introduction of media with high X-ray absorption into arteries in order to study vessel pathology as well as to infer disease of the organs supplied by the vessel in question.

  10. Health benefits for health and social care clients attending an Integrated Health and Social Care day unit (IHSCDU): a before-and-after pilot study with a comparator group.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Fiona; Hugman, Laura; Bowen, Judith; Parsell, Fran; Gabe-Walters, Marie; Newson, Louise; Jordan, Sue

    2017-03-01

    It is thought that integrating health and social care provision can improve services, yet few evaluations of integrated health and social care initiatives have focused on changes in clinical outcomes and used comparator groups. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether attendance at an integrated health and social care day unit (IHSCDU) affected selected outcomes of functional mobility, number of prescribed medications, and physical and psychological well-being. A secondary aim was to examine the utility of the tools to measure these outcomes in this context; the feasibility of the recruitment and retention strategy and the utility of the comparator group. A before-and-after comparison design was used with non-randomised intervention and comparator arms. The intervention arm comprised 30 service users attending the IHSCDU and the comparator arm comprised 33 service users on a community nursing caseload. Measures of functional mobility (Barthel's Index) and physical and psychological well-being (SF-12(®) ) were taken from all participants in both arms at three data collection points: baseline, 4 and 9 months later, between November 2010 and September 2012. Participants and outcomes were identified prospectively and in both arms, the individual was the unit of assignment. No significant changes were noted in functional mobility and psychological well-being and the number of medications prescribed increased in both arms. There was a trend towards a significant difference between study arms in the change in the SF-12(®) physical health outcome measure and this outcome measure could be usefully explored in future studies. The recruitment and retention strategy was feasible although our comparator group had some limitations in not being closely matched in terms of age, functional mobility and mental well-being.

  11. Evaluating midwifery units (EMU): lessons from the pilot study.

    PubMed

    Monk, Amy R; Tracy, Sally K; Foureur, Maralyn; Tracy, Mark

    2013-08-01

    this paper describes the pilot study that was undertaken to test the feasibility of the recruitment plan designed to recruit women who booked to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units in NSW, Australia. The pilot preceded the full prospective cohort study, Evaluating Midwifery Units (EMU), which aimed to examine the antenatal, birth and postnatal outcomes of women planning to give birth in freestanding midwifery units compared to those booked to give birth in tertiary level maternity units in Australia and New Zealand. a prospective cohort study with two mutually-exclusive cohorts. two freestanding midwifery units in NSW and their corresponding tertiary referral hospitals. a total of 146 women with few identified risk factors recruited between 13 September 2009 and 31 March 2010 whose planned place of birth was either a freestanding midwifery unit or tertiary maternity unit. the pilot study identified the feasibility of relying on the booking midwife to recruit eligible women from several antenatal booking clinics to the study. Low rates of eligible women were invited resulting in a lower than expected consent rate. In addition, although mostly only low-risk women were invited to participate, some women requiring medical consultation at the time of booking were inadvertently recruited into the study. The results of this pilot study led us to revise the study protocol to find ways of including the outcomes of all women without identified risk factors who booked at either the freestanding midwifery units or the tertiary referral hospital in that area. This paper describes the revisions that were made to the study plan. five lessons were learned from the pilot study. We found that recruitment protocols employed for the cohort study were too complicated and required simplification to maximise the potential of the study. The study protocol needed to be changed for the main study to ensure a larger sample size and to ensure the risk profile of each cohort was as

  12. Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Varner, J.

    2006-12-01

    The results of a pilot study to assess the risk from tsunamis for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon region will be presented. To determine the risk from tsunamis, it is first necessary to establish the hazard or probability that a tsunami of a particular magnitude will occur within a certain period of time. Tsunami inundation maps that provide 100-year and 500-year probabilistic tsunami wave height contours for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon, region were developed as part of an interagency Tsunami Pilot Study(1). These maps provided the probability of the tsunami hazard. The next step in determining risk is to determine the vulnerability or degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of tsunamis due to exposure and fragility. The tsunami vulnerability assessment methodology used in this study was developed by M. Papathoma and others(2). This model incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters related to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. Data provided with FEMA's HAZUS loss estimation software and Clatsop County, Oregon, tax assessment data were used as input to the model. The results, presented within a geographic information system, reveal the percentage of buildings in need of reinforcement and the population density in different inundation depth zones. These results can be used for tsunami mitigation, local planning, and for determining post-tsunami disaster response by emergency services. (1)Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study--Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps, Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2006, Final Draft. (2)Papathoma, M., D. Dominey-Howes, D.,Y. Zong, D. Smith, Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 377-389.

  13. Hospital admissions in poorly nourished, compared with well-nourished, older South Australians receiving 'Meals on Wheels': findings from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Chapman, Ian; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate whether 'Meals on Wheels' (MOW) improves health and reduces hospital admissions in poorly nourished (PN) older people. Two hundred and fifty older South Australians were retrospectively classified: (i) PN (MNA score <24) receiving MOW (MOW PN); (ii) PN not receiving MOW (non-MOW PN); and (iii) well-nourished (WN). Data regarding their health were compared. Health outcomes at baseline for MOW PN and non-MOW PN were not different, but both were worse than the WN. Over 12 months, weight loss was ∼2-3 times greater in both PN than WN groups. Hospital admissions were not different for MOW PN compared with non-MOW PN and WN, but non-MOW PN had 2.9 as many admissions and spent 5 days more in hospital than WN (all Ps < 0.05). Providing MOW to nutritionally vulnerable older people may not prevent age-related decline in health, although a potential reduction in hospital admissions warrants investigation. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  14. Breakthrough Listen on MWA Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, S.; Siemion, A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Tremblay, S.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a pilot study, using the Voltage Capture System, for Breakthrough Listen on the MWA. Breakthrough Listen (BL) is a major new project that aims to dramatically improve the coverage of parameter space in the search for intelligent life beyond Earth. BL has already deployed hardware and software to the Green Bank Telescope, and will bring a similar program with the Parkes Telescope online in the second half of 2016. The low frequency sky is however currently very poorly explored. The superb capabilities of the MWA (large field of view, low frequency of operation, and location in a very radio quiet site) provide a unique opportunity for a pilot study to obtain voltage data for a SETI (Search For Extraterrestrial Intelligence) study of the Galactic Plane. We propose commensal observations, piggybacking on the proposed pulsar search of Tremblay et al. Using existing VCS software, combined with the pipeline developed for Breakthrough Listen at GBT and Parkes, we will perform a blind search for candidate signals from extraterrestrial intelligence. Although the chances of a detection are not large, particularly for a pilot study such as that proposed here, the Breakthrough Listen team plan to perform extensive testing and analysis on the data obtained which should be useful for other users of the MWA VCS. We will make the secondary SETI data products and associated documentation available as a resource to the community via the Breakthrough Listen online archive.

  15. The Role and Interpretation of Pilot Studies in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Andrew C.; Davis, Lori L.; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot studies represent a fundamental phase of the research process. The purpose of conducting a pilot study is to examine the feasibility of an approach that is intended to be used in a larger scale study. The roles and limitations of pilot studies are described here using a clinical trial as an example. A pilot study can be used to evaluate the feasibility of recruitment, randomization, retention, assessment procedures, new methods, and implementation of the novel intervention. A pilot study is not a hypothesis testing study. Safety, efficacy and effectiveness are not evaluated in a pilot. Contrary to tradition, a pilot study does not provide a meaningful effect size estimate for planning subsequent studies due to the imprecision inherent in data from small samples. Feasibility results do not necessarily generalize beyond the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the pilot design. A pilot study is a requisite initial step in exploring a novel intervention or an innovative application of an intervention. Pilot results can inform feasibility and identify modifications needed in the design of a larger, ensuing hypothesis testing study. Investigators should be forthright in stating these objectives of a pilot study. Grant reviewers and other stakeholders should expect no more. PMID:21035130

  16. Treating Anxiety Disorders in Inner City Schools: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing CBT and Usual Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Becker, Kimberly D.; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) in inner city schools, when delivered by novice CBT clinicians, and compared to usual care (UC), is unknown. Objective: This pilot study addressed this issue by comparing a modular CBT for anxiety disorders to UC in a sample of 32 volunteer youth (mean age 10.28 years, 63%…

  17. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Providing a web-based digital information management system of information for scientists and the public, including a system that supports the work of those officials who must make decisions that affect the state of the bay. The Tampa Bay Study is in its sixth year and will continue through September 2007. This paper presents a non-inclusive summary of key findings associated with the six primary project components listed above. Component 4 (above) is described in detail in the following chapter 13. More information on the Tampa Bay Study is available from our on-line digital information system for the Tampa Bay Study at http://gulfsci.usgs.gov.

  18. Centrifuge Study of Pilot Tolerance to Acceleration and the Effects of Acceleration on Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creer, Brent Y.; Smedal, Harald A.; Wingrove, Rodney C.

    1960-01-01

    A research program the general objective of which was to measure the effects of various sustained accelerations on the control performance of pilots, was carried out on the Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory centrifuge, U.S. Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, PA. The experimental setup consisted of a flight simulator with the centrifuge in the control loop. The pilot performed his control tasks while being subjected to acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a forward-facing pilot flying an atmosphere entry vehicle. The study was divided into three phases. In one phase of the program, the pilots were subjected to a variety of sustained linear acceleration forces while controlling vehicles with several different sets of longitudinal dynamics. Here, a randomly moving target was displayed to the pilot on a cathode-ray tube. For each combination of acceleration field and vehicle dynamics, pilot tracking accuracy was measured and pilot opinion of the stability and control characteristics was recorded. Thus, information was obtained on the combined effects of complexity of control task and magnitude and direction of acceleration forces on pilot performance. These tests showed that the pilot's tracking performance deteriorated markedly at accelerations greater than about 4g when controlling a lightly damped vehicle. The tentative conclusion was also reached that regardless of the airframe dynamics involved, the pilot feels that in order to have the same level of control over the vehicle, an increase in the vehicle dynamic stability was required with increases in the magnitudes of the acceleration impressed upon the pilot. In another phase, boundaries of human tolerance of acceleration were established for acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a pilot flying an orbital vehicle. A special pilot restraint system was developed to increase human tolerance to longitudinal decelerations. The results of the tests showed that human tolerance

  19. Traditional Postextractive Implant Site Preparation Compared with Pre-extractive Interradicular Implant Bed Preparation in the Mandibular Molar Region, Using an Ultrasonic Device: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Scarano, Antonio

    The immediate placement of single postextractive implants is increasing in the everyday clinical practice. Due to insufficient bone tissue volume, proper primary stability, essential for subsequent osseointegration, is sometimes not reached. The aim of this work was to compare two different approaches: implant bed preparation before and after root extraction. Twenty-two patients of both sexes were selected who needed an implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of the fractured first mandibular molar or presented an untreatable endodontic pathology. The sites were randomly assigned to the test group (treated with implant bed preparation before molar extractions) or control group (treated with implant bed preparation after molar extractions) by a computer-generated table. All implants were placed by the same operator, who was experienced in both traditional and ultrasonic techniques. The implant stability quotient (ISQ) and the position of the implant were evaluated. Statistical analysis was carried out. In the control group, three implants were placed in the central portion of the bone septum, while eight implants were placed with a tilted axis in relation to the septum; in the test group, all implants were placed in ideal positions within the root extraction sockets. The different position of the implants between the two procedures was statistically significant. This work presented an innovative approach for implant placement at the time of mandibular molar extraction. Preparing the implant bed with an ultrasonic device before root extraction is a simple technique and also allows greater stability to be reached in a selective case.

  20. Culturally adapted CBT (CA-CBT) for Latino women with treatment-resistant PTSD: a pilot study comparing CA-CBT to applied muscle relaxation.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Hofmann, Stefan G; Rivera, Edwin; Otto, Michael W; Pollack, Mark H

    2011-04-01

    We examined the therapeutic efficacy of a culturally adapted form of CBT (CA-CBT) for PTSD as compared to applied muscle relaxation (AMR) for female Latino patients with treatment-resistant PTSD. Participants were randomized to receive either CA-CBT (n = 12) or AMR (n = 12), and were assessed before treatment, after treatment, and at a 12-week follow-up. The treatments were manualized and delivered in the form of group therapy across 14 weekly sessions. Assessments included a measure of PTSD, anxiety, culturally relevant idioms of distress (nervios and ataque de nervios), and emotion regulation ability. Patients receiving CA-CBT improved significantly more than in the AMR condition. Effect size estimates showed very large reductions in PTSD symptoms from pretreatment to posttreatment in the CA-CBT group (Cohen's d = 2.6) but only modest improvements in the AMR group (0.8). These results suggest that CA-CBT can be beneficial for previously treatment-resistant PTSD in Latino women.

  1. Readability of Freshmen College Textbooks in the Social Sciences as Compared to the Reading Ability of Students Who Use Them. A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurzman, Maurice

    The subjects for this study were 81 freshman students who were taking courses in the social sciences at Herbert H. Lehman College in New York. A Nelson Denny Reading Test showed their average reading grade level to be 10.4 Twenty-three books in the social science areas were selected for appraisal, using such procedures as the application of a…

  2. A Pilot Study Comparing 2 Oral Rehydration Solutions in Patients With Short Bowel Syndrome Receiving Home Parenteral Nutrition: A Prospective Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Ryan T; Vallumsetla, Nishanth; Edakkanambeth Varayil, Jithinraj; Bonnes, Sara L; Nanda, Sanjeev; Nadeau, Joseph; Mundi, Manpreet S

    2017-06-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a common indication for home parenteral nutrition (HPN). Oral rehydration solutions (ORSs) have the ability to supplement or reduce HPN dependence. However, ORSs have suffered from poor taste profiles, making long-term consumption and compliance unlikely. The goal of the current study was to assess the taste and compliance of 2 ORSs among patients with SBS requiring HPN. All participants with SBS receiving HPN with anticipated duration >3 months were offered enrollment: 31 participants met inclusion criteria; 3 declined enrollment; and 28 were randomized to receive a modified World Health Organization ORS (group A) or a commercially available ORS (DripDrop; group B). Six participants dropped out shortly after randomization (3 in each group) due to poor taste or intolerance. An additional 3 (1 in group A and 2 in group B) discontinued the ORS before the end of the study at 6 months. At the end of the study, 19 remained. The mean taste rating given by the participants was, on a scale of 1-10, 7.3 ± 1.9 for group A and 7.6 ± 1.6 for group B ( P = .61). The mean number of days that ORSs were consumed each week was 6.0 ± 1.3 for group A and 6.6 ± 1 days for group B ( P = .06). Taste rating was not different for both ORSs; however, a significant number of participants did not complete the study.

  3. Pilot study comparing changes in postural control after training using a video game balance board program and 2 standard activity-based balance intervention programs.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Alessandra; Lee, Sae Yong; Asfour, Shihab; Roos, Bernard A; Signorile, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    To compare the impacts of Tai Chi, a standard balance exercise program, and a video game balance board program on postural control and perceived falls risk. Randomized controlled trial. Research laboratory. Independent seniors (N=40; 72.5±8.40) began the training, 27 completed. Tai Chi, a standard balance exercise program, and a video game balance board program. The following were used as measures: Timed Up & Go, One-Leg Stance, functional reach, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, force plate center of pressure (COP) and time to boundary, dynamic posturography (DP), Falls Risk for Older People-Community Setting, and Falls Efficacy Scale. No significant differences were seen between groups for any outcome measures at baseline, nor were significant time or group × time differences for any field test or questionnaire. No group × time differences were seen for any COP measures; however, significant time differences were seen for total COP, 3 of 4 anterior/posterior displacement and both velocity, and 1 displacement and 1 velocity medial/lateral measure across time for the entire sample. For DP, significant improvements in the overall score (dynamic movement analysis score), and in 2 of the 3 linear and angular measures were seen for the sample. The video game balance board program, which can be performed at home, was as effective as Tai Chi and the standard balance exercise program in improving postural control and balance dictated by the force plate postural sway and DP measures. This finding may have implications for exercise adherence because the at-home nature of the intervention eliminates many obstacles to exercise training. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A pilot study comparing the effectiveness of conventional training and virtual reality simulation in the skills acquisition of junior dental students.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Frank; Keogh, Paul; McDonald, Ailbhe; Hussey, David

    2003-02-01

    The use of virtual reality (VR) in the training of operative dentistry is a recent innovation and little research has been published on its efficacy compared to conventional training methods. To evaluate possible benefits, junior undergraduate dental students were randomly assigned to one of three groups: group 1 as taught by conventional means only; group 2 as trained by conventional means combined with VR repetition and reinforcement (with access to a human instructor for operative advice); and group 3 as trained by conventional means combined with VR repetition and reinforcement, but without instructor evaluation/advice, which was only supplied via the VR-associated software. At the end of the research period, all groups executed two class 1 preparations that were evaluated blindly by 'expert' trainers, under traditional criteria (outline, retention, smoothness, depth, wall angulation and cavity margin index). Analyses of resulting scores indicated a lack of significant differences between the three groups except for scores for the category of 'outline form', for group 2, which produced significantly lower (i.e. better) scores than the conventionally trained group. A statistical comparison between scores from two 'expert' examiners indicated lack of agreement, despite identical written and visual criteria being used for evaluation by both. Both examiners, however, generally showed similar trends in evaluation. An anonymous questionnaire suggested that students recognized the benefits of VR training (e.g. ready access to assessment, error identification and how they can be corrected), but the majority felt that it would not replace conventional training methods (95%), although participants recognized the potential for development of VR systems in dentistry. The most common reasons cited for the preference of conventional training were excessive critical feedback (55%), lack of personal contact (50%) and technical hardware difficulties (20%) associated with VR

  5. Comparative trial of 5% dexpanthenol in water-in-oil formulation with 1% hydrocortisone ointment in the treatment of childhood atopic dermatitis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Udompataikul, Montree; Limpa-o-vart, Dipenn

    2012-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic relapsing disease particularly affecting children. The emollient used for protection of skin barrier function is the standard treatment for patients with AD. Currently, there is a growing interest in the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents such as dexpanthenol (vitamin B5) as an alternative treatment. To compare the effectiveness of 5% dexpanthenol (DT) ointment with 1% hydrocortisone (HC) ointment in childhood AD therapy. Patients were treated topically with 5% DT ointment on the right side of the body and 1% HC ointment on the other side twice daily for 4 weeks. The clinical responses were evaluated by SCORAD (Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index) with statistical analysis using paired t-test. Of the 30 children enrolled, 26 completed the protocol; mean age was 7.19 years. The average baseline SCORAD score of the DT-treated side and the HC-treated side was 30.95 and 30.54, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in SCORAD score reduction between the 2 agents. The edematous score of the HC-treated side exhibited faster resolution than that of the DT-treated side, with a statistically significant difference at week 1 and without a statistically significant difference at weeks 2 to 4. The lichenification response rate of HC treatment was more rapid than that of DT treatment; however, there was no statistical group difference. No adverse events were observed with either agent. The effectiveness of 5% DT ointment is equal to that of 1% HC ointment. DT ointment may be used as alternative treatment in mild to moderate childhood AD therapy.

  6. Learner Intonation -- A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Nancy

    This study is concerned with problems in language learners' intonation of English. Ten intonation problems were found in the learner speech of two adult Spanish-speaking males: (1) range of pitch, (2) initial rise, (3) final fall, (4) rise to final stressed syllable, (5) placement of prominence, (6) final rise for questions, (7) total question…

  7. Pre-Study Walkthrough with a Commercial Pilot for a Preliminary Single Pilot Operations Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connor-Dreher, Ryan; Roberts, Z.; Ziccardi, J.; Vu, K-P. L.; Strybel, T.; Koteskey, Robert William; Lachter, Joel B.; Vi Dao, Quang; Johnson, Walter W.; Battiste, V.

    2013-01-01

    The number of crew members in commercial flights has decreased to two members, down from the five-member crew required 50 years ago. One question of interest is whether the crew should be reduced to one pilot. In order to determine the critical factors involved in safely transitioning to a single pilot, research must examine whether any performance deficits arise with the loss of a crew member. With a concrete understanding of the cognitive and behavioral role of a co-pilot, aeronautical technologies and procedures can be developed that make up for the removal of the second aircrew member. The current project describes a pre-study walkthrough process that can be used to help in the development of scenarios for testing future concepts and technologies for single pilot operations. Qualitative information regarding the tasks performed by the pilots can be extracted with this technique and adapted for future investigations of single pilot operations.

  8. Randomised, prospective, non-blinded pilot study comparing the effect of intramuscular steroid injections and intralesional steroid injections in the management of tennis elbow

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Hasan; Biro, Izolda; Donnelly, Simon; Greenwood, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Background Tennis elbow is an overuse injury affecting people performing repetitive forearm movements. It is a soft tissue disorder that causes significant disability and pain. The aim of the study was to establish that an intramuscular steroid injection is effective in the short-term pain relief and functional improvement of tennis elbow. The severity of pain at the injection site was monitored to determine whether the intramuscular injection is better tolerated than the intralesional injection. Methods and results 19 patients, who had no treatment for tennis elbow in the preceding 3 months, were recruited from Whipps Cross University Hospital, London, and were randomised to receive either 80 mg of intramuscular Depo-Medrone or 40 mg of intralesional Depo-Medrone injection. Blinding proved difficult as the injection sites differed and placebo arms were not included in the study. A Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) Questionnaire and a 10-point Likert scale were used to assess primary outcome. Six weeks after the treatment, there was a reduction in pain, improvement in function and total PRTEE scores in both intramuscular and intralesional groups (p=0.008) using a 95% CI for mean treatment difference of −26 to +16 points. A statistically significant result (p=0.001) in favour of intramuscular causing less pain at the injection site was noted. Conclusion Non-inferiority of intramuscular to intralesional injections was not confirmed; however, the intramuscular injection proved to be effective in reducing tennis elbow-related symptoms and was found less painful at the site of injection at the time of administration. Trial registration number EUDRACT Number: 2010-022131-11. REC Number: 10/H0718/76 (NRES, Central London REC 1). PMID:28879024

  9. Prevalence and risk factors accounting for true silent myocardial ischemia: a pilot case-control study comparing type 2 diabetic with non-diabetic control subjects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Given the elevated risk of cardiovascular events and the higher prevalence of silent coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients, the need to screen asymptomatic diabetic patients for CAD assumes increasing importante. The aims of the study were to assess prospectively the prevalence and risk factor predictors of true silent myocardial ischemia (myocardial perfusion defects in the absence of both angina and ST-segment depression) in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients. Methods Stress myocardial perfusion gated SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) was carried out in 41 type 2 diabetic patients without history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 41 nondiabetic patients matched by age and gender. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding either the classic CVD risk factors or left ventricular function. True silent ischemia was detected in 21.9% of diabetic patients but only in 2.4% of controls (p < 0.01). The presence of myocardial perfusion defects was independently associated with male gender and the presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The probability of having myocardial perfusion defects in an asymptomatic diabetic patient with DR in comparison with diabetic patients without DR was 11.7 [IC95%: 3.7-37]. Conclusions True silent myocardial ischemia is a high prevalent condition in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients. Male gender and the presence of DR are the risk factors related to its development. PMID:21255408

  10. A pilot study: comparative research of social functioning, circadian rhythm parameters, and cognitive function among institutional inpatients, and outpatients with chronic schizophrenia and healthy elderly people.

    PubMed

    Kume, Yu; Sugita, Takio; Oga, Kenya; Kagami, Kai; Igarashi, Hitomi

    2015-01-01

    Irregular circadian rhythm and cognitive impairment are frequently observed in patients with chronic schizophrenia. However, their effects in different living environments or with aging remain unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of circadian rhythm and cognition function in the patients with chronic schizophrenia. This report described data collected using continuous wrist-active monitoring in real-life settings for seven days and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Japanese Version (BACS-J) from 10 inpatients with chronic schizophrenia, 10 outpatients with chronic schizophrenia, and 15 healthy elderly people. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale was used to measure the social functioning in the patients with chronic schizophrenia. The outpatients with chronic schizophrenia exhibited highly interrupted circadian patterns in terms of stability and the fragmentation of activity (p < 0.05) as indexed according to Interdaily Stability (IS) and Intradaily Variability (IV). The inpatients with chronic schizophrenia indicated the most stable rhythm (p < 0.05) and inactive state (p = 0.001) among the groups. Also, the inpatients with chronic schizophrenia showed poorer cognitive functioning with Z-scores of subtests except digit sequencing (p < 0.01). According to stepwise linear regression analysis, the motor speed of BACS-J and IS of circadian parameters were the most powerful variables to predict the GAF in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The characteristics of circadian rhythm and cognition function in the inpatients with chronic schizophrenia appear distinct from those in the outpatients and the healthy elderly people. Circadian rhythm and cognition function in the patients with chronic schizophrenia may, in part, be affected by different living environments.

  11. Impact of Training on Three-Dimensional versus Two-Dimensional Laparoscopic Systems on Acquisition of Laparoscopic Skills in Novices: A Prospective Comparative Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Noureldin, Yasser A.; Stoica, Ana; Kaneva, Pepa

    2016-01-01

    In this prospective educational study, 10 medical students (novices) were randomized to practice two basic laparoscopic tasks from the MISTELS program, namely, Pegboard Transfer (PT) and Intracorporeal Knot Tying (IKT) tasks, using either a 2D or a 3D laparoscopic platform. There was no significant difference between both groups in the baseline assessments (PT task: 130.8 ± 18.7 versus 151.5 ± 33.4; p = 0.35) (IKT task: 123.9 ± 41.0 versus 122.9 ± 44.9; p = 0.986). Following two training sessions, there was a significant increase in the scores of PT task for the 2D (130.8 ± 18.7 versus 222.6 ± 7.0; p = 0.0004) and the 3D groups (151.5 ± 33.4 versus 211.7 ± 16.2; p = 0.0001). Similarly, there was a significant increase in the scores of IKT task for the 2D (123.9 ± 41.0 versus 373.3 ± 47.2; p = 0.003) and the 3D groups (122.9 ± 44.9 versus 338.8 ± 28.6; p = 0.0005). However, there was no significant difference in the final assessment scores between 2D and 3D groups for both tasks (p > 0.05). Therefore, 3D laparoscopic systems do not provide an advantage over 2D systems for training novices in basic laparoscopic skills. PMID:27995141

  12. A pilot study to compare the cerebral hemodynamics between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement syndrome (PLMS) during nocturnal sleep with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Fritschi, Ursula; Hügli, Gordana; Lehner, Isabella; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2014-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement in sleep syndrome (PLMS) are two common sleep disorders. Previous studies showed that OSA and PLMS share common features, such as increased cardio-vascular risk, both apnea events and limb movements occur periodically, they are usually associated with cortical arousals, and both of them can induce declines in peripheral oxygen saturation measured with pulse oximetry. However, the question whether apnea events and limb movements also show similar characteristics in cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation has never been addressed. In this pilot study, we will first time compare the cerebral hemodynamic changes induced by apnea events and limb movements in patients with OSA (n=4) and PLMS (n=4) with NIRS. In patients with OSA, we found periodic oscillations in HbO2, HHb, and blood volume induced by apnea/hypopnea events, HbO2 and HHb showed reverse changing trends. By contrast, the periodic oscillations linked to limb movements were only found in HbO2 and blood volume in patients with PLMS. These findings of different cerebral hemodynamics patterns between apnea events and limb movements may indicate different regulations of nervous system between these two sleep disorders.

  13. Is there a role for acupuncture in the symptom management of patients receiving palliative care for cancer? A pilot study of 20 patients comparing acupuncture with nurse-led supportive care.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jan T W; Wong, Erin T; Aung, Steven K H

    2011-09-01

    A pilot study to document changes in symptoms after acupuncture or nurse-led supportive care in patients with incurable cancer. Patients receiving palliative care with estimated survival of at least 3 months were screened with the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS). Patients (n=20) with significant symptoms were randomised to receive weekly acupuncture or nurse-led supportive care for 4 weeks. ESAS scores were obtained before and after each treatment, and weekly for 6 weeks after treatment by telephone. 42 of 170 patients screened were eligible. 20 gave consent for recruitment. The compliance rate was 90% for acupuncture and 80% for nurse-led supportive care. Total symptom scores were reduced by an average of 22% after each acupuncture visit and by 14% after each supportive care visit. Compared with baseline, ESAS scores at the end of the follow-up period were reduced by 19% for the acupuncture arm and 26% for nurse-led supportive care. Patients appear to benefit from incorporating acupuncture in the treatment of advanced incurable cancer. Acupuncture was well tolerated with no significant or unexpected side effects. Acupuncture had an immediate effect on all symptoms, whereas nurse-led supportive care had a larger impact 6 weeks after the final session. Both interventions appear helpful to this population and warrant further study.

  14. Tinnitus Treatment with Oxytocin: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Andreia Aparecida; Figueiredo, Ricardo Rodrigues; Elgoyhen, Ana Belen; Langguth, Berthold; Penido, Norma De Oliveira; Schlee, Winfried

    2017-01-01

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of an external stimulus. It is a frequent condition for which there is as yet no pharmacological treatment approved. Auditory and non-auditory pathways are involved in tinnitus' pathophysiology. Oxytocin is a neurohormone and eventual neurotransmitter that plays a complex role in social cognition and behavior. To evaluate the potential of oxytocin as a tinnitus treatment. Two studies were performed. Study 1 was a long-term open pilot study, while study 2 investigated short-term effects with a double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over study. Ambulatory ENT care. In study 1, 15 patients were investigated over a 10-week period in an open pilot study. In study 2, 16 patients were included in a placebo-controlled crossover trial to investigate short-term effects following a single dose. For the long-term study (study 1), analysis of variance revealed a significant decrease in tinnitus sensation, both for the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and Clinical Global Impression (CGI). Also, the short-term effects in study 2 revealed a significant reduction of tinnitus because of the oxytocin nasal spray as measured with the Visual Analog Scale and the CGI Scale. These preliminary studies demonstrated that oxytocin may represent a helpful tool for treating tinnitus and further larger controlled studies are warranted.

  15. Helicopter pilot back pain: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, D F; Reading, T E

    1984-02-01

    Because of the high prevalence of back pain experienced by U.S. Army helicopter pilots, a study was conducted to ascertain the feasibility of reproducing these symptoms in the laboratory. A mock-up of a UH-1H seat and control configuration was mounted to a multi-axis vibration simulator (MAVS). Eleven subjects were tested on the apparatus for two 120-min periods. During one period, the MAVS was programmed to reproduce vibrations recorded from a UH-1H in cruise flight. The subjects received no vibration during the other test period. All subjects reported back pain which they described as identical to the pain they experience during flight, during one or more of their test periods. There was no statistical difference between the vibration and nonvibration test conditions (p greater than 0.05) in terms of time of onset of pain or intensity of pain as measured by a visual analog scale. It appears the vibration at the frequencies and amplitudes tested plays little or no role in the etiology of the back symptoms reported by these pilots. It is proposed that the primary etiological factor for these symptoms is the poor posture pilots are obliged to assume for extended periods while operating helicopters.

  16. Comparing the effects of hydrotherapy and land-based therapy on balance in patients with Parkinson's disease: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Daniele; Giantin, Maria Giulia; Maestri, Roberto; Frazzitta, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility of a hydrotherapy treatment in patients with Parkinson's disease and the effectiveness of this treatment on balance parameters in comparison to a traditional land-based physical therapy. A randomized single-blind controlled trial. Outpatients. Thirty-four patients with Parkinson's disease in Hoehn-Yahr stage 2.5-3. Group 1 hydrotherapy treatment, group 2 land-based rehabilitation treatment. The two groups underwent the same rehabilitation period (60 minutes of treatment, five days a week for two months). The primary outcome measures were the centre of the pressure sway area recorded with open and closed eyes, using a stabilometric platform. Secondary outcome measures were Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale II and III, Timed Up and Go Test, Berg Balance Scale, Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, Falls Efficacy Scale, Falls diary and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39. Hydrotherapy treatment proved to be feasible and safe. Patients in both groups had a significant improvement in all outcome variables. There was a better improvement in patients who underwent hydrotherapy than in patients treated with land-based therapy in the centre of pressure sway area closed eyes (mean SD change: 45.4 SD64.9 vs. 6.9 SD45.3, p = 0.05), Berg Balance Scale (51.2 SD3.1 vs. 6.0 SD3.1, p = 0.005), Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (16.8 SD10.6 vs. 4.1 SD5.4, p = 0.0001), Falls Efficacy Scale (-5.9 SD4.8 vs. -1.9 SD1.4, p = 0.003), Parkinson's Disease Quetionnaire-39 (-18.4 SD12.9 vs. -8.0 SD7.0, p = 0.006) and falls diary (-2.4 SD2.2 vs. -0.4 SD0.5, p = 0.001). Our study suggests that hydrotherapy may constitute a possible treatment for balance dysfunction in Parkinsonian patients with moderate stage of disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Probing the Process of Information Source Selection Using Palm Pilots: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Wonsik

    2002-01-01

    This pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using PDAs (personal digital assistants or palm pilots) as a data collection device in studying information seeking behaviors of undergraduate students. Discusses results that shows heavy use of Internet search engines and that most information searches do not extend beyond the first…

  18. [Pilot study on hairdresser eczema].

    PubMed

    Zelger, J

    1999-11-01

    From 1990 to 1992 the allergy profile of 1042 prospective hairdressers (personal and family history, atopic skin, serum IgE, patch and prick tests) was determined and their occupational suitability was evaluated. Up to 1997 a follow up of 375 hairdressers was obtained by way of questionnaires, re-examination, official reports and expert opinions of the social accident insurance. The frequency of initial eczema was 30%. A change of occupation on account of hairdresser eczema was documented in 11%. The prognostic evaluation of occupational suitability proved to be unsatisfactory. In this longitudinal study, the frequency of pre-occupational skin symptoms increased from 13 to 18%. The other atopic criteria indicated no uniform tendency. There was a significant increase in nickel allergy from 18.7 to 45.5% resulting partly from sensitization after entering the occupation and partly from an increase in nickel allergy at time of entry. Both atopic skin and pre-occupational nickel allergy increase the risk of hairdresser eczema, it is not so great as to justify dissuading such young people from entering the profession.

  19. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A pilot study of a spaceborne sidelooking radar is summarized. The results of the system trade studies are given along with the electrical parameters for the proposed subsystems. The mechanical aspects, packaging, thermal control and dynamics of the proposed design are presented. Details of the data processor are given. A system is described that allows the data from a pass over the U. S. to be in hard copy form within two hours. Also included are the proposed schedule, work breakdown structure, and cost estimate.

  20. NORTHWEST ORGEON PILOT STUDY AREA (USA): THE USE OF LANDSCAPE SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northwest Oregon Pilot Study Area encompasses approximately 59,167 km2 and varies in elevation from sea level to 3,200 m. Annual precipitation varies with elevation and meridian and ranges from 25 - 460cm. The study area comprises a mixture of federal, state, and privately ow...

  1. NORTHWEST ORGEON PILOT STUDY AREA (USA): THE USE OF LANDSCAPE SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northwest Oregon Pilot Study Area encompasses approximately 59,167 km2 and varies in elevation from sea level to 3,200 m. Annual precipitation varies with elevation and meridian and ranges from 25 - 460cm. The study area comprises a mixture of federal, state, and privately ow...

  2. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  3. Advanced film-forming gel formula vs spring thermal water and white petrolatum as primary dressings after full-face ablative fractional CO2 laser resurfacing: a comparative split-face pilot study.

    PubMed

    Marini, L

    2017-06-29

    Aesthetically pleasing results and fast, uneventful recovery are highly desirable after rejuvenating ablative laser procedures. Wound dressings following ablative laser procedures should ideally improve and optimize the wound healing environment. The purpose of this comparative split-face, single-blinded, prospective observational study was to assess the efficacy and acceptability of two primary wound dressings immediately after a full-face fractional CO2 laser resurfacing procedure. The assessments of an innovative film-forming dressing called Stratacel (SC) vs spring thermal water + Vaseline (V+) were conducted after a standardized, single-pass, full-face ablative fractional CO2 laser skin resurfacing procedure. Clinical parameters, such as haemoglobin - HB; surface temperature - ST; micro-textural modifications - MT; superficial melanin - M; intrafollicular porphyrins - P, were assessed at different phases of the healing process using standardized, non-invasive technologies. Five female volunteers were enrolled in this inpatient, controlled pilot study. Most of the clinical parameters considered, including 3D surface texture analysis, revealed a better performance of SC vs. V+ during the early, more delicate phases of the healing process. This preliminary study, even if performed on a small number of volunteers, confirmed a definite advantage of the tested semipermeable film-forming formula (SC) over a more conventional postoperative skin care regime (V+). Clinical results could be explained by a better uniformity of distribution of SC over the micro-irregularities induced by ablative fractional CO2 laser resurfacing. Its thin, semipermeable film might, in fact, act as an efficient, perfectly biocompatible, full contact, temporary skin barrier, able to protect extremely delicate healing surfaces from potential environmental irritations. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. A Piloted Simulation Study of Wake Turbulence on Final Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    A piloted simulation study has been conducted in a research simulator to provide a means to estimate the effects of different levels of wake turbulence on final approach. A worst-case methodology was used to ensure conservative estimates. Fourteen airline pilots voluntarily participated in the study and flew almost 1000 approaches. The pilots rated the subjective severity of the disturbances using a special rating scale developed for this study. Several objective measures of the airplane/pilot response to the simulated wake turbulence were also made. All the data showed a large amount of variation between pilots and to a lesser extent for a given pilot. Therefore, the data were presented at 50, 70, 90 percentile levels as a function of vortex strength. The data allow estimates of the vortex strength for a given subjective or objective response and vice versa. The results of this study appear to be more conservative than the results of previous studies.

  5. Military jet pilots have higher p-wave dispersions compared to the transport aircraft aircrew.

    PubMed

    Çakar, Mustafa; Metin, Süleyman; Balta, Şevket; Öztürk, Cengiz; Demirkol, Sait; Çakmak, Tolga; İnal, Satılmış; Çelik, Turgay; İyisoy, Atilla; Ünlü, Murat; Şen, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    For the purpose of flight safety military aircrew must be healthy. P-wave dispersion (PWD) is the p-wave length difference in an electrocardiographic (ECG) examination and represents the risk of developing atrial fibrillation. In the study we aimed at investigating PWD in healthy military aircrew who reported for periodical examinations. Seventy-five asymptomatic military aircrew were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent physical, radiologic and biochemical examinations, and a 12-lead electrocardiography. P-wave dispersions were calculated. The mean age of the study participants was 36.15±8.97 years and the mean p-wave duration was 100.8±12 ms in the whole group. Forty-seven subjects were non-pilot aircrew, and 28 were pilots. Thirteen study subjects were serving in jets, 49 in helicopters, and 13 were transport aircraft pilots. Thirty-six of the helicopter and 11 of the transport aircraft aircrew were non-pilot aircrew. P-wave dispersion was the lowest in the transport aircraft aircrew, and the highest in jet pilots. P-wave dispersions were similar in the pilots and non-pilot aircrew. Twenty-three study subjects were overweight, 19 had thyroiditis, 26 had hepatosteatosis, 4 had hyperbilirubinemia, 2 had hypertension, and 5 had hyperlipidemia. The PWD was significantly associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Serum uric acid levels were associated with p-wave durations. Serum TSH levels were the most important predictor of PWD. When TSH levels were associated with PWD, uric acid levels were associated with p-wave duration in the military aircrew. The jet pilots had higher PWDs. These findings reveal that military jet pilots may have a higher risk of developing atrial fibrillation, and PWD should be recorded during periodical examinations. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. Assessing and comparing the quality of wound centres: a literature review and benchmarking pilot.

    PubMed

    Pruim, Lotte; Wind, Anke; van Harten, Wim H

    2017-06-13

    Multidisciplinary wound centres are currently facing an increase in both the incidence of wounds and the complexity of care. This has resulted in rising costs and increased interest in the effectiveness of treatments. Little evidence is available regarding optimal wound centre organisation and effectiveness; therefore, measuring the quality of wound centres has become more important. This study aims to assess the evidence concerning quality by describing the state of the art of wound centres and organisational effectiveness by developing indicators of quality and by assessing their suitability in a pilot study. A multi-method approach was used: a literature review performed resulted in the development of an indicator list that was consequently subjected to expert review, and a benchmark study was completed comparing eight wound centres in the Netherlands. We thus provide a description of the relevant state-of-the-art aspects of wound centre organisation, which were multidisciplinary collaborations and standardisation of the organisation of care. In literature, significant patient-related effects were observed in improved healing rates and decreased costs. A total of 48 indicators were selected. The indicator list was tested by a benchmark study pilot. In practice, the outcome indicators were especially difficult to generate. Six indicators regarding structure, three regarding process and five regarding outcome proved feasible to measure and improve quality of wound centres. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial Comparing Davanloo Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy as Internet-Delivered Vs Treatment as Usual for Medically Unexplained Pain: A 6-Month Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Chavooshi, Behzad; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Dolatshahi, Behrouz

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP) can effectively decrease pain intensity and improve quality of life in patients with medically unexplained pain. Understanding that not all patients with medically unexplained pain have access to in-person ISTDP, this study aims to investigate the efficacy of an Internet-delivered ISTDP for individuals with medically unexplained pain using Skype in comparison with treatment as usual. In this randomized controlled trial, 100 patients were randomly allocated into Internet-delivered ISTDP (n = 50) and treatment-as- usual (n = 50) groups. Treatment intervention consisted of 16 weekly, hour-long therapy sessions. The primary outcome was perceived pain assessed using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. The secondary outcome included Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, and Quality-of-Life Inventory. Blind assessments were conducted at the baseline, posttreatment, and at a 6-month follow-up. In the intention-to-treat analysis, pain symptoms in the intervention group were significantly reduced (p < 0.001), whereas a reduction was not observed in the treatment as usual group (p = 0.651). Moreover, there were significant decreases in depression, anxiety, and stress, as well as a greater increase in emotion regulation functioning, mindfulness, and quality of life observed in the intervention group 6 months after the treatment compared with the treatment as usual condition. The results of this pilot trial demonstrate that 16 weeks of ISTDP delivered by Skype can significantly improve pain intensity and clinical symptoms of medically unexplained pain. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of the use of a nonlinear, rate limited, filter on pilot control signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of a filter on the pilot's control output could improve the performance of the pilot-aircraft system. What is needed is a filter with a sharp high frequency cut-off, no resonance peak, and a minimum of lag at low frequencies. The present investigation studies the usefulness of a nonlinear, rate limited, filter in performing the needed function. The nonlinear filter is compared with a linear, first order filter, and no filter. An analytical study using pilot models and a simulation study using experienced test pilots was performed. The results showed that the nonlinear filter does promote quick, steady maneuvering. It is shown that the nonlinear filter attenuates the high frequency remnant and adds less phase lag to the low frequency signal than does the linear filter. It is also shown that the rate limit in the nonlinear filter can be set to be too restrictive, causing an unstable pilot-aircraft system response.

  9. Piloted studies of Enhanced or Synthetic Vision display parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Randall L., Sr.; Parrish, Russell V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of several studies conducted at Langley Research Center over the past few years. The purposes of these studies were to investigate parameters of pictorial displays and imaging sensors that affect pilot approach and landing performance. Pictorial displays have demonstrated exceptional tracking performance and improved the pilots' spatial awareness. Stereopsis cueing improved pilot flight performance and reduced pilot stress. Sensor image parameters such as increased field-of-view. faster image update rate, and aiding symbology improved flare initiation. Finer image resolution and magnification improved attitude control performance parameters.

  10. DU-AGG pilot plant design study

    SciTech Connect

    Lessing, P.A.; Gillman, H.

    1996-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is developing new methods to produce high-density aggregate (artificial rock) primarily consisting of depleted uranium oxide. The objective is to develop a low-cost method whereby uranium oxide powder (UO[sub 2], U[sub 3]O[sub ]8, or UO[sub 3]) can be processed to produce high-density aggregate pieces (DU-AGG) having physical properties suitable for disposal in low-level radioactive disposal facilities or for use as a component of high-density concrete used as shielding for radioactive materials. A commercial company, G-M Systems, conducted a design study for a manufacturing pilot plant to process DU-AGG. The results of that study are included and summarized in this report. Also explained are design considerations, equipment capacities, the equipment list, system operation, layout of equipment in the plant, cost estimates, and the proposed plan and schedule.

  11. Location Independent Professional Project: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, J.A.; Long, J.P.; Miller, M.M.

    1999-02-01

    This pilot study project explored the problem of providing access to the nomadic worker who desires to connect a computer through network access points at a number of different locations within the SNL/NM campus as well as outside the campus. The design and prototype development gathered knowledge that may allow a design to be developed that could be extended to a larger number of SNL/NM network drop boxes. The focus was to provide a capability for a worker to access the SNL IRN from a network drop box (e.g. in a conference room) as easily as when accessing the computer network from the office normally used by the worker. Additional study was done on new methods to authenticate the off campus worker, and protect and control access to data.

  12. The Pilot Staffing Conundrum: A Delphi Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Project, AFIT/ GMO /LAL/98J-2. School of Logistics and Acquisition Management, Air Force Institute of Technology (AU), Wright Patterson AFB, OH, June...Kafer, John H. Relationship of Airline Pilot Demand and Air Force Pilot Retention. Graduate Research Project, AFIT/ GMO /LAL/98J-11. School of Logistics

  13. Immigration and HIV infection: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Loue, S; Oppenheim, S

    1994-02-01

    This pilot study was conducted to determine areas in which additional education regarding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is needed by the undocumented and recently immigrated HIV-infected population, and to obtain preliminary information on the ability of this community to access medical treatment for HIV. Information regarding health status, immigration status, and the use of medical services was obtained from all HIV-infected undocumented and recently immigrated individuals who sought services from a Southern California nonprofit agency between July 1, 1990 and December 31, 1990. A total of 54 such individuals presented for services. Thirteen individuals reported participating in shared needle usage for the administration of medication or vitamins, in addition to other known risk factors for HIV. Only one of these 13 individuals had access to nonemergency medical care. Additional research is necessary to determine the reasons for these needle sharing behaviors. Educational outreach is needed to address these behaviors as a possible risk factor for HIV transmission.

  14. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHODS DEVELOPMENT PILOTS FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are needed to link exposure with health effects. EPA began methods development pilot studies in 2000 to address general questions about exposures and outcome measures. Selected pilot studies are highlighted in this poster. The “Literature Re...

  15. School Nurses' Support for Bereaved Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohan, Janet A.

    2006-01-01

    Children may have difficulty with schoolwork because of grief over the death of an important person in their lives. School nurses provide support to these children. This pilot study consisted of a Web-based survey completed by 6 school nurses in a 3-county area in Washington state. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the need for…

  16. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHODS DEVELOPMENT PILOTS FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are needed to link exposure with health effects. EPA began methods development pilot studies in 2000 to address general questions about exposures and outcome measures. Selected pilot studies are highlighted in this poster. The “Literature Re...

  17. Pilots' age and incidents in helicopter emergency medical services: a 5-year observational study.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andreas; Prohn, Maria J; Huster, Katharina M; Nowak, Dennis; Angerer, Peter; Herbig, Britta

    2014-05-01

    Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) are considered to have a higher risk of incidents compared to other airborne operations. As HEMS poses high cognitive demands, age-related cognitive changes of helicopter pilots might become a safety risk. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between the age of pilots and incidents in HEMS. We conducted a retrospective observational study of incidents during HEMS operations of one Austrian and two German air rescue organizations between 2007 and 2011. The sample included 257 regularly operating HEMS pilots. Age of the pilots varied between 44.52 yr (SD = 7.80) in 2007 and 46.57 yr (SD = 8.14) in 2011. Incidents were categorized as the number of HEMS operations with at least one liability damage (LD). Statistical analyses used multilevel growth curve modeling with generalized linear mixed models. 1770 LD were observed during 402.372 HEMS operations (approximately four LD per 1000 operations). From 2007 to 2011 the average number of LD per year varied between M = 0.95-1.77 for pilots < 35 yr to M = 0.25-1.53 for pilots > or = 60 yr. There was no statistically significant main effect of pilot's age on the number of LD. There was a trend of an interaction effect between age and time, which suggests that pilots with higher age tended to be involved in slightly fewer LD with time than younger pilots. In sum, findings provide no evidence that older pilots have a higher risk than younger pilots of being involved in an incident during HEMS operations.

  18. Operator selection for unmanned aerial systems: comparing video game players and pilots.

    PubMed

    McKinley, R Andy; McIntire, Lindsey K; Funke, Margaret A

    2011-06-01

    Popular unmanned aerial system (UAS) platforms such as the MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper have experienced accelerated operations tempos that have outpaced current operator training regimens, leading to a shortage of qualified UAS operators. To find a surrogate to replace pilots of manned aircraft as UAS operators, this study evaluated video game players (VGPs), pilots, and a control group on a set of UAS operation relevant cognitive tasks. There were 30 participants who volunteered for this study and were divided into 3 groups: experienced pilots (P), experienced VGPs, and a control group (C). Each was trained on eight cognitive performance tasks relevant to unmanned flight tasks. The results indicated that pilots significantly outperform the VGP and control groups on multi-attribute cognitive tasks (Tank mean: VGP = 465 +/- 1.046 vs. P = 203 +/- 0.237 vs. C = 351 +/- 0.601). However, the VGPs outperformed pilots on cognitive tests related to visually acquiring, identifying, and tracking targets (final score: VGP = 594.28 +/- 8.708 vs. P = 563.33 +/- 8.787 vs. C = 568.21 +/- 8.224). Likewise, both VGPs and pilots performed similarly on the UAS landing task, but outperformed the control group (glide slope: VGP = 40.982 +/- 3.244 vs. P = 30.461 +/- 2.251 vs. C = 57.060 +/- 4.407). Cognitive skills learned in video game play may transfer to novel environments and improve performance in UAS tasks over individuals with no video game experience.

  19. Congestive Heart Failure home monitoring pilot study in urban Denver.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Saba; Li, Xin; Semenov, Nikolay; Apodaca-Madrid, Jesús; Mahoor, Mohammad H; Newman, Kimberly E; Long, Carlin S; Neuman, Christine

    2011-01-01

    With a growing number of low-income patients developing Congestive Heart Failure in urban Denver, accessible and affordable solutions are needed to provide home management options. A multidisciplinary team evaluated currently available options for telemonitoring and developed a solution for an initial pilot study. This system is currently used in the Denver Metro area (Colorado) for 44 CHF patients. Preliminary results show this approach is effective and has reduced the patients' average length of stay at the hospital compared to historical data and control patients who do not use a remote monitoring system.

  20. Study of occupational stress among railway engine pilots.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devesh; Singh, Jai Vir; Kharwar, Poonam S

    2011-01-01

    Traffic volume and speed is going to be increased in Indian Railways successively, leading to higher stress in staff connected with train operations. The jobs of railway engine pilots come under the category of high-strain jobs, necessitating a need to conduct multicentric study to unfold the factors associated with occupational stress and organizational strategies. Present study covered 185 railway engine pilots and office clerks working in various railway zones by incidental method. Occupational Stress Index (OSI) test developed by Srivastva and Singh, questionnaire of specific stressors constructed by authors and laboratory test battery for psychological screening of high-speed train pilots were used as tools. Means of OSI and all the 12 occupational stressors of railway engine pilots were found significantly higher to that of office clerks. Means of OSI and occupational stressors of goods train pilots were significantly higher in comparison to high-speed train pilots and passenger train pilots. Study revealed positive correlation of speed perception and complex reaction time tests and negative correlation of other constituent tests of laboratory test battery to OSI test. Highest subgroup of stressor observedwas role overload followed by role conflict. These findings provide a prima facie evidence of higher occupational stress among railway engine pilots because of identified specific stressors prevalent in their job and explore the possible intervention strategies for its reduction. Significant correlation is noticed between OSI and laboratory test results, indicating its relevant utility in preliminary psychological screening.

  1. Study of occupational stress among railway engine pilots

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Devesh; Singh, Jai Vir; Kharwar, Poonam S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traffic volume and speed is going to be increased in Indian Railways successively, leading to higher stress in staff connected with train operations. The jobs of railway engine pilots come under the category of high-strain jobs, necessitating a need to conduct multicentric study to unfold the factors associated with occupational stress and organizational strategies. Materials and Methods: Present study covered 185 railway engine pilots and office clerks working in various railway zones by incidental method. Occupational Stress Index (OSI) test developed by Srivastva and Singh, questionnaire of specific stressors constructed by authors and laboratory test battery for psychological screening of high-speed train pilots were used as tools. Results: Means of OSI and all the 12 occupational stressors of railway engine pilots were found significantly higher to that of office clerks. Means of OSI and occupational stressors of goods train pilots were significantly higher in comparison to high-speed train pilots and passenger train pilots. Study revealed positive correlation of speed perception and complex reaction time tests and negative correlation of other constituent tests of laboratory test battery to OSI test. Highest subgroup of stressor observedwas role overload followed by role conflict. Conclusions: These findings provide a prima facie evidence of higher occupational stress among railway engine pilots because of identified specific stressors prevalent in their job and explore the possible intervention strategies for its reduction. Significant correlation is noticed between OSI and laboratory test results, indicating its relevant utility in preliminary psychological screening. PMID:21808497

  2. The Periodontitis and Vascular Events (PAVE) pilot study: adverse events.

    PubMed

    Beck, James D; Couper, David J; Falkner, Karen L; Graham, Susan P; Grossi, Sara G; Gunsolley, John C; Madden, Theresa; Maupome, Gerardo; Offenbacher, Steven; Stewart, Dawn D; Trevisan, Maurizio; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Genco, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    During the last 15 years, a substantial number of population-based, clinical, laboratory, and animal studies have been published that reported findings on the relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. The Periodontitis and Vascular Events (PAVE) pilot study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of a randomized secondary prevention trial to test whether treatment of periodontal disease reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease. This article describes the occurrence of adverse events during the pilot study. The PAVE pilot study was a multicenter, randomized trial comparing periodontal therapy to community dental care. Baseline and follow-up clinic visits included a periodontal examination; blood, subgingival plaque, and crevicular fluid specimen collection; and medical and dental histories. Telephone follow-up contacts were scheduled to occur 3 months after randomization and every 6 months thereafter to assess adverse events or endpoints. Cardiovascular adverse events occurred with similar frequency (23 versus 24 [P = 0.85] in the community control and the treatment groups, respectively). There were 15 serious adverse events (SAEs) with a non-significantly higher percentage occurring in the community care group (6.6% versus 3.3%; P = 0.19). A time-to-event analysis of patterns of SAEs indicated that subjects in the periodontal therapy group tended to be less likely to experience an SAE over the entire 25 months of the study. For those individuals who remained in the study, it appears that provision of periodontal scaling and root planing treatment to individuals with heart disease resulted in a similar pattern of adverse events as seen in the community care group, which also received some treatment.

  3. Cardiac responses to long duration and high magnitude +Gz exposure in pilots: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Cengiz; İlbasmış, M Savaş; Akın, Ahmet

    2012-12-01

    In military aviation, high performance aircraft pilots are exposed to +Gz acceleration at longer durations and higher magnitude than transport/helicopter pilots. The purpose of this study was to reveal the negative or positive cardiac responses to this occupational high +Gz exposure. Our study design was cross-sectional and observational. We have evaluated 21 echocardiographic parameters of 63 pilots who applied for aircrew periodic medical examination. Of 63 pilots, 33 were grouped as high performance aircraft pilots group (Group A) and 30 were grouped as control group (Group B) whose aircraft type was transport or helicopter. Means of demographic and echocardiography parameters between two groups were compared statistically with Student's t-test, Mann- Whitney U or Chi-square test as appropriate. Among all echocardiographic parameters, mean TV A (tricuspid valve peak velocity during late diastolic filling) was significantly higher and TV E (peak velocity during early diastolic filling)/ A ratio was significantly lower for Group A pilots (p<0.05). In Group A pilots, mean TV A and TV E/A ratio were (52.12 ± 13.85) and (1.36 ± 0.30) respectively. In Group B pilots, mean TV A and TV E/A ratio were (42.61 ± 6.42) and (1.53 ± 0.20) respectively (p=0.001 for TVA and p=0.005 for TV E/A). Mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) of Group A pilots (32.04 ± 9.09) was higher than Group B pilots (28.76 ± 7.9) but it was not statistically significant (p>0.05). We conclude that according to the results of our study, long term +Gz exposure has no effects on cardiac morphologic and systolic functions but has effects on right ventricular diastolic functions. We have considered that these effects may be a result of chronic +Gz adaptation or high PAP levels.

  4. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  5. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy in the treatment of isolated knee chondral lesions: design of a randomised controlled pilot study comparing arthroscopic microfracture versus arthroscopic microfracture combined with postoperative mesenchymal stem cell injections

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Julien; Ford, Jon; Bates, Dan; Boyd, Richard; Hahne, Andrew; Wang, Yuanyuan; Cicuttini, Flavia; Huguenin, Leesa; Norsworthy, Cameron; Shah, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The management of intra-articular chondral defects in the knee remains a challenge. Inadequate healing in areas of weight bearing leads to impairment in load transmission and these defects predispose to later development of osteoarthritis. Surgical management of full thickness chondral defects include arthroscopic microfracture and when appropriate autologous chondrocyte implantation. This latter method however is technically challenging, and may not offer significant improvement over microfracture. Preclinical and limited clinical trials have indicated the capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to influence chondral repair. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of a pilot randomised controlled trial comparing arthroscopic microfracture alone for isolated knee chondral defects versus arthroscopic microfracture combined with postoperative autologous adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell injections. Methods and analysis A pilot single-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. 40 participants aged 18–50 years, with isolated femoral condyle chondral defects and awaiting planned arthroscopic microfracture will be randomly allocated to a control group (receiving no additional treatment) or treatment group (receiving postoperative adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell treatment). Primary outcome measures will include MRI assessment of cartilage volume and defects and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Secondary outcomes will include further MRI assessment of bone marrow lesions, bone area and T2 cartilage mapping, a 0–10 Numerical Pain Rating Scale, a Global Impression of Change score and a treatment satisfaction scale. Adverse events and cointerventions will be recorded. Initial outcome follow-up for publication of results will be at 12 months. Further annual follow-up to assess long-term differences between the two group will occur. Ethics and dissemination This trial has received prospective ethics approval through

  6. Climatotherapy in Japan: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanayama, Hitomi; Kusaka, Yukinori; Hirai, Takayoshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Agishi, Yuko; Schuh, Angela

    2017-08-01

    Twenty-nine urban inhabitants participated in a half-day climatotherapy programme at the moderate mountain area and lowland area in the northwest part of the main island of Japan. The current study was aimed to investigate physically and mentally the objective and subjective influence of our short programme, which was a prospective pilot study of single intervention. Blood pressure was significantly descended during terrain cure at the uphill mountain path and returned after fresh-air rest cure, while there was no significant change throughout the programme at lowland flat path. Heart rate was significantly ascended and descended at both area, and more clearly changed at the mountain path. Profile of Mood Status brief form Japanese version administered before and after our half-day programme. Age adjusted T score of negative subscales, `tension-anxiety', `depression', `anger-hostility', `fatigue' and `confusion' were significantly lower after climatotherapy at both sites. Whereas, there was no significant change concerning `vigour' score. This short-version climatotherapy programme has been designed for people without enough time for long stay at health resort. It turned out our half-day climatotherapy programme contribute to mood status improvement. In addition, repeated practice of our short-version programme including endurance exercise with cool body shell using uphill path can be expected that blood pressure will go toward the normal range and heart rate will decrease both in usual time and during exercise. Therefore, health benefits can be expected of this climatotherapy programme.

  7. A pilot study of intraoral temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Youngson, C C; Barclay, C W

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this in vivo pilot study was to record variations in temperature at various sites in a subject's mouth in response to a standardised thermal challenge and to determine a more realistic thermocycling regimen for future use. A volunteer who suffered from no dentinal hypersensitivity had modified study models prepared for constructing vacuum-formed PVC splints. Perforations 2 mm in diameter were placed for thermocouples facially and lingually in the midcoronal sites of the upper and lower central incisors, canines, second premolars, and second molars to measure temperatures at these sites. A standardised drinking regimen was followed of hot black coffee (72.5 degrees C) followed by cold orange juice (6.0 degrees C). Contralateral sites experienced similar temperature changes of short duration. A maximum of 68.0 degrees C and a minimum of 15.4 degrees C were recorded. Less extreme temperatures were experienced posteriorly, and little or no discernible changes were noted at the facial aspects of the upper second molars or lingually on the lower second molars. Most commonly used thermocycling regimens are clinically unrealistic, and temperatures vary widely throughout the mouth when hot or cold drinks are taken.

  8. The DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; King, A.W.; Miller, M.A.; Springer, E.P.; Wesely, M.L.; Bashford, K.E.; Conrad, M.E.; Costigan, K.; Foster, P.N.; Gibbs, H.K.; Jin, J.; Klazura, J.; Lesht, B.M.; Machavaram, M.V.; Pan, F.; Song, J.; Troyan, D.; Washington-Allen, R.A.

    2003-09-20

    A Department of Energy (DOE) multi-laboratory Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) investigated components of the local water budget at the Walnut River Watershed in Kansas to study the relative importance of various processes and to determine the feasibility of observational water budget closure. An extensive database of local meteorological time series and land surface characteristics was compiled. Numerical simulations of water budget components were generated and, to the extent possible, validated for three nested domains within the Southern Great Plains; the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement/Cloud Atmospheric Radiation Testbed (ARM/CART), the Walnut River Watershed (WRW), and the Whitewater Watershed (WW), Kansas A 2-month Intensive Observation Period (IOP) was conducted to gather detailed observations relevant to specific details of the water budget, including fine-scale precipitation, streamflow, and soil moisture measurements not made routinely by other programs. Event and season al water isotope (delta 18O, delta D) sampling in rainwater, streams, soils, lakes, and wells provided a means of tracing sources and sinks within and external to the WW, WRW, and the ARM/CART domains. The WCPS measured changes in leaf area index for several vegetation types, deep groundwater variations at two wells, and meteorological variables at a number of sites in the WRW. Additional activities of the WCPS include code development toward a regional climate model with water isotope processes, soil moisture transect measurements, and water level measurements in ground water wells.

  9. Homeopathic Secretin in autism: a clinical pilot study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, T W

    2001-04-01

    Autism is a condition characterised by impairments of social communication, social interaction and social imagination. The exact aetiology of autism is unknown but some autistic features have been explained by the 'opioid excess theory' in which excess brain peptide levels have a morphine-like activity. Reduction of peptide levels by administration of the duodenal enzyme Secretin has been found to improve social and language skills in autistic patients. Homeopathic Secretin has been said to produce similar effects. A pilot study was undertaken to study these effects by administration of Secretin to a group of autistic patients. Weekly assessment for 12 weeks was performed by the patients' care workers. Statistical analysis of the mean pre-treatment results compared with the mean treatment results suggested a worsening in the autistic symptoms during treatment. Discussion with the care workers revealed changes and some improvements that were not recordable on the scoring system. Further research into Secretin treatment of autism using a more detailed and customized scoring system would be justified. Following this pilot study a randomised controlled trial of Secretin vs placebo would be appropriate.

  10. 1999 ANNUAL REPORT NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This annual report present the proceedings of the second annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Belfast, UK in March 1999. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the research arena of clean products, clean processes, and pollution prevention tools.

  11. 1999 ANNUAL REPORT NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This annual report present the proceedings of the second annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Belfast, UK in March 1999. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the research arena of clean products, clean processes, and pollution prevention tools.

  12. Answering Fixed Response Items in Chemistry: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hateley, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a pilot study on student thinking in chemistry. Verbal comments of a group of six college students were recorded and analyzed to identify how each student arrives at the correct answer in fixed response items in chemisty. (HM)

  13. Freshman Strategy Seminar. A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magid, Annette; And Others

    In fall 1987, a Freshman Strategy Seminar (FSS) was pilot tested and evaluated at Erie Community College's (ECC's) South Campus to assist students lacking basic English and mathematics skills. Developmental class sections in writing, reading and math were reserved for the FSS students, in the hope that a cluster course approach would reduce…

  14. The Pilot Training Study: Precommissioning Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, J. W.

    The cost of training, as conducted by the Air Force Academy, Reserve Officer Training Corps, and Officer Training School, and leading to the commissioning of new Air Force officers is presented. The student flows, personnel resources required to support the flows, and costs of pilot candidates graduating from each of the three commissioning…

  15. A comparative study of pilot-scale bio-trickling filters with counter- and cross-current flow patterns in the treatment of emissions from chemical fibre wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhuhui; Liu, Jia; Cao, Jingyang; Sheng, Dinghe; Cai, Tingjian; Li, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Two pilot-scale bio-trickling filters (BTFs) with counter-current and cross-current flow modes were constructed, and their performance tested, for purifying chemical fibre waste gas containing H2S, NH3 and VOCs with a maximum gas flow rate of 1008m(3)h(-1). The counter-current type of BTF presented with superior biodegradation results compared to the cross-current type: it could start up quickly, tolerated high transient shock loadings, and possessed an average contaminant removal efficiency higher than 90% with an empty bed residence time of 59s. The contaminant removal efficiency could be increased by 50% during winter due to the addition of pipeline insulation. The abundance and diversity from microorganism analysis showed that Dyella, Bacillus, Candidimonas, Pandoraea and Thiomonas were the main bacterial strains forming the community treating the pollutants. The counter-current type BTF functioned most effectively and is proposed for practical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acupuncture Treatment of Lateral Elbow Pain: A Nonrandomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Song; Gadau, Marcus; Zhang, Guo-Xue; Liu, Hao; Wang, Fu-Chun; Zaslawski, Christopher; Li, Tie; Tan, Yuan-Sheng; Berle, Christine; Li, Wei-Hong; Bangrazi, Sergio; Liguori, Stefano; Zhang, Shi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    In planning for a large-scale multicenter trial to evaluate the effect of acupuncture for the treatment of lateral elbow pain, a pilot study was conducted. This was a prospective, investigator- and patient-blinded, nonrandomized, placebo controlled trial. Subjects were evaluated at baseline, before fourth, seventh, and ninth treatment, and at a two-week posttreatment follow-up. The treatment group received unilateral acupuncture at LI 10 and LI 11 at the affected side with manual needle manipulation; the control group received sham-laser acupuncture at the same acupoints. Measures included (i) disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) questionnaire, (ii) pain-free grip strength (PFGS), and (iii) a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain. Significant differences in DASH score, PFGS, and VAS between treatment and control group were found at the ninth treatment (n = 20 for each group, P < 0.05). Only DASH showed significant differences compared to the control for all the measurement time points after treatment commenced and appears to be a sensitive and appropriate primary outcome measure for the future multisite trial. Results from this pilot study provided relevant information about treatment efficacy, credibility of control treatment, and sensitivity of different outcome measures for the planning of the future trial. PMID:27006679

  17. Endoscopic procedure with a modified Reiki intervention: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hulse, Rosalinda S; Stuart-Shor, Eileen M; Russo, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study examined the use of Reiki prior to colonoscopy to reduce anxiety and minimize intraprocedure medications compared with usual care. A prospective, nonblinded, partially randomized patient preference design was employed using 21 subjects undergoing colonoscopy for the first time. Symptoms of anxiety and pain were assessed using a Likert-type scale. Between-group differences were assessed using chi-square analyses and analysis of variance. There were no differences between the control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 11) groups on age (mean = 58 years, SD = 8.5) and gender (53% women). The experimental group had higher anxiety (4.5 vs. 2.6, p = .03) and pain (0.8 vs. 0.2, p = .42) scores prior to colonoscopy. The Reiki intervention reduced mean heart rate (-9 beats/minute), systolic blood pressure (-10 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (-4 mmHg), and respirations (-3 breaths/minute). There were no between-group differences on intraprocedure medication use or postprocedure physiologic measures. Although the experimental group patients had more symptoms, they did not require additional pain medication during the procedure, suggesting that (1) anxious people may benefit from an adjunctive therapy; (2) anxiety and pain are decreased by Reiki therapy for patients undergoing colonoscopy, and (3) additional intraprocedure pain medication may not be needed for colonoscopy patients receiving Reiki therapy. This pilot study provided important insights in preparation for a rigorous, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

  18. Where have all the pilot studies gone? A follow-up on 30 years of pilot studies in Clinical Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Navaldeep; Figueiredo, Sabrina; Bouchard, Vanessa; Moriello, Carolina; Mayo, Nancy

    2017-09-01

    Pilot studies are meritorious for determining the feasibility of a definitive clinical trial in terms of conduct and potential for efficacy, but their possible applications for planning a future trial are not always fully realized. The purpose of this review was to estimate the extent to which pilot/feasibility studies: (i) addressed needed objectives; (ii) led to definitive trials; and (iii) whether the subsequent undertaking of a definitive trial was influenced by the strength of the evidence of outcome improvement. Trials published in the journal Clinical Rehabilitation, since its inception, were eligible if the word 'pilot' or 'feasibility' was specified somewhere in the article. A total of 191 studies were reviewed, results were summarized descriptively, and between-group effect sizes were computed. The specific purposes of piloting were stated in only 58% ( n = 110) of the studies. The most frequent purpose was to estimate the potential for efficacy (85%), followed by testing the feasibility of the intervention (60%). Only 12% of the studies were followed by a definitive trial; <4% of studies had a main study underway or a published study protocol. There was no relationship between observed effect size and follow-up of pilot studies, although the confidence intervals were very wide owing to small number of trials that followed on. Labelling and reporting of pilot studies needs to be improved to be concordant with the recently issued CONSORT guidelines. Feasibility needs to be fully tested and demonstrated prior to committing considerable human and monetary resources.

  19. Tai Chi for older nurses: a workplace wellness pilot study.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Mary Val; Wu, Ge; Shaner-McRae, Hollie; Rambur, Betty; McIntosh, Barbara

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of a Tai Chi workplace wellness program as a cost effective way of improving physical and mental health, reducing work related stress, and improving work productivity among older nurses in a hospital setting Design A randomized control trial of two groups (control and Tai Chi group). A randomized control trial of two groups (control and Tai Chi group). Northeastern academic medical center. A convenience sample of eleven female nurses (mean age 54.4 years). The Tai Chi group (n = 6) was asked to attend Tai Chi classes once a week offered at their worksite and to practice on their own for 10 minutes each day at least 4 days per week for 15 weeks. Controls (n = 5) received no intervention. SF-36 Health Survey, Nursing Stress Scale (NSS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Sit-and-Reach test, Functional Reach test, the Work Limitations Questionnaire, workplace injury and unscheduled time off. The two study groups were compared descriptively and changes across time in the intervention versus control were compared. The Tai Chi group took no unscheduled time-off hours, whereas, the control group was absent 49 hours during the study period. There was also a 3% increase in work productivity and significant improvement in functional reach (p=0.03) compared to the control group. Other outcomes were not statistically significant. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of Tai Chi with older female workers as a cost effective wellness option in the workplace; thus encouraging replication with a larger sample. Methodological implications were also addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Implementation of the NASA Artificial Gravity Bed Rest Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Warren, L Elisabeth; Reinertson, Randal; Camacho, Maria E; Paloski, William H

    2007-07-01

    The NASA Artificial Gravity Bed Rest Pilot Study was the first cross-institutional study to investigate the effectiveness of intermittent artificial gravity (AG) as a multi-system countermeasure to bed rest deconditioning in human subjects. Daily treatments by 60 min exposures to short radius centrifugation (SRC) were used to load the longitudinal body axis of eight male human subjects during 21 days of head down tilt bed rest as a means of protecting the bone, muscle, and cardiovascular systems from deconditioning. Data from these treatment subjects were compared with those from seven male human control subjects who were not exposed to SRC loading. This paper reports on implementation issues and lessons learned during the conduct of this complex study.

  1. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: SOIL STABILIZATION PILOT STUDY, UNITED CHROME NPL SITE PILOT STUDY AND HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAM, UNITED CHROME NPL SITE PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a project plan for a pilot study at the United Chrome NPL site, Corvallis, Oregon and includes the health and safety and quality assurance/quality control plans. The plan reports results of a bench-scale study of the treatment process as iieasured by the ...

  2. Patient satisfaction with colonoscopy: A literature review and pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Lucas; Arthurs, Erin; Sewitch, Maida J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend that colonoscopic colorectal cancer screening be undertaken every 10 years after the age of 50 years. However, because the procedure does not meet criteria that promote screening uptake, patient satisfaction with colonoscopy may encourage repeat screening. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature and conduct a pilot study of patient satisfaction with the colonoscopy experience. METHODS: All cohort studies from January 1997 to August 2008 in the MEDLINE database that measured either patient satisfaction with colonoscopy, patient willingness to return for colonoscopy under the same conditions or patient preference for colonoscopy compared with other large bowel procedures were identified. The search was supplemented by journal citation lists in the retrieved articles. RESULTS: Of the 29 studies identified, 15 met the inclusion criteria. Consistently, the vast majority of patients (approximately 95%) were very satisfied with their colonoscopy experience. Patient satisfaction was similar for screening and nonscreening colonoscopy. Patient willingness to return for the procedure ranged from 73% to 100%. Of the five studies that examined modality preference, three studies reported the majority of patients preferred colonography to colonoscopy and two studies reported the reverse. Our pilot study findings mirrored those of other studies that were conducted in the United States. The major limitation of the included studies was that patients who were most dissatisfied may have gone elsewhere to have their colonoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients were very satisfied with colonoscopy. The majority were willing to return for repeat testing under the same conditions, and colonoscopy was not preferred over other modalities. However, studies were limited by methodological shortcomings. PMID:19319384

  3. A piloted simulation study of data link ATC message exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Marvin C.; Lohr, Gary W.

    1989-01-01

    Data link Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Air Traffic Service (ATS) message and data exchange offers the potential benefits of increased flight safety and efficiency by reducing communication errors and allowing more information to be transferred between aircraft and ground facilities. Digital communication also presents an opportunity to relieve the overloading of ATC radio frequencies which hampers message exchange during peak traffic hours in many busy terminal areas. A piloted simulation study to develop pilot factor guidelines and assess potential flight crew benefits and liabilities from using data link ATC message exchange was completed. The data link ATC message exchange concept, implemented on an existing navigation computer Control Display Unit (CDU) required maintaining a voice radio telephone link with an appropriate ATC facility. Flight crew comments, scanning behavior, and measurements of time spent in ATC communication activities for data link ATC message exchange were compared to similar measures for simulated conventional voice radio operations. The results show crew preference for the quieter flight deck environment and a perception of lower communication workload.

  4. The effect of music on brain wave functioning during an acute psychotic episode: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kylie Anne; Harris, Anthony W; Luscombe, Georgina; Tran, Yvonne; Herkes, Geoff; Bartrop, Roger W

    2010-07-30

    This pilot study compared the differences in the quantified electroencephalogram (qEEG) between two conditions; eyes closed resting and eyes closed listening to music of 15 subjects currently experiencing an acute psychotic episode. The results showed a significant decrease in delta, alpha and beta waves when listening to music compared to resting condition. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative safety of interleukin-1 blockade with anakinra in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (from the VCU-ART and VCU-ART2 pilot studies).

    PubMed

    Abbate, Antonio; Kontos, Michael Christopher; Abouzaki, Nayef Antar; Melchior, Ryan David; Thomas, Christopher; Van Tassell, Benjamin Wallace; Oddi, Claudia; Carbone, Salvatore; Trankle, Cory Ross; Roberts, Charlotte Susan; Mueller, George Herman; Gambill, Michael Lucas; Christopher, Sanah; Markley, Roshanak; Vetrovec, George Wayne; Dinarello, Charles Anthony; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Two pilot studies of interleukin-1 (IL-1) blockade in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) showed blunted acute inflammatory response and overall favorable outcomes at 3 months follow-up. We hereby present a patient-level pooled analysis with extended follow-up of 40 patients with clinically stable STEMI randomized to anakinra, a recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist, 100 mg/day for 14 days or placebo in a double-blinded fashion. End points included death, cardiac death, recurrent acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, unstable angina, and symptomatic heart failure. Median follow-up was 28 (interquartile range 3 to 38) months. Sixteen patients (40%) had a total of 22 adverse cardiovascular events: 1 cardiac death, 4 recurrent AMI, 5 episodes of unstable angina pectoris requiring hospitalization and/or urgent revascularization, and 11 new diagnoses of heart failure. Treatment with anakinra was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.08 (95% confidence interval 0.31 to 3.74, p = 0.90) for the combined end point of death, recurrent AMI, unstable angina pectoris, or stroke and a hazard ratio of 0.16 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.76, p = 0.008) for death or heart failure. In conclusion, IL-1 blockade with anakinra for 2 weeks appears, therefore, to have a neutral effect on recurrent ischemic events, whereas it may prevent new-onset heart failure long term after STEMI.

  6. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  7. Social Media in Adolescent Health Literacy Education: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Carrie KW; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda SS

    2015-01-01

    Background While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual’s approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. Objective The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube - in supporting adolescents’ oral health literacy (OHL) education. Methods A random sample of 22 adolescents (aged 14-16 years) from an English-medium international school in Hong Kong provided informed consent. Sociodemographic information, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience were collected via a questionnaire. A pre- and post-test of OHL (REALD-30) was administered by two trained, calibrated examiners. Following pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three social media outlets: Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube. Participants received alerts posted daily for 5 consecutive days requiring online accessing of modified and original OHL education materials. One-way ANOVA ( analysis of variance) was used to compare the mean difference between the pre- and the post-test results among the three social media. Results No associations were found between the social media allocated and participants’ sociodemographics, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience. Of the three social media, significant differences in literacy assessment scores were evident for participants who received oral health education messages via Facebook (P=.02) and YouTube (P=.005). Conclusions Based on the results of the pilot study, Facebook and YouTube may be more efficient media outlets for OHL promotion and education among adolescent school children when compared to Twitter. Further

  8. Social media in adolescent health literacy education: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tse, Carrie Kw; Bridges, Susan M; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda Ss

    2015-03-09

    While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual's approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube - in supporting adolescents' oral health literacy (OHL) education. A random sample of 22 adolescents (aged 14-16 years) from an English-medium international school in Hong Kong provided informed consent. Sociodemographic information, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience were collected via a questionnaire. A pre- and post-test of OHL (REALD-30) was administered by two trained, calibrated examiners. Following pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three social media outlets: Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube. Participants received alerts posted daily for 5 consecutive days requiring online accessing of modified and original OHL education materials. One-way ANOVA ( analysis of variance) was used to compare the mean difference between the pre- and the post-test results among the three social media. No associations were found between the social media allocated and participants' sociodemographics, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience. Of the three social media, significant differences in literacy assessment scores were evident for participants who received oral health education messages via Facebook (P=.02) and YouTube (P=.005). Based on the results of the pilot study, Facebook and YouTube may be more efficient media outlets for OHL promotion and education among adolescent school children when compared to Twitter. Further analyses with a larger study group is warranted.

  9. A pilot binational study of health behaviors and immigration.

    PubMed

    Hennessy-Burt, Tamara E; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Meneses-González, Fernando; Schenker, Marc B

    2011-12-01

    In the US, Mexican immigrant women often have better health outcomes than non-Hispanic white women despite a greater health risk profile. This cross-sectional pilot study compared women living in Chavinda, Michoacán (n = 102) to women who had migrated from Mexico to Madera, California (n = 93). The interview gathered information on acculturation and risk behaviors including smoking, alcohol use and number of sexual partners. The results suggest that more acculturated women living in the US are more likely to consume alcohol. US residence and higher acculturation level was marginally associated with having more than one sexual partner. There were no differences between odds of smoking among Chavinda and Madera women. While results with acculturation are not consistently significant due to small sample sizes, the results are suggestive that acculturation among immigrant Hispanic women in the US may be associated with adverse health behaviors, and selective migration seems less likely to account for these differences.

  10. A pilot evaluation study of the Solihull Approach.

    PubMed

    Milford, Rebecca; Kleve, Liv; Lea, James; Greenwood, Rosemary

    2006-11-01

    The Solihull Approach is a psychotherapeutic and behavioural model for health visitors and other professionals working with children and families to address sleeping, toileting, feeding and behavioural difficulties in young children. This pilot study used quantitative methods to assess the effectiveness of the Solihull Approach compared to standard health visitor practice. At assessment, the parent completed the short form Parenting Stress Index and a visual analogue scale rating how severe the problem was. The health visitor also completed a visual analogue scale rating their perception of the severity of the problem. This process was repeated at the end of the intervention and again at three months follow-up. Results showed statistically significant better outcome on five out of six measures for the experimental group. Results are discussed in context of a small sample size.

  11. Development of a Korean family attitude scale: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heeyoung; Schepp, Karen G; Jung, Young-Mi

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop and pilot test a Korean version of the Family Attitude Scale (FAS). We developed the Korean FAS using the translation/back-translation method. Two English monolinguals assessed its translation validity by comparing the original with a back-translated English version. Translation equivalence of the FAS and the refined Korean FAS was evaluated in a convenience sample of 56 bilingual Korean college students. The internal consistency of the Korean FAS and the FAS was 0.96 and 0.76, respectively. Mean scores on the two versions did not differ (t = -0.14, p = 0.89). The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.37 (p < .001). Although the Korean FAS needs further refinement and psychometric testing, it was translated to reflect the original version and was a reliable instrument for the Korean population.

  12. Experienced pilot flight tests comparing conventional instrumentation and a synthetic vision display for precision approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Randall C.; Wilt, Dennis; Henion, James; Alter, Keith; Snow, Paul; Jennings, Chad; Barrows, Andrew

    2004-08-01

    The results of this experiment show that an aircraft primary flight display (PFD) with a flight path superimposed on a synthetic vision system (SVS) terrain image demonstrates a viable means for a pilot to confidently and consistently control an aircraft while flying highly accurate precision approaches to a 200 foot decision height (DH). The pathway, depicted as a Highway-In-The-Sky (HITS) in the display, provides a predictive method, as opposed to the reactive method associated with conventional needle and dial instruments, for controlling an aircraft. The intuitive nature of the HITS/SVS architecture provides greater situational awareness, less pilot workload, and improved accuracy during instrument flying compared to the conventional instrument landing system (ILS) round dials and needles.

  13. THE EFFECT OF THERMAL ENVIRONMENT ON LEARNING, A PILOT STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PECCOLO, CHARLES

    THIS IS A REPORT OF A FIRST PILOT STUDY WHICH PRECEDES A SERIES OF STUDIES BEING CONDUCTED BY THE IOWA CENTER FOR RESEARCH IN SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION AND LENNOX INDUSTRIES INC., MARSHALLTOWN, IOWA. IT IS A DIGEST OF A THESIS BY DR. CHARLES PECCOLO WHO SERVED AS RESEARCHER ON THIS FIRST STUDY. THE STUDY AIMED AT MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF THERMAL…

  14. Introducing Preschool Children to Novel Fruits and Vegetables: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tande, D. L.; Niemeier, B. S.; Hwang, J. H.; Stastny, S.; Bezbaruah, N.; Hektner, J. M.; Habedank, D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this pilot study was to compare changes in preschool children's identification, preferences, and beliefs related to fruits and vegetables introduced to a child care center's menu before and after a nutrition education and food exposure intervention. The study also sought to determine how these changes were…

  15. Introducing Preschool Children to Novel Fruits and Vegetables: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tande, D. L.; Niemeier, B. S.; Hwang, J. H.; Stastny, S.; Bezbaruah, N.; Hektner, J. M.; Habedank, D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this pilot study was to compare changes in preschool children's identification, preferences, and beliefs related to fruits and vegetables introduced to a child care center's menu before and after a nutrition education and food exposure intervention. The study also sought to determine how these changes were…

  16. A Pilot Study of Motor Disturbances in Children with ADHD Belonging to Chilean Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ancatén González, Carlos; Montes, Rodrigo; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    The present pilot study aimed to determine motor control alterations in children with ADHD belonging to public schools, using Da Fonseca's Psychomotor Battery (BPM). This was a descriptive cross-sectional comparative study. The sample consisted of two groups, each group composed of 15 children between 7 and 9 years old belonging to public…

  17. Hearing Aids: Expectations and Satisfaction of People with an Intellectual Disability, a Descriptive Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuwese-Jongejeugd, A.; Verschuure, H.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In spite of an increased risk of hearing impairment in persons with an intellectual disability (ID), rehabilitation with hearing aids often fails. We performed a descriptive pilot study with the following study questions: (1) Do comparable elements as in the general population contribute to expectations of and satisfaction with hearing…

  18. Effects of Distance Coaching on Teachers' Use of Pyramid Model Practices: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artman-Meeker, Kathleen; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Snyder, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the effects of 2 professional development approaches on teachers' implementation of the "Pyramid" model, a classroom-wide approach for fostering social-emotional development and addressing challenging behavior. The study had 2 goals: (a) to examine the differential effects of workshop…

  19. Hearing Aids: Expectations and Satisfaction of People with an Intellectual Disability, a Descriptive Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuwese-Jongejeugd, A.; Verschuure, H.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In spite of an increased risk of hearing impairment in persons with an intellectual disability (ID), rehabilitation with hearing aids often fails. We performed a descriptive pilot study with the following study questions: (1) Do comparable elements as in the general population contribute to expectations of and satisfaction with hearing…

  20. Effects of Distance Coaching on Teachers' Use of Pyramid Model Practices: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artman-Meeker, Kathleen; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Snyder, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the effects of 2 professional development approaches on teachers' implementation of the "Pyramid" model, a classroom-wide approach for fostering social-emotional development and addressing challenging behavior. The study had 2 goals: (a) to examine the differential effects of workshop…

  1. Evaluation of the IEP Costing Procedures: A Pilot Study by Six Major Research Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Jim

    The Information Exchange Procedures (IEP) cost study project of the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems is described and its applicability to six major research universities (MRU) is assessed in this pilot study. The IEP enables peer institutions to compare information about their resources, activities, and educational…

  2. Pilot Biofeedback Training in the Cognitive Awareness Training Study (CATS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uenking, M.

    2000-01-01

    One of the ongoing problems that pilots face today is a diminished state of awareness such as boredom, sleepiness, or fatigue during cruise conditions that could result in various pilot errors. This study utilized a cognitive training exercise to sharpen the pilot's awareness during simulated flight thereby providing them with a means to overcome these diminished states of awareness. This study utilizes psychophysiological methods in an attempt to assess a pilot's state of awareness more directly. In turn, the pilots will be able to train themselves to recognize these states of awareness and be more mentally sharp during mundane tasks such as those experienced in cruise conditions. The use of these measurement tools may be beneficial for researchers working within the NASA Aviation Safety Program. This paper will provide the reader with some background information concerning the motivation for the study, a brief description of the experimental setup and design matrix, the dependent and independent variables that were employed, and some preliminary findings based on some of the subjective and objective data that was collected. These preliminary findings are of part of an ongoing study being conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.

  3. Preparation, piloting and validation for a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Golding, Jean

    2009-07-01

    No longitudinal study should go into the field prior to detailed piloting and validation studies of the measures and techniques to be used. Preparation should also involve the training of staff, the acquisition of space and appropriate equipment, and liaison with the community and ethical committees as well as with scientific collaborators. Because different measures will continually be introduced as the participants age, the preparation, piloting and validation studies have to be ongoing. Here we describe some of the different strategies that should be used.

  4. Automatic Generation of Test Oracles - From Pilot Studies to Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Smith, Ben

    1998-01-01

    There is a trend towards the increased use of automation in V&V. Automation can yield savings in time and effort. For critical systems, where thorough V&V is required, these savings can be substantial. We describe a progression from pilot studies to development and use of V&V automation. We used pilot studies to ascertain opportunities for, and suitability of, automating various analyses whose results would contribute to V&V. These studies culminated in the development of an automatic generator of automated test oracles. This was then applied and extended in the course of testing an Al planning system that is a key component of an autonomous spacecraft.

  5. Art as an Evaluative Tool: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Mary-Ann; Graham, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a pilot study completed in preparation for a multisite study of the effectiveness of children's grief support groups. Uses art therapy to assess children's perspectives of their experience in a grief support group. Results of study support the use of art as an effective qualitative tool that can be utilized in future evaluations of…

  6. Pilot study of a compassion meditation intervention in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Chapin, Heather L; Darnall, Beth D; Seppala, Emma M; Doty, James R; Hah, Jennifer M; Mackey, Sean C

    2016-01-01

    Background The emergence of anger as an important predictor of chronic pain outcomes suggests that treatments that target anger may be particularly useful within the context of chronic pain. Eastern traditions prescribe compassion cultivation to treat persistent anger. Compassion cultivation has been shown to influence emotional processing and reduce negativity bias in the contexts of emotional and physical discomfort, thus suggesting it may be beneficial as a dual treatment for pain and anger. Our objective was to conduct a pilot study of a 9-week group compassion cultivation intervention in chronic pain to examine its effect on pain severity, anger, pain acceptance and pain-related interference. We also aimed to describe observer ratings provided by patients’ significant others and secondary effects of the intervention. Methods Pilot clinical trial with repeated measures design that included a within-subjects wait-list control period. Twelve chronic pain patients completed the intervention (F= 10). Data were collected from patients at enrollment, treatment baseline and post-treatment; participant significant others contributed data at the enrollment and post-treatment time points. Results In this predominantly female sample, patients had significantly reduced pain severity and anger and increased pain acceptance at post-treatment compared to treatment baseline. Significant other qualitative data corroborated patient reports for reductions in pain severity and anger. Conclusions Compassion meditation may be a useful adjunctive treatment for reducing pain severity and anger, and for increasing chronic pain acceptance. Patient reported reductions in anger were corroborated by their significant others. The significant other corroborations offer a novel contribution to the literature and highlight the observable emotional and behavioral changes in the patient participants that occurred following the compassion intervention. Future studies may further examine how

  7. Say yes to life: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wood, C; Keen, A

    1988-03-01

    In an attempt to assess whether there are any characteristics which a majority of ordinary people regard as life-affirming or life-denying, a questionnaire was given to a pilot group of 167 respondents, representing three different age and social categories. Five life-affirming and five life-denying characteristics were mentioned by more than 10% of respondents. Of the former, Drive, Sociability, Happiness and Optimism were endorsed by 15-20%. Of the latter, Unsociability and Poor Coping were mentioned by 22%, making them distinctly more frequent than the following categories of Pessimism, Lack of Drive and Unhappiness (11-14%). It is suggested that a number of these subjectively determined characteristics, which the general public perceive as being life-affirming or denying, do indeed influence physical or mental health, illness or illness behaviour. It may therefore be of value to utilize this set of public perceptions in future programmes of health education.

  8. Say yes to life: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, C; Keen, A

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to assess whether there are any characteristics which a majority of ordinary people regard as life-affirming or life-denying, a questionnaire was given to a pilot group of 167 respondents, representing three different age and social categories. Five life-affirming and five life-denying characteristics were mentioned by more than 10% of respondents. Of the former, Drive, Sociability, Happiness and Optimism were endorsed by 15-20%. Of the latter, Unsociability and Poor Coping were mentioned by 22%, making them distinctly more frequent than the following categories of Pessimism, Lack of Drive and Unhappiness (11-14%). It is suggested that a number of these subjectively determined characteristics, which the general public perceive as being life-affirming or denying, do indeed influence physical or mental health, illness or illness behaviour. It may therefore be of value to utilize this set of public perceptions in future programmes of health education. PMID:3357158

  9. PILOT STUDY: CCQM-P13 pilot study. Metals in artificial food digest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff Briche, C. S. J.

    2003-01-01

    The accuracy of elemental analyses in complex matrices is usually assessed by analysis of a suitable matrix reference material. The reference value is ascribed by consensus mean and by application of primary methods of analysis. However, the quality of this value will be affected by problems such as matrix-induced interferences, moisture corrections and heterogeneity. Pilot study CCQM-P13 was undertaken to assess the capabilities of National Metrology Institutes to analyse Ca, Cu and Cd in an acidic solution that simulates the digest of a food sample. This study filled the gap between the analysis of a gravimetrically prepared calibration solution and the analysis of an unknown in a complex matrix requiring extensive sample preparation. Having an independent reference value, with a small uncertainty, allowed a more rigorous estimation of the reliability of the institutes' analysis and uncertainty estimates, without including issues around sample digestion. The reference values were: 1.6617 +/- 0.0020 µmol/g for Ca, 7.037 +/- 0.012 nmol/g for Cu and 45.57 +/- 0.10 pmol/g for Cd (expanded uncertainties are quoted with coverage factor of 2). The other elements in the matrix were: Na (~25 µg/g), K (~90 µg/g), Cl (~120 µg/g), Fe (~100 ng/g), Mg (~5 µg/g), P (~5 µg/g), Sn (~80 ng/g) and Zn (~200 ng/g). Twelve international laboratories, representing eight countries, determined the amount content of the analytes. A range of techniques that include ID-ICP-MS (high resolution and collision cell), ICP-MS, ICP-OES, AAS, voltametry and potentiometry were used. The results for this pilot study averaged: 1.654 +/- 0.058 µmol/g for Ca (n = 10), 7.26 +/- 0.53 nmol/g for Cu (n = 12) and 45.2 +/- 5.1 pmol/g for Cd (n = 11) where the values associated with the averages are the standard deviations of n participants. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database

  10. Piloted simulation study of an ILS approach of a twin-pusher business/commuter turboprop aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Donald R.; Brandon, Jay M.; Glaab, Louis J.

    1994-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear simulation of a twin-pusher, turboprop business/commuter aircraft configuration representative of the Cessna ATPTB (Advanced turboprop test bed) was developed for use in piloted studies with the Langley General Aviation Simulator. The math models developed are provided, simulation predictions are compared with with Cessna flight-test data for validation purposes, and results of a handling quality study during simulated ILS (instrument landing system) approaches and missed approaches are presented. Simulated flight trajectories, task performance measures, and pilot evaluations are presented for the ILS approach and missed-approach tasks conducted with the vehicle in the presence of moderate turbulence, varying horizontal winds and engine-out conditions. Six test subjects consisting of two research pilots, a Cessna test pilot, and three general aviation pilots participated in the study. This effort was undertaken in cooperation with the Cessna Aircraft Company.

  11. Soil vapor extraction pilot study at a Piedmont UST site

    SciTech Connect

    Widdowson, M.A.; Aelion, C.M.; Ray, R.P.; Reeves, H.W.

    1995-12-31

    A pilot study of soil vapor extraction (SVE) at a gasoline-contaminated site in the Piedmont physiographic region of South Carolina is presented. The objective of the pilot study is to determine the efficacy of SVE in remediating petroleum-contaminated Piedmont sites. Soil of the Piedmont region is characterized by fine-grained materials that exhibit a stratified, anisotropic structure, often dominated by zones of low permeability. The pilot remediation project consists of a multiple-well SVE and air sparging system located in the contaminant source area. Hourly measurement of mass extraction rates show elevated hydrocarbon (HC) concentrations during the first hour of operation and a rapid decline to asymptotic values. Time-averaged hydrocarbon mass extraction rates range from 22 to 68 kg HC per day for eight SVE wells operating 6 to 8 h per day. Elevated levels of CO{sub 2} in extracted soil vapors indicate microbial activity contributing to bioremediation at the site.

  12. First Breath prenatal smoking cessation pilot study: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Jehn, Lisette; Lokker, Nicole; Matitz, Debra; Christiansen, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Despite the many dangers associated with smoking during pregnancy, it remains a salient public health problem for Wisconsin women. The First Breath pilot program was developed in an attempt to reduce rates of smoking during pregnancy among low-income women. Preliminary results suggest that the First Breath counseling-based approach is effective, with a quit rate of 43.8% among First Breath enrollees at 1 month postpartum. Women receiving First Breath cessation counseling also had higher quit rates at every measurement period versus women in a comparison group who were receiving whatever cessation care was available in their county in the absence of First Breath. The First Breath pilot study has demonstrated success in helping pregnant women quit smoking and in creating a model for integration of cessation services into prenatal health care service provision. It is through this success that First Breath is expanding beyond the pilot study stage to a statewide program in 2003.

  13. A Computerized Adaptive Mathematics Screening Test: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, James R.

    A pilot study of a computerized adaptive test of mathematics achievement was conducted in May and June 1989 in selected schools of the San Diego Unified School District. The study evaluated the usefulness of the test for determining eligibility for Chapter 1 programs in mathematics. The test was a prototype battery of three adaptive tests: (1)…

  14. Behavioral Activation for Depressed Teens: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritschel, Lorie A.; Ramirez, Cynthia L.; Jones, Meredith; Craighead, W. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) is a psychosocial intervention that has shown promising treatment outcome results with depressed adults. The current pilot study evaluated a version of BA adapted for depressed adolescents. Six teens (3 male, 3 female, ages 14-17) who met criteria for major depressive disorder participated in the study. Participants were…

  15. Behavioral Activation for Depressed Teens: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritschel, Lorie A.; Ramirez, Cynthia L.; Jones, Meredith; Craighead, W. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) is a psychosocial intervention that has shown promising treatment outcome results with depressed adults. The current pilot study evaluated a version of BA adapted for depressed adolescents. Six teens (3 male, 3 female, ages 14-17) who met criteria for major depressive disorder participated in the study. Participants were…

  16. Indonesian EFL Students' Perspective on Writing Process: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermilinda Abas, Imelda; Aziz, Noor Hashima Abd

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed at understanding the EFL Indonesian students' perspective on the writing process. The pilot study involved two male Indonesian postgraduate students in Universiti Utara Malaysia. The Indonesian students were selected based on the following criteria: (1) had enough knowledge in English writing, indicated by the completion of…

  17. Telehealth Consultation in a Self-Contained Classroom for Behavior: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Christen; Massar, Michelle; Raulston, Tracy Jane; Machalicek, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Students with challenging behavior severe enough to warrant placement in a self-contained special education classroom statistically have poor school and post-school outcomes compared to typical peers. Teachers in these classrooms often lack sufficient training to meet student needs. This pilot study investigated the use of a telehealth…

  18. Telehealth Consultation in a Self-Contained Classroom for Behavior: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Christen; Massar, Michelle; Raulston, Tracy Jane; Machalicek, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Students with challenging behavior severe enough to warrant placement in a self-contained special education classroom statistically have poor school and post-school outcomes compared to typical peers. Teachers in these classrooms often lack sufficient training to meet student needs. This pilot study investigated the use of a telehealth…

  19. The Impact of Blog-Style Writing on Student Learning Outcomes: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Holley E.

    2016-01-01

    Two major goals of teaching include educating students to communicate effectively and encouraging students to critically engage with information. To what extent can student blog writing help us achieve these goals? In this pilot study, I analyze how short "blog-style" writing assignments compare to more traditional short research essays…

  20. The Impact of Blog-Style Writing on Student Learning Outcomes: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Holley E.

    2016-01-01

    Two major goals of teaching include educating students to communicate effectively and encouraging students to critically engage with information. To what extent can student blog writing help us achieve these goals? In this pilot study, I analyze how short "blog-style" writing assignments compare to more traditional short research essays…

  1. Implications of Social Groups on Sedentary Behavior of Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenkelberg, Michaela A.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Milliken, George A.; Menear, Kristi; Dzewaltowski, David A.

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study compared sedentary behavior (SB) of children with autism (ASD) to typically developing peers (TD), and evaluated the influence of social contexts within free play (FP) and organized activity settings on SB of children with ASD during an inclusive summer camp. Participants with ASD were matched with TD peers by age and gender, and…

  2. Piloted simulation study of two tilt-wing flap control concepts, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Corliss, Lloyd D.; Hindson, William S.; Churchill, Gary B.

    1994-01-01

    A two phase piloted simulation study has been conducted in the Ames Vertical Motion Simulator to investigate alternative wing and flap controls for tilt-wing aircraft. This report documents the flying qualities results and findings of the second phase of the piloted simulation study and describes the simulated tilt-wing aircraft, the flap control concepts, the experiment design and the evaluation tasks. The initial phase of the study compared the flying qualities of both a conventional programmed flap and an innovative geared flap. The second phase of the study introduced an alternate method of pilot control for the geared flap and further studied the flying qualities of the programmed flap and two geared flap configurations. In general, the pilot ratings showed little variation between the programmed flap and the geared flap control concepts. Some differences between the two control concepts were noticed and are discussed in this report. The geared flap configurations had very similar results. Although the geared flap concept has the potential to reduce or eliminate the pitch control power requirements from a tail rotor or a tail thruster at low speeds and in hover, the results did not show reduced tail thruster pitch control power usage with the geared flap configurations compared to the programmed flap configuration. The addition of pitch attitude stabilization in the second phase of simulation study greatly enhanced the aircraft flying qualities compared to the first phase.

  3. 78 FR 23941 - Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational... the Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) Applications pilot program to May 8... ``Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE) for Early Feasibility Medical Device Clinical Studies, Including...

  4. 76 FR 70152 - Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational... technologies to participate in a pilot program for early feasibility study investigational device exemption... entitled ``Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE) for Early Feasibility Medical Device Clinical Studies...

  5. A Pilot Study Comparing Total Physical Response Storytelling[TM] with the Grammar-Translation Teaching Strategy to Determine Their Effectiveness in Vocabulary Acquisition among English as a Second Language Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS[TM]) compared to the Grammar-Translation approach for acquiring and retaining new vocabulary in an English as a Second Language (ESL) class. The subjects were adult Hispanic learners with limited literacy. An experimental design approach was used to gather…

  6. Tantrums and Anxiety in Early Childhood: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mireault, Gina; Trahan, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    Tantrums, or emotional reactions that are out of proportion to a situation, appear to be a common childhood phenomenon--yet have drawn little research attention. This pilot study describes tantrum precipitants; their frequency, intensity, and duration; and parental responses in a small community sample (N = 33) of 3- to 5-year-olds. Tantrum…

  7. Tai Chi for People with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miszko, Tanya A.; Ramsey, Vincent K.; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the physical and psychological outcomes of a tai chi exercise program for eight adults with visual impairments. It found that after eight weeks of orientation and mobility training and tai chi practice, the participants' single leg-stance time and total knee flexion work and power improved, as did their frequency of,…

  8. Results of the "In Control: No Alcohol!" Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mares, Suzanne H. W.; van der Vorst, Haske; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    More than 50% of Dutch 12-year olds already started drinking. Since it is known that delaying the onset of alcohol use results in a lower risk of alcohol-related problems, the recently developed "In control: No alcohol!" prevention program is targeted at elementary school children and their mothers. In this pilot study, the success of…

  9. Human Exposures to PAHs: an Eastern United States Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure monitoring for select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed as part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Pilot Study in Baltimore, MD and in four surrounding counties (NHEXAS-Maryland). An objective of this effort was to esta...

  10. The Effect of Background Music on Bullying: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Naomi; Dolev, Einat

    2013-01-01

    School bullying is a source of growing concern. A number of intervention programs emphasize the importance of a positive school climate in preventing bullying behavior. The aim of the presented pilot study was to examine whether calming background music, through its effect on arousal and mood, could create a pleasant atmosphere and reduce bullying…

  11. Assessing Student Engagement: HSSSE Pilot Study with Independent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    NAIS and the NAIS Commission on Accreditation recently launched a three-year pilot study on the use of the High School Survey of Student Engagement (HSSSE) among independent schools. HSSSE, administered by Indiana University, is a survey designed to investigate the attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs of high school students about their work. This…

  12. Initial Scale Development: Sample Size for Pilot Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, George A.; Brooks, Gordon P.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot studies are often recommended by scholars and consultants to address a variety of issues, including preliminary scale or instrument development. Specific concerns such as item difficulty, item discrimination, internal consistency, response rates, and parameter estimation in general are all relevant. Unfortunately, there is little discussion…

  13. Assessing the Flipped Classroom in Operations Management: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prashar, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…

  14. The Effect of Background Music on Bullying: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Naomi; Dolev, Einat

    2013-01-01

    School bullying is a source of growing concern. A number of intervention programs emphasize the importance of a positive school climate in preventing bullying behavior. The aim of the presented pilot study was to examine whether calming background music, through its effect on arousal and mood, could create a pleasant atmosphere and reduce bullying…

  15. Nutrition education program for food bank clients: A pilot study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many low income families depend on foods from food banks. The objective of the study was to determine program content and examine feasibility of a pilot nutrition education program for food bank clients. Formative research was conducted with staff at a local food bank and its pantries and adult clie...

  16. Physical activity in Georgia state parks: A pilot study

    Treesearch

    Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the role of Georgia State Parks in the promotion of physical activity among different racial/ethnic and age groups. Data were collected at three state parks in north Georgia during the summer of 2009 using two research methods: behavior observations (N=2281) and intercept surveys (N=473).

  17. Evaluation Study of "Language, Literacy, & Vocabulary!" Spring 2006 Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNabb, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: A pilot study of the "Language, Literacy, & Vocabulary!" program was conducted by Learning Gauger, Inc., for National Geographic School Publishing, in spring 2006. The program evaluation examined the classroom adoption approaches used by participating teachers and the subsequent impact of the "Language, Literacy, &…

  18. CSO DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY: SPRING CREEK CSO STORAGE FACILITY UPGRADE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research summary presents the results of a pilot-scale disinfection study performed for the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) under a contract to Camp Dresser & McKee of Woodbury, New York. The main ob...

  19. Elderly Homosexual Women and Men: Report on a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnigerode, Fred A.; Adelman, Marcy R.

    1978-01-01

    A pilot study is described in which four- to five-hour tape-recorded interviews were conducted with 11 homosexual women and men, 60-77 years of age. Areas examined included: physical change and physical health; work, retirement and leisure time; social behavior; psychological functioning; sexual behavior; and personal perspectives on the life…

  20. Job Rotation at Cardiff University Library Service: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earney, Sally; Martins, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents case study research of a job rotation pilot involving six library assistants in Cardiff University Library Service (ULS). Firstly, it investigates whether job rotation improves motivation and secondly, whether there is an improvement in skills, both technical and "soft". Following a review of the literature,…

  1. Pasadena City College SIGI Project Research Design. Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, John J.; Tulley, John E.

    A pilot study evaluation of SIGI (System of Interactive Guidance and Information) at Pasadena City College in 1974-75 tested the effectiveness of an experimental research design for an expanded field test of the system the following year. (SIGI is a computer based career guidance program designed by Educational Testing Service to assist community…

  2. Pasadena City College SIGI Project Research Design. Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, John J.; Tulley, John E.

    A pilot study evaluation of SIGI (System of Interactive Guidance and Information) at Pasadena City College in 1974-75 tested the effectiveness of an experimental research design for an expanded field test of the system the following year. (SIGI is a computer based career guidance program designed by Educational Testing Service to assist community…

  3. Outcome evaluation of a pilot study using "nudges"

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Every school day, over 31 million U.S. children eat school lunches. Unfortunately, students often do not choose the healthy options in the school cafeteria. This paper describes outcome results of a pilot study using "nudges" to improve elementary school students' fruits and vegetables selections. A...

  4. Consumer Understanding of Nutrition Marketing Terms: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroldson, Amber; Yen, Chih-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the validity of a questionnaire developed to assess adult consumer understanding of nutrition marketing terms and the resulting impact on consumer behavior. Participants (n = 40) completed an electronic questionnaire. Efforts to establish validity and reliability suggest that the questionnaire is a…

  5. Will More Diversified Staffs Diversify Newspaper Content? A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedler, Fred; and Others

    A pilot study asked 94 students enrolled in introductory newswriting classes at three separate universities to evaluate 18 news stories. About half the stories concerned topics that proponents of multiculturalism have suggested would receive more emphasis if newspapers employed more women and minorities: topics such as breast cancer, divorce,…

  6. Causes of Mortality among American College Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James C.; Leno, E. Victor; Keller, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study from self-selected institutions of higher education provides an estimate of the causes and rates of mortality among college students between the ages of 18 and 24 years old. One hundred fifty-seven 4-year colleges participated in an online survey of student deaths during one academic year. A total of 254 deaths were reported. The…

  7. SIGI: Report of a Pilot Study Under Field Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Warren; And Others

    This paper describes the procedures and results of a pilot study of a computer-based System of Interactive Guidance and Information (SIGI) which was designed to help community college students make rational career decisions. A number of the important features of the system are summarized in terms of the source of the value dimensions used in SIGI,…

  8. Causes of Mortality among American College Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James C.; Leno, E. Victor; Keller, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study from self-selected institutions of higher education provides an estimate of the causes and rates of mortality among college students between the ages of 18 and 24 years old. One hundred fifty-seven 4-year colleges participated in an online survey of student deaths during one academic year. A total of 254 deaths were reported. The…

  9. Assessing Student Engagement: HSSSE Pilot Study with Independent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    NAIS and the NAIS Commission on Accreditation recently launched a three-year pilot study on the use of the High School Survey of Student Engagement (HSSSE) among independent schools. HSSSE, administered by Indiana University, is a survey designed to investigate the attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs of high school students about their work. This…

  10. Achieving Competence: Army-VOTEC School Partnership Pilot Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Mary W.

    To reduce Army training costs, the Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) investigated use of training at civilian secondary and postsecondary vocational-technical (VOTEC) institutions as an alternative to initial job training in Army service schools. Three models were used in the pilot study: the preservice training model in which…

  11. Human Exposures to PAHs: an Eastern United States Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure monitoring for select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed as part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Pilot Study in Baltimore, MD and in four surrounding counties (NHEXAS-Maryland). An objective of this effort was to esta...

  12. CSO DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY: SPRING CREEK CSO STORAGE FACILITY UPGRADE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research summary presents the results of a pilot-scale disinfection study performed for the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) under a contract to Camp Dresser & McKee of Woodbury, New York. The main ob...

  13. Danish Health Professionals' Experiences of Being Coached: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammentorp, Jette; Jensen, Hanne Irene; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, coaching, as a supplement to professional development, has received increased attention, especially in nursing. Still, only little is known about how health professionals experience participating in coaching sessions. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe and analyze health professionals' experiences from…

  14. Assessing the Flipped Classroom in Operations Management: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prashar, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…

  15. Consumer Understanding of Nutrition Marketing Terms: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroldson, Amber; Yen, Chih-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the validity of a questionnaire developed to assess adult consumer understanding of nutrition marketing terms and the resulting impact on consumer behavior. Participants (n = 40) completed an electronic questionnaire. Efforts to establish validity and reliability suggest that the questionnaire is a…

  16. Danish Health Professionals' Experiences of Being Coached: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammentorp, Jette; Jensen, Hanne Irene; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, coaching, as a supplement to professional development, has received increased attention, especially in nursing. Still, only little is known about how health professionals experience participating in coaching sessions. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe and analyze health professionals' experiences from…

  17. Teaching Speech Communication with a Foreign Accent: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Guo-Ming; Chung, Jensen

    A pilot study examined problems encountered by foreign instructors teaching in American colleges. Fourteen Chinese-born instructors teaching in Speech Communication answered a questionnaire containing 12 open-ended questions. Recurring themes were coded from the answers, and then organized into three categories: cultural differences; linguistic…

  18. A Pilot Investigation Comparing Instructional Packages for MTS Training: "Manual Alone" vs. "Manual-Plus-Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Marileide; Goyos, Celso; Pear, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Matching-to-sample (MTS) training consists of presenting a stimulus as a sample followed by stimuli called comparisons from which a subject makes a choice. This study presents results of a pilot investigation comparing two packages for teaching university students to conduct MTS training. Two groups--control and experimental--with 2 participants…

  19. A randomized pilot study of acupuncture treatment for primary dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Gurkan; Gumusalan, Yakup; Ekerbicer, Hasan C; Kiran, Hakan; Coskun, Ayhan; Arikan, Deniz C

    2013-07-01

    To compare the therapeutic effect of acupuncture and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy in primary dysmenorrhea patients. Thirty-five young women with a diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhea were recruited for the study. Their dysmenorrhea severity was rated by visual analog scale (VAS) immediately prior to entry into the study. They were randomly divided into two groups; and the following month they were given NSAID (group 1, n=24) or acupuncture treatment (group 2, n=11). Pain was rated again using VAS during menstruation in both groups. After one month's treatment, pain scores were significantly lower in both groups (p<0.05). Mean pain scores decreased by 52.2% and 69.5% in the NSAID and acupuncture groups, respectively. Acupuncture was as effective as NSAID therapy for patients with primary dysmenorrhea. Since this was a pilot study with a small sample size and short follow-up period, larger studies are needed to clarify the effect of acupuncture in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pilot interaction with cockpit automation 2: An experimental study of pilots' model and awareness of the Flight Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarter, Nadine B.; Woods, David D.

    1994-01-01

    Technological developments have made it possible to automate more and more functions on the commercial aviation flight deck and in other dynamic high-consequence domains. This increase in the degrees of freedom in design has shifted questions away from narrow technological feasibility. Many concerned groups, from designers and operators to regulators and researchers, have begun to ask questions about how we should use the possibilities afforded by technology skillfully to support and expand human performance. In this article, we report on an experimental study that addressed these questions by examining pilot interaction with the current generation of flight deck automation. Previous results on pilot-automation interaction derived from pilot surveys, incident reports, and training observations have produced a corpus of features and contexts in which human-machine coordination is likely to break down (e.g., automation surprises). We used these data to design a simulated flight scenario that contained a variety of probes designed to reveal pilots' mental model of one major component of flight deck automation: the Flight Management System (FMS). The events within the scenario were also designed to probe pilots' ability to apply their knowledge and understanding in specific flight contexts and to examine their ability to track the status and behavior of the automated system (mode awareness). Although pilots were able to 'make the system work' in standard situations, the results reveal a variety of latent problems in pilot-FMS interaction that can affect pilot performance in nonnormal time critical situations.

  1. Pilot interaction with cockpit automation 2: An experimental study of pilots' model and awareness of the Flight Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarter, Nadine B.; Woods, David D.

    1994-01-01

    Technological developments have made it possible to automate more and more functions on the commercial aviation flight deck and in other dynamic high-consequence domains. This increase in the degrees of freedom in design has shifted questions away from narrow technological feasibility. Many concerned groups, from designers and operators to regulators and researchers, have begun to ask questions about how we should use the possibilities afforded by technology skillfully to support and expand human performance. In this article, we report on an experimental study that addressed these questions by examining pilot interaction with the current generation of flight deck automation. Previous results on pilot-automation interaction derived from pilot surveys, incident reports, and training observations have produced a corpus of features and contexts in which human-machine coordination is likely to break down (e.g., automation surprises). We used these data to design a simulated flight scenario that contained a variety of probes designed to reveal pilots' mental model of one major component of flight deck automation: the Flight Management System (FMS). The events within the scenario were also designed to probe pilots' ability to apply their knowledge and understanding in specific flight contexts and to examine their ability to track the status and behavior of the automated system (mode awareness). Although pilots were able to 'make the system work' in standard situations, the results reveal a variety of latent problems in pilot-FMS interaction that can affect pilot performance in nonnormal time critical situations.

  2. Detection of myocardial ischemia by automated, motion-corrected, color-encoded perfusion maps compared with visual analysis of adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Doesch, Christina; Papavassiliu, Theano; Michaely, Henrik J; Attenberger, Ulrike I; Glielmi, Christopher; Süselbeck, Tim; Fink, Christian; Borggrefe, Martin; Schoenberg, Stefan O

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare automated, motion-corrected, color-encoded (AMC) perfusion maps with qualitative visual analysis of adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for detection of flow-limiting stenoses. Myocardial perfusion measurements applying the standard adenosine stress imaging protocol and a saturation-recovery temporal generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (t-GRAPPA) turbo fast low angle shot (Turbo FLASH) magnetic resonance imaging sequence were performed in 25 patients using a 3.0-T MAGNETOM Skyra (Siemens Healthcare Sector, Erlangen, Germany). Perfusion studies were analyzed using AMC perfusion maps and qualitative visual analysis. Angiographically detected coronary artery (CA) stenoses greater than 75% or 50% or more with a myocardial perfusion reserve index less than 1.5 were considered as hemodynamically relevant. Diagnostic performance and time requirement for both methods were compared. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were also assessed. A total of 29 CA stenoses were included in the analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for detection of ischemia on a per-patient basis were comparable using the AMC perfusion maps compared to visual analysis. On a per-CA territory basis, the attribution of an ischemia to the respective vessel was facilitated using the AMC perfusion maps. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were better for the AMC perfusion maps (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.94 and 0.93, respectively) compared to visual analysis (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.73 and 0.79, respectively). In addition, in comparison to visual analysis, the AMC perfusion maps were able to significantly reduce analysis time from 7.7 (3.1) to 3.2 (1.9) minutes (P < 0.0001). The AMC perfusion maps yielded a diagnostic performance on a per-patient and on a per-CA territory basis comparable with the visual analysis

  3. The CITRA pilot studies program: mentoring translational research.

    PubMed

    Wethington, Elaine; Breckman, Risa; Meador, Rhoda; Reid, M Carrington; Sabir, Myra; Lachs, Mark; Pillemer, Karl A

    2007-12-01

    We developed an innovative pilot studies program to foster partnerships between university researchers and agencies serving older people in New York City. The development of researchers willing to collaborate with frontline service agencies and service agencies ready to partner with researchers is critical for translating scientific research into evidence-based practice that benefits community-dwelling older adults. We adapted the traditional academic pilot studies model to include key features of community-based participatory research. In partnership with a network of 265 senior centers and service agencies, we built a multistep program to recruit and educate scientific investigators and agencies in the principles of community-based research and to fund research partnerships that fulfilled essential elements of research translation from university to community: scientific rigor, sensitivity to community needs, and applicability to frontline practice. We also developed an educational and monitoring infrastructure to support projects. Pilot studies programs developing community-based participatory research require an infrastructure that can supplement individual pilot investigator efforts with centralized resources to ensure proper implementation and dissemination of the research. The financial and time investment required to maintain programs such as those at the Cornell Institute for Translational Research on Aging, or CITRA, may be a barrier to establishing similar programs.

  4. Adjustable recessions in horizontal comitant strabismus: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Siddharth; Singh, Vinita; Singh, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the surgical outcome of adjustable with the conventional recession in patients with horizontal comitant strabismus. Patients and Methods: A prospective comparative nonrandomized interventional pilot study was performed on patients with horizontal comitant strabismus. Fifty-four patients (27 in each group) were allocated into 2 groups to undergo either adjustable suture (AS) recession or non-AS (NAS) recession along with conventional resection. The patients were followed up for 6 months. A successful outcome was defined as deviation ±10 prism diopters at 6 months. The results were statistically analyzed by Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t-test. Results: A successful outcome was found in 24 (88.8%) patients in AS and 17 (62.9%) in NAS group (P = 0.02). The postoperative adjustment was done in 13 (48.1%) patients in AS group. There was one complication (tenon's cyst) in AS group. Conclusion: AS recession may be considered in all cooperative patients undergoing strabismus surgery for comitant deviations. PMID:26458480

  5. Microcirculation and atherothrombotic parameters in prolactinoma patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Reuwer, Anne Q; Sondermeijer, Brigitte M; Battjes, Suzanne; van Zijderveld, Rogier; Stuijver, Danka J F; Bisschop, Peter H; Twickler, Marcel Th B; Meijers, Joost C M; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Stroes, Erik S

    2012-12-01

    Atherothrombosis is a multifactorial process, governed by an interaction between the vessel wall, hemodynamic factors and systemic atherothrombotic risk factors. Recent in vitro, human ex vivo and animal studies have implicated the hormone prolactin as an atherothrombotic mediator. To address this issue, we evaluated the anatomy and function of various microvascular beds as well as plasma atherothrombosis markers in patients with elevated prolactin levels. In this pilot study, involving 10 prolactinoma patients and 10 control subjects, sidestream dark field (SDF) imaging revealed a marked perturbation of the sublingual microcirculation in prolactinoma patients compared to control subjects, as attested to by significant changes in microvascular flow index (2.74 ± 0.12 vs. 2.91 ± 0.05, respectively; P = 0.0006), in heterogeneity index (0.28 [IQR 0.18-0.31] vs. 0.09 [IQR 0.08-0.17], respectively; P = 0.002) and lower proportion of perfused vessels (90 ± 4.0% vs. 95 ± 3.0%, respectively; P = 0.016). In the retina, fluorescein angiography (FAG) confirmed these data, since prolactinoma patients more often have dilatated perifoveal capillaries. In plasma, prolactinoma patients displayed several pro-atherogenic disturbances, including a higher endogenous thrombin potential and prothrombin levels as well as decreased HDL-cholesterol levels. Prolactinoma patients are characterized by microvascular dysfunction as well as plasma markers indicating a pro-atherothrombotic state. Further studies are required to assess if prolactin is causally involved in atherothrombotic disease.

  6. [Assessment of surgical competence. A Mexican pilot study].

    PubMed

    Anaya-Prado, Roberto; Ortega-León, Luis Humberto; Ramirez-Solis, Mauro Eduardo; Vázquez-García, José Arturo; Medina-Portillo, Juan Bernardo; Ayala-López, Ernesto Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of technical dexterity is currently the weakest issue in surgical evaluation. It is imperative to develop an objective exam that allows us to correct training deficiencies and abilities and to objectively feedback education programs and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to perform a correlation between theoretical knowledge and surgical skills. We performed a national pilot study in in surgeons certifying by the Mexican Board of Surgery in 2010. This was a two-stage study: written exam (stage I) and oral exam (viva voce) to all surgeons approving the written exam (stage II). In stage II we utilized an objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) whose results were correlated with those of the written and oral exams. The assessment involved seven skill stations and a global rating scale to indicate correctly performed or not and a fail/pass exam, respectively. Sixty-two surgeons approved the written exam in two places. We found no statistical difference among skills in open surgery (bowel anastomosis, liver and vascular suture), laparoscopic surgery (grape pilling, cutting a circle and intracorporeal knot tying) and instrument identification. There was a statistically significant difference (p <0.001) when median values were compared between laparoscopic surgery vs. open surgery and the identification of surgical instruments. There was a correlation between theoretical knowledge and surgical skills. When applying an OSATS, we found a positive correlation between theoretical knowledge and surgical skills. This assessment proves to to be valid and reliable for the evaluation of surgical dexterity.

  7. Dissolution studies with pilot plant and actual INTEC calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R.S.; Garn, T.G.

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated {gt}95 wt.% of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt.% dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt.% dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  8. Dissolution Studies With Pilot Plant and Actual INTEC Calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Ronald Scott; Garn, Troy Gerry

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/ Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive A1(NO3)3 solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated >95 wt. % of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt. % dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt. % dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  9. Visual consequences of electronic reader use: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Maducdoc, Marlon M; Haider, Asghar; Nalbandian, Angèle; Youm, Julie H; Morgan, Payam V; Crow, Robert W

    2017-04-01

    With the increasing prevalence of electronic readers (e-readers) for vocational and professional uses, it is important to discover if there are visual consequences in the use of these products. There are no studies in the literature quantifying the incidence or severity of eyestrain, nor are there clinical characteristics that may predispose to these symptoms with e-reader use. The primary objective of this pilot study was to assess the degree of eyestrain associated with e-reader use compared to traditional paper format. The secondary outcomes of this study were to assess the rate of eyestrain associated with e-reader use and identify any clinical characteristics that may be associated with the development of eyestrain. Forty-four students were randomly assigned to study (e-reader iPAD) and control (print) groups. Participant posture, luminosity of the room, and reading distance from reading device were measured during a 1-h session for both groups. At the end of the session, questionnaires were administered to determine symptoms. Significantly higher rates of eyestrain (p = 0.008) and irritation (p = 0.011) were found among the iPAD study group as compared to the print 'control' group. The study group was also 4.9 times more likely to report severe eyestrain (95 % CI [1.4, 16.9]). No clinical characteristics predisposing to eyestrain could be identified. These findings conclude that reading on e-readers may induce increased levels of irritation and eyestrain. Predisposing factors, etiology, and potential remedial interventions remain to be determined.

  10. Aspirating and Nonaspirating Swallow Sounds in Children: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Frakking, Thuy; Chang, Anne; O'Grady, Kerry; David, Michael; Weir, Kelly

    2016-12-01

    Cervical auscultation (CA) may be used to complement feeding/swallowing evaluations when assessing for aspiration. There are no published pediatric studies that compare the properties of sounds between aspirating and nonaspirating swallows. To establish acoustic and perceptual profiles of aspirating and nonaspirating swallow sounds and determine if a difference exists between these 2 swallowing types. Aspiration sound clips were obtained from recordings using CA simultaneously undertaken with videofluoroscopic swallow study. Aspiration was determined using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale. The presence of perceptual swallow/breath parameters was rated by 2 speech pathologists who were blinded to the type of swallow. Acoustic data between groups were compared using Mann Whitney U-tests, while perceptual differences were determined by a test of 2 proportions. Combinations of perceptual parameters of 50 swallows (27 aspiration, 23 no aspiration) from 47 children (57% male) were statistically analyzed using area under a receiver operating characteristic (aROC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values to determine predictors of aspirating swallows. The combination of post-swallow presence of wet breathing and wheeze and absence of GRS and normal breathing was the best predictor of aspiration (aROC = 0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.94). There were no significant differences between these 2 swallow types for peak frequency, duration, and peak amplitude. Our pilot study has shown that certain characteristics of swallow obtained using CA may be useful in the prediction of aspiration. However, further research comparing the acoustic swallowing sound profiles of normal children to children with dysphagia (who are aspirating) on a larger scale is required. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. A Study of the Characteristics of Human-Pilot Control Response to Simulated Aircraft Lateral Motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, Donald C

    1954-01-01

    Report presents the results of studies made in an attempt to provide information on the control operations of the human pilot. These studies included an investigation of the ability of pilots to control simulated unstable yawing oscillations, a study of the basic characteristics of human-pilot control response, and a study to determine whether and to what extent pilot control response can be represented in an analytical form.

  12. Moving mammogram-reluctant women to screening: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Costanza, Mary E; Luckmann, Roger; White, Mary Jo; Rosal, Milagros C; LaPelle, Nancy; Cranos, Caroline

    2009-06-01

    Effective interventions are needed for women long overdue for screening mammography. The purpose of this study is to pilot test an intervention for motivating overdue women to receive a mammogram. Subjects aged 45-79 without a mammogram in > or =27 months and enrolled in study practices were identified from claims data. The intervention included a mailed, educational booklet, computer-assisted barrier-specific tailored counseling and motivational interviewing, and facilitated, short-interval mammography scheduling. Of 127 eligible women, 45 (35.4%) agreed to counseling and data collection. Most were > or =3 years overdue. Twenty-six (57.8%) of the counseled women got a mammogram within 12 months. Thirty-one (72.1%) of 43 counseled women moved > or =1 stage closer to screening, based on a modified Precaution Adoption Process Model. It is feasible to reach and counsel women who are long overdue for a mammogram and to advance their stage of adoption. The intervention should be formally evaluated in a prospective trial comparing it to control or to proven interventions.

  13. Daily personal exposure to black carbon: A pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ryan D.; Knibbs, Luke D.

    2016-05-01

    Continuous personal monitoring is the benchmark for air pollution exposure assessment. Black carbon (BC) is a strong marker of primary combustion like vehicle and biomass emissions. There have been few studies that quantified daily personal BC exposure and the contribution that different microenvironments make to it. In this pilot study, we used a portable aethalometer to measure BC concentrations in an individual's breathing zone at 30-s intervals while he performed his usual daily activities. We used a GPS and time-activity diary to track where he spent his time. We performed twenty 24-h measurements, and observed an arithmetic mean daily exposure concentration of 603 ng/m3. We estimated that changing commute modes from bus to train reduced the 24-h mean BC exposure concentration by 29%. Switching from open windows to closed windows and recirculated air in a car led to a reduction of 32%. Living in a home without a wood-fired heater caused a reduction of 50% compared with a wood-heated home. Our preliminary findings highlight the potential utility of simple approaches to reduce a person's daily BC exposure.

  14. Pilot study of homologous platelet gel in venous ulcers*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Mariele Gobo; Abbade, Luciana Patricia Fernandes; Miot, Hélio Amante; Ferreira, Rosana Rossi; Deffune, Elenice

    2017-01-01

    Background Venous ulcers represent 70% of the lower limb ulcers. They are difficult to heal, requiring a correct diagnostic and therapeutic approach. Many products have been developed to healing, such as homologous platelet gel obtained from the platelet concentrate exceeding from blood transfusion. Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of homologous platelet gel in venous ulcers compared with hydrocolloid dressing. Method A pilot randomized clinical trial in patients with venous ulcers. Randomized groups (homologous platelet gel and hydrocolloid groups) were followed for 90 days and were assessed through the evolution of ulcerated area, qualitative analysis of vascularization and adverse events. Both groups used elastic compression. Results We included 16 participants, with a total of 21 venous ulcers. Both treatments promoted a reduction of the areas of the ulcers in 90 days (mean 69%), there was significant difference between the groups concerning the gradual reduction of the ulcers areas, favorably to the hydrocolloid (70% vs 64%; p <0.01). There were some mild adverse events in both groups. Study limitations Single-center study with a small number of patients, preventing more accurate assessment of the effects of platelet gel. Conclusion The homologous platelet gel associated with the elastic compression can be an alternative to the venous ulcer treatment and is safe due to the occurrence of a few mild local adverse events and no serious adverse events. Clinical trials with larger numbers of patients must be performed to maintain the indication of this treatment for venous ulcer. PMID:28954098

  15. Enhancing treatment effectiveness through social modelling: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Faasse, Kate; Perera, Anna; Loveys, Kate; Grey, Andrew; Petrie, Keith J

    2017-05-01

    Medical treatments take place in social contexts; however, little research has investigated how social modelling might influence treatment outcomes. This experimental pilot study investigated social modelling of treatment effectiveness and placebo treatment outcomes. Fifty-nine participants took part in the study, ostensibly examining the use of beta-blockers (actually placebos) for examination anxiety. Participants were randomly assigned to observe a female confederate report positive treatment effects (reduced heart rate, relaxed, calm) or feeling no different. Heart rate, anxiety and blood pressure were assessed, as were symptoms and attributed side effects. Heart rate decreased significantly more in the social modelling compared to control condition, p = .027 (d = .63), and there were trends towards effects in the same direction for both anxiety, p = .097 (d = .46), and systolic blood pressure, p = .077 (d = .51). Significant pre-post placebo differences in heart rate, anxiety and diastolic blood pressure were found in the social modelling group, ps < .007 (ds = .77-1.37), but not the control condition, ps > .28 (ds = .09-.59). Social observation of medication effectiveness enhanced placebo effectiveness in heart rate, and showed a trend towards enhancing treatment effectiveness in both anxiety and systolic blood pressure. Social modelling may have utility in enhancing the effectiveness of many active medical treatments.

  16. Introducing technology into medical education: two pilot studies.

    PubMed

    George, Paul; Dumenco, Luba; Dollase, Richard; Taylor, Julie Scott; Wald, Hedy S; Reis, Shmuel P

    2013-12-01

    Educators are integrating new technology into medical curriculum. The impact of newer technology on educational outcomes remains unclear. We aimed to determine if two pilot interventions, (1) introducing iPads into problem-based learning (PBL) sessions and (2) online tutoring would improve the educational experience of our learners. We voluntarily assigned 26 second-year medical students to iPad-based PBL sessions. Five students were assigned to Skype for exam remediation. We performed a mixed-method evaluation to determine efficacy. Pilot 1: Seventeen students completed a survey following their use of an iPad during the second-year PBL curriculum. Students noted the iPad allows for researching information in real time, annotating lecture notes, and viewing sharper images. Data indicate that iPads have value in medical education and are a positive addition to the curriculum. Pilot 2: Students agreed that online tutoring is at least or more effective than in-person tutoring. In our pilot studies, students experienced that iPads and Skype are beneficial in medical education and can be successfully employed in areas such as PBL and remediation. Educators should continue to further examine innovative opportunities for introducing technology into medical education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nursing Student Perceptions of Digital Textbooks: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Mennenga, Heidi A

    2016-01-01

    Digital textbooks are increasing in popularity, often resulting from the perception that students demand the use of technology in academics. However, few studies have been done on student perceptions of digital textbooks. A pilot study was conducted with students enrolled in a nursing research course; 123 nursing students participated. This study found that students overwhelmingly preferred print textbooks over digital textbooks. More research needs to be done before assuming students would prefer digital textbooks over print.

  18. 76 FR 12367 - Proposed Information Collection; Visibility Valuation Survey Pilot Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Visibility Valuation Survey Pilot Study AGENCY... Control Number 1024-0255). The purpose of this IC is to conduct a pilot study to test the survey... collection. Title: Visibility Valuation Survey Pilot Study. Type of Request: New. Affected Public...

  19. Structural Differences in Gray Matter between Glider Pilots and Non-Pilots. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahamed, Tosif; Kawanabe, Motoaki; Ishii, Shin; Callan, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Glider flying is a unique skill that requires pilots to control an aircraft at high speeds in three dimensions and amidst frequent full-body rotations. In the present study, we investigated the neural correlates of flying a glider using voxel-based morphometry. The comparison between gray matter densities of 15 glider pilots and a control group of 15 non-pilots exhibited significant gray matter density increases in left ventral premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and the supplementary eye field. We posit that the identified regions might be associated with cognitive and motor processes related to flying, such as joystick control, visuo-vestibular interaction, and oculomotor control. PMID:25506339

  20. MRI study of the morphometry of the cervical musculature in F-16 pilots.

    PubMed

    De Loose, Veerle; Van den Oord, Marieke; Keser, Ilke; Burnotte, Frédéric; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Dumarey, Alexandre; Cagnie, Barbara; Witvrouw, Erik; Danneels, Lieven

    2009-08-01

    In fighter pilots neck muscle strengthening exercises are often recommended to protect the neck against pathologies. The aim of the current study was to compare the relative cross-sectional area (rCSA) and muscle:fat ratio of the cervical musculature of F-16 pilots experiencing neck pain and no neck pain (control) pilots. In addition, correlations between these morphometric characteristics, cervical range of motion (CROM), and neck muscle strength were evaluated. There were 35 male F-16 pilots who volunteered, of which 10 experienced bilateral neck pain. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect personal information. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was assessed at the C5-C6 level to determine rCSA and muscle:fat ratio. The CROM (Zebris) and the maximum isometric strength (David F140 device) were measured. The rCSA of the semispinalis cervicis and multifidus was significantly larger in the neck pain group (left: 2.08 cm2; right: 1.81 cm2) on both the left and the right side, in comparison to the control population (left: 1.29 cm2; right: 1.26 cm2). In the pain group, the rCSA of the semispinalis cervicis and multifidus was significant larger on the left than on the right side (left: 2.08 cm2; right: 1.81 cm2). No differences in the muscle:fat ratio between control pilots and pilots with neck pain could be determined. Between groups no differences were found in the CROM and the neck muscle strength. It is hypothesized that the larger rCSA in the neck pain group compared to the control group might be caused by greater activity of the deep neck muscles in the neck pain group. The asymmetrical operation of the F-16 might cause the asymmetry within this group.

  1. Moving mammogram-reluctant women to screening: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Costanza, Mary E.; Luckmann, Roger; White, Mary Jo; Rosal, Milagros C.; LaPelle, Nancy; Cranos, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Background Effective interventions are needed for women long overdue for screening mammography. Purpose To pilot test an intervention for motivating overdue women to receive a mammogram. Methods Subjects age 45–79 without a mammogram in >=27 months and enrolled in study practices were identified from claims data. The intervention included a mailed, educational booklet, computer-assisted barrier-specific tailored counseling and motivational interviewing and facilitated, short-interval mammography scheduling. Results Of 127 eligible women, 45 (35.4%) agreed to counseling and data collection. Most were >=3 years overdue. Twenty-six (57.8%) of counseled women got a mammogram within 12 months. Thirty-one (72.1%) of 43 counseled women moved >=1 stage closer to screening, based on a modified Precaution Adoption Process Model. Conclusion It is feasible to reach and counsel women who are long overdue for a mammogram and to advance their stage of adoption. The intervention should be formally evaluated in a prospective trial comparing it to control or to proven interventions. PMID:19517203

  2. GLOBE Aerosol Field Campaign - U.S. Pilot Study 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, Margaret; Marentette, Christina; Bujosa, Robert; Taylor, Jessica; Lewis, Preston

    2016-01-01

    During the spring of 2016, from April 4 - May 27, sixteen GLOBE schools participated in the GLOBE Aerosol Field Campaign - U.S. Pilot Study. Thirteen teachers from these schools had previously participated in the NASA LEARN program (Long-term Experience in Authentic Research with NASA) where they were GLOBE trained in Atmosphere protocols, and engaged in 1-3 years of research under the mentorship of NASA scientists. Each school was loaned two aerosol instruments for the Campaign duration, either 2 GLOBE sun photometers, 2 Calitoo sun photometers, or 1 of each. This allowed for students to make measurements side-by-side and in the case of the Calitoos, to compare AOT results immediately with each other for better consistency in data collection. Additionally, as part of the Field Campaign evaluation, multiple instruments allow for an assessment of the ease of use of each instrument for grade level of students, whether in middle school or high school. Before the Campaign, all GLOBE and Calitoo instruments were 'checked out' against an AERONET, then checked again upon return after the Campaign. By examining all data, before, during and after the Campaign, this gives an indication of instrument performance and proficiency obtained by the students. Support was provided to each teacher and their students at the level requested, via email, phone or video conferencing.

  3. Evaluating and operationalizing an environmental auditing program: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Laura; Bruce, Natalie; Suh, Kathryn N; Roth, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Environmental auditing is an important tool to ensure consistent and effective cleaning. Our pilot study compared an alcohol-based fluorescent marking product and an adenosine-5'-triphosphate bioluminescence product for use in an environmental auditing program to determine which product was more practical and acceptable to users. Both products were tested on 15 preselected high touch objects in randomly selected patient rooms, following regular daily cleaning. A room was considered a "pass" if ≥80% of surfaces were adequately cleaned as defined by manufacturers' guidelines. A qualitative survey assessed user preference and operational considerations. Using fluorescent marking, 9 of 37 patient rooms evaluated (24%) were considered a "pass" after daily cleaning. Using adenosine-5'-triphosphate bioluminescence, 21 of 37 patient rooms passed (57%). There was great variability in results between different high touch objects. Eighty percent of users preferred the alcohol-based fluorescent marking product because it provided an effective visual aid to coach staff on proper cleaning techniques and allowed simple and consistent application. Environmental auditing using translucent, alcohol-based fluorescent marking best met the requirements of our organization. Our results reinforce the importance of involving a multidisciplinary team in evaluating and operationalizing an environmental auditing program. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Mobile Breast Cancer Survivorship Care App: Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Baseman, Janet; Revere, Debra; Baldwin, Laura-Mae

    2017-09-26

    Cancer survivors living in rural areas experience unique challenges due to additional burdens, such as travel and limited access to specialists. Rural survivors of breast cancer have reported poorer outcomes, poorer mental health and physical functioning, and lower-than-average quality of life compared to urban survivors. To explore the feasibility and acceptability of developing a mobile health survivorship care app to facilitate care coordination; support medical, psychosocial, and practical needs; and improve survivors' long-term health outcomes. An interactive prototype app, SmartSurvivor, was developed that included recommended survivorship care plan components. The prototype's feasibility and acceptability were tested by a sample of breast cancer survivors (n=6), primary care providers (n=4), and an oncologist (n=1). Overall, both survivors and providers felt that SmartSurvivor was a potentially valuable tool to support long-term survivorship care plan objectives. Portability, accessibility, and having one place for all contact, treatment, symptom tracking, and medication summaries was highly valued. Our pilot study indicates that SmartSurvivor is a feasible and acceptable approach to meeting survivorship care objectives and the needs of both breast cancer survivors and their health care providers. Exploration of mobile health options for supporting survivorship care plan needs is a promising area of research.

  5. Treatment of premenstrual depression with nortriptyline: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Harrison, W M; Endicott, J; Nee, J

    1989-04-01

    There are no reports on treatment of premenstrual syndrome with antidepressants, although depression is a common symptom of the syndrome. Eleven women who met DSM-III-R criteria for late luteal phase dysphoric disorder were treated with nortriptyline in an open pilot study after they failed to respond to placebo or another medication. Eight of 11 patients had a good therapeutic response. The efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of premenstrual depression needs confirmation with double-blind studies.

  6. Pilot study compares scores of the Resident Assessment Instrument Minimum Data Set Version 2.0 (MDS 2.0) Pressure Ulcer Risk Scale with the Braden Pressure Ulcer Risk assessment for patients in complex continuing care.

    PubMed

    Carreau, Louise; Niezgoda, Helen; Trainor, Andrea; Parent, Maxim; Woodbury, M Gail

    2015-01-01

    To determine if the Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk (Braden Scale) and the Resident Assessment Instrument Minimum Data Set Version 2.0 (MDS 2.0) Pressure Ulcer Risk Scale (PURS) provide a comparable assessment of the level of risk of developing a pressure ulcer at admission in complex continuing care. Saint-Vincent Hospital, Bruyère Continuing Care, a 336-bed complex continuing care facility that provides restorative, complex, specialized, and supportive care to adults in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. A retrospective chart review was conducted from February 2012 to April 2012 on 51 patient charts that were chosen based on the completion of an admission Braden Scale assessment within a maximum of 4 weeks from admission and completed admission MDS 2.0. The Braden Scale categorized 63% of patients at risk when using scores between 15 and 23, compared with 33% for the MDS 2.0 PURS scores of 0-2 (low and very low risk). Both scales were comparable in identifying patients in the lower risk categories when data was reviewed using a cutoff point of 18 for the Braden. At the high risk end of the spectrum, the MDS 2.0 PURS categorized more patients, 45%, as high or very high risk, compared with 21% for using the Braden Scale. This preliminary study may provide some evidence that the MDS 2.0 PURS may be an alternative risk assessment tool option that utilizes mandatory collected data, reduces workload duplication, and would generate a Resident Assessment Protocol, when indicated, in complex continuing care.

  7. Postoperative delirium and short-term cognitive dysfunction occur more frequently in patients undergoing valve surgery with or without coronary artery bypass graft surgery compared with coronary artery bypass graft surgery alone: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hudetz, Judith A; Iqbal, Zafar; Gandhi, Sweeta D; Patterson, Kathleen M; Byrne, Alison J; Pagel, Paul S

    2011-10-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that patients undergoing valve repair or replacement surgery with or without coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) had a greater incidence of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction compared with patients undergoing CABG surgery alone. Prospective study. Veterans Affairs medical center. Forty-four age- and education-balanced male patients (≥ 55 years of age) undergoing elective cardiac surgery with CPB (n = 22 valve ± CABG surgery and n = 22 CABG surgery alone) and nonsurgical controls (n = 22) were recruited. None. Delirium was assessed with the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist before and for 5 consecutive days after surgery. Recent verbal and nonverbal memory and executive functions were assessed using a psychometric test battery before and 1 week after cardiac surgery or at 1-week intervals in nonsurgical controls. Intensive care unit stay, hospital stay, and 30-day readmission were significantly (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, and p = 0.04, respectively) longer in patients undergoing valve surgery ± CABG surgery versus CABG surgery alone. Postoperative delirium occurred more frequently (p = 0.01) in patients undergoing valve ± CABG surgery versus CABG surgery alone. Overall cognitive performance (composite z score) after surgery also was impaired significantly (p = 0.004) in patients undergoing valve ± CABG surgery compared with CABG surgery alone. The composite z score after surgery decreased by at least 1.5 standard deviations in 11 patients (50%) versus 1 patient (5%) without valve surgery compared with nonsurgical controls (p = 0.001, Fisher's exact test). The presence of delirium predicted a composite z score decrease of 1.2 points (odds ratio = 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.68). The results indicated that patients undergoing valve surgery with or without CABG surgery have a higher incidence of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction 1 week after

  8. Compared with the intake of commercial vegetable juice, the intake of fresh fruit and komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. var. perviridis) juice mixture reduces serum cholesterol in middle-aged men: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aiso, Izumi; Inoue, Hiroko; Seiyama, Yukiko; Kuwano, Toshiko

    2014-06-24

    Vegetables and fruits are rich in vitamins, minerals and, dietary fiber and contribute to the prevention and improvement of obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, inadequate intake of vegetable and fruit is a concern in Japan.We therefore produced a juice mixture of fresh fruit and komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. var. perviridis: B. rapa) with the aim to investigate the effects of this juice mixture on anthropometric data, blood parameters, and dietary intake differences. This study was performed as a single blind and randomized controlled trial. Subjects were 16 men (mean age, 46.4 ± 7.1 years), and they were divided into two groups (control group and intervention group). The intervention group consumed the juice mixture of fresh fruit and B. rapa. The control group consumed commercial vegetable juice. Subjects consumed juice twice a day throughout the weekday, for 4 weeks. We prepared both juices with an equivalent energy balance. Weight and body mass index (BMI) of the control group after 4 weeks were significantly increased compared with baseline values. Serum total cholesterol (T-Chol) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Chol) of the intervention group after 4 weeks were significantly reduced compared with baseline values. Furthermore, intake of total vegetables and fruits were significantly increased compared with baseline values in both groups. Both vegetable juices contributed to improved intake of total vegetables and fruit. Compared with the intake of commercial vegetable juice, the intake of fresh fruit and B. rapa juice is highly effective in reducing serum cholesterol. Short-term intake of fresh fruit and B. rapa juice was shown to enhance cholesterol metabolism.

  9. Compared with the intake of commercial vegetable juice, the intake of fresh fruit and komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. var. perviridis) juice mixture reduces serum cholesterol in middle-aged men: a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vegetables and fruits are rich in vitamins, minerals and, dietary fiber and contribute to the prevention and improvement of obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, inadequate intake of vegetable and fruit is a concern in Japan. We therefore produced a juice mixture of fresh fruit and komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. var. perviridis: B. rapa) with the aim to investigate the effects of this juice mixture on anthropometric data, blood parameters, and dietary intake differences. Methods This study was performed as a single blind and randomized controlled trial. Subjects were 16 men (mean age, 46.4 ± 7.1 years), and they were divided into two groups (control group and intervention group). The intervention group consumed the juice mixture of fresh fruit and B. rapa. The control group consumed commercial vegetable juice. Subjects consumed juice twice a day throughout the weekday, for 4 weeks. We prepared both juices with an equivalent energy balance. Results Weight and body mass index (BMI) of the control group after 4 weeks were significantly increased compared with baseline values. Serum total cholesterol (T-Chol) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Chol) of the intervention group after 4 weeks were significantly reduced compared with baseline values. Furthermore, intake of total vegetables and fruits were significantly increased compared with baseline values in both groups. Conclusions Both vegetable juices contributed to improved intake of total vegetables and fruit. Compared with the intake of commercial vegetable juice, the intake of fresh fruit and B. rapa juice is highly effective in reducing serum cholesterol. Short-term intake of fresh fruit and B. rapa juice was shown to enhance cholesterol metabolism. PMID:24961537

  10. Serum anti-Mullerian hormone levels after ovarian drilling for the second-line treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot-randomized study comparing laparoscopy and transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Giampaolino, Pierluigi; Morra, Ilaria; Della Corte, Luigi; Sparice, Stefania; Di Carlo, Costantino; Nappi, Carmine; Bifulco, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study was to asses and compare serum anti-Mullerian harmone (AMH) levels after laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) and transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy (THL) ovarian drilling in clomifene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients; secondary outcome was to evaluate postoperative pain to estimate the acceptability of procedures. A total of 246 patients with CC-resistant PCOS were randomized into two groups: 123 underwent LOD and 123 underwent THL ovarian drilling. AMH serum levels were evaluated before and after the procedure; moreover, women were asked to rate pain on a visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 (no pain, perfectly acceptable) to 10 (unbearable pain, completely unacceptable). In both groups, postoperative serum AMH levels were significantly reduced compared to preoperative levels (6.06 ± 1.18 and 5.84 ± 1.16 versus 5.00 ± 1.29 and 4.83 ± 1.10; p < 0.0001). Comparing postoperative serum AMH levels, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two surgical technique. After the procedure, mean pain VAS score was significantly higher for women who underwent LOD ovarian drilling in comparison to THL (3.26 ± 1.1 versus 1.11 ± 0.5; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, THL ovarian drilling is comparable to the LOD in terms of reduction in AMH, but it is preferred by patients in terms of acceptability. These results could support to use of THL ovarian drilling in the treatment of patients with CC- resistant PCOS.

  11. A remotely piloted aircraft system in major incident management: concept and pilot, feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, Håkon B

    2015-06-10

    Major incidents are complex, dynamic and bewildering task environments characterised by simultaneous, rapidly changing events, uncertainty and ill-structured problems. Efficient management, communication, decision-making and allocation of scarce medical resources at the chaotic scene of a major incident is challenging and often relies on sparse information and data. Communication and information sharing is primarily voice-to-voice through phone or radio on specified radio frequencies. Visual cues are abundant and difficult to communicate between teams and team members that are not co-located. The aim was to assess the concept and feasibility of using a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) system to support remote sensing in simulated major incident exercises. We carried out an experimental, pilot feasibility study. A custom-made, remotely controlled, multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle with vertical take-off and landing was equipped with digital colour- and thermal imaging cameras, a laser beam, a mechanical gripper arm and an avalanche transceiver. We collected data in five simulated exercises: 1) mass casualty traffic accident, 2) mountain rescue, 3) avalanche with buried victims, 4) fisherman through thin ice and 5) search for casualties in the dark. The unmanned aerial vehicle was remotely controlled, with high precision, in close proximity to air space obstacles at very low levels without compromising work on the ground. Payload capacity and tolerance to wind and turbulence were limited. Aerial video, shot from different altitudes, and remote aerial avalanche beacon search were streamed wirelessly in real time to a monitor at a ground base. Electromagnetic interference disturbed signal reception in the ground monitor. A small remotely piloted aircraft can be used as an effective tool carrier, although limited by its payload capacity, wind speed and flight endurance. Remote sensing using already existing remotely piloted aircraft technology in pre

  12. Physiological Effects of Acceleration Observed During a Centrifuge Study of Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedal, Harald A.; Creer, Brent Y.; Wingrove, Rodney C.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Ames Research Center, and the Naval Air Development Center, Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory, to study the effects of acceleration on pilot performance and to obtain some meaningful data for use in establishing tolerance to acceleration levels. The flight simulator used in the study was the Johnsville centrifuge operated as a closed loop system. The pilot was required to perform a control task in various sustained acceleration fields typical of those that Might be encountered by a pilot flying an entry vehicle in which he is seated in a forward-facing position. A special restraint system was developed and designed to increase the pilot's tolerance to these accelerations. The results of this study demonstrated that a well-trained subject, such as a test pilot, can adequately carry out a control task during moderately high accelerations for prolonged periods of time. The maximum levels of acceleration tolerated were approximately 6 times that of gravity for approximately 6 minutes, and varied slightly with the acceleration direction. The tolerance runs were in each case terminated by the subject. In all but two instances, the cause was extreme fatigue. On two occasions the subject terminated the run when he "grayed out." Although there were subjective and objective findings involving the visual and cardiovascular systems, the respiratory system yielded the more critical limiting factors. It would appear that these limiting factors were less severe during the "eyeballs-out" accelerations when compared with the "eyeballs-in" accelerations. These findings are explained on the basis of the influence that the inertial forces of acceleration have on the mechanics of respiration. A condensed version of this report was presented at the Annual Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, Miami Beach, May 5-11, 1960, in a paper entitled "Ability of Pilots to Perform a Control Task in

  13. The Effects of Longitudinal Control-System Dynamics on Pilot Opinion and Response Characteristics as Determined from Flight Tests and from Ground Simulator Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoff, Melvin

    1958-01-01

    The results of a fixed-base simulator study of the effects of variable longitudinal control-system dynamics on pilot opinion are presented and compared with flight-test data. The control-system variables considered in this investigation included stick force per g, time constant, and dead-band, or stabilizer breakout force. In general, the fairly good correlation between flight and simulator results for two pilots demonstrates the validity of fixed-base simulator studies which are designed to complement and supplement flight studies and serve as a guide in control-system preliminary design. However, in the investigation of certain problem areas (e.g., sensitive control-system configurations associated with pilot- induced oscillations in flight), fixed-base simulator results did not predict the occurrence of an instability, although the pilots noted the system was extremely sensitive and unsatisfactory. If it is desired to predict pilot-induced-oscillation tendencies, tests in moving-base simulators may be required. It was found possible to represent the human pilot by a linear pilot analog for the tracking task assumed in the present study. The criterion used to adjust the pilot analog was the root-mean-square tracking error of one of the human pilots on the fixed-base simulator. Matching the tracking error of the pilot analog to that of the human pilot gave an approximation to the variation of human-pilot behavior over a range of control-system dynamics. Results of the pilot-analog study indicated that both for optimized control-system dynamics (for poor airplane dynamics) and for a region of good airplane dynamics, the pilot response characteristics are approximately the same.

  14. Farmers' loss due to Guinea worm disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Guyer, J

    1990-04-01

    Guinea worm disease has been blamed for much disability and loss of productivity among farmers in Africa and South Asia. Many studies have tried to equate days lost in illness to monetary values. These attempts often overlook the process of disability in relation to farming patterns. This pilot effort uses a qualitative case study approach to learn about how Guinea worm can cause loss to farmers. Twenty in-depth interviews with affected farmers showed that their losses are related to the time of year they are affected by Guinea worm. Some crops with flexible planting times, e.g. cassava, may not be as affected. Duration of disability is another determining factor. Insights from this pilot study can be used to design more appropriate large-scale survey instruments and guide development of longitudinal research.

  15. Increased neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in delirium: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Egberts, Angelique; Mattace-Raso, Francesco Us

    2017-01-01

    Delirium is a common and severe complication among older hospitalized patients. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, but it has been suggested that inflammation and oxidative stress may play a role. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate levels of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) - a marker of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress - in patients with and without delirium. This pilot study was performed within a retrospective chart review study that included acutely ill patients, 65 years and older, who were admitted to the ward of geriatrics of the Erasmus University Medical Center. All patients in whom the differential white blood cell (WBC) counts as well as the C-reactive protein (CRP) level were determined within 24 h after admission were included in the present study. Differences in NLR between patients with and without delirium were investigated using univariate analysis of variance, with adjustments for age, sex, comorbidities, CRP level, and total WBC count. Eighty-six patients were included. Thirteen patients were diagnosed with delirium. In adjusted models, higher mean NLR values were found in patients with, than in those without, delirium (9.10 vs 5.18, P=0.003). In this pilot study, we found increased NLR levels in patients with delirium. This finding might suggest that an inadequate response of the immune system and oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of delirium. Further studies are needed to confirm the association between NLR and delirium.

  16. Decitabine Compared with Low-Dose Cytarabine for the Treatment of Older Patients with Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Pilot Study of Safety, Efficacy, and Cost-Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Linu A; Aparna, S; Lakshmaiah, K C; Lokanatha, D; Babu, Govind; Babu, Suresh; Appachu, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The incidence of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) increases progressively with age and its treatment is challenging. This prospective case control study was undertaken to compare the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of decitabine with those of cytarabine in older patients with newly diagnosed AML who are not fit for intensive chemotherapy. Materials and Methods. 30 eligible patients above 60 years old with newly diagnosed AML were assigned to receive decitabine or cytarabine. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). The secondary objective was to compare adverse events and cost-effectiveness of therapy in the two study groups. Results. In this study, 15 patients received decitabine and 15 patients received cytarabine. The median OS was 5.5 months for each of the treatment groups. The hazard ratio between the treatment groups was 0.811 with 95% CI of 0.390 to 1.687. Toxicity profile was similar in both groups. Cost per cycle of chemotherapy in INR was 24,200 for decitabine and 1,600 for low-dose cytarabine group. Median of simplified cost-effectiveness ratio was 0.00022 for decitabine group and 0.0034 for low-dose cytarabine group. Conclusions. For elderly patients with AML, decitabine and low-dose cytarabine should be chosen based on the patient's choice and affordability. Our study has shown that both of these agents have similar OS and toxicity. Low-dose cytarabine scores over decitabine in developing countries as it is more cost-effective.

  17. Life and Microgravity Sciences Spacelab Mission: Human Research Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B. (Editor); Walker, Karen R. (Editor); Hargens, Alan (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Life Sciences, Microgravity Science and Spacelab Mission contains a number of human experiments directed toward identifying the functional, metabolic and neurological characteristics of muscle weakness and atrophy during space flight. To ensure the successful completion of the flight experiments, a ground-based pilot study, designed to mimic the flight protocols as closely as possible, was carried out in the head-down tilt bed rest model. This report records the rationales, procedures, preliminary results and estimated value of the pilot study, the first of its kind, for 12 of the 13 planned experiments in human research. The bed rest study was conducted in the Human Research Facility at Ames Research Center from July 11 - August 28, 1995. Eight healthy male volunteers performed the experiments before, during and after 17 days bed rest. The immediate purposes of this simulation were to integrate the experiments, provide data in a large enough sample for publication of results, enable investigators to review individual experiments in the framework of a multi-disciplinary study and relay the experience of the pilot study to the mission specialists prior to launch.

  18. A pilot study of a wearable apnoea detection device

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther; Chen, Gwangwei; Radcliffe, Jeremy; Duncan, John

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Current techniques for monitoring patients for apnoea suffer from significant limitations. These include insufficient availability to meet diagnostic needs, cost, accuracy of results in the presence of artefacts and difficulty of use in unsupervised conditions. Objectives We created and clinically tested a novel miniature medical device that targets overcoming these limitations. Methods We studied 20 healthy control participants and 10 patients who had been referred for sleep apnoea diagnosis. The performances of the new system and also of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved SOMNO clinical system, conventionally used for sleep apnoea diagnosis were evaluated under the same conditions. Both systems were tested during a normal night of sleep in controls and patients. Their performances were quantified in terms of detection of apnoea and hypopnoea in individual 10 s epochs, which were compared with scoring of signals by a blinded clinician. Main results For spontaneous apnoeas during natural sleep and considering the clinician scorer as the gold standard, the new wearable apnoea detection device had 88.6% sensitivity and 99.6% specificity. In comparison the SOMNO system had 14.3% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity. The novel device had been specifically designed to detect apnoea, but if apnoea and hypopnoea during sleep were both considered in the assessment, the sensitivity and specificity were 77.1% and 99.7%, respectively, versus 54% and 98.5%, respectively, for the SOMNO. Conclusions The performance of the novel device compares very well to the scoring by an experienced clinician even in the presence of breathing artefacts, in this small pilot study. This can potentially make it a real solution for apnoea home monitoring. PMID:25280802

  19. Wearable Sensors in Huntington Disease: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewski, Kelly L; Dowling, Ariel V; Stamler, David; Felong, Timothy J; Harris, Denzil A; Wong, Cynthia; Cai, Hang; Reilmann, Ralf; Little, Max A; Gwin, Joseph T; Biglan, Kevin M; Dorsey, E Ray

    2016-06-18

    The Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) is the principal means of assessing motor impairment in Huntington disease but is subjective and generally limited to in-clinic assessments. To evaluate the feasibility and ability of wearable sensors to measure motor impairment in individuals with Huntington disease in the clinic and at home. Participants with Huntington disease and controls were asked to wear five accelerometer-based sensors attached to the chest and each limb for standardized, in-clinic assessments and for one day at home. A second chest sensor was worn for six additional days at home. Gait measures were compared between controls, participants with Huntington disease, and participants with Huntington disease grouped by UHDRS total motor score using Cohen's d values. Fifteen individuals with Huntington disease and five controls completed the study. Sensor data were successfully captured from 18 of the 20 participants at home. In the clinic, the standard deviation of step time (time between consecutive steps) was increased in Huntington disease (p < 0.0001; Cohen's d = 2.61) compared to controls. At home with additional observations, significant differences were observed in seven additional gait measures. The gait of individuals with higher total motor scores (50 or more) differed significantly from those with lower total motor scores (below 50) on multiple measures at home. In this pilot study, the use of wearable sensors in clinic and at home was feasible and demonstrated gait differences between controls, participants with Huntington disease, and participants with Huntington disease grouped by motor impairment.

  20. Multidimensional Aptitude Battery-Second Edition Intelligence Testing of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Training Candidates Compared with Manned Airframe Training Candidates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    pilot training. Overall, the results of the study reveal the intellectual ability of those who are motivated and self-selected to pursue a career in...career field is more than a function of intellectual ability, and pilots are no exception. All three groups scored significantly higher than same-age...peers in the general population on intellectual ability, but that does not mean that small differences in intellectual ability within these pre-screened

  1. A pilot study of energy efficient air cleaning for ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara A.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Katsapov, Gregory Y.; Fisk, William J.

    2002-11-01

    A laboratory pilot study has been undertaken with the material that showed the most promise (high capacity and low pressure drop) based on the literature review and associated calculations. The best-performing air cleaner was a commercially available pleated filter that contained a thin layer of small activated carbon particles between two sheets of non-woven fibrous webbing. We will refer to this unit as the ''ozone filter'' although it is marketed for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile passenger compartments. This pilot study strongly suggests that ozone air cleaning can be practical in commercial air handling systems; however, further tests are needed to assess air cleaner performance under a wider range of conditions.

  2. A pilot feasibility study of neurofeedback for children with autism.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Naomi J; Frenette, Elizabeth; Hynes, Caitlin; Pisarik, Elizabeth; Tomasetti, Kathryn; Perrin, Ellen C; Rene, Kirsten

    2014-06-01

    Neurofeedback (NFB) is an emerging treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This pilot study examined the feasibility of NFB for children with ASD. Ten children ages 7-12 with high functioning ASD and attention difficulties received a NFB attention training intervention. A standardized checklist captured feasibility, including focus during exercises and academic tasks, as well as off-task behaviors. Active behaviors and vocalizations were the most frequent off-task behaviors. Positive reinforcement and breaks including calm breathing exercises were the most common supports. Low motivation was associated with higher feasibility challenges, yet parental involvement and accommodations were helpful. This pilot study shows that it is feasible to conduct NFB sessions with children with high functioning autism and attention difficulties.

  3. Treating Anxiety Disorders in Inner City Schools: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing CBT and Usual Care

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) in inner city schools, when delivered by novice CBT clinicians, and compared to usual care (UC), is unknown. Objective This pilot study addressed this issue by comparing a modular CBT for anxiety disorders to UC in a sample of 32 volunteer youth (mean age 10.28 years, 63% female, 84% African American) seen in school-based mental health programs. Methods Youth were randomly assigned to CBT (n = 17) or UC (n = 15); independent evaluators conducted diagnostic interviews with children and parents at pre- and post-intervention, and at a one-month follow-up. Results Based on intent-to-treat analyses, no differences were found in response rates between groups with 50 and 42% of the children in CBT, compared to 46 and 57% in UC no longer meeting criteria for an anxiety disorder at post-treatment and follow-up respectively. Similar improvements in global functioning were also found in both treatment groups. Baseline predictors of a positive treatment response included lower anxiety, fewer maladaptive thoughts, less exposure to urban hassles, and lower levels of parenting stress. Therapist use of more CBT session structure elements and greater competence in implementing these elements was also related to a positive treatment response. Conclusions Findings from this small pilot failed to show that CBT was superior to UC when delivered by school-based clinicians. Large scale comparative effectiveness trials are needed to determine whether CBT leads to superior clinical outcomes prior to dissemination. PMID:22701295

  4. Teaching billing and coding to medical students: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jiaxin; Cennimo, David; Chen, Sophia; Altschuler, Eric L

    2013-08-12

    Complex billing practices cost the US healthcare system billions of dollars annually. Coding for outpatient office visits [known as Evaluation & Management (E&M) services] is commonly particularly fraught with errors. The best way to insure proper billing and coding by practicing physicians is to teach this as part of the medical school curriculum. Here, in a pilot study, we show that medical students can learn well the basic principles from lectures. This approach is easy to implement into a medical school curriculum.

  5. Teaching Billing and Coding to Medical Students: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jiaxin; Cennimo, David; Chen, Sophia; Altschuler, Eric L

    2013-01-01

    Complex billing practices cost the US healthcare system billions of dollars annually. Coding for outpatient office visits [known as Evaluation & Management (E&M) services] is commonly particularly fraught with errors. The best way to insure proper billing and coding by practicing physicians is to teach this as part of the medical school curriculum. Here, in a pilot study, we show that medical students can learn well the basic principles from lectures. This approach is easy to implement into a medical school curriculum.

  6. [Pilot study on facial palsy correction with suture suspension].

    PubMed

    Navarrete Álvaro, María Luisa; Knäpper, Jennifer; Boemo, Rafael; Torrent, Lluisa

    2011-01-01

    We present a pilot study to evaluate the benefit of static facial suspension with Silhouette sutures. We operated on a female patient with complete facial palsy secondary to otic tuberculosis. The patient has currently achieved satisfactory facial symmetry, mastication and speech production. As a result, self-esteem and social interaction have also been recovered. Static facial suspension with Silhouette sutures is an alternative to dynamic techniques in patients who do not wish to or cannot undergo those more complex surgeries.

  7. The effect of thymoquinone on intractable pediatric seizures (pilot study).

    PubMed

    Akhondian, Javad; Kianifar, Hamidreza; Raoofziaee, Mohammad; Moayedpour, Amir; Toosi, Mehran Beiraghi; Khajedaluee, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    despite administration of numerous combinations of epileptic drugs, nearly 15% of childhood seizures are resistant to treatment and it is still a problem in pediatric practice. In traditional medicine, Nigella sativa was known to have anticonvulsant effects. Recent studies also have shown its anticonvulsant effects. Most of the properties of N. sativa or its extracts are mainly attributed to thymoquinone. It has been shown that thymoquinone has several therapeutic effects and no evidence of toxicity or side effects is reported. in this pilot, double-blinded crossover clinical trial study on children with refractory epilepsy, thymoquinone with dose of 1mg/kg was administered as an adjunctive therapy and its effects on frequency of seizures were compared with those of a placebo. Twenty-two patients entered in the study. They were assigned in two groups and received either thymoquinone or placebo for a period of four weeks, and then during the two weeks of wash out period, they received only their pre-existing anti-epileptic drugs; then, after cross-overing, they received thymoquinone or placebo for a period of four weeks again. During these periods their effects on seizure frequency were investigated. the reduction of frequency of seizures at the end of first period in comparison with the same period before the study demonstrated a significant difference between two groups (thymoquinone and placebo) (P=0.04). Also reduction of frequency of seizure has shown significant difference between two groups at the end of second period in comparison with end of first period (P=0.02). The parental satisfaction showed significant difference between the two groups at the end of the first period (P=0.03). it can be concluded that thymoquinone has anti-epileptic effects in children with refractory seizures. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cost analysis of prenatal care using the activity-based costing model: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gesse, T; Golembeski, S; Potter, J

    1999-01-01

    The cost of prenatal care in a private nurse-midwifery practice was examined using the activity-based costing system. Findings suggest that the activities of the nurse-midwife (the health care provider) constitute the major cost driver of this practice and that the model of care and associated, time-related activities influence the cost. This pilot study information will be used in the development of a comparative study of prenatal care, client education, and self care.

  9. Cost Analysis of Prenatal Care Using the Activity-Based Costing Model: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gesse, Theresa; Golembeski, Susan; Potter, Jonell

    1999-01-01

    The cost of prenatal care in a private nurse-midwifery practice was examined using the activity-based costing system. Findings suggest that the activities of the nurse-midwife (the health care provider) constitute the major cost driver of this practice and that the model of care and associated, time-related activities influence the cost. This pilot study information will be used in the development of a comparative study of prenatal care, client education, and self care. PMID:22945985

  10. CE: Defining and Understanding Pilot and Other Feasibility Studies.

    PubMed

    Morris, Nancy S; Rosenbloom, Deborah A

    2017-03-01

    : Nurses are becoming increasingly involved in conducting clinical research in which feasibility studies are often the first steps. Understanding why and how these studies are conducted may encourage clinical nurses to engage with researchers and take advantage of opportunities to participate in advancing nursing science. This article provides an overview of feasibility studies, including pilot studies, and explains the type of preliminary data they seek to provide in order to make larger, future studies more efficient and successful. By way of example, the authors discuss a feasibility study they conducted that illustrates the key components and necessary steps involved in such work.

  11. Restoring effective sleep tranquility (REST): A feasibility and pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Arlene A; Henry, Kimberly L; Rolle, Natalie R; Schelly, Catherine; Pott, Christine E; Burns, Joshua E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this pilot study was to establish the feasibility of completing a future controlled trial of a multi-component cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia program for military veterans with sleep disturbance. Method This was a single-arm feasibility and pilot study. Participants were United States post-9/11 veterans with service-connected injuries, university students, and had self-reported sleep disturbances. Restoring Effective Sleep Tranquility was a multi-component cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia intervention consisting of seven sessions of group therapy and eight 1:1 sessions delivered by occupational therapists. Feasibility and pilot indicators were process, resources, management, and scientific, including pre–post-assessments of sleep difficulties, dysfunctional sleep beliefs, participation, and pain interference. Findings Indicators were supportive of feasibility, including reduced sleep difficulties (for example Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Measure [t = 3.29, p = .02]), reduced nightmares: t = 2.79, p = .03; fewer dysfunctional sleep beliefs: t = 3.63, p = .01, and greater ability to participate in social roles: t = –2.86, p = .03, along with trends towards improved satisfaction with participation and reduced pain interference. Conclusion The Restoring Effective Sleep Tranquility program may reduce sleep difficulties and improve participation in US veterans with service-connected injuries, and evidence indicates a controlled trial would be feasible to deliver. PMID:28626295

  12. Pathogens in Ornamental Waters: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Maria; Rodrigues, Joao Carlos; Reis, Lucia; Nogueira, Isabel; Carvalho, Patricia A.; Brandão, João; Duarte, Aida; Jordao, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    In parks, ornamental waters of easy access and populated with animals are quite attractive to children and yet might hide threats to human health. The present work focuses on the microbiota of the ornamental waters of a Lisboa park, characterized during 2015. The results show a dynamic microbiota integrating human pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Aeromonas spp. and Enterobacter spp., and also antibiotic resistant bacteria. K. pneumoniae and Aeromonas spp. were present as planktonic and biofilm organized bacteria. In vitro K. pneumoniae and Aeromonas spp. showed an enhanced ability to assemble biofilm at 25 °C than at 37 °C. Bacteria recovered from biofilm samples showed an increased antibiotic resistance compared to the respective planktonic counterparts. PMID:26891309

  13. Airflow Hazard Visualization for Helicopter Pilots: Flight Simulation Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2005-01-01

    Airflow hazards such as vortices or low level wind shear have been identified as a primary contributing factor in many helicopter accidents. US Navy ships generate airwakes over their decks, creating potentially hazardous conditions for shipboard rotorcraft launch and recovery. Recent sensor developments may enable the delivery of airwake data to the cockpit, where visualizing the hazard data may improve safety and possibly extend ship/helicopter operational envelopes. A prototype flight-deck airflow hazard visualization system was implemented on a high-fidelity rotorcraft flight dynamics simulator. Experienced helicopter pilots, including pilots from all five branches of the military, participated in a usability study of the system. Data was collected both objectively from the simulator and subjectively from post-test questionnaires. Results of the data analysis are presented, demonstrating a reduction in crash rate and other trends that illustrate the potential of airflow hazard visualization to improve flight safety.

  14. Piloted Simulation Study of Rudder Pedal Force/Feel Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation was conducted in 2006 to determine optimum rudder pedal force/feel characteristics for transport aircraft. As part of this research, an evaluation of four metrics for assessing rudder pedal characteristics previously presented in the literature was conducted. This evaluation was based upon the numerical handling qualities ratings assigned to a variety of pedal force/feel systems used in the simulation study. It is shown that, with the inclusion of a fifth metric, most of the rudder pedal force/feel system designs that were rated poorly by the evaluation pilots could be identified. It is suggested that these metrics form the basis of a certification requirement for transport aircraft.

  15. Laparoscopic Pectopexy: A Prospective, Randomized, Comparative Clinical Trial of Standard Laparoscopic Sacral Colpocervicopexy with the New Laparoscopic Pectopexy—Postoperative Results and Intermediate-Term Follow-Up in a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Schiermeier, Sven; Alkatout, Ibrahim; Anapolski, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of the study was to compare the outcome of laparoscopic sacral colpocervicopexy with laparoscopic pectopexy. Our aim was to show that the safety and effectiveness of the new technique is similar to the traditional technique. We expected differences regarding defecation disorders. Patients and Methods: We randomly assigned patients to two treatment groups: 44 in the pectopexy and 41 in the sacropexy group. If necessary, the operative procedures were planned in a so-called multicompartment setting regarding the different pelvic floor disorders. All defects were managed at the same time. Eighty-one patients were examined 12 to 37 months after treatment (mean follow-up 20.67 months). Results: The long-term follow-up (21.8 months for pectopexy and 19.5 months for sacropexy) showed a clear difference regarding de novo defecation disorders (0% in the pectopexy vs 19.5% in the sacropexy group). The incidence of de novo stress urinary incontinence was 4.8% (pectopexy) vs 4.9% (sacropexy). The incidence of rectoceles (9.5% vs 9.8%) was similar in both groups. No de novo lateral defect cystoceles were found after pectopexy, whereas 12.5% were found after sacropexy. The apical descensus relapse rates, 2.3% for pectopexy vs 9.8% for sacropexy, were not statistically significant. The occurrence of de novo anterior defect cystoceles and rectoceles revealed no significant differences. Conclusion: Laparoscopic pectopexy is a novel method of vaginal prolapse therapy that offers clear practical advantages compared with laparoscopic sacropexy. Because laparoscopic pectopexy does not reduce the pelvic space, it results in a zero percentage of defecation disorders. PMID:25350228

  16. Laparoscopic pectopexy: a prospective, randomized, comparative clinical trial of standard laparoscopic sacral colpocervicopexy with the new laparoscopic pectopexy-postoperative results and intermediate-term follow-up in a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Noé, Karl-Günter; Schiermeier, Sven; Alkatout, Ibrahim; Anapolski, Michael

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the outcome of laparoscopic sacral colpocervicopexy with laparoscopic pectopexy. Our aim was to show that the safety and effectiveness of the new technique is similar to the traditional technique. We expected differences regarding defecation disorders. We randomly assigned patients to two treatment groups: 44 in the pectopexy and 41 in the sacropexy group. If necessary, the operative procedures were planned in a so-called multicompartment setting regarding the different pelvic floor disorders. All defects were managed at the same time. Eighty-one patients were examined 12 to 37 months after treatment (mean follow-up 20.67 months). The long-term follow-up (21.8 months for pectopexy and 19.5 months for sacropexy) showed a clear difference regarding de novo defecation disorders (0% in the pectopexy vs 19.5% in the sacropexy group). The incidence of de novo stress urinary incontinence was 4.8% (pectopexy) vs 4.9% (sacropexy). The incidence of rectoceles (9.5% vs 9.8%) was similar in both groups. No de novo lateral defect cystoceles were found after pectopexy, whereas 12.5% were found after sacropexy. The apical descensus relapse rates, 2.3% for pectopexy vs 9.8% for sacropexy, were not statistically significant. The occurrence of de novo anterior defect cystoceles and rectoceles revealed no significant differences. Laparoscopic pectopexy is a novel method of vaginal prolapse therapy that offers clear practical advantages compared with laparoscopic sacropexy. Because laparoscopic pectopexy does not reduce the pelvic space, it results in a zero percentage of defecation disorders.

  17. Excisional treatment in women with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS): a prospective randomised controlled non-inferiority trial to compare AIS persistence/recurrence after loop electrosurgical excision procedure with cold knife cone biopsy: protocol for a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul A; Brand, Alison; Sykes, Peter; Wrede, David C H; McNally, Orla; Eva, Lois; Rao, Archana; Campion, Michael; Stockler, Martin; Powell, Aime; Codde, Jim; Bulsara, Max K; Anderson, Lyndal; Leung, Yee; Farrell, Louise; Stoyles, Pennie

    2017-08-28

    Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the uterine cervix is the precursor to invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma. An excisional biopsy such as a cold knife cone biopsy (CKC) should be performed to exclude invasive adenocarcinoma. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) is an alternative modality to CKC but is controversial in AIS. There is a perception that there is a greater likelihood of incomplete excision of AIS with LEEP because the depth of excised tissue tends to be smaller and the tissue margins may show thermal artefact which can interfere with pathology assessment. In the USA, guidelines recommend that any treatment modality can be used to excise AIS, provided that the specimen remains intact with interpretable margins. However, there are no high-quality studies comparing LEEP with CKC and well-designed prospective studies are needed. If such a study were to show that LEEP was non-inferior to CKC for the outcomes of post-treatment persistence, recurrence and adenocarcinoma, LEEP could be recommended as an appropriate treatment option for AIS in selected patients. This would benefit women because, unlike CKC, LEEP does not require general anaesthesia and may be associated with reduced morbidity. The proposed exploratory study is a parallel group trial with an allocation ratio of 2:1 in favour of the intervention (LEEP: CKC). Participants are women aged ≥18 to ≤45 years diagnosed with AIS on cervical screening and/or colposcopically directed biopsy in Australia and New Zealand, who are to receive excisional treatment in a tertiary level centre. Ethical approval for the study has been granted by the St John of God Healthcare Human Research Ethics Committee (reference number #1137). Results from the study will be presented at conferences and published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. ANZCTR registration number ACTRN12617000132347 https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=372173&isReview=true. © Article author(s) (or

  18. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  19. THE NORTH CAROLINA HERALD PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory



    The sampling design for the National Children's Study (NCS) calls for a population-based, multi-stage, clustered household sampling approach. The full sample is designed to be representative of both urban and rural births in the United States, 2007-2011. While other sur...

  20. Educational Optimism among Parents: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räty, Hannu; Kasanen, Kati

    2016-01-01

    This study explored parents' (N = 351) educational optimism in terms of their trust in the possibilities of school to develop children's intelligence. It was found that educational optimism could be depicted as a bipolar factor with optimism and pessimism on the opposing ends of the same dimension. Optimistic parents indicated more satisfaction…

  1. Educational Optimism among Parents: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räty, Hannu; Kasanen, Kati

    2016-01-01

    This study explored parents' (N = 351) educational optimism in terms of their trust in the possibilities of school to develop children's intelligence. It was found that educational optimism could be depicted as a bipolar factor with optimism and pessimism on the opposing ends of the same dimension. Optimistic parents indicated more satisfaction…

  2. THE NORTH CAROLINA HERALD PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory



    The sampling design for the National Children's Study (NCS) calls for a population-based, multi-stage, clustered household sampling approach. The full sample is designed to be representative of both urban and rural births in the United States, 2007-2011. While other sur...

  3. Motivation in the Classroom: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Deanna E.

    Purposes of this study were to (1) investigate the validity of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs as it applies to young children; (2) determine developmental shifts in expressed motivational needs; (3) gather information concerning the worries and fears of young children, particularly those of low socioeconomic status; and (4) gather data regarding…

  4. DISCOVER in Lebanon: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of DISCOVER, a performance-based assessment, in identifying gifted students in Lebanon. DISCOVER is grounded in Gardner's MI theory and consists of tasks involving problem-solving and creative abilities. The sample consisted of 49 middle-class 5-th graders, with a mean age of 10.2…

  5. Children's Use of Radio: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renaud, Jerry; Mitchell, Nancy

    A study explored how children make decisions to use radio. Thirty 8-9 year olds were interviewed in depth and 71 9-12 year olds filled out a questionnaire. Results indicated that children were capable of describing their radio listening behavior on a day-to-day basis, and that listening processes appeared to be similar to that reported in studies…

  6. Commercial conspiracy theories: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to categorise conspiracy theories. In the present study, we examined individual and demographic predictors of beliefs in commercial conspiracy theories among a British sample of over 300 women and men. Results showed many people were cynical and sceptical with regard to advertising tricks, as well as the tactics of organisations like banks and alcohol, drug and tobacco companies. Beliefs sorted into four identifiable clusters, labelled sneakiness, manipulative, change-the-rules and suppression/prevention. The high alpha for the overall scale suggested general beliefs in commercial conspiracy. Regressions suggested that those people who were less religious, more left-wing, more pessimistic, less (self-defined as) wealthy, less Neurotic and less Open-to-Experience believed there was more commercial conspiracy. Overall the individual difference variables explained relatively little of the variance in these beliefs. The implications of these findings for the literature on conspiracy theories are discussed. Limitations of the study are also discussed. PMID:23818886

  7. Tri-county pilot study. [Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. A. (Principal Investigator); Austin, T. W.; Kerber, A. G.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An area inventory was performed for three southeast Texas counties (Montgomery, Walker, and San Jacinto) totaling 0.65 million hectares. The inventory was performed using a two level hierarchy. Level 1 was divided into forestland, rangeland, and other land. Forestland was separated into Level 2 categories: pine, hardwood, and mixed; rangeland was not separated further. Results consisted of area statistics for each county and for the entire study site for pine, hardwood, mixed, rangeland, and other land. Color coded county classification maps were produced for the May data set, and procedures were developed and tested.

  8. The Pilot Training Study: A Cost-Estimating Model for Advanced Pilot Training (APT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knollmeyer, L. E.

    The Advanced Pilot Training Cost Model is a statement of relationships that may be used, given the necessary inputs, for estimating the resources required and the costs to train pilots in the Air Force formal flying training schools. Resources and costs are computed by weapon system on an annual basis for use in long-range planning or sensitivity…

  9. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  10. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  11. Changing mothers' perception of infant emotion: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Carnegie, Rebecca; Shepherd, C; Pearson, R M; Button, K S; Munafò, M R; Evans, J; Penton-Voak, I S

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive bias modification (CBM) techniques, which experimentally retrain abnormal processing of affective stimuli, are becoming established for various psychiatric disorders. Such techniques have not yet been applied to maternal processing of infant emotion, which is affected by various psychiatric disorders. In a pilot study, mothers of children under 3 years old (n =  2) were recruited and randomly allocated to one of three training exercises, aiming either to increase or decrease their threshold of perceiving distress in a morphed continuum of 15 infant facial images. Differences between pre- and post-training threshold were analysed between and within subjects. Compared to baseline thresholds, the threshold for perceiving infant distress decreased in the lowered threshold group (mean difference -1.7 frames, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) -3.1 to -0.3, p = 0.02), increased in the raised threshold group (1.3 frames, 95 % CI 0.6 to 2.1, p < 0.01) and was unchanged in the control group (0.1 frames, 95 % CI -0.8 to 1.1, p = 0.80). Between-group differences were similarly robust in regression models and were not attenuated by potential confounders. The findings suggest that it is possible to change the threshold at which mothers perceive ambiguous infant faces as distressed, either to increase or decrease sensitivity to distress. This small study was intended to provide proof of concept (i.e. that it is possible to alter a mother's perception of infant distress). Questions remain as to whether the effects persist beyond the immediate experimental session, have an impact on maternal behaviour and could be used in clinical samples to improve maternal sensitivity and child outcomes.

  12. Changing mothers' perception of infant emotion: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Carnegie, R; Shepherd, C; Pearson, R.M.; Button, K. S; Munafò, M. R; Evans, J; Penton-Voak, I.S.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) techniques, which experimentally retrain abnormal processing of affective stimuli, are becoming established for various psychiatric disorders. Such techniques have not yet been applied to maternal processing of infant emotion, which is affected by various psychiatric disorders. Materials and Methods In a pilot study, mothers of children under 3 years old (n = 32) were recruited and randomly allocated to one of three training exercises, aiming either to increase or decrease their threshold of perceiving distress in a morphed continuum of 15 infant facial images. Differences between pre- and post-training threshold were analysed between and within subjects. Results Compared to baseline thresholds, the threshold for perceiving infant distress decreased in the lowered threshold group (mean difference -1.7 frames, 95% confidence intervals (CI) -3.1 to -0.3 p=0.02), increased in the raised threshold group (1.3 frames, 95% CI 0.6 to 2.1 p<0.01), and was unchanged in the control group (0.1 frames, 95% CI -0.8 to 1.1 p=0.80). Between group differences were similarly robust in regression models, and were not attenuated by potential confounders. Conclusions The findings suggest that it is possible to change the threshold at which mothers perceive ambiguous infant faces as distressed, either to increase or decrease sensitivity to distress. This small study was intended to provide proof of concept (i.e., that it is possible to alter a mother’s perception of infant distress.) Questions remain as to whether the effects persist beyond the immediate experimental session, have an impact on maternal behaviour, and could be used in clinical samples to improve maternal sensitivity and child outcomes. PMID:26260038

  13. A randomized, multicenter, pilot study comparing the efficacy and safety of a bupivacaine-collagen implant (XaraColl(®)) with the ON-Q PainBuster(®) Post-op Pain Relief System following open gynecological surgery.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Susan L; Minkowitz, Harold S; Kuss, Michael; Jaros, Mark; Hemsen, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    XaraColl(®), a collagen-based intraoperative implant that delivers bupivacaine to the site of surgical trauma, is under development for postoperative analgesia. We compared the efficacy and safety of XaraColl for the prevention of postsurgical pain versus a slow postoperative perfusion of bupivacaine to the wound environment via the ON-Q PainBuster(®) Post-op Pain Relief System (ON-Q). We randomized 27 women undergoing open gynecological surgery to receive either three XaraColl implants (each containing 50 mg bupivacaine hydrochloride) or ON-Q (900 mg bupivacaine hydrochloride perfused over 72 hours) in a 1:1 ratio. Following surgery, patients had access to intravenous morphine via a patient-controlled analgesia pump as rescue analgesia for the first 24 hours and to oral opioid medication thereafter. Total use of opioid analgesia was compared through 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after surgery. Patients also evaluated overall pain control over the 96-hour period using a five-point numeric rating scale. Safety was assessed for 30 days after surgery. XaraColl was non-inferior to ON-Q in total use of opioid analgesia for the first 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after surgery, with a statistical trend towards reduced opioid use in favor of XaraColl over 24, 48, and 72 hours (P = 0.067, 0.100, and 0.089, respectively). The time to first use of opioid analgesia was also significantly delayed in patients treated with XaraColl (P = 0.024). There was no significant difference between groups in patients' evaluation of pain control or their satisfaction with the treatment in general. Both treatments were considered safe and well tolerated. Despite using only 17% of the ON-Q dose, XaraColl is as effective as ON-Q in providing postoperative analgesia for 4 days after open gynecological surgery. These preliminary findings suggest that XaraColl offers great potential for the management of postoperative pain and warrants further definitive studies.

  14. A randomized, multicenter, pilot study comparing the efficacy and safety of a bupivacaine-collagen implant (XaraColl®) with the ON-Q PainBuster® Post-op Pain Relief System following open gynecological surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, Susan L; Minkowitz, Harold S; Kuss, Michael; Jaros, Mark; Hemsen, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Background XaraColl®, a collagen-based intraoperative implant that delivers bupivacaine to the site of surgical trauma, is under development for postoperative analgesia. We compared the efficacy and safety of XaraColl for the prevention of postsurgical pain versus a slow postoperative perfusion of bupivacaine to the wound environment via the ON-Q PainBuster® Post-op Pain Relief System (ON-Q). Methods We randomized 27 women undergoing open gynecological surgery to receive either three XaraColl implants (each containing 50 mg bupivacaine hydrochloride) or ON-Q (900 mg bupivacaine hydrochloride perfused over 72 hours) in a 1:1 ratio. Following surgery, patients had access to intravenous morphine via a patient-controlled analgesia pump as rescue analgesia for the first 24 hours and to oral opioid medication thereafter. Total use of opioid analgesia was compared through 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after surgery. Patients also evaluated overall pain control over the 96-hour period using a five-point numeric rating scale. Safety was assessed for 30 days after surgery. Results XaraColl was non-inferior to ON-Q in total use of opioid analgesia for the first 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after surgery, with a statistical trend towards reduced opioid use in favor of XaraColl over 24, 48, and 72 hours (P = 0.067, 0.100, and 0.089, respectively). The time to first use of opioid analgesia was also significantly delayed in patients treated with XaraColl (P = 0.024). There was no significant difference between groups in patients’ evaluation of pain control or their satisfaction with the treatment in general. Both treatments were considered safe and well tolerated. Conclusion Despite using only 17% of the ON-Q dose, XaraColl is as effective as ON-Q in providing postoperative analgesia for 4 days after open gynecological surgery. These preliminary findings suggest that XaraColl offers great potential for the management of postoperative pain and warrants further definitive studies. PMID

  15. Treadmill Desks at LANL - Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Samara Kia

    2016-07-28

    It is well established that sedentariness is the largest, preventable contributor to premature death, eclipsing smoking in recent years. One approach to reduce sedentariness is by using a treadmill desk to perform office work while walking at a low speed.We found an increased interest level when the treadmill desks were first introduced to LANL, but after a few months interest appeared to drop. It is possible that treadmill desk use was occurring, but subjects did not record their use. The treadmill desks will not be readily available for purchase by employees due to the study outcome. Additionally, conclusive changes in body measurements could not be performed due to lack of follow up by 58% of the participants.

  16. Social dysfunction in bipolar disorder: pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Rocca, Cristiana Castanho; de Macedo-Soares, Marcia Britto; Gorenstein, Clarice; Tamada, Renata Sayuri; Issler, Cilly Kluger; Dias, Rodrigo Silva; Schwartzmann, Angela Maria; Lafer, Beny

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the social skills of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. A group of 25 outpatients with bipolar disorder type I were evaluated in comparison with a group of 31 healthy volunteers who were matched in terms of level of education, age, sex and intelligence. Both groups were assessed using a self-report questionnaire, the Brazilian Inventario de Habilidades Sociais (IHS, Social Skills Inventory). Two Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale subtests (Picture Arrangement and Comprehension) were also used in order to assess subject ability to analyse social situations and to make judgements, respectively. Patients with bipolar disorder had lower IHS scores for the domains that assessed conversational skills/social self-confidence and social openness to new people/situations. Patients with anxiety disorders had high scores for the domain that assessed self-confidence in the expression of positive emotions. No differences were found between patients and controls in performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Picture Arrangement and Comprehension subtests. Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder present inhibited and overattentive behaviour in relation to other people and their environment. This behaviour might have a negative impact on their level of social functioning and quality of life.

  17. SERDP munition disposal source characterization pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R.C.; Couch, R.G.; Fried, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is supporting studies to develop and implement technologies for the safe, efficient, and environmentally sound disposal of obsolete munitions and propellants which are stored at various locations across the country. One proposed disposal technique is the open-air burning or detonation (OB/OD) of this material. Although OB/OD is viewed as an efficient and cost-effective method for reducing the inventory of unwanted munitions and propellants, questions regarding its safety and environmental impacts must be addressed. Since very large amounts of munitions and propellants must be consumed inexpensively in relatively short time periods and with the very restrictive Federal and State regulations on environmental issues, it is clear that traditional OB/OD procedures will not be acceptable and that it is necessary to develop modified or advanced OB/OD technology. The effectiveness and environmental impact of the OB/OD technology must be verified by experimental data and with validated numerical models for acceptance by Federal and State regulators. Specifically, technology must be developed and tested that minimizes toxic bum and detonation products the noise (peak pressure) and destructive effect (impulse) of the explosive blast generation and travel distance of shrapnel, and entrainment of dust. Three explosion attenuation scenarios are analyzed: Contained water, aqueous foams, and wet sand.

  18. Thrombolysis for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction: a pilot study comparing results from GP led small rural health emergency departments with results from a physician led sub-regional emergency department.

    PubMed

    Krones, Robert; Radford, Peter; Cunningham, Chris; Krones, David; Haines, Helen M

    2012-01-01

    Urgent angiogram is best treatment for patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the first 90 min after contacting medical help. For Australian residents of inner and outer regional areas and remote or very remote areas, quick access to angiograms is not available. Numerous approaches have been developed to maximize reperfusion but delays due to systematic and patient factors persist. Diminishing confidence of some GPs in small rural health services to administer thrombolytics was one barrier to timely reperfusion identified in northeast Victoria, Australia. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency and outcomes of STEMI patients treated with thrombolysis by GPs in small rural emergency departments (EDs) with the outcomes from thrombolysis for STEMI in the physician-led, sub-regional ED in northeast Victoria. Data were gathered by a medical file audit. Outcome measures were the frequency of STEMI, symptom to presentation times, mode of transport to hospital, ambulance call to presentation at ED times, door to needle (DTN) times, subsequent percutanous intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG), physician follow up and death. In total 68 cases were audited. Univariate analysis showed no significant differences between the GP-led or physician-led EDs in time from onset of symptoms to presentation, DTN times, thrombolysis related complications or subsequent access to PCI or CABG. Follow-up care was similar in both groups. Transport to hospital differed between the groups with only half of all cases arriving at the ED by ambulance, almost all of which went to the sub-regional hospital. Thrombolysis for STEMI in the small GP-led EDs had similar results to thrombolysis administered by the physician-led ED. There is substantial time benefit to be gained by encouraging GP-led EDs to provide thrombolysis treatment, thereby improving patient prognosis and survival.

  19. Comparing an IPM pilot program to a traditional cover spray program in commercial landscapes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Colin D; Braman, S Kristine; Sparks, Beverly L; Williams-Woodward, Jean L; Wade, Gary L; Latimer, Joyce G

    2002-08-01

    An integrated pest management (IPM) pilot program for landscape plants was implemented during 1997 and 1998 on two commercial, two residential, and one institutional property managed by landscape professionals. When compared with preprogram, calendar-based cover spray program costs at these sites in 1996, the IPM program was cost-effective at one of the five sites in both 1997 and 1998, and cost effective at a second additional site in 1998 when the cooperator, initially skeptical of IPM, discontinued calendar-based cover sprays performed in 1996 and 1997. The mean cost per site was $703.40 (preprogram), $788.26, and $582.22 in 1996, 1997, and 1998, respectively. Volume of pesticide applied decreased a mean of 86.3% on the four sites not receiving cover sprays and increased 2.3% at site 2 (still using cover sprays) in 1997. In 1998, pesticide volume was reduced an average of 85.3% at all five sites compared with preprogram levels. The majority of insect pest problems were corrected using spot sprays of insecticidal soap or horticultural oil or by physical means such as pruning. One-third of the woody plant material on the commercial and institutional sites consisted of holly, juniper, and azalea. The most prevalent pests encountered were mites (Tetranychidae), aphids, lace bugs, scales, whiteflies, and Japanese beetle. Spiders were the most abundant group of predatory arthropod and ants, green lacewings, and lady beetles were also well represented in the managed landscapes.

  20. Exploring the Limits of Trigonometric Functions: Results and Reflections from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man, Yiu-Kwong; Poon, Kin-Keung

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report a pilot study on engaging a group of undergraduate students to explore the limits of sin(x)/x and tan(x)/x as x approaches to 0, with the use of non-graphic scientific calculators. By comparing the results in the pretest and the post-test, we found that the students had improvements in the tested items, which involved the…

  1. Exploring the Limits of Trigonometric Functions: Results and Reflections from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man, Yiu-Kwong; Poon, Kin-Keung

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report a pilot study on engaging a group of undergraduate students to explore the limits of sin(x)/x and tan(x)/x as x approaches to 0, with the use of non-graphic scientific calculators. By comparing the results in the pretest and the post-test, we found that the students had improvements in the tested items, which involved the…

  2. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the