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Sample records for pilot-scale fireside deposit

  1. FT-IR spectroscopic investigation of fireside deposits in a pilot-scale combustor. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Successful operation of conventional as well as advanced coal combustion systems depends on controlling and minimizing the development of ash fouling and stagging, i.e., fireside deposits. The development of these deposits depends not only on combustion design and operating conditions, but also on the composition and quantity of the inorganic species in the coal. Coals contain several minerals, and low-rank coals contain organically associated cations that vary in their association, size, and position relative to one another and in their composition. In the course of combustion, the major inorganic constituents directly affect chemical and physical transformations, such that inorganic species are initially partitioned into gaseous, liquid, and solid intermediates. this report discusses the design and construction of an infrared emission sampling probe for ash deposits, and discusses the correlations of ash build-up with the emission spectra.

  2. Microanalytical characterization of slagging deposits in a pilot-scale combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Harb, J.N.; West, J.

    1996-10-01

    A study was performed to provide insight into the mechanisms by which phase transformations occur in slogging deposits. An important consideration in such studies is the relevance of the samples to large-scale boiler behavior. Samples for this study were collected in ABB-CE`s Fireside Performance Test Facility (FPTF), a pilot-scale facility which operates at conditions representative of those found in full-scale units. Samples were cross-sectioned and analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy Point Count (SEMPC) techniques. The SEMPC data were combined with image analysis to characterize composition and morphology as a function of position in the deposit. Results show the transition from a particulate inner layer dominated by individual particle chemistry to a more homogeneous and less porous outer layer. This information was combined with FPTF operating conditions to determine the dominant factors in the transition between inner and outer deposit layers, particularly for deposits with molten outer layers. Insight into these issues will assist in the development of deposition models that efficiently and accurately describe the deposition process.

  3. High-Temperature Performance of Ferritic Steels in Fireside Corrosion Regimes: Temperature and Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudziak, T.; Hussain, T.; Simms, N. J.

    2016-11-01

    The paper reports high temperature resistance of ferritic steels in fireside corrosion regime in terms of temperature and deposits aggressiveness. Four candidate power plant steels: 15Mo3, T22, T23 and T91 were exposed under simulated air-fired combustion environment for 1000 h. The tests were conducted at 600, 650 and 700 °C according to deposit-recoat test method. Post-exposed samples were examined via dimensional metrology (the main route to quantify metal loss), and mass change data were recorded to perform the study of kinetic behavior at elevated temperatures. Microstructural investigations using ESEM-EDX were performed in order to investigate corrosion degradation and thickness of the scales. The ranking of the steels from most to the least damage was 15Mo3 > T22 > T23 > T91 in all three temperatures. The highest rate of corrosion in all temperatures occurred under the screening deposit.

  4. High-Temperature Performance of Ferritic Steels in Fireside Corrosion Regimes: Temperature and Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudziak, T.; Hussain, T.; Simms, N. J.

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports high temperature resistance of ferritic steels in fireside corrosion regime in terms of temperature and deposits aggressiveness. Four candidate power plant steels: 15Mo3, T22, T23 and T91 were exposed under simulated air-fired combustion environment for 1000 h. The tests were conducted at 600, 650 and 700 °C according to deposit-recoat test method. Post-exposed samples were examined via dimensional metrology (the main route to quantify metal loss), and mass change data were recorded to perform the study of kinetic behavior at elevated temperatures. Microstructural investigations using ESEM-EDX were performed in order to investigate corrosion degradation and thickness of the scales. The ranking of the steels from most to the least damage was 15Mo3 > T22 > T23 > T91 in all three temperatures. The highest rate of corrosion in all temperatures occurred under the screening deposit.

  5. Fireside Corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon

    2011-07-14

    Oxy-fuel fireside research goals are: (1) determine the effect of oxyfuel combustion on fireside corrosion - flue gas recycle choice, staged combustion ramifications; and (2) develop methods to use chromia solubility in ash as an ash corrosivity measurement - synthetic ashes at first, then boiler and burner rig ashes.

  6. Microanalytical characterization of slagging deposits in a pilot-scale combustor

    SciTech Connect

    West, J.; Harb, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this work was to characterize a set of deposit samples with respect to their compositions, phases present, and morphology. An understanding of how these properties change as a deposit grows is essential to developing a physical picture of deposit behavior, especially transitions in behavior from heterogeneous agglomerations of particles to highly sintered particles, or even a completely homogeneous molten phase that assimilates all impacting particles. Indeed, these deposit properties are of primary importance in determining the effect of deposition on heat transfer through the water wall, and on the removability of the deposit. These properties must be understood and quantified in order to predict deposition behavior.

  7. Fireside Corrosion USC Steering

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak

    2011-09-07

    Oxy-Fuel Fireside Research goals are: (1) Determine the effect of oxy-fuel combustion on fireside corrosion - (a) Flue gas recycle choice, Staged combustion ramifications, (c) JCOAL Collaboration; and (2) Develop methods to use chromia solubility in ash as an 'ash corrosivity' measurement - (a) Synthetic ashes at first, then boiler and burner rig ashes, (b) Applicable to SH/RH conditions.

  8. Fireside corrosion probes--an update

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Matthes, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to monitor the corrosion degradation of key metallic components in fossil fuel power plants will become increasingly important for FutureGen and ultra-supercritical power plants. A number of factors (ash deposition, coal composition changes, thermal gradients, and low NOx conditions, among others) which occur in the high temperature sections of energy production facilities, will contribute to fireside corrosion. Several years of research have shown that high temperature corrosion rate probes need to be better understood before corrosion rate can be used as a process variable by power plant operators. Our recent research has shown that electrochemical corrosion probes typically measure lower corrosion rates than those measured by standard mass loss techniques. While still useful for monitoring changes in corrosion rates, absolute probe corrosion rates will need a calibration factor to be useful. Continuing research is targeted to help resolve these issues.

  9. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, Rick L.; Fox, Don T.; Archiblad, Kip E.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  10. Failure Analysis of a Pilot Scale Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K J

    2001-09-14

    Failure of the pilot-scale test melter resulted from severe overheating of the Inconel 690 jacketed molybdenum electrode. Extreme temperatures were required to melt the glass during this campaign because the feed material contained a very high waste loading.

  11. Developing a coal quality expert: The prediction of ash deposit effects on boiler performance

    SciTech Connect

    Thornock, D.E.; Borio, R.W. ); Mehta, A.K. )

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of the Coal Quality Expert (CQE) Clean Coal I Program is the development of a Coal Quality Expert -- a comprehensive PC based expert system for evaluating the potential for coal cleaning, blending and switching options to reduce emissions while producing the lowest cost electricity. A key part of the CQE model will be the development of a sub-model to predict the effects of ash deposition on boiler performance under various operating conditions. To facilitate sub-model development, a combination of full, pilot, and bench scale testing has been carried out on a series of coals and coal blends which were of interest to the Public Service of Oklahoma (PSO) at their Northeastern Station. A series of full-scale tests were also performed on PSO's Northeastern Unit {number sign}4 to characterize boiler performance when firing a baseline coal'' (their normal or desired fuel feed stock) and two blends comprised of the baseline coal blended with various amounts of an alternate coal. Actual furnace conditions were then closely matched during a series of tests performed in Combustion Engineering's pilot scale combustor, the Fireside Performance Test Facility (FPTF). Pilot scale testing allowed in-depth analyses of furnace deposits during and after formation under well-controlled conditions. Ash deposit properties were characterized during pilot scale furnace operation and in subsequent bench scale analyses. Determination of deposit behavior as a function of important operating parameters during the FPTF testing has permitted the prediction of expected performance for various coal/coal blends in PSO's Northeastern Units and allows a prediction of boiler performance for other units firing these fuels.

  12. Pilot-scale semisolid fermentation of straw.

    PubMed

    Grant, G A; Han, Y W; Anderson, A W

    1978-03-01

    Semisolid fermentation of ryegrass straw to increase its animal feed value was successfully performed on a pilot scale. The pilot plant, which could handle 100 kg of straw per batch, was designed so that all major operations could take place in one vessel. The straw was hydrolyzed at 121 degrees C for 30 min with 0.5 N H2SO4 (7:3 liquid:solid), treated with ammonia to raise the pH to 5.0, inoculated with Candida utilis, and fermented in a semisolid state (70% moisture). During fermentation the straw was held stationary with air blown up through it. Batch fermentation times were 12 to 29 h. Semisolid fermentation did not require agitation and supported abundant growth at 20 to 40 degrees C even at near zero oxygen tensions. Fermentation increased the protein content, crude fat content, and in vitro rumen digestibility of the straw.

  13. Fireside Corrosion Behavior of HVOF and Plasma-Sprayed Coatings in Advanced Coal/Biomass Co-Fired Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, T.; Dudziak, T.; Simms, N. J.; Nicholls, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a systematic evaluation of coatings for advanced fossil fuel plants and addresses fireside corrosion in coal/biomass-derived flue gases. A selection of four candidate coatings: alloy 625, NiCr, FeCrAl and NiCrAlY were deposited onto superheaters/reheaters alloy (T91) using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and plasma spraying. A series of laboratory-based fireside corrosion exposures were carried out on these coated samples in furnaces under controlled atmosphere for 1000 h at 650 °C. The tests were carried out using the "deposit-recoat" test method to simulate the environment that was anticipated from air-firing 20 wt.% cereal co-product mixed with a UK coal. The exposures were carried out using a deposit containing Na2SO4, K2SO4, and Fe2O3 to produce alkali-iron tri-sulfates, which had been identified as the principal cause of fireside corrosion on superheaters/reheaters in pulverized coal-fired power plants. The exposed samples were examined in an ESEM with EDX analysis to characterize the damage. Pre- and post-exposure dimensional metrologies were used to quantify the metal damage in terms of metal loss distributions. The thermally sprayed coatings suffered significant corrosion attack from a combination of aggressive combustion gases and deposit mixtures. In this study, all the four plasma-sprayed coatings studied performed better than the HVOF-sprayed coatings because of a lower level of porosity. NiCr was found to be the best performing coating material with a median metal loss of ~87 μm (HVOF sprayed) and ~13 μm (plasma sprayed). In general, the median metal damage for coatings had the following ranking (in the descending order: most to the least damage): NiCrAlY > alloy 625 > FeCrAl > NiCr.

  14. Development of fireside performance indices, Task 7.33, Development of methods to predict agglomeration and deposition in FBCS, Task 7.36, Enhanced air toxics control, Task 7.45

    SciTech Connect

    Zygarlicke, C.J.; Mann, M.D.; Laudal, D.L.; Miller, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been developing advanced indices that rank coals according to their fouling and slagging propensity in utility boilers. The indices are based on sophisticated analytical techniques for identifying and quantifying coal inorganics and are useful in predicting the effects of proposed operational changes on ash deposition in coal-fired boilers. These indices are intended to provide an economical way to reduce the amount of full-scale testing needed to determine the best means of minimizing ash-related problems. The successful design and operation of the fluidized-bed combustor requires the ability to control and mitigate ash-related problems. The major ash-related problems in FBC are agglomeration of bed material, ash deposition on heat-transfer surfaces, ash deposition on refractory and uncooled surfaces, corrosion, and erosion. The focus of the Development of Methods to Predict Agglomeration and Deposition in FBCs is on the agglomeration and deposition problems in atmospheric bubbling and circulating beds. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require study of air toxic emissions from coal combustion systems. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine-particle control appears to be the best approach to achieving a high level of air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and are not typically collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, the goal of this project is to develop methods that capture the vapor-phase metals while simultaneously achieving ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxics.

  15. Pilot-scale testing of microbubble flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Adel, G.T.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Fundamental investigations into the effect of bubble size on coal flotation have established that the use of microbubbles can improve the recovery of fine coal during flotation while, at the same time, increasing the rejection of ash-forming mineral matter. When used in conjunction with the quiescent conditions provided by a column, the microbubble flotation process has been demonstrated on a laboratory scale to be capable of producing superclean coal containing less than 1 or 2% ash and very little pyritic sulfur. The main objective of this project is to demonstrate the microbubble column flotation process on a pilot-scale. A 500 lb/hr pilot plant is being constructed for the purpose of: 910 demonstrating the feasibility of the microbubble flotation process for producing superclean coal, (2) collecting scale-up data for designing commercial-scale microbubble flotation columns, and (3) collecting cost data for an economic evaluation of the process. In addition to micronized coal, the process is also being tested on coarse coal and refuse pond material. 20 figs.

  16. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CFCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of the characterization of organic emissions resulting from the pilot-scale incineration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) under varied feed concentrations. (NOTE: As a result of the Montreal Protocol, an international...

  17. Electric utility use of fireside additives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locklin, D.W.; Krause, H.H.; Anson, D.; Reid, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fireside additives have been used or proposed for use in fossil-fired utility boilers to combat a number of problems related to boiler performance and reliability. These problems include corrosion, fouling, superheat control, and acidic emissions. Fuel additives and other fireside additives have been used mainly with oil firing; however, there is growing experience with additives in coal-firing, especially for flyash conditioning to improve the performance of electrostatic precipitators. In decisions regarding the selection and use of additives, utilities have had to rely extensively on empiricism, due partly to an incomplete understanding of processes involved and partly to the limited amount of quantitative data. The study reported here was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assemble and analyze pertinent operating experience and to recommend guidelines for utility decisions on the use of additives. The combined results of the state-of-the-art review of technical literature and a special survey of utility experience are reported. A total of 38 utilities participated in the survey, providing information on trials conducted on 104 units in 93 different plants. Altogether, 445 separate trials were reported, each representing a unit/additive/fuel combination. Additives used in these trials included 90 different additive formulations, both pure compounds and proprietary products. These formulations were categorized into 37 generic classes according to their chemical constituents, and the results of the survey are presented by these generic classes. The findings are organized according to the operating problems for which fireside additives are used. Guidelines are presented for utility use in additive selection and in planning additive trials.

  18. Electric utility use of fireside additives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locklin, D.W.; Krause, H.H.; Anson, D.; Reid, W.

    1980-01-01

    Fireside additives have been used or proposed for use in fossil-fired utility boilers to combat a number of problems related to boiler performance and reliability. These problems include corrosion, fouling, superheat control, and acidic emissions. Fuel additivies and other fireside additives have been used mainly with oil firing; however, there is growing experience with additives in coal-firing, especially for flyash conditioning to improve the performance of electrostatic precipitators. In decisions regarding the selection and use of additives, utilities have had to rely extensively on empiricism, due partly to our incomplete understanding of processes involved and partly to the limited amount of quantitative data. The study reported here was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assemble and analyze pertinent operating experience and to recommend guidelines for utility decisions on the use of additives. This report describes the combined results of the state-of-the-art review of technical literature and a special survey of utility experience. A total of 38 utilities participated in the survey, providing information on trials conducted on 104 units in 93 different plants. Altogether, 445 separate trials were reported, each representing a unit/additive/fuel combination. 90 different additive formulations, both pure compounds and proprietary products, were categorized into 37 generic classes according to their chemical constituents, and the results of the survey are presented by these generic classes. This report is organized according to the operating problems for which fireside additives are used. Guidelines are presented for utility use in additive selection and in planning additive trials.

  19. Air- and Oxy-Fired Fireside Corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G. R.; Tylczak, J.; Carney, C.; Laughlin, D.; Zhu, J.; Wise, A.

    2014-03-04

    The primary goal of this work was to examine the corrosion effects from flue gas composition changes arising from oxy-combustion. At 700°C, increased SO{sub X}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O contents in the gas phase arising from various oxy-combustion flue gas recirculation scenarios, while maintaining constant ash deposit chemistry, do not increase corrosion in superheater or reheater tubing. At 400°C, for both oxidative and reducing conditions, the corrosion rates were lower than at 700°C.

  20. Laboratory to pilot scale: Microwave extraction for polyphenols lettuce.

    PubMed

    Périno, Sandrine; Pierson, Jean T; Ruiz, Karine; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2016-08-01

    Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) technique has been applied to pilot-scale solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) of polyphenols from Lettuce sativa. Following the dictates of green extraction and with the aim to save time and energy, the lab-scale knowledge on SFME was exploited for the development of a pilot-scale process. The investigation entailed the optimization of all main parameters (temperature, time, extracted water volume, etc.) and we showed that the polyphenols composition profile under SFME was similar to the classic methods though a bit lower in total content. The energy consumption in the optimized procedure (30min) was 1W/g of fresh matrix.

  1. The Characterization of Grade PCEA Recycle Graphite Pilot Scale Billets

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D; Pappano, Peter J

    2010-10-01

    Here we report the physical properties of a series specimens machined from pilot scale (~ 152 mm diameter x ~305 mm length) grade PCEA recycle billets manufactured by GrafTech. The pilot scale billets were processed with increasing amounts of (unirradiated) graphite (from 20% to 100%) introduced to the formulation with the goal of determining if large fractions of recycle graphite have a deleterious effect on properties. The properties determined include Bulk Density, Electrical Resistivity, Elastic (Young s) Modulus, and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion. Although property variations were observed to be correlated with the recycle fraction, the magnitude of the variations was noted to be small.

  2. How to Keep Your Kids Cozy and Safe by The Fireside

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe by the Fireside All types of fireplaces -- wood, gas and electric -- are potential safety hazards, experts ... of Pediatrics. Kids need to be supervised around wood-burning fires as well as around gas and ...

  3. A PILOT-SCALE STUDY ON THE COMBUSTION OF WASTE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Symposium Paper Post-consumer carpet is a potential substitute fuel for high temperature thermal processes such as cement kilns and boilers.This paper reports on results examining emissions of PCDDs/Fs from a series of pilot-scale experiments performed on the EPA's rotary kiln incinerator simulator facility in Research triangle Park, NC.

  4. COOLING COIL EFFECTS ON BLENDING IN A PILOT SCALE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

    2010-08-26

    Blending, or mixing, processes in 1.3 million gallon nuclear waste tanks are complicated by the fact that miles of serpentine, vertical, cooling coils are installed in the tanks. As a step toward investigating blending interference due to coils in this type of tank, a 1/10.85 scale tank and pump model were constructed for pilot scale testing. A series of tests were performed in this scaled tank by adding blue dye to visualize blending, and by adding acid or base tracers to solution to quantify the time required to effectively blend the tank contents. The acid and base tests were monitored with pH probes, which were located in the pilot scale tank to ensure that representative samples were obtained. Using the probes, the hydronium ion concentration [H{sup +}] was measured to ensure that a uniform concentration was obtained throughout the tank. As a result of pilot scale testing, a significantly improved understanding of mixing, or blending, in nuclear waste tanks has been achieved. Evaluation of test data showed that cooling coils in the waste tank model increased pilot scale blending times by 200% in the recommended operating range, compared to previous theoretical estimates of a 10-50% increase. Below the planned operating range, pilot scale blending times were increased by as much as 700% in a tank with coils installed. One pump, rather than two or more, was shown to effectively blend the tank contents, and dual pump nozzles installed parallel to the tank wall were shown to provide optimal blending. In short, experimental results varied significantly from expectations.

  5. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1994-06-01

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME`s) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (HEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These fiberglass filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these filters will be dissolved in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The contaminated fiberglass is converted to an aqueous stream which will be transferred to the waste tanks. The filter metal structure will be rinsed with process water before its disposal as low-level solid waste. The pilot-scale study reported here successfully demonstrated a simple one step process using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The proposed process requires the installation of a new water spray ring with 30 nozzles. In addition to the reduced waste generated, the total process time is reduced to 48 hours only (66% saving in time). The pilot-scale tests clearly demonstrated that the dissolution process of HEMEs has two stages - chemical digestion of the filter and mechanical erosion of the digested filter. The digestion is achieved by a boiling 5 wt% caustic solutions, whereas the mechanical break down of the digested filter is successfully achieved by spraying process water on the digested filter. An alternate method of breaking down the digested filter by increased air sparging of the solution was found to be marginally successful are best. The pilot-scale tests also demonstrated that the products of dissolution are easily pumpable by a centrifugal pump.

  6. Synthesis of arsenic graft adsorbents in pilot scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Kasai, Noboru; Shibata, Takuya; Aketagawa, Yasushi; Takahashi, Makikatsu; Yoshii, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Yasuhiko; Seko, Noriaki

    2012-08-01

    Synthesis of arsenic (As) adsorbents in pilot scale was carried out with a synthesizing apparatus by radiation-induced graft polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate phosphoric acid monomer (PA), which consists of phosphoric acid mono- (50%) and di- (50%) ethyl methacrylate esters onto a nonwoven cotton fabric (NCF), and following chemical modification by contact with a zirconium (Zr) solution. The apparatus which was equipped with reaction tanks, a washing tank and a pump can produce up to 0.3 m×14 m size of the As(V) adsorbent in one reaction. A degree of grafting of 150% was obtained at an irradiation dose of 20 kGy with 5% of PA solution mixed with deionized water for 1 h at 40 °C. Finally, after Zr(IV) was loaded onto a NCF with 5 mmol/L of Zr(IV) solution, the graft adsorbent for the removal of As(V) was achieved in pilot-scale. The adsorbent which was synthesized in pilot scale was evaluated in batch mode adsorption with 1 ppm (mg/l) of As(V) solution for 2 h at room temperature. As a result, the adsorption capacity for As(V) was 0.02 mmol/g-adsorbent.

  7. Odour in composting processes at pilot scale: monitoring and biofiltration.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, M C; Serrano, A; Martín, M A; Chica, A F

    2014-08-01

    Although odour emissions associated with the composting process, especially during the hydrolytic stage, are widely known, their impact on surrounding areas is not easily quantifiable, For this reason, odour emissions during the first stage ofcomposting were evaluated by dynamic olfactometry at pilot scale in order to obtain results which can be extrapolated to industrial facilities. The composting was carried out in a commercial dynamic respirometer equipped with two biofilters at pilot scale filled with prunings (Populus) and mature compost obtained from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Given that the highest odour emissions occur in the first stage of the composting process, this stage was carried out in a closed system to better control the odour emissions, whose maximum value was estimated to be 2.78 ouF S-1 during the experiments. Odour concentration, the dynamic respiration index and temperature showed the same evolution during composting, thus indicating that odour could be a key variable in the monitoring process. Other variables such as total organic carbon (CTOC) and pH were also found to be significant in this study due to their influence over odour emissions. The efficiency of the biofilters (empty bed residence time of 86 s) was determined by quantifying the odour emissions at the inlet and outlet of both biofilters. The moisture content in the biofilters was found to be an important variable for improving odour removal efficiency, while the minimum moisture percentage to obtain successful results was found to be 55% (odour removal efficiency of 95%).

  8. A pilot-scale continuous-jet hydrate reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Szymcek, Phillip; McCallum, Scott; Taboada Serrano, Patricia L; Tsouris, Costas

    2008-01-01

    A three-phase, pilot-scale continuous-jet hydrate reactor (CJHR) has been developed for the production of gas hydrates. The reactor receives water and a hydrate-forming species to produce the solid gas hydrate. The CJHR has been tested for the production of CO{sub 2} hydrate for the purpose of ocean carbon sequestration. Formation of CO{sub 2} hydrate was investigated using various reactor/injector designs in a 72-l high-pressure vessel. Designs of the CJHR varied from single-capillary to multiple-capillary injectors that dispersed (1) liquid CO{sub 2} into water or (2) water into liquid CO{sub 2}. The novel injector is designed to improve the dispersion of one reactant into the other and, thus, eliminate mass transfer barriers that negatively affect conversion. An additional goal was an increase in production rates of two orders of magnitude. The designed injectors were tested in both distilled and saline water. Hydrate production experiments were conducted at different CO{sub 2} and water flow rates and for pressures and temperatures equivalent to intermediate ocean depths (1100-1700 m). The pilot-scale reactor with the novel injection system successfully increased hydrate production rates and efficiency.

  9. Corrosion probes for fireside monitoring in coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion probes are being developed and combined with an existing measurement technology to provide a tool for assessing the extent of corrosion of metallic materials on the fireside in coal-fired boilers. The successful development of this technology will provide power plant operators the ability to (1) accurately monitor metal loss in critical regions of the boiler, such as waterwalls, superheaters, and reheaters; and (2) use corrosion rates as process variables. In the former, corrosion data could be used to schedule maintenance periods and in the later, processes can be altered to decrease corrosion rates. The research approach involves laboratory research in simulated environments that will lead to field tests of corrosion probes in coal-fired boilers. Laboratory research has already shown that electrochemically-measured corrosion rates for ash-covered metals are similar to actual mass loss corrosion rates. Electrochemical tests conducted using a potentiostat show the corrosion reaction of ash-covered probes at 500?C to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates measured are similar to those from an automated corrosion monitoring system. Tests of corrosion probes made with mild steel, 304L stainless steel (SS), and 316L SS sensors showed that corrosion of the sensors in a very aggressive incinerator ash was controlled by the ash and not by the alloy content. Corrosion rates in nitrogen atmospheres tended to decrease slowly with time. The addition of oxygen-containing gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide to nitrogen caused a more rapid decrease in corrosion rate, while the addition of water vapor increased the corrosion rate.

  10. Pilot-scale trommel: experimental test descriptions and data

    SciTech Connect

    Bolczak, R.

    1981-09-01

    A pilot scale trommel test at a laboratory in upper Marlboro, Maryland, was initiated to support theoretical work on development of a model performance and to supplement data collected in full scale testing at Recovery 1 in New Orleans. Descriptions and summaries of the project through July 1981 are presented. The feedstocks were identical nearsized flakes and wooden blocks. Three groupings of results are provided. The first group, Feedstock Tests, contains data on feedstock properties. This group includes description of the feedstocks and results of tests on the probability of passage, the dynamic angle of repose, and the coefficient of friction for the test flakes. The second test group on Residence Time and Impingement Tests contains data on the movement of flakes and blocks through the trommel. The last group, Mass Split, Screening Efficiency, and Undersize Distribution contains data on flake and block mass splits to the undersize and oversize products and the axial and sectorial distribution in the undersize. (MCW)

  11. Pilot Scale Tests Alden/Concepts NREC Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Cook; George E.Hecker; Stephen Amaral; Philip Stacy; Fangbiao Lin; Edward Taft

    2003-09-30

    Alden Research Laboratory, Inc. has completed pilot scale testing of the new Alden/Concepts NREC turbine that was designed to minimize fish injury at hydropower projects. The test program was part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems Program. The prototype turbine operating point was 1,000 cfs at 80ft head and 100 rpm. The turbine was design to: (1) limit peripheral runner speed; (2) have a high minimum pressure; (3) limit pressure change rates; (4) limit the maximum flow shear; (5) minimize the number and total length of leading blade edges; (6) maximize the distance between the runner inlet and the wicket gates and minimize clearances (i.e., gaps) between other components; and (7) maximize the size of flow passages.

  12. Supervisory control of a pilot-scale cooling loop

    SciTech Connect

    Kris Villez; Venkat Venkatasubramanian; Humberto Garcia

    2011-08-01

    We combine a previously developed strategy for Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) with a supervisory controller in closed loop. The combined method is applied to a model of a pilot-scale cooling loop of a nuclear plant, which includes Kalman filters and a model-based predictive controller as part of normal operation. The system has two valves available for flow control meaning that some redundancy is available. The FDI method is based on likelihood ratios for different fault scenarios which in turn are derived from the application of the Kalman filter. A previously introduced extension of the FDI method is used here to enable detection and identification of non-linear faults like stuck valve problems and proper accounting of the time of fault introduction. The supervisory control system is designed so to take different kinds of actions depending on the status of the fault diagnosis task and on the type of identified fault once diagnosis is complete. Some faults, like sensor bias and drift, are parametric in nature and can be adjusted without need for reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. Other faults, like a stuck valve problem, require reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. The whole strategy is demonstrated for several scenarios.

  13. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A pilot-scale in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) demonstration, involving subsurface injections of sodium permanganate (NaMnO4), was performed at the US Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), site 45 (Parris Island (PI), SC). The ground water was originally contaminated with perchloroethylene (PCE) (also known as tetrachloroethylene), a chlorinated solvent used in dry cleaner operations. High resolution site characterization involved multiple iterations of soil core sampling and analysis. Nested micro-wells and conventional wells were also used to sample and analyze ground water for PCE and decomposition products (i.e., trichloroethyelene (TCE), dichloroethylene (c-DCE, t-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC)), collectively referred to as chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOC). This characterization methodology was used to develop and refine the conceptual site model and the ISCO design, not only by identifying CVOC contamination but also by eliminating uncontaminated portions of the aquifer from further ISCO consideration. Direct-push injection was selected as the main method of NaMnO4 delivery due to its flexibility and low initial capital cost. Site impediments to ISCO activities in the source area involved subsurface utilities, including a high pressure water main, a high voltage power line, a communication line, and sanitary and stormwater sewer lines. Utility markings were used in conjunction with careful planning and judicious selection of injection locations. A

  14. Glycerol production by anaerobic fermentation of molasses on pilot scale

    SciTech Connect

    Virkar, P.D.; Panesar, M.S.

    1987-04-20

    The use of sodium sulphite as a steering agent for enhancing the yield of glycerol during anaerobic ethanol fermentation is well established. Several studies have been reported in the literature using free as well as immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In these studies it was observed that a relatively high concentration of sulphite in the fermentation broth, typically 40-100 g/l, was required to obtain a commercially significant yield of glycerol on sugar fermented. However, the dosing of large quantities of sulphite generally resulted in reduced viability of the microorganisms and slow fermentations. The glycerol concentration in the fermented broth was generally observed to be in the range 20-40 g/l. The low productivity coupled with the high cost of sulfite rendered the process commercially unattractive. In order to reduce the sulphite requirement, whilst at the same time increasing the productivity, a modified vacuum fermentation was developed in the laboratories. The process was successfully estabilished on a pilot scale and typical data obtained on scaleup are reported below. 8 references.

  15. SAES ST 909 PILOT SCALE METHANE CRACKING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J; Henry Sessions, H

    2007-07-02

    Pilot scale (500 gram) SAES St 909 methane cracking tests were conducted to determine material performance for tritium process applications. Tests that ran up to 1400 hours have been performed at 700 C, 202.7 kPa (1520 torr) with a 30 sccm feed of methane, with various impurities, in a 20 vol% hydrogen, balance helium, stream. A 2.5 vol% methane feed was reduced below 30 ppm for 631 hours. A feed of 1.1 vol% methane plus 1.4 vol% carbon dioxide was reduced below 30 ppm for 513 hours. The amount of carbon dioxide gettered by St 909 can be equated to an equivalent amount of methane gettered to estimate a reduced bed life for methane cracking. The effect of 0.4 vol % and 2.1 vol% nitrogen in the feed reduced the time to exceed 30 ppm methane to 362 and 45 hours, respectively, but the nitrogen equivalence to reduced methane gettering capacity was found to be dependent on the nitrogen feed composition. Decreased hydrogen concentrations increased methane getter rates while a drop of 30 C in one bed zone increased methane emissions by over a factor of 30. The impact of gettered nitrogen can be somewhat minimized if the nitrogen feed to the bed has been stopped and sufficient time given to recover the methane cracking rate.

  16. A NOVEL SENSOR AND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR FIRESIDE CORROSION MONITORING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Heng Ban; Zuoping Li

    2003-03-01

    Fireside corrosion in coal-fired power plants is a major obstacle to increase the overall efficiency for power producers. The increased use of opportunity fuels and low emission combustion modes have aggravated the corrosion on boiler tube walls in power plants. Corrosion-induced equipment failure could lead to catastrophic damage and inflict significant loss of production and cost for repair. Monitoring fireside corrosion in a reliable and timely manner can provide significant benefits to the plant operation. Current corrosion inspection and measurement are typically performed during scheduled maintenance outages, which is often after the damage is done. In the past, there have been many attempts to develop real time continuous corrosion monitoring technologies. However, there is still no short-term, online corrosion monitoring system commercially available for fireside corrosion to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. This report describes the results of a laboratory feasibility study on the development effort of a novel sensor for on-line fireside corrosion monitoring. A novel sensor principle and thin-film technologies were employed in the corrosion sensor design and fabrication. The sensor and the measurement system were experimentally studied using laboratory muffle furnaces. The results indicated that an accurate measure of corrosion rate could be made with high sensitivity using the new sensor. The investigation proved the feasibility of the concept and demonstrated the sensor design, sensor fabrication, and measurement instrumentation at the laboratory scale. An uncertainty analysis of the measurement system was also performed to provide a basis for further improvement of the system for future pilot or full scale testing.

  17. Development of fireside performance indices - task 8. Topical report, March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The primary goal of the Fireside Performance Indices (FPI) research project at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was to develop a series of indices to reliably predict the fireside performance of subbituminous coals in utility boilers. Individual utilities must respond quickly and effectively to changing fuel markets because of competition within the U.S. coal-fired power industry. Spot-market purchases of coal have become commonplace. The economics associated with sulfur emissions control have caused many utilities to use Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coals. The PRB coals usually provide a lower-cost, medium-heating-value, low-sulfur fuel option. Although these coals possess similar overall or bulk compositional properties, their fireside performance characteristics vary considerably within a given boiler. Consequently, bulk compositional parameters and, hence, conventional indices such as the base-to-acid ratio, stagging factor, and fouling factor are inappropriate for predicting the fireside performance of PRB coals. The development of the computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) and chemical fractionation methods, however, has enabled a more thorough characterization of the inorganic constituents of PRB, coals that contribute to the following adverse operational effects: stagging, fouling, opacity, erosion and poor grindability, slag tapping, and sootblower performance. Eight predictive indices have been developed based primarily on CCSEM and chemical fractionation analysis parameters to predict the propensity of a given coal or coal blend to cause operational problems. The indices were formulated using bench-, pilot-, and full-scale combustion testing data from previous research projects combined with bench-scale data from this project to identify the primary coal inorganic properties that cause ash-related problems in utility boilers.

  18. Pilot-Scale Batch Alkaline Pretreatment of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, Erik M.; O’Brien, Marykate H.; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Schell, Daniel J.

    2015-12-18

    The goal of biomass pretreatment is to increase the enzymatic digestibility of the plant cell wall polysaccharides to produce sugars for upgrading to biofuels. Alkaline pretreatment has the ability to solubilize much of the lignin in biomass while the carbohydrates remain insoluble. With an increased research focus to produce high-value products from lignin, a low molecular weight, lignin-rich stream in a biorefinery is desirable. Here, this work reports on batch alkaline pretreatment of corn stover conducted using a three-factor, two-level central composite experimental design in a pilot-scale reactor to determine the relationship between sodium hydroxide (NaOH) loading, temperature, and anthraquinone (AQ) charge on solids solubilization, component yields, and enzymatic digestibility of the residual solids. Operating conditions were 100 to 140 °C, 40 to 70 mg NaOH/g dry corn stover, and 0.05% to 0.2% (w/w) AQ loading. An enzymatic hydrolysis screening study was performed at 2% cellulose loading. Empirical modeling results showed that NaOH loading and temperature are both significant factors, solubilizing 15% to 35% of the solids and up to 54% of the lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the residual solids produced good monomeric glucose (>90%) and xylose (>70%) yields at the more severe pretreatment conditions. We also found that the AQ charge was not a significant factor at the conditions studied, so efforts to reduce xylan and increase lignin solubilization using this compound were not successful. Lastly, while good lignin solubilization was achieved, effectively recovering this stream remains a challenge, and demonstrating performance in continuous reactors is still needed.

  19. Pilot-Scale Batch Alkaline Pretreatment of Corn Stover

    DOE PAGES

    Kuhn, Erik M.; O’Brien, Marykate H.; Ciesielski, Peter N.; ...

    2015-12-18

    The goal of biomass pretreatment is to increase the enzymatic digestibility of the plant cell wall polysaccharides to produce sugars for upgrading to biofuels. Alkaline pretreatment has the ability to solubilize much of the lignin in biomass while the carbohydrates remain insoluble. With an increased research focus to produce high-value products from lignin, a low molecular weight, lignin-rich stream in a biorefinery is desirable. Here, this work reports on batch alkaline pretreatment of corn stover conducted using a three-factor, two-level central composite experimental design in a pilot-scale reactor to determine the relationship between sodium hydroxide (NaOH) loading, temperature, and anthraquinonemore » (AQ) charge on solids solubilization, component yields, and enzymatic digestibility of the residual solids. Operating conditions were 100 to 140 °C, 40 to 70 mg NaOH/g dry corn stover, and 0.05% to 0.2% (w/w) AQ loading. An enzymatic hydrolysis screening study was performed at 2% cellulose loading. Empirical modeling results showed that NaOH loading and temperature are both significant factors, solubilizing 15% to 35% of the solids and up to 54% of the lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the residual solids produced good monomeric glucose (>90%) and xylose (>70%) yields at the more severe pretreatment conditions. We also found that the AQ charge was not a significant factor at the conditions studied, so efforts to reduce xylan and increase lignin solubilization using this compound were not successful. Lastly, while good lignin solubilization was achieved, effectively recovering this stream remains a challenge, and demonstrating performance in continuous reactors is still needed.« less

  20. A pilot-scale radioactive test using in situ vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Timmerman, C.L.; Oma, K.M.

    1985-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing in situ vitrification (ISV) as a potential remedial action technique for previously disposed radioactive liquid drain sites. The process melts the contaminated soil to produce a durable glass and crystalline waste form and encapsulates the radionuclides. The development of this alternative technology is being performed for the US Department of Energy. The results of an ISV pilot-scale test conducted in June 1983 are discussed in which soils contaminated with actual radioactive transuranic and mixed fission product elements were vitrified. The test successfully demonstrated the containment of radionuclides during processing, both within the vitrified mass and in the off-gas system. No environmental release of radioactive material was detectable during testing operations. The vitrified soil retained >99% of all radionuclides. Losses to the offgas system varied from less than or equal to 0.03% for particulate materials (plutonium and strontium) to 0.8% for cesium, which is a more volatile element. The off-gas system effectively contained both volatile and entrained radioactive materials. Analysis of the vitrified soil revealed that all radionuclides were distributed throughout the vitrified zone, some more uniformly than others. Analysis of soil samples taken adjacent to the block indicated that no migration of radionuclides outside the vitrification zone occurred. Leaching studies have shown that the ISV process generates a highly durable waste form, comparable to Pyrex and granite. Based on geologic data from the hydration of obsidian, which is chemically similar to the ISV glass, the hydration or weathering rate is predicted to be much less than 1 mm in 10,000 yr.

  1. Lightweight alumina refractory aggregate. Phase 2, Pilot scale development

    SciTech Connect

    Swansiger, T.G.; Pearson, A.

    1994-11-01

    Kilogram quantities of refractory aggregate were prepared from both a paste and a pelletized form of extruder feed material in both bench and pilot-scale equipment. The 99{sup +} % alumina aggregate exhibited a bulk density approaching 2.5 g/cm{sup 3} and a fired strength slightly lower than fused alumina. Based on initial evaluation by two refractory manufacturers in brick or castable applications, the new aggregate offered adequate strength with thermal conductivity reductions up to 34%, depending on the temperature and application of the new aggregate in these initial trials. The new aggregate was simply substituted for Tabular{trademark} in the refractory formulation. Thus, there is room for improvement through formulation optimization with the lightweight aggregate. The new aggregate offers a unique combination of density, strength, and thermal properties not available in current aggregate. To this point in time, technical development has led to a pelletized formulation with borderline physical form leaving the Eirich mixer. The formulation requires further development to provide more latitude for the production of pelletized material without forming paste, while still reducing the bulk density slightly to reach the 2.5 g/cm{sup 3} target. The preferred, pelletized process flowsheet was outlined and a preliminary economic feasibility study performed based on a process retrofit into Alcoa`s Arkansas tabular production facilities. Based on an assumed market demand of 20,000 mt/year and an assumed selling price of $0.65/lb (25% more than the current selling price of Tabular{trademark}, on a volume basis), economics were favorable. Decision on whether to proceed into Phase 3 (full- scale demonstration) will be based on a formal market survey in 1994 October.

  2. Two-phase methanization of food wastes in pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Lee, J P; Lee, J S; Park, S C

    1999-01-01

    A 5 ton/d pilot scale two-phase anaerobic digester was constructed and tested to treat Korean food wastes in Anyang city near Seoul. The easily degradable presorted food waste was efficiently treated in the two-phase anaerobic digestion process. The waste contained in plastic bags was shredded and then screened for the removal of inert materials such as fabrics and plastics, and subsequently put into the two-stage reactors. Heavy and light inerts such as bones, shells, spoons, and plastic pieces were again removed by gravity differences. The residual organic component was effectively hydrolyzed and acidified in the first reactor with 5 d space time at pH of about 6.5. The second, methanization reactor converted the acids into methane with pH between 7.4 and 7.8. The space time for the second reactor was 15 d. The effluent from the second reactor was recycled to the first reactor to provide alkalinities. The process showed stable steady-state operation with the maximum organic loading rate of 7.9 kg volatile solid (VS)/m3/d and the volatile solid reduction efficiency of about 70%. The total of 3.6 tons presorted MSW containing 2.9 tons of food organic was treated to produce about 230 m3 of biogas with 70% (v/v) of methane and 80 kg of humus. This process is extended to full-scale treating 15 tons of food waste a day in Euiwang city and the produced biogas is utilized for the heating/cooling of adjacent buildings.

  3. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE INCINERATION OF ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes experiments performed on a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator to investigate the emissions and operational behavior during the incineration of consumer electronics waste. These experiments were targeted at destroying the organic components of printed circuit ...

  4. NOX REMOVAL WITH COMBINED SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION AND SELECTIVE NONCATALYTIC REDUCTION: PILOT- SCALE TEST RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-scale tests were conducted to develop a combined nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction technology using both selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR). A commercially available vanadium-and titatnium-based composite honeycomb catalyst and enh...

  5. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals: Pilot-Scale Operation

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    This project focuses on the development and pilot-scale testing of technologies that will enable the development of a biorefinery capable of economically deriving high-value chemicals and oils from lower value corn fiber.

  6. PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-09-11

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

  7. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michael E. Collings; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2001-09-30

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funding. In addition to DOE and the EERC, the project team includes W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc., and the Big Stone power station. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique approach to develop a compact but highly efficient system. Filtration and electrostatics are employed in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The objective of the AHPC is to provide >99.99% particulate collection efficiency for particle sizes from 0.01 to 50 {micro}m and be applicable for use with all U.S. coals at a lower cost than existing technologies. In previous field tests with the AHPC, some minor bag damage was observed that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Extensive studies were then carried out to determine the reason for the bag damage and to find possible solutions without compromising AHPC performance. The best solution to prevent the bag damage was found to be perforated plates installed between the electrodes and the bags, which can block the electric field from the bag surface and intercept current to the bags. The perforated plates not only solve the bag damage problem, but also offer many other advantages such as operation at higher A/C (air-to-cloth) ratios, lower pressure drop, and an even more compact geometric arrangement. For this project, AHPC pilot-scale tests were carried out to understand the effect of the

  8. Pilot-scale two-stage process: a combination of acidogenic hydrogenesis and methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Han, S K; Kim, S H; Kim, H W; Shin, H S

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to optimize both acidogenic hydrogenesis and methanogenesis, and then to develop a pilot-scale two-stage process producing not only CH4 but also H2. Firstly, acidogenic hydrogenesis of food waste was examined in pilot-scale leaching-bed reactors using dilution rate (D) as a tool to improve the environmental conditions. The maximum efficiency of 71.4% was obtained by adjusting D from 4.5 to 2.5 d(-1) depending on the state of degradation. Secondly, the wastewater from acidogenic hydrogenesis was converted to CH4 in a pilot-scale UASB reactor. The COD removal efficiency exceeded 95% up to the loading rates of 13.1 g COD/Ld, which corresponded to HRT of 0.25 d (6 h). Lastly, a pilot-scale two-stage process was devised based on a combination of acidogenic hydrogenesis and methanogenesis. Over 120 days, the pilot-scale process resulted in large VS reduction of 70.9% at the high loading rate of 12.5 kg VS/m3/d in a short SRT of 8 days.

  9. TODAY: EPA Administrator McCarthy to Hold Fireside Chat at ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Gina McCarthy will participate in a fireside chat at the ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit in National Harbor, Md. The discussion will be moderated by Jason Grumet, founder a

  10. Removal of Waterborne Particles by Electrofiltration: Pilot-Scale Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Theoretical analysis using a trajectory approach indicated that in the presence of an external electric field, charged waterborne particles are subject to an additional migration velocity which increases their deposition on the surface of collectors (e.g. sand filter). In this st...

  11. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  12. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF NEW RESIN APPLICATION EQUIPMENT FOR FIBER- REINFORCED PLASTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of a pilot-scale evaluation of new resin application equipment for fiber- reinforced plastics. The study, an evaluation and comparison of styrene emissions, utilized Magnum's FIT(TM) nozzle with conventional spray guns and flow coaters (operated at both ...

  13. A Flexible Pilot-Scale Setup for Real-Time Studies in Process Systems Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panjapornpon, Chanin; Fletcher, Nathan; Soroush, Masoud

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript describes a flexible, pilot-scale setup that can be used for training students and carrying out research in process systems engineering. The setup allows one to study a variety of process systems engineering concepts such as design feasibility, design flexibility, control configuration selection, parameter estimation, process and…

  14. SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM AT THE ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation or SITE Program, an evaluation was made of the Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System during 17 separate test runs under varying operating conditions. The tests were conducted at the Demode Road Superfund site in Ros...

  15. A pilot scale electrical infrared dry-peeling system for tomatoes: design and performance evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pilot scale infrared dry-peeling system for tomatoes was designed and constructed. The system consisted of three major sections including the IR heating, vacuum, and pinch roller sections. The peeling performance of the system was examined under different operational conditions using tomatoes with...

  16. Removal of Salmonella Enteritidis from commercial† unpasteurized liquid egg white using pilot scale crossflow tangential microfiltration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of a pilot-scale cross-flow microfiltration (MF) process for removal of Salmonella enteritidis from liquid egg white (LEW) was evaluated. To facilitate MF, 110 L of unpasteurized LEW from a local egg breaking plant was first wedge screened, homogenized and then diluted (1:2 w/w) w...

  17. Syngas fermentation in a 100-L pilot scale fermentor: design and process considerations.

    PubMed

    Kundiyana, Dimple K; Huhnke, Raymond L; Wilkins, Mark R

    2010-05-01

    Fermentation of syngas offers several advantages compared to chemical catalysts such as higher specificity of biocatalysts, lower energy costs, and higher carbon efficiency. Scale-up of syngas fermentation from a bench scale to a pilot scale fermentor is a critical step leading to commercialization. The primary objective of this research was to install and commission a pilot scale fermentor, and subsequently scale-up the Clostridium strain P11 fermentation from a 7.5-L fermentor to a pilot scale 100-L fermentor. Initial preparation and fermentations were conducted in strictly anaerobic conditions. The fermentation system was maintained in a batch mode with continuous syngas supply. The effect of anaerobic fermentation in a pilot scale fermentor was evaluated. In addition, the impact of improving the syngas mass transfer coefficient on the utilization and product formation was studied. Results indicate a six fold improvement in ethanol concentration compared to serum bottle fermentation, and formation of other compounds such as isopropyl alcohol, acetic acid and butanol, which are of commercial importance.

  18. FATE OF SEX HORMONES IN TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormon...

  19. ON-SITE ENGINEERING REPORT OF THE SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR PILOT-SCALE TESTING ON CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of pilot-scale bioslurry treatment on creosote-contaminated soil was evaluated. Five reactors containing 66 L of slurry (30% soil by weight), were operated in parallel. The soil was a sandy soil with minor gravel content. The pilot-scale phase utilized an inoculum...

  20. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF BROMINE ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports on a study to evaluate organic combustion by-product emissions while feeding varying amounts of bromine (Br) and chlorine (Cl) into a pilot-scale incinerator burning surrogate waste materials. (NOTE: Adding brominated organic compounds to a pilot-scale incinerat...

  1. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump-and-treat testing at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. The test will be conducted in fulfillment of interim Milestone M-15-06E to begin pilot-scale pump-and-treat operations by August 1994. The scope of the test was determined based on the results of lab/bench-scale tests (WHC 1993a) conducted in fulfillment of Milestone M-15-06B. These milestones were established per agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and documented on Hanford Federal of Ecology Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form M-15-93-02. This test plan discusses a pilot-scale pump-and-treat test for the chromium plume associated with the D Reactor portion of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. Data will be collected during the pilot test to assess the effectiveness, operating parameters, and resource needs of the ion exchange (IX) pump-and-treat system. The test will provide information to assess the ability to remove contaminants by extracting groundwater from wells and treating extracted groundwater using IX. Bench-scale tests were conducted previously in which chromium VI was identified as the primary contaminant of concern in the 100-D reactor plume. The DOWEX 21K{trademark} resin was recommended for pilot-scale testing of an IX pump-and-treat system. The bench-scale test demonstrated that the system could remove chromium VI from groundwater to concentrations less than 50 ppb. The test also identified process parameters to monitor during pilot-scale testing. Water will be re-injected into the plume using wells outside the zone of influence and upgradient of the extraction well.

  2. Summary of pilot-scale activities with resorcinol ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Sargent, T.N.; Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, J.P.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-10-02

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating vitrification technology for treatment of low level mixed wastes (LLMW). They have chartered the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to study vitrification of the wastes through an Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan (TTP). SRTC`s efforts have included crucible-scale studies and pilot scale testing on simulated LLMW sludges, resins, soils, and other solid wastes. Results from the crucible-scale studies have been used as the basis for the pilot-scale demonstrations. As part of the fiscal year (FY) 1995 activities, SRTC performed crucible-scale studies with organic resins. This waste stream was selected because of the large number of DOE sites, as well as commercial industries, that use resins for treatment of liquid wastes. Pilot-scale studies were to be completed in FY 1995, but could not be due to a reduction in funding. Instead, a compilation of pilot-scale tests with organic resins performed under the guidance of SRTC was provided in this report. The studies which will be discussed used a resorcinol- formaldehyde resin loaded with non-radioactive cesium, which was fed with simulated wastewater treatment sludge feed. The first study was performed at the SRTC in the mini-melter, 1/100th scale of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter, and also involved limited crucible-scale studies to determine the resin loading obtainable. The other study was performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research (Center) and involved both crucible and pilot-scale testing in the Stir-Melter stirred-melter. Both studies were successful in vitrifying the resin in simulated radioactive sludge and glass additive feeds.

  3. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Fireside Chat with Steven Chu and Bill Gates

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven (U.S. Department of Energy Secretary); Gates, Bill (Microsoft, Chairman); Podesta, John (Center for American Progress, Chair and Counselor)

    2016-07-12

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. This video captures a session called 'Fireside Chat' that featured Steven Chu, the Secretary of Energy, and Bill Gates, Chairman of Microsoft Corporation. The session is moderated by John Podesta, Chair of the Center for American Progress. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Microsoft Founder and Chairman Bill Gates exchanged ideas about how small businesses and innovators can overcome the challenges that face many startups.

  4. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings - phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Stanko, G.J.

    1996-08-01

    In Phase I a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings were exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase II (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA-8511, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, 800HT, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for over 10,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on an air-cooled, retractable corrosion probe, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy will be exposed for 4000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. The results will be presented for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after 4000 hours of exposure.

  5. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Fireside Chat with Steven Chu and Bill Gates

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Steven; Gates, Bill; Podesta, John

    2012-02-28

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. This video captures a session called 'Fireside Chat' that featured Steven Chu, the Secretary of Energy, and Bill Gates, Chairman of Microsoft Corporation. The session is moderated by John Podesta, Chair of the Center for American Progress. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Microsoft Founder and Chairman Bill Gates exchanged ideas about how small businesses and innovators can overcome the challenges that face many startups.

  6. Method of conditioning fireside fouling deposits using super large particle size magnesium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Merrell, G.A.; Sujdak, R.J.

    1989-01-10

    This patent describes a method for minimizing the deleterious effects of combustion residues on structures normally contacted thereby. It consists of burning coal in a furnace combustion zone and adding to the furnace an effective amount of a magnesium oxide material, comprising particles the major mass fraction of which is about 150 microns in diameter or greater so as to increase the friability of the residues which may normally adhere to the structures.

  7. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils: LEFPC appendices, volume 1, appendix I-IV

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This document contains Appendix I-IV for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are calibration records; quality assurance; soils characterization; pilot scale trial runs.

  8. Construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rafizul, Islam M; Howlader, Milon Kanti; Alamgir, Muhammed

    2012-11-01

    This research concentrates the design, construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter at KUET campus, Khulna, Bangladesh. Both the aerobic and anaerobic conditions having a base liner and two different types of cap liner were simulated. After the design of a reference cell, the construction of landfill lysimeter was started in January 2008 and completed in July 2008. In all construction process locally available civil construction materials were used. The municipal solid waste (MSW) of 2800-2985 kg having the total volume of 2.80 m(3) (height 1.6 m) and moisture content of 65% was deposited in each lysimeter by applying required compaction energy. In contrast, both the composition in terms of methane (CH(4)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and oxygen (O(2)) as well as the flow rate of landfill gas (LFG) generated from MSW in landfill lysimeter were measured and varied significantly in relation to the variation of lysimeter operational condition. Moreover, anaerobic lysimeter-C shows the highest composition of LFG in compare to the anaerobic lysimeter-B due to the providing of lower compaction of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-C. Here, it is interesting to note that in absence of compacted clay liner (CCL) and hence percolation of rainwater that facilitates rapid degradation of MSW in aerobic lysimeter-A has resulted in the highest settlement than that of anaerobic landfill lysimeter-B and C. Moreover, in case of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, the leachate generation was lower than that of aerobic lysimeter-A due to the providing of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, played an important role to reduce the percolation of rainwater. The study also reveals that the leachate pollution index (LPI) has decreased in relation to the increasing of elapsed period as well as the LPI for collection system of aerobic lysimeter-A was higher than that of the collection system of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C. Finally, it can be depicted that LPI for lysimeter

  9. Modeling the Pyrochemical Reduction of Spent UO2 Fuel in a Pilot-Scale Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Steven D. Herrmann; Michael F. Simpson

    2006-08-01

    A kinetic model has been derived for the reduction of oxide spent nuclear fuel in a radial flow reactor. In this reaction, lithium dissolved in molten LiCl reacts with UO2 and fission product oxides to form a porous, metallic product. As the reaction proceeds, the depth of the porous layer around the exterior of each fuel particle increases. The observed rate of reaction has been found to be only dependent upon the rate of diffusion of lithium across this layer, consistent with a classic shrinking core kinetic model. This shrinking core model has been extended to predict the behavior of a hypothetical, pilot-scale reactor for oxide reduction. The design of the pilot-scale reactor includes forced flow through baskets that contain the fuel particles. The results of the modeling indicate that this is an essential feature in order to minimize the time needed to achieve full conversion of the fuel.

  10. Pilot-scale base hydrolysis processing of HMX-based plastic-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Flesner, R.L.; Dell`orco, P.C.; Spontarelli, T.; Bishop, R.L.; Skidmore, C.; Uher, K.J.; Kramer, J.F.

    1996-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated that many energetic materials can be rendered non-energetic via reaction with sodium hydroxide or ammonia. This process is known as base hydrolysis. A pilot scale reactor has been developed to process up to 20 kg of plastic bonded explosive in a single batch operation. In this report, we discuss the design and operation of the pilot scale reactor for the processing of PBX 9404, a standard Department of Energy plastic bonded explosive containing HMX and nitrocellulose. Products from base hydrolysis, although non-energetic, still require additional processing before release to the environment Decomposition products, destruction efficiencies, and rates of reaction for base hydrolysis will be presented. Hydrothermal processing, previously known as supercritical water oxidation, has been proposed for converting organic products from hydrolysis to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide. Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing may yield a viable alternative to open burning/open detonation for destruction of many energetic materials.

  11. Pilot-scale base hydrolysis processing of HMX-based plastic-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Flesner, R.L.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Spontarelli, T.; Bishop, R.L.; Skidmore, C.B.; Uher, K.; Kramer, J.F.

    1997-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated that many energetic materials can be rendered non-energetic via reaction with sodium hydroxide or ammonia. This process is known as base hydrolysis. A pilot scale reactor has been developed to process up to 20 kg of plastic bonded explosive in a single batch operation. In this report, we discuss the design and operation of the pilot scale reactor for the processing of PBX 9404, a standard Department of Energy plastic bonded explosive containing HMX and nitrocellulose. Products from base hydrolysis, although non-energetic, still require additional processing before release to the environment. Decomposition products, destruction efficiencies, and rates of reaction for base hydrolysis will be presented. Hydrothermal processing, previously known as supercritical water oxidation, has been proposed for converting organic products from hydrolysis to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide. Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing may yield a viable alternative to open burning/open detonation for destruction of many energetic materials.

  12. Physical-chemical treatment of rainwater runoff in recovery and recycling companies: Pilot-scale optimization.

    PubMed

    Blondeel, Evelyne; Depuydt, Veerle; Cornelis, Jasper; Chys, Michael; Verliefde, Arne; Van Hulle, Stijin Wim Henk

    2015-01-01

    Pilot-scale optimisation of different possible physical-chemical water treatment techniques was performed on the wastewater originating from three different recovery and recycling companies in order to select a (combination of) technique(s) for further full-scale implementation. This implementation is necessary to reduce the concentration of both common pollutants (such as COD, nutrients and suspended solids) and potentially toxic metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly-chlorinated biphenyls frequently below the discharge limits. The pilot-scale tests (at 250 L h(-1) scale) demonstrate that sand anthracite filtration or coagulation/flocculation are interesting as first treatment techniques with removal efficiencies of about 19% to 66% (sand anthracite filtration), respectively 18% to 60% (coagulation/flocculation) for the above mentioned pollutants (metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly chlorinated biphenyls). If a second treatment step is required, the implementation of an activated carbon filter is recommended (about 46% to 86% additional removal is obtained).

  13. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D.

    2009-05-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin hydraulic cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Sixteen of these cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column (1/2 scale column). Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 3 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale IX system. The RF resin bed showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. The hydraulic and chemical performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins. The pilot-scale testing indicates that the RF resin is durable and should hold up to many hydraulic cycles in actual radioactive Cesium (Cs) separation.

  14. Transformation of Bisphenol A in Water Distribution Systems, A Pilot-scale Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Halogenations of bisphenol A (BPA) in a pilot-scale water distribution system (WDS) of cement-lined ductile cast iron pipe were investigated under the condition: pH 7.3±0.3, water flow velocity of 1.0 m/s, and 25 °C ± 1 °C in water temperature. The testing water was chlorinated f...

  15. Low-level waste vitrification pilot-scale system need report

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, M.F.; Whitney, L.D.

    1996-03-01

    This report examines the need for pilot-scale testing in support of the low-level vitrification facility at Hanford. In addition, the report examines the availability of on-site facilities to contain a pilot-plant. It is recommended that a non-radioactive pilot-plant be operated for extended periods. In addition, it is recommended that two small-scale systems, one processing radioactive waste feed and one processing a simulated waste feed be used for validation of waste simulants. The actual scale of the pilot-plant will be determined from the technologies included in conceptual design of the plant. However, for the purposes of this review, a plant of 5 to 10 metric ton/day of glass production was assumed. It is recommended that a detailed data needs package and integrated flowsheet be developed in FY95 to clearly identify data requirements and identify relationships with other TWRS elements. A pilot-plant will contribute to the reduction of uncertainty in the design and initial operation of the vitrification facility to an acceptable level. Prior to pilot-scale testing, the components will not have been operated as an integrated system and will not have been tested for extended operating periods. Testing for extended periods at pilot-scale will allow verification of the flowsheet including the effects of recycle streams. In addition, extended testing will allow evaluation of wear, corrosion and mechanical reality of individual components, potential accumulations within the components, and the sensitivity of the process to operating conditions. Also, the pilot facility will provide evidence that the facility will meet radioactive and nonradioactive environmental release limits, and increase the confidence in scale-up. The pilot-scale testing data and resulting improvements in the vitrification facility design will reduce the time required for cold chemical testing in the vitrification facility.

  16. Pilot-scale investigation of drinking water ultrafiltration membrane fouling rates using advanced data analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Peldszus, Sigrid; Peiris, Ramila H; Ruhl, Aki S; Mehrez, Renata; Jekel, Martin; Legge, Raymond L; Huck, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale investigation of the performance of biofiltration as a pre-treatment to ultrafiltration for drinking water treatment was conducted between 2008 and 2010. The objective of this study was to further understand the fouling behaviour of ultrafiltration at pilot scale and assess the utility of different foulant monitoring tools. Various fractions of natural organic matter (NOM) and colloidal/particulate matter of raw water, biofilter effluents, and membrane permeate were characterized by employing two advanced NOM characterization techniques: liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEM) combined with principal component analysis (PCA). A framework of fouling rate quantification and classification was also developed and utilized in this study. In cases such as the present one where raw water quality and therefore fouling potential vary substantially, such classification can be considered essential for proper data interpretation. The individual and combined contributions of various NOM fractions and colloidal/particulate matter to hydraulically reversible and irreversible fouling were investigated using various multivariate statistical analysis techniques. Protein-like substances and biopolymers were identified as major contributors to both reversible and irreversible fouling, whereas colloidal/particulate matter can alleviate the extent of irreversible fouling. Humic-like substances contributed little to either reversible or irreversible fouling at low level fouling rates. The complementary nature of FEEM-PCA and LC-OCD for assessing the fouling potential of complex water matrices was also illustrated by this pilot-scale study.

  17. Pilot Scale Production of Manganese Ferroalloys Using Heat-Treated Mn-Nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangstad, Merete; Ringdalen, Eli; Manilla, Edmundo; Davila, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Pilot-scale experiments are one way to investigate the process patterns and the reaction mechanisms of processes and raw materials. To understand a process fully, both theoretical considerations as well as small-scale investigations are needed; nevertheless, the complex patterns of chemical reactions and physical phenomena can best be studied in pilot-scale investigations. After studying the chemical and mineralogical properties, the strength and the melting behavior of Mn-nodules, presented in a previous paper, the process behavior of the ore is studied in a pilot scale experiment. The industrial process is simulated in a top-and bottom-electrode furnace operated at about 150 kW. The high-strength, low-melting Mn-nodules produced by Autlan were the main raw material mixed with Comilog ore and some lime. It was shown that the Mn-nodules behave in principle like other commercial Mn-raw materials. The ore will at the border of the high-temperature area produce a liquid in coexistence with a MnO phase. As the ore is reaching the cokebed zone, the ore is already fully reduced. The ore will not be reduced much more in the cokebed area. The slag will be tapped at the composition close to the liquidus composition, as observed for other Mn-raw materials, and thus, also follow the well-known rule of lower MnO content in the slag with higher basicity.

  18. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Qureshi, Z.

    2011-01-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that MST can be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations).

  19. Pilot Scale Production of Manganese Ferroalloys Using Heat-Treated Mn-Nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangstad, Merete; Ringdalen, Eli; Manilla, Edmundo; Davila, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Pilot-scale experiments are one way to investigate the process patterns and the reaction mechanisms of processes and raw materials. To understand a process fully, both theoretical considerations as well as small-scale investigations are needed; nevertheless, the complex patterns of chemical reactions and physical phenomena can best be studied in pilot-scale investigations. After studying the chemical and mineralogical properties, the strength and the melting behavior of Mn-nodules, presented in a previous paper, the process behavior of the ore is studied in a pilot scale experiment. The industrial process is simulated in a top-and bottom-electrode furnace operated at about 150 kW. The high-strength, low-melting Mn-nodules produced by Autlan were the main raw material mixed with Comilog ore and some lime. It was shown that the Mn-nodules behave in principle like other commercial Mn-raw materials. The ore will at the border of the high-temperature area produce a liquid in coexistence with a MnO phase. As the ore is reaching the cokebed zone, the ore is already fully reduced. The ore will not be reduced much more in the cokebed area. The slag will be tapped at the composition close to the liquidus composition, as observed for other Mn-raw materials, and thus, also follow the well-known rule of lower MnO content in the slag with higher basicity.

  20. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings

    SciTech Connect

    Van Weele, S. )

    1991-08-01

    Fireside corrosion, caused by liquid alkali-iron trisulfates, has been an obstacle to higher steam temperatures and to efficient utilization of high-sulfur coals. Tests simulating the environment in the superheater bank of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler were conducted on several promising new alloys and claddings. Alloys were exposed to a variety of synthetic ash and simulated flue gas compositions at 650 and 700{degrees}C for times ranging up to 800 hours. Included in the testing program were new high-chromium/high-nickel alloys, modified commercial alloys, lean stainless steels (modified Type 316) clad with high-chromium/high-nickel alloys, and intermetallic aluminides. Thickness loss measurements indicated that resistance to attach improved with increasing chromium level. Silicon and aluminum were also helpful in resisting attack, while molybdenum was detrimental to the resistance of the alloys to attack. Three different attack modes were observed on the alloys tested. Alloys with low resistance to attack exhibited uniform wastage, while pitting was observed in more resistant alloys. In addition to surface fluxing by molten alkali-iron trisulfates, subsurface sulfur penetration and intergranular attack also occurred.

  1. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Weele, S.

    1991-08-01

    Fireside corrosion, caused by liquid alkali-iron trisulfates, has been an obstacle to higher steam temperatures and to efficient utilization of high-sulfur coals. Tests simulating the environment in the superheater bank of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler were conducted on several promising new alloys and claddings. Alloys were exposed to a variety of synthetic ash and simulated flue gas compositions at 650 and 700{degrees}C for times ranging up to 800 hours. Included in the testing program were new high-chromium/high-nickel alloys, modified commercial alloys, lean stainless steels (modified Type 316) clad with high-chromium/high-nickel alloys, and intermetallic aluminides. Thickness loss measurements indicated that resistance to attach improved with increasing chromium level. Silicon and aluminum were also helpful in resisting attack, while molybdenum was detrimental to the resistance of the alloys to attack. Three different attack modes were observed on the alloys tested. Alloys with low resistance to attack exhibited uniform wastage, while pitting was observed in more resistant alloys. In addition to surface fluxing by molten alkali-iron trisulfates, subsurface sulfur penetration and intergranular attack also occurred.

  2. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W.

    1997-12-01

    In Phase 1 a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings were exposed to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347 RA-85H, HR3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 Ta modified, NF 709, 690 clad, and 671 clad for approximately 4,000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW coal-fired boiler. The samples were assembled on an air-cooled, retractable corrosion probe, the probe was installed in the reheater activity of the boiler and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. The results will be presented for the preliminary metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after 16,000 hours of exposure. Continued metallurgical and interpretive analysis is still on going.

  3. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, J.L.; Krawchuk, M.T.; Van Weele, S.F.

    1995-08-01

    A number of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings have previously been exposed in Phase I to laboratory fireside corrosion testing simulating a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. This program is exposing samples of TP 347, RA-85H, HR-3C, 253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, 310 modified, NF-709, 690 clad, and 671 clad, which showed good corrosion resistance from Phase 1, to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW, coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, and are being controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle coal-fired boiler. The exposure will continue for 4000, 12,000, and 16,000 hours of operation. After the three exposure times, the samples will be metallurgically examined to determine the wastage rates and mode of attack. The probes were commissioned November 16, 1994. The temperatures are being recorded every 15 minutes, and the weighted average temperature calculated for each sample. Each of the alloys is being exposed to a temperature in each of two temperature bands-1150 to 1260{degrees}F and 1260 to 1325{degrees}F. After 2000 hours of exposure, one of the corrosion probes was cleaned and the wall thicknesses were ultrasonically measured. The alloy performance from the field probes will be discussed.

  4. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-09

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  5. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D

    2006-11-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12 inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24 inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  6. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger. Task 2, Pilot scale IFGT testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jankura, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of Task 2 (IFGT Pilot-Scale Tests at the B&W Alliance Research Center) is to evaluate the emission reduction performance of the Integrated flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) process for coal-fired applications. The IFGT system is a two-stage condensing heat exchanger that captures multiple pollutants - while recovering waste heat. The IFGT technology offers the potential of a addressing the emission of SO{sub 2} and particulate from electric utilities currently regulated under the Phase I and Phase II requirements defined in Title IV, and many of the air pollutants that will soon be regulated under Title III of the Clean Air Act. The performance data will be obtained at pilot-scale conditions similar to full-scale operating systems. The task 2 IFGT tests have been designed to investigate several aspects of IFGT process conditions at a broader range of variable than would be feasible at a larger scale facility. The performance parameters that will be investigated are as follows: SO{sub 2} removal; particulate removal; removal of mercury and other heavy metals; NO{sub x} removal; HF and HCl removal; NH{sub 3} removal; ammonia-sulfur compounds generation; and steam injection for particle removal. For all of the pollutant removal tests, removal efficiency will be based on measurements at the inlet and outlet of the IFGT facility. Heat recovery measurements will also be made during these tests to demonstrate the heat recovery provided by the IFGT technology. This report provides the Final Test Plan for the first coal tested in the Task 2 pilot-scale IFGT tests.

  7. Pilot-scale treatment of RDX-contaminated soil with zerovalent iron.

    PubMed

    Comfort, S D; Shea, P J; Machacek, T A; Satapanajaru, T

    2003-01-01

    Soils in Technical Area 16 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are severely contaminated from past explosives testing and research. Our objective was to conduct laboratory and pilot-scale experiments to determine if zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) could effectively transform RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in two LANL soils that differed in physicochemical properties (Soils A and B). Laboratory tests indicated that Soil A was highly alkaline and needed to be acidified [with H2SO4, Al2(SO4)3, or CH3COOH] before Fe(0) could transform RDX. Pilot-scale experiments were performed by mixing Fe(0) and contaminated soil (70 kg), and acidifying amendments with a high-speed mixer that was a one-sixth replica of a field-scale unit. Soils were kept unsaturated (soil water content = 0.30-0.34 kg kg(-1)) and sampled with time (0-120 d). While adding CH3COOH improved the effectiveness of Fe(0) to remove RDX in Soil A (98% destruction), CH3COOH had a negative effect in Soil B. We believe that this difference is a result of high concentrations of organic matter and Ba. Adding CH3COOH to Soil B lowered pH and facilitated Ba release from BaSO4 or BaCO3, which decreased Fe(0) performance by promoting flocculation of humic material on the iron. Despite problems encountered with CH3COOH, pilot-scale treatment of Soil B (12 100 mg RDX kg(-1)) with Fe(0) or Fe(0) + Al2(SO4)3 showed high RDX destruction (96-98%). This indicates that RDX-contaminated soil can be remediated at the field scale with Fe(0) and soil-specific problems (i.e., alkalinity, high organic matter or Ba) can be overcome by adjustments to the Fe(0) treatment.

  8. MGP soil remediation in a slurry-phase system: A pilot-scale test

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bill Y.; Srivastava, V.J.; Paterek, J.R.; Pradhan, S.P.; Pope, J.R.; Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G.; Jerger, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    An overall protocol for remediating manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils generally includes bench-scale evaluation of the technology, pilot-scale demonstration, and full-scale implementation. This paper summarizes the results of the bench-scale and pilot-scale study for treating an MGP soil with IGT`s integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment (CBT) or Manufactured Gas Plant Remediation (MGP-REM) process in the slurry-phase mode of application. MGP soils are contaminated primarily with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). An MGP site in New Jersey was the subject of this study. Soils from the site were used for the bench-scale evaluation of the integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment. The bench-scale study started with biological pre-treatment followed by chemical treatment and biological polishing. Results of the bench-scale study showed that this process was effective in degrading EPA Total as well as EPA Carcinogenic PAHs. A test matrix was developed to assess this technology at a pilot-scale facility. The test matrix consisted of at least eight semi-continuous runs designed to evaluate the effects of PAH concentration, total solids concentration, residence time, and a number of chemical reagent additions. An operating permit for 14 days was obtained to evaluate the process primarily for air emission data and secondarily for PAH degradation data. The PAH data showed that the MGP-REM process was very effective in degrading carcinogenic PAHs even under sub-optimal operating conditions. The field data also showed that the emissions of volatile organic compounds were well below the regulatory limits.

  9. Final Report: Pilot-scale Cross-flow Filtration Test - Envelope A + Entrained Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-06-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company.This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. This plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  10. Evaluation of pilot-scale pollution control devices for hazardous-waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.M.; Olexsey, R.A.

    1985-09-01

    The paper summarizes the results of emission tests carried out on three pilot-scale air pollution-control devices. The units were connected to a slip stream from the ENSCO, Inc. hazardous-waste incinerator at El Dorado, Arkansas. The three units were a Hydro Sonic System wet scrubber; an ETS dry scrubber; and a Vulcan Engineering Company high temperature baghouse. The units were evaluated for their capability in removing particulate matter and HCl. Full discussion of the testing program and results is in an EPA report, Evaluation of Air Pollution Control Devices for Hazardous Waste Combustion, now undergoing final review in the Agency.

  11. Pilot scale processing of simulated Savannah River Site high level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Ritter, J.A.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory operates the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), which is a pilot-scale test facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the US Department of Energy's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, the IDMS is used in the evaluation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and offgass treatment systems. This article provides a general overview of some of the test work which has been conducted in the IDMS facility. The chemistry associated with the chemical treatment of the sludge (via formic acid adjustment) is discussed. Operating experiences with simulated sludge containing high levels of nitrite, mercury, and noble metals are summarized.

  12. A pilot-scale photocatalyst-membrane hybrid reactor: performance and characterization.

    PubMed

    Ryu, J; Choi, W; Choo, K H

    2005-01-01

    We developed and tested a pilot-scale photocatalyst-membrane hybrid reactor for water treatment. The performance of the pilot-scale reactor was evaluated by monitoring the degradation efficiency of several organic pollutants and the membrane suction pressure at different operating conditions. The concentration of humic acids rather increased in the initial period of UV illumination and then decreased gradually, which could be ascribed to the photoinduced desorption of humic acids from the TiO2 surface. The decoloring rate of methylene blue was faster than that of rhodamine B, whereas the order of mineralization rates of the dyes was reversed. 4-chlorophenol of 100 ppb was fully degraded under UV irradiation in 2 hours, which suggests that this hybrid reactor would be more suitable in removing micropollutants in water. The reactor was operated with either continuous or intermittent suction mode. In a continuous suction mode, the formation of TiO2 cake layers on the membrane surface occurred and caused a substantial increase in suction pressure. However, no further fouling (or suction pressure build-up) took place with an intermittent suction mode with the 9-min suction and 3-min pause period. The photocatalyst-membrane hybrid reactor system developed in this study could be an attractive option for controlling micropollutants in water.

  13. Pilot-scale tests of an innovative 'serial self-turning reactor' composting technology in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sungsomboon, Praj-ya; Chaisomphob, Taweep; Bongochgetsakul, Nattakorn; Ishida, Tetsuya

    2013-02-01

    Composting facilities in Thailand have faced various operational problems, resulting in the emission of odours, incomplete digestion of waste organics, and higher than desired costs. Composting technologies imported from developed countries tend to be sized for larger communities and are otherwise not suited for the rural communities that comprise more than 80% of all communities in Thailand. This article addresses the research and development of a novel composting technology aimed at filling this observed need. The study was divided into two parts: (1) the development of a new composting technology and fabrication of a prototype configuration of equipment; and (2) scale-up and study on a pilot-scale using real rubbish. The proposed technology, called 'serial self-turning reactor (STR)', entailed a vertical flow composting system that consisted of a set of aerobic reactors stacked on a set of gravity fed turning units. In-vessel bioreactor technology enables the operator to control composting conditions. The researchers found that a tower-like STR results in flexibility in size scale and waste processing residence time. The pilot-scale experiments showed that the proposed system can produce good quality compost while consuming comparatively little energy and occupying a compact space, compared to traditional land-intensive windrow composting facilities.

  14. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded. PMID:26393620

  15. 106-AN grout pilot-scale test HGTP-93-0501-02

    SciTech Connect

    Bagaasen, L.M.

    1993-05-01

    The Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) at Hanford, Washington will process the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes into a cementitious waste form. This facility, which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), mixes liquid waste with cementitious materials to produce a waste form that immobilizes hazardous constituents through chemical reactions and/or microencapsulation. Over 1,000,000 gal of Phosphate/Sulfate Waste were solidified in the first production campaign with this facility. The next tank scheduled for treatment is 106-AN. After conducting laboratory studies to select the grout formulation, part of the normal formulation verification process is to conduct tests using the 1/4-scale pilot facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The major objectives of these pilot-scale tests were to determine if the proposed grout formulation could be processed in the pilot-scale equipment and to collect thermal information to help determine the best way to manage the grout hydration heat.

  16. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-09-18

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g(-1) VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH₄ recovery of 189 L kg(-1) VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH₄ and 38% CO₂ was recorded.

  17. Pilot-scale electrokinetic treatment of a Cu contaminated red soil.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dong-Mei; Cang, Long; Alshawabkeh, Akram N; Wang, Yu-Jun; Hao, Xiu-Zhen

    2006-05-01

    A pilot-scale experiment for electrokinetic treatment of 700 kg of copper contaminated red soil was conducted using a constant voltage of 80 V. Dynamic removal percentages of Cu from the soil and energy consumption during the treatment were evaluated together with changes of soil pH, electrical conductivity and soil microbial functional diversity before and after the electrokinetic treatment. The results indicate that 76% of Cu was successfully removed from the soil after 140 d of treatment when lactic acid was used as enhancing reagent for adjusting the catholyte pH and dissolving soil Cu by complexation, and the pilot-scale electrokinetic experiment consumed electric energy of 224 kW h t-1 soil. The post-treatment soil pH values decreased about 0.1-1.6 units compared with the initial value (pH 4.8), and soil electrical conductivities in most of soil sections also significantly decreased. Soil microbial functional diversity varied after the electrokinetic treatment, particularly the increase of substrate richness index, which is possibly due to the stimulation of lactic acid that was introduced into the soil column during the experiment.

  18. Pilot scale conversion of wheat straw to ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Saha, Badal C; Nichols, Nancy N; Qureshi, Nasib; Kennedy, Gregory J; Iten, Loren B; Cotta, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    The production of ethanol from wheat straw (WS) by dilute acid pretreatment, bioabatement of fermentation inhibitors by a fungal strain, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the bio-abated WS to ethanol using an ethanologenic recombinant bacterium was studied at a pilot scale without sterilization. WS (124.2g/L) was pretreated with dilute H2SO4 in two parallel tube reactors at 160°C. The inhibitors were bio-abated by growing the fungus aerobically. The maximum ethanol produced by SSF of the bio-abated WS by the recombinant Escherichia coli FBR5 at pH 6.0 and 35°C was 36.0g/L in 83h with a productivity of 0.43gL(-1)h(-1). This value corresponds to an ethanol yield of 0.29g/g of WS which is 86% of the theoretical ethanol yield from WS. This is the first report on the production of ethanol by the recombinant bacterium from a lignocellulosic biomass at a pilot scale.

  19. Evaluation of the thermal stability POHC incinerability ranking in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.; Whitworth, W.E.; Carroll, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the thermal stability-based POHC incinerability ranking. In the tests, mixtures of 12 POHCs with predicted incinerability spanning the range of most to least difficult to incinerate class were combined with a clay-based sorbent and batch-fed to the facility's pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator via a fiberpack drum ram feeder. Kiln operating conditions were varied to include a baseline operating condition, three modes of attempted incineration failure, and a worst case combination of the three failure modes. Kiln exit POHC DREs were in the 99.99 percent range for the volatile POHCs for the baseline, mixing failure (increased charge mass), and matrix failure (decreased feed H/C) tests. Semivolatile POHCs were not detected in the kiln exit for these tests; corresponding DREs were generally greater than 99.999 percent. The thermal failure (low kiln temperature) and worst case (combination of thermal, mixing, and matrix failure) tests resulted in substantially decreased kiln exit POHC DREs. These ranged from 99 percent or less for Freon 113 to greater than 99.999 percent for the less stable-ranked semivolatile POHCs. General agreement between relative kiln exit POHC DRE and predicted incinerability class was observed.

  20. Bench- and pilot-scale sludge electrodewatering in a diaphragm filter press.

    PubMed

    Saveyn, H; Van der Meeren, P; Pauwels, G; Timmerman, R

    2006-01-01

    Electrodewatering is a technique in which pressure dewatering is combined with electrokinetic effects to realize an improved solid/liquid separation and hence increased filter cake dry matter contents. In order to be energy efficient, it is shown that sludge should be dewatered by pressure dewatering to a high extent prior to electric field application, and a sufficient contact time for the electric field must be guaranteed. In order to realize these goals, a bench- and pilot-scale diaphragm filter press suited for electrodewatering were constructed for treatment of sewage and other types of sludges. It was shown that electrodewatering of sludge is a feasible technique, especially for biological sludge types. Other types of sludge are less suited for electrodewatering because of the restricted improvements that can be realized in cake dry matter content and the high electric energy consumption. Furthermore, it was shown in pilot-scale tests that the use of a diaphragm filter press with electrodewatering facilities was very well suited to deliver dry filter cakes of sewage sludge at a moderate energy consumption. Depending on local market prices for investment, operating and sludge disposal costs, this technology may therefore lead to important savings in the sludge management process.

  1. Second-order chlorine decay and trihalomethanes formation in a pilot-scale water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Yu, Jieze; Zhang, Tu-qiao; Mao, Xinwei; Shao, Weiyun

    2012-08-01

    It is well known that model-building of chlorine decay in real water distribution systems is difficult because chlorine decay is influenced by many factors (e.g., bulk water demand, pipe-wall demand, piping material, flow velocity, and residence time). In this paper, experiments were run to investigate the kinetic model of chlorine decay and the formation model of trihalomethanes (THMs) in pilot-scale water distribution systems. Experimental results show that the rate constants of chlorine decay, including wall decay and bulk decay, increasing with temperature. Moreover, the kinetic model of chlorine decay and the formation model of THMs describe experiment data of pilot-scale water distribution systems. The effect of different piping material on chlorine decay and THMs formation were also investigated. The rate constants of chlorine decay are ranked in order: stainless steel pipe, ductile iron pipe, and last, polyethelene pipe because wall decay is the largest in stainless steel pipe than that in other piping material. Correspondingly, the rate of THMs formation follows the order of stainless steel pipe, ductile iron pipe, and last, polyethelene pipe because of less chlorine in bulk water reacting with the trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP).

  2. Comprehensive bench- and pilot-scale investigation of trace organic compounds rejection by forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Nathan T; Xu, Pei; Heil, Dean M; Bellona, Christopher; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2011-10-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a membrane separation technology that has been studied in recent years for application in water treatment and desalination. It can best be utilized as an advanced pretreatment for desalination processes such as reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) to protect the membranes from scaling and fouling. In the current study the rejection of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, plasticizers, and flame-retardants by FO and a hybrid FO-RO system was investigated at both the bench- and pilot-scales. More than 30 compounds were analyzed, of which 23 nonionic and ionic TOrCs were identified and quantified in the studied wastewater effluent. Results revealed that almost all TOrCs were highly rejected by the FO membrane at the pilot scale while rejection at the bench scale was generally lower. Membrane fouling, especially under field conditions when wastewater effluent is the FO feed solution, plays a substantial role in increasing the rejection of TOrCs in FO. The hybrid FO-RO process demonstrated that the dual barrier treatment of impaired water could lead to more than 99% rejection of almost all TOrCs that were identified in reclaimed water.

  3. [Pilot-scale cultivation of Spirulina plantensis with digested piggery wastewater ].

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing-qing; Liu, Rui; Luo, Jin-fei; Wang, Gen-rong; Chen, Lii-jun; Liu, Xiao

    2014-09-01

    The swine waste pretreated with coagulation sedimentation was used for the outdoor pilot-scale cultivation of Spirulina platensis isolated from digested piggery wastewater (DPW) in a raceway pond. The growth of S. platensis and removal of nitrogen/ phosphorus were studied, moreover, the conversion efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) or total phosphorus (TP) from DPW to S. platensis was calculated. On this basis, the existing problems and countermeasures during outdoor pilot-scale culture were analyzed and summarized combined with the laboratory research. We conducted 6 batches culture experiments, only 3 of which could reach the S. platensis harvest requirements (D560 >0. 8). Meanwhile, the 3 successful batches achieved removal of COD, ammonia nitrogen, TN, TP with corresponding 28. 6% -48. 5% , 0.4% -48. 5% , 41. 8% -48. 6% , 14. 3% -94. 5% , and the conversion efficiency of TN or TP from DPW to S. platensis reached 12. 1% -98. 5% , 21.2% -83.7% , respectively. High concentration of ammonia nitrogen and insect attack of remaining egg hatching in the pretreated swine waste were the main factors to cause the slow-growing of the 3 batches of S. platensis. Therefore, it is highly necessary for the removal of ammonia nitrogen with biological treatment technology and insect eggs with membrane to achieve a stable high productivity.

  4. Pilot scale benzene stripping column testing: Review of test data and application to the ITP columns

    SciTech Connect

    Georgeton, G.K.; Gaughan, T.P.; Taylor, G.A.

    1993-09-10

    Radioactive cesium will be removed from aqueous high level waste (HLW) solutions by precipitation with sodium tetraphenyl borate (TPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. Benzene is generated due to the radiolysis of TPB, and dissolves into the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) and into the water used to wash (WW) the precipitate. These solutions will be processed through stripping columns to reduce the benzene concentration to satisfy limits for disposal of the DSS and for temporary storage of the WW. A pilot scale testing program to evaluate the stripping column operation in support of ITP startup activities has been completed. Equipment and test plans were developed so that data obtained from the pilot scale testing would be directly applicable to full scale column operation and could be used to project hydraulic performance and stripping efficiency of both columns. A review of the test data indicate that the ITP stripping columns will be capable of reducing benzene concentrations in salt solutions to satisfy Saltstone and Tank 22 acceptance limits. An antifoam (AF) will be required to maintain the column differential pressure below the vendor recommendation of 40 inches wc so that design feed rates can be achieved. Additionally, the testing program indicated that the nitrogen rate can be decreased from the ITP column design rates and still satisfy benzene concentration requirements in the product.

  5. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of

  6. Simulation of carbon degradation in a rotary drum pilot scale composting process.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor, J; Rodríguez Mayor, L; Rodríguez Romero, L; Fernández, F J

    2012-10-15

    This paper studies the simulation of carbon degradation in pilot scale solid waste composting processes using first-order kinetic models previously calibrated by laboratory experiments at different temperatures. Different solid biowastes (olive mill waste, winery waste, sewage sludge and reed biomass) were used. Three mixtures were prepared from combinations of the materials listed above, and they were used in both the laboratory kinetic experiments and the pilot scale composting experiments. Lab experiments were conducted in small reactors with temperature (T) control and forced aeration of the solid mixture. Each biowaste mixture was treated at four different temperatures, 25, 40, 50 and 60 °C, with controlled moisture; the carbon (C) concentration of the samples was measured weekly. Two different kinetic models were used to fit the carbon mineralisation curves: the 2C model, which considers two organic fractions (biodegradable and non-biodegradable), and the 3C model, which considers three fractions (easily biodegradable, slowly biodegradable and non-biodegradable). In both cases, the kinetic rate constants were calculated by mathematical fitting. The influence of temperature on the rate constants was also studied for both models using a T-dependent equation. The theoretical k(T) curves showed classical shapes, and the temperatures for optimum k values and thermal inactivation were obtained. Once the C degradation rate constants and their T dependence equations were available, it was possible to simulate the evolution of C degradation in an actual pilot scale rotary drum composting process under varying temperatures and using the same biowaste mixtures. The comparison between the theoretical profiles and the experimental data showed that the thermophilic stage could be accurately simulated; however, errors and lower levels of model accuracy occurred when the maturation stage was simulated. The simulation was valid for all of the viewed biowaste mixtures. The 2C

  7. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994) and a recent 200 NPL Agreement Change Control Form (Appendix A). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-BP-5 Operable Unit Interim Remedial Measure (IRM) Proposed Plan be developed for use in preparing an Interim Action Record of Decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-BP-5 Operable Unit activities (e.g., development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the Interim Action ROD will specify the interim action(s) for groundwater contamination at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. The treatability test approach is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for each of the two contaminant plumes associated with the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are {sup 99}Tc and {sup 60}Co for underwater affected by past discharges to the 216-BY Cribs, and {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239/240}Pu, and Cs for groundwater affected by past discharges to the 216-B-5 Reverse Well. The purpose of the pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this testplan is to provide the data basis for preparing an IRM Proposed Plan. To achieve this objective, treatability testing must: Assess the performance of groundwater pumping with respect to the ability to extract a significant amount of the primary contaminant mass present in the two contaminant plumes.

  8. PILOT SCALE TESTING OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE MIXING FOR THE SRS SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS - 11224

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.; Steeper, T.

    2011-01-25

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and select actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the requirements for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that they can contact the strontium and actinides in the liquid and be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of SRS Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). The conclusions from this work follow: (i) Neither two standard slurry pumps nor two quad volute slurry pumps will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. (ii) Two Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. However, the testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is close to the maximum discharge velocity of the pump (within 12%). (iii) Three SMPs will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 66% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (iv) Three SMPs are needed to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 77% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. Two SMPs are not sufficient to resuspend MST that settled under these

  9. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.

    2011-05-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to resuspend the MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles so that they can be removed from the tank, and to suspend the MST so it can contact strontium and actinides. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5, B3, and B1). Previous testing showed that three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank, and to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST and CST that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 84% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (2) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST, CST, and simulated sludge that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 82% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (3) A contact time of 6-12 hours is needed for strontium sorption by MST in a jet mixed tank with cooling coils, which is consistent with bench-scale testing and actinide removal process (ARP) operation.

  10. Paper and board mill effluent treatment with the combined biological-coagulation-filtration pilot scale reactor.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Shabir, Ghulam; Hussain, Irshad; Khalid, Zafar M

    2008-10-01

    Pilot scale reactor based on combined biological-coagulation-filtration treatments was designed and evaluated for the treatment of effluent from a paper and board mill. Biological treatment by fed batch reactor (FBR) followed by coagulation and sand filtration (SF) resulted in a total COD and BOD reduction of 93% and 96.5%, respectively. A significant reduction in both COD (90%) and BOD (92%) was also observed by sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process followed by coagulation and filtration. Untreated effluent was found to be toxic, whereas the treated effluents by either of the above two processes were found to be non-toxic when exposed to the fish for 72h. The resultant effluent from FBR-coagulation-sand filtration system meets National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks.

  11. Gaseous emissions during the solid state fermentation of different wastes for enzyme production at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Maulini-Duran, Caterina; Abraham, Juliana; Rodríguez-Pérez, Sheila; Cerda, Alejandra; Jiménez-Peñalver, Pedro; Gea, Teresa; Barrena, Raquel; Artola, Adriana; Font, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2015-03-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), CH4, N2O and NH3 during the solid state fermentation process of some selected wastes to obtain different enzymes have been determined at pilot scale. Orange peel+compost (OP), hair wastes+raw sludge (HW) and winterization residue+raw sludge (WR) have been processed in duplicate in 50 L reactors to provide emission factors and to identify the different VOC families present in exhaust gaseous emissions. Ammonia emission from HW fermentation (3.2±0.5 kg Mg(-1) dry matter) and VOC emission during OP processes (18±6 kg Mg(-1) dry matter) should be considered in an industrial application of these processes. Terpenes have been the most emitted VOC family during all the processes although the emission of sulphide molecules during HW SSF is notable. The most emitted compound was dimethyl disulfide in HW and WR processes, and limonene in the SSF of OP.

  12. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2015-02-01

    Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite.

  13. Pilot-scale trommel: experimental test descriptions and data - a working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Bolczak, R.

    1982-11-01

    Descriptions and summaries are provided of testing from July 1980 to July 1981 on a pilot scale trommel at the National Center for Resource Recovery's Laboratory in Upper Marlboro, Maryland. There are three groupings of results. The first group, Feedstock Tests, includes descriptions of the feedstocks and results of tests on the probability of passage, the dynamic angle of repose, and the coefficient of friction for the test flakes. The second test group on Residence Time and Impingement Tests contains data on the movement of flakes and blocks through the trommel. The last group, Mass Split, Screening Efficiency and Undersize Distribution contains data on flake and block mass splits to the undersize and oversize products and the axial and sectorial distribution in the undersize.

  14. A pilot-scale study of selective desulfurization via urea addition in iron ore sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Hong-ming; Wu, Xue-jian; Chun, Tie-jun; Di, Zhan-xia; Wang, Ping; Meng, Qing-min

    2016-11-01

    The iron ore sintering process is the main source of SO2 emissions in the iron and steel industry. In our previous research, we proposed a novel technology for reducing SO2 emissions in the flue gas in the iron ore sintering process by adding urea at a given distance from the sintering grate bar. In this paper, a pilot-scale experiment was carried out in a commercial sintering plant. The results showed that, compared to the SO2 concentration in flue gas without urea addition, the SO2 concentration decreased substantially from 694.2 to 108.0 mg/m3 when 0.10wt% urea was added. NH3 decomposed by urea reacted with SO2 to produce (NH4)2SO4, decreasing the SO2 concentration in the flue gas.

  15. HWVP pilot-scale vitrification system campaign: LFCM-8 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.M.; Whitney, L.D.; Buchmiller, W.C.; Daume, J.T.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to treat the high-level radiative waste (HLW) stored in underground storage tanks as an alkaline sludge. Tank waste will first be retrieved and pretreated to minimize solids requiring vitrification as HLW. The glass product resulting from HWVP operations will be stored onsite in stainless steel canisters until the HLW repository is available for final disposal. The first waste stream scheduled to be processed by the HWVP is the neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) stored in double-shell storage tanks. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by providing research, development, and engineering expertise in defined areas. As a part of this support, pilot-scale testing is being conducted to support closure of HWVP design and development issues. Testing results will verify equipment design performance, establish acceptable and optimum process parameters, and support product qualification activities.

  16. Combustion characteristics of paper and sewage sludge in a pilot-scale fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Ho; Chung, Jinwook

    2015-01-01

    This study characterizes the combustion of paper and sewage sludge in a pilot-scale fluidized bed. The highest temperature during combustion within the system was found at the surface of the fluidized bed. Paper sludge containing roughly 59.8% water was burned without auxiliary fuel, but auxiliary fuel was required to incinerate the sewage sludge, which contained about 79.3% water. The stability of operation was monitored based on the average pressure and the standard deviation of pressure fluctuations. The average pressure at the surface of the fluidized bed decreased as the sludge feed rate increased. However, the standard deviation of pressure fluctuations increased as the sludge feed rate increased. Finally, carbon monoxide (CO) emissions decreased as oxygen content increased in the flue gas, and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions were also tied with oxygen content.

  17. Pilot-scale equipment development for lithium-based reduction of spent oxide fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, S. D.

    1998-04-24

    An integral function of the electrometallurgical conditioning of DOE spent nuclear fuel is the standardization of waste forms. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed and is presently demonstrating the electrometallurgical conditioning of sodium-bonded metal fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II, resulting in uranium, ceramic waste, and metal waste forms. Engineering studies are underway at ANL in support of pilot-scale equipment development, which would precondition irradiated oxide fuel and likewise demonstrate the application of electrometallurgical conditioning to such non-metallic fuels. This paper highlights the integration of proposed spent oxide fuel conditioning with existing electrometallurgical processes. Additionally, technical bases for engineering activities to support a scale up of an oxide reduction process are described.

  18. Recovery of phosphorus from dairy manure: a pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Lo, Victor K; Thompson, James R; Koch, Frederic A; Liao, Ping H; Lobanov, Sergey; Mavinic, Donald S; Atwater, James W

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus was recovered from dairy manure via a microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP) followed by struvite crystallization in a pilot-scale continuous flow operation. Soluble phosphorus in dairy manure increased by over 50% after the MW/H2O2-AOP, and the settleability of suspended solids was greatly improved. More than 50% of clear supernatant was obtained after microwave treatment, and the maximum volume of supernatant was obtained at a hydrogen peroxide dosage of 0.3% and pH 3.5. By adding oxalic acid into the supernatant, about 90% of calcium was removed, while more than 90% of magnesium was retained. As a result, the resulting solution was well suited for struvite crystallization. Nearly 95% of phosphorus in the treated supernatant was removed and recovered as struvite.

  19. Biogasification of community-derived biomass and solid wastes in a pilot-scale SOLCON reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, V.J.; Biljetina, R.; Isaacson, H.R.; Hayes, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has developed a novel, solids- concentrating (SOLCON) bioreactor to convert a variety of individual or mixed feedstocks (biomass and wastes) to methane at higher rates and efficiencies than those obtained from conventional high-rate anaerobic digesters. The biogasification studies are being conducted in a pilot-scale experimental test unit (ETU) located in the Walt Disney World Resort Complex, Orlando, Florida. This paper describes the ETU facility, the logistics of feedstock integration, the SOLCON reactor design and operating techniques, and the results obtained during 4 years of stable, uninterrupted operation with different feedstocks. The SOLCON reactor consistently outperformed the conventional stirred-tank reactor by 20% to 50%.

  20. Pilot scale processing of simulated Savannah River Site high level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Ritter, J.A.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-12-31

    The Savannah River Laboratory operates the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), which is a pilot-scale test facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the US Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, the IDMS is used in the evaluation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and offgass treatment systems. This article provides a general overview of some of the test work which has been conducted in the IDMS facility. The chemistry associated with the chemical treatment of the sludge (via formic acid adjustment) is discussed. Operating experiences with simulated sludge containing high levels of nitrite, mercury, and noble metals are summarized.

  1. Vermicomposting of a lignocellulosic waste from olive oil industry: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Benítez, E; Sainz, H; Melgar, R; Nogales, R

    2002-04-01

    The vermicomposting with Eisenia andrei of dry olive cake, a lignocellulosic waste produced during the extraction of olive oil, either alone or mixed with municipal biosolids, was studied in a nine-month pilot scale experiment. Number and biomass of earthworms and enzyme activities were periodically monitored and relevant properties of the final products were determined. In the assayed substrates, the total biomass of earthworms increased at the end of the experimental period between 9 and 12-fold respectively in comparison with the earthworm biomass initially inoculated. The increase in hydrolytic enzymes and overall microbial activity during the vermicomposting process indicated the biodegradation of the olive cake and resulted in the disappearance of the initial phytotoxicity of the substrate. However, the recalcitrant lignocellulosic nature of the dry olive cake prevented suitable humification during the vermicomposting process. For this reason, in addition to organic amendments, other management procedures should be considered.

  2. Pilot-scale tests of tuff gravel flow diversion barriers for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Conca, J.; Apted, M.; Kessler, J.; Kessler, J.

    1995-12-31

    This project conducts pilot-scale tests on potential sand/tuff gravel barrier designs and materials by measuring their hydraulic and barrier properties for use in modeling and final designs of possible diversion barriers at Yucca Mountain. The use of rubble composed of crushed paintbrush tuff (referred to as tuff gravel) in an engineered barrier around the waste packages can provide superior performance capabilities in a geologic repository located in the vadose zone. The effectiveness of unsaturated gravel as an hydraulic barrier to inflow of water from the surrounding environment is referred to by various names, e.g., diversion barrier, capillary barrier, or Richard`s barrier. A gravel barrier can also function as a diffusion barrier to the transport of ionic contaminants away from waste packages. Preliminary studies on tuff gravel and other gravel barriers have demonstrated their performance under a wide range of conditions anticipated in disposal scenarios.

  3. Hanford Waste Vitrification program pilot-scale ceramic melter Test 23

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, R.W.; Nakaoka, R.K.

    1990-02-01

    The pilot-scale ceramic melter test, was conducted to determine the vitrification processing characteristics of simulated Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant process slurries and the integrated performance of the melter off-gas treatment system. Simulated melter feed was prepared and processed to produce glass. The vitrification system, achieved an on-stream efficiency of greater than 98%. The melter off-gas treatment system included a film cooler, submerged bed scrubber, demister, high-efficiency mist eliminator, preheater, and high-efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA). Evaluation of the off-gas system included the generation, nature, and capture efficiency of gross particulate, semivolatile, and noncondensible melter products. 17 refs., 48 figs., 61 tabs.

  4. Antibacterial and enzymatic activity of microbial community during wastewater treatment by pilot scale vermifiltration system.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sudipti; Rajpal, Ankur; Bhargava, Renu; Pruthi, Vikas; Bhatia, Akansha; Kazmi, A A

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated microbial community diversity and antibacterial and enzymatic properties of microorganisms in a pilot-scale vermifiltration system during domestic wastewater treatment. The study included isolation and identification of diverse microbial community by culture-dependent method from a vermifilter (VF) with earthworms and a conventional geofilter (GF) without earthworms. The results of the four months study revealed that presence of earthworms in VF could efficiently remove biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total and fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci and other pathogens. Furthermore, the burrowing activity of earthworms promoted the aeration conditions in VF which led to the predominance of the aerobic microorganisms, accounting for complex microbial community diversity. Antibacterial activity of the isolated microorganisms revealed the mechanism behind the removal of pathogens, which is reported for the first time. Specifically, cellulase, amylase and protease activity is responsible for biodegradation and stabilization of organic matter.

  5. Slag Characterization: A Necessary Tool for Modeling and Simulating Refractory Corrosion on a Pilot Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregurek, D.; Wenzl, C.; Reiter, V.; Studnicka, H. L.; Spanring, A.

    2014-09-01

    The slag in pyrometallurgical operations plays a major role affecting the life of furnace refractory. As such, comprehensive mineralogical and chemical slag examination, physical property determination including the slag melting point or liquidus, and viscosity are necessary for precise understanding of a slag. At the RHI Technology Center Leoben, Austria, the main objective of slag characterization work is to reach a better understanding of refractory corrosion. This corrosion testwork is performed at the laboratory and pilot scale. Typically, corrosion tests are performed in an induction furnace or rotary kiln, with the main purpose being the improved selection of the most suitable refractory products to improve refractory performance in operating metallurgical furnaces. This article focuses on characterization of samples of six non-ferrous, customer-provided slags. This includes slag from a copper Peirce-Smith converter, a short rotary furnace for lead smelting, a titania-processing furnace, and a Ni-Cu top blowing rotary converter (TBRC) plant.

  6. Microbial biosafety of pilot-scale bioreactor treating MTBE and TBA-contaminated drinking water supply.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Radomir; Klemme, David A; Scow, Kate; Hristova, Krassimira

    2012-03-30

    A pilot-scale sand-based fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was utilized to treat both methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) from a contaminated aquifer. To evaluate the potential for re-use of the treated water, we tested for a panel of water quality indicator microorganisms and potential waterborne pathogens including total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolytica and Mycobacterium avium in both influent and treated waters from the bioreactor. Total bacteria decreased during FBBR treatment. E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni, V. cholerae, Y. enterocolytica and M. avium were not detected in aquifer water or bioreactor treated water samples. For those pathogens detected, including total coliforms, L. pneumophila and A. hydrophila, numbers were usually lower in treated water than influent samples, suggesting removal during treatment. The detection of particular bacterial species reflected their presence or absence in the influent waters.

  7. Performance of pilot scale bioventing at an aviation gasoline spill site. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Kampbell, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    An aviation gasoline (Avgas) spill of near 35,000 gallons occurred over 20 years ago at the U.S. Coast Guard Air Station in Traverse City, Michigan. The site has a relatively uniform subsurface of beach sand to a depth of 50 feet. A three-feet vertical smear of oily globules was near the water table depth of 15 feet. Two pilot-scale bioventing systems were evaluated on a portion of the 240 x 1100 foot surface area plume. The vadose zone contaminated with aviation gasoline was satisfactorily bioremediated by both venting systems. Differential performance between the two systems was not apparent. Operational time for clean-up was eight months. Surface emissions of gasoline vapor during systems operation were minimal.

  8. Pilot-scale evaluation of chemical oxidation for MTBE-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, M.; Schupp, D.A.; Krishnan, E.R.; Tafuri, A.N.; Chen, C.T.

    1999-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has tentatively classified MTBE as a possible human carcinogen, thus further emphasizing the importance for study of fate, transport, and environmental effects of MTBE. The treatment of subsurface contaminants (e.g., MTBE) from leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites presents many complex challenges. Many techniques have been employed for the remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater at LUST sites. Under sponsorship of US EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory, IT Corporation has conducted evaluations of chemical oxidation of MTBE contaminated soil using Fenton's Reagent (hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by ferrous sulfate), simulating both ex-situ and in-situ soil remediation. Bench-scale ex-situ tests have shown up to 90% degradation of MTBE within 12 hours. Pilot-scale MTBE oxidation tests were conducted in a stainless paddle-type mixer with a 10 cubic foot mixing volume. The reactor was designed with a heavy duty mixer shaft assembly to homogenize soil and included provisions for contaminant and reagent addition, mixing, and sample acquisition. The tests were performed by placing 400 pounds of a synthetic soil matrix (consisting of a mixture of top soil, sand, gravel and clay) in the reactor, spiking with 20 ppm of MTBE, and mixing thoroughly. The variables evaluated in the pilot-scale tests included reaction time, amount of hydrogen peroxide, and amount of ferrous sulfate. After 8 hours of reaction, using 4 times the stoichiometric quantity of hydrogen peroxide and a 10:1 hydrogen peroxide: ferrous iron weight ratio, approximately 60% MTBE degradation was observed. When 10 times the stoichiometric quantity of hydrogen peroxide was used (with the same ratio of hydrogen peroxide to ferrous iron), 90% MTBE degradation was observed. When the same test was performed without any ferrous iron addition, 75% MTBE degradation was observed.

  9. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle; Orth, Rick; Zacher, Alan

    2007-09-28

    The purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE)-supported corn fiber conversion project, “Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-scale Operation” is to develop and demonstrate an integrated, economical process for the separation of corn fiber into its principal components to produce higher value-added fuel (ethanol and biodiesel), nutraceuticals (phytosterols), chemicals (polyols), and animal feed (corn fiber molasses). This project has successfully demonstrated the corn fiber conversion process on the pilot scale, and ensured that the process will integrate well into existing ADM corn wet-mills. This process involves hydrolyzing the corn fiber to solubilize 50% of the corn fiber as oligosaccharides and soluble protein. The solubilized fiber is removed and the remaining fiber residue is solvent extracted to remove the corn fiber oil, which contains valuable phytosterols. The extracted oil is refined to separate the phytosterols and the remaining oil is converted to biodiesel. The de-oiled fiber is enzymatically hydrolyzed and remixed with the soluble oligosaccharides in a fermentation vessel where it is fermented by a recombinant yeast, which is capable of fermenting the glucose and xylose to produce ethanol. The fermentation broth is distilled to remove the ethanol. The stillage is centrifuged to separate the yeast cell mass from the soluble components. The yeast cell mass is sold as a high-protein yeast cream and the remaining sugars in the stillage can be purified to produce a feedstock for catalytic conversion of the sugars to polyols (mainly ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) if desirable. The remaining materials from the purification step and any materials remaining after catalytic conversion are concentrated and sold as a corn fiber molasses. Additional high-value products are being investigated for the use of the corn fiber as a dietary fiber sources.

  10. Composting clam processing wastes in a laboratory- and pilot-scale in-vessel system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenhu; Lane, Robert; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-01-01

    Waste materials from the clam processing industry (offal, shells) have several special characteristics such as a high salinity level, a high nitrogen content, and a low C/N ratio. The traditional disposal of clam waste through landfilling is facing the challenges of limited land available, increasing tipping fees, and strict environmental and regulatory scrutiny. The aim of this work is to investigate the performance of in-vessel composting as an alternative for landfill application of these materials. Experiments were performed in both laboratory-scale (5L) and pilot-scale (120L) reactors, with woodchips as the bulking agent. In the laboratory-scale composting test, the clam waste and woodchips were mixed in ratios from 1:0.5 to 1:3 (w/w, wet weight). The high ratios resulted in a better temperature performance, a higher electrical conductivity, and a higher ash content than the low-ratio composting. The C/N ratio of the composts was in the range of 9:1-18:1. In the pilot-scale composting test, a 1:1 ratio of clam waste to woodchips was used. The temperature profile during the composting process met the US Environmental Protection Agency sanitary requirement. The final cured compost had a C/N ratio of 14.6, with an ash content of 167.0+/-14.1g/kg dry matter. In addition to the major nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and sodium), the compost also contained trace amounts of zinc, manganese, copper, and boron, indicating that the material can be used as a good resource for plant nutrients.

  11. Pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fow, C.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; Hymas, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    Plans are underway at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to convert the low-level fraction of radioactive liquid wastes to a grout form for permanent disposal. Grout is a mixture of liquid waste and grout formers, including portland cement, fly ash, and clays. In the plan, the grout slurry is pumped to subsurface concrete vaults on the Hanford Site, where the grout will solidify into large monoliths, thereby immobilizing the waste. A similar disposal concept is being planned at the Savannah River Laboratory site. The underground disposal of grout was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1966 and 1984. Design and construction of grout processing and disposal facilities are underway. The Transportable Grout Facility (TGF), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) for the Department of Energy (DOE), is scheduled to grout Phosphate/Sulfate N Reactor Operations Waste (PSW) in FY 1988. Phosphate/Sulfate Waste is a blend of two low-level waste streams generated at Hanford's N Reactor. Other wastes are scheduled to be grouted in subsequent years. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is verifying that Hanford grouts can be safely and efficiently processed. To meet this objective, pilot-scale grout process equipment was installed. On July 29 and 30, 1986, PNL conducted a pilot-scale grout production test for Rockwell. During the test, 16,000 gallons of simulated nonradioactive PSW were mixed with grout formers to produce 22,000 gallons of PSW grout. The grout was pumped at a nominal rate of 15 gpm (about 25% of the nominal production rate planned for the TGF) to a lined and covered trench with a capacity of 30,000 gallons. Emplacement of grout in the trench will permit subsequent evaluation of homogeneity of grout in a large monolith. 12 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Recovery of cellulase activity after ethanol stripping in a novel pilot-scale unit.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia; Christensen, Børge Holm; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-04-01

    Recycling of enzymes has a potential interest during cellulosic bioethanol production as purchasing enzymes is one of the largest expenses in the process. By recycling enzymes after distillation, loss of sugars and ethanol are avoided, but depending on the distillation temperature, there is a potential risk of enzyme degradation. Studies of the rate of enzyme denaturation based on estimation of the denaturation constant K D was performed using a novel distillation setup allowing stripping of ethanol at 50-65 °C. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale stripper, where the effect of temperature (55-65 °C) and exposure to gas-liquid and liquid-heat transmission interfaces were tested on a mesophilic and thermostable enzyme mixture in fiber beer and buffer. Lab-scale tests were included in addition to the pilot-scale experiments to study the effect of shear, ethanol concentration, and PEG on enzyme stability. When increasing the temperature (up to 65 °C) or ethanol content (up to 7.5 % w/v), the denaturation rate of the enzymes increased. Enzyme denaturation occurred slower when the experiments were performed in fiber beer compared to buffer only, which could be due to PEG or other stabilizing substances in fiber beer. However, at extreme conditions with high temperature (65 °C) and ethanol content (7.5 % w/v), PEG had no enzyme stabilizing effect. The novel distillation setup proved to be useful for maintaining enzyme activity during ethanol extraction.

  13. Pilot-scale vermicomposting of pineapple wastes with earthworms native to Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mainoo, Nana O K; Barrington, Suzelle; Whalen, Joann K; Sampedro, Luis

    2009-12-01

    Pineapple wastes, an abundant organic waste in Accra, Ghana, were vermicomposted using native earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg) collected from the banks of streams and around bath houses of this city. Triplicate pilot-scale vermidigesters containing about 90 earthworms and three other control boxes with no earthworms were fed pineapple pulp or peels, and the loss of wet mass was monitored over 20 weeks. In a second experiment, a 1:1 mixture of pineapple peels and pulp (w/w) was fed to triplicate pilot-scale vermicomposters and control boxes during a 20 week period. One month after feeding ended, the vermicompost and composted (control) waste was air dried and analyzed. During the first experiment, the vermicomposted pineapple pulp and peels lost 99% and 87% of their wet mass, respectively, indicating the potential for vermicomposting. Fresh pineapple waste exhibited an initial pH of 4.4, but after 24 weeks, the vermicompost and compost had acquired a neutral to alkaline pH of 7.2-9.2. The vermicompost contained as much as 0.4% total N, 0.4% total P and 0.9% total K, and had a C:N ratio of 9-10. A reduction of 31-70% in the Escherichia coli plus Salmonella loads and 78-88% in the Aspergillus load was observed during vermicomposting. The rapid breakdown of pineapple wastes by E. eugeniae demonstrated the viability of vermicomposting as a simple and low cost technology recycling this waste into a soil amendment that could be used by the 2500 vegetable producers of Accra and its surrounding areas.

  14. REMOVAL OF METHYL T-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) FROM WATER BY PERVAPORATION: BENCH-SCALE AND PILOT SCALE EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of pervaporation to remove methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) from water was evaluated at bench- and pilot-scales. Process parameters studied included flow rate, temperature, MTBE concentration, membrane module type, and permeate pressure. Pervaporation performance was ass...

  15. PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL - APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, a pilot-scale demonstration of a slurry-phase bioremediation process was performed May 1991 at the EPA’s Test & Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, OH. In this...

  16. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by bacterial consortium from excess sludge fermentation liquid at laboratory and pilot scales.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qianqian; Xiong, Huilei; Wang, Hui; Shi, Hanchang; Sheng, Xinying; Sun, Run; Chen, Guoqiang

    2014-11-01

    The generation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from excess sludge fermentation liquid (SFL) was studied at lab and pilot scale. A PHA-accumulated bacterial consortium (S-150) was isolated from activated sludge using simulated SFL (S-SFL) contained high concentration volatile fatty acids (VFA) and nitrogen. The maximal PHA content accounted for 59.18% in S-SFL and dropped to 23.47% in actual SFL (L-SFL) of the dry cell weight (DCW) at lab scale. The pilot-scale integrated system comprised an anaerobic fermentation reactor (AFR), a ceramic membrane system (CMS) and a PHA production bio-reactor (PHAR). The PHA content from pilot-scale SFL (P-SFL) finally reached to 59.47% DCW with the maximal PHA yield coefficient (YP/S) of 0.17 g PHA/g COD. The results indicated that VFA-containing SFL was suitable for PHA production. The adverse impact of excess nitrogen and non-VFAs in SFL might be eliminated by pilot-scale domestication, which might resulted in community structure optimization and substrate selective ability improvement of S-150.

  17. DETERMINATION OF SEX HORMONES AND NONYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATES IN THE AQUEOUS MATRIXES OF TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two analytical methods were developed and refined for the detection and quantitation of two groups of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the liquid matrixes of two pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants. The targeted compounds are seven sex hormones (estradiol, ...

  18. Underground tank vitrification: A pilot-scale in situ vitrification test of a tank containing a simulated mixed waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.E.; Powell, T.D.; Tixier, J.S.; Miller, M.C.; Owczarski, P.C.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents research on sludge vitrification. The first pilot scale in-situ vitrification test of a simulated underground tank was successfully completed by researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The vitrification process effectively immobilized the vast majority of radionuclides simulants and toxic metals were retained in the melt and uniformly distributed throughout the monolith.

  19. Pilot-scale On-farm Pretreatment of Perennial Grasses with Dilute Acid and Alkali for Fuel Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) were pretreated with sulfuric acid or calcium hydroxide 50 g/kg DM at both the laboratory (250 g DM) and pilot-scale (250 kg DM) and anaerobically stored for two durations, 60 and 180 days. Pretreated and untreated samp...

  20. Monitoring Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in Pilot-Scale Warehouses Treated with B-Cyfluthrin: Are Residual Insecticides and Trapping Compatible?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management strategies for cereal processing facilities often include both pheromone-baited pitfall traps and crack and crevice applications of a residual insecticide like cyfluthrin. In replicated pilot-scale warehouses, a 15-week long experiment was conducted to compare population ...

  1. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF BROMINE ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The addition of brominated organic compounds to the feed of a pilot-scale incinerator burning chlorinated waste has been found previously, under some circumstances, to enhance emissions of volatile and semivolatile organic chlorinated products of incomplete combustion (PiCs) incl...

  2. A PILOT-SCALE STUDY OF THE PRECURSORS LEADING TO THE FORMATION OF MIXED BROMO-CHLORO DIOXINS AND FURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of experiments in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator where a mixture of chlorinated and brominated surrogate waste was burned in the presence of injected fly-ash from a coal-fired utility boiler. Measurements were made of semivolatile products...

  3. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    PubMed

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  4. RECYCLING A NONIONIC AQUEOUS-BASED METAL-CLEANING SOLUTION WITH A CERAMIC MEMBRANE: PILOT SCALE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of a zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) membrane filter was evaluated for recycling a nonionic aqueous metal cleaning bath under real-world conditions. The pilot-scale study consisted of four 7- to 16-day filtration runs, each processed a portion of the cleaning bath duri...

  5. Mathematical and experimental pilot-scale study of coal reburning for NO sub x control in cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Farzan, H.; Wessel, R.A.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot-scale study was to examine the effectiveness of reburning for NO{sub x} reduction and to assess the potential side effects. In addition, the potential of a high-sulfur Illinois coal for cyclone reburning application was evaluated. (VC)

  6. Characterization of pilot-scale dilute acid pretreatment performance using deacetylated corn stover

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising process technology for the deconstruction of low-lignin lignocellulosic biomass, capable of producing high yields of hemicellulosic sugars and enhancing enzymatic yields of glucose as part of a biomass-to-biofuels process. However, while it has been extensively studied, most work has historically been conducted at relatively high acid concentrations of 1 - 4% (weight/weight). Reducing the effective acid loading in pretreatment has the potential to reduce chemical costs both for pretreatment and subsequent neutralization. Additionally, if acid loadings are sufficiently low, capital requirements associated with reactor construction may be significantly reduced due to the relaxation of requirements for exotic alloys. Despite these benefits, past efforts have had difficulty obtaining high process yields at low acid loadings without supplementation of additional unit operations, such as mechanical refining. Results Recently, we optimized the dilute acid pretreatment of deacetylated corn stover at low acid loadings in a 1-ton per day horizontal pretreatment reactor. This effort included more than 25 pilot-scale pretreatment experiments executed at reactor temperatures ranging from 150 – 170°C, residence times of 10 – 20 minutes and hydrolyzer sulfuric acid concentrations between 0.15 – 0.30% (weight/weight). In addition to characterizing the process yields achieved across the reaction space, the optimization identified a pretreatment reaction condition that achieved total xylose yields from pretreatment of 73.5% ± 1.5% with greater than 97% xylan component balance closure across a series of five runs at the same condition. Feedstock reactivity at this reaction condition after bench-scale high solids enzymatic hydrolysis was 77%, prior to the inclusion of any additional conversion that may occur during subsequent fermentation. Conclusions This study effectively characterized a range of pretreatment reaction

  7. Performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Daniel Joseph

    With the discovery of vast fossil resources, and the subsequent development of the fossil fuel and petrochemical industry, the role of biomass-based products has declined. However, concerns about the finite and decreasing amount of fossil and mineral resources, in addition to health and climate impacts of fossil resource use, have elevated interest in innovative methods for converting renewable biomass resources into products that fit our modern lifestyle. Thermal conversion through gasification is an appealing method for utilizing biomass due to its operability using a wide variety of feedstocks at a wide range of scales, the product has a variety of uses (e.g., transportation fuel production, electricity production, chemicals synthesis), and in many cases, results in significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions. In spite of the advantages of gasification, several technical hurdles have hindered its commercial development. A number of studies have focused on laboratory-scale and atmospheric biomass gasification. However, few studies have reported on pilot-scale, woody biomass gasification under pressurized conditions. The purpose of this research is an assessment of the performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The 200 kWth fluidized bed gasifier is capable of operation using solid feedstocks at feedrates up to 65 lb/hr, bed temperatures up to 1600°F, and pressures up to 8 atm. Gasifier performance was assessed under various temperatures, pressure, and feedstock (untreated woody biomass, dark and medium torrefied biomass) conditions by measuring product gas yield and composition, residue (e.g., tar and char) production, and mass and energy conversion efficiencies. Elevated temperature and pressure, and feedstock pretreatment were shown to have a significant influence on gasifier operability, tar production, carbon conversion, and process efficiency. High-pressure and temperature gasification of dark torrefied biomass

  8. Extractive purification of enzymes from animal tissue using aqueous two phase systems: pilot scale studies.

    PubMed

    Boland, M J; Hesselink, P G; Papamichael, N; Hustedt, H

    1991-06-01

    Pilot scale trials have been carried out to assess the feasibility of using PEG-salt aqueous phase systems for extraction and purification of enzymes from animal tissue on an industrial scale. Comminuted bovine liver was used as a starting material, and it was easy to separate a clear upper phase containing proteins of interest from a mixture containing 20% biomass, 15% PEG and 8% phosphate using a disc separator. Similar attempts with decanters were unsuccessful. Second-phase separation was simply accomplished by the addition of salt to the separated, clear upper layer and standing or allowing passage through a disc separator. The method was tested using continuous mixing on the GBF continuous mixing aqueous phase extraction plant, with and without computer control. Good separations were achieved. The enzyme superoxide dismutase was purified using this method yielding a 4-fold purification factor with respect to soluble protein and a recovery rate of 83%, with the enzyme in a clarified solution suitable for further processing by chromatographic methods. The general applicability of this method, its economics and its potential application in industry are discussed.

  9. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m3 of biogas per m3 of POME which was utilized for electricity generation. PMID:26167485

  10. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  11. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-06-15

    Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1-89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1-34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m(2). The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11-12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures.

  12. Ammonium removal from groundwater using a zeolite permeable reactive barrier: a pilot-scale demonstration.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengpin; Huang, Guoxin; Kong, Xiangke; Yang, Yingzhao; Liu, Fei; Hou, Guohua; Chen, Honghan

    2014-01-01

    In situ remediation of ammonium-contaminated groundwater is possible through a zeolite permeable reactive barrier (PRB); however, zeolite's finite sorption capacity limits the long-term field application of PRBs. In this paper, a pilot-scale PRB was designed to achieve sustainable use of zeolite in removing ammonium (NH(4)(+)-N) through sequential nitrification, adsorption, and denitrification. An oxygen-releasing compound was added to ensure aerobic conditions in the upper layers of the PRB where NH(4)(+)-N was microbially oxidized to nitrate. Any remaining NH(4)(+)-N was removed abiotically in the zeolite layer. Under lower redox conditions, nitrate formed during nitrification was removed by denitrifying bacteria colonizing the zeolite. During the long-term operation (328 days), more than 90% of NH(4)(+)-N was consistently removed, and approximately 40% of the influent NH(4)(+)-N was oxidized to nitrate. As much as 60% of the nitrate formed in the PRB was reduced in the zeolite layer after 300 days of operation. Removal of NH(4)(+)-N from groundwater using a zeolite PRB through bacterial nitrification and abiotic adsorption is a promising approach. The zeolite PRB has the advantage of achieving sustainable use of zeolite and immediate NH(4)(+)-N removal.

  13. Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M Suleman

    2012-07-01

    Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter test facility where lime stone dust is separated from air at ambient conditions. Results reveal that filtration velocity significantly affects filter pressure drop as well as cake properties; cake density and specific cake resistance. Cake density is slightly affected by dust concentration. Specific resistance of filter cake increases with velocity, slightly affected by dust concentration, changes inversely with the upper pressure drop limit and decreases over a prolonged use (aging). Specific resistance of filter media is independent of upper pressure drop limit and increases linearly over a prolonged use.

  14. Performance of a pilot-scale continuous flow microbial electrolysis cell fed winery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cusick, Roland D; Bryan, Bill; Parker, Denny S; Merrill, Matthew D; Mehanna, Maha; Kiely, Patrick D; Liu, Guangli; Logan, Bruce E

    2011-03-01

    A pilot-scale (1,000 L) continuous flow microbial electrolysis cell was constructed and tested for current generation and COD removal with winery wastewater. The reactor contained 144 electrode pairs in 24 modules. Enrichment of an exoelectrogenic biofilm required ~60 days, which is longer than typically needed for laboratory reactors. Current generation was enhanced by ensuring adequate organic volatile fatty acid content (VFA/SCOD ≥ 0.5) and by raising the wastewater temperature (31 ± 1°C). Once enriched, SCOD removal (62 ± 20%) was consistent at a hydraulic retention time of 1 day (applied voltage of 0.9 V). Current generation reached a maximum of 7.4 A/m(3) by the planned end of the test (after 100 days). Gas production reached a maximum of 0.19 ± 0.04 L/L/day, although most of the product gas was converted to methane (86 ± 6%). In order to increase hydrogen recovery in future tests, better methods will be needed to isolate hydrogen gas produced at the cathode. These results show that inoculation and enrichment procedures are critical to the initial success of larger-scale systems. Acetate amendments, warmer temperatures, and pH control during startup were found to be critical for proper enrichment of exoelectrogenic biofilms and improved reactor performance.

  15. Removal kinetic of Escherichia coli and enterococci in a laboratory pilot scale wastewater maturation pond.

    PubMed

    Ouali, A; Jupsin, H; Ghrabi, A; Vasel, J L

    2014-01-01

    During the last 15 years several authors studied the disinfection in waste stabilisation pond (WSP) and several empirical models were developed. There are huge differences between the models describing this process and there is really a need to improve the design of ponds for better disinfection. This paper addresses the Escherichia coli and enterococci disinfection in a laboratory pilot scale maturation pond (1.5 l) with light intensity (0, 12 and 25 W/m(2)) under controlled pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. The aim of this study is to improve modelling for a better design of disinfection in maturation ponds (MP) and to identify the key parameters influencing the process. It was found that kinetic coefficients K values for E. coli and enterococci are closely dependent on physicochemical parameters. K values increase with increasing pH, I, T and DO. E. coli disinfection depends closely on the pH and the DO and increases strongly when the pH is above 8.5. The enterococci disinfection depends essentially on DO. Two equations are suggested to calculate the kinetic coefficient K related to the environmental average state variables.

  16. Pilot-scale production of mesoporous silica-based adsorbent for CO2 capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hou Chuan; Lu, Chungsying; Bai, Hsunling; Hwang, Jyh Feng; Lee, Hsiu Hsia; Chen, Wang; Kang, Yuhao; Chen, Shing-Ting; Su, Fengsheng; Kuo, Shih-Chun; Hu, Fang-Chun

    2012-07-01

    This study presents a pilot-scale spray drying system designed to manufacture spherical mesoporous silica particles (MSP) that is capable of producing up to 100 g per hour. The MSP fabricated via a nozzle pressure of 4 kg/cm2 and a drying temperature of 200 °C possess a high specific area of 1012 m2/g, a narrow pore size distribution with an average pore diameter of 2.4 nm, and large pore volume of 0.81 cm3/g. They were further modified with a tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA-MSP) to enhance CO2 adsorption selectivity from gas streams. The adsorption capacity of 15% CO2 on TEPA-MSP was significantly influenced by adsorption temperature and water vapor of air streams, and reached a maximum of 87.05 mg/g (1.98 mmol/g) at 60 °C and 129.19 mg/g (2.94 mmol/g) at a water vapor of 6.98%. The adsorption capacities and the physicochemical properties of TEPA-MSP were preserved through 20 cycles of adsorption-desorption operation. A comparative study revealed that the TEPA-MSP had better adsorption performance of 15% CO2 than the TEPA-modified granular activated carbon and zeolite. These results suggest that the TEPA-MSP can be stably employed in the prolonged cyclic CO2 adsorption and that they possess good potential for CO2 capture from flue gas.

  17. Comparison of the removal efficiency of endocrine disrupting compounds in pilot scale sewage treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiho; Lee, Byoung C; Ra, Jin S; Cho, Jaeweon; Kim, In S; Chang, Nam I; Kim, Hyun K; Kim, Sang D

    2008-04-01

    The removal efficiency of endocrine disrupting compounds from effluents using pilot scale sewage treatment processes, including various treatment technologies, such as membrane bioreactors (MBR), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) for the purpose of water reuse, were estimated and compared. The calculated estrogenic activity, expressed in ng-EEQ/l, based on the concentration detected by GC/MS, and relative potencies for each target compound were compared to those measured using the E-screen assay. The removal efficiencies for nonylphenol, was within the range of 55-83% in effluents. High removal efficiencies of approximately >70% based on the detection limits were obtained for bisphenol A, E1, EE2 and genistein with each treatment processes, with the exception of E1 ( approximately 64%) using the MBR process. The measured EEQ values for the effluents from the MBR, NF and RO processes also indicated low estrogenic activities of 0.65, 0.23 and 0.05 ng-EEQ/l, respectively. These were markedly reduced values compared with the value of 1.2 ng-EEQ/l in influent. Consequently, the removals of EDCs in terms of the EEQ value from the biological and chemical determinations were sufficiently achieved by the treatment process applied in this study, especially in the cases of the NF and RO treatments.

  18. Pilot-scale study of powdered activated carbon recirculation for micropollutant removal.

    PubMed

    Meinel, F; Sperlich, A; Jekel, M

    Adsorption onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) is a promising technique for the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) from treated wastewater. To enhance the adsorption efficiency, PAC is recycled back into the adsorption stage. This technique was examined in pilot scale in comparison to a reference without recirculation. Coagulation with Fe(3+) was carried out simultaneously to adsorption. Extensive OMP measurements showed that recirculation significantly increased OMP eliminations. Thus, significant PAC savings were feasible. The PAC concentration in the contact reactor proved to be an important operating parameter that can be surrogated by the easily measurable total suspended solids (TSS) concentration. OMP eliminations increased with increasing TSS concentrations. At 20 mg PAC L(-1) and 2.8 g TSS L(-1) in the contact reactor, well-adsorbable carbamazepine was eliminated by 97%, moderately adsorbable diclofenac was eliminated by 92% and poorly-adsorbable acesulfame was eliminated by 54% in comparison to 49%, 35% and 18%, respectively, without recirculation. The recirculation system represents an efficient technique, as the PAC's adsorption capacity is practically completely used. Small PAC dosages yield high OMP eliminations. Poorly-adsorbable gabapentin was eliminated to an unexpectedly high degree. A laboratory-scale biomass inhibition study showed that aerobic biodegradation removed gabapentin in addition to adsorption.

  19. Pilot-scale washing of metal contaminated garden soil using EDTA.

    PubMed

    Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen

    2012-05-15

    Ten batches (75kg each) of garden soil with >50% of silt and clay and average 1935mgkg(-1) Pb, 800mgkg(-1) Zn, 10mgkg(-1) Cd and 120mgkg(-1) As were remediated in a pilot-scale chemical extraction plant. Washing with 60mmol ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) per kg of soil on average removed 79, 38, 70, and 80% of Pb, Zn, Cd and As, respectively, and significantly reduced the leachability, phyto-accessibility and oral-availability of residual toxic metals, as assessed using deionised water, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid extraction (DTPA) and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) tests. The used soil washing solution was treated before discharge using an electrochemical advanced oxidation process with graphite anode: EDTA was removed by degradation and toxic metals were electro-precipitated onto a stainless steel cathode. The novelty of the remediation technique is separation of the soil from the washing solution and soil rinsing (removal of mobilized contaminants) carried out in the same process step. Another novelty is the reuse of the soil rinsing solution from the previous batch for cleansing the soil sand, soil rinsing and for preparation of the washing solution in subsequent batches. The cost of energy and material expenses and disposal of waste products amounted to approximately 75€ton(-1) of soil.

  20. Fermentative lactic acid production from coffee pulp hydrolysate using Bacillus coagulans at laboratory and pilot scales.

    PubMed

    Pleissner, Daniel; Neu, Anna-Katrin; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the lignocellulosic residue coffee pulp was used as carbon source in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production using Bacillus coagulans. After thermo-chemical treatment at 121°C for 30min in presence of 0.18molL(-1) H2SO4 and following an enzymatic digestion using Accellerase 1500 carbon-rich hydrolysates were obtained. Two different coffee pulp materials with comparable biomass composition were used, but sugar concentrations in hydrolysates showed variations. The primary sugars were (gL(-1)) glucose (20-30), xylose (15-25), sucrose (5-11) and arabinose (0.7-10). Fermentations were carried out at laboratory (2L) and pilot (50L) scales in presence of 10gL(-1) yeast extract. At pilot scale carbon utilization and lactic acid yield per gram of sugar consumed were 94.65% and 0.78gg(-1), respectively. The productivity was 4.02gL(-1)h(-1). Downstream processing resulted in a pure formulation containing 937gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid with an optical purity of 99.7%.

  1. Partial Nitrification and Denitrifying Phosphorus Removal in a Pilot-Scale ABR/MBR Combined Process.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Xu, Lezhong; Wang, Jianfang; Huang, Zhenxing; Zhang, Jiachao; Shen, Yaoliang

    2015-11-01

    A pilot-scale combined process consisting of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) for the purpose of achieving easy management, low energy demands, and high efficiencies on nutrient removal from municipal wastewater was investigated. The process operated at room temperature with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 h, recycle ratio 1 of 200%, recycle ratio 2 of 100%, and dissolved oxygen (DO) of 1 mg/L and achieved good effluent quality with chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 25 mg/L, NH4 (+)-N of 4 mg/L, total nitrogen (TN) of 11 mg/L, and total phosphorus (TP) of 0.7 mg/L. The MBR achieved partial nitrification, and NO2 (-)-N has been accumulated (4 mg/L). Efficient short-cut denitrification was occurred in the ABR with a TN removal efficiency of 51%, while the role of denitrification and phosphorus removal removed partial TN (14%). Furthermore, nitrogen was further removed (11%) by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in the MBR. In addition, phosphorus accumulating organisms in the MBR sufficiently uptake phosphorus; thus, effluent TP further reduced with a TP removal efficiency of 84%. Analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) were enriched in the process. In addition, the accumulation of NO2 (-)-N was contributed to the inhibition on the activities of the NOB rather than its elimination.

  2. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-29

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH{sub 4}/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH{sub 4}: 81.23% and CO{sub 2}: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  3. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 study for emerging organic contaminants decomposition.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiaona; Xiao, Yan; Hu, Jiangyong; Quek, Elaine; Xie, Rongjin; Pang, Thomas; Xing, Yongjie

    2016-03-01

    Human behaviors including consumption of drugs and use of personal care products, climate change, increased international travel, and the advent of water reclamation for direct potable use have led to the introduction of significant amounts of emerging organic contaminants into the aqueous environment. In addition, the lower detection limits associated with improved scientific methods of chemical analysis have resulted in a recent increase in documented incidences of these contaminants which previously were not routinely monitored in water. Such contaminants may cause known or suspected adverse ecological and/or human health effects at very low concentrations. Conventional drinking water treatment processes may not effectively remove these organic contaminants. Advanced oxidation process (AOP) is a promising treatment process for the removal of most of these emerging organic contaminants, and has been accepted worldwide as a suitable treatment process. In this study, different groups of emerging contaminants were studied for decomposition efficiency using pilot-scale UV/H2O2 oxidation setup, including EDCs, PPCPs, taste and odor (T&O), and perfluorinated compounds. Results found that MP UV/H2O2 AOP was efficient in removing all the selected contaminants except perfluorinated compounds. Study of the kinetics of the process showed that both light absorption and quantum yield of each compound affected the decomposition performance. Analysis of water quality parameters of the treated water indicated that the outcome of both UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 processes can be affected by changes in the feed water quality.

  4. Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M. Suleman

    2012-01-01

    Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter test facility where lime stone dust is separated from air at ambient conditions. Results reveal that filtration velocity significantly affects filter pressure drop as well as cake properties; cake density and specific cake resistance. Cake density is slightly affected by dust concentration. Specific resistance of filter cake increases with velocity, slightly affected by dust concentration, changes inversely with the upper pressure drop limit and decreases over a prolonged use (aging). Specific resistance of filter media is independent of upper pressure drop limit and increases linearly over a prolonged use. PMID:24415802

  5. Pilot scale studies on nitritation-anammox process for mainstream wastewater at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Trojanowicz, Karol; Plaza, Elzbieta; Trela, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Process of partial nitritation-anammox for mainstream wastewater at low temperature was run in a pilot scale moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system for about 300 days. The biofilm history in the reactor was about 3 years of growth at low temperature (down to 10 °C). The goal of the studies presented in this paper was to achieve effective partial nitritation-anammox process. Influence of nitrogen loading rate, hydraulic retention time, aeration strategy (continuous versus intermittent) and sludge recirculation (integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) mode) on deammonification process' efficiency and microbial activity in the examined system was tested. It was found that the sole intermittent aeration strategy is not a sufficient method for successful suppression of nitrite oxidizing bacteria in MBBR. The best performance of the process was achieved in IFAS mode. The highest recorded capacity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria in biofilm was 1.4 gN/m(2)d and 0.5 gN/m(2)d, respectively, reaching 51% in nitrogen removal efficiency.

  6. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH4/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH4: 81.23% and CO2: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  7. Ammonia Oxidizers in a Pilot-Scale Multilayer Rapid Infiltration System for Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Yingli; Xu, Meiying; Zhong, Yuming; Yang, Yongqiang; Chen, Fanrong; Guo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale multilayer rapid infiltration system (MRIS) for domestic wastewater treatment was established and efficient removal of ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved in this study. The microbial community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were investigated. Efficient biofilms of ammonia oxidizers in the stationary phase (packing material) was formed successfully in the MRIS without special inoculation. DGGE and phylogenetic analyses revealed that proteobacteria dominated in the MRIS. Relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) showed contrary tendency. In the flowing phase (water effluent), AOA diversity was significantly correlated with the concentration of dissolve oxygen (DO), NO3-N and NH3-N. AOB abundance was significantly correlated with the concentration of DO and chemical oxygen demand (COD). NH3-N and COD were identified as the key factors to shape AOB community structure, while no variable significantly correlated with that of AOA. AOA might play an important role in the MRIS. This study could reveal key environmental factors affecting the community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in the MRIS. PMID:25479611

  8. Analysis of operating costs for producing biodiesel from palm oil at pilot-scale in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Juan C; Hernández, Jorge A; Valdés, Carlos F; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the operating costs of biodiesel production using palm oil in a pilot-scale plant with a capacity of 20,000 L/day (850 L/batch). The production plant uses crude palm oil as a feedstock, and methanol in a molar ratio of 1:10. The process incorporated acid esterification, basic transesterification, and dry washing with absorbent powder. Production costs considered in the analysis were feedstock, supplies, labor, electricity, quality and maintenance; amounting to $3.75/gal ($0.99/L) for 2013. Feedstocks required for biodiesel production were among the highest costs, namely 72.6% of total production cost. Process efficiency to convert fatty acids to biodiesel was over 99% and generated a profit of $1.08/gal (i.e., >22% of the total income). According to sensitivity analyses, it is more economically viable for biodiesel production processes to use crude palm oil as a feedstock and take advantage of the byproducts such as glycerine and fertilizers.

  9. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  10. Pilot-scale evaluation of the thermal-stability POHC incinerability anking

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.W.; Whitworth, W.E.; Waterland, L.R.

    1992-04-01

    A test series were performed at the U.S. EPA Incineration Research Facility (IRF) to evaluate the thermal-stability-based principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) incinerability ranking. Mixtures of twelve POHCs with predicted incinerabilities spanning the range of most- to least-difficult-to-incinerate classes were combined with a clay-based sorbent matrix and fed to the facility's pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator. Kiln operating conditions were varied to include a baseline operating condition, three modes of attempted incineration failure, and a worst-case combination of the three failure modes. Kiln-exit POHC destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) were in the 99.99% range for the volatile POHCs during the baseline, mixing failure and matrix failure tests. Semivolatile POHCs were not detected at the kiln exit for these tests; corresponding DREs were generally greater than 99.999%. The thermal failure and worst-case tests resulted in substantially decreased kiln-exit POHC DREs, ranging from less than 99% to greater than 99.999%. General agreement between measured and predicted relative kiln-exit POHC DREs was observed for those two tests.

  11. Pilot scale study on steam explosion and mass balance for higher sugar recovery from rice straw.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Kumar, Ravindra; Gaur, Ruchi; Agrawal, Ruchi; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Das, Biswapriya

    2015-01-01

    Pretreatment of rice straw on pilot scale steam explosion has been attempted to achieve maximum sugar recovery. Three different reaction media viz. water, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid (0.5%, w/w) were explored for pretreatment by varying operating temperature (160, 180 and 200°C) and reaction time (5 and 10min). Using water and 0.5% SA showed almost similar sugar recovery (∼87%) at 200 and 180°C respectively. However, detailed studies showed that the former caused higher production of oligomeric sugars (13.56g/L) than the later (3.34g/L). Monomeric sugar, followed the reverse trend (7.83 and 11.62g/L respectively). Higher oligomers have a pronounced effect in reducing enzymatic sugar yield as observed in case of water. Mass balance studies for water and SA assisted SE gave total saccharification yield as 81.8% and 77.1% respectively. However, techno-economical viability will have a trade-off between these advantages and disadvantages offered by the pretreatment medium.

  12. Bioremediation process for sediments contaminated by heavy metals: feasibility study on a pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Seidel, H; Löser, C; Zehnsdorf, A; Hoffmann, P; Schmerold, R

    2004-03-01

    The core stages of a sediment remediation process--the conditioning of dredged sludge by plants and the solid-bed leaching of heavy metals using microbially produced sulfuric acid--were tested on a pilot scale using a highly polluted river sediment. Conditioning was performed in 50 m3 basins at sludge depths of 1.8 m. During one vegetation period the anoxic sludge turned into a soil-like oxic material and became very permeable to water. Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) was found to be best suited for conditioning. Bioleaching was carried out in an aerated solid-bed reactor of 2000 L working volume using oxic soil-like sediment supplemented with 2% sulfur. When applying conditioned sediment, the oxidation of easily degradable organic matter by heterotrophic microbes increased the temperature up to 50 degrees C in the early leaching phase, which in turn temporarily inhibited the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Nevertheless, most of the metal contaminants were leached within 21 days. Zn, Cd, Mn, Co, and Ni were removed by 61-81%, Cu was reduced by 21%, while Cr and Pb were nearly immobile. A cost-effectiveness assessment of the remediation process indicates it to be a suitable treatment for restoring polluted sediments for beneficial use.

  13. Disinfection of bacterial biofilms in pilot-scale cooling tower systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Packman, Aaron I

    2011-04-01

    The impact of continuous chlorination and periodic glutaraldehyde treatment on planktonic and biofilm microbial communities was evaluated in pilot-scale cooling towers operated continuously for 3 months. The system was operated at a flow rate of 10,080 l day(-1). Experiments were performed with a well-defined microbial consortium containing three heterotrophic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. The persistence of each species was monitored in the recirculating cooling water loop and in biofilms on steel and PVC coupons in the cooling tower basin. The observed bacterial colonization in cooling towers did not follow trends in growth rates observed under batch conditions and, instead, reflected differences in the ability of each organism to remain attached and form biofilms under the high-through flow conditions in cooling towers. Flavobacterium was the dominant organism in the community, while P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae did not attach well to either PVC or steel coupons in cooling towers and were not able to persist in biofilms. As a result, the much greater ability of Flavobacterium to adhere to surfaces protected it from disinfection, whereas P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were subject to rapid disinfection in the planktonic state.

  14. Quality and Quantity of Leachate in Aerobic Pilot-Scale Landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgili, Memmet Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Özkaya, Bestamin

    2006-08-01

    In this study, two pilot-scale aerobic landfill reactors with (A1) and without (A2) leachate recirculation are used to obtain detailed information on the quantity and quality of leachate in aerobic landfills. The observed parameters of leachate quality are pH, chloride (Cl-), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and nitrate (NO3 --N). pH values of the leachate increased to 7 after 50 days in reactor A1 and after 70 days in reactor A2. Cl- concentrations increased rapidly to 6100 (A1) and 6900 (A2) mg/L after 80 days, from initial values of 3000 and 2800 mg/L, respectively. COD and BOD values decreased rapidly in the A1 landfill reactor, indicating the rapid oxidation of organic matter. The BOD/COD ratio indicates that leachate recirculation slightly increases the degradation of solid waste in aerobic landfills. NH3-N concentrations decreased as a result of the nitrification process. Denitrification occurred in parts of the reactors as a result of intermittent aeration; this process causes a decrease in NO3 - concentrations. There is a marked difference between the A1 and A2 reactors in terms of leachate quantity. Recirculated leachate made up 53.3% of the leachate generated from the A1 reactor during the experiment, while leachate quantity decreased by 47.3% with recirculation when compared with the aerobic dry landfill reactor.

  15. A specific pilot-scale membrane hybrid treatment system for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Ngo, Huu Hao; Kim, Sa Dong; Yoon, Yong Soo

    2014-10-01

    A specifically designed pilot-scale hybrid wastewater treatment system integrating an innovative equalizing reactor (EQ), rotating hanging media bioreactor (RHMBR) and submerged flat sheet membrane bioreactor (SMBR) was evaluated for its effectiveness in practical, long-term, real-world applications. The pilot system was operated at a constant flux, but with different internal recycle flow rates (Q) over a long-term operating of 475 days. At 4 Q internal recycle flow rate, BOD5, CODCr, NH4(+)-N, T-N, T-P and TSS was highly removed with efficiencies up to 99.88 ± 0.05%, 95.01 ± 1.62%, 100%, 90.42 ± 2.43%, 73.44 ± 6.03%, and 99.93 ± 0.28%, respectively. Furthermore, the effluent quality was also superior in terms of turbidity (<1 NTU), color (<15 TCU) and taste (inoffensive). The results indicated that with providing only chemically cleaned-in-place (CIP) during the entire period of operation, the membrane could continuously maintain a constant permeate flux of 22.77 ± 2.19 L/m(2)h. In addition, the power consumption was also found to be reasonably low (0.92-1.62 k Wh/m(3)).

  16. Operating a pilot-scale nitrification/distillation plant for complete nutrient recovery from urine.

    PubMed

    Fumasoli, Alexandra; Etter, Bastian; Sterkele, Bettina; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Udert, Kai M

    2016-01-01

    Source-separated urine contains most of the excreted nutrients, which can be recovered by using nitrification to stabilize the urine before concentrating the nutrient solution with distillation. The aim of this study was to test this process combination at pilot scale. The nitrification process was efficient in a moving bed biofilm reactor with maximal rates of 930 mg N L(-1) d(-1). Rates decreased to 120 mg N L(-1) d(-1) after switching to more concentrated urine. At high nitrification rates (640 mg N L(-1) d(-1)) and low total ammonia concentrations (1,790 mg NH4-N L(-1) in influent) distillation caused the main primary energy demand of 71 W cap(-1) (nitrification: 13 W cap(-1)) assuming a nitrogen production of 8.8 g N cap(-1) d(-1). Possible process failures include the accumulation of the nitrification intermediate nitrite and the selection of acid-tolerant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Especially during reactor start-up, the process must therefore be carefully supervised. The concentrate produced by the nitrification/distillation process is low in heavy metals, but high in nutrients, suggesting a good suitability as an integral fertilizer.

  17. Microbial biosafety of pilot-scale bioreactor treating MTBE and TBA-contaminated drinking water supply

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Radomir; Klemme, David A.; Scow, Kate; Hristova, Krassimira

    2012-01-01

    A pilot-scale sand-based fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was utilized to treat both methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) from a contaminated aquifer. To evaluate the potential for re-use of the treated water, we tested for a panel of water quality indicator microorganisms and potential waterborne pathogens including total coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolytica and Mycobacterium avium in both influent and treated waters from the bioreactor. Total bacteria decreased during FBBR treatment. E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni, V. cholerae, Y. enterocolytica and M. avium were not detected in aquifer water or bioreactor treated water samples. For those pathogens detected, including total coliforms, L. pneumophila and A. hydrophila, numbers were usually lower in treated water than influent samples, suggesting removal during treatment. The detection of particular bacterial species reflected their presence or absence in the influent waters. PMID:22321859

  18. Pilot scale study on retrofitting conventional activated sludge plant for biological nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Chiang, W W; Qasim, S R; Zhu, G; Crosby, E C

    1999-01-01

    Eutrophication of receiving waters due to the discharge of nitrogen and phosphorus through the wastewater effluent has received much interest in recent years. Numerous techniques have been proposed and aimed at retrofitting the existing conventional activated sludge process for nutrient removal. A pilot-scale research program was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a biological nutrient process for this purpose. The results indicated that creating an anoxic/anaerobic zone before aeration basin significantly enhances total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) removal. Without internal cycle, about 80 percent TP and TN removal were respectively achieved under their optimal conditions. However, adverse trends for phosphorus and nitrogen removal were observed when the ratio of return sludge to the influent was varied in the range between 0.5 and 3.0. The total phosphorus removal decreased as the concentration of BOD5 in the mixture of influent and return sludge decreased. Improved sludge settling properties and reduced foaming problems were also observed during the pilot plant operation. Based upon experimental results, the strategies to modify an existing conventional activated sludge plant into a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system are discussed.

  19. A pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulfurization with pyrolusite.

    PubMed

    Su, Shi-jun; Zhu, Xiao-fan; Liu, Yong-jun; Jiang, Wen-ju; Jin, Yan

    2005-01-01

    MnO2 in pyrolusite can react with SO2 in flue gas and obtain by-product MnSO4 x H2O. A pilot scale jet bubbling reactor was applied in this work. Different factors affecting both SO2 absorption efficiency and Mn2+ extraction rate have been investigated, these factors include temperature of inlet gas flue, ration of liquid/solid mass flow rate (L/S), pyrolusite grade, and SO2 concentration in the inlet flue gas. In the meantime, the procedure of purification of absorption liquid was also discussed. Experiment results indicated that the increase of temperature from 30 to 70 K caused the increase of SO2 absorption efficiency from 81.4% to 91.2%. And when SO2 concentration in the inlet flue gas increased from 500 to 3000 ppm, SO2 absorption efficiency and Mn2+ extraction rate decreased from 98.1% to 82.2% and from 82.8% to 61.7%, respectively. The content of MnO2 in pyrolusite had a neglectable effect on SO2 absorption efficiency. Low L/S was good for both removal of SO2 and Mn2+ extraction. The absorption liquid was filtrated and purified to remove Si, Mg, Ca, Fe, Al and heavy metals, last product MnSO4 x H2O was obtained which quality could reach China GB1622-86, the industry grade standards.

  20. Production and isolation of azaspiracid-1 and -2 from Azadinium spinosum culture in pilot scale photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Jauffrais, Thierry; Kilcoyne, Jane; Séchet, Véronique; Herrenknecht, Christine; Truquet, Philippe; Hervé, Fabienne; Bérard, Jean Baptiste; Nulty, Cíara; Taylor, Sarah; Tillmann, Urban; Miles, Christopher O; Hess, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    Azaspiracid (AZA) poisoning has been reported following consumption of contaminated shellfish, and is of human health concern. Hence, it is important to have sustainable amounts of the causative toxins available for toxicological studies and for instrument calibration in monitoring programs, without having to rely on natural toxin events. Continuous pilot scale culturing was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of AZA production using Azadinium spinosum cultures. Algae were harvested using tangential flow filtration or continuous centrifugation. AZAs were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) procedures, and subsequently purified. When coupling two stirred photobioreactors in series, cell concentrations reached 190,000 and 210,000 cell · mL(-1) at steady state in bioreactors 1 and 2, respectively. The AZA cell quota decreased as the dilution rate increased from 0.15 to 0.3 day(-1), with optimum toxin production at 0.25 day(-1). After optimization, SPE procedures allowed for the recovery of 79 ± 9% of AZAs. The preparative isolation procedure previously developed for shellfish was optimized for algal extracts, such that only four steps were necessary to obtain purified AZA1 and -2. A purification efficiency of more than 70% was achieved, and isolation from 1200 L of culture yielded 9.3 mg of AZA1 and 2.2 mg of AZA2 of >95% purity. This work demonstrated the feasibility of sustainably producing AZA1 and -2 from A. spinosum cultures.

  1. Design of a novel automated methanol feed system for pilot-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Hamaker, Kent H; Johnson, Daniel C; Bellucci, Joseph J; Apgar, Kristie R; Soslow, Sherry; Gercke, John C; Menzo, Darrin J; Ton, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris requires a large volume of methanol feed during the induction phase. However, a large volume of methanol feed is difficult to use in the processing suite because of the inconvenience of constant monitoring, manual manipulation steps, and fire and explosion hazards. To optimize and improve safety of the methanol feed process, a novel automated methanol feed system has been designed and implemented for industrial fermentation of P. pastoris. Details of the design of the methanol feed system are described. The main goals of the design were to automate the methanol feed process and to minimize the hazardous risks associated with storing and handling large quantities of methanol in the processing area. The methanol feed system is composed of two main components: a bulk feed (BF) system and up to three portable process feed (PF) systems. The BF system automatically delivers methanol from a central location to the portable PF system. The PF system provides precise flow control of linear, step, or exponential feed of methanol to the fermenter. Pilot-scale fermentations with linear and exponential methanol feeds were conducted using two Mut(+) (methanol utilization plus) strains, one expressing a recombinant therapeutic protein and the other a monoclonal antibody. Results show that the methanol feed system is accurate, safe, and efficient. The feed rates for both linear and exponential feed methods were within ± 5% of the set points, and the total amount of methanol fed was within 1% of the targeted volume.

  2. Formation of ethyl acetate from whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus on a pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Stukert, Anton; Bley, Thomas

    2013-01-10

    Whey arising in huge amounts during milk processing is a valuable renewable resource in the field of White Biotechnology. Kluyveromyces marxianus is able to convert whey-borne lactose into ethyl acetate, an environmentally friendly solvent. Formation of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is triggered by iron (Fe). K. marxianus DSM 5422 was cultivated aerobically in whey-borne medium originally containing 40 μg/L Fe, supplemented with 1, 3 or 10 mg/L Fe in the pre-culture, using an 1 L or 70 L stirred reactor. The highest Fe content in the pre-culture promoted yeast growth in the main culture causing a high sugar consumption for growth and dissatisfactory formation of ethyl acetate, while the lowest Fe content limited yeast growth and promoted ester synthesis but slowed down the process. An intermediate Fe dose (ca. 0.5 μg Fe/g sugar) lastly represented a compromise between some yeast growth, a quite high yield of ethyl acetate and an acceptable duration of the process. The mass of ethyl acetate related to the sugar consumed amounted to 0.113, 0.265 and 0.239 g/g in the three processes corresponding to 21.9%, 51.4% and 46.3% of the theoretically maximum yield. The performance on a pilot scale was somewhat higher than on lab scale.

  3. Pilot-Scale Test of Counter-Current Ion Exchange (CCIX) Using UOP IONSIV IE-911

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, Dennis W. ); Fondeur, Fernando; Dennis, Richard; Pike, Jeff; Leugemors, Robert K. ); Taylor, Paul W.; Hang, Thong

    2001-09-24

    A pilot-scale test of a moving-bed configuration of a UOP IONSIV? IE-911 ion-exchange column was performed over 17 days at Severn Trent Services facilities. The objectives of the test, in order of priority, were to determine if aluminosilicate precipitation caused clumping of IE-911 particles in the column, to observe the effect on aluminum-hydroxide precipitation of water added to a simulant-filled column, to evaluate the extent of particle attrition, and to measure the expansion of the mass-transfer zone under the influence of column pulsing. The IE-911 moved through the column with no apparent clumping during the test, although analytical results indicate that little if any aluminosilicate precipitated onto the particles. A precipitate of aluminum hydroxide was not produced when water was added to the simulant-filled column, indicating that this upset scenario is probably of little concern. Particle-size distributions remained relatively constant with time and position in the column, indicating that particle attrition was not significant. The expansion of the mass-transfer zone could not be accurately measured because of the slow loading kinetics of the IE-911 and the short duration of the test; however, the information obtained indicates that back-mixing of sorbent is not extensive.

  4. Disinfection of bacterial biofilms in pilot-scale cooling tower systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P.; Packman, Aaron I.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of continuous chlorination and periodic glutaraldehyde treatment on planktonic and biofilm microbial communities was evaluated in pilot-scale cooling towers operated continuously for 3 months. The system was operated at a flow rate of 10,080 l day−1. Experiments were performed with a well-defined microbial consortium containing three heterotrophic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. The persistence of each species was monitored in the recirculating cooling water loop and in biofilms on steel and PVC coupons in the cooling tower basin. The observed bacterial colonization in cooling towers did not follow trends in growth rates observed under batch conditions and, instead, reflected differences in the ability of each organism to remain attached and form biofilms under the high-through flow conditions in cooling towers. Flavobacterium was the dominant organism in the community, while P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae did not attach well to either PVC or steel coupons in cooling towers and were not able to persist in biofilms. As a result, the much greater ability of Flavobacterium to adhere to surfaces protected it from disinfection, whereas P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were subject to rapid disinfection in the planktonic state. PMID:21547755

  5. Properties of pyrolytic chars and activated carbons derived from pilot-scale pyrolysis of used tires.

    PubMed

    Li, S Q; Yao, Q; Wen, S E; Chi, Y; Yan, J H

    2005-09-01

    Used tires were pyrolyzed in a pilot-scale quasi-inert rotary kiln. Influences of variables, such as time, temperature, and agent flow, on the activation of obtained char were subsequently investigated in a laboratory-scale fixed bed. Mesoporous pores are found to be dominant in the pore structures of raw char. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surfaces of activated chars increased linearly with carbon burnoff. The carbon burnoff of tire char achieved by carbon dioxide (CO2) under otherwise identical conditions was on average 75% of that achieved by steam, but their BET surfaces are almost the same. The proper activation greatly improved the aqueous adsorption of raw char, especially for small molecular adsorbates, for example, phenol from 6 to 51 mg/g. With increasing burnoff, phenol adsorption exhibited a first-stage linear increase followed by a rapid drop after 30% burnoff. Similarly, iodine adsorption first increased linearly, but it held as the burnoff exceeded 40%, which implied that the reduction of iodine adsorption due to decreasing micropores was partially made up by increasing mesopores. Both raw chars and activated chars showed appreciable adsorption capacity of methylene-blue comparable with that of commercial carbons. Thus, tire-derived activated carbons can be used as an excellent mesoporous adsorbent for larger molecular species.

  6. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kWth. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550°C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign.

  7. Performance evaluation of pilot scale sulfur-oxidizing denitrification for treatment of metal plating wastewater.

    PubMed

    Flores, Angel S P; Gwon, Eun-Mi; Sim, Dong-Min; Nisola, Grace; Galera, Melvin M; Chon, Seung-Se; Chung, Wook-Jin; Pak, Dae-Won; Ahn, Zou Sam

    2006-01-01

    A full-scale and two pilot-scale upflow sulfur-oxidizing denitrification (SOD) columns were evaluated using metal plating wastewater as feed. The sludge was autotrophically enriched, and inoculated in the SOD columns attached to the effluent line of three metal plating wastewater treatment facilities. The effects of activated carbon and aeration were also studied, and found effective for the removal of suspended solids and ammonia, respectively. The results showed that the constituents, such as the total nitrogen, nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and heavy metals, were effectively removed. The pH was observed to be maintained at 7-8 due to the alkalinity supplied by the sulfur-calcium carbonate (SC) pellet. The denitrification efficiency and start-up period were observed to be affected by the influent quality. Chromium, iron, nickel, copper, and zinc--the major heavy metal components of the influent--were effectively reduced at certain concentrations. Other metal ions were also detected and reduced to undetectable concentrations, but no trends in the comparison with denitrification were observed. From the results it can be concluded that SOD is effective for the removal of nitrogen, particularly nitrates, without a drastic pH change, and can effectively remove minute concentrations of heavy metals and COD in metal plating wastewaters.

  8. Indirect measurement of water content in an aseptic solid substrate cultivation pilot-scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Peña Y Lillo, M; Pérez-Correa, R; Agosin, E; Latrille, E

    2001-01-01

    A lack of models and sensors for describing and monitoring large-scale solid substrate cultivation (SSC) bioreactors has hampered industrial development and application of this type of process. This study presents an indirect dynamic measurement model for a 200-kg-capacity fixed-bed SSC bioreactor under periodic agitation. Growth of the filamentous fungus Gibberella fujikuroi on wheat bran was used as a case study. Real data were preprocessed using previously reported methodology. The model uses CO2 production rate and inlet air conditions to estimate average bed water content and average bed temperature. The model adequately reproduces the evolution of the average bed water content and can therefore be used as an on-line estimator in pilot-scale SSC bioreactors. To obtain a reasonable fit of the bed temperature, however, inlet air humidity measurements will have to be adjusted with a data reconciliation algorithm. Good estimation of temperature is important for the future design of improved water content estimation using state observers. The model also provides insight into understanding the complex behavior of the dynamic system, which could prove useful when establishing advanced model-based operational and control strategies.

  9. Pilot-scale incineration of comtaminated soils from the drake chemical superfund site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.; Lee, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.

    1993-03-01

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests were performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as an option to treat contaminated soils from the Drake Chemical Superfund site in Lock Haven, Pennsylvania. The soils at the Drake site are reported to be contaminated to varying degrees with various organic constituents and several hazardous constituent trace metals. The purpose of the test program was to evaluate the incinerability of selected site soils in terms of the destruction of contaminant organic constituents and the fate of contaminant trace metals. All tests were conducted in the rotary kiln incineration system at the IRF. Test results show that greater than 99.995 percent principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) can be achieved at kiln exit gas temperatures of nominally 816 C (1,500 F) and 538 C (1,000 F). Complete soil decontamination of semivolatile organics was achieved; however, kiln ash levels of three volatile organic constituents remained comparable to soil levels.

  10. Benzalkonium runoff from roofs treated with biocide products - In situ pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Gromaire, M C; Van de Voorde, A; Lorgeoux, C; Chebbo, G

    2015-09-15

    Roof maintenance practices often involve the application of biocide products to fight against moss, lichens and algae. The main component of these products is benzalkonium chloride, a mixture of alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chlorides with mainly C12 and C14 alkyl chain lengths, which is toxic for the aquatic environment. This paper describes, on the basis of an in-situ pilot scale study, the evolution of roof runoff contamination over a one year period following the biocide treatment of roof frames. Results show a major contamination of roof runoff immediately after treatment (from 5 to 30 mg/L), followed by an exponential decrease. 175-375 mm of cumulated rainfall is needed before the runoff concentrations become less than EC50 values for fish (280 μg/l). The residual concentration in the runoff water remains above 4 μg/L even after 640 mm of rainfall. The level of benzalkonium ions leaching depends on the roofing material, with lower concentrations and total mass leached from ceramic tiles than from concrete tiles, and on the state of the tile (new or worn out). Mass balance calculations indicate that a large part of the mass of benzalkonium compounds applied to the tiles is lost, probably due to biodegradation processes.

  11. A pilot scale comparison of advanced oxidation processes for estrogenic hormone removal from municipal wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Pešoutová, Radka; Stříteský, Luboš; Hlavínek, Petr

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the oxidation of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol and 17α-ethinylestradiol) during ozonation and advanced oxidation of biologically treated municipal wastewater effluents in a pilot scale. Selected estrogenic substances were spiked in the treated wastewater at levels ranging from 1.65 to 3.59 μg · L(-1). All estrogens were removed by ozonation by more than 99% at ozone doses ≥1.8 mg · L(-1). At a dose of 4.4 · mg L(-1) ozonation reduced concentrations of estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol and 17α-ethinylestradiol by 99.8, 99.7, 99.9 and 99.7%, respectively. All tested advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) achieved high removal rates but they were slightly lower compared to ozonation. The lower removal rates for all tested advanced oxidation processes are caused by the presence of naturally occurring hydroxyl radical scavengers - carbonates and bicarbonates.

  12. Immobilization of simulated high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass: Pilot scale demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a pilot scale facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy's Defense Waste Processing Facility. The IDMS has successfully demonstrated, on an engineering scale (one-fifth), that simulated high level radioactive waste (HLW) sludge can be chemically treated with formic acid to adjust both its chemical and physical properties, and then blended with simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product and borosilicate glass frit to produce a melter feed which can be processed into a durable glass product. The simulated sludge, PHA and frit were blended, based on a product composition program, to optimize the loading of the waste glass as well as to minimize those components which can cause melter processing and/or glass durability problems. During all the IDMS demonstrations completed thus far, the melter feed and the resulting glass that has been produced met all the required specifications, which is very encouraging to future DWPF operations. The IDMS operations also demonstrated that the volatile components of the melter feed (e.g., mercury, nitrogen and carbon, and, to a lesser extent, chlorine, fluorine and sulfur) did not adversely affect the melter performance or the glass product.

  13. Immobilization of simulated high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass: Pilot scale demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-12-31

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a pilot scale facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility. The IDMS has successfully demonstrated, on an engineering scale (one-fifth), that simulated high level radioactive waste (HLW) sludge can be chemically treated with formic acid to adjust both its chemical and physical properties, and then blended with simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product and borosilicate glass frit to produce a melter feed which can be processed into a durable glass product. The simulated sludge, PHA and frit were blended, based on a product composition program, to optimize the loading of the waste glass as well as to minimize those components which can cause melter processing and/or glass durability problems. During all the IDMS demonstrations completed thus far, the melter feed and the resulting glass that has been produced met all the required specifications, which is very encouraging to future DWPF operations. The IDMS operations also demonstrated that the volatile components of the melter feed (e.g., mercury, nitrogen and carbon, and, to a lesser extent, chlorine, fluorine and sulfur) did not adversely affect the melter performance or the glass product.

  14. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Coal mine water (CMW) is typically treated to remove suspended solids, acidity, and soluble metals, but high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) have been reported to impact the environment at several CMW discharge points. Consequently, various states have established TDS wastewater regulations and the US EPA has proposed a benchmark conductivity limit to reduce TDS impacts in streams near mining sites. Traditional CMW treatment effectively removes some TDS components, but is not effective in removing major salt ions due to their higher solubility. This paper describes the basic principles, effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages of various TDS removal technologies (adsorption, bioremediation, capacitive deionization, desalination, electro-chemical ion exchange, electrocoagulation, electrodialysis, ion exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation, and reverse osmosis) that have at least been tested in bench- and pilot-scale experiments. Recent discussions about new regulations to include total dissolved solids TDS) limits would propel interest in the TDS removal technologies focused on coal mine water. TDS removal is not a new concept and has been developed using different technologies for a number of applications, but coal mine water has unique characteristics (depending on the site, mining process, and solid-water-oxygen interactions), which make it unlikely to have a single technology predominating over others. What are some novel technolog

  15. Soluble microbial products in pilot-scale drinking water biofilters with acetate as sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ye, Chengsong; Gong, Song; Wei, Gu; Yu, Xin; Feng, Lin

    2013-04-01

    A comprehensive study on formation and characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMP) during drinking water biofiltration was made in four parallel pilot-scale ceramic biofilters with acetate as the substrate. Excellent treatment performance was achieved while microbial biomass and acetate carbon both declined with the depth of filter. The SMP concentration was determined by calculating the difference between the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and acetate carbon. The results revealed that SMP showed an obvious increase from 0 to 100 cm depth of the filter. A rising specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) was also found, indicating that benzene or carbonyl might exist in these compounds. SMP produced during this drinking water biological process were proved to have weak mutagenicity and were not precursors of by-products of chlorination disinfection. The volatile parts of SMP were half-quantity analyzed and most of them were dicarboxyl acids, others were hydrocarbons or benzene with 16-17 carbon atoms.

  16. Evaluation of a new annular capacitance probe for biomass monitoring in industrial pilot-scale fermentations.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana P; Vieira, Luís M; Cardoso, Joaquim P; Menezes, José C

    2005-04-06

    The four-pin electrode capacitance probe has already shown to be a valuable tool for on-line monitoring viable biomass concentration in industrial-type fermentations. A new prototype annular probe was developed and its performance in real-time monitoring the concentration of viable cells during industrial pilot-scale fermentation for the production of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) was investigated and compared to the four-pin probe. A set of 14 fermentations was monitored on-line: four of them with the four-pin probe, the remaining with the annular probe. The performance of both the annular and the four-pin electrode probe were compared against each other and against off-line measurements (viscosity and packed mycelial volume). The prototype annular probe showed to have higher signal intensity and sensitivity than the standard four-pin probe, with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, its new design and construction proved to be easier to handle in an industrial environment.

  17. Pilot-scale study of efficient vermicomposting of agro-industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vaidyanathan Vinoth; Shanmugaprakash, M; Aravind, J; Namasivayam, S Karthick Raja

    2012-01-01

    Pilot-scale vermicomposting was explored using Eudrilus eugeniae for 90 days with 45 days preliminary decomposition using different agro-industrial wastes as substrates. Spent wash and pressmud were mixed together (referred to as PS) and then combined with cow dung (CD) at five different ratios of PS:CD, namely, 25:75 (T1), 50:50 (T2), 75:25 (T3), 85:15 (T4) and 100 (T5), with two replicates for each treatment. All vermibeds expressed a significant decrease in pH (11.4-14.8%), organic carbon (4.2-30.5%) and an increase in total nitrogen (6-29%), AP (5-29%), exchangeable potash (6-21%) and turnover rate (52-66%). Maximum mortality (18.10%) of worms was recorded in T5 treatment. A high manurial value and a matured product was achieved in T3 treatment. The data reveal that pressmud mixed with spent wash can be decomposed through vermicomposting and can help to enhance the quality of vermicompost.

  18. Pesticide removal from cotton farm tailwater by a pilot-scale ponded wetland.

    PubMed

    Rose, Michael T; Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2006-06-01

    A pilot-scale, ponded wetland consisting of an open pond and a vegetated pond in series was constructed on a cotton farm in northern New South Wales, Australia, and assessed for its potential to remove pesticides from irrigation tailwater. Ten incubation periods ranging from 7 to 13 days each were conducted over two cotton growing seasons to monitor removal of residues of four pesticides applied to the crop. Residue reductions ranging 22-53% and 32-90% were observed in the first and second seasons respectively. Average half-lives during this first season were calculated as 21.3 days for diuron, 25.4 days for fluometuron and 26.4 days for aldicarb over the entire wetland. During the second season of monitoring, pesticide half-lives were significantly reduced, with fluometuron exhibiting a half-life of 13.8 days, aldicarb 6.2 days and endosulfan 7.5 days in the open pond. Further significant reductions were observed in the vegetated pond and also following an algal bloom in the open pond, as a result of which aldicarb and endosulfan were no longer quantifiable. Partitioning onto sediment was found to be a considerable sink for the insecticide endosulfan. These results demonstrate that macrophytes and algae can reduce the persistence of pesticides in on-farm water and provide some data for modelling.

  19. Two-step pilot-scale biofilter system for the abatement of food waste composting emission.

    PubMed

    Galera, Melvin Maaliw; Cho, Eulsaeng; Kim, Yekyung; Farnazo, Danvir; Park, Shin-Jung; Oh, Young-Sook; Park, Jae Kyu; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2008-03-01

    A pilot-scale two-step biofilter system was evaluated in treating food waste composting emission for 220 days. Wood chips were packed at the bottom section while mixture of rock wool and earthworm compost (6% w/v) was packed at the top section. Inlet ammonia concentration was found to be dominant and intermittent. The overall ammonia removal of over 98% was achieved, 70% of which was removed in the wood chip section. The highest ammonia elimination capacity was determined to be 39.43 g-NH(3)/m(3)/h at 99.5% removal efficiency. From biodegradation kinetic analysis, the maximum removal rate, V(m), of the wood chip section was determined to be 200 g-NH(3)/m(3)/h and the saturation constant, K(s), 180 mg/m(3). For the rock wool-earthworm cast mixture section, the V(m) was 87 g-NH(3)/m(3)/h and K(s) was 87 mg/m(3). Complete removal of hydrogen sulfide and most trace compounds were achieved by the biofilter. Highest hydrogen sulfide elimination rate was 0.22 g-H(2)S/m(3)/h. The biofilter was optimized from 24 to 16 s EBRT with resulting low average pressure drops of 16 and 29 mm H(2)O/m, respectively.

  20. Performance of pilot-scale constructed wetlands for secondary treatment of chromium-bearing tannery wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Dotro, Gabriela; Castro, Silvana; Tujchneider, Ofelia; Piovano, Nancy; Paris, Marta; Faggi, Ana; Palazolo, Paul; Larsen, Daniel; Fitch, Mark

    2012-11-15

    Tannery operations consist of converting raw animal skins into leather through a series of complex water- and chemically-intensive batch processes. Even when conventional primary treatment is supplemented with chemicals, the wastewater requires some form of biological treatment to enable the safe disposal to the natural environment. Thus, there is a need for the adoption of low cost, reliable, and easy-to-operate alternative secondary treatment processes. This paper reports the findings of two pilot-scale wetlands for the secondary treatment of primary effluents from a full tannery operation in terms of resilience (i.e., ability to produce consistent effluent quality in spite of variable influent loads) and reliability (i.e., ability to cope with sporadic shock loads) when treating this hazardous effluent. Areal mass removal rates of 77.1 g COD/m2/d, 11 g TSS/m2/d, and 53 mg Cr/m2/d were achieved with a simple gravity-flow horizontal subsurface flow unit operating at hydraulic loading rates of as much as 10 cm/d. Based on the findings, a full-scale wetland was sized to treat all the effluent from the tannery requiring 68% more land than would have been assumed based on literature values. Constructed wetlands can offer treatment plant resilience for minimum operational input and reliable effluent quality when biologically treating primary effluents from tannery operations.

  1. Nitrosamines in pilot-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment plants with ozonation.

    PubMed

    Gerrity, Daniel; Pisarenko, Aleksey N; Marti, Erica; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Gerringer, Fred; Reungoat, Julien; Dickenson, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Ozone-based treatment trains offer a sustainable option for potable reuse applications, but nitrosamine formation during ozonation poses a challenge for municipalities seeking to avoid reverse osmosis and high-dose ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Six nitrosamines were monitored in full-scale and pilot-scale wastewater treatment trains. The primary focus was on eight treatment trains employing ozonation of secondary or tertiary wastewater effluents, but two treatment trains with chlorination or UV disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent and another with full advanced treatment (i.e., reverse osmosis and advanced oxidation) were also included for comparison. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were the most prevalent nitrosamines in untreated (up to 89 ng/L and 67 ng/L, respectively) and treated wastewater. N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were detected at one facility each, while N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPrA) and N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) were less than their method reporting limits (MRLs) in all samples. Ozone-induced NDMA formation ranging from <10 to 143 ng/L was observed at all but one site, but the reasons for the variation in formation remain unclear. Activated sludge, biological activated carbon (BAC), and UV photolysis were effective for NDMA mitigation. NMOR was also removed with activated sludge but did not form during ozonation.

  2. Leachate/domestic wastewater aerobic co-treatment: A pilot-scale study using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, F M; Bruni, A T; Povinelli, J; Vieira, E M

    2016-01-15

    Multivariate analysis was used to identify the variables affecting the performance of pilot-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors treating old leachate from a landfill and from domestic wastewater. Raw leachate was pre-treated using air stripping to partially remove the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). The control AS reactor (AS-0%) was loaded only with domestic wastewater, whereas the other reactor was loaded with mixtures containing leachate at volumetric ratios of 2 and 5%. The best removal efficiencies were obtained for a ratio of 2%, as follows: 70 ± 4% for total suspended solids (TSS), 70 ± 3% for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 70 ± 4% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and 51 ± 9% for the leachate slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed that most of the SBOM was removed by partial biodegradation rather than dilution or adsorption of organics in the sludge. Nitrification was approximately 80% in the AS-0% and AS-2% reactors. No significant accumulation of heavy metals was observed for any of the tested volumetric ratios. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) indicated that the data dimension could be reduced and that TAN, SCOD, DOC and nitrification efficiency were the main variables that affected the performance of the AS reactors.

  3. Pilot-scale study of the solar detoxification of VOC-contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Mehos, M; Turchi, C; Pacheco, J; Boegel, A J; Merrill, T; Stanley, R

    1992-08-01

    The Solar Detoxification Field Experiment was designed to investigate the photocatalytic decomposition of organic contaminants in groundwater at a Superfund site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process uses ultraviolet (UV) energy, available in sunlight, in conjunction with the photocatalyst, titanium dioxide, to decompose organic chemicals into nontoxic compounds. The field experiment was developed by three federal laboratories: the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNLA), and LLNL. The US Department of Energy funded the experiment. The objectives of the pilot-scale study included the advancement of the solar technology into a nonlaboratory waste-remediation environment the compilation of test data to help guide laboratory research and future demonstrations and the development of safe operational procedures. Results of the pilot study are discussed, emphasizing the effect of several process variables on the system performance. These variables include alkalinity, catalyst loading, flow velocity through the reactor, and incident solar UV radiation. The performance of the solar detoxification process are discussed as it relates to concentrating and nonconcentrating collectors.

  4. Effect on orange juice of batch pasteurization in an improved pilot-scale microwave oven.

    PubMed

    Cinquanta, L; Albanese, D; Cuccurullo, G; Di Matteo, M

    2010-01-01

    The effects on orange juice batch pasteurization in an improved pilot-scale microwave (MW) oven was evaluated by monitoring pectin methyl-esterase (PME) activity, color, carotenoid compounds and vitamin C content. Trials were performed on stirred orange juice heated at different temperatures (60, 70, 75, and 85 degrees C) during batch process. MW pilot plant allowed real-time temperature control of samples using proportional integrative derivative (PID) techniques based on the infrared thermography temperature read-out. The inactivation of heat sensitive fraction of PME, that verifies orange juice pasteurization, showed a z-value of 22.1 degrees C. Carotenoid content, responsible for sensorial and nutritional quality in fresh juices, decreased by about 13% after MW pasteurization at 70 degrees C for 1 min. Total of 7 carotenoid compounds were quantified during MW heating: zeaxanthin and beta-carotene content decreased by about 26%, while no differences (P < 0.05) were found for beta-cryptoxanthin in the same trial. A slight decrease in vitamin C content was monitored after MW heating. Results showed that MW heating with a fine temperature control could result in promising stabilization treatments.

  5. Influence of supplemental heat addition on performance of pilot-scale bioreactor landfills.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Mohamed; Kennedy, Kevin; Narbaitz, Roberto; Warith, Mostafa; Sartaj, Majid

    2014-02-01

    Implementation of supplemental heat addition as a means of improving bioreactor landfill performance was investigated. The experimental work was conducted with two pilot-scale bioreactor setups (control cell and heated cell) operated for 280 days. Supplemental heat was introduced by recirculating leachate heated up to 35 °C compared to the control which used similar quantities of leachate at room temperature (21 ± 1 °C). The temporal and spatial effects of recirculating heated leachate on the landfill internal temperature were determined, and performance was assessed in terms of leachate parameters and biogas production. Recirculation of heated leachate helped establish balanced anaerobic microbial consortia that led to earlier (70 days) and greater (1.4-fold) organic matter degradation rates, as well as threefold higher methane production compared to the non-heated control. Despite the significant enhancements in performance resulting from supplemental heat addition, heated leachate recirculation did not significantly impact waste temperatures, and the effects were mainly restricted to short periods after recirculation and mostly at the upper layers of the waste. These findings suggest that improvements in bioreactor landfill performance may be achieved without increasing the temperature of the whole in-place waste, but rather more economically by raising the temperature at the leachate/waste interface which is also exposed to the maximum moisture levels within the waste matrix.

  6. Pilot scale-SO{sub 2} control by dry sodium bicarbonate injection and an electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Pliat, M.J.; Wilder, J.M.

    2007-10-15

    A 500 actual cubic feet gas per minute (acfm) pilot-scale SO{sub 2} control study was undertaken to investigate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by dry sodium sorbents in 400{sup o}F (204.5{sup o}C) flue gases emitted from a coal fired boiler with flue gas concentrations between 350 and 2500 ppm SO{sub 2}. Powdered sodium alkaline reagents were injected into the hot flue gas downstream of the air preheater and the spent reagents were collected using an electrostatic precipitator. Three different sorbents were used: processed sodium bicarbonate of two particle sizes; solution mined sodium bicarbonate, and processed sodium sesquicarbonate. SO{sub 2} concentrations were measured upstream of the reagent injection, 25-ft (7.62 m) downstream of the injection point, and downstream of the electrostatic precipitator. SO{sub 2} collection efficiencies ranged from 40 to 80% using sodium bicarbonate stoichiometric ratios from 0.5 to 3.0. Much of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal occurred during the first second of reagent reaction time, indicating that the sulfur dioxide-sodium reaction rates may be faster than have been measured for fixed bed measurements reported in the literature.

  7. Evaluation of flow hydrodynamics in a pilot-scale dissolved air flotation tank: a comparison between CFD and experimental measurements.

    PubMed

    Lakghomi, B; Lawryshyn, Y; Hofmann, R

    2015-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of dissolved air flotation (DAF) have shown formation of stratified flow (back and forth horizontal flow layers at the top of the separation zone) and its impact on improved DAF efficiency. However, there has been a lack of experimental validation of CFD predictions, especially in the presence of solid particles. In this work, for the first time, both two-phase (air-water) and three-phase (air-water-solid particles) CFD models were evaluated at pilot scale using measurements of residence time distribution, bubble layer position and bubble-particle contact efficiency. The pilot-scale results confirmed the accuracy of the CFD model for both two-phase and three-phase flows, but showed that the accuracy of the three-phase CFD model would partly depend on the estimation of bubble-particle attachment efficiency.

  8. Design and performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system for natural gas storage produced water.

    PubMed

    Kanagy, Laura E; Johnson, Brenda M; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H

    2008-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that water produced from natural gas storage wells could be treated effectively by constructed wetland treatment systems, a modular pilot-scale system was designed, built, and used for treating gas storage produced waters. Four simulated waters representing the range of contaminant concentrations typical of actual produced waters were treated, and the system's performance was monitored. Freshwater wetland cells planted with Schoenoplectus californicus and Typha latifolia were used to treat fresh and brackish waters. Saline and hypersaline waters were treated by saltwater wetland cells planted with Spartina alterniflora and by reverse osmosis. Effective removal of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc was achieved by the pilot-scale system. Results suggest that use of specifically designed constructed wetland treatment systems provides a flexible and effective approach for treating gas storage produced waters over a wide range of compositions.

  9. Bench- and pilot-scale thermal desorption treatability studies on pesticide-contaminated soils from Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Swanstrom, C.P.; Besmer, M.

    1995-03-09

    Thermal desorption is being considered as a potential remediation technology for pesticide-contaminated soils at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in Denver, Colorado. From 1988 through 1992, numerous laboratory- and bench-scale indirect-heated thermal desorption (IHTD) treatability studies have been performed on various soil medium groups from the arsenal. RMA has contracted Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a pilot-scale direct-fired thermal desorption (DFTD) treatability study on pesticide-contaminated RMA soil. The purpose of this treatability study is to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the DFTD technology on contaminated RMA soils and to provide data upon which future conceptual design assumptions and cost estimates for a full-scale system can be made. The equipment used in the DFTD treatability study is of large enough scale to provide good full-scale design parameters and operating conditions. The study will also provide valuable-emissions and materials-handling data. Specifically this program will determine if DFTD can achieve reductions in soil contamination below the RMA preliminary remediation goals (PRGs), define system operating conditions for achieving the PRGs, and determine the fate of arsenic and other hazardous metals at these operating conditions. This paper intends to compare existing data from a bench-scale IHTD treatability study using equipment operated in the batch mode to new data from a pilot-scale DFTD operated in a parallel-flow continuous mode. Delays due to materials-handling problems and permit issues have delayed the start of the pilot-scale DFTD testing. The first pilot-scale test is scheduled for the flat week in January 1995. The available data will be presented March 9, 1995, at the Seventh Annual Gulf Coast Environmental Conference in Houston, Texas.

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of the Control of Microbial Fouling by Laboratory and Pilot-Scale Air-Stripping Columns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    AD-A186 558 TECHNICAL REPORT AD NATICK/TR-87/039 PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF THE CONTROL OF MICROBIAL FOULING BY LABORATORY AND PILOT-SCALE AIR ...Scale Air -Stripping Columns. 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Darrell Seekins, Morris Rogers 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT (Year...TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP TSUB-GROUP Air -Stripping Microbial Fouling Aeration Biogrowth Control

  11. PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-08-02

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

  12. Pilot-scale ISCO treatment of a MtBE contaminated site using a Fenton-like process.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Ivan; Verginelli, Iason; Massetti, Felicia; Piscitelli, Daniela; Gavasci, Renato; Baciocchi, Renato

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports about a pilot-scale feasibility study of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) application based on the use of stabilized hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by naturally occurring iron minerals (Fenton-like process) to a site formerly used for fuel storage and contaminated by MtBE. The stratigraphy of the site consists of a 2-3 meter backfill layer followed by a 3-4 meter low permeability layer, that confines the main aquifer, affected by a widespread MtBE groundwater contamination with concentrations up to 4000 μg/L, also with the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons. The design of the pilot-scale treatment was based on the integration of the results obtained from experimental and numerical modeling accounting for the technological and regulatory constraints existing in the site to be remediated. In particular, lab-scale batch tests allowed the selection of the most suitable operating conditions. Then, this information was implemented in a numerical software that allowed to define the injection and monitoring layout and to predict the propagation of hydrogen peroxide in groundwater. The pilot-scale field results confirmed the effective propagation of hydrogen peroxide in nearly all the target area (around 75 m(2) using 3 injection wells). As far as the MtBE removal is concerned, the ISCO application allowed us to meet the clean-up goals in an area of 60 m(2). Besides, the concentration of TBA, i.e. a potential by-product of MtBE oxidation, was actually reduced after the ISCO treatment. The results of the pilot-scale test suggest that ISCO may be a suitable option for the remediation of the groundwater plume contaminated by MtBE, providing the background data for the design and cost-estimate of the full-scale treatment.

  13. Denitrification of high strength nitrate waste from a nuclear industry using acclimatized biomass in a pilot scale reactor.

    PubMed

    Dhamole, Pradip B; Nair, Rashmi R; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Lele, S S

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the performance of acclimatized biomass for denitrification of high strength nitrate waste (10,000 mg/L NO3) from a nuclear industry in a continuous laboratory scale (32 L) and pilot scale reactor (330 L) operated over a period of 4 and 5 months, respectively. Effect of substrate fluctuations (mainly C/NO3-N) on denitrification was studied in a laboratory scale reactor. Incomplete denitrification (95-96 %) was observed at low C/NO3-N (≤2), whereas at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25) led to ammonia formation. Ammonia production increased from 1 to 9 % with an increase in C/NO3-N from 2.25 to 6. Complete denitrification and no ammonia formation were observed at an optimum C/NO3-N of 2.0. Microbiological studies showed decrease in denitrifiers and increase in nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25). Pilot scale studies were carried out with optimum C/NO3-N, and sustainability of the process was checked on the pilot scale for 5 months.

  14. Anaerobic co-digestion of kitchen waste and fruit/vegetable waste: lab-scale and pilot-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Shen, Fei; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Liu, Yanping; Zhu, Baoning; Li, Xiujin

    2014-12-01

    The anaerobic digestion performances of kitchen waste (KW) and fruit/vegetable waste (FVW) were investigated for establishing engineering digestion system. The study was conducted from lab-scale to pilot-scale, including batch, single-phase and two-phase experiments. The lab-scale experimental results showed that the ratio of FVW to KW at 5:8 presented higher methane productivity (0.725 L CH4/g VS), and thereby was recommended. Two-phase digestion appeared to have higher treatment capacity and better buffer ability for high organic loading rate (OLR) (up to 5.0 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1)), compared with the low OLR of 3.5 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1) for single-phase system. For two-phase digestion, the pilot-scale system showed similar performances to those of lab-scale one, except slightly lower maximum OLR of 4.5 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1) was allowed. The pilot-scale system proved to be profitable with a net profit of 10.173$/ton as higher OLR (⩾ 3.0 g(VS) L(-1) d(-1)) was used.

  15. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of an Innovative Treatment for Vapor Emissions.

    PubMed

    Watt, Andrew S; Magrini, Kimberly A; Carlson, Lynnae E; Wolfrum, Edward J; Larson, Sheldon A; Roth, Christine; Glatzmaier, Greg C

    1999-11-01

    Researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory recently conducted a pilot-scale study at McClellan Air Force Base (AFB) in Sacramento, CA. The objective of the test was to determine the effectiveness of an ambient-temperature, solar-powered photocatalytic oxidation treatment unit for destroying emissions of chlorinated organic compounds from an air stripper. This paper reports test results and discusses applications and limitations of the technology. A 10-standard-cubic-foot-per-minute (SCFM) (28.3 L/min) slip stream of air from an air stripper at Operative Unit 29-31 at McClellan AFB was passed through a reactor that contained a lightweight, perforated, inert support coated with photoactive titanium dioxide. The reactor faced south and was tilted at a 45° angle from vertical so that the light-activated catalyst received most of the available sunlight. An online portable gas chro-matograph with two identical columns simultaneously analyzed the volatile organic compounds contained in the reactor inlet and outlet air streams. Summa canister grab samples of the inlet and outlet were also collected and sent to a certified laboratory for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method TO-14 analysis and verification of our field analyses. Three weeks of testing demonstrated that the treatment system's destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) are greater than 95% at 10 SCFM with UV intensities at or greater than 1.5 milliwatts/square centimeter (mW/cm(2)). DREs greater than 95% at 20 SCFM were obtained under conditions where UV irradiation measured at or greater than 2 mW/cm(2). In Sacramento, this provided 6 hours of operation per clear or nearly clear day in April. A solar tracking system could extend operating time. The air stream also contained trace amounts of benzene. We observed no loss of system performance during testing.

  16. Comparison of model-based and conventional controllers on a pilot-scale heat exchanger.

    PubMed

    Raul, Pramod R; Srinivasan, Haritha; Kulkarni, Sanket; Shokrian, Mazdak; Shrivastava, Glory; Russell Rhinehart, R

    2013-05-01

    This pilot-scale heat exchanger demonstration compares two relatively simple nonlinear model-based control strategies to conventional proportional-integral (PI) control. The two nonlinear controllers, generic model control (GMC) and process-model based control (PMBC), use a first-principles model thereby providing characterization of the nonlinear process throughout the operating range. There are two approaches to GMC, one uses a dynamic model, the other a steady-state model. This work uses the steady-state model; accordingly, will use the term GMC-SS, which can be classified as output characterization for a PI controller, making it relatively simple to implement. PMBC uses a dynamic model and adapts to represent the process. These two nonlinear controllers were selected for this application evaluation because of their simplicity (they can be implemented in-house within many commercial control systems), diversity (steady-state and dynamic models), and demonstrated utility for control of nonlinear single-input-single-output processes. The application and results are presented and discussed. Summarizing the results: Within a small temperature operating range PI provides good control, but over the full operating range, the nonlinear and variable delay of the process lead to poor control with PI. GMC can handle the nonlinear issues, but using the convenient steady-state model; it also, provides poor control because of the variable delay associated with flow rate. PMBC was able to provide good control throughout the entire operating range. PMBC has a further advantage of only having one tuning coefficient, while PI and GMC-SS have two.

  17. A pilot-scale floating closed culture system for the multicellular cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis NIES-39.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Masakazu; Aikawa, Shimpei; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Kondo, Akihiko; Kawai, Hiroshi

    Microalgae are considered to be efficient bio-resources for biofuels and bio-based chemicals because they generally have high productivity. The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis has been widely used for food, feed, and nutrient supplements and is usually cultivated in open ponds. In order to extend the surface area for growing this alga, we designed a pilot-scale floating closed culture system for cultivating A. platensis on open water and compared the growth and quality of the alga harvested at both subtropical and temperate regions. The biomass productivity of A. platensis NIES-39 was ca. 9 g dry biomass m(-2) day(-1) in summer at Awaji Island (warm temperature region) and ca. 10 and 6 g dry biomass m(-2) day(-1) in autumn and winter, respectively, at Ishigaki Island, (subtropical region) in Japan. If seawater can be used for culture media, culture cost can be reduced; therefore, we examined the influence of seawater salt concentrations on the growth of A. platensis NIES-39. Growth rates of A. platensis NIES-39 in diluted seawater with enrichment of 2.5 g L(-1) NaNO3, 0.01 g L(-1) FeSO4·7H2O, and 0.08 g L(-1) Na2EDTA were considerably lower than SOT medium, but the biomass productivity (dry weight) was comparable to SOT medium. This is explained by the heavier cell weight of the alga grown in modified seawater media compared to the alga grown in SOT medium. Furthermore, A. platensis grown in modified seawater-based medium exhibited self-flocculation and had more loosely coiled trichomes.

  18. Evapotranspiration from pilot-scale constructed wetlands planted with Phragmites australis in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Milani, Mirco; Toscano, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of evapotranspiration (ET) experiments carried out in Southern Italy (Sicily) in a pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) made of a combination of vegetated (Phragmites australis) and unvegetated sub-surface flow beds. Domestic wastewater from a conventional wastewater treatment plant was used to fill the beds. Microclimate data was gathered from an automatic weather station close to the experimental plant. From June to November 2009 and from April to November 2010, ET values were measured as the amount of water needed to restore the initial volume in the beds after a certain period. Cumulative reference evapotranspiration (ET(0)) was similar to the cumulative ET measured in the beds without vegetation (ET(con)), while the Phragmites ET (ET (phr) ) was significantly higher underlining the effect of the vegetation. The plant coefficient of P. australis (K(p)) was very high (up to 8.5 in August 2009) compared to the typical K(c) for agricultural crops suggesting that the wetland environment was subjected to strong "clothesline" and "oasis" effects. According to the FAO 56 approach, K(p) shows different patterns and values in relation to growth stages correlating significantly to stem density, plant height and total leaves. The mean Water Use Efficiency (WUE) value of P. australis was quite low, about 2.27 g L(-1), probably due to the unlimited water availability and the lack of the plant's physiological adaptations to water conservation. The results provide useful and valid information for estimating ET rates in small-scale constructed wetlands since ET is a relevant issue in arid and semiarid regions. In these areas CW feasibility for wastewater treatment and reuse should also be carefully evaluated for macrophytes in relation to their WUE values.

  19. Transformation of ionophore antimicrobials in poultry litter during pilot-scale composting.

    PubMed

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Yonkos, Lance; Aga, Diana S

    2016-05-01

    Ionophores are the second top selling class of antimicrobials used in food-producing animals in the United States. In chickens, ionophores are used as feed additives to control coccidiosis; up to 80% of administered ionophores are excreted in the litter. Because poultry litter is commonly used to fertilize agricultural fields, ionophore residues in litter have become contaminants of emerging concern. This study aims to develop a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify ionophores, and identify their transformation products (TPs) in poultry litter after on-farm pilot-scale composting. The validation parameters of the optimized method showed good accuracy, ranging from 71 to 119% recovery and relative standard deviation (precision) of ≤19% at three different concentration levels (10, 50 and 100 μg/kg). Monensin, salinomycin and narasin, were detected in the poultry litter samples prior to composting at 290.0 ± 40, 426 ± 46, and 3113 ± 318 μg kg(-1), respectively. This study also aims to investigate the effect of different composting conditions on the removal of ionophores, such as the effect of turning or aeration. Results revealed a 13-68% reduction in ionophore concentrations after 150 d of composting, depending on whether the compost was aerated, turned, or subjected to a combination of both aeration and turning. Three transformation products and one metabolite of ionophores were identified in the composted litter using high-resolution liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF/MS).

  20. Residence time distribution measurements in a pilot-scale poison tank using radiotracer technique.

    PubMed

    Pant, H J; Goswami, Sunil; Samantray, J S; Sharma, V K; Maheshwari, N K

    2015-09-01

    Various types of systems are used to control the reactivity and shutting down of a nuclear reactor during emergency and routine shutdown operations. Injection of boron solution (borated water) into the core of a reactor is one of the commonly used methods during emergency operation. A pilot-scale poison tank was designed and fabricated to simulate injection of boron poison into the core of a reactor along with coolant water. In order to design a full-scale poison tank, it was desired to characterize flow of liquid from the tank. Residence time distribution (RTD) measurement and analysis was adopted to characterize the flow dynamics. Radiotracer technique was applied to measure RTD of aqueous phase in the tank using Bromine-82 as a radiotracer. RTD measurements were carried out with two different modes of operation of the tank and at different flow rates. In Mode-1, the radiotracer was instantaneously injected at the inlet and monitored at the outlet, whereas in Mode-2, the tank was filled with radiotracer and its concentration was measured at the outlet. From the measured RTD curves, mean residence times (MRTs), dead volume and fraction of liquid pumped in with time were determined. The treated RTD curves were modeled using suitable mathematical models. An axial dispersion model with high degree of backmixing was found suitable to describe flow when operated in Mode-1, whereas a tanks-in-series model with backmixing was found suitable to describe flow of the poison in the tank when operated in Mode-2. The results were utilized to scale-up and design a full-scale poison tank for a nuclear reactor.

  1. Pilot Scale Water Gas Shift - Membrane Device for Hydrogen from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Tom

    2013-06-30

    The objectives of the project were to build pilot scale hydrogen separation systems for use in a gasification product stream. This device would demonstrate fabrication and manufacturing techniques for producing commercially ready facilities. The design was a 2 lb/day hydrogen device which included composite hydrogen separation membranes, a water gas shift monolith catalyst, and stainless steel structural components. Synkera Technologies was to prepare hydrogen separation membranes with metallic rims, and to adjust the alloy composition in their membranes to a palladium-gold composition which is sulfur resistant. Chart was to confirm their brazing technology for bonding the metallic rims of the composite membranes to their structural components and design and build the 2 lbs/day device incorporating membranes and catalysts. WRI prepared the catalysts and completed the testing of the membranes and devices on coal derived syngas. The reactor incorporated eighteen 2'' by 7'' composite palladium alloy membranes. These membranes were assembled with three stacks of three paired membranes. Initial vacuum testing and visual inspection indicated that some membranes were cracked, either in transportation or in testing. During replacement of the failed membranes, while pulling a vacuum on the back side of the membranes, folds were formed in the flexible composite membranes. In some instances these folds led to cracks, primarily at the interface between the alumina and the aluminum rim. The design of the 2 lb/day device was compromised by the lack of any membrane isolation. A leak in any membrane failed the entire device. A large number of tests were undertaken to bring the full 2 lb per day hydrogen capacity on line, but no single test lasted more than 48 hours. Subsequent tests to replace the mechanical seals with brazing have been promising, but the technology remains promising but not proven.

  2. An innovative multistage treatment system for sanitary landfill leachate depuration: Studies at pilot-scale.

    PubMed

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Soares, Petrick A; Manenti, Diego R; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2017-01-15

    In this work, an innovative methodology for the treatment of landfill leachates, after aerobic lagooning, is proposed and adjusted at pilot-scale. This methodology involves an aerobic activated sludge biological pre-oxidation (ASBO), a coagulation/sedimentation step (240mgFe(3+)/L, at pH4.2) and a photo-oxidation through a photo-Fenton (PF) reaction (60mg Fe(2+), at pH2.8) combining solar and artificial light. The ASBO process applied to a leachate after aerobic lagooning, with high organic and nitrogen content (1.1-1.5gC/L; 0.8-3.0gN/L) and low biodegradability (BOD5/COD =0.07-0.13), is capable to oxidise 62-99% of the ammonium nitrogen, consuming only the affluent alkalinity (70-100%). The coagulation/sedimentation stage led to the humic acids precipitation, promoting a marked change in leachate colour, from dark-brown to yellowish-brown (related to fulvic acids), accompanied by a reduction of 60%, 58% and 88% on DOC, COD and TSS, respectively. The PF system promoted the degradation of the recalcitrant organic molecules into more easily biodegradable ones. According to Zahn-Wellens biodegradability test, a leachate with 419mg DOC/L after coagulation, would have to be photo-oxidized until DOC <256mg/L, consuming 117mM of H2O2 and 10.4kJ/L of accumulated UV energy, to achieve an effluent that can be biologically treated in compliance with the COD discharge limit (150mg O2/L) into water bodies. The biological process downstream from the photocatalytic system would promote a mineralization >60%. The PF step cost to treat 100m(3)/day of leachate was 6.41€/m(3), combining 1339m(2) of CPCs with 31 lamps.

  3. Pilot-scale aerated submerged biofilm reactor for organics removal and nitrification at cold temperatures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngik; Johnson, Kraig; Hayes, Donald; Xu, Hua

    2008-04-01

    This research describes pilot-scale experiments for efficient removal of dissolved organic and nitrogen compounds in domestic wastewater using aerated submerged biofilm (ASBF) reactors. These reactors could enhance the performance of shallow wastewater treatment lagoons through the addition of specially designed structures. The structures are designed to encourage the growth of a nitrifying bacterial biofilm on a submerged surface. They also force the direct contact of rising air bubbles against the submerged biofilm. This direct gas-phase contact is postulated to increase the oxygen transfer rate into the biofilm and increase the microclimate mixing of water, nutrients, and waste products into and out of the biofilm. This research investigated the efficiency of dissolved organic matter and ammonia-nitrogen removals. Specifically, the effects of cold temperatures on the dissolved organic matter and ammonia-nitrogen performance of the ASBF pilot plant (see Figure 1) was investigated for the batch system. Over a period of 3.5 months, a total of 11 batch runs were performed. By the fourth run, the biofilm had matured to the point that it consumed all the ammonia in 40 hours. On the ninth run, the air supply was left off as a control run. This time, the ammonia was barely consumed, with the level dropping from 24 to 18 mg/L in 40 hours. By the middle of December, the average water temperature during the runs had dropped to approximately 6 degrees C and, at one point, was as low as 3.3 degrees C. The biofilm continued to perform even at these low temperatures, reducing ammonia levels from approximately 25 mg/L to basically zero within 40 to 48 hours.

  4. Pilot-scale continuous ultrasonic cleaning equipment reduces Listeria monocytogenes levels on conveyor belts.

    PubMed

    Tolvanen, Riina; Lundén, Janne; Hörman, Ari; Korkeala, Hannu

    2009-02-01

    Ultrasonic cleaning of a conveyor belt was studied by building a pilot-scale conveyor with an ultrasonic cleaning bath. A piece of the stainless steel conveyor belt was contaminated with meat-based soil and Listeria monocytogenes strains (V1, V3, and B9) and incubated for 72 h to allow bacteria to attach to the conveyor belt surfaces. The effect of ultrasound with a potassium hydroxide-based cleaning detergent was determined by using the cleaning bath at 45 and 50 degrees C for 30 s with and without ultrasound. The detachment of L. monocytogenes from the conveyor belt caused by the ultrasonic treatment was significantly greater at 45 degrees C (independent samples t test, P < 0.001) and at 50 degrees C (independent samples t test, P = 0.04) than without ultrasound. Ultrasonic cleaning efficiency was tested with different cleaning durations (10, 15, 20, and 30 s) and temperatures (30, 45, and 50 degrees C). The differences in the log reduction between cleaning treatments were analyzed by analysis of variance with Tamhane's T2 posthoc test using SPSS (Chicago, IL). The lengthening of the treatment time from 10 to 30 s did not significantly increase the detachment of L. monocytogenes (ANOVA 0.633). At 30 degrees C and at the longest time tested (30 s), the treatment reduced L. monocytogenes counts by only 2.68 log units. However, an increase in temperature from 30 to 50 degrees C improved the effect of the ultrasonic treatment significantly (P < 0.01). Ultrasonic cleaning for 10 s at 50 degrees C reduced L. monocytogenes counts by more than 5 log units. These results indicate that ultrasonic cleaning of a conveyor belt is effective even with short treatment times.

  5. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION FOR NOx ON MERCURY SPECIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Laudal; John H. Pavlish; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Gregory F. Weber; Everett Sondreal

    2000-12-01

    Full-scale tests in Europe and bench-scale tests in the United States have indicated that the catalyst, normally vanadium/titanium metal oxide, used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x}, may promote the formation of Hg{sup 2+} and/or particulate-bound mercury (Hg{sub p}). To investigate the impact of SCR on mercury speciation, pilot-scale screening tests were conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center. The primary research goal was to determine whether the catalyst or the injection of ammonia in a representative SCR system promotes the conversion of Hg{sup 0} to Hg{sup 2+} and/or Hg{sub p} and, if so, which coal types and parameters (e.g., rank and chemical composition) affect the degree of conversion. Four different coals, three eastern bituminous coals and a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, were tested. Three tests were conducted for each coal: (1) baseline, (2) NH{sub 3} injection, and (3) SCR of NO{sub x}. Speciated mercury, ammonia slip, SO{sub 3}, and chloride measurements were made to determine the effect the SCR reactor had on mercury speciation. It appears that the impact of SCR of NO{sub x} on mercury speciation is coal-dependent. Although there were several confounding factors such as temperature and ammonia concentrations in the flue gas, two of the eastern bituminous coals showed substantial increases in Hg{sub p} at the inlet to the ESP after passing through an SCR reactor. The PRB coal showed little if any change due to the presence of the SCR. Apparently, the effects of the SCR reactor are related to the chloride, sulfur and, possibly, the calcium content of the coal. It is clear that additional work needs to be done at the full-scale level.

  6. Investigation on laboratory and pilot-scale airlift sulfide oxidation reactor under varying sulfide loading rate.

    PubMed

    Pokasoowan, Chanya; Kanitchaidecha, Wilawan; K C, Bal Krishna; Annachhatre, Ajit P

    2009-01-01

    Airlift bioreactor was established for recovering sulfur from synthetic sulfide wastewater under controlled dissolved oxygen condition. The maximum recovered sulfur was 14.49 g/day when sulfide loading rate, dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH values were 2.97 kgHS(-)/m(3)-day, 0.2-1.0 mg/L and 7.2-7.8, respectively. On the other hand, the increase in recovered sulfur reduced the contact surface of sulfide oxidizing bacteria which affects the recovery process. This effect caused to reduce the conversion of sulfide to sulfur. More recovered sulfur was produced at high sulfide loading rate due to the change of metabolic pathway of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria which prevented the toxicity of sulfide in the culture. The maximum activity in this system was recorded to be about 3.28 kgS/kgVSS-day. The recovered sulfur contained organic compounds which were confirmed by the results from XRD and CHN analyzer. Afterwards, by annealing the recovered sulfur at 120 degrees C for 24 hrs under ambient Argon, the percentage of carbon reduced from 4.44% to 0.30%. Furthermore, the percentage of nitrogen and hydrogen decreased from 0.79% and 0.48% to 0.00% and 0.14%, respectively. This result showed the success in increasing the purity of recovered sulfur by using the annealing technique. The pilot-scale biological sulfide oxidation process was carried out using real wastewater from Thai Rayon Industry in Thailand. The airlift reactor successfully removed sulfide more than 90% of the influent sulfide at DO concentration of less than 0.1 mg/L, whereas the elementary sulfur production was 2.37 kgS/m(3)-day at sulfide loading rate of 2.14 kgHS(-)/m(3)-day. The sulfur production was still increasing as the reactor had not yet reached its maximum sulfide loading rate.

  7. Pilot-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Farnum, Rachel; Perry, Robert; Wood, Benjamin

    2014-12-31

    GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO 2) from the flue gas of coal-fired powerplants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO2-capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a pilot-scale continuous CO2 absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. As part of that effort, an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a CO2-capture system for a 550 MW coal-fired powerplant was conducted. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP- 1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonicacid (DDBSA) were also identified foranalysis. An EH&S assessment was also completed for the manufacturing process for the GAP-1m solvent. The chemicals associated with the manufacturing process include methanol, xylene, allyl chloride, potassium cyanate, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO), tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide, Karstedt catalyst, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), Aliquat 336, methyl carbamate, potassium chloride, trimethylamine, and (3-aminopropyl) dimethyl silanol. The toxicological effects of each component of both the CO2 capture system and the manufacturing process were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. Engineering and control systems, including environmental abatement, are described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

  8. Macrophyte growth in a pilot-scale constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Hadad, H R; Maine, M A; Bonetto, C A

    2006-06-01

    A pilot-scale wetland was constructed to assess the feasibility of treating the wastewater from a tool industry in Santo Tomé, Santa Fe, Argentina. The wastewater had high conductivity and pH, and contained Cr, Ni and Zn. This paper describes the growth of vegetation in the experimental wetland and the nutrient and metal removal. The wetland was 6 x 3 x 0.4 m. Water discharge was 1000 l d(-1) and residence time was 7d. After the wetland was rendered impermeable, macrophytes from Middle Paraná River floodplain were transplanted. Influent and effluent quality was analyzed every 15 d. TP, Cr, Ni and Zn concentrations in leaves, roots and sediment (inlet and outlet) were measured monthly. Cover and biomass of predominant species were estimated. Also, greenhouse experiments were carried out to measure the effects of conductivity and pH on floating species. The variables measured in the influent were significantly higher than those in the effluent, except for HCO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+). TP and metal concentrations in sediment at the inlet were significantly higher than those at the outlet. Conductivity and pH of the incoming wastewater were toxic for the floating species. Typha domingensis displaced the other species and reached positive relative cover rate and biomass greater than those at the undisturbed natural environment. T. domingensis proved to be highly efficient for the treatment of wastewater. For that reason, it is the advisable species for the treatment of wastewater of high conductivity and pH enriched with metals, characteristic of many industrial processes.

  9. Pilot-scale Tests to Vitrify Korean Low-Level Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, K.; Kim, C.-W.; Park, J. K.; Shin, S. W.; Song, M.-J.; Brunelot, P.; Flament, T.

    2002-02-26

    Korea is under preparation of its first commercial vitrification plant to handle LLW from her Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). The waste streams include three categories: combustible Dry Active Wastes (DAW), borate concentrates, and spent resin. The combustible DAW in this research contains vinyl bag, paper, and protective cloth and rubber shoe. The loaded resin was used to simulate spent resin from NPPs. As a part of this project, Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (NETEC) has tested an operation mode utilizing its pilot-scale plant and the mixed waste surrogates of resin and DAW. It has also proved, with continuous operation for more than 100 hours, the consistency and operability of the plant including cold crucible melter and its off-gas treatment equipment. Resin and combustible DAW were simultaneously fed into the glass bath with periodic addition of various glass frits as additives, so that it achieved a volume reduction factor larger than 70. By adding various glass frits, this paper discusses about maintaining the viscosity and electrical conductivity of glass bath within their operable ranges, but not about obtaining a durable glass product. The operating mode starts with a batch of glass where a titanium ring is buried. When the induced power ignites the ring, the joule heat melts the surrounding glass frit along with the oxidation heat of titanium. As soon as the molten bath is prepared, in the first stage of the mode, the wastes consisting of loaded resin and combustible DAW are fed with no or minimum addition of glass frits. Then, in the second stage, the bath composition is kept as constant as possible. This operation was successful in terms of maintaining the glass bath under operable condition and produced homogeneous glass. This operation mode could be adapted in commercial stage.

  10. Chemometrics and visible-near infrared spectroscopic monitoring of red wine fermentation in a pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Daniel; Parker, Mango; Dambergs, Robert G; Herderich, Markus; Gishen, Mark

    2006-12-20

    The modern wine industry needs tools for process control and quality assessment in order to better manage fermentation or bottling processes. During wine fermentation it is important to measure both substrate and product concentrations (e.g. sugars, phenolic compounds), however, the analysis of these compounds by traditional means requires sample preparation and in some cases several steps of purification are needed. The combination of visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics potentially provides an ideal solution to accurately and rapidly monitor physical or chemical changes in wine during processing without the need for chemical analysis. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of combining spectral and multivariate techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), or linear discriminant analysis (LDA), to monitor time-related changes that occur during red wine fermentation. Samples (n = 652) were collected at various times from several pilot scale fermentations with grapes from either Cabernet Sauvignon or Shiraz varieties, over three vintages (2001-2003) and scanned using a monochromator instrument (Foss-NIRSystems 6500, Silver Spring, MD) in transmission mode (400-2,500 nm). PCA was used to demonstrate consistent progressive spectral changes that occur through the time course of the fermentation. LDA using PCA scores showed that regardless of variety or vintage, samples belonging to a particular time point in fermentation could be correctly classified. This study demonstrates the potential of Vis/NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics, as a tool for the rapid monitoring of red wine fermentation.

  11. Responses of microbial community functional structures to pilot-scale uranium in situ bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, M.; Wu, W.-M.; Wu, L.; He, Z.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Deng, Y.; Luo, J.; Carley, J.; Ginder-Vogel, M.; Gentry, T.J.; Gu, B.; Watson, D.; Jardine, P.M.; Marsh, T.L.; Tiedje, J.M.; Hazen, T.C.; Criddle, C.S.; Zhou, J.

    2010-02-15

    A pilot-scale field test system with an inner loop nested within an outer loop was constructed for in situ U(VI) bioremediation at a US Department of Energy site, Oak Ridge, TN. The outer loop was used for hydrological protection of the inner loop where ethanol was injected for biostimulation of microorganisms for U(VI) reduction/immobilization. After 2 years of biostimulation with ethanol, U(VI) levels were reduced to below drinking water standard (<30 {micro}gl{sup -1}) in the inner loop monitoring wells. To elucidate the microbial community structure and functions under in situ uranium bioremediation conditions, we used a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip) to examine the microbial functional gene composition of the sediment samples collected from both inner and outer loop wells. Our study results showed that distinct microbial communities were established in the inner loop wells. Also, higher microbial functional gene number, diversity and abundance were observed in the inner loop wells than the outer loop wells. In addition, metal-reducing bacteria, such as Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter and Shewanella, and other bacteria, for example, Rhodopseudomonas and Pseudomonas, are highly abundant in the inner loop wells. Finally, the richness and abundance of microbial functional genes were highly correlated with the mean travel time of groundwater from the inner loop injection well, pH and sulfate concentration in groundwater. These results suggest that the indigenous microbial communities can be successfully stimulated for U bioremediation in the groundwater ecosystem, and their structure and performance can be manipulated or optimized by adjusting geochemical and hydrological conditions.

  12. Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices, Volume 4, Appendix V-C

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This is the the final verification run data package for pilot scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are data on volatiles, semivolatiles, and TCLP volatiles.

  13. DEMONSTRATION OF PILOT-SCALE PERVAPORATION SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM A SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION FLUID. II. HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANE MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-scale demonstration of pervaporation-based removal of volatile organic compounds from a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) fluid has been conducted at USEPA's Test & Evaluation Facility using hollow fiber membrane modules. The membranes consisted of microporous...

  14. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

  15. Removal properties of human enteric viruses in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) process.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takayuki; Okabe, Satoshi; Nakahara, Yoshihito; Sano, Daisuke

    2015-05-15

    In order to evaluate removal properties of human enteric viruses from wastewater by a membrane bioreactor (MBR), influent, anoxic and oxic mixed liquor, and membrane effluent samples were collected in a pilot-scale anoxic-oxic MBR process for 16 months, and concentrations of enteroviruses, norovirus GII, and sapoviruses were determined by real-time PCR using murine norovirus as a process control. Mixed liquor samples were separated into liquid and solid phases by centrifugation, and viruses in the bulk solution and those associated with mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) were quantified. Enteroviruses, norovirus GII, and sapoviruses were detected in the influent throughout the sampling period (geometrical mean, 4.0, 3.1, and 4.4 log copies/mL, respectively). Enterovirus concentrations in the solid phase of mixed liquor were generally lower than those in the liquid phase, and the mean log reduction value between influent and anoxic mixed liquor was 0.40 log units. In contrast, norovirus GII and sapovirus concentrations in the solid phase were equal to or higher than those in the liquid phase, and higher log reduction values (1.3 and 1.1 log units, respectively) were observed between influent and anoxic mixed liquor. This suggested that enteroviruses were less associated with MLSS than norovirus GII and sapoviruses, resulting in lower enterovirus removal in the activated sludge process. Enteroviruses and norovirus GII were detected in the MBR effluent but sapoviruses were not in any effluent samples. When MLSS concentration was reduced to 50-60% of a normal operation level, passages of enteroviruses and norovirus GII through a PVDF microfiltration membrane were observed. Since rejection of viruses by the membrane was not related to trans-membrane pressure which was monitored as a parameter of membrane fouling, the results indicated that adsorption to MLSS plays an important role in virus removal by an MBR, and removal properties vary by viruses reflecting different

  16. Removal of MS2, Qβ and GA bacteriophages during drinking water treatment at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Boudaud, Nicolas; Machinal, Claire; David, Fabienne; Fréval-Le Bourdonnec, Armelle; Jossent, Jérôme; Bakanga, Fanny; Arnal, Charlotte; Jaffrezic, Marie Pierre; Oberti, Sandrine; Gantzer, Christophe

    2012-05-15

    The removal of MS2, Qβ and GA, F-specific RNA bacteriophages, potential surrogates for pathogenic waterborne viruses, was investigated during a conventional drinking water treatment at pilot scale by using river water, artificially and independently spiked with these bacteriophages. The objective of this work is to develop a standard system for assessing the effectiveness of drinking water plants with respect to the removal of MS2, Qβ and GA bacteriophages by a conventional pre-treatment process (coagulation-flocculation-settling-sand filtration) followed or not by an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane (complete treatment process). The specific performances of three UF membranes alone were assessed by using (i) pre-treated water and (ii) 0.1 mM sterile phosphate buffer solution (PBS), spiked with bacteriophages. These UF membranes tested in this work were designed for drinking water treatment market and were also selected for research purpose. The hypothesis serving as base for this study was that the interfacial properties for these three bacteriophages, in terms of electrostatic charge and the degree of hydrophobicity, could induce variations in the removal performances achieved by drinking water treatments. The comparison of the results showed a similar behaviour for both MS2 and Qβ surrogates whereas it was particularly atypical for the GA surrogate. The infectious character of MS2 and Qβ bacteriophages was mostly removed after clarification followed by sand filtration processes (more than a 4.8-log reduction) while genomic copies were removed at more than a 4.0-log after the complete treatment process. On the contrary, GA bacteriophage was only slightly removed by clarification followed by sand filtration, with less than 1.7-log and 1.2-log reduction, respectively. After the complete treatment process achieved, GA bacteriophage was removed with less than 2.2-log and 1.6-log reduction, respectively. The effectiveness of the three UF membranes tested in terms of

  17. Performance of a pilot-scale wet electrostatic precipitator for the control of sulfuric acid mist.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiayu; Wang, Hongmei; Shi, Yingjie; Zhang, Fan; Dang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Hui; Shu, Yun; Deng, Shuang; Liu, Yu

    2016-10-01

    The use of a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) is often regarded as a viable option to reduce sulfuric acid mist emitted from the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) tower in coal-fired power plants. In this study, a pilot-scale wet electrostatic precipitator equipped with a wall-cooled collection electrode is investigated for the control of sulfuric acid mist from a simulated WFGD system. The results show that due to partial charging effect, the removal efficiency of sulfuric acid aerosol decreases when the aerosol size decreases to several tens of nanometers. Moreover, due to the plasma-induced effect, a large number of ultrafine sulfuric acid aerosols below 50 nm formed at a voltage higher than 24 kV inside the WESP. The percentages of submicron-sized aerosols significantly increase together with the voltage. To minimize the adverse plasma-induced effect, a WESP should be operated at a high gas velocity with an optimum high voltage. Even at a high flue gas velocity of 2.3 m s(-1), the mass concentration and the total number concentration of uncaptured sulfuric acid aerosols at the WESP outlet are as low as ca. 0.6 mg m(-3) and ca. 10(4) 1 cm(-3) at 28 kV, respectively. The corresponding removal efficiencies were respectively higher than 99.4 and 99.9 % and are very similar to that at 1.1 and 1.6 m s(-1). Moreover, the condensation-induced aerosol growth enhances the removal of sulfuric acid mist inside a WESP and enables a low emission concentration of ca. 0.65 mg m(-3) with a corresponding removal efficiency superior to 99.4 % even at a low voltage of 21 kV, and of ca. 0.35 mg m(-3) with a corresponding removal efficiency superior to 99.6 % at a higher voltage level of 26 kV.

  18. Enhancing biomass energy yield from pilot-scale high rate algal ponds with recycling.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of recycling on biomass energy yield in High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs). Two 8 m(3) pilot-scale HRAPs treating primary settled sewage were operated in parallel and monitored over a 2-year period. Volatile suspended solids were measured from both HRAPs and their gravity settlers to determine biomass productivity and harvest efficiency. The energy content of the biomass was also measured. Multiplying biomass productivity and harvest efficiency gives the 'harvestable biomass productivity' and multiplying this by the energy content defines the actual 'biomass energy yield'. In Year 1, algal recycling was implemented in one of the ponds (HRAPr) and improved harvestable biomass productivity by 58% compared with the control (HRAPc) without recycling (HRAPr: 9.2 g/m(2)/d; HRAPc: 5.8 g/m(2)/d). The energy content of the biomass grown in HRAPr, which was dominated by Pediastrun boryanum, was 25% higher than the control HRAPc which contained a mixed culture of 4-5 different algae (HRAPr: 21.5 kJ/g; HRAPc: 18.6 kJ/g). In Year 2, HRAPc was then seeded with the biomass harvested from the P. boryanum dominated HRAPr. This had the effect of shifting algal dominance from 89% Dictyosphaerium sp. (which is poorly-settleable) to over 90% P. boryanum in 5 months. Operation of this pond was then switched to recycling its own harvested biomass, which maintained P. boryanum dominance for the rest of Year 2. This result confirms, for the first time in the literature, that species control is possible for similarly sized co-occurring algal colonies in outdoor HRAP by algal recycling. With regard to the overall improvement in biomass energy yield, which is a critical parameter in the context of algal cultivation for biofuels, the combined improvements that recycling triggered in biomass productivity, harvest efficiency and energy content enhanced the harvested biomass energy yield by 66% (HRAPr: 195 kJ/m(2)/day; HRAPc: 118 kJ/m(2)/day).

  19. Evaluation of pilot-scale microencapsulation of probiotics and product effect on broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Li, J; Yun, T T; Li, A K; Qi, W T; Liang, X X; Wang, Y W; Liu, S

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pilot-scale production of microencapsulated in a 500-L fermenter using emulsion and gelation and to assess the effect of the products on the growth performance, antioxidant activity, immune function, and cecal microbiota in Arbor Acres broilers. A total of seven hundred 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 7 dietary treatments with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 20 broilers per pen. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1) basal diet (CON), 2) basal diet containing 0.1% Aureomycin (ANT), 3) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P1), 4) basal diet containing unencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (P2), 5) basal diet containing 0.01% empty microcapsules (CAP), 6) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP1), and 7) basal diet containing microencapsulated at a dose of 1 × 10 cfu/kg of feed (CAPP2). The feeding experiment included 2 phases: the starter phase from d 1 to 21 and the grower phase from d 22 to 42. The results showed that a 500-L fermenter could produce 20.73 ± 4.05 kg of microcapsules with an approximate diameter of 549 μm. The feeding experiment showed that ADG of broilers in CAPP1 was significantly ( < 0.05) greater than that in CON and CAP throughout the feeding period, whereas the ratio of feed to gain (G:F) was significantly ( < 0.05) lower. Broilers in P1, P2, CAPP1, and CAPP2 had significantly ( < 0.05) greater levels of total superoxide dismutase, catalase, IgG, and cluster of differentiation 3 than those in CON. Furthermore, broilers in CAPP1 had significantly ( < 0.05) greater richness and diversity of intestinal microorganisms, particularly of , than those in all other dietary treatments. In summary, our results indicate that large-scale microencapsulation of microbial cells can be achieved using emulsion and initial gelation and that the dietary administration of microencapsulated can

  20. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING / FEASIBILITY STUDIES FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    SPRITZER,M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC36-00GO10529 for the Department of Energy, General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The Key potential advantages of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reaching and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carreid out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an acitvated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low

  1. Pilot Scale Production of Highly Efficacious and Stable Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Cheng-Peng; Guo, Meng-Shin; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Yang, Wen-Hsueh; Chao, Hsin-Ju; Wu, Chien-Long; Huang, Ju-Lan; Lee, Min-Shi; Hu, Alan Yung-Chi; Lin, Sue-Chen; Huang, Yu-Yun; Hu, Mei-Hua; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chiang, Jen-Ron; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Chong, Pele

    2012-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) in Asia and now is being recognized as an important neurotropic virus. Effective medications and prophylactic vaccine against EV71 infection are urgently needed. Based on the success of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, a prototype chemically inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate has been developed and currently in human phase 1 clinical trial. Principal Finding In this report, we present the development of a serum-free cell-based EV71 vaccine. The optimization at each step of the manufacturing process was investigated, characterized and quantified. In the up-stream process development, different commercially available cell culture media either containing serum or serum-free was screened for cell growth and virus yield using the roller-bottle technology. VP-SFM serum-free medium was selected based on the Vero cell growth profile and EV71 virus production. After the up-stream processes (virus harvest, diafiltration and concentration), a combination of gel-filtration liquid chromatography and/or sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation down-stream purification processes were investigated at a pilot scale of 40 liters each. Although the combination of chromatography and sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation produced extremely pure EV71 infectious virus particles, the overall yield of vaccine was 7–10% as determined by a VP2-based quantitative ELISA. Using chromatography as the downstream purification, the virus yield was 30–43%. To retain the integrity of virus neutralization epitopes and the stability of the vaccine product, the best virus inactivation was found to be 0.025% formalin-treatment at 37°C for 3 to 6 days. Furthermore, the formalin-inactivated virion vaccine candidate was found to be stable for >18 months at 4°C and a microgram of viral proteins formulated with alum adjuvant could induce strong virus-neutralizing antibody responses in mice, rats, rabbits, and

  2. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Enid J; Kwon, Soondong; Katz, Lynn; Kinney, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ

  3. Influence of photoperiod on carbon dioxide and methane emissions from two pilot-scale stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juan P; Ruiz, José L; Peña, Miguel R; Lubberding, Henk; Gijzen, Huub

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO(2), CH(4)) from pilot-scale algal and duckweed-based ponds (ABP and DBP) were measured using the static chamber methodology. Daylight and nocturnal variations of GHG and wastewater characteristics (e.g. chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH) were determined via sampling campaigns during midday (12:30-15:30) and midnight (00:30-03:30) periods. The results showed that under daylight conditions in ABP median emissions were -232 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 9.9 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), and in DBP median emissions were -1,654.5 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 71.4 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. During nocturnal conditions ABP median emissions were 3,949.9 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1), 12.7 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), and DBP median emissions were 5,116 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1), 195.2 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Once data measured during daylight were averaged together with nocturnal data the median emissions for ABP were 1,566.8 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 72.1 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), whilst for DBP they were 3,016.9 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-) and 178.9 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. These figures suggest that there were significant differences between CO(2) emissions measured during daylight and nocturnal periods (p < 0.05). This shows a sink-like behaviour for both ABP and DBP in the presence of solar light, which indicates the influence of photosynthesis in CO(2) emissions. On the other hand, the fluxes of CH(4) indicated that DBP and ABP behave as net sources of CH(4) during day and night, although higher emissions were observed from DBP. Overall, according to the compound average (daylight and nocturnal emissions) both ABP and DBP systems might be considered as net sources of GHG.

  4. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger: Preliminary test plan for Task 2, Pilot scale IFGT testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jankura, B.J.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of Task 2 (IFGT Pilot-Scale Tests at the B&W Alliance Research Center) is to evaluate the emission reduction performance of the Integrated Flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) process for coal-fired applications. The IFGT system is a two-stage condensing heat exchanger that captures multiple pollutants -- while recovering waste heat. The IFGT technology offers the potential of addressing the emission of S0{sub 2} and particulate from electric utilities currently regulated under the Phase 1 and Phase 2 requirements defined in Title IV, and many of the air pollutants that will soon be regulated under Title III of the Clean Air Act. The performance data will be obtained at pilot-scale conditions similar to full-scale operating systems. The Task 2 IFGT tests have been designed to investigate several aspects of IFGT process conditions at a broader range of variables than would be feasible at a larger scale facility. The data from these tests greatly expands the IFGT performance database for coals and is needed for the technology to progress from the component engineering phase to system integration and commercialization. The performance parameters that will be investigated are as follows: SO{sub 2} removal; particulate removal; removal of mercury and other heavy metals; NO{sub x} removal; HF and HCl removal; NH{sub 3} removal; ammonia-sulfur compounds generation; and steam injection for particle removal. For all of the pollutant removal tests, removal efficiency will be based on measurements at the inlet and outlet of the IFGT facility. Heat recovery measurements will also be made during these tests to demonstrate the heat recovery provided by the IFGT technology. This report provides a preliminary test plan for all of the Task 2 pilot-scale IFGT tests.

  5. Accumulation and fate of microorganisms and microspheres in biofilms formed in a pilot-scale water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Långmark, Jonas; Storey, Michael V; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Stenström, Thor-Axel

    2005-02-01

    The accumulation and fate of model microbial "pathogens" within a drinking-water distribution system was investigated in naturally grown biofilms formed in a novel pilot-scale water distribution system provided with chlorinated and UV-treated water. Biofilms were exposed to 1-mum hydrophilic and hydrophobic microspheres, Salmonella bacteriophages 28B, and Legionella pneumophila bacteria, and their fate was monitored over a 38-day period. The accumulation of model pathogens was generally independent of the biofilm cell density and was shown to be dependent on particle surface properties, where hydrophilic spheres accumulated to a larger extent than hydrophobic ones. A higher accumulation of culturable legionellae was measured in the chlorinated system compared to the UV-treated system with increasing residence time. The fate of spheres and fluorescence in situ hybridization-positive legionellae was similar and independent of the primary disinfectant applied and water residence time. The more rapid loss of culturable legionellae compared to the fluorescence in situ hybridization-positive legionellae was attributed to a loss in culturability rather than physical desorption. Loss of bacteriophage 28B plaque-forming ability together with erosion may have affected their fate within biofilms in the pilot-scale distribution system. The current study has demonstrated that desorption was one of the primary mechanisms affecting the loss of microspheres, legionellae, and bacteriophage from biofilms within a pilot-scale distribution system as well as disinfection and biological grazing. In general, two primary disinfection regimens (chlorination and UV treatment) were not shown to have a measurable impact on the accumulation and fate of model microbial pathogens within a water distribution system.

  6. Final Report: Pilot-Scale X-Flow Filtration Test - Env C Plus Entrained Solids Plus Sr/TRU

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.

    2000-07-27

    This report discusses the results of the operation of a cross-flow filter in a pilot-scale experimental facility that was designed, built, and run by the Experimental Thermal Fluids Laboratory of the Savannah River Technology Center of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This filtration technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by BNFL, Inc. The plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  7. Hanford Waste Vitrification Program process development: Melt testing subtask, pilot-scale ceramic melter experiment, run summary

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaoka, R.K.; Bates, S.O.; Elmore, M.R.; Goles, R.W.; Perez, J.M.; Scott, P.A.; Westsik, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    Hanford Waste Vitrification Program (HWVP) activities for FY 1985 have included engineering and pilot-scale melter experiments HWVP-11/HBCM-85-1 and HWVP-12/PSCM-22. Major objectives designated by HWVP fo these tests were to evaluate the processing characteristics of the current HWVP melter feed during actual melter operation and establish the product quality of HW-39 borosilicate glass. The current melter feed, defined during FY 85, consists of reference feed (HWVP-RF) and glass-forming chemicals added as frit.

  8. Mercury emissions control in coal combustion systems using potassium iodide: bench-scale and pilot-scale studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Li; Michael Daukoru; Achariya Suriyawong; Pratim Biswas

    2009-01-15

    Bench- and pilot-scale experiments were conducted using potassium iodide (KI) for capture and removal of Hg in air and coal combustion exhaust. Two bench-scale reactor systems were used: (1) a packed-bed reactor (PBR) packed with granular or powder KI and (2) an aerosol flow reactor (AFR) with injection of KI particles. It was found that a higher temperature, a higher concentration of KI, and a longer gas residence time resulted in a higher Hg removal efficiency. A 100% Hg removal was achieved in the PBR above 300{sup o}C using 0.5 g of powder KI and in the AFR above 500{sup o}C with a KI/Hg molar ratio of 600 at a 5.8 s residence time. The low KI injection ratio relative to Hg indicated that KI is highly effective for Hg removal in air. Formation of I{sub 2} vapor by the oxidation of KI by O{sub 2} at high temperatures, which then reacts with Hg to produce HgI{sub 2}, was identified as the pathway for removal. The pilot-scale experiments were conducted in a 160 kW pulverized coal combustor. KI was introduced in two ways: as a powder mixed with coal and by spraying KI solution droplets into the flue gas. In both cases the Hg removal efficiency increased with an increase in the feed rate of KI. Mixing KI powder with coal was found to be more effective than spraying KI into the flue gas. The Hg removal by KI was less efficient in the pilot-scale tests than in the bench-scale tests probably due to certain flue gas components reacting with KI or I{sub 2}. Hg speciation measurements in both bench- and pilot-scale experiments indicated no oxidized mercury in the gas phase upon introduction of KI, indicating that the oxidation product HgI2 was captured in the particulate phase. This is very beneficial in coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators where particulate-bound Hg can be efficiently removed. 27 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Detailed project plan: Design, construction and operation of pilot scale Charfuel{reg_sign} process. Topical report, Task 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    In this project, a pilot-scale facility for the flash hydropyrolysis of coal will be designed, built and operated to demonstrate the integrated operation of critical components of the CHARFUEL process and to obtain scale-up data for subsequent demonstration facility for the production of a clean coal slurry fuel. This report presents project plans which includes detailed construction plan; procurement of materials and equipment; construction, test and start-up; potential problems and solutions during operations; data collection and analysis; and feasibility analysis.

  10. A comparison of impulse drying to double felted pressing on pilot- scale shoe presses and roll presses

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1992-08-01

    Pilot-scale shoe press and roll press experiments have been conducted to compare impulse drying and double felted pressing. Both ceramic coated and Beloit Type C press rolls have been evaluated. The experiments show that impulse drying can provide significantly higher outgoing solids than double felled pressing at the same impulse. For example, at an impulse of 0.234 MPa seconds (34 psi seconds), sheets at an ingoing solids of 52% were impulse dried (using the Beloit Type C press roll) to 68% solids while optimized double felled pressing could only yield press dryness of, at most, 60%.

  11. Simulating the gas hydrate production test at Mallik using the pilot scale pressure reservoir LARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeschen, Katja; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Priegnitz, Mike; Giese, Ronny; Luzi-Helbing, Manja

    2014-05-01

    LARS, the LArge Reservoir Simulator, allows for one of the few pilot scale simulations of gas hydrate formation and dissociation under controlled conditions with a high resolution sensor network to enable the detection of spatial variations. It was designed and built within the German project SUGAR (submarine gas hydrate reservoirs) for sediment samples with a diameter of 0.45 m and a length of 1.3 m. During the project, LARS already served for a number of experiments simulating the production of gas from hydrate-bearing sediments using thermal stimulation and/or depressurization. The latest test simulated the methane production test from gas hydrate-bearing sediments at the Mallik test site, Canada, in 2008 (Uddin et al., 2011). Thus, the starting conditions of 11.5 MPa and 11°C and environmental parameters were set to fit the Mallik test site. The experimental gas hydrate saturation of 90% of the total pore volume (70 l) was slightly higher than volumes found in gas hydrate-bearing formations in the field (70 - 80%). However, the resulting permeability of a few millidarcy was comparable. The depressurization driven gas production at Mallik was conducted in three steps at 7.0 MPa - 5.0 MPa - 4.2 MPa all of which were used in the laboratory experiments. In the lab the pressure was controlled using a back pressure regulator while the confining pressure was stable. All but one of the 12 temperature sensors showed a rapid decrease in temperature throughout the sediment sample, which accompanied the pressure changes as a result of gas hydrate dissociation. During step 1 and 2 they continued up to the point where gas hydrate stability was regained. The pressure decreases and gas hydrate dissociation led to highly variable two phase fluid flow throughout the duration of the simulated production test. The flow rates were measured continuously (gas) and discontinuously (liquid), respectively. Next to being discussed here, both rates were used to verify a model of gas

  12. Energy Efficient Aluminum Production - Pilot-Scale Cell Tests - Final Report for Phase I and Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Christini

    1999-12-30

    A cermet anode that produces oxygen and a cathode material that is wetted by aluminum can provide a dimensionally stable inter-electrode distance in the Hall-Heroult cell. This can be used to greatly improve the energy and/or productivity efficiencies. The concept, which was developed and tested, uses a system of vertically interleaved anodes and cathodes. The major advantage of this concept is the significant increase in electrochemical surface area compared to a horizontal orientation of anode and cathode that is presently used in the Hall-Heroult process. This creates an additional advantage for energy reduction of 1.3 kWh/lb or a 20% productivity improvement. The voltages obtained in an optimized cell test met the energy objectives of the project for at least two weeks. An acceptable current efficiency was never proven, however, during either pilot scale or bench scale tests with the vertical plate configuration. This must be done before a vertical cell can be considered viab le. Anode corrosion rate must be reduced by at least a factor of three in order to produce commercial purity aluminum. It is recommended that extensive theoretical and bench scale investigations be done to improve anode materials and to demonstrate acceptable current efficiencies in a vertical plate cell before pilot scale work is continued.

  13. Performance evaluation of a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating ethanol thin stillage.

    PubMed

    Dereli, R K; Urban, D R; Heffernan, B; Jordan, J A; Ewing, J; Rosenberger, G T; Dunaev, T I

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol industry has grown rapidly during the past ten years, mainly due to increasing oil prices. However, efficient and cost-effective solutions for treating thin stillage wastewater have still to be developed. The anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology combines classical anaerobic treatment in a completely-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with membrane separation. The combination of these two technologies can achieve a superior effluent quality and also increase biogas production compared to conventional anaerobic solutions. A pilot-scale AnMBR treating thin stillage achieved very high treatment efficiencies in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal (>98%). An average permeate flux of 4.3 L/m2 x h was achieved at relatively low transmembrane pressure (TMP) values (0.1-0.2 bars) with flat-sheet membranes. Experience gained during the pilot-scale studies provides valuable information for scaling up of AnMBRs treating complex and high-strength wastewaters.

  14. Pilot scale annular plug flow photoreactor by UV/H2O2 for the decolorization of azo dye wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hung-Yee; Chang, Ming-Chin

    2005-10-17

    A pilot scale annular plug flow photoreactor with thin gap size, which combines with UV irradiation and hydrogen peroxide, was employed to deal with colored dyeing wastewater treatment. In the experiment, a mono-azo dye acid orange 10 was the target compound. The experimental parameters such as flow rate, hydrogen peroxide dosage, UV input power, pH and dye initial concentrations in a pilot scale photoreactor with flow rate of 9.32 m3day(-1) were investigated. Ultimately, the degradation rates were calculated and compared with a 100-l batch reactor. In our plug flow photoreactor design, the degradation rate of acid orange 10 was 233 times higher than that of 100-l annular batch reactor with same UV light source. The residence time needed for 99% decolorizing of 100 l of 20 mgl(-1) acid orange 10 wastewater was 26.9 min for the thin gap plug flow reactor and was far shorter than that of batch reactor needed.

  15. Virus removal retention challenge tests performed at lab scale and pilot scale during operation of membrane units.

    PubMed

    Humbert, H; Machinal, C; Labaye, Ivan; Schrotter, J C

    2011-01-01

    The determination of the virus retention capabilities of UF units during operation is essential for the operators of drinking water treatment facilities in order to guarantee an efficient and stable removal of viruses through time. In previous studies, an effective method (MS2-phage challenge tests) was developed by the Water Research Center of Veolia Environnement for the measurement of the virus retention rates (Log Removal Rate, LRV) of commercially available hollow fiber membranes at lab scale. In the present work, the protocol for monitoring membrane performance was transferred from lab scale to pilot scale. Membrane performances were evaluated during pilot trial and compared to the results obtained at lab scale with fibers taken from the pilot plant modules. PFU culture method was compared to RT-PCR method for the calculation of LRV in both cases. Preliminary tests at lab scale showed that both methods can be used interchangeably. For tests conducted on virgin membrane, a good consistency was observed between lab and pilot scale results with the two analytical methods used. This work intends to show that a reliable determination of the membranes performances based on RT-PCR analytical method can be achieved during the operation of the UF units.

  16. Pilot-scale washing of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated soil using EDTA and process water recycling.

    PubMed

    Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen

    2013-03-01

    Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated garden soil (5249, 3348 and 20.6 mg kg(-1), respectively) rich with fines and organic matter was washed with a solution of 120 mmol EDTA kg(-1) of soil in a pilot-scale remediation plant operating in a batch (60 kg of soil) mode. After soil washing, the solid phase and used washing solution were separated in a chamber filter press. A base/acid pair Ca(OH)(2)/H(2)SO(4) was used to impose a pH gradient for EDTA recycling from used washing solution and, coupled with an electrochemical advanced oxidation process using a graphite anode, for cleansing and recycling the process water, which was used for rinsing the soil solid phase in the press. On average (5 batches), 75%, 26% and 66% of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, was removed from the soil, 71% of EDTA was recycled and no waste water was generated. The variable costs of the novel remediation process (materials, energy but not labour) amounted to 66 € t(-1) of remediated soil. The results of the pilot-scale testing indicate that scaling-up the process to a commercial level is technically and economically feasible.

  17. Design of experiments reveals critical parameters for pilot-scale freeze-and-thaw processing of L-lactic dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Roessl, Ulrich; Humi, Sebastian; Leitgeb, Stefan; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Freezing constitutes an important unit operation of biotechnological protein production. Effects of freeze-and-thaw (F/T) process parameters on stability and other quality attributes of the protein product are usually not well understood. Here a design of experiments (DoE) approach was used to characterize the F/T behavior of L-lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in a 700-mL pilot-scale freeze container equipped with internal temperature and pH probes. In 24-hour experiments, target temperature between -10 and -38°C most strongly affected LDH stability whereby enzyme activity was retained best at the highest temperature of -10°C. Cooling profile and liquid fill volume also had significant effects on LDH stability and affected the protein aggregation significantly. Parameters of the thawing phase had a comparably small effect on LDH stability. Experiments in which the standard sodium phosphate buffer was exchanged by Tris-HCl and the non-ionic surfactant Tween 80 was added to the protein solution showed that pH shift during freezing and protein surface exposure were the main factors responsible for LDH instability at the lower freeze temperatures. Collectively, evidence is presented that supports the use of DoE-based systematic analysis at pilot scale in the identification of F/T process parameters critical for protein stability and in the development of suitable process control strategies.

  18. Laboratory and pilot scale soil washing of PAH and arsenic from a wood preservation site: changes in concentration and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin; Arwidsson, Zandra; Camdzija, Aida; Sjöberg, Ragnar; Ribé, Veronica; Waara, Sylvia; Allard, Bert; von Kronhelm, Thomas; van Hees, Patrick A W

    2009-12-30

    Soil washing of a soil with a mixture of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and As was evaluated in laboratory and pilot scale, utilizing both single and mixtures of different additives. The highest level of decontamination was achieved with a combination of 0.213 M of the chelating agent MGDA and 3.2 x CMC* of a non-ionic, alkyl glucoside surfactant at pH 12 (Ca(OH)(2)). This combination managed to reach Swedish threshold values within 1 0 min of treatment when performed at elevated temperature (50 degrees C), with initial contaminant concentrations of As=105+/-4 mg/kg and US-EPA PAH(16)=46.0+/-2.3mg/kg. The main mechanisms behind the removal were the pH effect for As and a combination of SOM ionization as a result of high pH and micellar solubilization for PAHs. Implementation of the laboratory results utilizing a pilot scale equipment did not improve the performance, which may be due to the shorter contact time between the washing solution and the particles, or changes in physical characteristics of the leaching solution due to the elevated pressure utilized. The ecotoxicological evaluation, Microtox, demonstrated that all soil washing treatments increased the toxicity of soil leachates, possibly due to increased availability of contaminants and toxicity of soil washing solutions to the test organism.

  19. Nutrient removal and biomass production in an outdoor pilot-scale phototrophic biofilm reactor for effluent polishing.

    PubMed

    Boelee, N C; Janssen, M; Temmink, H; Shrestha, R; Buisman, C J N; Wijffels, R H

    2014-01-01

    An innovative pilot-scale phototrophic biofilm reactor was evaluated over a 5-month period to determine its capacity to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from Dutch municipal wastewater effluents. The areal biomass production rate ranged between 2.7 and 4.5 g dry weight/m(2)/day. The areal nitrogen and phosphorus removal rates averaged 0.13 g N/m(2)/day and 0.023 g P/m(2)/day, which are low compared to removal rates achieved in laboratory biofilm reactors. Nutrient removal increased during the day, decreased with decreasing light intensity and no removal occurred during the night. Additional carbon dioxide supply was not requisite as the wastewater was comprised of enough inorganic carbon to sustain microalgal growth. The study was not conclusive for the limiting factor that caused the low nutrient removal rate, possibly the process was limited by light and temperature, in combination with pH increases above pH 9 during the daytime. This pilot-scale study demonstrated that the proposed phototrophic biofilm reactor is not a viable post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluents under Dutch climate conditions. However, the reactor performance may be improved when controlling the pH and the temperatures in the morning. With these adaptations, a phototrophic biofilm reactor could be feasible at lower latitudes with higher irradiance levels.

  20. Final report for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    IT Corporation (IT) was contracted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to perform a pilot-scale demonstration of the effectiveness of thermal desorption as a remedial technology for removing mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain soil. Previous laboratory studies by Energy Systems suggested that this technology could reduce mercury to very low levels. This pilot-scale demonstration study was initiated to verify on an engineering scale the performance of thermal desorption. This report includes the details of the demonstration study, including descriptions of experimental equipment and procedures, test conditions, sampling and analysis, quality assurance (QA), detailed test results, and an engineering assessment of a conceptual full-scale treatment facility. The specific project tasks addressed in this report were performed between October 1993 and June 1994. These tasks include soil receipt, preparation, and characterization; prepilot (bench-scale) desorption tests; front-end materials handling tests; pilot tests; back-end materials handling tests; residuals treatment; and engineering scale-up assessment.

  1. Pilot-scale cultivation of wall-deficient transgenic Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strains expressing recombinant proteins in the chloroplast.

    PubMed

    Zedler, Julie A Z; Gangl, Doris; Guerra, Tiago; Santos, Edgar; Verdelho, Vitor V; Robinson, Colin

    2016-08-01

    Microalgae have emerged as potentially powerful platforms for the production of recombinant proteins and high-value products. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a potentially important host species due to the range of genetic tools that have been developed for this unicellular green alga. Transformation of the chloroplast genome offers important advantages over nuclear transformation, and a wide range of recombinant proteins have now been expressed in the chloroplasts of C. reinhardtii strains. This is often done in cell wall-deficient mutants that are easier to transform. However, only a single study has reported growth data for C. reinhardtii grown at pilot scale, and the growth of cell wall-deficient strains has not been reported at all. Here, we report the first pilot-scale growth study for transgenic, cell wall-deficient C. reinhardtii strains. Strains expressing a cytochrome P450 (CYP79A1) or bifunctional diterpene synthase (cis-abienol synthase, TPS4) were grown for 7 days under mixotrophic conditions in a Tris-acetate-phosphate medium. The strains reached dry cell weights of 0.3 g/L within 3-4 days with stable expression levels of the recombinant proteins during the whole upscaling process. The strains proved to be generally robust, despite the cell wall-deficient phenotype, but grew poorly under phototrophic conditions. The data indicate that cell wall-deficient strains may be highly amenable for transformation and suitable for commercial-scale operations under mixotrophic growth regimes.

  2. Pilot-scale electrokinetic movement of HCB and Zn in real contaminated sediments enhanced with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Li, Taiping; Yuan, Songhu; Wan, Jinzhong; Lin, Li; Long, Huayun; Wu, Xiaofeng; Lu, Xiaohua

    2009-08-01

    This study deals with the efficiency of a pilot-scale electrokinetic (EK) treatment on real aged sediments contaminated with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and Zn. A total of 0.5m(3) of sediments were treated under a constant voltage in a polyvinyl chloride reactor. The changes of sediment pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic content (OC), the transport of contaminants in sediments and the consumption of electric energy were evaluated. After 100 d processing, sediment pH slightly increased compared with the initial values, particularly in the bottom layer close to cathodic section, while sediment EC in most sections significantly decreased. Sediment OC in all sections increased, which implied that hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) was successfully penetrated across sediments by electroosmosis. Significant movement of contaminants was observed across sediments with negligible removals. Both HCB and Zn generally moved from sections near anode and accumulated near cathode. Upon the completion of treatment, the electric energy consumption was calculated as 563 kWhm(-3). This pilot-scale EK test indicates that it is difficult to achieve great removal of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), or HOCs and heavy metal mixed contaminants, by EK treatment in large scale with the use of HPCD.

  3. Effects of different pretreatments on the performance of ceramic ultrafiltration membrane during the treatment of oil sands tailings pond recycle water: a pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal

    2015-03-15

    Membrane filtration is an effective treatment method for oil sands tailings pond recycle water (RCW); however, membrane fouling and rapid decrease in permeate flux caused by colloids, organic matter, and bitumen residues present in the RCW hinder its successful application. This pilot-scale study investigated the impact of different pretreatment steps on the performance of a ceramic ultrafiltration (CUF) membrane used for the treatment of RCW. Two treatment trains were examined: treatment train 1 consisted of coagulant followed by a CUF system, while treatment train 2 included softening (Multiflo™ system) and coagulant addition, followed by a CUF system. The results indicated that minimum pretreatment (train 1) was required for almost complete solids removal. The addition of a softening step (train 2) provided an additional barrier to membrane fouling by reducing hardness-causing ions to negligible levels. More than 99% removal of turbidity and less than 20% removal of total organic carbon were achieved regardless of the treatment train used. Permeate fluxes normalized at 20 °C of 127-130 L/m(2) h and 111-118 L/m(2) h, with permeate recoveries of 90-93% and 90-94% were observed for the treatment trains 1 and 2, respectively. It was also found that materials deposited onto the membrane surface had an impact on trans-membrane pressure and influenced the required frequencies of chemically enhanced backwashes (CEBs) and clean-in-place (CIP) procedures. The CIP performed was successful in removing fouling and scaling materials such that the CUF performance was restored to baseline levels. The results also demonstrated that due to their low turbidity and silt density index values, permeates produced in this pilot study were suitable for further treatment by high pressure membrane processes.

  4. HIGH-TEMPERATURE HEAT EXCHANGER TESTING IN A PILOT-SCALE SLAGGING FURNACE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Michael E. Collings; Bruce A. Dockter; Douglas R. Hajicek; Ann K. Henderson; John P. Hurley; Patty L. Kleven; Greg F. Weber

    1999-12-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract, has designed, constructed, and operated a 3.0-million Btu/hr (3.2 x 10{sup 6} kJ/hr) slagging furnace system (SFS). Successful operation has demonstrated that the SFS meets design objectives and is well suited for testing very high-temperature heat exchanger concepts. Test results have shown that a high-temperature radiant air heater (RAH) panel designed and constructed by UTRC and used in the SFS can produce a 2000 F (1094 C) process air stream. To support the pilot-scale work, the EERC has also constructed laboratory- and bench-scale equipment which was used to determine the corrosion resistance of refractory and structural materials and develop methods to improve corrosion resistance. DOE projects that from 1995 to 2015, worldwide use of electricity will double to approach 20 trillion kilowatt hours. This growth comes during a time of concern over global warming, thought by many policy makers to be caused primarily by increases from coal-fired boilers in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions through the use of fossil fuels. Assuming limits on CO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers are imposed in the future, the most economical CO{sub 2} mitigation option may be efficiency improvements. Unless efficiency improvements are made in coal-fired power plants, utilities may be forced to turn to more expensive fuels or buy CO{sub 2} credits. One way to improve the efficiency of a coal-fired power plant is to use a combined cycle involving a typical steam cycle along with an indirectly fired turbine cycle using very high-temperature but low-pressure air as the working fluid. At the heart of an indirectly fired turbine combined-cycle power system are very high-temperature heat exchangers that can produce clean air at up to 2600 F (1427 C) and 250 psi (17 bar) to turn an

  5. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING/FEASIBILTY SUDIES FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    SPRITZER.M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The key potential advantage of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reacting and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carried out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM), as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an activated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low-value, dirty feed materials. The Phase I results indicate that a practical means to

  6. Combustion behaviours of tobacco stem in a thermogravimetric analyser and a pilot-scale fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zixu; Zhang, Shihong; Liu, Lei; Li, Xiangpeng; Chen, Hanping; Yang, Haiping; Wang, Xianhua

    2012-04-01

    Despite its abundant supply, tobacco stem has not been exploited as an energy source in large scale. This study investigates the combustion behaviours of tobacco stem in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) and a pilot-scale fluidized bed (FB). Combustion characteristics, including ignition and burnout index, and combustion reaction kinetics were studied. Experiments in the FB investigated the effects of different operating conditions, such as primary air flow, secondary air flow and feeding rates, on the bed temperature profiles and combustion efficiency. Two kinds of bed materials cinder and silica sand were used in FB and the effect of bed materials on agglomeration was studied. The results indicated that tobacco stem combustion worked well in the FB. When operation condition was properly set, the tobacco stem combustion efficiency reached 94%. In addition, compared to silica sand, cinder could inhibit agglomeration during combustion because of its high aluminium content.

  7. Influence of microwave pre-treatment on sludge solubilization and pilot scale semi-continuous anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Appels, Lise; Houtmeyers, Sofie; Degrève, Jan; Van Impe, Jan; Dewil, Raf

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is widely applied for the recovery of energy from waste activated sludge. Pre-treatment methods are of high interest to increase the biodegradability of the sludge and to enhance the digestion efficiency. This paper studies the application of a microwave pre-treatment. An experimental set-up of two pilot scale semi-continuous digesters was used. During a long term experiment, one of the reactors was fed with untreated sludge, while microwave pre-treated sludge (336 kJ/kg sludge) was introduced in the second one. A solid retention time of 20 days was kept during the experiments. (Organic) dry solids, carbohydrates, proteins and volatile fatty acids were monitored during digestion. It was seen that the microwave pre-treatment resulted in an effective solubilization of the organic matter in the sludge. The changes to the sludge composition resulted in an increase in biogas production by 50%, while the methane concentration in both reactors remained stable.

  8. Pilot-scale synthesis and rheological assessment of poly(methyl methacrylate) polymers: perspectives for medical application.

    PubMed

    Linan, Lamia Zuniga; Nascimento Lima, Nádson M; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Sabino, Marcos A; Kozlowski, Mark T; Manenti, Flavio

    2015-06-01

    This work presents the rheological assessment of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymers synthesized in a dedicated pilot-scale plant. This material is to be used for the construction of scaffolds via Rapid Prototyping (RP). The polymers were prepared to match the physical and biological properties required for medical applications. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) measurements verified that the synthesized polymers were atactic, amorphous and linear in chains. Rheological properties such as viscosity, storage and loss modulus, beyond the loss factor, and creep and recovery were measured in a plate-plate sensor within the viscoelastic linear region. The results showed the relevant influence of the molecular weight on the viscosity and elasticity of the material, and how, as the molecular weight increases, the viscoelastic properties are getting closer to those of human bone. This article demonstrates that by using the implemented methodology it is possible to synthesize a polymer, with properties comparable to commercially-available PMMA.

  9. Pilot-scale comparison of two hybrid-passive landfill leachate treatment systems operated in a cold climate.

    PubMed

    Speer, Sean; Champagne, Pascale; Anderson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid-passive landfill leachate treatment systems employ active pretreatment to remove dissolved inorganic constituents and decrease the oxygen demand of the leachate prior to treatment in a passive system. In a 1-year pilot-scale study, two passive treatment systems - a peat and wood shaving biological trickle filter and a sand and gravel constructed wetland - were installed to treat leachate from the Merrick Landfill in North Bay, Ontario, Canada. Leachate was pretreated in a fixed-film aerobic reactor, which provided reductions in COD (26%), and masses of ammonia (21%), Al (69%), Ca (57%), Fe (73%) and Sr (37%). A comparison of the performance of the hybrid-passive treatment systems indicated different extents of heterotrophic nitrification; the peat and wood shaving filter removed 49% of the ammonia and nitrified 29%, while the constructed wetland removed 99% of the ammonia and nitrified 90%. Hybrid-passive landfill leachate treatment was determined to be feasible in cold climates.

  10. Phosphorus Sorption Capacities of Steel Slag in Pilot-Scale Constructed Wetlands for Treating Urban Runoff: Saturation Potential and Longevity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, W. J.; Zhao, L. Y.; Zhao, W. H.; Li, Q. Y.; Wu, Z. B.

    2017-01-01

    Two parallel pilot-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) systems were constructed on the bank of Nanfeihe River. The phosphate (PO4 3-) isothermal adsorption properties of the upper substrate steel furnace slag (SFS) in up-flow chamber was investigated during one-year operation period. The maximum phosphorus (P) adsorption capacity of SFS 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 months service time were 848.9 mg/kg, 968.1 mg/kg, 824.5 mg/kg, 788.7 mg/kg, 864.7 mg/kg and 960.3 mg/kg, respectively. The saturated adsorption amount of SFS had not decreased with the service time prolonging in ICW. The longevity of a full-scale system could not be reliably estimated only based on the theoretical saturated adsorption capacity from laboratory experiments.

  11. Prediction of Solids Circulation Rate of Cork Particles in an Ambient-Pressure Pilot-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yue; Turton, Richard; Famouri, Parviz; Boyle, Edward J.

    2009-01-07

    Circulating fluidized beds (CFB) are currently used in many industrial processes for noncatalytic and catalytic because its effective control is the key to smooth operation of a CFB system. This paper presents a method for solids flow metering from pressure drop measurements in the standpipe dense phase. A model based on the Ergun equation is developed to predict the solids flow rate and voidage in the dense phase of the standpipe. The profile of the solids flow rate under unsteady state is also presented. With the use of this method, the dynamic response time at different locations along the standpipe of a pilot-scale fluidized bed operating at ambient conditions with 812 mu m cork particles is estimated successfully. Through the use of a pressure balance analysis, solids flow models for the standpipe, riser, and other sections of the flow loop are combined to give an integrated CFB model.

  12. Mass balance of pilot-scale pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse by steam explosion followed by alkaline delignification.

    PubMed

    Rocha, George J M; Martín, Carlos; da Silva, Vinícius F N; Gómez, Edgardo O; Gonçalves, Adilson R

    2012-05-01

    Five pilot-scale steam explosion pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse followed by alkaline delignification were explored. The solubilised lignin was precipitated with 98% sulphuric acid. Most of the pentosan (82.6%), and the acetyl group fractions were solubilised during pretreatment, while 90.2% of cellulose and 87.0% lignin were recovered in the solid fraction. Approximately 91% of the lignin and 72.5% of the pentosans contained in the steam-exploded solids were solubilised by delignification, resulting in a pulp with almost 90% of cellulose. The acidification of the black liquors allowed recovery of 48.3% of the lignin contained in the raw material. Around 14% of lignin, 22% of cellulose and 26% of pentosans were lost during the process. In order to increase material recovery, major changes, such as introduction of efficient condensers and the reduction in the number of washing steps, should be done in the process setup.

  13. Pilot-scale study on the acid-catalyzed steam explosion of rice straw using a continuous pretreatment system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Hua; Tsai, Chia-Chin; Lin, Chih-Feng; Tsai, Pei-Yuan; Hwang, Wen-Song

    2013-01-01

    A continuous acid-catalyzed steam explosion pretreatment process and system to produce cellulosic ethanol was developed at the pilot-scale. The effects of the following parameters on the pretreatment efficiency of rice straw feedstocks were investigated: the acid concentration, the reaction temperature, the residence time, the feedstock size, the explosion pressure and the screw speed. The optimal presteaming horizontal reactor conditions for the pretreatment process are as follows: 1.7 rpm and 100-110 °C with an acid concentration of 1.3% (w/w). An acid-catalyzed steam explosion is then performed in the vertical reactor at 185 °C for 2 min. Approximately 73% of the total saccharification yield was obtained after the rice straw was pretreated under optimal conditions and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis at a combined severity factor of 0.4-0.7. Moreover, good long-term stability and durability of the pretreatment system under continuous operation was observed.

  14. Outdoor pilot-scale production of Nannochloropsis gaditana: influence of culture parameters and lipid production rates in tubular photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    San Pedro, A; González-López, C V; Acién, F G; Molina-Grima, E

    2014-10-01

    This work studied outdoor pilot scale production of Nannochloropsis gaditana in tubular photobioreactors. The growth and biomass composition of the strain were studied under different culture strategies: continuous-mode (varying nutrient supply and dilution rate) and two-stage cultures aiming lipid enhancement. Besides, parameters such as irradiance, specific nitrate input and dilution rate were used to obtain models predicting growth, lipid and fatty acids production rates. The range of optimum dilution rate was 0.31-0.351/day with maximum biomass, lipid and fatty acids productivities of 590, 110 and 66.8 mg/l day, respectively. Nitrate limitation led to an increase in lipid and fatty acids contents (from 20.5% to 38.0% and from 16.9% to 23.5%, respectively). Two-stage culture strategy provided similar fatty acids productivities (56.4 mg/l day) but the neutral lipids content was doubled.

  15. The influences of the recycle process on the bacterial community in a pilot scale microalgae raceway pond.

    PubMed

    Erkelens, Mason; Ball, Andrew S; Lewis, David M

    2014-04-01

    The use of recycled media has been shown to be a necessary step within the lifecycle of microalgal biofuels for economic sustainability and reducing the water footprint. However the impact of the harvesting of microalgae on the bacterial load of the recycled water has yet to be investigated. Within this study PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR was used to evaluate the bacterial community dynamics within the recycled water following harvest and concentration steps for a pilot scale open pond system (120,000L), which was developed for the production of green crude oil from Tetraselmis sp. in hyper saline water. Two stages were used in the harvesting; Stage 1 electroflocculation, and Stage 2 centrifugation. Electroflocculation was shown to have little effect on the bacterial cell concentration. In contrast bacterial diversity and cell concentration within the centrifugation step was greatly reduced.

  16. Xylanase and laccase based enzymatic kraft pulp bleaching reduces adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) in bleach effluents: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abha; Thakur, Vasanta Vadde; Shrivastava, Anita; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Mathur, Rajeev Mohan; Gupta, Rishi; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2014-10-01

    In present study, xylanase and laccase were produced in a cost-effective manner up to 10 kg substrate level and evaluated in elemental chlorine free bleaching of Eucalyptus kraft pulp. Compared to the pulp pre-bleached with xylanase (15%) or laccase (25%) individually, the ClO2 savings were higher with sequential treatment of xylanase followed by laccase (35%) at laboratory scale. The sequential enzyme treatment when applied at pilot scale (50 kg pulp), resulted in improved pulp properties (50% reduced post color number, 15.71% increased tear index) and reduced AOX levels (34%) in bleach effluents. The decreased AOX level in effluents will help to meet AOX discharge limits, while improved pulp properties will be value addition to the paper.

  17. Pilot-Scale In-situ Biosequestration of Uranium in Groundwater at the Monument Valley UMTRA Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H.; Gutierrez, D. I.; Abel, E. J.; Johnson, R. H.; Root, R. A.; Chorover, J.; Brusseau, M. L. L.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ biosequestration, wherein electron-donating substrates are injected to promote microbial-associated sequestration of contaminants, is one promising enhanced-attenuation technique for remediation of groundwater containing arsenic, uranium, selenium, and similar constituents. A pilot-scale test of in-situ biosequestration for uranium in groundwater was conducted at a former uranium mining site in Monument Valley, Arizona. Approximately 20 m3 of 0.5% ethanol solution was injected into a test zone of the alluvial aquifer. Groundwater was sampled periodically before, during, and after the injection. The relevant constituents, such as uranium, nitrogen species, sulfur species, anions/cations, ethanol, and S and N isotopes, were monitored to characterize the biosequestration process. Sediment samples were also collected before and after the injection for monitoring changes in sediment properties, mineral geochemical composition, microbial community composition, and microbial activity.

  18. Pilot-scale gasification of municipal solid wastes by high-rate and two-phase anaerobic digestion (TPAD).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Henry, M P; Sajjad, A; Mensinger, M C; Arora, J L

    2000-01-01

    Bioconversion of municipal solid waste-sludge blend by conventional high-rate and two-phase anaerobic digestion was studied. RDF (refused-derived fuel)-quality feed produced in a Madison, Wisconsin, USA, MRF (materials-recovery facility) was used. High-rate digestion experiments were conducted with bench-scale digesters under target operating conditions developed from an economic feasibility study. The effects of digestion temperature, RDF content of digester feed, HRT, loading rate, RDF particle size, and RDF pretreatment with cellulase or dilute solutions of NaOH or lime on digester performance were studied. A pilot-scale two-phase digestion plant was operated with 80:20 (weight ratio) RDF-sludge blends to show that this process exhibited a higher methane yield, and produced a higher methane-content digester gas than those obtained by single-stage, high-rate anaerobic digestion.

  19. Investigating the enzyme-lignin binding with surfactants for improved saccharification of pilot scale pretreated wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ruchi; Satlewal, Alok; Kapoor, Manali; Mondal, Sujit; Basu, Biswajit

    2017-01-01

    In this study, commercial surfactants have been investigated at economically viable dosage to enhance the enzymatic saccharification of pretreated wheat straw at high solid loadings. Twenty one surfactants were evaluated with pilot scale pretreated wheat straw and mechanism of surfactant action has been elucidated. One surfactant has improved the saccharification of dilute acid wheat straw (DAWS) by 26.4% after 24h and 23.1% after 48h while, steam exploded wheat straw (SEWS) saccharification was increased by 51.2% after 24h and 36.4% after 48h at 10% solid loading. At 20% solid loading, about 31% increase in yield was obtained on DAWS and about 55% on SEWS after 48h. Further, lignin was isolated from pretreated wheat straws and characterized which revealed that SEWS derived lignin was more hydrophobic than DAWS lignin. This investigation suggests that surfactant supplementation during saccharification is an effective strategy to achieve higher saccharification yield.

  20. Yearlong evaluation of performance and durability of a pilot-scale Revolving Algal Biofilm (RAB) cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Gross, Martin; Wen, Zhiyou

    2014-11-01

    Current algal cultivation has been mainly performed in open ponds or photobioreactors in which algal cells are suspended and harvested through flocculation and centrifugation. A unique attachment based Revolving Algal Biofilm (RAB) cultivation system was recently developed for easy biomass harvest with enhanced biomass productivity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance (durability, algal growth, and the geometry) of the RAB system at pilot-scale. A yearlong test of the RAB system was successfully conducted at a greenhouse facility at Boone, Iowa, USA. The RAB resulted in an average of 302% increase in biomass productivity compared to a standard raceway pond, with a maximum biomass productivity (ash free) of 18.9 g/m(2)-day being achieved. The RAB with a vertical configuration generated higher productivity than the triangular RAB. Collectively, the research shows that the RAB as an efficient algal culture system has great potential for being deployed at commercial scale.

  1. Partitioning behavior of trace elements during pilot-scale combustion of pulverized coal and coal-water slurry fuel

    PubMed

    Nodelman; Pisupati; Miller; Scaroni

    2000-05-29

    Release pathways for inorganic hazardous air pollutants (IHAPs) from a pilot-scale, down-fired combustor (DFC) when firing pulverized coal (PC) and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) were identified and quantified to demonstrate the effect of fuel form on IHAP partitioning, enrichment and emissions. The baghouse capturing efficiency for each element was calculated to determine the effectiveness of IHAP emission control. Most of the IHAPs were enriched in the fly ash and depleted in the bottom ash. Mercury was found to be enriched in the flue gas, and preferentially emitted in the vapor phase. When firing CWSF, more IHAPs were partitioned in the bottom ash than when firing PC. Significant reduction of Hg emissions during CWSF combustion was also observed.

  2. Pilot-scale treatability testing -- Recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from decontamination and decommissioning activities: Soda blasting demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the nature and magnitude of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) obligations at its sites. With disposal costs rising and available storage facilities decreasing, DOE is exploring and implementing new waste minimizing D and D techniques. Technology demonstrations are being conducted by LMES at a DOE gaseous diffusion processing plant, the K-25 Site, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The gaseous diffusion process employed at Oak Ridge separated uranium-235 from uranium ore for use in atomic weapons and commercial reactors. These activities contaminated concrete and other surfaces within the plant with uranium, technetium, and other constituents. The objective of current K-25 D and D research is to make available cost-effective and energy-efficient techniques to advance remediation and waste management methods at the K-25 Site and other DOE sites. To support this objective, O`Brien and Gere tested a decontamination system on K-25 Site concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous waste. A scouring system has been developed that removes fixed hazardous and radioactive surface contamination and minimizes residual waste. This system utilizes an abrasive sodium bicarbonate medium that is projected at contaminated surfaces. It mechanically removes surface contamination while leaving the surface intact. Blasting residuals are captured and dissolved in water and treated using physical/chemical processes. Pilot-scale testing of this soda blasting system and bench and pilot-scale treatment of the generated residuals were conducted from December 1993 to September 1994.

  3. Pilot scale production of the vaccine adjuvant Proteoliposome derived Cochleates (AFCo1) from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The use of new adjuvants in vaccine formulations is a subject of current research. Only few parenteral adjuvants have been licensed. We have developed a mucosal and parenteral adjuvant known as AFCo1 (Adjuvant Finlay Cochleate 1, derived from proteoliposomes of N. meningitidis B) using a dialysis procedure to produce them on lab scale. The immunogenicity of the AFCo1 produced by dialysis has been already evaluated, but it was necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of a larger-scale manufacturing process. Therefore, we used a crossflow diafiltration system (CFS) that allows easy scale up to obtain large batches in an aseptic environment. The aim of this work was to produce AFCo1 on pilot scale, while conserving the adjuvant properties. The proteoliposomes (raw material) were resuspended in a buffer containing sodium deoxycholate and were transformed into AFCo1 under the action of a calcium forming buffer. The detergent was removed from the protein solution by diafiltration to a constant volume. In this CFS, we used a hollow fiber cartridge from Amicon (polysulfona cartridge of 10 kDa porosity, 1mm channel diameter of fiber and 0.45 m2 area of filtration), allowing production of a batch of up to 20 L. AFCo1 were successfully produced by tangential filtration to pilot scale. The batch passed preliminary stability tests. Nasal immunization of BALB/c mice, induced specific saliva IgA and serum IgG. The induction of Th1 responses were demonstrated by the induction of IgG2a, IFNγ and not IL-5. The adjuvant action over Neisseria (self) antigens and with co-administered (heterologous) antigens such as ovalbumin and a synthetic peptide from haemolytic Streptococcus B was also demonstrated. PMID:23458578

  4. Pilot scale production of the vaccine adjuvant Proteoliposome derived Cochleates (AFCo1) from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Caridad; González, Domingo; Acevedo, Reinaldo; del Campo, Judith; Lastre, Miriam; González, Elizabeth; Romeu, Belkis; Cuello, Maribel; Balboa, Julio; Cabrera, Osmir; Guilherme, Luisa; Pérez, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The use of new adjuvants in vaccine formulations is a subject of current research. Only few parenteral adjuvants have been licensed. We have developed a mucosal and parenteral adjuvant known as AFCo1 (Adjuvant Finlay Cochleate 1, derived from proteoliposomes of N. meningitidis B) using a dialysis procedure to produce them on lab scale. The immunogenicity of the AFCo1 produced by dialysis has been already evaluated, but it was necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of a larger-scale manufacturing process. Therefore, we used a crossflow diafiltration system (CFS) that allows easy scale up to obtain large batches in an aseptic environment. The aim of this work was to produce AFCo1 on pilot scale, while conserving the adjuvant properties. The proteoliposomes (raw material) were resuspended in a buffer containing sodium deoxycholate and were transformed into AFCo1 under the action of a calcium forming buffer. The detergent was removed from the protein solution by diafiltration to a constant volume. In this CFS, we used a hollow fiber cartridge from Amicon (polysulfona cartridge of 10 kDa porosity, 1mm channel diameter of fiber and 0.45 m² area of filtration), allowing production of a batch of up to 20 L. AFCo1 were successfully produced by tangential filtration to pilot scale. The batch passed preliminary stability tests. Nasal immunization of BALB/c mice, induced specific saliva IgA and serum IgG. The induction of Th1 responses were demonstrated by the induction of IgG2a, IFNγ and not IL-5. The adjuvant action over Neisseria (self) antigens and with co-administered (heterologous) antigens such as ovalbumin and a synthetic peptide from haemolytic Streptococcus B was also demonstrated.

  5. Pilot scale cooling tower fouled fill treatment: AFCATT (Anti-Fouling Chemical Additive Test Tower)

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M.T.; Noble, R.T.; Philpot, E.F.; Eastis, J.H.

    1995-02-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) film-type cellular fill is the fill of choice in replacing cement asbestor board fill in existing cooling towers and in new cooling towers because of its high thermal performance, ease of installation, and low initial cost. However, PVC fill has been found to foul quickly with biological and sediment material, significant reducing tower performance and the fill`s useful life. The Anti-Fouling Chemical Additives Test Tower (AFCATT) has been built to study accumulation rates of fouling deposits in corrugated PVC film fill and to study methods of cleaning and preventing the fouling deposits. This small mechanical draft cooling tower is located next to the Unit 4 natural draft cooling tower at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Bowen. The once-through mechanical draft tower receives hot water from the condenser and returns the cold water to the basin of the host tower. The pilot tower is divided into four chambers allowing for three different treatment programs and one control to be run simultaneously. PVC fill packs are suspended from load cells to allow the weight of the fill packs to be measured continuously. Six vendors participated in the summer 1993 test program. Each proposed different methods of cleaning the fouled fill and were given the opportunity to try their proposed method of fill cleaning. The success of each treatment program was determined by its ability to reduce fill pack weight (i.e., reduce fouling).

  6. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC Appendices, Volume 2, Appendix V-A

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This document contains information concerning validation of analytical data for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Floodplain soils located at the Y-12 Plant site. This volume is an appendix of compiled data from this validation process.

  7. DEMONSTRATION OF PILOT-SCALE PREVAPORATION SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM A SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION FLUID. I. SPIRAL WOUND MEMBRANE MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 1996, a pilot-scale demonstration of a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) process for removal of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) from soils was conducted at Hill Air Force Base in Layton, Utah. Five thousand gallons of the extracted DNAP...

  8. Pilot-scale testing of renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. A pilot-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate the topical application of soybean peroxidase (SBP) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) as a manu...

  9. Evaluation of the Impact of Chlorine on Mercury Oxidation in a Pilot-Scale Coal Combustor--The Effect of Coal Blending

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study has been undertaken to investigate the effect of blending PRB coal with an Eastern bituminous coal on the speciation of Hg across an SCR catalyst. In this project, a pilot-scale (1.2 MWt) coal combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for NOx control was used for evaluating ...

  10. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BENGART AND MEMEL (BENCH-SCALE), GULFPORT (BENCH AND PILOT-SCALE), MONTANA POLE (BENCH-SCALE), AND WESTERN PROCESSING (BENCH-SCALE) TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents summary data on the results of various treatability studies (bench and pilot scale), conducted at three different sites where soils were contaminated with dioxins or PCBs. The synopsis is meant to show rough performance levels under a variety of differen...

  11. Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices. Volume 5. Appendix V-D

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils dated September 1994 contains LEFPC Appendices, Volume 5, Appendix V - D. This appendix includes the final verification run data package (PAH, TCLP herbicides, TCLP pesticides).

  12. Pretreatment of corn stover by low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMMA) in a pilot-scale reactor and bioconversion to fuel ethanol and industrial chemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover (CS) adjusted to 50%, 66% and 70% moisture was pretreated by the low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) process in a pilot-scale ammoniation reactor. After ammoniation, the 70% moisture CS was treated at 90 degree C and 100 degree C whereas the others were treated at 90 degree C only. The...

  13. Comparison of aluminum thermal-death-time disks with a pilot-scale pasteurizer on the thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli K12 in apple cider

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to compare thermal inactivation kinetics of Escherichia coli K12 in apple cider using conventional glass tubes, aluminum thermal-death-time (TDT) disks, and a pilot-scale pasteurizer. D-values of E. coli K12 in glass tubes and TDT disks were determined at 56, 58, and 60C. D-...

  14. Superfund Technology Evaluation Report: SITE Program Demonstration Test Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System at the Rose Township Demode Road Superfund Site Volume I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System was evaluated during a series of seventeen test runs under varied operating conditions at the Demode Road Superfund Site located in Rose Township, Michigan. The tests sought to demonstrate the effectiveness of the unit and the t...

  15. JV Task 107- Pilot-Scale Emission Control Technology Testing for Constellation Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Stephen Sollom; John Kay

    2007-06-30

    An Indonesian, Colombian, and Russian coal were tested in the Energy & Environmental Research Center's combustion test facility for their performance and an evaluation of mercury release and capture with selected additives in both electrostatic precipitator and baghouse configurations. Sorbents included the carbon-based materials NORIT DARCO Hg, Sorbent Technologies B-PAC and B-PAC LC, STI Rejects provided by Constellation Energy, and Envergex e-Sorb, along with ChemMod's high-temperature additive. Each coal was evaluated over several days and compared. Ash-fouling tests were conducted, and mercury levels were monitored using continuous mercury monitors (CMMs). The Ontario Hydro mercury sampling method was also utilized. The Indonesian coal had the lowest ash content, lowest sulfur content, and lowest energy content of the three coals tested. The Colombian coal had the highest mercury content and did contain a significant level of selenium which can interfere with the ability of a CMM to monitor mercury in the gas stream. All sorbents displayed very favorable results. In most cases, mercury removal greater than 86% could be obtained. The Indonesian coal displayed the best mercury removal with sorbent addition. A maximum removal of 97% was measured with this coal using Envergex's carbon-based sorbent at a rate of 4 lb/Macf across an electrostatic precipitator. The high ash and selenium content of the Colombian coal caused it to be a problematic fuel, and ash plugging of the test furnace was a real concern. Problems with the baghouse module led to limited testing. Results indicated that native capture across the baghouse for each coal type was significant enough not to warrant sorbent addition necessary. The fouling potential was the lowest for the Indonesian coal. Low sulfur content contributes to the poor potential for fouling, as witnessed by the lack of deposits during testing. The Russian and Colombian coals had a much higher potential for fouling primarily

  16. Preparation of activated carbon from coconut shell chars in pilot-scale microwave heating equipment at 60 kW.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Peng, Jinhui; Zhang, Libo; Yang, Kunbin; Xia, Hongying; Zhang, Shimin; Guo, Sheng-hui

    2009-02-01

    Experiments to prepare activated carbon by microwave heating indicated that microwave energy can decrease reaction temperature, save the energy and shorten processing time remarkably compared to conventional heating, owing to its internal and volumetric heating effects. The above results were based on the laboratory-scale experiments. It is desirable to develop a pilot-scale microwave heating equipment and investigate the parameters with the aim of technological industrialization. In the present study, the components and features of the self-invented equipment were introduced. The temperature rise curves of the chars were obtained. Iodine numbers of the activated carbons all exceed the state standard of China under the following conditions: 25 kg/h charging rate, 0.42 rev/min turning rate of ceramic tube, flow rate of steam at pressure of 0.01 MPa and 40 kW microwave heating power after 60 kW pre-activation for 30 min. Pore structure of the sample obtained at a time point of 46 h, which contained BET surface area, and pore size distributions of micropores and total pores, was tested by nitrogen adsorption at 77K.

  17. Removal of organic micropollutants from drinking water by a novel electro-Fenton filter: Pilot-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Plakas, Konstantinos V; Sklari, Stella D; Yiankakis, Dimitrios A; Sideropoulos, Georgios Th; Zaspalis, Vassilis T; Karabelas, Anastasios J

    2016-03-15

    To assess the performance of a novel 'filter'-type electro-Fenton (EF) device, results are reported from pilot-scale studies of continuous water treatment, to degrade diclofenac (DCF), a typical organic micro-pollutant, with no addition of oxidants. The novel 'filter' consisted of three pairs of anode/cathode electrodes made of carbon felt, with cathodes impregnated with iron nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3/F3O4 oxides). The best 'filter' performance was obtained at applied potential of 2 V and low water superficial velocities (∼0.09 cm/s), i.e., the mineralization current efficiency (MCE) was >20%, during continuous steady state treatment of tap water with low DCF concentrations (16 μg/L). The EF 'filter' exhibited satisfactory stability regarding both electrode integrity (no iron leaching) and removal efficiency, even after multiple filtration/oxidation treatment cycles, achieving (under steady conditions) DCF and TOC removal 85% and 36%, respectively. This performance is considered satisfactory because the EF process took place under rather unfavorable conditions, such as neutral pH, low dissolved O2 concentration, low electrical conductivity, and presence of natural organic matter and inorganic ions in tap water. Ongoing R&D is aimed at 'filter' development and optimization for practical applications.

  18. Combustion and NO emission of high nitrogen content biomass in a pilot-scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor.

    PubMed

    Qian, F P; Chyang, C S; Huang, K S; Tso, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The combustion of biomass of various nitrogen contents and its NO emission were investigated experimentally in this study. All the experiments were conducted in an I.D. 0.45 m pilot-scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor (VFBC). Rice husk, corn, and soybean were used as feeding materials. Urea was added into the feeding materials for the purpose of adjusting nitrogen content. The effects of various operating parameters on NO emission, such as bed temperature, excess air ratio, and flow rate of secondary air, were investigated. The effects of nitrogen content of fuels on NO emissions were also investigated by using the mixtures of rice husk/soybean, rice husk/urea, corn/soybean, and corn/urea in various weight ratios. The NO concentrations at various positions in the combustor were sampled and recorded. The experimental results show that most nitric oxide is formed at just above the bed surface. Temperature and excess air ratio are the major operating parameters for NO emission. For biomass with high nitrogen content, NO emission decreases with excess air, and increases with bed temperature. Compared with char-N, volatile-N is the more dominant reactant source for NO emission.

  19. An investigation of bread-baking process in a pilot-scale electrical heating oven using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Anishaparvin, A; Chhanwal, N; Indrani, D; Raghavarao, K S M S; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2010-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed for bread-baking process in a pilot-scale baking oven to find out the effect of hot air distribution and placement of bread on temperature and starch gelatinization index of bread. In this study, product (bread) simulation was carried out with different placements of bread. Simulation results were validated with experimental measurements of bread temperature. This study showed that nonuniform air flow pattern inside the oven cavity leads to uneven temperature distribution. The study with respect to placement of bread showed that baking of bread in upper trays required shorter baking time and gelatinization index compared to those in the bottom tray. The upper tray bread center reached 100 °C at 1200 s, whereas starch gelatinization completed within 900 s, which was the minimum baking index. Moreover, the heat penetration and starch gelatinization were higher along the sides of the bread as compared to the top and bottom portions of the bread.

  20. Performance of a pilot-scale biotrickling filter in controlling the volatile organic compound emissions in a furniture manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Soria, Vicente; Gabaldón, Carmen; Penya-Roja, Josep M; Palau, Jordi; Alvarez-Hornos, F Javier; Sempere, Feliu; Soriano, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    A 0.75-m3 pilot-scale biotrickling filter was run for over 1 yr in a Spanish furniture company to evaluate its performance in the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contained in the emission of two different paint spray booths. The first one was an open front booth used to manually paint furniture, and the second focus was an automatically operated closed booth operated to paint pieces of furniture. In both cases, the VOC emissions were very irregular, with rapid and extreme fluctuations. The pilot plant was operated at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) ranging from 10 to 40 sec, and good removal efficiencies of VOCs were usually obtained. When a buffering activated carbon prefilter was installed, the system performance was improved considerably, so a much better compliance with legal constraints was reached. After different shutdowns in the factory, the period to recover the previous performance of the biotrickling reactor was minimal. A weekend dehydration strategy was developed and implemented to control the pressure drop associated with excessive biomass accumulation.

  1. Impact of Microscale and Pilot-Scale Freeze-Drying on Protein Secondary Structures: Sucrose Formulations of Lysozyme and Catalase.

    PubMed

    Peters, Björn-Hendrik; Leskinen, Jari T T; Molnár, Ferdinand; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2015-11-01

    Microscale (MS) freeze-drying offers rapid process cycles for early-stage formulation development. The effects of the MS approach on the secondary structures of two model proteins, lysozyme and catalase, were compared with pilot-scale (PS) vial freeze-drying. The secondary structures were assessed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Formulations were made with increasing sucrose-protein ratios. Freeze-drying protocols involved regular cooling without thermal treatment and annealing with MS and PS equipment, and cooling rate variations with the MS. Principal component analysis of smoothed second-derivative amide I spectra revealed sucrose-protein ratio-dependent shifts toward α-helical structures. Transferability of sucrose-protein formulations from MS to PS vial freeze-drying was evidenced at regular cooling rates. Local differences in protein secondary structures between the bottom and top of sucrose-catalase samples could be detected at the sucrose-catalase ratios of 1 and 2, this being related to the initial filling height and ice crystal morphology. Annealing revealed temperature, protein, formulation, and sample location-dependent effects influencing surface morphology at the top, or causing protein secondary structure perturbation at the bottom. With the MS approach, protein secondary structure differences at different cooling rates could be detected for sucrose-lysozyme samples at the sucrose-lysozyme ratio of 1.

  2. A pilot-scale forward osmosis membrane system for concentrating low-strength municipal wastewater: performance and implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiwei; Zheng, Junjian; Tang, Jixu; Wang, Xinhua; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of nutrients and energy from municipal wastewater has attracted much attention in recent years; however, its efficiency is significantly limited by the low-strength properties of municipal wastewater. Herein, we report a pilot-scale forward osmosis (FO) system using a spiral-wound membrane module to concentrate real municipal wastewater. Under active layer facing feed solution mode, the critical concentration factor (CCF) of this FO system was determined to be 8 with 0.5 M NaCl as draw solution. During long-term operation at a concentration factor of 5, (99.8 ± 0.6)% of chemical oxygen demand and (99.7 ± 0.5)% of total phosphorus rejection rates could be achieved at a flux of 6 L/(m2 h) on average. In comparison, only (48.1 ± 10.5)% and (67.8 ± 7.3)% rejection of ammonium and total nitrogen were observed. Cake enhanced concentration polarization is a major contributor to the decrease of water fluxes. The fouling also led to the occurrence of a cake reduced concentration polarization effect, improving ammonium rejection rate with the increase of operation time in each cycle. This work demonstrates the applicability of using FO process for wastewater concentrating and also limitations in ammonium recovery that need further improvement in future. PMID:26898640

  3. Investigation of flow behaviour of coal particles in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) using radiotracer technique.

    PubMed

    Pant, H J; Sharma, V K; Kamudu, M Vidya; Prakash, S G; Krishanamoorthy, S; Anandam, G; Rao, P Seshubabu; Ramani, N V S; Singh, Gursharan; Sonde, R R

    2009-09-01

    Knowledge of residence time distribution (RTD), mean residence time (MRT) and degree of axial mixing of solid phase is required for efficient operation of coal gasification process. Radiotracer technique was used to measure the RTD of coal particles in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG). Two different radiotracers i.e. lanthanum-140 and gold-198 labeled coal particles (100 gm) were independently used as radiotracers. The radiotracer was instantaneously injected into the coal feed line and monitored at the ash extraction line at the bottom and gas outlet at the top of the gasifier using collimated scintillation detectors. The measured RTD data were treated and MRTs of coal/ash particles were determined. The treated data were simulated using tanks-in-series model. The simulation of RTD data indicated good degree of mixing with small fraction of the feed material bypassing/short-circuiting from the bottom of the gasifier. The results of the investigation were found useful for optimizing the design and operation of the FBG, and scale-up of the gasification process.

  4. Evaluation of sludge reduction by an environmentally friendly chemical uncoupler in a pilot-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuesong; Yang, Jianming; Liang, Yuan; Liu, Junxin; Xiao, Benyi

    2014-03-01

    An environmentally friendly chemical, tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate (THPS), was used as a metabolic uncoupler to reduce sludge production in a pilot-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process. The results show that the addition of THPS (1.08-1.86 mL/m(3) influent) in the sludge return section could reduce waste activated sludge by about 22.5 %, and decrease the sludge yield by about 14.7 % at the end of a run. At the same time, the addition of THPS slightly lowered the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), soluble COD and NH4 (+)-N, and slightly improved removal of total nitrogen. The effects of THPS addition on two characteristics of activated sludge in oxic tank are discussed in detail and the results suggest that the settleability of sludge was reduced by addition of THPS, while the specific oxygen uptake rate was increased. Molecular biology analysis shows that the addition of THPS had little effect on the microbial communities of sludge.

  5. Performance and microbial community analysis of a pilot-scale UASB for corn-ethanol wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianping; Xiao, Ling; Xi, Chunhui

    2015-04-01

    The performance and microbial community structure of a pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor inoculated with flocculent sludge were investigated over 52 days. The characteristics of corn-ethanol wastewater were as follows: CODCr, 1,050-4,970 mg l(-1); ammonia, 14-298 mg l(-1); and alkalinity, 332-2,867 mg l(-1). The UASB could start up smoothly with a hydraulic loading rate lower than 180 l h(-1) and a ratio of volatile fatty acid versus alkalinity between 0.04 and 0.48. The maximum gas production rate was 432 l h(-1) and the highest volumetric loading rate of 7.2 kg m(-3) day(-1) was obtained after 48 days. The 1 mm granules could form a complex network and were composed of many Methanosaeta. Aceticlastic methanogens served as a dominant methanogenic group, which accounted for the relatively high resistance to shock loading.

  6. Odor and volatile organic compound treatment by biotrickling filters: pilot-scale studies at hyperion treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Cox, H H J; Deshusses, M A; Converse, B M; Schroeder, E D; Iranpour, R

    2002-01-01

    A pilot-scale biotrickling filter was installed at the Hyperion Treatment Plant in Los Angeles, California, to study hydrogen sulfide (odor) and volatile organic compound (VOC) removal from headworks waste air. The performance of the reactor was continuously monitored during a 10-month period. At an average empty bed gas residence time of 24 seconds, 10 to 50 ppm of hydrogen sulfide was consistently removed at greater than 98% efficiency, corresponding to an average volumetric elimination capacity of 5.2 g/m3 x h. Concentration profiles over the height of the reactor indicated nearly complete removal in the first section of the reactor, suggesting that elimination capacities up to 30 g/m3 x h could be obtained. The odor reduction (as dilution to threshold) was 98%, which correlated with the efficiency of removal of hydrogen sulfide as the primary pollutant. Volatile organic compounds were present at concentrations up to 225 ppb. Moderate but significant removal of toluene and benzene was observed when the biotrickling filter was operated with pH control to neutralize sulfuric acid production from hydrogen sulfide oxidation. Xylenes and chlorinated VOCs were not removed regardless of experimental conditions in the reactor. The results led to the conclusion that VOC removal is the limiting process in biotrickling filters for the simultaneous removal of hydrogen sulfide and VOCs at publicly owned treatment works.

  7. Fe(II) oxidation during acid mine drainage neutralization in a pilot-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor.

    PubMed

    Zvimba, J N; Mathye, M; Vadapalli, V R K; Swanepoel, H; Bologo, L

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated Fe(II) oxidation during acid mine drainage (AMD) neutralization using CaCO3 in a pilot-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) of hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 90 min and sludge retention time (SRT) of 360 min in the presence of air. The removal kinetics of Fe(II), of initial concentration 1,033 ± 0 mg/L, from AMD through oxidation to Fe(III) was observed to depend on both pH and suspended solids, resulting in Fe(II) levels of 679 ± 32, 242 ± 64, 46 ± 16 and 28 ± 0 mg/L recorded after cycles 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively, with complete Fe(II) oxidation only achieved after complete neutralization of AMD. Generally, it takes 30 min to completely oxidize Fe(II) during cycle 4, suggesting that further optimization of SBR operation based on both pH and suspended solids manipulation can result in significant reduction of the number of cycles required to achieve acceptable Fe(II) oxidation for removal as ferric hydroxide. Overall, complete removal of Fe(II) during AMD neutralization is attractive as it promotes recovery of better quality waste gypsum, key to downstream gypsum beneficiation for recovery of valuables, thereby enabling some treatment-cost recovery and prevention of environmental pollution from dumping of sludge into landfills.

  8. Conventional drinking water treatment and direct biofiltration for the removal of pharmaceuticals and artificial sweeteners: A pilot-scale approach.

    PubMed

    McKie, Michael J; Andrews, Susan A; Andrews, Robert C

    2016-02-15

    The presence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and artificial sweeteners are of concern to water providers because they may be incompletely removed by wastewater treatment processes and they pose an unknown risk to consumers due to long-term consumption of low concentrations of these compounds. This study utilized pilot-scale conventional and biological drinking water treatment processes to assess the removal of nine PhACs and EDCs, and two artificial sweeteners. Conventional treatment (coagulation, flocculation, settling, non-biological dual-media filtration) was compared to biofilters with or without the addition of in-line coagulant (0.2-0.8 mg Al(3+)/L; alum or PACl). A combination of biofiltration, with or without in-line alum, and conventional filtration was able to reduce 7 of the 9 PhACs and EDCs by more than 50% from river water while artificial sweeteners were inconsistently removed by conventional treatment or biofiltration. Increasing doses of PACl from 0 to 0.8 mg/L resulted in average removals of PhACs, EDCs increasing from 39 to 70% and artificial sweeteners removal increasing from ~15% to ~35% in lake water. These results suggest that a combination of biological, chemical and physical treatment can be applied to effectively reduce the concentration of EDCs, PhACs, and artificial sweeteners.

  9. Enhanced reduction of excess sludge and nutrient removal in a pilot-scale A2O-MBR-TAD system.

    PubMed

    Ventura, J S; Seo, S; Chung, I; Yeom, I; Kim, H; Oh, Y; Jahng, D

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a pilot scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2O) process with submerged membrane (MBR) in the oxic tank was coupled with thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) reactor and was operated for longer than 600 days to treat real domestic wastewater. Regardless of the varying conditions of the system, the A2O-MBR-TAD process removed MLSS, TCOD, BOD, TN, TP, and E. coli about 99%, 96%, 96%, 70%, 83%, and 99%, respectively. The additional TP removal of the system was due to the precipitating agent directly added in the oxic reactor, without which TP removal was about 56%. In the TAD reactor, receiving MLSS from the oxic tank (MBR), about 25% of TSS and VSS were solubilized during 2 days of retention. The effluent of the TAD reactor was recycled into the anoxic tank of A2O-MBR to provide organic carbon for denitrification and cryptic growth. By controlling the flowrate of wasting stream from the MBR, sludge production decreased to almost zero. From these results, it was concluded that the A2O-MBR-TAD process could be a reliable option for excellent effluent quality and near zero-sludge production.

  10. A pilot-scale forward osmosis membrane system for concentrating low-strength municipal wastewater: performance and implications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Zheng, Junjian; Tang, Jixu; Wang, Xinhua; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-02-22

    Recovery of nutrients and energy from municipal wastewater has attracted much attention in recent years; however, its efficiency is significantly limited by the low-strength properties of municipal wastewater. Herein, we report a pilot-scale forward osmosis (FO) system using a spiral-wound membrane module to concentrate real municipal wastewater. Under active layer facing feed solution mode, the critical concentration factor (CCF) of this FO system was determined to be 8 with 0.5 M NaCl as draw solution. During long-term operation at a concentration factor of 5, (99.8 ± 0.6)% of chemical oxygen demand and (99.7 ± 0.5)% of total phosphorus rejection rates could be achieved at a flux of 6 L/(m(2) h) on average. In comparison, only (48.1 ± 10.5)% and (67.8 ± 7.3)% rejection of ammonium and total nitrogen were observed. Cake enhanced concentration polarization is a major contributor to the decrease of water fluxes. The fouling also led to the occurrence of a cake reduced concentration polarization effect, improving ammonium rejection rate with the increase of operation time in each cycle. This work demonstrates the applicability of using FO process for wastewater concentrating and also limitations in ammonium recovery that need further improvement in future.

  11. Effect of a microbiota activator on accumulated ammonium and microbial community structure in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R; Ronald, Navarro R; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Microbiota activators (MAs) have been used to improve the reactor performances of biological wastewater treatment processes. In this study, to remove ammonium (NH4(+)) accumulated during the pre-operation of a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) under high-organic-loading conditions, an MA was added to the MBR system and the resulting changes in reactor performances and microbial communities were monitored for 12 days. The NH4(+) concentrations in the sludge and effluent decreased (from 427 to 246 mg/L in the sludge (days 1-9)), and mixed liquor suspended solid increased (from 6,793 to 11,283 mg/L (days 1-12)) after the addition of MA. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the microbial community structure changed along with the NH4(+) removal resulting from the MA addition. In particular, the relative abundance of an Acidovorax-related operational taxonomic unit (OTU) increased significantly, accounting for approximately 50% of the total microbial population at day 11. In contrast, the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea showed low abundances (<0.05%), and no anaerobic ammonia oxidizers were detected. These results suggested that the Acidovorax-related OTU was mainly involved in the NH4(+) removal in the MBR, probably due to its ammonia-assimilating metabolism.

  12. Performance of a pilot scale microbial electrolysis cell fed on domestic wastewater at ambient temperatures for a 12 month period.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, Elizabeth S; Edwards, Stephen R; Dolfing, Jan; Cotterill, Sarah E; Curtis, Thomas P

    2014-12-01

    A 100-L microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was operated for a 12-month period fed on raw domestic wastewater at temperatures ranging from 1°C to 22°C, producing an average of 0.6 L/day of hydrogen. Gas production was continuous though decreased with time. An average 48.7% of the electrical energy input was recovered, with a Coulombic efficiency of 41.2%. COD removal was inconsistent and below the standards required. Limitations to the cell design, in particular the poor pumping system and large overpotential account for many of the problems. However these are surmountable hurdles that can be addressed in future cycles of pilot scale research. This research has established that the biological process of an MEC will to work at low temperatures with real wastewater for prolonged periods. Testing and demonstrating the robustness and durability of bioelectrochemical systems far beyond that in any previous study, the prospects for developing MEC at full scale are enhanced.

  13. Effect of PAC dosage in a pilot-scale PAC-MBR treating micro-polluted surface water.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingyi; Shang, Ran; Deng, Huiping; Heijman, Sebastiaan G J; Rietveld, Luuk C

    2014-02-01

    To address the water scarcity issue and advance the traditional drinking water treatment technique, a powdered activated carbon-amended membrane bioreactor (PAC-MBR) is proposed for micro-polluted surface water treatment. A pilot-scale study was carried out by initially dosing different amounts of PAC into the MBR. Comparative results showed that 2g/L performed the best among 0, 1, 2 and 3g/L PAC-MBR regarding organic matter and ammonia removal as well as membrane flux sustainability. 1g/L PAC-MBR exhibited a marginal improvement in pollutant removal compared to the non-PAC system. The accumulation of organic matter in the bulk mixture of 3g/L PAC-MBR led to poorer organic removal and severer membrane fouling. Molecular weight distribution of the bulk liquid in 2g/L PAC-MBR revealed the synergistic effects of PAC adsorption/biodegradation and membrane rejection on organic matter removal. Additionally, a lower amount of soluble extracellular polymer substances in the bulk can be secured in 21 days operation.

  14. An integrated approach to optimize the conditioning chemicals for enhanced sludge conditioning in a pilot-scale sludge dewatering process.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lin-Feng; Sun, Min; Song, Wei; Wang, Gan

    2012-10-01

    An integrated approach incorporating response surface methodology (RSM), grey relational analysis, and fuzzy logic analysis was developed to quantitatively evaluate the conditioning chemicals in sludge dewatering process. The polyacrylamide (PAM), ferric chloride (FeCl(3)) and calcium-based mineral powders were combined to be used as the sludge conditioners in a pilot-scale sludge dewatering process. The performance of conditioners at varied dosages was comprehensively evaluated by taking into consideration the sludge dewatering efficiency and chemical cost of conditioner. In the evaluation procedure, RSM was employed to design the experiment and to optimize the dosage of each conditioner. The grey-fuzzy logic was established to quantify the conditioning performance on the basis of grey relational coefficient generation, membership function construction, and fuzzy rule description. Based on the evaluation results, the optimal chemical composition for conditioning was determined as PAM at 4.62 g/kg DS, FeCl(3) at 55.4 g/kg DS, and mineral powders at 30.0 g/kg DS.

  15. Potential of duckweed in the conversion of wastewater nutrients to valuable biomass: a pilot-scale comparison with water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yonggui; Fang, Yang; Jin, Yanling; Huang, Jun; Bao, Shu; Fu, Tian; He, Zhiming; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Hai

    2014-07-01

    The application potential of duckweed (Lemna japonica 0234) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) were compared in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment systems for more than one year. The results indicated duckweed had the same total nitrogen (TN) recovery rate as water hyacinth (0.4 g/m(2)/d) and a slightly lower total phosphorus (TP) recovery rate (approximately 0.1g/m(2)/d) even though its biomass production was half that of water hyacinth. The higher content of crude protein (33.34%), amino acids (25.80%), starch (40.19%), phosphorus (1.24%), flavonoids (2.91%) and lower fiber content provided duckweed with more advantages in resource utilization. Additionally, microbial community discovered by 454 pyrosequencing indicated that less nitrifying bacteria and more nitrogen-fixing bacteria in rhizosphere of duckweed provided it with higher nitrogen recovery efficiency (60%) than water hyacinth (47%). Under the presented condition, duckweed has more application advantages than water hyacinth because it more effectively converted the wastewater nutrients into valuable biomass.

  16. Co-gasification of biosolids with biomass: Thermogravimetric analysis and pilot scale study in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming Ming; Masnadi, Mohammad S; Grace, John R; Bi, Xiaotao T; Lim, C Jim; Li, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    This work studied the feasibility of co-gasification of biosolids with biomass as a means of disposal with energy recovery. The kinetics study at 800°C showed that biomass, such as switchgrass, could catalyze the reactions because switchgrass ash contained a high proportion of potassium, an excellent catalyst for gasification. However, biosolids could also inhibit gasification due to interaction between biomass alkali/alkaline earth metals and biosolids clay minerals. In the pilot scale experiments, increasing the proportion of biosolids in the feedstock affected gasification performance negatively. Syngas yield and char conversion decreased from 1.38 to 0.47m(3)/kg and 82-36% respectively as the biosolids proportion in the fuel increased from 0% to 100%. Over the same range, the tar content increased from 10.3 to 200g/m(3), while the ammonia concentration increased from 1660 to 19,200ppmv. No more than 25% biosolids in the fuel feed is recommended to maintain a reasonable gasification.

  17. Laboratory and Pilot Scale Evaluation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Technology for Use at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.P.; Hankins, M.G.

    1999-02-01

    Three reactive materials were evaluated to identify the optimum treatment reagent for use in a Permeable Reactive Barrier Treatment System at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). The three reactive media evaluated included high carbon steel iron filings, an iron-silica alloy in the form of a foam aggregate, and a pellicular humic acid based sorbent (Humasorb from Arctech) mixed with sand. Each material was tested in the laboratory at column scale using simulated site water. All three materials showed promise for the 903 Mound Site; however, the iron filings were determined to be the most cost effective media. In order to validate the laboratory results, the iron filings were further tested at a pilot scale (field columns) using actual site water. Pilot test results were similar to laboratory results; consequently, the iron filings were chosen for the full scale demonstration of this reactive barrier technology. Design parameters including saturated hydraulic conductivity, treatment residence time, and head loss across the media were provided to the design team in support of the final design.

  18. A pilot-scale study of Cryptosporidium-sized microsphere removals from swimming pools via sand filtration.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Amburgey, James E

    2016-02-01

    Cryptosporidium species are the most common cause of gastrointestinal illness in treated recreational water venues. In order to protect public health during swimming, Cryptosporidium-sized microsphere removals by high-rate sand filtration with six coagulants were evaluated with a 5.5 m(3) pilot-scale swimming pool. A sand filter without coagulation removed 20-63% of Cryptosporidium-sized microspheres. Cryptosporidium-sized microsphere removals exceeded 98% by sand filtration with five of the six tested coagulants. Continuously feeding coagulants A, B, and F (i.e., organic polymers) led to coagulant accumulation in the system and decreased removals over time (<2 days). Coagulant E (polyaluminum chloride) consistently removed more than 90% of microspheres at 30 m/h while the removals dropped to approximately 50% at a filtration rate of 37 m/h. Coagulant C was a chitosan-based product that removed fewer microspheres compared with other products, <75%, under the studied conditions. Results indicated aluminum-based coagulants (coagulants D and E) had an overall performance advantage over the organic polymer based coagulants primarily in terms of their tendency not to accumulate in the water and cease to be effective at improving filter efficiency.

  19. Start-up of a pilot-scale anaerobic fixed film reactor at low temperature treating slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    del Pozo, R; Diez, V; Salazar, G

    2002-01-01

    A pilot-scale anaerobic fixed film reactor (AFFR) with vertically arranged PVC tubes as biomass carrier, treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater was started-up in 74 days at temperatures between 20-24 degrees C. The start-up process consisted of a long acclimatization phase followed by a low loaded growth phase, a gradual increase of OLR upto 9.2 kg COD/m3d, and a final maturation phase at moderated loads of 2.7 kg COD/m3d at which total COD removal efficiencies of 57% were achieved. Alkalinity ratio IA:PA was found to be the best control parameter to avoid VFA accumulation. OLR increase based on pH control was not satisfactory because changes in CO2 solubility caused daily by temperature and flow variations led to pH oscillations of 0.2 units. The low wastewater alkalinity, 260 mg/l CaCO3 was insufficient to buffer the pH system, therefore the pH decrease associated with the VFA accumulation was not easily detected and could not be used as a way of OLR control. Organic matter removal took place by accumulation and biodegradation processes. Limitation in the reactor hydrodynamics and particulate fraction hydrolysis was detected at high flow rates.

  20. Corrosivities in a pilot-scale combustor of a British and two Illinois coals with varying chlorine contents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Lytle, J.M.; Kung, S.C.; Ho, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    Many US boiler manufacturers have recommended limits on the chlorine (Cl) content (< 0.25% or < 0.3%) of coals to be used in their boilers. These limits were based primarily on extrapolation of British coal data to predict the probable corrosion behavior of US coals. Even though Cl-related boiler corrosion has not been reported by US utilities burning high-Cl Illinois coals, the manufacturer's limits affect the marketability of high-Cl Illinois coals. This study measured the relative rates of corrosion caused by two high-Cl coals (British and Illinois) and one low-Cl Illinois baseline coal under identical pilot-scale combustion conditions for about 1000 h which gave reliable comparisons. Temperatures used reflected conditions in boiler superheaters. The corrosion probes were fabricated from commercial alloy 304SS frequently used at the hottest superheater section of utility boilers. The results showed no evidence of direct correlation between the coal chlorine content and rate of corrosion. A correlation between the rate of corrosion and the metal temperature was obvious. The results suggested that the different field histories of corrosivity from burning high-Cl Illinois coal and high-Cl British coal occurred because of different metal temperatures operated in US and UK utility boilers. The results of this study can be combined into a database, which could be used for lifting the limits on chlorine contents of coals burned in utility boilers in the US.

  1. Ammonia- and Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacterial Communities in a Pilot-Scale Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System

    PubMed Central

    Regan, John M.; Harrington, Gregory W.; Noguera, Daniel R.

    2002-01-01

    Nitrification in drinking water distribution systems is a common operational problem for many utilities that use chloramines for secondary disinfection. The diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in the distribution systems of a pilot-scale chloraminated drinking water treatment system was characterized using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and 16S rRNA gene (ribosomal DNA [rDNA]) cloning and sequencing. For ammonia oxidizers, 16S rDNA-targeted T-RFLP indicated the presence of Nitrosomonas in each of the distribution systems, with a considerably smaller peak attributable to Nitrosospira-like AOB. Sequences of AOB amplification products aligned within the Nitrosomonas oligotropha cluster and were closely related to N. oligotropha and Nitrosomonas ureae. The nitrite-oxidizing communities were comprised primarily of Nitrospira, although Nitrobacter was detected in some samples. These results suggest a possible selection of AOB related to N. oligotropha and N. ureae in chloraminated systems and demonstrate the presence of NOB, indicating a biological mechanism for nitrite loss that contributes to a reduction in nitrite-associated chloramine decay. PMID:11772611

  2. Pilot-scale evaluation the enological traits of a novel, aromatic wine yeast strain obtained by adaptive evolution.

    PubMed

    Cadière, Axelle; Aguera, Evelyne; Caillé, Soline; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Dequin, Sylvie

    2012-12-01

    In the competitive context of the wine market, there is a growing interest for novel wine yeast strains that have an overall good fermentation capacity and that contribute favorably to the organoleptic quality of wine. Using an adaptive evolution strategy based on growth on gluconate as sole carbon source, we recently obtained wine yeasts with improved characteristics in laboratory-scale fermentations. The characteristics included enhanced fermentation rate, decreased formation of acetate and greater production of fermentative aroma. We report an evaluation of the potential value of the evolved strain ECA5™ for winemaking, by comparing its fermentation performance and metabolite production to those of the parental strain in pilot-scale fermentation trials, with various grape cultivars and winemaking conditions. We show that the evolved strain has outstanding attributes relative to the parental wine yeast strain, and in particular the production of less volatile acidity and greater production of desirable volatile esters, important for the fruity/flowery character of wines. This study highlights the potential of evolutionary engineering for the generation of strains with a broad range of novel properties, appropriate for rapid application in the wine industry.

  3. FY-97 operations of the pilot-scale glass melter to vitrify simulated ICPP high activity sodium-bearing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    A 3.5 liter refractory-lined joule-heated glass melter was built to test the applicability of electric melting to vitrify simulated high activity waste (HAW). The HAW streams result from dissolution and separation of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcines and/or radioactive liquid waste. Pilot scale melter operations will establish selection criteria needed to evaluate the application of joule heating to immobilize ICPP high activity waste streams. The melter was fabricated with K-3 refractory walls and Inconel 690 electrodes. It is designed to be continuously operated at 1,150 C with a maximum glass output rate of 10 lbs/hr. The first set of tests were completed using surrogate HAW-sodium bearing waste (SBW). The melter operated for 57 hours and was shut down due to excessive melt temperatures resulting in low glass viscosity (< 30 Poise). Due to the high melt temperature and low viscosity the molten glass breached the melt chamber. The melter has been dismantled and examined to identify required process improvement areas and successes of the first melter run. The melter has been redesigned and is currently being fabricated for the second run, which is scheduled to begin in December 1997.

  4. Pilot-scale production of soybean oligopeptides and antioxidant and antihypertensive effects in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mu-Yi; Gu, Rui-Zeng; Li, Chen-Yue; Ma, Yong; Dong, Zhe; Liu, Wen-Ying; Jin, Zhen-Tao; Lu, Jun; Yi, Wei-Xue

    2014-09-01

    Soybean oligopeptides (SOP) with low molecular weights were prepared by two-step enzymatic hydrolysis on a pilot-scale. Peptide and free amino acid contents of SOP were 82.5 ± 1.13 % and 3.7 ± 0.28 % respectively. The molecular weight distribution of SOP was mainly bellow 1,000 Da (85.4 %), 56.7 % of which were 140-500 Da. SOP showed strong stability to proteolytic digestion by pepsin and trypsin. The antioxidant activities and in vitro and in vivo antihypertensive effects of SOP were evaluated. Results showed that SOP exhibited 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect (IC50 = 4.5 ± 0.13 mg/mL), and significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation in linoleic acid oxidation system (IC50 = 1.2 ± 0.09 mg/mL). SOP had potent angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity (IC50 = 1.1 ± 0.06 mg/mL), and antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg. This study indicated that SOP could be a natural antioxidative or antihypertensive compound in the medicine and food industries.

  5. A pilot-scale forward osmosis membrane system for concentrating low-strength municipal wastewater: performance and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Zheng, Junjian; Tang, Jixu; Wang, Xinhua; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-02-01

    Recovery of nutrients and energy from municipal wastewater has attracted much attention in recent years; however, its efficiency is significantly limited by the low-strength properties of municipal wastewater. Herein, we report a pilot-scale forward osmosis (FO) system using a spiral-wound membrane module to concentrate real municipal wastewater. Under active layer facing feed solution mode, the critical concentration factor (CCF) of this FO system was determined to be 8 with 0.5 M NaCl as draw solution. During long-term operation at a concentration factor of 5, (99.8 ± 0.6)% of chemical oxygen demand and (99.7 ± 0.5)% of total phosphorus rejection rates could be achieved at a flux of 6 L/(m2 h) on average. In comparison, only (48.1 ± 10.5)% and (67.8 ± 7.3)% rejection of ammonium and total nitrogen were observed. Cake enhanced concentration polarization is a major contributor to the decrease of water fluxes. The fouling also led to the occurrence of a cake reduced concentration polarization effect, improving ammonium rejection rate with the increase of operation time in each cycle. This work demonstrates the applicability of using FO process for wastewater concentrating and also limitations in ammonium recovery that need further improvement in future.

  6. Effect of medium-pressure UV irradiation on bromate concentrations in drinking water, a pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Peldszus, Sigrid; Andrews, Susan A; Souza, Rosana; Smith, Franklyn; Douglas, Ian; Bolton, Jim; Huck, Peter M

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the potential for bromate removal from drinking water on irradiation with medium-pressure UV lamps-a technique gaining considerable interest for drinking water disinfection. Waters from two different sources were spiked with 20microg/L of bromate and irradiated with UV fluences up to 718mJ/cm(2) utilizing a pilot-scale reactor (Calgon Carbon Corp.) at a flow of 76L/min (20 gallon/min). Essentially no removal was observed in one of the source waters. Limited bromate removal, up to 19%, was observed in the second source water at high UV fluences (696mJ/cm(2)) and a fluence-response relationship was clearly evident. All removals would be negligible at UV fluences anticipated for drinking water disinfection (< or =40mJ/cm(2)). Different water characteristics, in particular competitive absorption by nitrate and possibly DOC, were most likely responsible for the differences in bromate removal in the waters tested. The source water that did not show any removal had a higher nitrate concentration (4 vs. 0.1mg N/L) and also a higher DOC concentration (4.1 vs. 3.1mg C/L) than the other source water which showed 19% bromate removal.

  7. Preparation of activated carbon from coconut shell chars in pilot-scale microwave heating equipment at 60 kW

    SciTech Connect

    Li Wei; Peng Jinhui Zhang Libo; Yang Kunbin; Xia Hongying; Zhang Shimin; Guo Shenghui

    2009-02-15

    Experiments to prepare activated carbon by microwave heating indicated that microwave energy can decrease reaction temperature, save the energy and shorten processing time remarkably compared to conventional heating, owing to its internal and volumetric heating effects. The above results were based on the laboratory-scale experiments. It is desirable to develop a pilot-scale microwave heating equipment and investigate the parameters with the aim of technological industrialization. In the present study, the components and features of the self-invented equipment were introduced. The temperature rise curves of the chars were obtained. Iodine numbers of the activated carbons all exceed the state standard of China under the following conditions: 25 kg/h charging rate, 0.42 rev/min turning rate of ceramic tube, flow rate of steam at pressure of 0.01 MPa and 40 kW microwave heating power after 60 kW pre-activation for 30 min. Pore structure of the sample obtained at a time point of 46 h, which contained BET surface area, and pore size distributions of micropores and total pores, was tested by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K.

  8. Final Report: Pilot-Scale Cross-Flow Ultrafiltration Test Using a Hanford Site Tank 241-AN-102 Waste Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.

    2003-10-03

    Bechtel National l, Inc. (BNI) has been contracted to design a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to stabilize liquid radioactive waste that is stored at the Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project (RPP). Because of its experience with radioactive waste stabilization, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is working with BNI to help design and test certain parts of the waste treatment facility. One part of the process is the separation of radioactive solids from the liquid wastes by cross- flow ultrafiltration. This task tested a cross- flow filter, prototypic in porosity, length and diameter, with a simulated radioactive waste, made to prototypically represent the chemical and physical characteristics of a Hanford waste in tank 241-AN-102 (AN-102) and precipitated under prototypic conditions. This report discusses the results of cross- flow filter operation in a pilot-scale experimental facility. This filter technology was evaluated for its inclusion in the pretreatment section of the nuclear waste stabilization plant being designed by Bechtel National, Inc. The waste treatment plant will be built at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site as part of the River Protection Project.

  9. Stable operation during pilot-scale anaerobic digestion of nutrient-supplemented maize/sugar beet silage.

    PubMed

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Björn, Annika; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2012-08-01

    Biogas production from maize/sugar beet silage was studied under mesophilic conditions in a continuous stirred tank reactor pilot-scale process. While energy crop mono-digestion is often performed with very long hydraulic retention times (HRTs), the present study demonstrated an efficient process operating with a 50-day HRT and a corrected total solids (TS(corr)) based organic loading rate of 3.4 kg/m(3)d. The good performance was attributed to supplementation with both macro- and micronutrients and was evidenced by good methane yields (318 m(3)/ton TS(corr)), which were comparable to laboratory maximum expected yields, plus low total volatile fatty acid concentrations (<0.8 g/L). A viscoplastic and thixotropic digester fluid behaviour was observed, and the viscosity problems common in crop mono-digestion were not seen in this study. The effluent also complied with Swedish certification standards for bio-fertilizer for farmland application. Nutrient addition thus rendered a stable biogas process, while the effluent was a good quality bio-fertilizer.

  10. Behavior of tetracycline and sulfamethazine with corresponding resistance genes from swine wastewater in pilot-scale constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Liu, Yu-Hong; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Chao-Xiang; Huang, Xu; Zhu, Ge-Fu

    2014-08-15

    Four pilot-scale constructed wetlands (free water surface, SF; horizontal subsurface flow, HSF; vertical subsurface flows with different water level, VSF-L and VSF-H) were operated to assess their ability to remove sulfamethazine (SMZ) and tetracycline (TC) from wastewaters, and to investigate the abundance level of corresponding resistance genes (sulI, sulII, tetM, tetW and tetO) in the CWs. The results indicated that CWs could significantly reduce the concentration of antibiotics in wastewater, and the mass removal rate range of SMZ and TC were respectively 11%-95% and 85%-95% in the four systems on the basis of hydraulic equilibrium; further relatively high removal rate was observed in VSF with low water level. Seasonal condition had a significant effect on SMZ removal in the CWs (especially SMZ in SF), but TC removal in VSFs were not considered to have statistically significant differences in winter and summer. At the end period, the relative abundances of target genes in the CWs showed obvious increases compared to initial levels, ranging from 2.98 × 10(-5) to 1.27 × 10(-1) for sul genes and 4.68 × 10(-6) to 1.54 × 10(-1) for tet genes after treatment, and those abundances showed close relation to both characteristic of wastewater and configuration of CWs.

  11. First-order kinetics of landfill leachate treatment in a pilot-scale anaerobic sequence batch biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Contrera, Ronan Cleber; da Cruz Silva, Katia Cristina; Morita, Dione Mari; Domingues Rodrigues, José Alberto; Zaiat, Marcelo; Schalch, Valdir

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the kinetics evaluation of landfill leachate anaerobic treatment in a pilot-scale Anaerobic Sequence Batch Biofilm Reactor (AnSBBR). The experiment was carried out at room temperature (23.8 ± 2.1 °C) in the landfill area in São Carlos-SP, Brazil. Biomass from the bottom of a local landfill leachate stabilization pond was used as inoculum. After acclimated and utilizing leachate directly from the landfill, the AnSBBR presented efficiency over 70%, in terms of COD removal, with influent COD ranging from 4825 mg L(-1) to 12,330 mg L(-1). To evaluate the kinetics of landfill leachate treatment, temporal profiles of CODFilt. concentration were performed and a first-order kinetics model was adjusted for substrate consumption, obtaining an average k1 = 4.40 × 10(-5) L mgTVS(-1) d(-1), corrected to 25 °C. Considering the temperature variations, a temperature-activity coefficient θ = 1.07 was obtained. Statistical "Randomness" and "F" tests were used to successfully validate the model considered. Thus, the results demonstrate that the first-order kinetic model is adequate to model the anaerobic treatment of the landfill leachate in the AnSBBR.

  12. Pilot-scale nitrogen removal from leachate by ex situ nitrification and in situ denitrification in a landfill bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Faqian; Sun, Bin; Li, Qian; Deng, Xiaoya; Hu, Jian; Wu, Weixiang

    2014-04-01

    A combined process consisting of ex situ nitrification and in situ denitrification in landfill refuse was studied in pilot scale for nitrogen removal from municipal landfill leachate. The results showed that above 80% of partial nitrification ratio and an average COD loading rate of 1.50 kg m(-3) d(-1) were steadily maintained under DO concentrations of 1.0-1.7 mg L(-1) in the aerobic reactor. Quantitative PCR results indicated that nitrite-oxidizing bacteria being sensitive to DO fluctuations lead to partial nitrification when free ammonia inhibition was weak. Nitrified landfill leachate could be denitrified in the landfill bioreactor with maximum total oxidizing nitrogen removal rate of 67.2 g N t(-1) TSwaste d(-1). Clone and sequencing analysis of denitrifying bacterial nirS gene inferred that heterotrophic denitrifier Azoarcus tolulyticu was the primary nitrogen converter in the landfill bioreactor. The obtained results will provide valuable information for optimizing the design and operation of a landfill bioreactor.

  13. Slowly released molasses barrier system for controlling nitrate plumes in groundwater: a pilot-scale tank study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Sun; Lee, Kyuyeon; Um, Jae Yeon; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2014-02-01

    A well-type barrier system containing solidified molasses as a reactive medium was developed to promote the indigenous denitrifying activity and to treat nitrate plumes in groundwater. Three slowly released molasses (SRM) barrier systems harboring 60, 120, and 120 SRM rods, which were named System A, B, and C, respectively, were operated to examine nitrate removal efficiency in a pilot-scale sandy tank. These SRM systems induced a consistent removal of nitrate without pore clogging and hydraulic disturbance during the test period. The initial nitrate concentration was 142mgL(-1), and the concentrations decreased by 80%, 84%, and 79% in System A, B, and C, respectively. In particular, System C was inoculated with heterotrophic denitrifiers, but the nitrate removal efficiency was not enhanced compared to System B, probably due to the prior existence of indigenous denitrifiers in the sandy tank. The presence of nitrite reductase-encoding gene (i.e. nirK) at the site was confirmed by denatured gradient gel electrophoresis analysis.

  14. Degradation of diethyl phthalate in treated effluents from an MBR via advanced oxidation processes: effects of nitrate on oxidation and a pilot-scale AOP operation.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Park, C G; Lee, J W; Ko, K B

    2010-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to delineate the oxidation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in water, using bench-scale UV/H2O2 and O3/H2O2 processes, and to determine the effects of nitrate (NO(3-)-N, 5 mg L(-1)) on this oxidation. The oxidation of DEP was also investigated through a pilot-scale advanced oxidation process (AOP), into which a portion of the effluent from a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant was pumped. The bench-scale operation showed that DEP could be oxidized via solely UV oxidation or O3 oxidation. The adverse effect of nitrate on the DEP oxidation was remarkable in the UV/H2O2 process, and the nitrate clearly reduced its oxidation. The adverse effect of nitrate on O3 oxidation was also observed. It was noted, however, that the nitrate clearly enhanced the DEP oxidation in the O3/H2O2 process. A series of pilot-scale AOP operations indicated that the addition of H2O2 enhanced DEP oxidation in both the UV/H2O2 and O3/H2O2 processes. No noticeable adverse effect of nitrate was observed in the NO(3-)-N concentration of about 6.0 mg L(-1), which was naturally contained in the treatment stream. About 52% and 61% of the DEP were oxidized by each of these two oxidation processes in this pilot-scale operation. Both the UV/H2O2 and O3/H2O2 processes appeared to be desirable alternatives for DEP oxidation in treatment effluent streams.

  15. Filtration of a Hanford Site Tank 241-AN-102 Waste Sample with Alternate Sr/TRU Precipitation Conditions at Bench and Pilot Scales

    SciTech Connect

    ZAMECNIK, JR

    2004-05-27

    In support of the design of the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant, the Savannah River Technology Center has conducted crossflow ultrafiltration tests on the bench scale with both a radioactive sample and simulants and at pilot scale with simulants. The waste tested was from Tank 241-AN-102, which underwent isotopic dilution with strontium nitrate to reduce the soluble (superscript 90)Sr concentration, and sodium permanganate precipitation to remove selected transuranic species. Experimental work validated the use of a simulant by comparison of bench scale simulant filtration data with radioactive filtration test data. Tests on a pilot scale were also conducted and showed that the filtration flux in the pilot unit was consistently lower than in the bench scale unit. An alternative precipitation method resulted in less filterable slurries. Several possible explanations for the differences in flux were proposed, including differences in particle size distribution and slurry viscosity (th e term viscosity will be used, although consistency is more correct for non-Newtonian fluids). The experimental data was also fit to an empirical model and several filtration models. The trends in the data generally followed the predictions of the filtration models. Differences in flux between the bench and pilot scales could not be accounted for by the calculated difference in the average wall shear stress.

  16. Pilot-Scale Testing of In Situ Vitrification of Arnold Engineering Development Center Site 10 Contaminated Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Timmerman, C. L.; Peterson, M. E.

    1990-02-01

    Process verification testing using in situ vitrification (ISV) was successfully performed in a pilot-scale test using soils containing fuel oils and heavy metals from Site 10 Installation Restoration Program (IRP) at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) located in the southern portion of middle Tennessee. This effort was directed through the U.S. Department of Energy ' s Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program (HAZWRAP) Office managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that converts contaminated soils and wastes into a durable product containing glass and crystalline phases. During processing, heavy metals or other inorganic constituents are retained and immobilized in the glass structure; organic constituents are typically destroyed or removed and captured by the off-gas treatment system. The objective of this test is to verify the applicability of the ISV process for stabilization of the contaminated soil at Site 10 . The pilotscale ISV testing results, reported herein, indicate that the AEDC Site 10 Fire Training Area may be successfully processed by ISV. Site 10 is a fire training pit that is contaminated with fuel oils and heavy metals from fire training exercises. Actual site material was processed by ISV to verify its feasible application to those soils . Initial feasibility bench-scale testing and analyses of the soils determined that a lower-melting, electrically conductive fluxing additive (such as sodium carbonate) is required as an additive to the soil for ISV processing to work effecti vely. The actual Site 10 soils showed a larger degree of compositional variation than the soil used for the bench-scale test . This variation dictates that each vitrification setting should be analyzed to determine the composition as. a function of depth and location . This data will dictate the amount (if any) of fluxing add itives of sodium and calci um to bring the melt composition to the recommended

  17. Modeling organic matter and nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater in a pilot-scale vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab; Quiñones-Bolaños, Edgar; Castro-Faccetti, Claudia Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have become an attractive alternative for wastewater treatment. However, there is not a globally accepted mathematical model to predict their performance. In this study, the VS2DTI software was used to predict the effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total nitrogen (TN) in a pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) treating domestic wastewater. After a 5-week adaptation period, the pilot system was monitored for another 6 weeks. Experiments were conducted at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) in the range of 2-4 days with Typha latifolia as the vegetation. The raw wastewater concentrations ranged between 144-430 and 122-283 mg L(-1) for BOD5 and TN, respectively. A first-order kinetic model coupled with the advection/dispersion and Richards' equations was proposed to predict the removal rates of BOD5 and TN from domestic wastewater. Two main physical processes were modeled in this study, porous material water flow and solute transport through the different layers of the VFCW to simulate the constructed wetland (CW) conditions. The model was calibrated based on the BOD5 and TN degradation constants. The model indicated that most of BOD and TN (88 and 92%, respectively) were removed through biological activity followed by adsorption. It was also observed that the evapotranspiration was seen to have a smaller impact. An additional data series of effluent BOD and TN was used for model validation. The residual analysis of the calibrated model showed a relatively random pattern, indicating a decent fit. Thus, the VS2DTI was found to be a useful tool for CW simulation.

  18. Characterization and modelling of the heat transfers in a pilot-scale reactor during composting under forced aeration.

    PubMed

    de Guardia, A; Petiot, C; Benoist, J C; Druilhe, C

    2012-06-01

    The paper focused on the modelling of the heat transfers during composting in a pilot-scale reactor under forced aeration. The model took into account the heat production and the transfers by evaporation, convection between material and gas crossing the material, conduction and surface convection between gas and material in bottom and upper parts of the reactor. The model was adjusted thanks to the measurements practised during fifteen composting experiments in which five organic wastes were, each, composted under three constant aeration rates. Heat production was considered proportional to oxygen consumption rate and the enthalpy per mole oxygen consumed was assumed constant. The convective heat transfer coefficients were determined on basis of the continuous measurements of the temperatures of both the lid and the bottom part of the reactor. The model allowed a satisfying prediction of the temperature of the composting material. In most cases, the mean absolute discard between the experimental and the simulated temperatures was inferior to 2.5°C and the peaks of temperature occurred with less than 8h delay. For the half of the experiments the temperature discard between the simulated peak and the experimental one was inferior to 5°C. On basis of the calculation of a stoichiometric production of water through oxidation of the biodegradable organic matter, the simulation of water going out from material as vapour also allowed a rather satisfying prediction of the mass of water in final mixture. The influence of the aeration rate on every type of heat loss was characterized. Finally, the model was used to evaluate the impacts on material temperature caused by the change of the insulation thickness, the ambient temperature, take the lid away, the increase or the decrease of the mass of waste to compost.

  19. Sequential treatment of diluted olive pomace leachate by digestion in a pilot scale UASB reactor and BDD electrochemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Katsoni, Alphathanasia; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2014-06-15

    The efficiency of the anaerobic treatment of olive pomace leachate (OPL) at mesophilic conditions was investigated. Daily and cumulative biogas production was measured during the operational period. The maximum biogas flowrate was 65 L/d, of which 50% was methane. In addition, the applicability of electrochemical oxidation as an advanced post-treatment method for the complete removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the anaerobically treated OPL was evaluated. The diluted OPL, having a pH of 6.5 and a total COD of 5 g/L, was first treated in a 600 L, pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated for 71 days at mesophilic conditions (32 ± 2 °C) in a temperature-controlled environment at a hydraulic retention time of 3 days, and organic loading rates (OLR) between 0.33 and 1.67 g COD/(L.d). The UASB process led to a COD removal efficiency between 35 and 70%, while the particulate matter of the wastewater was effectively removed by entrapment in the sludge blanket of the reactor. When the anaerobic reactor effluent was post-treated over a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode at 18 A and in the presence of 0.17% NaCl as the supporting electrolyte, complete removal of COD was attained after 7 h of treatment predominantly through total oxidation reactions. During electrochemical experiments, three groups of organo-chlorinated compounds, namely trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and haloketons (HKs), as well as 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) and chloropicrin were identified as by-products of the process; these, along with the residual chlorine are thought to increase the matrix ecotoxicity to Artemia salina.

  20. Impacts of Residual Surfactant on Tetrachloroethene (PCE) Degradation Following Pilot-Scale SEAR Treatment at a Chloroethene-Impacted Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsburg, C. A.; Abriola, L. M.; Pennell, K. D.; Löffler, F. E.; Gamache, M.; Petrovskis, E. A.

    2003-04-01

    A pilot-scale surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) demonstration was completed during the summer of 2000 at the Bachman Road site (Oscoda, MI USA). For this test, an aqueous solution of 60 g/L Tween 80 (polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate) was used to recover tetrachloroethene (PCE) from a suspected source zone, located underneath a former dry-cleaning facility. Tween 80 was selected for use based upon its demonstrated capacity to solubilize PCE, “food-grade” status, and biodegradative potential. Hydraulic control was maintained throughout the test, with 95% of the injected surfactant mass recovered by a single extraction well. Source-zone monitoring conducted 15 months after SEAR treatment revealed the presence of previously undetected volatile fatty acids (acetate and formate) and PCE degradation products (trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, trans-1,2-dichlorethene, and vinyl chloride), in conjunction with PCE concentration reductions of approximately two orders-of-magnitude. The detection of volatile fatty acids is relevant, as they are likely fermentation products of residual Tween 80. Microbial reductive dechlorination is limited by available electron donors, and microcosm studies demonstrated that both acetate and formate support reductively dechlorinating populations present at the oligotrophic Bachman Road site aquifer. Surfactant transport simulations, using a regional flow model developed for the site, were employed to determine appropriate down-gradient monitoring locations. Drive point samples taken 15 months post-treatment in the vicinity of the simulated residual surfactant plume, contained elevated concentrations of acetate and PCE daughter products. Ongoing efforts include continued site-monitoring, and microcosm studies to corroborate a causal relationship between Tween 80 fermentation and PCE dechlorination.

  1. Pilot-scale culture of Hypericum perforatum L. adventitious roots in airlift bioreactors for the production of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xi-Hua; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2014-09-01

    Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's Wort) is an important medicinal plant which is widely used in the treatment for depression and irritable bowel syndrome. It is also used as a dietary supplement. Major bioactive phytochemicals of H. perforatum are phenolics and flavonoids. Quality of these phytochemicals is dramatically influenced by environmental and biological factors in the field grown plants. As an alternative, we have developed adventitious root cultures in large-scale bioreactors for the production of useful phytochemicals. Adventitious roots of H. perforatum were cultured in 500 l pilot-scale airlift bioreactors using half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with an ammonium and nitrate ratio of 5:25 mM and supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) indole butyric acid, 0.1 mg l(-1) kinetin, and 3 % sucrose for the production of bioactive phenolics and flavonoids. Then 4.6 and 6.3 kg dry biomass were realized in the 500 l each of drum-type and balloon-type bioreactors, respectively. Accumulation of 66.9 mg g(-1) DW of total phenolics, 48.6 mg g(-1) DW of total flavonoids, 1.3 mg g(-1) DW of chlorogenic acid, 0.01 mg g(-1) DW of hyperin, 0.04 mg g(-1) DW of hypericin, and 0.01 mg g(-1) DW of quercetin could be achieved with adventitious roots cultured in 500 l balloon-type airlift bioreactors. Our findings demonstrate the possibilities of using H. perforatum adventitious root cultures for the production of useful phytochemicals to meet the demand of pharmaceutical and food industry.

  2. Effectiveness of bulking agents for co-composting penicillin mycelial dreg (PMD) and sewage sludge in pilot-scale system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihua; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Qinxue; Yang, Lian; Wang, Wenyan; Zheng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Penicillin mycelial dreg (PMD) has a distinguishing characteristic of the high content of penicillin residue and nutrients. The existing handling of PMD used as feed additive of livestock and poultry is facing a direct challenge of penicillin transportation into environment due to the inadequate absorption through the digestive system. This work aims at examining the feasibility of co-composting of PMD with sewage sludge (SWS) in a pilot-scale system and evaluating the effect of four bulking agents. Seven treatments were co-composted over a 32-day period in 390-L reactors using the same PMD and SWS with different bulking agents, corresponding to the seven formulas (T-1: PMD + SWS + RS; T-2: PMD + SWS + WS; T-3: PMD + SWS + RS + SD; T-4: PMD + SWS + WS + SD; T-5: PMD + SWS + SD; T-6: PMD + SWS + RS + WS; control: PMD + SWS). The parameters monitored over this period included temperature, organic matter (OM), TN, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, pH, EC, penicillin residue, as well as germination index (GI). The results showed that co-composting PMD and SWS with BA is feasible. The highest rate of OM mineralization was observed in T-3, while below 30% for T-2, T-4, and T-5. Furthermore, the SD addition resulted in both the increase in the duration of thermophilic stage and maximum temperature and the decrease in TN losses, particularly in T-3, suggesting that the formula of the T-3 is very suitable option for the co-composting of PMD and SWS.

  3. Microbial community response to a release of neat ethanol onto residual hydrocarbons in a pilot-scale aquifer tank.

    PubMed

    Cápiro, Natalie L; Da Silva, Marcio L B; Stafford, Brent P; Rixey, William G; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2008-09-01

    The microbial community response to a neat ethanol release (E100, 76 l) onto residual hydrocarbons in sandy soil was evaluated in a continuous-flow 8 m(3) pilot-scale aquifer tank, simulating a release at a bulk fuel terminal. Microbial genotypic shifts were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. High ethanol concentrations in the capillary fringe at potentially toxic levels, exceeding 100,000 mg l(-1), were tolerated by the microbial community. The high biochemical oxygen demand exerted by ethanol rapidly induced anaerobic conditions, and both methane production (up to 1.2 mg l(-1)) and growth of putative methanogenic Archaea (up to 10(6) gene copies per g of soil) were observed in shallow groundwater and soil samples 75 cm down gradient from the source. Aerobic conditions returned after ethanol was flushed out of the system, approximately 45 days after the spill (less than 7.5 pore volumes flushed). Total Bacteria growth coincided with ethanol migration and availability, which was restricted to a relatively thin layer at the capillary fringe and water table interface. The concentrations of bacteria harbouring the aerobic catabolic genes dmpN (coding for phenol hydroxylase) and to dC1 (coding for toluene dioxygenase) increased (up to 100x) down gradient from the source, likely as a result of both fortuitous growth on ethanol and on aromatic hydrocarbons mobilized by ethanol. Growth of hydrocarbon degraders was corroborated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showing proliferation of Azospirillum and Brevundimonas spp., which are bacteria commonly associated with microaerophilic hydrocarbon degradation. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of hydrocarbon-specific degraders (as a fraction of total Bacteria) decreased as other bacteria grew to a higher extent. Overall, the observed growth of hydrocarbon degraders suggests a potential enhancement in aerobic natural attenuation in shallow aquifers after ethanol and its degradation by

  4. Model-based design of a pilot-scale simulated moving bed for purification of citric acid from fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinglan; Peng, Qijun; Arlt, Wolfgang; Minceva, Mirjana

    2009-12-11

    One of the conventional processes used for the recovery of citric acid from its fermentation broth is environmentally harmful and cost intensive. In this work an innovative benign process, which comprises simulated moving bed (SMB) technology and use of a tailor-made tertiary poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) resin as a stationary phase is proposed. This paper focuses on a model-based design of the operation conditions for an existing pilot-scale SMB plant. The SMB unit is modeled on the basis of experimentally determined hydrodynamics, thermodynamics and mass transfer characteristics in a single chromatographic column. Three mathematical models are applied and validated for the prediction of the experimentally attained breakthrough and elution profiles of citric acid and the main impurity component (glucose). The transport dispersive model was selected for the SMB simulation and design studies, since it gives a satisfactory prediction of the elution profiles within acceptable computational time. The equivalent true moving bed (TMB) and SMB models give a good prediction of the experimentally attained SMB separation performances, obtained with a real clarified and concentrated fermentation broth as a feed mixture. The SMB separation requirements are set to at least 99.8% citric acid purity and 90% citric acid recovery in the extract stream. The complete regeneration in sections 1 and 4 is unnecessary. Therefore the net flow rates in all four SMB sections have been considered in the unit design. The influences of the operating conditions (the flow rate in each section, switching time and unit configuration) on the SMB performances were investigated systematically. The resulting SMB design provides 99.8% citric acid purity and 97.2% citric acid recovery in the extract. In addition the citric acid concentration in the extract is a half of its concentration in the pretreated fermentation broth (feed).

  5. Chloramines in a pilot-scale water distribution system: Transformation of 17β-estradiol and formation of disinfection byproducts.

    PubMed

    He, Guilin; Li, Cong; Dong, Feilong; Zhang, Tuqiao; Chen, Long; Cizmas, Leslie; Sharma, Virender K

    2016-12-01

    The degradation and transformation products of 17β-estradiol (E2) by chloramines in a pilot-scale water distribution system (WDS) were investigated using varying conditions including multiple mass ratios of chlorine to nitrogen (Cl/N), changing concentrations of chloramines, and different pH and pipe materials. The degradation of E2 was complete in ≤9 h in both deionized water (DW) and in the WDS under studied conditions. When the degradation rate of E2 was compared in WDS and DW, the degradation rate was appreciably greater in the WDS than in the DW at Cl/N mass ratios of 3, 4 and 6. However, at Cl/N mass ratios of 8 and 9, degradation was faster in the DW than in the WDS. The degradation rate of E2 was greatly affected by the initial total chloramine concentration, and the degradation of E2 in DW was consistent with second-order kinetics. The degradation rate of E2 in both the DW and the WDS increased with increasing pH. The order of degradation rate of E2in different pipes was: ductile iron loop (loop A) > polyethylene (PE) loop (loop B)> stainless steel loop (loop C). Ten specific degradation products of E2, produced by chloramination, were identified. Most of the degradation products of E2 chloramination were stable for more than 10 h. The degradation pathways of E2 in the WDS are proposed and briefly discussed. The concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and halogenated nitromethane (HNMs) during the degradation E2 in WDS were also determined.

  6. Evaluating algal growth performance and water use efficiency of pilot-scale revolving algal biofilm (RAB) culture systems.

    PubMed

    Gross, Martin; Mascarenhas, Vernon; Wen, Zhiyou

    2015-10-01

    A Revolving Algal Biofilm (RAB) growth system in which algal cells are attached to a flexible material rotating between liquid and gas phases has been developed. In this work, different configurations of RAB systems were developed at pilot-scale by retrofitting the attachment materials to a raceway pond (2000-L with 8.5 m(2) footprint area) and a trough reservoir (150 L with 3.5 m(2) footprint area). The algal growth performance and chemical composition, as well as the water evaporative loss and specific water consumption were evaluated over a period of nine months in a greenhouse environment near Boone, Iowa USA. Additionally a raceway pond was run in parallel, which served as a control. On average the raceway-based RAB and the trough-based RAB outperformed the control pond by 309% and 697%, respectively. A maximum productivity of 46.8 g m(-2) day(-1) was achieved on the trough-based RAB system. The evaporative water loss of the RAB system was modeled based on an energy balance analysis and was experimentally validated. While the RAB system, particularly the trough-based RAB, had higher water evaporative loss, the specific water consumption per unit of biomass produced was only 26% (raceway-based RAB) and 7% (trough-based RAB) of that of the control pond. Collectively, this research shows that the RAB system is an efficient algal culture system and has great potential to commercially produce microalgae with high productivity and efficient water use.

  7. Functional maintenance and structural flexibility of microbial communities perturbed by simulated intense rainfall in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    Intense rainfall is one of the most serious and common natural events, causing the excessive inflow of rainwater into wastewater treatment plants. However, little is known about the impacts of rainwater dilution on the structure and function of the sludge microorganisms. Here, high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes was implemented to describe the microbial community dynamics during the simulated intense rainfall situation (event i) in which approximately 45 % of the sludge biomass was artificially overflowed by massive water supply in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor. Thereafter, we investigated the functional and structural responses of the perturbed microbial communities to subsequent conditional changes, i.e., an increase in organic loading rate from 225 to 450 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) l(-1) day(-1) (event ii) and an addition of a microbiota activator (event iii). Due to the event i, the COD removal declined to 78.2 %. This deterioration coincided with the decreased microbial diversity and the proliferation of the oligotrophic Aquabacterium sp. During the succeeding events ii and iii, the sludge biomass increased and the COD removal became higher (86.5-97.4 %). With the apparent recovery of the reactor performance, microbial communities became diversified and the compositions dynamically changed. Notably, various bacterial micropredators were highly enriched under the successive conditions, most likely being involved in the flexible reorganization of microbial communities. These results indicate that the activated sludge harbored functionally redundant microorganisms that were able to thrive and proliferate along with the conditional changes, thereby contributing to the functional maintenance of the membrane bioreactor.

  8. Emissions from carpet combustion in a pilot-scale rotary kiln: comparison with coal and particle-board combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanie Lucero Konopa; James A. Mulholland; Matthew J. Realff; Paul M. Lemieux

    2008-08-15

    The use of post-consumer carpet as a potential fuel substitute in cement kilns and other high-temperature processes is being considered to address the problem of huge volumes of carpet waste and the opportunity of waste-to-energy recovery. Carpet represents a high volume waste stream, provides high energy value, and contains other recoverable materials for the production of cement. This research studied the emission characteristics of burning 0.46-kg charges of chopped nylon carpet squares, pulverized coal, and particle-board pellets in a pilot-scale natural gas-fired rotary kiln. Carpet was tested with different amounts of water added. Emissions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons and temperatures were continuously monitored. It was found that carpet burned faster and more completely than coal and particle board, with a rapid volatile release that resulted in large and variable transient emission peaks. NO emissions from carpet combustion ranged from 0.06 to 0.15 g/MJ and were inversely related to CO emissions. Carpet combustion yielded higher NO emissions than coal and particleboard combustion, consistent with its higher nitrogen content. S{sub 2} emissions were highest for coal combustion, consistent with its higher sulfur content than carpet or particle board. Adding water to carpet slowed its burn time and reduced variability in the emission transients, reducing the CO peak but increasing NO emissions. Results of this study indicate that carpet waste can be used as an effective alternative fuel, with the caveats that it might be necessary to wet carpet or chop it finely to avoid excessive transient puff emissions due to its high volatility compared with other solid fuels, and that controlled mixing of combustion air might be used to control NO emissions from nylon carpet. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Emissions from carpet combustion in a pilot-scale rotary kiln: comparison with coal and particle-board combustion.

    PubMed

    Konopa, Stephanie Lucero; Mulholland, James A; Realff, Matthew J; Lemieux, Paul M

    2008-08-01

    The use of post-consumer carpet as a potential fuel substitute in cement kilns and other high-temperature processes is being considered to address the problem of huge volumes of carpet waste and the opportunity of waste-to-energy recovery. Carpet represents a high volume waste stream, provides high energy value, and contains other recoverable materials for the production of cement. This research studied the emission characteristics of burning 0.46-kg charges of chopped nylon carpet squares, pulverized coal, and particle-board pellets in a pilot-scale natural gas-fired rotary kiln. Carpet was tested with different amounts of water added. Emissions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons and temperatures were continuously monitored. It was found that carpet burned faster and more completely than coal and particle board, with a rapid volatile release that resulted in large and variable transient emission peaks. NO emissions from carpet combustion ranged from 0.06 to 0.15 g/MJ and were inversely related to CO emissions. Carpet combustion yielded higher NO emissions than coal and particle-board combustion, consistent with its higher nitrogen content. SO2 emissions were highest for coal combustion, consistent with its higher sulfur content than carpet or particle board. Adding water to carpet slowed its burn time and reduced variability in the emission transients, reducing the CO peak but increasing NO emissions. Results of this study indicate that carpet waste can be used as an effective alternative fuel, with the caveats that it might be necessary to wet carpet or chop it finely to avoid excessive transient puff emissions due to its high volatility compared with other solid fuels, and that controlled mixing of combustion air might be used to control NO emissions from nylon carpet.

  10. Reduction of phosphorus, nitrogen and microorganisms in pilot scale sand filter beds containing biotite, treating primary wastewater.

    PubMed

    Matikka, Ville; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2016-01-01

    In sparsely populated areas, sand filter beds play an important role in wastewater treatment. As the need to improve the removal of nutrients increases, reactive filter materials represent one potential way to improve the reliability of current systems. We tested a pilot-scale multi-layer biotite filter for its ability to remove phosphorus, nitrogen, organic matter and enteric microorganisms with the importance of each layer in a multi-layer biotite filter being examined. In the experimental setup, the filters were fed with a raw wastewater influent mimicking the usual daily rhythm of water consumption and the reduction effects of the variable loads were examined during the experiment time of 54 weeks. It was observed that the reduction efficiency of the phosphorus was good (87%) during normal and under loading sequences but the reduction achieved for nitrogen was poor (27%). During and after overloading sequences, the phosphorus reduction was poor (46.5%) whereas the nitrogen reduction improved (to 66.7%). The reduction of organic matter was good during all sequences. The reductions of enteric microorganisms were at a level of 2-3 log10 units already after a single sand layer. For Escherichia coli, reductions of more than 5 log10 units were found after the wastewater had passed through a multilayer biotite filter during all sequences. It is concluded that the inclusion of a biotite layer improves the reliability of the filter bed. However, the proper scaling of the unit is essential in order to guarantee that the filter remains in aerobic conditions.

  11. NO and N{sub 2}O emission characteristics from a pilot scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor firing different fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chien-Song Chyang; Fu-Ping Qian; Yen-Chin Lin; Sheng-Hong Yang

    2008-03-15

    This study investigated experimentally the effects of various operating conditions, such as bed temperature, excess air, fuel property, and the method of temperature control on NO and N{sub 2}O emissions. All the experiments are conducted in a pilot scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor (VFBC). The cross section of the combustion chamber is 0.64 x 0.32 m{sup 2}, and the inner diameter of the freeboard is 0.45 m. Rice husk, soybean, and high sulfur subbituminous coal are used as fuels. Silica sand is employed as the bed material. The experimental results reveal that NO emissions increase with excess air and are almost independent of the bed temperature (600-760{sup o}C). In addition, the amount of NO and N{sub 2}O increases while water is injected into the combustor. The high-volatile fuel appears to form a significant amount of NO and N{sub 2}O above the bed surface, However, NO emission detected at the outlet of the combustor decreases with the volatile content. Compared with the primary air, the bed temperature is the dominant factor for the trade off NO and N{sub 2}O. Most of the NO is formed above the bed surface, achieves a maximum value at the position below the inlet of second air, and is reduced considerably within the freeboard. Moreover, the most remarkable feature about them is that N{sub 2}O emission from combustion can be neglected no matter what the feeding material is. 39 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Monitoring Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in pilot-scale warehouses treated with residual applications of (S)-hydroprene and cyfluthrin.

    PubMed

    Toews, Michael D; Campbell, James F; Arthur, Franklin H; West, Mark

    2005-08-01

    Pilot-scale warehouses, artificially infested with all life stages of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), were used to evaluate the efficacy of two contact insecticides, (S)-hydroprene and cyfluthrin, and to determine the effect of insecticide treatments on insect captures in food- and pheromone-baited pitfall traps. Two application strategies were compared; insecticides were applied at the labeled rate either around the inside perimeter of the warehouse or in a band around the base of shelf units containing discrete food patches (10 g of wheat flour) infested with T. castaneum. Insect populations were assessed weekly for 6 wk by recording number of dead adults on the warehouse floor; number of larvae and adults captured in pitfall traps; and number of larvae, pupae, and adults recovered from food patch samples. There were significantly more dead adults in warehouses treated with cyfluthrin than with (S)-hydroprene or water (control treatment). However, food patch samples showed no detectable differences in quantity of larvae, pupae, or adults among any treatments. Pitfall traps detected fewer larvae starting the fourth week of the study in the warehouses treated with cyfluthrin around the shelf perimeter. Rate of larval capture in traps increased overall with increasing larval populations, but it was more pronounced in traps located closer to the food patches. Number of adults captured in pitfall traps reflected adult mortality in cyfluthrin-treated warehouses. Capture of larvae and adults was greater near the source of the infestation than elsewhere in the warehouse, suggesting that trapping data should be considered when precision targeting insecticide applications in the field.

  13. Characterization and modelling of the heat transfers in a pilot-scale reactor during composting under forced aeration

    SciTech Connect

    Guardia, A. de; Petiot, C.; Benoist, J.C.; Druilhe, C.

    2012-06-15

    The paper focused on the modelling of the heat transfers during composting in a pilot-scale reactor under forced aeration. The model took into account the heat production and the transfers by evaporation, convection between material and gas crossing the material, conduction and surface convection between gas and material in bottom and upper parts of the reactor. The model was adjusted thanks to the measurements practised during fifteen composting experiments in which five organic wastes were, each, composted under three constant aeration rates. Heat production was considered proportional to oxygen consumption rate and the enthalpy per mole oxygen consumed was assumed constant. The convective heat transfer coefficients were determined on basis of the continuous measurements of the temperatures of both the lid and the bottom part of the reactor. The model allowed a satisfying prediction of the temperature of the composting material. In most cases, the mean absolute discard between the experimental and the simulated temperatures was inferior to 2.5 Degree-Sign C and the peaks of temperature occurred with less than 8 h delay. For the half of the experiments the temperature discard between the simulated peak and the experimental one was inferior to 5 Degree-Sign C. On basis of the calculation of a stoichiometric production of water through oxidation of the biodegradable organic matter, the simulation of water going out from material as vapour also allowed a rather satisfying prediction of the mass of water in final mixture. The influence of the aeration rate on every type of heat loss was characterized. Finally, the model was used to evaluate the impacts on material temperature caused by the change of the insulation thickness, the ambient temperature, take the lid away, the increase or the decrease of the mass of waste to compost.

  14. Dynamic Simulation of Pilot Scale CO2 Injection in the Arbuckle Saline Aquifer at Wellington Field in Southern Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holubnyak, Y.; Watney, W. L.; Rush, J.; Birdie, T. R.; Fazelalavi, M.; Raney, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Arbuckle Group saline aquifer is a thick (>800 ft) and deeply buried (>3,500 ft) siliceous dolomite with interbedded shales. This aquifer is part of the Paleozoic-age Ozark Plateau Aquifer System (OPAS) in southern Kansas. It is identified as an excellent candidate for geological CO2 storage due to its location and proximity to major CO2 emission sources, high storage capacity potential, and multiple overlying sealing units, which can ensure safe CO2 storage for the long term. A DOE sponsored pilot-scale project has been funded in which 40,000 metric tons of CO2 from a nearby biofuel plant will be injected in the lower part of the Arbuckle reservoir over a period of 9 months at Wellington field in Sumner County, KS. This work focuses on development of various dynamic simulation scenarios in order to assess potential risks in support of the EPA class VI (CO2 sequestration) well permit application. The key objective is to estimate the resulting rise in pore fluid pressure, the extent of CO2 plume migration, and geomechanical and geochemical stability of the formation rock and any structural features that may be present. The over arching goal for the EPA is to ensure that the injected CO2 does not negatively impact the underground sources of drinking water in the area. A detailed geocellular model of the Arbuckle reservoir was produced based on the existing well-logs, seismic data, drill stem tests, step rate test, core analysis, and geochemical evaluations. The data from this modeled was upscaled to the CMG-based dual-permeability compositional model. Base case and alternative dynamic model simulations were conducted by varying key reservoir properties of the formation fluids, rock, and structural features.

  15. Assessing the role of feed water constituents in irreversible membrane fouling of pilot-scale ultrafiltration drinking water treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Peiris, R H; Jaklewicz, M; Budman, H; Legge, R L; Moresoli, C

    2013-06-15

    Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) approach together with principal component analysis (PCA) was used for assessing hydraulically irreversible fouling of three pilot-scale ultrafiltration (UF) systems containing full-scale and bench-scale hollow fiber membrane modules in drinking water treatment. These systems were operated for at least three months with extensive cycles of permeation, combination of back-pulsing and scouring and chemical cleaning. The principal component (PC) scores generated from the PCA of the fluorescence EEMs were found to be related to humic substances (HS), protein-like and colloidal/particulate matter content. PC scores of HS- and protein-like matter of the UF feed water, when considered separately, showed reasonably good correlations with the rate of hydraulically irreversible fouling for long-term UF operations. In contrast, comparatively weaker correlations for PC scores of colloidal/particulate matter and the rate of hydraulically irreversible fouling were obtained for all UF systems. Since, individual correlations could not fully explain the evolution of the rate of irreversible fouling, multi-linear regression models were developed to relate the combined effect of HS-like, protein-like and colloidal/particulate matter PC scores to the rate of hydraulically irreversible fouling for each specific UF system. These multi-linear regression models revealed significant individual and combined contribution of HS- and protein-like matter to the rate of hydraulically irreversible fouling, with protein-like matter generally showing the greatest contribution. The contribution of colloidal/particulate matter to the rate of hydraulically irreversible fouling was not as significant. The addition of polyaluminum chloride, as coagulant, to UF feed appeared to have a positive impact in reducing hydraulically irreversible fouling by these constituents. The proposed approach has applications in quantifying the individual and synergistic

  16. Removal of steroid estrogens from municipal wastewater in a pilot scale expanded granular sludge blanket reactor and anaerobic membrane bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Ayumi; Mensah, Lawson; Cartmell, Elise; Lester, John N.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater offers the prospect of a new paradigm by reducing aeration costs and minimizing sludge production. It has been successfully applied in warm climates, but does not always achieve the desired outcomes in temperate climates at the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values of municipal crude wastewater. Recently the concept of ‘fortification' has been proposed to increase organic strength and has been demonstrated at the laboratory and pilot scale treating municipal wastewater at temperatures of 10–17°C. The process treats a proportion of the flow anaerobically by combining it with primary sludge from the residual flow and then polishing it to a high effluent standard aerobically. Energy consumption is reduced as is sludge production. However, no new treatment process is viable if it only addresses the problems of traditional pollutants (suspended solids – SS, BOD, nitrogen – N and phosphorus – P); it must also treat hazardous substances. This study compared three potential municipal anaerobic treatment regimes, crude wastewater in an expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) reactor, fortified crude wastewater in an EGSB and crude wastewater in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor. The benefits of fortification were demonstrated for the removal of SS, BOD, N and P. These three systems were further challenged with the removal of steroid estrogens at environmental concentrations from natural indigenous sources. All three systems removed these compounds to a significant degree, confirming that estrogen removal is not restricted to highly aerobic autotrophs, or aerobic heterotrophs, but is also a faculty of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:26212345

  17. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2014-09-15

    Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15°C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day(-1) in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day(-1) in slurry bioreactors for C16-C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction were comparable in these two systems.

  18. Pilot-Scale Pulsed UV Light Irradiation of Experimentally Infected Raspberries Suppresses Cryptosporidium parvum Infectivity in Immunocompetent Suckling Mice.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, L; Hubert, B; Favennec, L; Villena, I; Ballet, J J; Agoulon, A; Orange, N; Gargala, G

    2015-12-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., a significant cause of foodborne infection, have been shown to be resistant to most chemical food disinfectant agents and infective for weeks in irrigation waters and stored fresh vegetal produce. Pulsed UV light (PL) has the potential to inactivate Cryptosporidium spp. on surfaces of raw or minimally processed foods or both. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PL on viability and in vivo infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts present on raspberries, a known source of transmission to humans of oocyst-forming apicomplexan pathogens. The skin of each of 20 raspberries was experimentally inoculated with five 10-μl spots of an oocyst suspension containing 6 × 10(7) oocysts per ml (Nouzilly isolate). Raspberries were irradiated by PL flashes (4 J/cm(2) of total fluence). This dose did not affect colorimetric or organoleptic characteristics of fruits. After immunomagnetic separation from raspberries, oocysts were bleached and administered orally to neonatal suckling mice. Seven days after infection, mice were euthanized, and the number of oocysts in the entire small intestine was individually assessed by immunofluorescence flow cytometry. Three of 12 and 12 of 12 inoculated mice that received 10 and 100 oocysts isolated from nonirradiated raspberries, respectively, were found infected. Four of 12 and 2 of 12 inoculated mice that received 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts from irradiated raspberries, respectively, were found infected. Oocyst counts were lower in animals inoculated with 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts from irradiated raspberries (92 ± 144 and 38 ± 82, respectively) than in animals infected with 100 oocysts from nonirradiated raspberries (35,785 ± 66,221, P = 0.008). PL irradiation achieved oocyst reductions of 2 and 3 log for an inoculum of 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts, respectively. The present pilot-scale evaluation suggests that PL is an effective mode of decontamination for raspberries and prompts further applicability

  19. Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Honaker, R.Q.; Ding, Y.

    1997-05-01

    The primary goal of the ongoing ICCI coal preparation research project is to reduce ash and sulfur content in coal by using fine grinding and other coal cleaning processes. The ultrafine coal particles that result from the grinding and cleaning operations are difficult to dewater, and create problems in their storage, handling and transportation. The objective of this research is to combine the dewatering and briquetting processes of fine coal preparation into a single stage operation, thereby enhancing the economic viability of utilizing fine coal. A bitumen based emulsion, Orimulsion, has proven to be an effective hydrophobic binder, which helps not only with the briquetting process but also in the expulsion of water from the coal. Encouraging results from the use of a ram extruder briquetting device led to experimentation in the production of briquettes using a lab scale roll briquetting device. In the first quarter of this reporting year, a commercially available lab scale roll briquetting machine was employed (Komarek B-100). Further testing was conducted for the rest of the year with the use of a pilot scale model (Komarek B220-A). Briquettes were produced and evaluated by comparing results developed by adjusting various parameters of the briquetting machines and feed material. Results further substantiate previous findings that curing time dictates both moisture content and strengths of briquettes, and slower roll speeds produce more robust briquettes. A statistical model was set up to determine the optimal range of operating parameters. The statistical model generated from these results provided basic relationships between the roll speed and briquette form pressure.

  20. Pilot Scale Single Stage Fine Coal Dewatering and Briquetting Process. Technical report, March 1, 1996 - May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Honaker, R.Q.; Ding, Y.; Ho, K.

    1996-12-31

    The primary goal for this ICCI coal research project is to effectively liberate coal from fnely disseminated minerals for Illinois Basin coal by using fine grinding and cleaning processes. However, because of the large surface area generated during the cleaning processes, it is difficult and uneconomic for conventional techniques to dewater the coal fines. In addition, these coal fine pose transportation, storage and handling problems at cleaning and utility facilities. The objective of this research is to combine dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation that will solve the problems mentioned above. To build on the promising results obtained from the previous studies, a pilot scale commercial briquetting machine was used to evaluate this technique. The primary objective of the research in this reporting period is to determine the effectiveness of a single stage dewatering and briquetting technique using a commercial briquetting device. Two types of samples were prepared and the results of the -28 x 100 mesh samples are presented in this report. Modifications were made to the machine in an attempt to solve the back drainage problem. A total of six experiments were conducted and the results indicate that water resistance of coal briquettes increased as curing time increased. However, due to a deficiency of fine particles to bridge the gaps between the coarse particles, the wear resistance of the products declined. Also, at high roll speeds and compaction pressures, the coal briquettes produced tended to have higher moisture content and lower strength. On the other hand, at high feed rates, because of the screw extrusion effect, coal briquettes were produced with lower moisture content and higher strengths.

  1. Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Ding, Y.; Honaker, R.Q.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of the current coal preparation research is to reduce the ash and sulfur content from coal, using fine grinding and various coal cleaning processes to separate finely disseminated mineral matter and pyrite from coal. Small coal particles are produced by the grinding operation, thus the ultrafine coal becomes very difficult to dewater. In addition, the ultrafine coal also creates problems during its transportation, storage and handling at utility plants. The current research is seeking to combine ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation, using hydrophobic binders as coal dewatering and binding reagents with the help of a compaction device. From previous tests, it has been found that coal pellets with a moisture content of less than 15% and good wear and water resistance can be successfully fabricated at pressures of less than 6,000 psi using a lab scale ram extruder. The primary objective of the research described in this quarter has been to extend the lab scale ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting process into a pilot scale operation, based on the test data obtained from earlier research. A standard roller briquetting machine was used to dewater fine coal-binder mixtures during the briquetting process. The operating parameters, including moisture content of feed, feed rate, and roller speed, were evaluated on the basis of the performance of the briquettes. Briquettes fabricated at rates of up to 108 pellets per minute exhibited satisfactory water and wear resistance, i.e., less than 7.5% cured moisture and less than 8.3% weight loss after 6 min. of tumbling. Also, coal-binder samples with moisture contents of 40 percent have been successfully dewatered and briquetted. Briquetting of fine coal was possible under current feeding conditions, however, a better feeding system must be designed to further improve the quality of dewatered coal briquettes.

  2. Phytoremediation of sulfonated Remazol Red dye and textile effluents by Alternanthera philoxeroides: An anatomical, enzymatic and pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Rane, Niraj R; Chandanshive, Vishal V; Watharkar, Anuprita D; Khandare, Rahul V; Patil, Tejas S; Pawar, Pankaj K; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2015-10-15

    Alternanthera philoxeroides Griseb. a macrophyte was found to degrade a highly sulfonated textile dye Remazol Red (RR) completely within 72 h at a concentration of 70 mg L(-1). An induction in the activities of azoreductase and riboflavin reductase was observed in root and stem tissues; while the activities of lignin peroxidase, laccase and DCIP reductase were induced in leaf tissues. Some enzymes namely tyrosinase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase displayed an increase in their activity in all the tissues in response of 72 h exposure to Remazol Red. There was a marginal reduction in contents of chlorophyll a (20%), chlorophyll b (5%) and carotenoids (16%) in the leaves when compared to control plants. A detailed anatomical study of the stem during uptake and treatment revealed a stepwise mechanism of dye degradation. UV-vis spectrophotometric and high performance thin layer chromatographic analyses confirmed the removal of parent dye from solution. Based on the enzymes activities and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopic analysis of degradation products, a possible pathway of phytotransformation of RR was proposed which revealed the formation of 4-(phenylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-ol, naphthalene-1-ol and 3-(ethylsulfonyl)phenol. Toxicity study on Devario aequipinnatus fishes showed that the anatomy of gills of fishes exposed to A. philoxeroides treated RR was largely protected. The plants were further explored for rhizofiltration experiments in a pilot scale reactor. A. philoxeroides could decolorize textile industry effluent of varying pH within 96 h of treatment which was evident from the significant reductions in the values of American dye manufacturers' institute color, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total dissolved and total suspended solids.

  3. Pilot-scale investigation on the removal of organic foulants in secondary effluent by slow sand filtration prior to ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xing; Ernst, Mathias; Jekel, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Natural biofiltration processes have been verified as effective pre-treatment choice improving the performance of low-pressure membranes (MF/UF) in wastewater reclamation. In the present work, pilot-scale slow sand filtration (SSF) was used to simulate bank filtration at high filtration rates (from 0.25m/h to 0.5m/h) to filter secondary effluent prior to UF. The results showed that SSF improved the performance of UF to a large extent. Related to previous work biopolymers are considered as major dissolved organic foulants in treated wastewater. The removal of these organic foulants in slow sand filters and factors affecting the performance of SSF were investigated. It was observed that the removal of biopolymers took place mainly at the upper sand layer and was related to biological degradation. Tests on the degradability of biopolymers verified that they are biodegradable. Sixteen months monitoring of biopolymer concentration in the secondary effluent indicated that it varied seasonally. In winter season the concentration was much higher than during the summer months. Higher temperature and lower biopolymer concentration led to more effective foulants removal and more sustainable operation of SSF. During the whole experimental period, the performance of SSF was always better at filtration rate of 0.25m/h than at 0.5m/h. Under the present experimental conditions, SSF exhibited stable and effective biopolymer removal at temperatures higher than 15 degrees C, at biopolymer concentrations lower than 0.5mg C/L and with sufficient oxygen available.

  4. Pilot scale treatment of chromite ore processing residue using sodium sulfide in single reduction and coupled reduction/stabilization processes.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Antonio; Ramírez, Martha; Hernández, Sergio; Schmidt, Winfried; Revah, Sergio

    2012-03-15

    Single Cr(VI) reduction and coupled reduction/stabilization (R/S) processes were evaluated at pilot scale to determine their effectiveness to treat chromite ore processing residue (COPR). Sodium sulfide was used as the reducing agent and cement, gypsum and lime were tested as the stabilizing agents. The pilot experiments were performed in a helical ribbon blender mixer with batches of 250 kg of COPR and mixing time up to 30 min. Na2S/Cr(VI) mass ratios of 4.6, 5.7 and 6.8 were evaluated in the single reduction process to treat COPR with Cr(VI) concentration of ≈4.2 g/kg. The R/S process was tested with a Na2S/Cr(VI) mass ratio of 5.7 and including stabilizing agents not exceeding 5% (w/w(COPR)), to treat COPR with a Cr(VI) content of ≈5.1g/kg. The single reduction process with a ratio of 6.8, reached Cr(VI) reduction efficiencies up to 97.6% in the first days, however these values decreased to around 93% after 380 days of storage. At this point the total Cr level was around 12.5 mg/L. Cr(VI) removal efficiencies exceeding 96.5% were reached and maintained during 380 days when the coupled R/S process was evaluated. Total Cr levels lower than 5 mg/l were attained at the initials days in all R/S batch tested, however after 380 days, concentrations below the regulatory limit were only found with gypsum (2%) as single agent and with a blend of cement (4%) and lime (1%). These results indicated that the coupled R/S process is an excellent alternative to stabilize COPR.

  5. The substitution of sand filtration by immersed-UF for surface water treatment: pilot-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Lihua, Sun; Xing, Li; Guoyu, Zhang; Jie, Chen; Zhe, Xu; Guibai, Li

    2009-01-01

    The newly issued National Drinking Water Standard required that turbidity should be lower than 1 NTU, and the substitution of sand filtration by immersed ultrafiltration (immersed-UF) is feasible to achieve the standard. This study aimed to optimise the operational processes (i.e. aeration, backwashing) through pilot scale studies, to control membrane fouling while treating the sedimentation effluent. Results indicated that the immersed-UF was promising to treat the sedimentation effluent. The turbidity was below 0.10 NTU, bacteria and E. coli were not detected in the permeate water. The intermittent filtration with aeration is beneficial to inhibit membrane fouling. The critical aeration intensity is observed to be 60.0 m(3) m(-2) h(-1). At this aeration intensity, the decline rate of permeate flux in one period of backwashing was 1.94% and 7.03% for intermittent filtration and sustained filtration respectively. The different membrane backwashing methods (i.e. aeration 1.5 min, synchronous aeration and water backwashing 2 min, water backwashing 1.5 min; synchronous aeration and water backwashing 3 min, water backwashing 2 min; aeration 3 min, single water backwashing 2 min; synchronous aeration and water backwashing 5 min; single water backwashing 5 min) on the recovery of permeate flux were compared, indicating that the synchronous aeration and water backwashing exhibited best potential for permeate flux recovery. The optimal intensity of water backwashing is shown to be 90.0 L m(-2) h(-1). When the actual water intensity was below or exceeded the value, the recovery rate of permeate flux would be reduced. Additionally, the average operating cost for the immersed UF membrane, including the power, the chemical cleaning reagents, and membrane modules replacement, was about 0.31 RMB/m(3).

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF A PILOT SCALE FACILITY FOR FABRICATION AND MARKETING OF LIGHTWEIGHT-COAL COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS-BASED SUPPORTS AND MINE VENTILATION BLOCKS FOR UNDERGROUND MINES

    SciTech Connect

    Yoginder P. Chugh

    2002-10-01

    The overall goal of this program was to develop a pilot scale facility, and design, fabricate, and market CCBs-based lightweight blocks for mine ventilation control devices, and engineered crib elements and posts for use as artificial supports in underground mines to replace similar wooden elements. This specific project was undertaken to (1) design a pilot scale facility to develop and demonstrate commercial production techniques, and (2) provide technical and marketing support to Fly Lite, Inc to operate the pilot scale facility. Fly Lite, Inc is a joint venture company of the three industrial cooperators who were involved in research into the development of CCBs-based structural materials. The Fly-Lite pilot scale facility is located in McLeansboro, Illinois. Lightweight blocks for use in ventilation stoppings in underground mines have been successfully produced and marketed by the pilot-scale facility. To date, over 16,000 lightweight blocks (30-40 pcf) have been sold to the mining industry. Additionally, a smaller width (6-inch) full-density block was developed in August-September 2002 at the request of a mining company. An application has been submitted to Mine Safety and Health Administration for the developed block approval for use in mines. Commercialization of cribs and posts has also been accomplished. Two generations of cribs have been developed and demonstrated in the field. MSHA designated them suitable for use in mines. To date, over 2,000 crib elements have been sold to mines in Illinois. Two generations of posts were also demonstrated in the field and designated as suitable for use in mines by MSHA. Negotiations are currently underway with a mine in Illinois to market about 1,000 posts per year based on a field demonstration in their mine. It is estimated that 4-5 million tons CCBs (F-fly ash or FBC fly ash) may be utilized if the developed products can be commercially implemented in U.S. coal and non-coal mines.

  7. Microaerobic digestion of sewage sludge on an industrial-pilot scale: the efficiency of biogas desulphurisation under different configurations and the impact of O2 on the microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Ramos, I; Pérez, R; Reinoso, M; Torio, R; Fdz-Polanco, M

    2014-07-01

    Biogas produced in an industrial-pilot scale sewage sludge reactor (5m(3)) was desulphurised by imposing microaerobic conditions. The H2S concentration removal efficiency was evaluated under various configurations: different mixing methods and O2 injection points. Biogas was entirely desulphurised under all the configurations set, while the O2 demand of the digester decreased over time. Although the H2S removal seemed to occur in the headspace, S(0) (which was found to be the main oxidation product) was scarcely deposited there in the headspace. O2 did not have a significant impact on the digestion performance; the VS removal remained around 47%. Conversely, DGGE revealed that the higher O2 transfer rate to the sludge maintained by biogas recirculation increased the microbial richness and evenness, and caused an important shift in the structure of the bacterial and the archaeal communities in the long term. All the archaeal genera identified (Methanosaeta, Methanospirillum and Methanoculleus) were present under both anaerobic and microaerobic conditions.

  8. Source profiles of particulate matter emissions from a pilot-scale boiler burning North American coal blends.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W

    2001-11-01

    Recent awareness of suspected adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM) emission has prompted publication of new standards for fine PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). However, scientific data on fine PM emissions from various point sources and their characteristics are very limited. Source apportionment methods are applied to identify contributions of individual regional sources to tropospheric particulate concentrations. The existing industrial database developed using traditional source measurement techniques provides total emission rates only, with no details on chemical nature or size characteristics of particulates. This database is inadequate, in current form, to address source-receptor relationships. A source dilution system was developed for sampling and characterization of total PM, PM2.5, and PM10 (i.e., PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 pm) from residual oil and coal combustion. This new system has automatic control capabilities for key parameters, such as relative humidity (RH), temperature, and sample dilution. During optimization of the prototype equipment, three North American coal blends were burned using a 0.7-megawatt thermal (MWt) pulverized coal-fired, pilot-scale boiler. Characteristic emission profiles, including PM2.5 and total PM soluble acids, and elemental and carbon concentrations for three coal blends are presented. Preliminary results indicate that volatile trace elements such as Pb, Zn, Ti, and Se are preferentially enriched in PM2.5. PM2.5 is also more concentrated in soluble sulfates relative to total PM. Coal fly ash collected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) contains about 85-90% PM10 and 30-50% PM2.5. Particles contain the highest elemental concentrations of Si and Al while Ca, Fe, Na, Ba, and K also exist as major elements. Approximately 4-12% of the materials exists as soluble sulfates in fly ash generated by coal blends containing 0.2-0.8% sulfur by mass

  9. Identifying microbial carbon sources during ethanol and toluene biodegradation in a pilot-scale experimental aquifer system using isotopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, S.; McLeod, H.; Smith, J. E.; Roy, J. W.; Slater, G. F.

    2013-12-01

    Combining ethanol with gasoline has become increasingly common in order to create more environmentally conscience transportation fuels. These blended fuels are favourable alternatives since ethanol is a non-toxic and highly labile renewable biomass-based resource which is an effective fuel oxygenate that reduces air pollution. Recent research however, has indicated that upon accidental release into groundwater systems, the preferential microbial metabolism of ethanol can cause progressively reducing conditions leading to slower biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Therefore, the presence of ethanol can result in greater persistence of BTEX compounds and longer hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater systems. Microbial biodegradation and community carbon sources coupled to aqueous geochemistry were monitored in a pilot-scale laboratory tank (80cm x 525cm x 175cm) simulating an unconfined sand aquifer. Dissolved ethanol and toluene were continuously injected into the aquifer at a controlled rate over 330 days. Carbon isotope analyses were performed on phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) samples collected from 4 different locations along the aquifer. Initial stable carbon isotope values measured over days 160-185 in the bacterial PLFA ranged from δ13C = -10 to -21‰, which is indicative of dominant ethanol incorporation by the micro-organisms based on the isotopic signature of ethanol derived from corn, a C4 plant. A negative shift to δ13C = -10 to -30‰ observed over days 185-200, suggests a change in microbial metabolisms associated with less ethanol incorporation. This generally corresponds to a decrease in ethanol concentrations from day 40 to full attenuation at approximately day 160, and the onset of toluene depletion observed on day 120 and continuing thereafter. In addition, aqueous methane concentrations first detected on day 115 continued to rise to 0.38-0.70 mmol/L at all monitoring locations, demonstrating a significant redox shift to low energy methanogenic

  10. High rate mesophilic, thermophilic, and temperature phased anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge: A pilot scale study

    SciTech Connect

    Bolzonella, David; Cavinato, Cristina; Fatone, Francesco; Pavan, Paolo; Cecchi, Franco

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High temperatures were tested in single and two-stage anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The increased temperature demonstrated the possibility of improving typical yields of the conventional mesophilic process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature phased anaerobic digestion process (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) showed the best performances with yields of 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia and phosphate released from solids destruction determined the precipitation of struvite in the reactor. - Abstract: The paper reports the findings of a two-year pilot scale experimental trial for the mesophilic (35 Degree-Sign C), thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) and temperature phased (65 + 55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. During the mesophilic and thermophilic runs, the reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 20 days. In the temperature phased run, the first reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 15 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 2 days while the second reactor operated at an organic loading rate of 2.2 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and a hydraulic retention time of 18 days (20 days for the whole temperature phased system). The performance of the reactor improved with increases in temperature. The COD removal increased from 35% in mesophilic conditions, to 45% in thermophilic conditions, and 55% in the two stage temperature phased system. As a consequence, the specific biogas production increased from 0.33 to 0.45 and to 0.49 m{sup 3}/kgVS{sub fed} at 35, 55, and 65 + 55 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The extreme thermophilic reactor working at 65 Degree-Sign C showed a high hydrolytic capability and a specific yield of 0.33 gCOD (soluble) per gVS{sub fed}. The effluent of the extreme thermophilic reactor showed an average concentration of soluble COD and volatile

  11. Sulfur transformations in pilot-scale constructed wetland treating high sulfate-containing contaminated groundwater: a stable isotope assessment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shubiao; Jeschke, Christina; Dong, Renjie; Paschke, Heidrun; Kuschk, Peter; Knöller, Kay

    2011-12-15

    Current understanding of the dynamics of sulfur compounds inside constructed wetlands is still insufficient to allow a full description of processes involved in sulfur cycling. Experiments in a pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland treating high sulfate-containing contaminated groundwater were carried out. Application of stable isotope approach combined with hydro-chemical investigations was performed to evaluate the sulfur transformations. In general, under inflow concentration of about 283 mg/L sulfate sulfur, sulfate removal was found to be about 21% with a specific removal rate of 1.75 g/m(2)·d. The presence of sulfide and elemental sulfur in pore water about 17.3 mg/L and 8.5 mg/L, respectively, indicated simultaneously bacterial sulfate reduction and re-oxidation. 70% of the removed sulfate was calculated to be immobilized inside the wetland bed. The significant enrichment of (34)S and (18)O in dissolved sulfate (δ(34)S up to 16‰, compared to average of 5.9‰ in the inflow, and δ(18)O up to 13‰, compared to average of 6.9‰ in the inflow) was observed clearly correlated to the decrease of sulfate loads along the flow path through experimental wetland bed. This enrichment also demonstrated the occurrence of bacterial sulfate reduction as well as demonstrated by the presence of sulfide in the pore water. Moreover, the integral approach shows that bacterial sulfate reduction is not the sole process controlling the isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate in the pore water. The calculated apparent enrichment factor (ɛ = -22‰) for sulfur isotopes from the δ(34)S vs. sulfate mass loss was significantly smaller than required to produce the observed difference in δ(34)S between sulfate and sulfide. It indicated some potential processes superimposing bacterial sulfate reduction, such as direct re-oxidation of sulfide to sulfate by oxygen released from plant roots and/or bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur. Furthermore

  12. Cr(VI) and COD removal from landfill leachate by polyculture constructed wetland at a pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Madera-Parra, C A; Peña, M R; Peña, E J; Lens, P N L

    2015-09-01

    Four subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) at a pilot scale planted with a polyculture of the tropical plants Gynerium sagittatum (Gs), Colocasia esculenta (Ce) and Heliconia psittacorum (He) were evaluated for 7 months. The CW cells with an area of 17.94 m(2) and 0.60 m (h) each and 0.5 m of gravel were operated at continuous gravity flow (Q = 0.5 m(3) day(-1)) and a theoretical HRT of 7 days each and treating landfill leachate for the removal of filtered chemical oxygen demand (CODf), BOD5, TKN, NH4 (+), NO3 (-), PO4 (3-)-P and Cr(VI). Three CWs were divided into three sections, and each section (5.98 m(2)) was seeded with 36 cuttings of each species (plant density of six cuttings per square metre). The other unit was planted randomly. The final distributions of plants in the bioreactors were as follows: CW I (He-Ce-Gs), CW II (randomly), CW III (Ce-Gs-He) and CW IV (Gs-He-Ce). The units received effluent from a high-rate anaerobic pond (BLAAT®). The results show a slightly alkaline and anoxic environment in the solid-liquid matrix (pH = 8.0; 0.5-2 mg L(-1) dissolved oxygen (DO)). CODf removal was 67 %, BOD5 80 %, and TKN and NH4 (+) 50-57 %; NO3 (-) effluents were slightly higher than the influent, PO4 (3-)-P (38 %) and Cr(VI) between 50 and 58 %. CW IV gave the best performance, indicating that plant distribution may affect the removal capacity of the bioreactors. He and Gs were the plants exhibiting a translocation factor (TF) of Cr(VI) >1. The evaluated plants demonstrated their suitability for phytoremediation of landfill leachate, and all of them can be categorized as Cr(VI) accumulators. The CWs also showed that they could be a low-cost operation as a secondary system for treatment of intermediated landfill leachate (LL).

  13. Advanced H2O2 oxidation for diethyl phthalate degradation in treated effluents: effect of nitrate on oxidation and a pilot-scale AOP operation.

    PubMed

    Ko, K B; Park, C G; Moon, T H; Ahn, Y H; Lee, J K; Ahn, K H; Park, J H; Yeom, I T

    2008-01-01

    One of the objectives of this study was to delineate the effect of nitrate on diethyl phthalate (DEP) oxidation by conducting a bench-scale ultraviolet (UV)/H2O2 and O3/H2O2 operations as suggested in a previous study. We also aim to investigate DEP oxidation at various UV doses and H2O2 concentrations by performing a pilot-scale advanced oxidation processes (AOP) system, into which a portion of the effluent from a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant was pumped. In the bench-scale AOP operation, the O3 oxidation alone as well as the UV irradiation without H2O2 addition could be among the desirable alternatives for the efficient removal of DEP dissolved in aqueous solutions at a low DEP concentration range of 85+/-15 microg/L. The adverse effect in the UV/H2O2 process was significantly greater than that in the UV oxidation alone, and its oxidation was almost halved by the nitrate. However, the nitrate clearly enhanced the DEP oxidation in the O3 oxidation and O3/H2O2 process. Especially, the addition of nitrate almost doubled the DEP oxidation efficiency in the O3/H2O2 process. The series of pilot-scale AOP operations confirmed that about 30-50% of DEP dissolved in the treated MBR effluent streams was, at least, oxidized by the O3 oxidation alone as well as the UV irradiation without H2O2 addition. The UV photolysis of H2O2 was most effective for DEP degradation with an H2O2 concentration of 40 mg/L at a UV dose of 500 mJ/cm2.

  14. Improvement of virus removal by pilot-scale coagulation-ultrafiltration process for wastewater reclamation: Effect of optimization of pH in secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Ihara, M; Yamashita, N; Tanaka, H

    2017-02-09

    Reclaimed water (i.e., reused advanced-treated wastewater) offers an alternative water resource. To reduce the health risks associated with its use, efficient virus removal such as with advanced wastewater treatment processes is important. Virus removal by coagulation followed by ultrafiltration (UF) for the treatment of drinking water has been well examined. But its efficacy in wastewater reclamation purpose using secondary treated effluent (SE) from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) as feed water is unclear. Here, we optimized the virus removal efficiency of coagulation-UF in pilot-scale wastewater reclamation plants using SE as feed water, using the F-specific RNA bacteriophage MS2 as a model virus, at two wastewater treatment plants in Japan. We investigated how using coagulation as a pretreatment for UF improved virus removal efficiency. The efficiency varied greatly between SEs. To reveal the cause of the variation, we conducted laboratory-scale batch coagulation experiments. The efficiency of viral coagulation was negatively correlated with the concentration of dissolved organic matter in the feed water. The optimum pH for coagulation differed between SEs, and the efficiency of coagulation could be dramatically improved by optimizing the pH. We confirmed that the virus removal efficiency in the pilot-scale facility actually could be improved by adjusting the pH. In addition, we confirmed that coagulation-sedimentation-UF with pH adjustment could operate stably for more than 30 days at the pilot scale, with a high virus removal rate. Thus, the wastewater reclamation process described here offers promise in terms of reduced health risks and practical operation.

  15. Comparison of EDCs removal in full and pilot scale membrane bioreactor plants: Effect of flux rate on EDCs removal in short SRT.

    PubMed

    Komesli, O T; Muz, M; Ak, M S; Bakırdere, S; Gökçay, C F

    2016-06-17

    Currently, it is estimated that over 1 billion people are short of adequate portable water and this is expected to increase to 2.5 billion in the year 2025. Membrane Bioreactors (MBR) are now accepted as important tools to extend the availability of water by facilitating the reuse of wastewaters. Sludge Retention Time (SRT) and liquid flux rate are the two most important parameters for controlling the MBR process. In this study, the removal of selected endocrine disrupter compounds (EDCs), diltiazem, progesterone, estrone (E1), carbamazepine (Cbz) and acetaminophen (Acet), by one full scale (VRM) and one pilot scale (clear-box) MBR plants was investigated. During the study, sludge age was set at 10 days and the sludge concentration was fixed at about 5.0 g/L. The transmembrane pressure (TMP) got higher with either increasing flux or sludge concentration in the membrane chamber. Therefore, changing the flux from 13 to 30 L/m(2)-h in both plants caused enhancement in TMP from -25 to -300 mbar in the clear-box and from -160 to over -350 in the full scale MBRs. It was understood that flux had very little effect on the removal of EDCs at very low concentrations. Moreover, diltiazem was completely removed in the full scale whereas no removal was achieved in the pilot scale. Estrone and progesterone were completely removed by biodegradation in both plants. Acetaminophen was completely removed in the full scale plant whereas over 95% removal was achieved in the pilot scale MBR.

  16. On-line monitoring for control of a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor using a submersible UV/VIS spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Langergraber, G; Gupta, J K; Pressl, A; Hofstaedter, F; Lettl, W; Weingartner, A; Fleischmann, N

    2004-01-01

    A submersible UV/VIS spectrometer was used to monitor a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The instrument utilises the whole UV/VIS range between 200 and 750 nm. With just one single instrument nitrate, organic matter and suspended solids can be measured simultaneously. The spectrometer is installed directly in the reactor, measures in real-time, and is equipped with an auto-cleaning system using pressured air. The paper shows the calibration results for measurements in the SBR tank, time series for typical SBR cycles, and proposes possible ways for optimisation of the operation by using these measurements.

  17. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site

    SciTech Connect

    Chiriac, R.; De Araujos Morais, J.; Carre, J.; Bayard, R.; Chovelon, J.M.; Gourdon, R.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon

  18. A comparison of impulse drying to double felted pressing on pilot- scale shoe presses and roll presses. Progress report, No. 6

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1992-08-01

    Pilot-scale shoe press and roll press experiments have been conducted to compare impulse drying and double felted pressing. Both ceramic coated and Beloit Type C press rolls have been evaluated. The experiments show that impulse drying can provide significantly higher outgoing solids than double felled pressing at the same impulse. For example, at an impulse of 0.234 MPa seconds (34 psi seconds), sheets at an ingoing solids of 52% were impulse dried (using the Beloit Type C press roll) to 68% solids while optimized double felled pressing could only yield press dryness of, at most, 60%.

  19. Influence of aggregate sizes and microstructures on bioremediation assessment of field-contaminated soils in pilot-scale biopiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W.; Akbari, A.; Frigon, D.; Ghoshal, S.

    2011-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soils and groundwater is an environmental concern. Bioremediation has been frequently considered a cost-effective, less disruptive remedial technology. Formation of soil aggregate fractions in unsaturated soils is generally believed to hinder aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation due to the slow intra-pore diffusion of nutrients and oxygen within the aggregate matrix and to the reduced bioavailability of hydrocarbons. On the other hand, soil aggregates may harbour favourable niches for indigenous bacteria, providing protective microsites against various in situ environmental stresses. The size of the soil aggregates is likely to be a critical factor for these processes and could be interpreted as a relevant marker for biodegradation assessment. There have been only limited attempts in the past to assess petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in unsaturated soils as a function of aggregate size. This study is aimed at investigating the roles of aggregate sizes and aggregate microstructures on biodegradation activity. Field-aged, contaminated, clayey soils were shipped from Norman Wells, Canada. Attempts were made to stimulate indigenous microbial activity by soil aeration and nutrient amendments in a pilot-scale biopile tank (1m L×0.65m W×0.3 m H). A control biopile was maintained without the nutrient amendment but was aerated. The initial concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the field-contaminated soils increased with increasing aggregate sizes, which were classified in three fractions: micro- (<250 μm), meso- (>250-2000 μm) and macro-aggregates (>2000 μm). Compared to the TPH analyses at whole-soil level, the petroleum hydrocarbon analyses based on the aggregate-size levels demonstrated more clearly the extent of biodegradation of non-volatile, heavier hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in the soil. The removal of the C16-C34 hydrocarbons was 44% in macro-aggregates, but only 13% in meso-aggregates. The increased protein

  20. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Appendix, Book 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Based on the industry need for a pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, Babcock Wilcox (B&W) designed, fabricated, and installed such a facility at its Alliance Research Center (ARC) in 1985. The project involved conversion of an existing pulverized coal-fired facility to be cyclone-firing capable. Additionally, convective section tube banks were installed in the upper furnace in order to simulate a typical boiler convection pass. The small boiler simulator (SBS) is designed to simulate most fireside aspects of full-size utility boilers such as combustion and flue gas emissions characteristics, fireside deposition, etc. Prior to the design of the pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, the various cyclone boiler types were reviewed in order to identify the inherent cyclone boiler design characteristics which are applicable to the majority of these boilers. The cyclone boiler characteristics that were reviewed include NO{sub x} emissions, furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) carbon loss, and total furnace residence time. Previous pilot-scale cyclone-fired furnace experience identified the following concerns: (1) Operability of a small cyclone furnace (e.g., continuous slag tapping capability). (2) The optimum cyclone(s) configuration for the pilot-scale unit. (3) Compatibility of NO{sub x} levels, carbon burnout, cyclone ash carryover to the convection pass, cyclone temperature, furnace residence time, and FEGT.

  1. Chromium removal from wastewater using HSF and VF pilot-scale constructed wetlands: Overall performance, and fate and distribution of this element within the wetland environment.

    PubMed

    Papaevangelou, Vassiliki A; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2017-02-01

    The current experimental work aimed at the investigation of the overall chromium removal capacity of constructed wetlands (CWs) and the chromium fate-distribution within a wetland environment. For this purpose, the experimental setup included the parallel operation and monitoring of two horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) pilot-scale CWs and two vertical flow (VF) pilot-scale CWs treating Cr-bearing wastewater. Samples were collected from the influent, the effluent, the substrate and the plants. Apart from the continuous experiment, batch experiments (kinetics and isotherm) were conducted in order to investigate the chromium adsorption capacity of the substrate material. According to the findings, HSF-CWs demonstrated higher removal capacities in comparison to VF-CWs, while in both types the planted units indicated better performance compared to the unplanted ones. Analysis in various wetland compartments and annual mass balance calculation highlighted the exceptional contribution of substrate to chromium retention, while Cr accumulation in plant was not so high. Finally, experimental data fitted better to the pseudo-second-order and Langmuir models regarding kinetics and isotherm simulation.

  2. Upscaling of an electronic nose for completely stirred tank reactor stability monitoring from pilot-scale to real-scale agricultural co-digestion biogas plant.

    PubMed

    Adam, Gilles; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Goux, Xavier; Delfosse, Philippe; Romain, Anne-Claude

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the use of an electronic nose for on-line anaerobic reactor state monitoring at the pilot-scale level and then upscaling to the full-scale level. E-nose indicator was compared to classical state indicators such as pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids concentration and to other gas phase compounds. Multivariate statistical process control method, based on principal component analysis and the Hotelling's T(2) statistics was used to derive an indicator representative of the reactor state. At the pilot-scale level, the e-nose indicator was relevant and could distinguish 3 process states: steady-state, transient and collapsing process. At the full-scale level, the e-nose indicator could provide the warning of the major disturbance whereas two slight disturbances were not detected and it gave one major false alarm. This work showed that gas phase relation with anaerobic process should be deeper investigated, as an e-nose could indicate the reactor state, focusing on the gas phase.

  3. Biodegradation by bioaugmentation of dairy wastewater by fungal consortium on a bioreactor lab-scale and on a pilot-scale.

    PubMed

    Djelal, Hayet; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2013-09-01

    A fungal consortium including Aspergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis and Galactomyces geotrichum was tested for the treatment of dairy wastewater. The bio-augmentation method was tested at lab-scale (4 L), at pilot scale (110 L) and at an industrial scale in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). The positive impact of fungal addition was confirmed when fungi was beforehand accelerated by pre-culture on whey (5 g/L lactose) or on the dairy effluent. Indeed, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal yields increased from 55% to 75% for model medium, diluted milk. While after inoculation of an industrial biological tank from a dairy factory with the fungal consortium accelerated by pre-cultivation in a 1000 L pilot plant, the outlet COD values decreased from values above the standard one (100 mg/L) to values in the range of 50-70 mg/L. In addition, there was a clear impact of fungal addition on the 'hard' or non-biodegradable COD owing to the significant reduction of the increase of the COD on BOD5 ratio between the inlet and the outlet of the biological tank of WWTP. It was in the range of 451%-1111% before adding fungal consortium, and in the range of 257%-153% after bio-augmentation with fungi. An inoculated bioreactor with fungal consortium was developed at lab-scale and demonstrated successfully at pilot scale in

  4. Regeneration of barium carbonate from barium sulphide in a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor and utilization for acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, J; Zvimba, J N; Swanepoel, H; Bologo, L T; Maree, J

    2012-01-01

    Batch regeneration of barium carbonate (BaCO(3)) from barium sulphide (BaS) slurries by passing CO(2) gas into a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of BaCO(3) recovery in the Alkali Barium Calcium (ABC) desalination process and its use for sulphate removal from high sulphate Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The effect of key process parameters, such as BaS slurry concentration and CO(2) flow rate on the carbonation, as well as the extent of sulphate removal from AMD using the recovered BaCO(3) were investigated. It was observed that the carbonation reaction rate for BaCO(3) regeneration in a bubbling column reactor significantly increased with increase in carbon dioxide (CO(2)) flow rate whereas the BaS slurry content within the range 5-10% slurry content did not significantly affect the carbonation rate. The CO(2) flow rate also had an impact on the BaCO(3) morphology. The BaCO(3) recovered from the pilot-scale bubbling column reactor demonstrated effective sulphate removal ability during AMD treatment compared with commercial BaCO(3).

  5. Upscaling of the hot-melt extrusion process: comparison between laboratory scale and pilot scale production of solid dispersions with miconazole and Kollicoat IR.

    PubMed

    Guns, Sandra; Mathot, Vincent; Martens, Johan A; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2012-08-01

    Since only limited amount of drug is available in early development stages, the extruder design has evolved towards smaller batch sizes, with a more simple design. An in dept study about the consequences of the differences in design is mandatory and little can be found in literature. Miconazole and Kollicoat IR were used as model drug and carrier for this study. Two series of solid dispersions were made with a laboratory scale (internal circulation-simple screw design) and a pilot scale extruder (continuous throughput-modular screw design). Efforts were made to match the operating parameters as close as possible (residence time, extrusion temperature and screw speed). The samples were analyzed with modulated DSC straight after production and after exact 24h and 15 days storage at -26 °C. The kinetic miscibility of the samples prepared with the laboratory scale extruder was slightly higher than the samples prepared with the pilot scale extruder. As the solid dispersions with high drug load were unstable over time, demixing occurred, slightly faster for the samples prepared with the laboratory scale extruder. After 15 days, the levels of molecular mixing were comparable, pointing to the predictive value of samples prepared on laboratory scale.

  6. A pilot scale trickling filter with pebble gravel as media and its performance to remove chemical oxygen demand from synthetic brewery wastewater*

    PubMed Central

    Habte Lemji, Haimanot; Eckstädt, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the performance of a biotrickling filter for the treatment of wastewaters produced by a company manufacturing beer was the aim of this study. A pilot scale trickling filter filled with gravel was used as the experimental biofilter. Pilot scale plant experiments were made to evaluate the performance of the trickling filter aerobic and anaerobic biofilm systems for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients from synthetic brewery wastewater. Performance evaluation data of the trickling filter were generated under different experimental conditions. The trickling filter had an average efficiency of (86.81±6.95)% as the hydraulic loading rate increased from 4.0 to 6.4 m3/(m2∙d). Various COD concentrations were used to adjust organic loading rates from 1.5 to 4.5 kg COD/(m3∙d). An average COD removal efficiency of (85.10±6.40)% was achieved in all wastewater concentrations at a hydraulic loading of 6.4 m3/(m2∙d). The results lead to a design organic load of 1.5 kg COD/(m3∙d) to reach an effluent COD in the range of 50–120 mg/L. As can be concluded from the results of this study, organic substances in brewery wastewater can be handled in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner using the gravel-filled trickling filter. PMID:24101209

  7. Letter report: Pre-conceptual design study for a pilot-scale Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.A.; Morrissey, M.F.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a pre-conceptual design study for a Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste, Pilot-Scale Vitrification System. This pilot plant would support the development of a full-scale LLW Vitrification Facility and would ensure that the full-scale facility can meet its programmatic objectives. Use of the pilot facility will allow verification of process flowsheets, provide data for ensuring product quality, assist in scaling to full scale, and support full-scale start-up. The facility will vitrify simulated non-radioactive LLW in a manner functionally prototypic to the full-scale facility. This pre-conceptual design study does not fully define the LLW Pilot-Scale Vitrification System; rather, it estimates the funding required to build such a facility. This study includes identifying all equipment necessary. to prepare feed, deliver it into the melter, convert the feed to glass, prepare emissions for atmospheric release, and discharge and handle the glass. The conceived pilot facility includes support services and a structure to contain process equipment.

  8. A pilot scale trickling filter with pebble gravel as media and its performance to remove chemical oxygen demand from synthetic brewery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Habte Lemji, Haimanot; Eckstädt, Hartmut

    2013-10-01

    Evaluating the performance of a biotrickling filter for the treatment of wastewaters produced by a company manufacturing beer was the aim of this study. A pilot scale trickling filter filled with gravel was used as the experimental biofilter. Pilot scale plant experiments were made to evaluate the performance of the trickling filter aerobic and anaerobic biofilm systems for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients from synthetic brewery wastewater. Performance evaluation data of the trickling filter were generated under different experimental conditions. The trickling filter had an average efficiency of (86.81±6.95)% as the hydraulic loading rate increased from 4.0 to 6.4 m(3)/(m(2)∙d). Various COD concentrations were used to adjust organic loading rates from 1.5 to 4.5 kg COD/(m(3)∙d). An average COD removal efficiency of (85.10±6.40)% was achieved in all wastewater concentrations at a hydraulic loading of 6.4 m(3)/(m(2)∙d). The results lead to a design organic load of 1.5 kg COD/(m(3)∙d) to reach an effluent COD in the range of 50-120 mg/L. As can be concluded from the results of this study, organic substances in brewery wastewater can be handled in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner using the gravel-filled trickling filter.

  9. Comparative research on phosphorus removal by pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands using steel slag and modified steel slag as substrates.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yupan; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Li, Zifu; Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Bai, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This research mainly focused on the phosphorus removal performance of pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands with steel slag (SS) and modified steel slag (MSS). First, bench-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the phosphorus adsorption capacity. Results showed that the Langmuir model could better describe the adsorption characteristics of the two materials; the maximum adsorption of MSS reached 12.7 mg/g, increasing by 34% compared to SS (9.5 mg/g). Moreover, pilot-scale constructed wetlands with SS and MSS were set up outdoors. Then, the influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and phosphorus concentration in phosphorus removal for two wetlands were investigated. Results revealed that better performance of the two systems could be achieved with an HRT of 2 d and phosphorus concentration in the range of 3-4.5 mg/L; the system with MSS had a better removal efficiency than the one with SS in the same control operation. Finally, the study implied that MSS could be used as a promising substrate for wetlands to treat wastewater with a high phosphorus concentration. However, considering energy consumption, SS could be regarded as a better alternative for substrate when treating sewage with a low phosphorus concentration.

  10. High power Nb-doped LiFePO4 Li-ion battery cathodes; pilot-scale synthesis and electrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ian D.; Blagovidova, Ekaterina; Dingwall, Paul A.; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.; Darr, Jawwad A.

    2016-09-01

    High power, phase-pure Nb-doped LiFePO4 (LFP) nanoparticles are synthesised using a pilot-scale continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis process (production rate of 6 kg per day) in the range 0.01-2.00 at% Nb with respect to total transition metal content. EDS analysis suggests that Nb is homogeneously distributed throughout the structure. The addition of fructose as a reagent in the hydrothermal flow process, followed by a post synthesis heat-treatment, affords a continuous graphitic carbon coating on the particle surfaces. Electrochemical testing reveals that cycling performance improves with increasing dopant concentration, up to a maximum of 1.0 at% Nb, for which point a specific capacity of 110 mAh g-1 is obtained at 10 C (6 min for the charge or discharge). This is an excellent result for a high power cathode LFP based material, particularly when considering the synthesis was performed on a large pilot-scale apparatus.

  11. Pilot-scale road subbase made with granular material formulated with MSWI bottom ash and stabilized APC fly ash: environmental impact assessment.

    PubMed

    del Valle-Zermeño, R; Formosa, J; Prieto, M; Nadal, R; Niubó, M; Chimenos, J M

    2014-02-15

    A granular material (GM) to be used as road sub-base was formulated using 80% of weathered bottom ash (WBA) and 20% of mortar. The mortar was prepared separately and consisted in 50% APC and 50% of Portland cement. A pilot-scale study was carried on by constructing three roads in order to environmentally evaluate the performance of GM in a real scenario. By comparing the field results with those of the column experiments, the overestimations observed at laboratory scale can be explained by the potential mechanisms in which water enters into the road body and the pH of the media. An exception was observed in the case of Cu, whose concentration release at the test road was higher. The long-time of exposure at atmospheric conditions might have favoured oxidation of organic matter and therefore the leaching of this element. The results obtained showed that immobilization of all heavy metals and metalloids from APC is achieved by the pozzolanic effect of the cement mortar. This is, to the knowledge of the authors, the only pilot scale study that is considering reutilization of APC as a safe way to disposal.

  12. Pilot-scale study on the treatment of basal aquifer water using ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and evaporation/crystallization to achieve zero-liquid discharge.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Basal aquifer water is deep groundwater found at the bottom of geological formations, underlying bitumen-saturated sands. Some of the concerns associated with basal aquifer water at the Athabasca oil sands are the high concentrations of hardness-causing compounds, alkalinity, and total dissolved solids. The objective of this pilot-scale study was to treat basal aquifer water to a quality suitable for its reuse in the production of synthetic oil. To achieve zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) conditions, the treatment train included chemical oxidation, polymeric ultrafiltration (UF), reverse osmosis (RO), and evaporation-crystallization technologies. The results indicated that the UF unit was effective in removing solids, with UF filtrate turbidity averaging 2.0 NTU and silt density index averaging 0.9. Membrane autopsies indicated that iron was the primary foulant on the UF and RO membranes. Laboratory and pilot-scale tests on RO reject were conducted to determine the feasibility of ZLD crystallization. Due to the high amounts of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate in the RO reject, softening of the feed was required to avoid scaling in the evaporator. Crystals produced throughout the testing were mainly sodium chloride. The results of this study indicated that the ZLD approach was effective in both producing freshwater and minimizing brine discharges.

  13. Fate of organic pollutants in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor-nanofiltration membrane system at high water yield in antibiotic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxing; Wei, Yuansong; Li, Kun; Cheng, Yutao; Li, Mingyue; Xu, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    A double membrane system combining a membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a nanofiltration (NF) membrane at the pilot scale was tested to treat real antibiotic wastewater at a pharmaceutical company in Wuxi (China). The water yield of the pilot system reached over 92 ± 5.6% through recycling the NF concentrate to the MBR tank. Results showed that the pilot scale system operated in good conditions throughout the entire experiment period and obtained excellent water quality in which the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon were stable at 35 and 5.7 mg/L, respectively. The antibiotic removal rates of both spiramycin (SPM) and new spiramycin in wastewater were over 95%. Organics analysis results showed that the main organics in the biological effluent were proteins, soluble microbial by-product-like, fulvic acid-like and humic-like substances. These organics could be perfectly rejected by the NF membrane. Most of the organics could be removed through recycling NF concentrate to the MBR tank and only a small part was discharged with NF concentrate and permeate.

  14. Is phycovolatilization of heavy metals a probable (or possible) physiological phenomenon? An in situ pilot-scale study at a leather-processing chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Rao, P Hanumantha; Kumar, R Ranjith; Raghavan, B G; Subramanian, V V; Sivasubramanian, V

    2011-04-01

    Using algae to treat industrial effluents containing heavy metals presents an alternative to the current practice of using other biosorbents and physical and chemical methods. In this study, effluent from a leather-processing chemical industry in Ranipet, Tamil Nadu, India, was treated for the removal of heavy metals using the microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, which was isolated from the effluent itself. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess the mass balance of a model parameter, lead, in laboratory conditions and estimate the lead adsorption capabilities of the microalga and (2) conduct pilot-scale studies for the removal of heavy metals, using the microalga, from the effluent and the solid waste accumulated over the years generated by conventional treatment methods. The results of the study show that after 8 hours, Chlorella vulgaris exhibited a better adsorption capacity under sunlight compared to laboratory conditions (i.e., 30.6 mg/g dry weight vs 10.5 mg/g dry weight, respectively). Similarly, reduction of heavy metals and mass balance in pilot-scale field studies conducted in a high-rate algal pond showed that the microalga, apart from adsorption, complexation, and entrapment mechanisms, is likely to possess phycovolatilization capability probably via biotransformation processes.

  15. Effect of fill time on the performance of pilot-scale ASBR and AnSBBR applied to sanitary wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    de Novaes, Luciano Farias; Borges, Lucas Oliveira; Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2010-10-01

    Many lab-scale studies have been carried out regarding the effect of feed strategy on the performance of anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBR); however, more detailed pilot-scale studies should be performed to assess the real applicability of this type of operation. Therefore, the objective of this work was to assess the effect of feed strategy or fill time in a 1-m(3) mechanically stirred pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor, treating 0.65 m(3) sanitary wastewater in 8-h cycles at ambient temperature. Two reactor configurations were used: one containing granular biomass (denominated ASBR) and the other immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam as inert support (denominated anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR)). The reactors were operated under five distinct feed strategies, namely: typical batch and fed-batch for 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the cycle length. Stirring frequency in the ASBR was 40 rpm with two flat-blade turbine impellers and 80 rpm in the AnSBBR with two helix impellers. The results showed that both the ASBR and AnSBBR when operated under typical batch, fed-batch for 50% and 75% of the cycle length, presented improved organic matter removal efficiencies, without significant differences in performance, thus showing important operational flexibility. In addition, the reactors presented operation stability under all conditions.

  16. Design of pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor for the generation of hydrogen from alkaline sulfide wastewater of sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Priya, R; Kanmani, S

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were conducted for photocatalytic generation of renewable fuel hydrogen from sulphide wastewater from the sewage treatment plant. In this study, pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor was designed for treating 1 m3 of sulphide wastewater and also for the simultaneous generation of hydrogen. Bench-scale studies were conducted both in the batch recycle and continuous modes under solar irradiation at similar experimental conditions. The maximum of 89.7% conversion was achieved in the continuous mode. The length of the pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor was arrived using the design parameters such as volumetric flow rate (Q) (11 x 10(-2) m3/s), inlet concentration of sulphide ion (C(in)) (28 mol/m3), conversion (89.7%) and average mass flow destruction rate (3.488 x 10(-6) mol/m2 s). The treatment cost of the process was estimated to be 6 US$/m3. This process would be suitable for India like sub-tropical country where sunlight is abundantly available throughout the year.

  17. Performance of a system with full- and pilot-scale sludge drying reed bed units treating septic tank sludge in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Vallejo, Luisa Fernanda; Andrade, Cynthia Franco; Manjate, Elias Sete; Madera-Parra, Carlos Arturo; von Sperling, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of sludge drying reed beds (SDRB) at full- and pilot-scale treating sludge from septic tanks in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The treatment units, planted with Cynodon spp., were based on an adaptation of the first-stage of the French vertical-flow constructed wetland, originally developed for treating sewage. Two different operational phases were investigated; in the first one, the full-scale unit was used together with six pilot-scale columns in order to test different feeding strategies. For the second phase, only the full-scale unit was used, including a recirculation of the filtered effluent (percolate) to one of the units of the French vertical wetland. Sludge application was done once a week emptying a full truck, during 25 weeks. The sludge was predominantly diluted, leading to low solids loading rates (median values of 18 kgTS m(-2) year(-1)). Chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency in the full-scale unit was reasonable (median of 71%), but the total solids removal was only moderate (median of 44%) in the full-scale unit without recirculation. Recirculation did not bring substantial improvements in the overall performance. The other loading conditions implemented in the pilot columns also did not show statistically different performances.

  18. In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Bernath, P. |; Sinquefield, S.A. |; Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C.; Barfield, M. |

    1996-05-01

    Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Removal of gas-phase ammonia and hydrogen sulfide using photocatalysis, nonthermal plasma, and combined plasma and photocatalysis at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Maxime, Guillerm; Amine, Assadi Aymen; Abdelkrim, Bouzaza; Dominique, Wolbert

    2014-11-01

    This study focuses on the removal of gas-phase ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in a continuous reactor. Photocatalysis and surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma are studied separately and combined. Though the removal of volatile organic compounds by coupling plasma and photocatalysis has been reported on a number of studies in laboratory scale, this is as far as we know the first time that it is used to remove inorganic malodorous pollutants. While each separate process is able to degrade ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, a synergetic effect appears when they are combined at a pilot scale, leading to removal capacity higher than the sum of each separate process. The removal capacity is higher when the gas circulates at a higher flow rate and when pollutant concentration is higher. The presence of water vapor in the gas is detrimental to the efficiency of the process. Operating conditions also influence the production of nitrogen oxides and ozone.

  20. Control of air emissions from hazardous-waste combustion sources: field evaluations of pilot-scale air-pollution-control devices

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C.W.; Tatsch, C.E.; Cottone, L.

    1986-01-01

    Pilot-scale air-pollution control devices supplied by Hydro-Sonic Systems, ETS, Inc., and Vulcan Engineering Company were installed at the ENSCO, Inc. Incinerator in El Dorado, Arkansas, in the spring of 1984. Each of these units treated an uncontrolled slipstream of the incinerator exhaust gas. Simultaneous measurement of the total particulate and HCl in the gas streams were made at the inlet to and exit from the units using an EPA Method 5 sampling train. Particle sizing at both locations using Andersen impactors was also done. The units supplied by Hydro-Sonics Systems and ETS, Inc. exhibited a high degree of HCl and particulate matter control. The Hydro-Sonic Tandem Nozzle SuperSub Model 100 gave the best overall performance for HCl and particulate control and ability to accommodate the variable composition of the exhaust gas.

  1. Pilot-scale bioconversion of rice and sunflower agro-residues into medicinal mushrooms and laccase enzymes through solid-state fermentation with Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Postemsky, P D; Bidegain, M A; González-Matute, R; Figlas, N D; Cubitto, M A

    2017-05-01

    Solid-state fermentation was evaluated at the pilot-scale for the bioconversion and valorization of rice husks and straw (RSH), or sunflower seed hulls (SSH), into medicinal mushrooms and crude extracts, with laccase activity. The average mushroom yield was 56kg dry weight per ton of agro-residues. Laccase activity in crude aqueous extracts showed its maximum value of 10,927Ukg(-1) in RSH (day 10, Exudate phase) and 16,442Ukg(-1) in SSH (day 5, Full colonization phase), the activity at the Residual substrate phase being 511Ukg(-1) in RSH and 803Ukg(-1) in SSH, respectively. Crude extracts obtained with various protocols revealed differences in the extraction yields. Lyophilization followed by storage at 4°C allowed the preservation of laccase activity for more than one month. It is proposed that standard mushroom farms could increase their profits by obtaining laccase as a byproduct during the gaps in mycelium running.

  2. Effect of filtration velocity and dust concentration on cake formation and filter operation in a pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot

    2007-06-18

    Bag filters are used for the removal of fine solid particles from process gases. Thus, understanding the filter cake build up and its properties is a subject of interest. The filter cakes properties may depend on many factors like, for example, filtration velocity and dust concentration. The effect of dust concentration and filtration velocity on filtration time, specific cake resistance and mean cake density is investigated in a pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter. An in situ optical system is used to measure cake thickness distributions on the filter surface. Additionally, the operation is simulated using a one-dimensional model and results are compared with experiments. The experimental results indicate that cake density and specific resistance increase with increasing velocity at constant dust concentration. The effect of dust concentration on filter cake density and specific resistance is small.

  3. Extended Operations of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Pilot-Scale Compact Reformer: Year 6 - Activity 3.2 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Almlie, Jay

    2011-10-01

    U.S. and global demand for hydrogen is large and growing for use in the production of chemicals, materials, foods, pharmaceuticals, and fuels (including some low-carbon biofuels). Conventional hydrogen production technologies are expensive, have sizeable space requirements, and are large carbon dioxide emitters. A novel sorbent-based hydrogen production technology is being developed and advanced toward field demonstration that promises smaller size, greater efficiency, lower costs, and reduced to no net carbon dioxide emissions compared to conventional hydrogen production technology. Development efforts at the pilot scale have addressed materials compatibility, hot-gas filtration, and high-temperature solids transport and metering, among other issues, and have provided the basis for a preliminary process design with associated economics. The process was able to achieve a 93% hydrogen purity on a purge gasfree basis directly out of the pilot unit prior to downstream purification.

  4. Application of glyco-blotting for identification of structures of polysaccharides causing membrane fouling in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Katsuki; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Miyoshi, Risho; Hoque, Asiful; Miyoshi, Taro; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

    2015-03-01

    A new approach for the analysis of polysaccharides in membrane bioreactor (MBR) is proposed in this study. Enrichment of polysaccharides by glyco-blotting, in which polysaccharides are specifically collected via interactions between the aldehydes in the polysaccharides and aminooxy groups on glycoblotting beads, enabled MALDI-TOF/MS analysis at a high resolution. Structures of polysaccharides extracted from fouled membranes used in a pilot-scale MBR treating municipal wastewater and those in the supernatant of the mixed liquor suspension in the MBR were investigated. It was found that the overlap between polysaccharides found in the supernatants and those extracted from the fouled membrane was rather limited, suggesting that polysaccharides that dominate in supernatants may not be important in membrane fouling in MBRs. Analysis using a bacterial carbohydrate database suggested that capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and/or lipo-polysaccharides (LPS) produced by gram-negative bacteria are key players in the evolution of membrane fouling in MBRs.

  5. 2009 PILOT SCALE FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TESTING USING THE THOR (THERMAL ORGANIC REDUCTION) PROCESS: ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR TANK 48H ORGANIC DESTRUCTION - 10408

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.; Jantzen, C.; Burket, P.; Crawford, C.; Daniel, G.; Aponte, C.; Johnson, C.

    2009-12-28

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) must empty the contents of Tank 48H, a 1.3 million gallon Type IIIA HLW storage tank, to return this tank to service. The tank contains organic compounds, mainly potassium tetraphenylborate that cannot be processed downstream until the organic components are destroyed. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) technology, herein after referred to as steam reforming, has been demonstrated to be a viable process to remove greater than 99.9% of the organics from Tank 48H during various bench scale and pilot scale tests. These demonstrations were supported by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and the Department of Energy (DOE) has concurred with the SRR recommendation to proceed with the deployment of the FBSR technology to treat the contents of Tank 48H. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed and proved the concept with non-radioactive simulants for SRR beginning in 2003. By 2008, several pilot scale campaigns had been completed and extensive crucible testing and bench scale testing were performed in the SRNL Shielded Cells using Tank 48H radioactive sample. SRNL developed a Tank 48H non-radioactive simulant complete with organic compounds, salt, and metals characteristic of those measured in a sample of the radioactive contents of Tank 48H. FBSR Pilot Scaled Testing with the Tank 48H simulant has demonstrated the ability to remove greater than 98% of the nitrites and greater than 99.5% of the nitrates from the Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily alkali carbonate. The alkali carbonate is soluble and, thus, amenable to pumping as a liquid to downstream facilities for processing. The FBSR technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration (ESTD) pilot scale steam reformer at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. Additional ESTD tests were completed in 2008 and in 2009 that further demonstrated the

  6. Pilot-scale evaluation of a novel TiO2-supported V2O5 catalyst for DeNOx at low temperatures at a waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyounduk; Park, Eunseuk; Kim, Minsu; Jurng, Jongsoo

    2016-11-26

    The removal of NOx by catalytic technology at low temperatures is significant for treatment of flue gas in waste incineration plants, especially at temperatures below 200°C. A novel highly active TiO2-supported vanadium oxide catalyst at low temperatures (200-250°C) has been developed for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) de-NOx process with ammonia. The catalyst was evaluated in a pilot-scale equipment, and the results were compared with those obtained in our previous work using laboratory scale (small volume test) equipment as well as bench-scale laboratory equipment. In the present work, we have performed our experiments in pilot scale equipment using a part of effluent flue gas that was obtained from flue gas cleaning equipment in a full-scale waste incineration plant in South Korea. Based on our previous work, we have prepared a TiO2-supported V2O5 catalyst coated (with a loading of 7wt% of impregnated V2O5) on a honeycomb cordierite monolith to remove NOx from a waste incinerator flue gas at low temperatures. The NOx (nitrogen oxides) removal efficiency of the SCR catalyst bed was measured in a catalyst fixed-bed reactor (flow rate: 100m(3)h(-1)) using real exhaust gas from the waste incinerator. The experimental results showed that the V2O5/TiO2 SCR catalyst exhibited good DeNOx performance (over 98% conversion at an operating temperature of 300°C, 95% at 250°C, and 70% at 200°C), and was much better than the performance of commercial SCR catalysts (as low as 55% conversion at 250°C) under the same operating conditions.

  7. Hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments plus anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge for dewatering and biogas production: Bench-scale research and pilot-scale verification.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunxing; Wang, Xingdong; Zhang, Guangyi; Yu, Guangwei; Lin, Jingjiang; Wang, Yin

    2017-03-25

    To test the feasibility and practicability of the process combing hydrothermal pretreatment for dewatering with biogas production for full utilization of sewage sludge, hydrothermal/alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments and in turn anaerobic digestion of the filtrates obtained after dewatering the pretreated sludge were performed at bench- and pilot-scales. The hydrothermal temperature fell within the range of 140 °C-220 °C and the pretreatment time varied from 30 min to 120 min. For the alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment the pH value of the sludge was adjusted to 9.0-11.0 by adding Ca(OH)2. The results showed that the dewaterability of the sewage sludge was improved with increasing pretreatment temperature but the impact of the pretreatment time was not significant. The addition of Ca(OH)2 gave better performance on the subsequent mechanical dewatering of the pretreated sludge compared to pure hydrothermal pretreatment, and the higher the pH value was, the better the dewaterability of the pretreated sludge was. The conditions of 180 °C/30 min and 160 °C/60 min/pH = 10.0 (for hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments, respectively) resulted in relatively good results in the theoretical energy balance, which were verified in the pilot-scale tests. Based on the data from the pilot tests, the alkaline hydrothermal process realized self-sufficiency in energy at the cost of a proper amount of CaO.

  8. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, R; De Araujos Morais, J; Carre, J; Bayard, R; Chovelon, J M; Gourdon, R

    2011-11-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon atoms per molecule of alkane with the progression of the stabilisation/maturation process were also observed. Previous studies have concentrated almost on the analysis of biogases from landfills. Our research aimed at gaining a more complete understanding of the decomposition/degradation of municipal solid waste by measuring the VOCs emitted from the very start of the landfill process i.e. during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases.

  9. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation Involving Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds - Design and Deployment Guidelines (Parris Island, SC, U.S. Marine Corp Recruit Depot, Site 45 Pilot Study)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) demonstration, involving subsurface injections of sodium permanganate (NaMnO4), was performed at the US Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), site 45 (Parris Island (PI), SC). The ground water was originally contaminated with perchloroe...

  10. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiao; Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei; Gao Xingbao; Qiao Wei; Zhou Yingjun

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  11. Pilot-scale study of vertical flow constructed wetland combined with trickling filter and ferric chloride coagulation: influence of irregular operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Kim, B; Gautier, M; Olvera Palma, G; Molle, P; Michel, P; Gourdon, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the efficiency of an intensified process of vertical flow constructed wetland having the following particularities: (i) biological pretreatment by trickling filter, (ii) FeCl3 injection for dissolved phosphorus removal and (iii) succession of different levels of redox conditions along the process line. A pilot-scale set-up designed to simulate a real-scale plant was constructed and operated using real wastewater. The influences of FeCl3 injection and water saturation level within the vertical flow constructed wetland stage on treatment performances were studied. Three different water saturation levels were compared by monitoring: suspended solids (SS), total phosphorus (TP), dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, iron, and manganese. The results confirmed the good overall efficiency of the process and the contribution of the trickling filter pretreatment to COD removal and nitrification. The effects of water saturation level and FeCl3 injection on phosphorus removal were evaluated by analysis of the correlations between the variables. Under unsaturated conditions, good nitrification and no denitrification were observed. Under partly saturated conditions, both nitrification and denitrification were obtained, along with a good retention of SSs. Finally, under saturated conditions, the performance was decreased for almost all parameters.

  12. Analysis of switchgrass-derived bio-oil and associated aqueous phase generated in a semi-pilot scale auger pyrolyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Shoujie; Ye, X. Philip; Borole, Abhijeet P.; Kim, Pyoungchung; Labbé, Ncole

    2016-03-30

    To efficiently utilize water-soluble compounds in bio-oil and evaluate the potential effects of these compounds on processes such as microbial electrolysis, our study investigated the physico-chemical properties of bio-oil and the associated aqueous phase generated from switchgrass using a semi-pilot scale auger pyrolyzer. Combining separation and detection strategies with organic solvent extraction, an array of analytical instruments and methods were used to identify and quantify the chemical constituents. Separation of an aqueous phase from crude bio-oil was achieved by adding water (water: crude bio-oil at 4:1 in weight), which resulted in a partition of 61 wt.% of the organic compounds into a bio-oil aqueous phase (BOAP). GC/MS analysis for BOAP identified over 40 compounds of which 16 were quantified. Acetic acid, propionic acid, and levoglucosan are the major components in BOAP. In addition, a significant portion of chemicals that have the potential to be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels were extracted to BOAP (77 wt.% of the alcohols, 61 wt.% of the furans, and 52 wt.% of the phenolic compounds in crude bio-oil). Valorization of the BOAP may require conversion methods capable of accommodating a very broad substrate specificity. Ultimately, a better separation strategy is needed to selectively remove the acidic and polar components from crude bio-oil to improve economic feasibility of biorefinery operations.

  13. Partial nitrification and denitrification of mature landfill leachate using a pilot-scale continuous activated sludge process at low dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenguo; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, YongYuan; Mirino, Markus W; Yuan, Yanlei

    2016-10-01

    Controlling of low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (0.1-0.5mg/L), a cost-effective strategy, was applied to a pilot-scale anoxic-oxic-oxic-anoxic process for partial nitrification and denitrification of mature landfill leachate. High ammonium removal efficiency, stable nitrite accumulation rate and total nitrogen removal efficiency was higher than 95.0%, 90.0% and 66.4%, respectively, implying potential application of this process for nitrogen removal of mature landfill leachate. Efficient nitrite accumulation in the first oxic reactor depended on low DO conditions and sufficient alkalinity. However, operational limit was mainly decided by actual hydraulic retention time (AHRT) of the first oxic reactor and appeared with AHRT less than 13.9h under DO of 0.3-0.5mg/L. High-throughput sequencing analysis demonstrated significant change of bacterial diversity in the first oxic reactor after a long-term operation and dominant bacteria genus Nitrosomonas was shown to be responsible for NH4(+)-N removal and nitrite accumulation under low DO levels.

  14. Pretreatment of Corn Stover by Low Moisture Anhydrous Ammonia (LMAA) in a Pilot-Scale Reactor and Bioconversion to Fuel Ethanol and Industrial Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Senske, Gerard E; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Corn stover (CS) adjusted to 50, 66, and 70 % moisture was pretreated by the low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) process in a pilot-scale ammoniation reactor. After ammoniation, the 70 % moisture CS was treated at 90 and 100 °C whereas the others were treated at 90 °C only. The 70 % moisture pretreated CS then was subjected to a storage study under non-sterile conditions for 3 months. It was found that storage time did not have significant effects on the compositions of the pretreated materials and their hydrolysis by commercial enzymes. The 70 % moisture CS treated at 90 °C was used for preparation of a mix sugar hydrolysate (MSH) using combination of cellulase and xylanase. The MSH was used to prepare a corn mash at 9.5 wt% solid then subjected to ethanol fermentation by Escherichia coli KO11. The 66 % moisture CS treated at 90 °C was hydrolyzed with xylanase to make a xylose-rich hydrolysate (XRH), which was subsequently used for butyric acid fermentation by Clostridium tyrobutyricum. The resultant cellulose-enriched residue was hydrolyzed with cellulase to make a glucose-rich hydrolysate (GRH), which was subsequently used for succinic acid fermentation by E. coli AFP184.

  15. A field pilot-scale study of biological treatment of heavy oil-produced water by biological filter with airlift aeration and hydrolytic acidification system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Wang, Junming; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Song, Zhaozheng; Zhang, Zhenjia; Zhang, Beiyu; Zhang, Guangqing; Wu, Wei-Min

    2016-03-01

    Heavy oil-produced water (HOPW) is a by-product during heavy oil exploitation and can cause serious environmental pollution if discharged without adequate treatment. Commercial biochemical treatment units are important parts of HOPW treatment processes, but many are not in stable operation because of the toxic and refractory substances, salt, present. Therefore, pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of hydrolytic acidification-biological filter with airlift aeration (HA-BFAA), a novel HOPW treatment system. Four strains isolated from oily sludge were used for bioaugmentation to enhance the biodegradation of organic pollutants. The isolated bacteria were evaluated using 3-day biochemical oxygen demand, oil, dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals as evaluation indices. Bioaugmentation enhanced the COD removal by 43.5 mg/L under a volume load of 0.249 kg COD/m(3) day and hydraulic retention time of 33.6 h. The effluent COD was 70.9 mg/L and the corresponding COD removal was 75.0 %. The optimum volumetric air-to-water ratio was below 10. The removal ratios of the total extractable organic pollutants, alkanes, and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons were 71.1, 94.4, and 94.0 %, respectively. Results demonstrated that HA-BFAA was an excellent HOPW treatment system.

  16. A process for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from municipal wastewater treatment with biological carbon and nitrogen removal demonstrated at pilot-scale.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Simon; Karlsson, Anton; Alexandersson, Tomas; Quadri, Luca; Hjort, Markus; Johansson, Peter; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Anterrieu, Simon; Arcos-Hernandez, Monica; Karabegovic, Lamija; Magnusson, Per; Werker, Alan

    2017-03-25

    A process was developed for biological treatment of municipal wastewater for carbon and nitrogen removal while producing added-value polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The process comprised steps for pre-denitrification, nitrification and post-denitrification and included integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) with biofilm carrier media to support nitrification. In a pilot-scale demonstration (500-800L), wastewater treatment performance, in line with European standards, were achieved for total chemical oxygen demand (83% removal) and total nitrogen (80% removal) while producing a biomass that was able to accumulate up to 49% PHA of volatile suspended solids with acetic acid or fermented organic residues as substrates. Robust performance in wastewater treatment and enrichment of PHA-producing biomass was demonstrated under realistic conditions including influent variability during 225days of operation. The IFAS system was found to be advantageous since maintaining nitrification on the biofilm allowed for a relatively low (2days) solids retention time (SRT) for the suspended biomass in the bulk phase. Lower SRT has advantages in higher biomass yield and higher active fraction in the biomass which leads to higher PHA productivity and content. The outcomes show that production of added-value biopolymers may be readily integrated with carbon and nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater.

  17. Pilot-scale submersed cultivation of R. microsporus var. oligosporus in thin stillage, a dry-grind corn-to-ethanol co-product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Daniel Thomas

    An innovative process to add value to a corn-to-ethanol co-product, Thin stillage, was studied for pilot-scale viability. A 1500L bioreactor was designed, operated, and optimized to cultivate Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus via submersed fermentation in Thin Stillage. The biomass was harvested and processed into a feed suitable for storage and ultimately for animal feeding trials. Characterization of the biomass and feed trials revealed that there is substantial potential as a nutrient dense feed supplement with 41.1% protein, 26.3% fat, and metabolizable energy on s dried basis. The amino acid profile is superior to that of DDGS, with most notably 1.7% Lys on dried basis. This process produces a significantly more nutrient dense product than DDGS, and could increase water-reclaimation in a dry-grind corn to ethanol plant. Industrially it would replace the energy intensive process of converting thin stillage into syrup that adds only $10-25/ton to DDG, while maintaining production of DDG. Using thin stillage as used a growth media for R. microsporus var. oligosporus, should not only lead to saving in energy costs, but also generate a high-value co-product which could lead to economic gains. Also there is still unexplored potential of enzymes, chitin, and co-culturing to further add value.

  18. Effect of gas-liquid flow pattern and microbial diversity analysis of a pilot-scale biotrickling filter for anoxic biogas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Almenglo, Fernando; Bezerra, Tercia; Lafuente, Javier; Gabriel, David; Ramírez, Martín; Cantero, Domingo

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas was studied under anoxic conditions in a pilot-scale biotrickling filter operated under counter- and co-current gas-liquid flow patterns. The best performance was found under counter-current conditions (maximum elimination capacity of 140 gS m(-3) h(-1)). Nevertheless, switching conditions between co- and counter-current flow lead to a favorable redistribution of biomass and elemental sulfur along the bed height. Moreover, elemental sulfur was oxidized to sulfate when the feeding biogas was disconnected and the supply of nitrate (electron acceptor) was maintained. Removal of elemental sulfur was important to prevent clogging in the packed bed and, thereby, to increase the lifespan of the packed bed between maintenance episodes. The larger elemental sulfur removal rate during shutdowns was 59.1 gS m(-3) h(-1). Tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing was used to study the diversity of bacteria under co-current flow pattern with liquid recirculation and counter-current mode with a single-pass flow of the liquid phase. The main desulfurizing bacteria were Sedimenticola while significant role of heterotrophic, opportunistic species was envisaged. Remarkable differences between communities were found when a single-pass flow of industrial water was fed to the biotrickling filter.

  19. Assessing membrane fouling and the performance of pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) to treat real municipal wastewater during winter season in Nordic regions.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Khum; Ncibi, Mohamed Chaker; Sillanpää, Mika

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the performance of a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) to treat real municipal wastewater was assessed at low temperatures (7 to 20°C) in Nordic regions. First, the effect of low temperatures on membrane fouling was evaluated by monitoring trans-membrane pressure. A significant membrane fouling was observed when the sludge temperature inside the MBR unit was below 10°C with a 75% permeability drop, thus indicating high deterioration of the membrane performance at low temperatures. Moreover, increasing values of sludge volume index (SVI) during low temperatures showed high deterioration of sludge settleability. As for the pollution removal, MBR achieved high performances primarily for pathogens and emerging micropollutants. The average log reductions of 1.82, 3.02, and 1.94 log units were achieved for norovirus GI, norovirus GII, and adenoviruses, respectively. Among the four trace organic compounds (TrOCs), the average removal efficiencies of bisoprolol, diclofenac and bisphenol A were 65%, 38%, and >97%, respectively. However, carbamazepine was not efficiently removed (-89% to 28%). Regarding trace metals, an average removal of >80% was achieved for Cd, Pb, and V. For the rest of the metals, the removal capacities were between 30 and 60%.

  20. A pilot-scale study on PVA gel beads based integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) plant for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kumar Singh, Nitin; Singh, Jasdeep; Bhatia, Aakansha; Kazmi, A A

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a pilot-scale reactor incorporating polyvinyl alcohol gel beads as biomass carrier and operating in biological activated sludge mode (a combination of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and activated sludge) was investigated for the treatment of actual municipal wastewater. The results, during a monitoring period of 4 months, showed effective removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and NH3-N at optimum conditions with 91%, ∼92% and ∼90% removal efficiencies, respectively. Sludge volume index (SVI) values of activated sludge varied in the range of 25-72 mL/g, indicating appreciable settling characteristics. Furthermore, soluble COD and BOD in the effluent of the pilot plant were reduced to levels well below discharge limits of the Punjab Pollution Control Board, India. A culture dependent method was used to enrich and isolate abundant heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge. In addition to this, 16S rRNA genes analysis was performed to identify diverse dominant bacterial species in suspended and attached biomass. Results revealed that Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and Nitrosomonas communis played a significant role in biomass carrier, while Acinetobactor sp. were dominant in activated sludge of the pilot plant. Identification of ciliated protozoa populations rendered six species of ciliates in the plant, among which Vorticella was the most dominant.

  1. Treatment of a chocolate industry wastewater in a pilot-scale low-temperature UASB reactor operated at short hydraulic and sludge retention time.

    PubMed

    Esparza-Soto, M; Arzate-Archundia, O; Solís-Morelos, C; Fall, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of a 244-L pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor during the treatment of chocolate-processing industry wastewater under low-temperature conditions (18 ± 0.6 °C) for approximately 250 d. The applied organic loading rate (OLR) was varied between 4 and 7 kg/m(3)/d by varying the influent soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODsol), while keeping the hydraulic retention time constant (6.4 ± 0.3 h). The CODsol removal efficiency was low (59-78%). The measured biogas production increased from 240 ± 54 to 431 ± 61 L/d during the experiments. A significant linear correlation between the measured biogas production and removed OLR indicated that 81.69 L of biogas were produced per kg/m(3) of CODsol removed. Low average reactor volatile suspended solids (VSS) (2,700-4,800 mg/L) and high effluent VSS (177-313 mg/L) were derived in a short sludge retention time (SRT) (4.9 d). The calculated SRT was shorter than those reported in the literature, but did not affect the reactor's performance. Average sludge yield was 0.20 kg-VSS/kg-CODsol. The low-temperature anaerobic treatment was a good option for the pre-treatment of chocolate-processing industry wastewater.

  2. Performance modeling and cost analysis of a pilot-scale reverse osmosis process for the final purification of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Hodaifa, Gassan; Victor-Ortega, Maria Dolores; Martinez-Ferez, Antonio

    2013-10-11

    A secondary treatment for olive mill wastewater coming from factories working with the two-phase olive oil production process (OMW-2) has been set-up on an industrial scale in an olive oil mill in the premises of Jaén (Spain). The secondary treatment comprises Fenton-like oxidation followed by flocculation-sedimentation and filtration through olive stones. In this work, performance modelization and preliminary cost analysis of a final reverse osmosis (RO) process was examined on pilot scale for ulterior purification of OMW-2 with the goal of closing the loop of the industrial production process. Reduction of concentration polarization on the RO membrane equal to 26.3% was provided upon increment of the turbulence over the membrane to values of Reynolds number equal to 2.6 × 104. Medium operating pressure (25 bar) should be chosen to achieve significant steady state permeate flux (21.1 L h-1 m-2) and minimize membrane fouling, ensuring less than 14.7% flux drop and up to 90% feed recovery. Under these conditions, irreversible fouling below 0.08 L h-2 m-2 bar-1 helped increase the longevity of the membrane and reduce the costs of the treatment. For 10 m3 day-1 OMW-2 on average, 47.4 m2 required membrane area and 0.87 € m-3 total costs for the RO process were estimated.

  3. Pilot-scale production of lipase using palm oil mill effluent as a basal medium and its immobilization by selected materials.

    PubMed

    Asih, Devi Ratna; Alam, Md Zahangir; Alam, Zahangir; Salleh, Md Noor; Salleh, Noor; Salihu, Aliyu

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale production of lipase using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as a fermentation basal medium was carried out, and parameters for immobilization of the produced lipase were optimized. Lipase production in a 300-L bioreactor was performed using two proposed strategies, constant power per volume (P/V) and constant tip speed. Moreover, lipase immobilization on different materials was also investigated. Lipase production was performed using liquid-state bioconversion of POME as the medium and Candida cylindracea as the inoculum. The fermentation medium was composed of 1% total suspended solids (TSS) of POME, 0.5% (w/v) peptone, 0.7% (v/v) Tween-80, and 2.2% inoculum. The medium composition was decided on the basis of the medium optimization results of a previous study. The fermentation was carried out for 48 h at 30°C and pH 6. The maximum lipase production was 5.72U/mL and 21.34 U/mL, obtained from the scale-up strategies of constant tip speed and P/V, respectively. Four accessible support materials were screened for their potential use in immobilization. The most suitable support material was found to be activated carbon, with a maximum immobilization of 94%.

  4. Pilot-scale steam explosion for xylose production from oil palm empty fruit bunches and the use of xylose for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Duangwang, Sairudee; Ruengpeerakul, Taweesak; Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Yamsaengsung, Ram; Sangwichien, Chayanoot

    2016-03-01

    Pilot-scale steam explosion equipments were designed and constructed, to experimentally solubilize xylose from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) and also to enhance an enzyme accessibility of the residual cellulose pulp. The OPEFB was chemically pretreated prior to steam explosion at saturated steam (SS) and superheated steam (SHS) conditions. The acid pretreated OPEFB gave the highest xylose recovery of 87.58 ± 0.21 g/kg dried OPEFB in the liquid fraction after explosion at SHS condition. These conditions also gave the residual cellulose pulp with high enzymatic accessibility of 73.54 ± 0.41%, which is approximately threefold that of untreated OPEFB. This study has shown that the acid pretreatment prior to SHS explosion is an effective method to enhance both xylose extraction and enzyme accessibility of the exploded OPEFB. Moreover, the xylose solution obtained in this manner could directly be fermented by Candida shehatae TISTR 5843 giving high ethanol yield of 0.30 ± 0.08 g/g xylose.

  5. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus brevis in Low-fat Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Treatment: A Pilot-scale Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gun Joon; Han, Bok Kung; Choi, Hyuk Joon; Kang, Shin Ho; Baick, Seung Chun; Lee, Dong-Un

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on microbial inactivation and the physical properties of low-fat milk. Milk inoculated with Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or Lactobacillus brevis was supplied to a pilot-scale PEF treatment system at a flow rate of 30 L/h. Pulses with an electric field strength of 10 kV/cm and a pulse width of 30 μs were applied to the milk with total pulse energies of 50-250 kJ/L achieved by varying the pulse frequency. The inactivation curves of the test microorganisms were biphasic with an initial lag phase (or shoulder) followed by a phase of rapid inactivation. PEF treatments with a total pulse energy of 200 kJ/L resulted in a 4.5-log reduction in E. coli, a 4.4-log reduction in L. brevis, and a 6.0-log reduction in S. cerevisiae. Total pulse energies of 200 and 250 kJ/L resulted in greater than 5-log reductions in microbial counts in stored PEF-treated milk, and the growth of surviving microorganisms was slow during storage for 15 d at 4℃. PEF treatment did not change milk physical properties such as pH, color, or particle-size distribution (p<0.05). These results indicate that a relatively low electric-field strength of 10 kV/cm can be used to pasteurize low-fat milk.

  6. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus brevis in Low-fat Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Treatment: A Pilot-scale Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bok Kung; Choi, Hyuk Joon; Kang, Shin Ho; Baick, Seung Chun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on microbial inactivation and the physical properties of low-fat milk. Milk inoculated with Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or Lactobacillus brevis was supplied to a pilot-scale PEF treatment system at a flow rate of 30 L/h. Pulses with an electric field strength of 10 kV/cm and a pulse width of 30 μs were applied to the milk with total pulse energies of 50-250 kJ/L achieved by varying the pulse frequency. The inactivation curves of the test microorganisms were biphasic with an initial lag phase (or shoulder) followed by a phase of rapid inactivation. PEF treatments with a total pulse energy of 200 kJ/L resulted in a 4.5-log reduction in E. coli, a 4.4-log reduction in L. brevis, and a 6.0-log reduction in S. cerevisiae. Total pulse energies of 200 and 250 kJ/L resulted in greater than 5-log reductions in microbial counts in stored PEF-treated milk, and the growth of surviving microorganisms was slow during storage for 15 d at 4℃. PEF treatment did not change milk physical properties such as pH, color, or particle-size distribution (p<0.05). These results indicate that a relatively low electric-field strength of 10 kV/cm can be used to pasteurize low-fat milk. PMID:26877640

  7. Investigation of a sewage-integrated technology combining an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) and an electrochemical reactor in a pilot-scale plant.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruihua; Liu, Yan; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Xudong; Zeng, Ciyuan; Li, Liang

    2011-09-15

    A sewage-integrated treatment system (SITS) for the treatment of municipal wastewater, consisting of an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor to remove soluble organic matter and an electrochemical (EC) reactor to oxidize the NH(3)-N, was evaluated. The performance of the EGSB reactor was monitored for 12 months in a pilot-scale plant. Iron shavings were added to the EGSB reactor on the sixtieth day to improve the removal efficiency of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS) and total phosphorus (TP). After the iron shavings were added, the effluent COD, SS and TP decreased from 104 to 46 mg L(-1), 21 to 8.6 mg L(-1) and 3.62 to 1.36 mg L(-1), respectively. Moreover, in the EC reactor, which was equipped with IrO(2)/Ti anodes, the NH(3)-N and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations decreased from 25 to 12 mg L(-1) and 29 to 15 mg L(-1), respectively. The NH(3)-N was directly oxidized to N(2), resulting in no secondary pollution. The results demonstrated the possibility of removing carbon and nutrients in a SITS with high efficiency. The system runs efficiently and with a flexible operation, making it suitable for low-strength wastewater. The results and parameters presented here can provide references for the practical project.

  8. Exploring the potential synergistic effects of chemical disinfectants and UV on the inactivation of free-living bacteria and treatment of biofilms in a pilot-scale system.

    PubMed

    Vankerckhoven, E; Verbessem, B; Crauwels, S; Declerck, P; Muylaert, K; Willems, K A; Rediers, H

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to explore possible synergistic or additive effects of combinations of chemical disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide) and UV in their efficacy in inactivating free-living bacteria and removing biofilms. In contrast to most studies, this study examines disinfection of municipal water in a pilot-scale system using a mixed bacterial suspension, which enables a better simulation of the conditions encountered in actual industrial environments. It was shown that the combination of either hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, or chlorine dioxide with UV yielded additive effects on the inactivation of free-living bacteria. Actual synergy was observed for the combination of UV and 5 ppm hydrogen peroxide. Regarding biofilm treatment, additive effects were observed using the combination of hydrogen peroxide and UV. The promising results obtained in this study indicate that the combination of UV and chemical disinfectants can considerably reduce the amount of chemicals required for the effective disinfection and treatment of biofilms.

  9. Evaluating the efficiency and temporal variation of pilot-scale constructed wetlands and steel slag phosphorus removing filters for treating dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Martin S; Drizo, Aleksandra; Rizzo, Donna M; Druschel, Greg; Hayden, Nancy; Twohig, Eamon

    2010-07-01

    The performance and temporal variation of three hybrid and three integrated, saturated flow, pilot-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) were tested for treating dairy farm effluent. The three hybrid systems each consisted of two CWs in-series, with horizontal and vertical flow. Integrated systems consisted of a CW (horizontal and vertical flow) followed by a steel slag filter for removing phosphorus. Time series temporal semivariogram analyses of measured water parameters illustrated different treatment efficiencies existed over the course of one season. As a result, data were then divided into separate time period groups and CW systems were compared using ANOVA for parameter measurements within each distinct time period group. Both hybrid and integrated CWs were efficient in removing organics; however, hybrid systems had significantly higher performance (p<0.05) during peak vegetation growth. Compared to hybrid CWs, integrated CWs achieved significantly higher DRP reduction (p<0.05) throughout the period of investigation and higher ammonia reduction (p<0.05) in integrated CWs was observed in late summer. Geochemical modeling demonstrates hydroxyapatite and vivianite minerals forming on steel slag likely control the fate of phosphate ions given the reducing conditions prevalent in the system. The model also demonstrates how the wastewater:slag ratio can be adjusted to maximize phosphorus removal while staying at a near-neutral pH.

  10. A fuzzy-logic-based model to predict biogas and methane production rates in a pilot-scale mesophilic UASB reactor treating molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Turkdogan-Aydinol, F Ilter; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan

    2010-10-15

    A MIMO (multiple inputs and multiple outputs) fuzzy-logic-based model was developed to predict biogas and methane production rates in a pilot-scale 90-L mesophilic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating molasses wastewater. Five input variables such as volumetric organic loading rate (OLR), volumetric total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal rate (R(V)), influent alkalinity, influent pH and effluent pH were fuzzified by the use of an artificial intelligence-based approach. Trapezoidal membership functions with eight levels were conducted for the fuzzy subsets, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system was used to implement a total of 134 rules in the IF-THEN format. The product (prod) and the centre of gravity (COG, centroid) methods were employed as the inference operator and defuzzification methods, respectively. Fuzzy-logic predicted results were compared with the outputs of two exponential non-linear regression models derived in this study. The UASB reactor showed a remarkable performance on the treatment of molasses wastewater, with an average TCOD removal efficiency of 93 (+/-3)% and an average volumetric TCOD removal rate of 6.87 (+/-3.93) kg TCOD(removed)/m(3)-day, respectively. Findings of this study clearly indicated that, compared to non-linear regression models, the proposed MIMO fuzzy-logic-based model produced smaller deviations and exhibited a superior predictive performance on forecasting of both biogas and methane production rates with satisfactory determination coefficients over 0.98.

  11. Performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland for stormwater runoff and domestic sewage treatment on the banks of a polluted urban river.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weijie; Li, Zhu; Cheng, Shuiping; Liang, Wei; He, Feng; Wu, Zhenbin

    2014-01-01

    To examine the performance of a constructed wetland system on stormwater runoff and domestic sewage (SRS) treatment in central east China, two parallel pilot-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) systems were operated for one year. Each ICW consisted of a down-flow bed, an up-flow bed and a horizontal subsurface flow bed. The average removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), total suspended solids (TSS), ammonia (NH4(+)-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were 63.6, 91.9, 38.7, 43.0 and 70.0%, respectively, and the corresponding amounts of pollutant retention were approximately 368.3, 284.9, 23.2, 44.6 and 5.9 g m(-2) yr(-1), respectively. High hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 200 mm/d and low water temperatures (<15 °C) resulted in significant decrease in removals for TP and NH4(+)-N, but had no significant effects on removals of COD and TSS. These results indicated that the operation of this ICW at higher HLR (200 mm/d) might be effective and feasible for TSS and COD removal, but for acceptable removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus it should be operated at lower HLR (100 mm/d). This kind of ICW could be employed as an effective technique for SRS treatment.

  12. Analysis of switchgrass-derived bio-oil and associated aqueous phase generated in a semi-pilot scale auger pyrolyzer

    DOE PAGES

    Ren, Shoujie; Ye, X. Philip; Borole, Abhijeet P.; ...

    2016-03-30

    To efficiently utilize water-soluble compounds in bio-oil and evaluate the potential effects of these compounds on processes such as microbial electrolysis, our study investigated the physico-chemical properties of bio-oil and the associated aqueous phase generated from switchgrass using a semi-pilot scale auger pyrolyzer. Combining separation and detection strategies with organic solvent extraction, an array of analytical instruments and methods were used to identify and quantify the chemical constituents. Separation of an aqueous phase from crude bio-oil was achieved by adding water (water: crude bio-oil at 4:1 in weight), which resulted in a partition of 61 wt.% of the organic compoundsmore » into a bio-oil aqueous phase (BOAP). GC/MS analysis for BOAP identified over 40 compounds of which 16 were quantified. Acetic acid, propionic acid, and levoglucosan are the major components in BOAP. In addition, a significant portion of chemicals that have the potential to be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels were extracted to BOAP (77 wt.% of the alcohols, 61 wt.% of the furans, and 52 wt.% of the phenolic compounds in crude bio-oil). Valorization of the BOAP may require conversion methods capable of accommodating a very broad substrate specificity. Ultimately, a better separation strategy is needed to selectively remove the acidic and polar components from crude bio-oil to improve economic feasibility of biorefinery operations.« less

  13. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage.

    PubMed

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J

    2016-05-01

    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1).

  14. Influence of combustion temperature on formation of nitro-PAHs and decomposition and removal behaviors in pilot-scale waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mafumi; Noma, Yukio

    2009-04-01

    To gain a better understanding of the formation and decomposition behaviors of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) in solid waste combustion, incineration experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator. Nitro-PAHs were formed during primary combustion, although the amounts formed were several orders of magnitude lower than those of the PAHs, PCDD/Fs, and the dioxin-like PCBs. Increasing the temperature of primary combustion from 690 to 890 degrees C resulted in a significant decrease in the formation of most of the nitro-PAH compounds studied. More than 99% of nitro-PAHs formed in the primary combustion zone were decomposed in the secondary combustion chamber at 900 degrees C with a 3-s residence time. The results indicate that appropriate secondary combustion conditions are the key to controlling emissions of nitro-PAHs. Under optimized conditions, the amounts of nitro-PAHs in the final off gases and in the ashes were significantly lower than those present in the incinerator input. Overall destruction efficiencies of nitro-PAHs reported in this study were 95.81-98.33%, indicating that emission of nitro-PAHs from solid waste combustion can be minimized by appropriate combustion control.

  15. PILOT-SCALE TEST RESULTS OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT THE HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA -11364

    SciTech Connect

    CORBETT JE; TEDESCH AR; WILSON RA; BECK TH; LARKIN J

    2011-02-14

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORPIDOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper summarizes results of a pilot-scale test program conducted during calendar year 2010 as part of the ongoing technology maturation development scope for the WFE.

  16. Performance Modeling and Cost Analysis of a Pilot-Scale Reverse Osmosis Process for the Final Purification of Olive Mill Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Hodaifa, Gassan; Victor-Ortega, Maria Dolores; Martinez-Ferez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A secondary treatment for olive mill wastewater coming from factories working with the two-phase olive oil production process (OMW-2) has been set-up on an industrial scale in an olive oil mill in the premises of Jaén (Spain). The secondary treatment comprises Fenton-like oxidation followed by flocculation-sedimentation and filtration through olive stones. In this work, performance modelization and preliminary cost analysis of a final reverse osmosis (RO) process was examined on pilot scale for ulterior purification of OMW-2 with the goal of closing the loop of the industrial production process. Reduction of concentration polarization on the RO membrane equal to 26.3% was provided upon increment of the turbulence over the membrane to values of Reynolds number equal to 2.6 × 104. Medium operating pressure (25 bar) should be chosen to achieve significant steady state permeate flux (21.1 L h−1 m−2) and minimize membrane fouling, ensuring less than 14.7% flux drop and up to 90% feed recovery. Under these conditions, irreversible fouling below 0.08 L h−2 m−2 bar−1 helped increase the longevity of the membrane and reduce the costs of the treatment. For 10 m3 day−1 OMW-2 on average, 47.4 m2 required membrane area and 0.87 € m−3 total costs for the RO process were estimated. PMID:24957058

  17. Pilot scale biodiesel production from microbial oil of Rhodosporidium toruloides DEBB 5533 using sugarcane juice: Performance in diesel engine and preliminary economic study.

    PubMed

    Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Dalmas Neto, Carlos José; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Sydney, Eduardo Bittencourt; da Costa, Eduardo Scopel Ferreira; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza

    2016-10-21

    A successful pilot-scale process for biodiesel production from microbial oil (Biooil) produced by Rhodosporidium toruloides DEBB 5533 is presented. Using fed-batch strategy (1000L working volume), a lipid productivity of 0.44g/L.h was obtained using a low-cost medium composed by sugarcane juice and urea. The microbial oil was used for biodiesel production and its performance was evaluated in diesel engine tests, showing very good performance, especially for the blend B20 SCO, when operating at 2500rpm with lower pollutant emissions (CO2 - 220% less; CO - 7-fold less; NOX 50% less and no detectable HC emissions (<0.11ppm)) when compared with the blends of standard biofuel from soybean oil. A preliminary analysis showed that microbial biodiesel is economically competitive (US$ 0.76/L) when compared to the vegetable biodiesel (US$ 0.81/L). Besides, the yield of biodiesel from microbial oil is higher (4172L/ha of cultivated sugarcane) that represents 6.3-fold the yield of standard biodiesel (661L/ha of cultivated soybean).

  18. Laccase mediator systems for eco-friendly production of medium-density fiberboard (MDF) on a pilot scale: physicochemical analysis of the reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Euring, Markus; Rühl, Martin; Ritter, Nina; Kües, Ursula; Kharazipour, Alireza

    2011-10-01

    Increasing prices of petrochemical resins and possible harmful formaldehyde emissions from conventionally produced wood composites have resulted in increased interest in enzymatic binder systems as environmentally friendly alternatives for gluing lignocellulosic products. In this study, laccase mediator systems (LMSs) were used to activate lignin on wood fiber surfaces in the pilot-scale production of medium-density fiberboard (MDF) using a dry process. Three different mediators were applied: 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), and acetosyringone (AS) of which HBA performed best. The mechanical properties of the manufactured boards produced with thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fibers, laccase, and HBA fulfilled all required European standards for wood-based panels. Oxygen consumption rates of the different LMSs and (13)C NMR spectroscopy results for treated TMP fibers were obtained for qualitative and quantitative analysis of lignin activation. The results show that reactions were most effective within the first 30 min of incubation. Oxygen consumption was fastest and highest for the LMS using HBA. (13)C NMR spectroscopy indicated the highest decrease of aromatic groups in the wood fiber lignin with this LMS. The data correlated well with the quality of the MDF. The required enzymatic reaction times allowed direct integration of the LMS into standard MDF production techniques. The results indicate that application of LMSs has a high potential for environmentally friendly MDF production.

  19. UV/TiO2 photocatalytic disinfection of carbon-bacteria complexes in activated carbon-filtered water: Laboratory and pilot-scale investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin Hui; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Yaqian; Liu, Cuiyun; Liu, Ranbin

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of carbon-bacteria complexes in activated carbon filtered water has posed a public health problem regarding the biological safety of drinking water. The application of combined process of ultraviolet radiation and nanostructure titanium dioxide (UV/TiO2) photocatalysis for the disinfection of carbon-bacteria complexes were assessed in this study. Results showed that a 1.07 Lg disinfection rate can be achieved using a UV dose of 20 mJ cm(-2), while the optimal UV intensity was 0.01 mW cm(-2). Particle sizes ≥8 μm decreased the disinfection efficiency, whereas variation in particle number in activated carbon-filtered water did not significantly affect the disinfection efficiency. Photoreactivation ratio was reduced from 12.07% to 1.69% when the UV dose was increased from 5 mJ cm(-2) to 20 mJ cm(-2). Laboratory and on-site pilot-scale experiments have demonstrated that UV/TiO2 photocatalytic disinfection technology is capable of controlling the risk posed by carbon-bacteria complexes and securing drinking water safety.

  20. Anaerobic treatment of a medium strength industrial wastewater at low-temperature and short hydraulic retention time: a pilot-scale experience.

    PubMed

    Esparza Soto, M; Solís Morelos, C; Hernández Torres, J J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of a pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor during the treatment of cereal-processing industry wastewater under low-temperature conditions (17 degrees C) for more than 300 days. The applied organic loading rate (OLR(appl)) was gradually increased from 4 to 6 and 8 kg COD(sol)/m3d by increasing the influent soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD(sol)), while keeping the hydraulic retention time constant (5.2 h). The removal efficiency was high (82 to 92%) and slightly decreased after increasing the influent COD(sol) and the OLR(appl). The highest removed organic loading rate (OLR(rem)) was reached when the UASB reactor was operated at 8 kg COD(sol)/m3d and it was two times higher than that obtained for an OLR(appl) of 4 kg COD(sol)/m3d. Some disturbances were observed during the experimentation. The formation of biogas pockets in the sludge bed significantly complicated the biogas production quantification, but did not affect the reactor performance. The volatile fatty acids in the effluent were low, but increased as the OLR(appl) increased, which caused an increment of the effluent COD(sol). Anaerobic treatment at low temperature was a good option for the biological pre-treatment of cereal processing industry wastewater.

  1. Culture scale-up and immobilisation of a mixed methanotrophic consortium for methane remediation in pilot-scale bio-filters.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba; Saravanan, Nadarajan; Cirés, Samuel; Alvarez-Roa, Carlos; Razaghi, Ali; Chidambarampadmavathy, Karthigeyan; Velu, Chinnathambi; Subashchandrabose, Gobalakrishnan; Heimann, Kirsten

    2017-02-01

    Robust methanotrophic consortia for methane (CH4) remediation and by-product development are presently not readily available for industrial use. In this study, a mixed methanotrophic consortium (MMC), sequentially enriched from a marine sediment, was assessed for CH4 removal efficiency and potential biomass-generated by-product development. Suitable packing material for bio-filters to support MMC biofilm establishment and growth was also evaluated. The enriched MMC removed ∼7-13% CH4 under a very high gas flow rate (2.5 L min(-1); 20-25% CH4) in continuous-stirred tank reactors (∼10 L working volume) and the biomass contained long-chain fatty acids (i.e. C16 and C18). Cultivation of the MMC on plastic bio-balls abated ∼95-97% CH4 in pilot-scale non-sterile outdoor-operated bio-filters (0.1 L min(-1); 1% CH4). Contamination by cyanobacteria had beneficial effects on treating low-level CH4, by providing additional oxygen for methane oxidation by MMC, suggesting that the co-cultivation of MMC with cyanobacterial mats does not interfere with and may actually be beneficial for remediation of CH4 and CO2 at industrial scale.

  2. Pilot-scale studies of soil vapor extraction and bioventing for remediation of a gasoline spill at Cameron Station, Alexandria, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.; Joss, C.J.; Martino, L.E.

    1994-07-01

    Approximately 10,000 gal of spilled gasoline and unknown amounts Of trichloroethylene and benzene were discovered at the US Army`s Cameron Station facility. Because the base is to be closed and turned over to the city of Alexandria in 1995, the Army sought the most rapid and cost-effective means of spill remediation. At the request of the Baltimore District of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Argonne conducted a pilot-scale study to determine the feasibility of vapor extraction and bioventing for resolving remediation problems and to critique a private firm`s vapor-extraction design. Argonne staff, working with academic and private-sector participants, designed and implemented a new systems approach to sampling, analysis and risk assessment. The US Geological Survey`s AIRFLOW model was adapted for the study to simulate the performance of possible remediation designs. A commercial vapor-extraction machine was used to remove nearly 500 gal of gasoline from Argonne-installed horizontal wells. By incorporating numerous design comments from the Argonne project team, field personnel improved the system`s performance. Argonne staff also determined that bioventing stimulated indigenous bacteria to bioremediate the gasoline spin. The Corps of Engineers will use Argonne`s pilot-study approach to evaluate remediation systems at field operation sites in several states.

  3. Using sulfite chemistry for robust bioconversion of Douglas-fir forest residue to bioethanol at high titer and lignosulfonate: a pilot-scale evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J Y; Chandra, M Subhosh; Gu, Feng; Gleisner, Roland; Reiner, Rick; Sessions, John; Marrs, Gevan; Gao, Johnway; Anderson, Dwight

    2015-03-01

    This study demonstrated at the pilot-scale (50 kg) use of Douglas-fir forest harvest residue, an underutilized forest biomass, for the production of high titer and high yield bioethanol using sulfite chemistry without solid-liquor separation and detoxification. Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome the Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) was directly applied to the ground forest harvest residue with no further mechanical size reduction, at a low temperature of 145°C and calcium bisulfite or total SO2 loadings of only 6.5 or 6.6 wt% on oven dry forest residue, respectively. The low temperature pretreatment facilitated high solids fermentation of the un-detoxified pretreated whole slurry. An ethanol yield of 282 L/tonne, equivalent to 70% theoretical, with a titer of 42 g/L was achieved. SPORL solubilized approximately 45% of the wood lignin as directly marketable lignosulfonate with properties equivalent to or better than a commercial lignosulfonate, important to improve the economics of biofuel production.

  4. Effects of poly aluminum chloride dosing positions on the performance of a pilot scale anoxic/oxic-membrane bioreactor (A/O-MBR).

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaodong; Qu, Fangshu; Ding, An; Bai, Langming; Li, Guibai; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Heng

    2015-01-01

    The effects of poly aluminum chloride (PACl) dosing positions on the performance of a pilot scale anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor were investigated. PACl dosage was optimized at 19.5 mg Al2O3/L by jar test. Nutrients removal efficiencies and sludge properties were systematically investigated during periods with no PACl dosing (phase I), with PACl dosing in oxic tank (phase II) and then in anoxic tank (phase III). The results showed that total phosphorus removal efficiency increased from 18 to 88% in phase II and 85% in phase III with less than 0.5 mg P/L in effluent. Ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies reached 99% in all phases and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies reached 92%, 91% and 90% in the three phases, respectively. Total nitrogen removal efficiency decreased from 59% in phase I to 49% in phases II and III. Dosing PACl in the oxic tank resulted in smaller sludge particle size, higher zeta potential, better sludge settleability and lower membrane fouling rate in comparison with dosing PACl in the anoxic tank.

  5. Abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria on biological activated carbon in a pilot-scale drinking water treatment plant with different treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Ikuro; Nakagaki, Hirotaka; Kurisu, Futoshi; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    The effects of different placements of rapid sand filtration on nitrification performance of BAC treatment in a pilot-scale plant were evaluated. In this plant, rapid sand filtration was placed after ozonation-BAC treatment in Process (A), while it preceded ozonation-BAC treatment in Process (B). Analysis of amoA genes of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) combined with nitrification potential test was conducted. BAC from Process (A) demonstrated slightly higher nitrification potential at every sampling occasion. This might be due to higher abundances of AOB on BAC from Process (A) than those on BAC from Process (B). However, AOA rather than AOB could be predominant ammonia-oxidizers in BAC treatment regardless of the position of rapid sand filtration. The highest nitrification potential was observed for BAC from both processes in February when the highest abundances of AOA-amoA and AOB-amoA genes were detected. Since rapid sand filtration was placed after BAC treatment in Process (A), residual aluminum concentration in BAC influent was higher in Process (A). However, adverse effects of aluminum on nitrification activity were not observed. These results suggest that factors other than aluminum concentration in different treatment processes could possibly have some influence on abundances of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms on BAC.

  6. The color removal and fate of organic pollutants in a pilot-scale MBR-NF combined process treating textile wastewater with high water recovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Jianxing; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    A combination of membrane bioreactor (MBR) and nanofiltration (NF) was tested at pilot-scale treating textile wastewater from the wastewater treatment station of a textile mill in Wuqing District of Tianjin (China). The MBR-NF process showed a much better treatment efficiency on the removal of the chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, color and turbidity in comparison with the conventional processes. The water recovery rate was enhanced to over 90% through the recycling of NF concentrate to the MBR, while the MBR-NF showed a stable permeate water quality that met with standards and could be directly discharged or further reused. The recycled NF concentrate caused an accumulation of refractory compounds in the MBR, which significantly influenced the treatment efficiency of the MBR. However, the sludge characteristics showed that the activated sludge activity was not obviously inhibited. The results of fluorescence spectra and molecular weight distribution indicated that those recalcitrant pollutants were mostly protein-like substances and a small amount of humic acid-like substances (650-6,000 Da), which contributed to membrane fouling of NF. Although the penetrated protein-like substances caused the residual color in NF permeate, the MBR-NF process was suitable for the advanced treatment and reclamation of textile wastewater under high water yield.

  7. Pilot-scale test of an advanced, integrated wastewater treatment process with sludge reduction, inorganic solids separation, phosphorus recovery, and enhanced nutrient removal (SIPER).

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng; Ji, Fangying; Wang, Jing; Fan, Jianping; Guan, Wei; Chen, Qingkong

    2013-08-01

    Sludge reduction technologies are increasingly important in wastewater treatment, but have some defects. In order to remedy them, a novel, integrated process including sludge reduction, inorganic solids separation, phosphorus recovery, and enhanced nutrient removal was developed. The pilot-scale system was operated steadily at a treatment scale of 10 m(3)/d for 90 days. The results showed excellent nutrient removal, with average removal efficiencies for NH4(+)-N, TN, TP, and COD reaching 98.2 ± 1.34%, 75.5 ± 3.46%, 95.3 ± 1.65%, and 92.7 ± 2.49%, respectively. The ratio of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) to mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) in the system gradually increased, from 0.33 to 0.52. The process effectively prevented the accumulation of inert or inorganic solids in activated sludge. Phosphorus was recovered as a crystalline product with aluminum ion from wastewater. The observed sludge yield Yobs of the system was 0.103 gVSS/g COD, demonstrating that the system's sludge reduction potential is excellent.

  8. Effect of advanced oxidation on N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation and microbial ecology during pilot-scale biological activated carbon filtration.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Stanford, Ben; Dickenson, Eric; Khunjar, Wendell O; Homme, Carissa L; Rosenfeldt, Erik J; Sharp, Jonathan O

    2017-04-15

    Water treatment combining advanced oxidative processes with subsequent exposure to biological activated carbon (BAC) holds promise for the attenuation of recalcitrant pollutants. Here we contrast oxidation and subsequent biofiltration of treated wastewater effluent employing either ozone or UV/H2O2 followed by BAC during pilot-scale implementation. Both treatment trains largely met target water quality goals by facilitating the removal of a suite of trace organics and bulk water parameters. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation was observed in ozone fed BAC columns during biofiltration and to a lesser extent in UV/H2O2 fed columns and was most pronounced at 20 min of empty bed contact time (EBCT) when compared to shorter EBCTs evaluated. While microbial populations were highly similar in the upper reaches, deeper samples revealed a divergence within and between BAC filtration systems where EBCT was identified to be a significant environmental predictor for shifts in microbial populations. The abundance of Nitrospira in the top samples of both columns provides an explanation for the oxidation of nitrite and corresponding increases in nitrate concentrations during BAC transit and support interplay between nitrogen cycling with nitrosamine formation. The results of this study demonstrate that pretreatments using ozone versus UV/H2O2 impart modest differences to the overall BAC microbial population structural and functional attributes, and further highlight the need to evaluate NDMA formation prior to full-scale implementation of BAC in potable reuse applications.

  9. Performance of three pilot-scale hybrid constructed wetlands for total coliforms and Escherichia coli removal from primary effluent - a 2-year study in a subtropical climate.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Florentina; Carreón-Álvarez, Alejandra

    2015-06-01

    Three pilot-scale two-stage hybrid constructed wetlands were evaluated in order to compare their efficiency for total coliforms (TCol) and Escherichia coli removal and to analyze their performances in two 1-year periods of experimentation. System I consisted of a horizontal flow (HF) constructed wetland (CW) followed by a stabilization pond. System II was also configured with a HF CW as a first stage which was then followed by a vertical flow (VF) CW as a second stage. System III was configured with a VF CW followed by a HF CW. In the first year of evaluation, the HF-VF system was the most effective for TCol removal (p < 0.05) and achieved a reduction of 2.2 log units. With regard to E. coli removal, the HF-VF and VF-HF systems were the most effective (p < 0.05) with average reductions of 3.2 and 3.8 log units, respectively. In the second year, the most effective were those with a VF component for both TCol and E. coli which underwent average reductions of 2.34-2.44 and 3.44-3.74 log units, respectively. The reduction achieved in E. coli densities, in both years, satisfy the World Health Organization guidelines that require a 3-4 log unit pathogen reduction in wastewater treatment systems.

  10. Effects of tidal operation on pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland treating sulfate rich wastewater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongbing; Vymazal, Jan; Kuschk, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Three different flow regimes were carried out in a pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland-treating sulfate rich wastewater contaminated with monochlorobenzene (MCB) and perchloroethene (PCE). The three regimes were continuous flow, 7-day cycle discontinuous flow, and 2.5-day cycle discontinuous flow. The results show that intensifying the tidal regime (2.5-day cycle) significantly enhanced MCB removal before 2 m from the inlet and increasing PCE removal efficiency at 0.5 m. The PCE dechlorination process was promoted with tidal operation, especially under the 2.5-day cycle regime, with significant increases of cis-1,2- dichloroethenes (DCEs), vinyl chloride (VC), and ethene, but trans-1,2-DCE was significantly decreased after tidal operation. Due to the high sulfate concentration in the influent, sulfide was observed in pore water up to 20 and 23 mg L(-1) under continuous flow and 7-day cycle regime, respectively. However, sulfide concentrations decreased to less than 4 mg L(-1) under intensified tidal operation (2.5-day cycle). The increase of oxygen concentration in pore water through intensified tidal operation resulted in better MCB removal performance and the successful inhibition of sulfate reduction. In conclusion, intensifying tidal operation is an effective approach for the treatment of chlorinated hydrocarbons and inhibiting sulfide accumulation in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland.

  11. Long-term operation of a novel pilot-scale six tanks alternately operating activated sludge process in treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, R N; Abu-Alhail, S; Xi-Wu, L

    2014-08-01

    The performance of a new pilot-scale six tanks activated sludge process has been evaluated for 303 d, receiving real domestic wastewater with a flow rate of 15-24.4 L/h. Partial nitrification via nitrite and microbial community structure were investigated in this system. The result shows that the nitrite accumulation rate was achieved successfully over 94% in the last aerobic compartment through a combination of short hydraulic retention time and low dissolved oxygen (DO) level. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was used to correlate ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) numbers with nutrient removal via nitrite. It was shown that in response to complete and partial nitrification modes, the numbers of AOB population were 7.7 x 10(7) cells/g mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and 5.31 x 10(8) cells/g MLSS, respectively. The morphology of the sludge indicated that there is a small rod-shaped and spherical cluster which was mainly dominantly bacterial according to scanning electron microscope. Higher pollutant removal efficiencies of 86.2%, 98%, and 96.1%, for total nitrogen, NH4+ - N, and total phosphorus, respectively, were achieved by a long-term operation of the six tanks activated sludge process at a low DO concentration and low chemical oxygen demand to nitrogen ratio which were approximately equal to the complete nitrification-ldenitrification with the addition of an external carbon source at a concentration of 1.5-2.5 mg/L.

  12. Evaluation and characterization during the anaerobic digestion of high-strength kitchen waste slurry via a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiaolan; Huang, Zhenxing; Ruan, Wenquan; Yan, Lintao; Miao, Hengfeng; Ren, Hongyan; Zhao, Mingxing

    2015-10-01

    The anaerobic digestion of high-strength kitchen waste slurry via a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was investigated at two different operational modes, including no sludge discharge and daily sludge discharge of 20 L. The AnMBR provided excellent and reliable permeate quality with high COD removal efficiencies over 99%. The obvious accumulations of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and Ca(2+) were found in the anaerobic digester by precipitation and agglomeration. Though the physicochemical process contributed to attenuating the free LCFAs toxicity on anaerobic digestion, the digestion efficiency was partly influenced for the low bioavailability of those precipitates. Moreover, higher organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.8 kg COD/(m(3) d) and digestion efficiency of 78% were achieved as the AnMBR was stably operated with sludge discharge, where the membrane fouling propensity was also alleviated, indicating the crucial significance of SRT control on the treatment of high-strength kitchen waste slurry via AnMBRs.

  13. Pilot-scale tertiary MBBR nitrification at 1°C: characterization of ammonia removal rate, solids settleability and biofilm characteristics.

    PubMed

    Young, Bradley; Delatolla, Robert; Ren, Baisha; Kennedy, Kevin; Laflamme, Edith; Stintzi, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Pilot-scale moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is used to investigate the kinetics and biofilm response of municipal, tertiary nitrification at 1°C. The research demonstrates that significant rates of tertiary MBBR nitrification are attainable and stable for extended periods of operation at 1°C, with a maximum removal rate of 230 gN/m(3) d at 1°C. At conventional nitrogen loading rates, low ammonia effluent concentrations below 5 mg-N/L were achieved at 1°C. The biofilm thickness and dry weight biofilm mass (massdw) were shown to be stable, with thickness values showing a correlation to the protein/polysaccharide ratio of the biofilm extracellular polymeric substances. Lastly, tertiary MBBR nitrification is shown to increase the effluent suspended solids concentrations by approximately 3 mg total suspended solids /L, with 19-60% of effluent solids being removed after 30 min of settling. The settleability of the effluent solids was shown to be correlated to the nitrogen loading of the MBBR system.

  14. Use of limestone for pH control in autotrophic denitrification: continuous flow experiments in pilot-scale packed bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Koenig, A; Liu, L H

    2002-10-23

    The sulfur-utilizing autotrophic denitrification process consumes about 4 g alkalinity (as CaCO(3)) per g NO(3)-N reduced resulting in a decrease of pH. Using limestone as an alkalinity source to control the pH, autotrophic denitrification of synthetic wastewater with varying alkalinity to NO(3)-N ratios was evaluated in pilot-scale packed bed reactors operating in the upflow mode, which contained limestone and sulfur granules in different volumetric ratios. The results demonstrated that limestone supplies effective buffering capacity, if the initial alkalinity of the wastewater is insufficient for complete denitrification. The alkalinity supplied by limestone is a function of hydraulic retention time and the pH, which in turn depends on the extent of biological denitrification and the initial alkalinity to NO(3)-N ratio in the wastewater. The dissolution rate of limestone is inversely proportional to pH for pH values lower than 7.1. It was found that the ratio of influent alkalinity to theoretically required alkalinity in the wastewater should not be lower than 0.5 in order to prevent a decrease in nitrate removal performance. Based on the established chemical-biological interactive relationships, a multilayer approach was proposed to determine the optimum sulfur:limestone ratio for nitrate removal under steady state conditions, taking into account the characteristics of the influent wastewater.

  15. Pilot-scale data provide enhanced estimates of the life cycle energy and emissions profile of algae biofuels produced via hydrothermal liquefaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowei; Saydah, Benjamin; Eranki, Pragnya; Colosi, Lisa M; Greg Mitchell, B; Rhodes, James; Clarens, Andres F

    2013-11-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used widely to estimate the environmental implications of deploying algae-to-energy systems even though no full-scale facilities have yet to be built. Here, data from a pilot-scale facility using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is used to estimate the life cycle profiles at full scale. Three scenarios (lab-, pilot-, and full-scale) were defined to understand how development in the industry could impact its life cycle burdens. HTL-derived algae fuels were found to have lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than petroleum fuels. Algae-derived gasoline had significantly lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol. Most algae-based fuels have an energy return on investment between 1 and 3, which is lower than petroleum biofuels. Sensitivity analyses reveal several areas in which improvements by algae bioenergy companies (e.g., biocrude yields, nutrient recycle) and by supporting industries (e.g., CO2 supply chains) could reduce the burdens of the industry.

  16. Pilot-scale experiment of down-flow hanging sponge for direct treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takashi; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Sumino, Haruhiko; Mizuochi, Motoyuki; Okadera, Tomohiro; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Banjongproo, Pathan; Syutsubo, Kazuaki

    2014-11-01

    A pilot-scale experiment of a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor for treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater was conducted over 1 year in Bangkok, Thailand, to establish an appropriate method for treatment under tropical climate conditions. Municipal wastewater with an average BOD of 19 mg/L was fed directly into the DHS reactor. Superior effluent quality (5.1 ± 3.4 mg/L TSS, 21.1 ± 9.0 mg/L COD, 2.8 ± 1.4 mg/L BOD, and 4.1 ± 1.0 mg/L TN) was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 h under an average temperature of 30 °C. The DHS reactor reached an actual HRT of 19.0 min, indicating good contact efficiency between wastewater and retained sludge. The DHS reactor retained dense sludge at 15.3-26.4 g VSS/L based on the sponge media volume. The sludge activity in terms of specific oxygen uptake rate was good. Excess sludge was produced as 0.051 g TSS/g COD removed (0.11 g TSS/g BOD removed), and a good SVI of 28 mL/g was observed. The sufficient performance was attributed to dense sludge with high activity, regardless of the low-strength wastewater. Overall, the DHS was advantageous owing to its simple operation, lack of operational problems, and low power consumption.

  17. Pilot-scale conversion of lime-treated wheat straw into bioethanol: quality assessment of bioethanol and valorization of side streams by anaerobic digestion and combustion

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Ronald HW; Bakker, Robert R; Boersma, Arjen R; Bisschops, Iemke; Pels, Jan R; de Jong, Ed; Weusthuis, Ruud A; Reith, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The limited availability of fossil fuel sources, worldwide rising energy demands and anticipated climate changes attributed to an increase of greenhouse gasses are important driving forces for finding alternative energy sources. One approach to meeting the increasing energy demands and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is by large-scale substitution of petrochemically derived transport fuels by the use of carbon dioxide-neutral biofuels, such as ethanol derived from lignocellulosic material. Results This paper describes an integrated pilot-scale process where lime-treated wheat straw with a high dry-matter content (around 35% by weight) is converted to ethanol via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by commercial hydrolytic enzymes and bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). After 53 hours of incubation, an ethanol concentration of 21.4 g/liter was detected, corresponding to a 48% glucan-to-ethanol conversion of the theoretical maximum. The xylan fraction remained mostly in the soluble oligomeric form (52%) in the fermentation broth, probably due to the inability of this yeast to convert pentoses. A preliminary assessment of the distilled ethanol quality showed that it meets transportation ethanol fuel specifications. The distillation residue, which contained non-hydrolysable and non-fermentable (in)organic compounds, was divided into a liquid and solid fraction. The liquid fraction served as substrate for the production of biogas (methane), whereas the solid fraction functioned as fuel for thermal conversion (combustion), yielding thermal energy, which can be used for heat and power generation. Conclusion Based on the achieved experimental values, 16.7 kg of pretreated wheat straw could be converted to 1.7 kg of ethanol, 1.1 kg of methane, 4.1 kg of carbon dioxide, around 3.4 kg of compost and 6.6 kg of lignin-rich residue. The higher heating value of the lignin-rich residue was 13.4 MJ thermal energy per kilogram (dry basis). PMID

  18. Polyhydroxyalkanoate as a slow-release carbon source for in situ bioremediation of contaminated aquifers: From laboratory investigation to pilot-scale testing in the field.

    PubMed

    Pierro, Lucia; Matturro, Bruna; Rossetti, Simona; Sagliaschi, Marco; Sucato, Salvatore; Alesi, Eduard; Bartsch, Ernst; Arjmand, Firoozeh; Papini, Marco Petrangeli

    2016-11-27

    A pilot-scale study aiming to evaluate the potential use of poly-3-hydroxy-butyrate (PHB) as an electron donor source for in situ bioremediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater was conducted. Compared with commercially available electron donors, PHB offers a restricted fermentation pathway (i.e., through acetic acid and molecular hydrogen) by avoiding the formation of any residual carbon that could potentially spoil groundwater quality. The pilot study was carried out at an industrial site in Italy, heavily contaminated by different chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). Prior to field testing, PHB was experimentally verified as a suitable electron donor for biological reductive dechlorination processes at the investigated site by microcosm studies carried out on site aquifer material and measuring the quantitative transformation of detected CAHs to ethene. Owing to the complex geological characteristics of the aquifer, the use of a groundwater circulation well (GCW) was identified as a potential strategy to enable effective delivery and distribution of electron donors in less permeable layers and to mobilise contaminants. A 3-screened, 30-m-deep GCW coupled with an external treatment unit was installed at the site. The effect of PHB fermentation products on the in situ reductive dechlorination processes were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results from the first 4 months of operation clearly demonstrated that the PHB fermentation products were effectively delivered to the aquifer and positively influenced the biological dechlorination activity. Indeed, an increased abundance of Dehalococcoides mccartyi (up to 6.6 fold) and reduced CAH concentrations at the installed monitoring wells were observed.

  19. Pilot-scale Limestone Emission Control (LEC) process: A development project. Volume 1, Main report and appendices A, B, C, and D: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prudich, M.E.; Appell, K.W.; McKenna, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    ETS, Inc., a pollution consulting firm with headquarters in Roanoke, Virginia, has developed a dry, limestone-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This SO{sub 2} removal system, called Limestone Emission Control (LEC), can be designed for installation on either new or existing coal-fired boilers. In the LEC process, the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas reacts with wetted granular limestone that is contained in a moving bed. A surface layer of principally calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) is formed on the limestone. Periodic removal of this surface layer by mechanical agitation allows high utilization of the limestone granules. A nominal 5,000 acfm LEC pilot plant has been designed, fabricated and installed on the slipstream of a 70,000 pph stoker boiler providing steam to Ohio University`s Athens, Ohio campus. A total of over 90 experimental trials have been performed using the pilot-scale moving-bed LEC dry scrubber as a part of this research project with run times ranging up to a high of 125 hours. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies as high as 99.9% were achievable for all experimental conditions studied during which sufficient humidification was added to the LEC bed. The LEC process and conventional limestone scrubbing have been compared on an equatable basis using flue gas conditions that would be expected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) of a 500 MW coal-fired power plant. The LEC was found to have a definite economic advantage in both direct capital costs and operating costs. Based on the success and findings of the present project, the next step in LEC process development will be a full-scale commercial demonstration unit.

  20. Pilot-scale comparison of four duckweed strains from different genera for potential application in nutrient recovery from wastewater and valuable biomass production.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Fang, Y; Jin, Y; Huang, J; Bao, S; Fu, T; He, Z; Wang, F; Wang, M; Zhao, H

    2015-01-01

    The application potential of four duckweed strains from four genera, Wolffia globosa 0222, Lemna japonica 0223, Landoltia punctata 0224 and Spirodela polyrhiza 0225, were compared in four parallel pilot-scale wastewater treatment systems for more than 1 year. The results indicated that each duckweed strain had unique potential advantages. Unlike L. japonica 0223 and La. punctata 0224, which grow throughout the year, S. polyrhiza 0225 and W. globosa 0222 do not survive cold weather. For year round performance, L. japonica 0223 was best not only in dry biomass production (6.10 g·m(-2) ·day(-1) ), but also in crude protein (35.50%), total amino acid (26.83%) and phosphorus (1.38%) content, plus recovery rates of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and CO2 (0.31, 0.085 and 7.76 g·m(-2) ·day(-1) , respectively) and removal rates of TN and TP (0.66 and 0.089 g·m(-2) ·day(-1) , respectively). This strongly demonstrates that L. japonica 0223 performed best in wastewater treatment and protein biomass production. Under nutrient starvation conditions, La. punctata 0224 had the highest starch content (45.84%), dry biomass production (4.81 g·m(-2) ·day(-1) ) and starch accumulation (2.9 g·m(-2) ·day(-1) ), making it best for starch biomass production. W. globosa 0222 and S. polyrhiza 0225 showed increased flavonoid biomass production, with higher total flavonoid content (5.85% and 4.22%, respectively) and high dominant flavonoids (>60%). This study provides useful information for selecting the appropriate local duckweed strains for further application in wastewater treatment and valuable biomass production.

  1. Dynamics of Fe(II), sulphur and phosphate in pilot-scale constructed wetlands treating a sulphate-rich chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shubiao; Chen, Zhongbing; Braeckevelt, Mareike; Seeger, Eva M; Dong, Renjie; Kästner, Matthias; Paschke, Heidrun; Hahn, Anja; Kayser, Gernot; Kuschk, Peter

    2012-04-15

    Long-term investigations were carried out in two pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (planted and unplanted) with an iron-rich soil matrix for treating sulphate-rich groundwater which was contaminated with low concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The temporal and spatial dynamics of pore-water sulphide, Fe(II) and phosphate concentrations in the wetland beds were characterized and the seasonal effects on sulphide production and nitrification inhibition were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the pore-water sulphide concentrations gradually increased from less than 0.2 mg/L in 2005 to annual average concentrations of 15 mg/L in 2010, while the pore-water Fe(II) concentrations decreased from 35.4 mg/L to 0.3 mg/L. From 2005 to 2010, the phosphate removal efficiency declined from 91% to 10% under a relatively constant inflow concentration of 5 mg/L. The pronounced effect of plants was accompanied by a higher sulphate reduction and ammonium oxidation in the planted bed, as compared to the unplanted control. A high tolerance of plants towards sulphide toxicity was observed, which might be due to the detoxification of sulphide by oxygen released by the roots. However, during the period of 2009-2010, the nitrification was negatively impacted by the sulphide production as the reduction in the removal of ammonium from 75% to 42% (with inflow concentration of 55 mg/L) correlated with the increasing mean annual sulphide concentrations. The effect of the detoxification of sulphide and the immobilization of phosphate by the application of the iron-rich soil matrix in the initial years was proven; however, the life-span of this effect should not only be taken into consideration in further design but also in scientific studies.

  2. Laboratory and pilot-scale field experiments for application of iron oxide nanoparticle-loaded chitosan composites to phosphate removal from natural water.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Song-Bae; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Choi, Jae-Woo

    2017-03-23

    The aim of this study was to apply iron oxide nanoparticle-chitosan (ION-chitosan) composites to phosphate removal from natural water collected from the Seoho Stream in Suwon, Republic of Korea. Laboratory batch experiments showed that phosphate removal by the ION-chitosan composites was not sensitive to pH changes between pH values of 5.0 and 9.0. During six cycles of adsorption-desorption, the composites could be successfully regenerated with 5 mM NaOH solution and reused for phosphate removal. Laboratory fixed-bed column experiments (column height = 10 and 20 cm, inner diameter = 2.5 cm, flow rate = 8.18 and 16.36 mL/min) demonstrated that the composites could be successfully applied for phosphate removal under dynamic flow conditions. A pilot-scale field experiment was performed in a pilot plant, which was mainly composed of chemical reactor/dissolved air flotation and an adsorption tower, built nearby the Seoho Stream. The natural water was pumped from the Seoho Stream into the pilot plant, passed through the chemical reactor/dissolved air flotation process, and then introduced into the adsorption tower (height = 100 cm, inner diameter = 45 cm, flow rate = 7.05±0.18 L/min) for phosphate removal via the composites (composite volume = 80 L, composite weight = 85.74 kg). During monitoring of the adsorption tower (33 days), the influent total phosphorus (T-P) concentration was in the range of 0.020-0.046 mgP/L, whereas the effluent T-P concentration was in the range of 0.010-0.028 mgP/L. The percent removal of T-P in the adsorption tower was 52.3% with a phosphate removal capacity of 0.059 mgP/g.

  3. Microbial community structure and dynamics in a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor aerobically treating domestic wastewater under real operation conditions.

    PubMed

    Molina-Muñoz, M; Poyatos, J M; Sánchez-Peinado, M; Hontoria, E; González-López, J; Rodelas, B

    2009-06-15

    A pilot scale submerged ultra-filtration membrane bioreactor (MBR) was used for the aerobic treatment of domestic wastewater over 9 months of year 2006 (28th March to 21st December). The MBR was installed at a municipal wastewater facility (EMASAGRA, Granada, Spain) and was fed with real wastewater. The experimental work was divided in 4 stages run under different sets of operation conditions. Operation parameters (total and volatile suspended solids, dissolved oxygen concentration) and environmental variables (temperature, pH, COD and BOD(5) of influent water) were daily monitored. In all the experiments conducted, the MBR generated an effluent of optimal quality complying with the requirements of the European Law (91/271/CEE 1991). A cultivation-independent approach (polymerase chain reaction-temperature gradient gel electrophoresis, PCR-TGGE) was used to analyze changes in the structure of the bacterial communities in the sludge. Cluster analysis of TGGE profiles demonstrated significant differences in community structure related to variations of the operation parameters and environmental factors. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) suggested that temperature, hydraulic retention time and concentration of volatile suspended solids were the factors mostly influencing community structure. 23 prominent TGGE bands were successfully reamplified and sequenced, allowing gaining insight into the identities of predominantly present bacterial populations in the sludge. Retrieved partial 16S-rRNA gene sequences were mostly related to the alpha-Proteobacteria, beta-Proteobacteria and gamma-Proteobacteria classes. The community established in the MBR in each of the four stages of operation significantly differed in species composition and the sludge generated displayed dissimilar rates of mineralization, but these differences did not influence the performance of the bioreactor (quality of the permeate). These data indicate that the flexibility of the bacterial community

  4. Pilot-scale passive bioreactors for the treatment of acid mine drainage: efficiency of mushroom compost vs. mixed substrates for metal removal.

    PubMed

    Song, Hocheol; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Hwang, Taewoon

    2012-11-30

    Pilot-scale field-testing of passive bioreactors was performed to evaluate the efficiency of a mixture of four substrates (cow manure compost, mushroom compost, sawdust, and rice straw) relative to mushroom compost alone, and of the effect of the Fe/Mn ratio, during the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) over a 174-day period. Three 141 L columns, filled with either mushroom compost or the four substrate mixture (in duplicate), were set-up and fed with AMD from a closed mine site, in South Korea, using a 4-day hydraulic retention time. In the former bioreactor, effluent deterioration was observed over 1-2 months, despite the good efficiency predicted by the physicochemical characterization of mushroom compost. Steady state effluent quality was then noted for around 100 days before worsening in AMD source water occurred in response to seasonal variations in precipitation. Such changes in AMD quality resulted in performance deterioration in all reactors followed by a slow recovery toward the end of testing. Both substrates (mushroom compost and mixtures) gave satisfactory performance in neutralizing pH (6.1-7.8). Moreover, the system was able to consistently reduce sulfate from day 49, after the initial leaching out from organic substrates. Metal removal efficiencies were on the order of Al (∼100%) > Fe (68-92%) > Mn (49-61%). Overall, the mixed substrates showed comparable performance to mushroom compost, while yielding better effluent quality upon start-up. The results also indicated mushroom compost could release significant amounts of Mn and sulfate during bioreactor operation.

  5. A novel cleaning process for industrial production of xylose in pilot scale from corncob by using screw-steam-explosive extruder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Jia; Fan, Xiao-Guang; Qiu, Xue-Liang; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Wang, Wen-Ya; Li, Shuang-Xi; Deng, Li-Hong; Koffas, Mattheos A G; Wei, Dong-Sheng; Yuan, Qi-Peng

    2014-12-01

    Steam explosion is the most promising technology to replace conventional acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose for biomass pretreatment. In this paper, a new screw-steam-explosive extruder was designed and explored for xylose production and lignocellulose biorefinery at the pilot scale. We investigated the effect of different chemicals on xylose yield in the screw-steam-explosive extrusion process, and the xylose production process was optimized as followings: After pre-impregnation with sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 3 h, corncob was treated at 1.55 MPa with 9 mg sulfuric acid/g dry corncob (DC) for 5.5 min, followed by countercurrent extraction (3 recycles), decoloration (activated carbon dosage 0.07 g/g sugar, 75 °C for 40 min), and ion exchange (2 batches). Using this process, 3.575 kg of crystal xylose was produced from 22 kg corncob, almost 90 % of hemicellulose was released as monomeric sugar, and only a small amount of by-products was released (formic acid, acetic acid, fural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and phenolic compounds were 0.17, 1.14, 0.53, 0.19, and 1.75 g/100 g DC, respectively). All results indicated that the screw-steam-explosive extrusion provides a more effective way to convert hemicellulose into xylose and could be an alternative method to traditional sulfuric acid hydrolysis process for lignocellulose biorefinery.

  6. The efficacy of a commercial competitive exclusion product on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study

    PubMed Central

    Schneitz, C.; Hakkinen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of the commercial competitive exclusion product Broilact against Campylobacter jejuni was evaluated in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study. Newly-hatched broiler chicks were brought from a commercial hatchery. After arrival 50 seeder chicks were challenged orally with approximately 103 cfu of C. jejuni, wing marked, and placed back in a delivery box and moved to a separate room. The rest of the chicks (contact chicks) were placed in floor pens, 100 chicks per pen. Birds in two pens were treated orally on the day of hatch with the commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product Broilact, and three pens were left untreated. The following day 10 seeder chicks were introduced into the Broilact treated and untreated control pens. One pen was left both untreated and unchallenged (0-control). Each week the ceca of 10 contact chicks and one seeder chick were examined quantitatively for Campylobacter. The treatment prevented or significantly reduced the colonization of the challenge organism in the ceca during the two first weeks; the percentage of colonized birds being 0% after the first week and 30% after the second week in the Broilact treated groups but was 100% in the control groups the entire 5-week rearing period. During the third rearing week the proportion of Campylobacter positive birds started to increase in the treated pens, being 80% after the third week and 95 and 90% after the fourth and fifth rearing weeks, respectively. Similarly the average count of Campylobacter in the cecal contents of the Broilact treated chicks started to increase, the difference between the treated and control chicks being 1.4 logs at the end of the rearing period. Although the protective effect was temporary and occurred only during the first two weeks of the rearing period, the results of this study support the earlier observations that CE flora designed to protect chicks from Salmonella may also reduce Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens. PMID

  7. A hybrid froth flotation-filtration system as a pretreatment for oil sands tailings pond recycle water management: Bench- and pilot-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Bromley, David; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-09-15

    Through sustainable water management, oil sands companies are working to reduce their reliance on fresh water by minimizing the amount of water required for their operations and by recycling water from tailings ponds. This study was the first pilot-scale testing of a hybrid technology consisting of froth flotation combined with filtration through precoated submerged stainless steel membranes used to treat recycle water from an oil sands facility. The results indicated that the most important factor affecting the performance of the hybrid system was the influent water quality. Any rise in the levels of suspended solids or total organic carbon of the feed water resulted in changes of chemical consumption rates, flux rates, and operating cycle durations. The selections of chemical type and dosing rates were critical in achieving optimal performance. In particular, the froth application rate heavily affected the overall recovery of the hybrid system as well as the performance of the flotation process. Optimum surfactant usage to generate froth (per liter of treated water) was 0.25 mL/L at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and 0.015 mL/L at approximately 200 NTU of influent turbidity. At the tested conditions, the optimal coagulant dose was 80 mg/L (as Al) at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and <40 mg/L (as Al) at approximately 200 NTU of influent turbidity. Precoat loading per unit membrane surface area tested during the pilot study was approximately 30 g/m(2). The results of this study indicated that this hybrid technology can potentially be considered as a pre-treatment step for reverse osmosis treatment of recycle water.

  8. Swine manure-based pilot-scale algal biomass production system for fuel production and wastewater treatment--a case study.

    PubMed

    Min, Min; Hu, Bing; Mohr, Michael J; Shi, Aimin; Ding, Jinfeng; Sun, Yong; Jiang, Yongcheng; Fu, Zongqiang; Griffith, Richard; Hussain, Fida; Mu, Dongyan; Nie, Yong; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang; Ruan, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Integration of wastewater treatment with algae cultivation is one of the promising ways to achieve an economically viable and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel production on a commercial scale. This study focused on pilot-scale algal biomass production system development, cultivation process optimization, and integration with swine manure wastewater treatment. The areal algal biomass productivity for the cultivation system that we developed ranged from 8.08 to 14.59 and 19.15-23.19 g/m(2) × day, based on ash-free dry weight and total suspended solid (TSS), respectively, which were higher than or comparable with those in literature. The harvested algal biomass had lipid content about 1.77-3.55%, which was relatively low, but could be converted to bio-oil via fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis system developed in our lab. The lipids in the harvested algal biomass had a significantly higher percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids than those grown in lab conditions, which may be attributed to the observed temperature and light fluctuations. The nutrient removal rate was highly correlated to the biomass productivity. The NH₃-N, TN, COD, and PO₄-P reduction rates for the north-located photo-bioreactor (PBR-N) in July were 2.65, 3.19, 7.21, and 0.067 g/m(2) × day, respectively, which were higher than those in other studies. The cultivation system had advantages of high mixotrophic growth rate, low operating cost, as well as reduced land footprint due to the stacked-tray bioreactor design used in the study.

  9. Performance of three pilot-scale immobilized-cell biotrickling filters for removal of hydrogen sulfide from a contaminated air steam.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiqing; Fan, Zhidong; Ma, Lixia; Yin, Juan; Luo, Man; Cai, Wangfeng

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a major malodorous compound emitted from wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the performance of three pilot-scale immobilized-cell biotrickling filters (BTFs) spacked with combinations of bamboo charcoal and ceramsite in different ratios was investigated in terms of H2S removal. Extensive tests were performed to determine the removal characteristics, pressure drops, metabolic products, and removal kinetics of the BTFs. The BTFs were operated in continuous mode at low loading rates varying from 0.59 to 5.00 g H2S m(-3) h(-1) with an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 25 s. The removal efficiency (RE) for each BTF was >99% in the steady-state period, and high standards were met for the exhaust gas. It was found that a multilayer BTF had a slight advantage over a perfectly mixed BTF for the removal of H2S. Furthermore, an impressive amount >97% of the H2S was eliminated by 10% of packing materials near the inlet of the BTF. The modified Michaelis-Menten equation was adopted to describe the characteristics of the BTF, and K s and V m values for the BTF with pure bamboo charcoal packing material were 3.68 ppmv and 4.26 g H2S m(-3) h(-1), respectively. Both bamboo charcoal and ceramsite demonstrated good performance as packing materials in BTFs for the removal of H2S, and the results of this study could serve as a guide for further design and operation of industrial-scale systems.

  10. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with agro-industrial by-products for increased biogas production of existing digesters at wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Maragkaki, A E; Fountoulakis, M; Gypakis, A; Kyriakou, A; Lasaridi, K; Manios, T

    2017-01-01

    Due to low degradability of dry solids, most of the digesters at wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) operate at low loading rates resulting in poor biogas yields. In this study, co-digestion of sewage sludge (SS) with olive mill wastewater (OMW), cheese whey (CW) and crude glycerol (CG) was studied in an attempt to improve biogas production of existing digesters at WWTPs. The effect of agro-industrial by-products in biogas production was investigated using a 220L pilot-scale (180L working volume) digester under mesophilic conditions (35°C) with a total feeding volume of 7.5L daily and a 24-day hydraulic retention time. The initial feed was sewage sludge and the bioreactor was operated using this feed for 40days. Each agro-industrial by-product was then added to the feed so that the reactor was fed continuously with 95% sewage sludge and 5% (v/v) of each examined agro-industrial by-product. The experiments showed that a 5% (v/v) addition of OMW, CG or CW to sewage sludge significantly increased biogas production by nearly 220%, 350% and 86% as values of 34.8±3.2L/d, 185.7±15.3L/d and 45.9±3.6L/d respectively, compared to that with sewage sludge alone (375ml daily, 5% v/v in the feed). The average removal of dissolved chemical oxygen demand (d-COD) ranged between 72 and 99% for organic loading rates between 0.9 and 1.5kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Reduction in the volatile solids ranged between 25 and 40%. This work suggests that methane can be produced very efficiently by adding a small concentration (5%) of agro-industrial by-products and especially CG in the inlet of digesters treating sewage sludge.

  11. Pilot-scale testing of renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. A pilot-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate surface-applied soybean peroxidase (SBP) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) including dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT), dimethyl trisulfide, n-butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, p-cresol, indole, and skatole. The secondary impact on emissions of NH3, H2S, and GHG was also measured. The SBP was tested at four treatments (2.28-45.7 kg/m2 manure) with CaO2 (4.2% by weight of SBP) over 137 days. Significant reductions in VOC emissions were observed: DMDS/MT (36.2%-84.7%), p-cresol (53.1%-89.5%), and skatole (63.2%-92.5%). There was a corresponding significant reduction in NH3 (14.6%-67.6%), and significant increases in the greenhouse gases CH4 (32.7%-232%) and CO2 (20.8%-124%). The remaining emissions (including N2O) were not statistically different. At a cost relative to 0.8% of a marketed hog it appears that SBP/CaO2 treatment could be a promising option at the lowest (2.28 kg/m2) treatment rate for reducing odorous gas and NH3 emissions at swine operations, and field-scale testing is warranted.

  12. Performance of three pilot-scale immobilized-cell biotrickling filters for removal of hydrogen sulfide from a contaminated air steam

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiqing; Fan, Zhidong; Ma, Lixia; Yin, Juan; Luo, Man; Cai, Wangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a major malodorous compound emitted from wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the performance of three pilot-scale immobilized-cell biotrickling filters (BTFs) spacked with combinations of bamboo charcoal and ceramsite in different ratios was investigated in terms of H2S removal. Extensive tests were performed to determine the removal characteristics, pressure drops, metabolic products, and removal kinetics of the BTFs. The BTFs were operated in continuous mode at low loading rates varying from 0.59 to 5.00 g H2S m−3 h−1 with an empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 25 s. The removal efficiency (RE) for each BTF was >99% in the steady-state period, and high standards were met for the exhaust gas. It was found that a multilayer BTF had a slight advantage over a perfectly mixed BTF for the removal of H2S. Furthermore, an impressive amount >97% of the H2S was eliminated by 10% of packing materials near the inlet of the BTF. The modified Michaelis–Menten equation was adopted to describe the characteristics of the BTF, and Ks and Vm values for the BTF with pure bamboo charcoal packing material were 3.68 ppmv and 4.26 g H2S m−3 h−1, respectively. Both bamboo charcoal and ceramsite demonstrated good performance as packing materials in BTFs for the removal of H2S, and the results of this study could serve as a guide for further design and operation of industrial-scale systems. PMID:25313280

  13. Heavy metal distribution between contaminated soil and Paulownia tomentosa, in a pilot-scale assisted phytoremediation study: influence of different complexing agents.

    PubMed

    Doumett, S; Lamperi, L; Checchini, L; Azzarello, E; Mugnai, S; Mancuso, S; Petruzzelli, G; Del Bubba, M

    2008-08-01

    The distribution of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn between a contaminated soil and the tree species Paulownia tomentosa was investigated in a pilot-scale assisted phytoremediation study. The influence of the addition of EDTA, tartrate and glutamate at 1, 5 and 10mM concentrations on metal accumulation by the plant and on metal mobilization in soil was evaluated. Root/shoot metal concentration ratios were in the range of 3-5 for Zn, 7-17 for Cu, 9-18 for Cd and 11-39 for Pb, depending on the type and concentration of complexing agent. A significant enhancement of metal uptake in response to complexing agent application was mainly obtained in roots for Pb (i.e. 359 mg kg(-1) for EDTA 10mM and 128 mg kg(-1) for the control), Cu (i.e. 594 mg kg(-1) for glutamate 10mM and 146 mg kg(-1) for the control) and, with the exception of glutamate, also for Zn (i.e. 670 mg kg(-1) for tartrate 10mM and 237 mg kg(-1) for the control). Despite its higher metal mobilization capacity, EDTA produced a metal accumulation in plants quite similar to those obtained with tartrate and glutamate. Consequently the concentration gradient between soil pore water and plant tissues does not seem to be the predominant mechanism for metal accumulation in Paulownia tomentosa and a role of the plant should be invoked in the selection of the chemical species taken up. Metal bioavailability in soil at the end of the experiment was higher in the trials treated with EDTA than in those treated with tartrate and glutamate, the latter not being significantly different from the control. These findings indicated the persistence of a leaching risk associated to the use of this chelator, while an increase of the environmental impact is not expected when glutamate and tartrate are applied.

  14. Fine-scale monitoring of shifts in microbial community composition after high organic loading in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R; Habe, Hiroshi; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    In biological wastewater treatment, municipal wastewater sometimes undergoes unexpected changes in physicochemical parameters, such as organic carbon concentration. The aim of this study was to understand how microbial communities in activated sludge in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) adapt to high organic loading and maintain their degradation ability during reactor operation. A pilot-scale MBR was operated for 19 days. On day 8, the concentration of organic matter in the synthetic wastewater increased from 450 to 900 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L. Even under conditions of high organic loading, COD removal rates were high, ranging from 85.3 to 91.4%. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that microbial communities changed drastically with increased organic loading. After day 8, Aquabacterium- and Azospira-related operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the class β-proteobacteria became dominant; this potentially enhanced the degradation of organic substances and decreased activated sludge microbial diversity. Due to the use of dissolved oxygen (DO) for degradation of organic substances, DO levels in the reactor decreased. This led to an increase in a subset of OTUs related to not only aerobic but also anaerobic bacteria, e.g., those in the class Clostridia. During this period, anaerobic microorganisms may have contributed to the degradation of organic substances to maintain MBR performance. On the other hand, high-throughput sequencing also made it possible to identify yet-to-be cultured or minor microorganisms affiliated with the candidate phylogenetic division SR1 and ammonia-oxidizing archaea in activated sludge.

  15. Microbial bio-based plastics from olive-mill wastewater: Generation and properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates from mixed cultures in a two-stage pilot scale system.

    PubMed

    Ntaikou, I; Valencia Peroni, C; Kourmentza, C; Ilieva, V I; Morelli, A; Chiellini, E; Lyberatos, G

    2014-10-20

    The operational efficiency of a two stage pilot scale system for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from three phase olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated in this study. A mixed anaerobic, acidogenic culture derived from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, was used in the first stage, aiming to the acidification of OMW. The effluent of the first bioreactor that was operated in continuous mode, was collected in a sedimentation tank in which partial removal of the suspended solids was taking place, and was then forwarded to an aerobic reactor, operated in sequential batch mode under nutrient limitation. In the second stage an enriched culture of Pseudomonas sp. was used as initial inoculum for the production of PHAs from the acidified waste. Clarification of the acidified waste, using aluminium sulphate which causes flocculation and precipitation of solids, was also performed, and its effect on the composition of the acidified waste as well as on the yields and properties of PHAs was investigated. It was shown that clarification had no significant qualitative or quantitative effect on the primary carbon sources, i.e. short chain fatty acids and residual sugars, but only on the values of total suspended solids and total chemical oxygen demand of the acidified waste. The type and thermal characteristics of the produced PHAs were also similar for both types of feed. However the clarification of the waste seemed to have a positive impact on final PHAs yield, measured as gPHAs/100g of VSS, which reached up to 25%. Analysis of the final products via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the existence of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 3-hydroxyoctanoate (HO) units, leading to the conclusion that the polymer could be either a blend of P3HB and P3HO homopolymers or/and the 3HB-co-3HO co-polymer, an unusual polymer occurring in nature with advanced properties.

  16. The efficacy of a commercial competitive exclusion product on Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Schneitz, C; Hakkinen, M

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of the commercial competitive exclusion product Broilact against Campylobacter jejuni was evaluated in broiler chickens in a 5-week pilot-scale study. Newly-hatched broiler chicks were brought from a commercial hatchery. After arrival 50 seeder chicks were challenged orally with approximately 10(3) cfu of C. jejuni, wing marked, and placed back in a delivery box and moved to a separate room. The rest of the chicks (contact chicks) were placed in floor pens, 100 chicks per pen. Birds in two pens were treated orally on the day of hatch with the commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product Broilact, and three pens were left untreated. The following day 10 seeder chicks were introduced into the Broilact treated and untreated control pens. One pen was left both untreated and unchallenged (0-control). Each week the ceca of 10 contact chicks and one seeder chick were examined quantitatively for Campylobacter The treatment prevented or significantly reduced the colonization of the challenge organism in the ceca during the two first weeks; the percentage of colonized birds being 0% after the first week and 30% after the second week in the Broilact treated groups but was 100% in the control groups the entire 5-week rearing period. During the third rearing week the proportion of Campylobacter positive birds started to increase in the treated pens, being 80% after the third week and 95 and 90% after the fourth and fifth rearing weeks, respectively. Similarly the average count of Campylobacter in the cecal contents of the Broilact treated chicks started to increase, the difference between the treated and control chicks being 1.4 logs at the end of the rearing period. Although the protective effect was temporary and occurred only during the first two weeks of the rearing period, the results of this study support the earlier observations that CE flora designed to protect chicks from Salmonella may also reduce Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens.

  17. Emission and control of N2O and composition of ash derived from cattle manure combustion using a pilot-scale fluidized bed incinerator.

    PubMed

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kawaguchi, Koji; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujimori, Takashi; Fujiwara, Taku

    2015-10-06

    This study investigates the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and discusses the reduction of N2O emissions during the 24-h combustion of cattle manure using a pilot-scale fluidized bed incinerator under various experimental conditions. The results of these experiments were then validated against previously reported data. In addition, the characteristics of cattle manure incineration ash and their changes under different combustion conditions were estimated. In incineration experiments with composted cattle manure, N2O concentrations using multi-stage combustion were 75% lower than the concentrations resulting from normal combustion without additional auxiliary fuel, since N2O could be decomposed in the high-temperature zone formed by the inlet of the secondary combustion air. The N2O emission factor under normal combustion conditions (800°C) was 6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N. This result is similar to the values found in previous studies at the same temperature. The N2O emission factor was decreased to 1.6% g-N2O-N/g-N using a multi-stage combustion procedure. The current Japanese N2O emission factor of 0.1% g-N2O-N/g-N is an underestimate for some conditions and should be uniquely specified for each condition. Finally, cattle manure ash contains ample fertilizer elements, little Fe, Al and Zn, but abundant Cl. Therefore if Cl could be removed by some kind of pretreatment, cattle manure ash could be used as a favourable fertilizer.

  18. Effect of impeller type and agitation on the performance of pilot scale ASBR and AnSBBR applied to sanitary wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    de Novaes, Luciano Farias; Saratt, Bruna Luckmann; Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; de Moraes, Deovaldo; Ribeiro, Rogers; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the effect of agitation rate and impeller type in two mechanically stirred sequencing batch reactors: one containing granulated biomass (denominated ASBR) and the other immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam (denominated AnSBBR). Each configuration, with total volume of 1 m(3), treated 0.65 m(3) sanitary wastewater at ambient temperature in 8-h cycles. Three impeller types were assessed for each reactor configuration: flat-blade turbine impeller, 45 degrees -inclined-blade turbine impeller and helix impeller, as well as two agitation rates: 40 and 80 rpm, resulting in a combination of six experimental conditions. In addition, the ASBR was also operated at 20 rpm with a flat-blade turbine impeller and the AnSBBR was operated with a draft tube and helix impeller at 80 and 120 rpm. To quantify how impeller type and agitation rate relate to substrate consumption rate, results obtained during monitoring at the end of the cycle, as well as the time profiles during a cycle were analyzed. Increasing agitation rate from 40 rpm to 80 rpm in the AnSBBR improved substrate consumption rate whereas in the ASBR this increase destabilized the system, likely due to granule rupture caused by the higher agitation. The AnSBBR showed highest solids and substrate removal, highest kinetic constant and highest alkalinity production when using a helix impeller, 80 rpm, and no draft tube. The best condition for the ASBR was achieved with a flat-blade turbine impeller at 20 rpm. The presence of the draft tube in the AnSBBR did not show significant improvement in reactor efficiency. Furthermore, power consumption studies in these pilot scale reactors showed that power transfer required to improve mass transfer might be technically and economically feasible.

  19. Effects of two different nutrient loads on microalgal production, nutrient removal and photosynthetic efficiency in pilot-scale wastewater high rate algal ponds.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Donna L; Turnbull, Matthew H; Broady, Paul A; Craggs, Rupert J

    2014-12-01

    When wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds (HRAP) are coupled with resource recovery processes, such as biofuel production, short hydraulic retention times (HRTs) are often favoured to increase the microalgal biomass productivity. However, short HRT can result in increased nutrient load to the HRAP which may negatively impact on the performance of the microalgae. This paper investigate the effects of high (NH4-N mean concentration 39.7 ± 17.9 g m(-3)) and moderate ((NH4-N mean concentration 19.9 ± 8.9 g m(-3)) nutrient loads and short HRT on the performance of microalgae with respect to light absorption, photosynthesis, biomass production and nutrient removal in pilot-scale (total volume 8 m(3)) wastewater treatment HRAPs. Microalgal biomass productivity was significantly higher under high nutrient loads, with a 133% and 126% increase in the chlorophyll-a and VSS areal productivities, respectively. Microalgae were more efficient at assimilating NH4-N from the wastewater under higher nutrient loads compared to moderate loads. Higher microalgal biomass with increased nutrient load resulted in increased light attenuation in the HRAP and lower light absorption efficiency by the microalgae. High nutrient loads also resulted in improved photosynthetic performance with significantly higher maximum rates of electron transport, oxygen production and quantum yield. This experiment demonstrated that microalgal productivity and nutrient removal efficiency were not inhibited by high nutrient loads, however, higher loads resulted in lower water quality in effluent discharge.

  20. Discussion about Possibility of Closer Collaboration or Co-authoring

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Matsunaga, Y.

    2012-12-04

    This slide-show presents the status of a fireside corrosion collaboration, including laboratory fireside tests, callide oxy-fuel field exposures, DTA and TGA of SCM ash, and deposit related bell-shaped boiler corrosion and DTA results.

  1. Are UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 process efficient to treat estrogens in waters? Chemical and biological assessment at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Cédat, Bruno; de Brauer, Christine; Métivier, Hélène; Dumont, Nathalie; Tutundjan, Renaud

    2016-09-01

    In this study, UV based treatments were implemented at pilot scale to assess their ability to remove hormones from treated wastewater, especially with the view to equip small and medium size Wastewater Treatment Plants (WTPs). To this end, the degradation of a mixture of estrogenic hormones (Estrone (E1), β-Estradiol (E2), and 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol (EE2)) in waters by UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 process was investigated in real conditions. A particular attention was paid at designing a well validated laboratory scale pilot in order to optimise oxidant concentrations and UV fluence. A Low pressure lamp (254 nm) was used in a flow through commercial reactor. The effects of water matrices (drinking water and treated wastewater) and H2O2 concentrations (10, 40, and 90 mg/L) on the pilot efficiency were first determined. Only E1 could be partially degraded by UV photolysis whereas hormones were all well removed by UV/H2O2 process in both matrices. The second part of the study focused on a chemical and biological assessment of UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 process (30 and 50 mg/L). Degradation rate constants of hormones as well as changes in estrogenic activity (YES bioassay) and toxicity (Vibrio fischeri) were followed at the same time. UV photolysis could not remove neither estrogens nor estrogenic activity at relevant UV fluence in waters. However 80% of initial estrogenic compounds and estrogenic activity could be removed from treated wastewater by combining UV fluence of 423 and 520 mJ/cm(2) with 50 and 30 mg/L of H2O2, respectively. No high estrogenic or toxic by-products were detected by the two bioassays following UV photolysis or UV/H2O2 process. Operating costs were estimated for a full scale pilot. H2O2 was the major cost. By combining the appropriate concentration of H2O2 and UV fluence, it could be possible to design a cost effective treatment for treating estrogens in small and medium size WTPs.

  2. Utilizing solar energy for the purification of olive mill wastewater using a pilot-scale photocatalytic reactor after coagulation-flocculation.

    PubMed

    Michael, I; Panagi, A; Ioannou, L A; Frontistis, Z; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the application of a solar-driven advanced oxidation process (solar Fenton) combined with previous coagulation/flocculation, for the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) at a pilot scale. Pre-treatment by coagulation/flocculation using FeSO4·7H2O (6.67 g L(-1)) as the coagulant, and an anionic polyelectrolyte (FLOCAN 23, 0.287 g L(-1)) as the flocculant, was performed to remove the solid content of the OMW. The solar Fenton experiments were carried out in a compound parabolic collector pilot plant, in the presence of varying doses of H2O2 and Fe(2+). The optimization of the oxidation process, using reagents at low concentrations ([Fe(2+)] = 0.08 g L(-1); [H2O2] = 1 g L(-1)), led to a high COD removal (87%), while the polyphenolic fraction, which is responsible for the biorecalcitrant and/or toxic properties of OMW, was eliminated. A kinetic study using a modified pseudo first-order kinetic model was performed in order to determine the reaction rate constants. This work evidences also the potential use of the solar Fenton process at the inherent pH of the OMW, yielding only a slightly lower COD removal (81%) compared to that obtained under acidic conditions. Moreover, the results demonstrated the capacity of the applied advanced process to reduce the initial OMW toxicity against the examined plant species (Sorghum saccharatum, Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba), and the water flea Daphnia magna. The OMW treated samples displayed a varying toxicity profile for each type of organism and plant examined in this study, a fact that can potentially be attributed to the varying oxidation products formed during the process applied. Finally, the overall cost of solar Fenton oxidation for the treatment of 50 m(3) of OMW per day was estimated to be 2.11 € m(-3).

  3. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroconversion - Wastewater Cleanup by Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Hart, Todd R.

    2015-06-19

    DOE-EE Bioenergy Technologies Office has set forth several goals to increase the use of bioenergy and bioproducts derived from renewable resources. One of these goals is to facilitate the implementation of the biorefinery. The biorefinery will include the production of liquid fuels, power and, in some cases, products. The integrated biorefinery should stand-alone from an economic perspective with fuels and power driving the economy of scale while the economics/profitability of the facility will be dependent on existing market conditions. UOP LLC proposed to demonstrate a fast pyrolysis based integrated biorefinery. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in an important technology area of interest to UOP for use in their pyrolysis-based biorefinery. This CRADA project provides the supporting technology development and demonstration to allow incorporation of this technology into the biorefinery. PNNL developed catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) for use with aqueous streams within the pyrolysis biorefinery. These aqueous streams included the aqueous phase separated from the fast pyrolysis bio-oil and the aqueous byproduct streams formed in the hydroprocessing of the bio-oil to finished products. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a technically and economically viable technology for converting renewable biomass feedstocks to sustainable and fungible transportation fuels. To demonstrate the technology, UOP constructed and operated a pilot-scale biorefinery that processed one dry ton per day of biomass using fast pyrolysis. Specific objectives of the project were to: The anticipated outcomes of the project were a validated process technology, a range of validated feedstocks, product property and Life Cycle data, and technical and operating data upon which to base the design of a full-scale biorefinery. The anticipated long-term outcomes from successful commercialization of the technology were: (1) the replacement of a significant

  4. Application of a mechanistic model as a tool for on-line monitoring of pilot scale filamentous fungal fermentation processes-The importance of evaporation effects.

    PubMed

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M; Albaek, Mads O; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V

    2017-03-01

    A mechanistic model-based soft sensor is developed and validated for 550L filamentous fungus fermentations operated at Novozymes A/S. The soft sensor is comprised of a parameter estimation block based on a stoichiometric balance, coupled to a dynamic process model. The on-line parameter estimation block models the changing rates of formation of product, biomass, and water, and the rate of consumption of feed using standard, available on-line measurements. This parameter estimation block, is coupled to a mechanistic process model, which solves the current states of biomass, product, substrate, dissolved oxygen and mass, as well as other process parameters including kL a, viscosity and partial pressure of CO2 . State estimation at this scale requires a robust mass model including evaporation, which is a factor not often considered at smaller scales of operation. The model is developed using a historical data set of 11 batches from the fermentation pilot plant (550L) at Novozymes A/S. The model is then implemented on-line in 550L fermentation processes operated at Novozymes A/S in order to validate the state estimator model on 14 new batches utilizing a new strain. The product concentration in the validation batches was predicted with an average root mean sum of squared error (RMSSE) of 16.6%. In addition, calculation of the Janus coefficient for the validation batches shows a suitably calibrated model. The robustness of the model prediction is assessed with respect to the accuracy of the input data. Parameter estimation uncertainty is also carried out. The application of this on-line state estimator allows for on-line monitoring of pilot scale batches, including real-time estimates of multiple parameters which are not able to be monitored on-line. With successful application of a soft sensor at this scale, this allows for improved process monitoring, as well as opening up further possibilities for on-line control algorithms, utilizing these on-line model outputs

  5. Toward Real-Time Continuous, Automated Hydrogeophysical Monitoring of Aquifer Storage and Recovery: Results of a Pilot-Scale Experiment, Charleston, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Singha, K.; Versteeg, R. J.; Johnson, C. D.; Petkewich, M. D.; Richardson, A.; Rowe, T.; Lane, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is used increasingly as a water-resources management tool, particularly in arid and coastal areas. ASR involves subsurface freshwater injection and storage during periods of water surplus and subsequent extraction during periods of water deficit or high demand. In coastal areas, injection into brackish-to-saline aquifers creates freshwater zones, the shapes and extents of which are controlled by aquifer heterogeneity and ground-water flow. ASR efficiency is limited by a lack of information about (1) the spatial and temporal distribution of injected freshwater and (2) possible degradation of aquifer properties resulting from injections. Without such knowledge, ASR managers cannot optimize injection and extraction schemes, nor can they predict or prevent breakthrough of brackish water at pumping wells. In this study, we examine the potential of hydrogeophysical monitoring as a management tool for ASR operations. In August-September 2005, time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), combined with conventional chemical and hydraulic sampling, was conducted during a pilot-scale ASR experiment in an Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer in Charleston, SC. The field site consists of 4 wells including three observation wells arranged symmetrically around a central injection/extraction well at radial distances of about 9 m. The wells are 140-155 m deep. Sand and limestone sections of the Santee Limestone/Black Mingo aquifer served as target zones for injection, storage, recovery, and ERT monitoring. We acquired time-lapse ERT data sets every 2.5 hours during 120 hours of injection, 48 hours of quiescent storage, and 96 hours of extraction. A key aspect of this work was the use of an autonomous remote monitoring system developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), which controls data collection, automated data upload to a central server, and parsing of the data into a relational database. In addition, this system provides a web interface

  6. Impact of organic load on Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival during pilot-scale processing of iceberg lettuce with acidified sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gordon R; Kaminski, Chelsea N; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-10-01

    Chemical sanitizers are routinely used during commercial flume washing of fresh-cut leafy greens to minimize cross-contamination from the water. This study assessed the efficacy of three chlorine treatments against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce, in wash water, and on surfaces of a pilot-scale processing line using flume water containing various organic loads. Iceberg lettuce (5.4 kg) was inoculated to contain 10(6) CFU/g of a 4-strain cocktail of nontoxigenic, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 and held for 24 h at 4°C before processing. Lettuce was shredded using a Urschel TransSlicer, step conveyed to a flume tank, washed for 90 s using water alone or one of three different sanitizing treatments (50 ppm of total chlorine either alone or acidified to pH 6.5 with citric acid or T-128) in water containing organic loads of 0, 2.5, 5, or 10% (wt/vol) blended iceberg lettuce, and then dried using a shaker table and centrifugal dryer. Next, three 5.4-kg batches of uninoculated iceberg lettuce were processed identically. Various product (25 g), water (50 ml), and equipment surface swab (100 cm(2)) samples were homogenized in neutralizing buffer, diluted appropriately, and plated on tryptic soy agar containing 0.6% (wt/vol) yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin without prior 0.45- m m membrane filtration to quantify E. coli O157:H7. Organic load negatively impacted the efficacy of all three chlorine treatments (P < 0.05) at the end of processing, with typical E. coli O157:H7 reductions of >5 and 0.9 to 3.7 log CFU/ml for organic loads of 0 and 10%, respectively. Organic load rarely had a significant impact (P < 0.05) on the efficacy of chlorine, chlorine plus citric acid, or chlorine plus T-128 against E. coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce. Reduced sanitizer efficacy generally corresponded to changes in total solids, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and maximum filterable volume, indicating that these tests may be

  7. Efficacy of commercial produce sanitizers against nontoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 during processing of iceberg lettuce in a pilot-scale leafy green processing line.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gordon R; Buchholz, Annemarie L; Ryser, Elliot T

    2013-11-01

    Chemical sanitizers are routinely used during commercial flume washing of fresh-cut leafy greens to minimize cross-contamination from the water. This study assessed the efficacy of five commercial sanitizer treatments against Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce, in wash water, and on equipment during simulated commercial production in a pilot-scale processing line. Iceberg lettuce (5.4 kg) was inoculated to contain 10(6) CFU/g of a four-strain cocktail of nontoxigenic, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 and processed after 1 h of draining at ~22 °C. Lettuce was shredded using a commercial slicer, step-conveyed to a flume tank, washed for 90 s using six different treatments (water alone, 50 ppm of peroxyacetic acid, 50 ppm of mixed peracid, or 50 ppm of available chlorine either alone or acidified to pH 6.5 with citric acid [CA] or T-128), and then dried using a shaker table and centrifugal dryer. Various product (25-g) and water (50-ml) samples collected during processing along with equipment surface samples (100 cm(2)) from the flume tank, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer were homogenized in neutralizing buffer and plated on tryptic soy agar. During and after iceberg lettuce processing, none of the sanitizers were significantly more effective (P ≤ 0.05) than water alone at reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations on lettuce, with reductions ranging from 0.75 to 1.4 log CFU/g. Regardless of the sanitizer treatment used, the centrifugal dryer surfaces yielded E. coli O157:H7 populations of 3.49 to 4.98 log CFU/100 cm(2). Chlorine, chlorine plus CA, and chlorine plus T-128 were generally more effective (P ≤ 0.05) than the other treatments, with reductions of 3.79, 5.47, and 5.37 log CFU/ml after 90 s of processing, respectively. This indicates that chlorine-based sanitizers will likely prevent wash water containing low organic loads from becoming a vehicle for cross-contamination.

  8. Tracking an Escherichia coli O157:H7-contaminated batch of leafy greens through a pilot-scale fresh-cut processing line.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Annemarie L; Davidson, Gordon R; Marks, Bradley P; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-09-01

    Cross-contamination of fresh-cut leafy greens with residual Escherichia coli O157:H7-contaminated product during commercial processing was likely a contributing factor in several recent multistate outbreaks. Consequently, radicchio was used as a visual marker to track the spread of the contaminated product to iceberg lettuce in a pilot-scale processing line that included a commercial shredder, step conveyor, flume tank, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer. Uninoculated iceberg lettuce (45 kg) was processed, followed by 9.1 kg of radicchio (dip inoculated to contain a four-strain, green fluorescent protein-labeled nontoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 cocktail at 10(6) CFU/g) and 907 kg (2,000 lb) of uninoculated iceberg lettuce. After collecting the lettuce and radicchio in about 40 bags (∼22.7 kg per bag) along with water and equipment surface samples, all visible shreds of radicchio were retrieved from the bags of shredded product, the equipment, and the floor. E. coli O157:H7 populations were quantified in the lettuce, water, and equipment samples by direct plating with or without prior membrane filtration on Trypticase soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin. Based on triplicate experiments, the weight of radicchio in the shredded lettuce averaged 614.9 g (93.6%), 6.9 g (1.3%), 5.0 g (0.8%), and 2.8 g (0.5%) for bags 1 to 10, 11 to 20, 21 to 30, and 31 to 40, respectively, with mean E. coli O157:H7 populations of 1.7, 1.2, 1.1, and 1.1 log CFU/g in radicchio-free lettuce. After processing, more radicchio remained on the conveyor (9.8 g; P < 0.05), compared with the shredder (8.3 g), flume tank (3.5 g), and shaker table (0.1 g), with similar E. coli O157:H7 populations (P > 0.05) recovered from all equipment surfaces after processing. These findings clearly demonstrate both the potential for the continuous spread of contaminated lettuce to multiple batches of product during processing and the need for improved equipment designs that minimize

  9. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite

  10. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of a Novel, Low-Cost Oxygen Supply Process and its Integration with Oxy-Fuel Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Krish Krishnamurthy; Divy Acharya; Frank Fitch

    2008-09-30

    In order to achieve DOE targets for carbon dioxide capture, it is crucial not only to develop process options that will generate and provide oxygen to the power cycle in a cost-effective manner compared to the conventional oxygen supply methods based on cryogenic air separation technology, but also to identify effective integration options for these new technologies into the power cycle with carbon dioxide capture. The Linde/BOC developed Ceramic Autothermal Recovery (CAR) process remains an interesting candidate to address both of these issues by the transfer of oxygen from the air to a recycled CO{sub 2} rich flue-gas stream in a cyclic process utilizing the high temperature sorption properties of perovskites. Good progress was made on this technology in this project, but significant challenges remain to be addressed before CAR oxygen production technology is ready for commercial exploitation. Phase 1 of the project was completed by the end of September 2008. The two-bed 0.7 tons/day O2 CAR process development unit (PDU) was installed adjacent to WRI's pilot scale coal combustion test facility (CTF). Start-up and operating sequences for the PDU were developed and cyclic operation of the CAR process demonstrated. Controlled low concentration methane addition allowed the beds to be heated up to operational temperature (800-900 C) and then held there during cyclic operation of the 2-bed CAR process, in this way overcoming unavoidable heat losses from the beds during steady state operation. The performance of the PDU was optimized as much as possible, but equipment limitations prevented the system from fully achieving its target performance. Design of the flue gas recirculation system to integrate CAR PDU with the CTF and the system was completed and integrated tests successfully performed at the end of the period. A detailed techno-economic analysis was made of the CAR process for supplying the oxygen in oxy-fuel combustion retrofit option using AEP's 450 MW

  11. Evaluation of pilot-scale pulse-corona-induced plasma device to remove NO{sub x} from combustion exhausts from a subscale combustor and from a hush house at Nellis AFB, Nevada. Final report, August 1994--January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Haythornthwaite, S.M.; Durham, M.D.; Anderson, G.L.; Rugg, D.E.

    1997-05-01

    Jet engine test cells (JETCs) are used to test-fire new, installed, and reworked jet engines. Because JETCs have been classified as stationary sources of pollutant emissions, they are subject to possible regulation under Title 1 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) as amended in 1990. In Phase 1 of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, a novel NOx-control approach utilizing pulsed-corona-induced plasma successfully showed 90% removal of NOx in the laboratory. The objective of Phase 2 was to reproduce the laboratory-scale results in a pilot-scale system. The technology was successfully demonstrated at pilot scale in the field, on a slipstream of JETC flue gas at Nellis Air Force Base. Based on the field data, cost projections were made for a system to treat the full JETC exhaust. The technology efficiently converted NO into ONO, and a wet scrubber was required to achieve the treatment goal of 50-percent removal and destruction of NOx. The plasma simultaneously removes hydrocarbons from the flue gas stream. This project demonstrated that pulse-corona-induced plasma technology is scalable to practical industrial dimensions.

  12. Influence of high gas production during thermophilic anaerobic digestion in pilot-scale and lab-scale reactors on survival of the thermotolerant pathogens Clostridium perfringens and Campylobacter jejuni in piggery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Skillman, L C; Bajsa, O; Ho, L; Santhanam, B; Kumar, M; Ho, G

    2009-07-01

    Safe reuse of animal wastes to capture energy and nutrients, through anaerobic digestion processes, is becoming an increasingly desirable solution to environmental pollution. Pathogen decay is the most important safety consideration and is in general, improved at elevated temperatures and longer hydraulic residence times. During routine sampling to assess pathogen decay in thermophilic digestion, an inversely proportional relationship between levels of Clostridium perfringens and gas production was observed. Further samples were collected from pilot-scale, bench-scale thermophilic reactors and batch scale vials to assess whether gas production (predominantly methane) could be a useful indicator of decay of the thermotolerant pathogens C. perfringens and Campylobacter jejuni. Pathogen levels did appear to be lower where gas production and levels of methanogens were higher. This was evident at each operating temperature (50, 57, 65 degrees C) in the pilot-scale thermophilic digesters, although higher temperatur