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Sample records for piloted simulation study

  1. A Piloted Simulation Study of Wake Turbulence on Final Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    A piloted simulation study has been conducted in a research simulator to provide a means to estimate the effects of different levels of wake turbulence on final approach. A worst-case methodology was used to ensure conservative estimates. Fourteen airline pilots voluntarily participated in the study and flew almost 1000 approaches. The pilots rated the subjective severity of the disturbances using a special rating scale developed for this study. Several objective measures of the airplane/pilot response to the simulated wake turbulence were also made. All the data showed a large amount of variation between pilots and to a lesser extent for a given pilot. Therefore, the data were presented at 50, 70, 90 percentile levels as a function of vortex strength. The data allow estimates of the vortex strength for a given subjective or objective response and vice versa. The results of this study appear to be more conservative than the results of previous studies.

  2. Piloted simulation study of two tilt-wing control concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1992-01-01

    A two phase piloted simulation study was conducted to investigate alternative wing and flap controls for tilt-wing aircraft. The initial phase of the study compared the flying qualities of both a conventional (programmed) flap and an innovative geared flap. The second phase of the study introduced an alternate method of pilot control for the geared flap and further studied the flying qualities of the programmed flap, and two geared flap configurations. In general, the pilot ratings showed little difference between the programmed flap and the geared flap control concepts, although differences between the two control concepts were noticed and are discussed in this paper. The addition of pitch attitude stabilization in the second phase of the study greatly enhanced the aircraft flying qualities. This paper describes the simulated tilt-wing aircraft and the flap control concepts, and presents the results of both the first and second phases of the piloted simulation study.

  3. Piloted simulation study of two tilt-wing control concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1994-01-01

    A two-phase piloted simulation study was conducted to investigate alternative wing and flap controls for tilt-wing aircraft. The initial phase of the study compared the flying qualities of both a conventional (programmed) flap and an innovative geared flap. The second phase of the study introduced an alternate method of pilot control for the geared flap and further studied the flying qualities of the programmed flap, and two geared flap configurations. In general, the pilot rating showed little variation between the programmed flap and the geared flap control concepts. Some differences between the two concepts were noticed and are discussed in this paper. The addition of pitch attitude stabilization in the second phase of the study greatly enhanced the aircraft flying qualities. This paper describes the simulated tilt-wing aircraft and the flap control concepts and presents the results of both phases of the simulation study.

  4. Interprofessional podiatric surgical simulation a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mendel, Shaun; Curtis, Donald; Page, Jeffrey C

    2015-07-01

    Interprofessional collaboration is key to quality outcomes in the health-care systems of today. Simulation is a common tool in podiatric medical education, and interprofessional education has become more common in podiatric medicine programs. Interprofessional simulation is the blending of these educational strategies. A quantitative design was used to determine the impact of an isolated interprofessional podiatric surgical simulation between nurse anesthesia and podiatric medical students. Statistically significant differences were observed among participants between preintervention and postintervention surveys using the revised Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale. Interprofessional simulation can be an effective educational opportunity for podiatric medical and nurse anesthesia students.

  5. Piloted Simulation Study of Wake Encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this current research is to determine an acceptable level of vortex roll disturbance for worst-case encounter geometries during normal, routine operations. This includes: determining the boundary & metric(s), and defining evaluation factors & procedures. The discussion includes: simulation hardware, research simulator software, and research approach & observations.

  6. Airflow Hazard Visualization for Helicopter Pilots: Flight Simulation Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2005-01-01

    Airflow hazards such as vortices or low level wind shear have been identified as a primary contributing factor in many helicopter accidents. US Navy ships generate airwakes over their decks, creating potentially hazardous conditions for shipboard rotorcraft launch and recovery. Recent sensor developments may enable the delivery of airwake data to the cockpit, where visualizing the hazard data may improve safety and possibly extend ship/helicopter operational envelopes. A prototype flight-deck airflow hazard visualization system was implemented on a high-fidelity rotorcraft flight dynamics simulator. Experienced helicopter pilots, including pilots from all five branches of the military, participated in a usability study of the system. Data was collected both objectively from the simulator and subjectively from post-test questionnaires. Results of the data analysis are presented, demonstrating a reduction in crash rate and other trends that illustrate the potential of airflow hazard visualization to improve flight safety.

  7. Piloted Simulation Study of Rudder Pedal Force/Feel Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation was conducted in 2006 to determine optimum rudder pedal force/feel characteristics for transport aircraft. As part of this research, an evaluation of four metrics for assessing rudder pedal characteristics previously presented in the literature was conducted. This evaluation was based upon the numerical handling qualities ratings assigned to a variety of pedal force/feel systems used in the simulation study. It is shown that, with the inclusion of a fifth metric, most of the rudder pedal force/feel system designs that were rated poorly by the evaluation pilots could be identified. It is suggested that these metrics form the basis of a certification requirement for transport aircraft.

  8. Traffic scenario generation technique for piloted simulation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Wells, Douglas C.

    1985-01-01

    Piloted simulation studies of cockpit traffic display concepts require the development of representative traffic scenarios. With the exception of specific aircraft interaction issues, most research questions can be addressed using traffic scenarios consisting of prerecorded aircraft movements merged together to form a desired traffic pattern. Prerecorded traffic scenarios have distinct research advantages, allowing control of traffic encounters with repeatability of scenarios between different test subjects. A technique is described for generation of prerecorded jet transport traffic scenarios suitable for use in piloted simulation studies. Individual flight profiles for the aircraft in the scenario are created interactively with a computer program designed specifically for this purpose. The profiles are then time-correlated and merged into a complete scenario. This technique was used to create traffic scenarios for the Denver, Colorado area with operations centered at Stapleton International Airport. Traffic scenarios for other areas may also be created using this technique, with appropriate modifications made to the navigation fix locations contained in the flight profile generation program.

  9. A piloted simulation study of data link ATC message exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Marvin C.; Lohr, Gary W.

    1989-01-01

    Data link Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Air Traffic Service (ATS) message and data exchange offers the potential benefits of increased flight safety and efficiency by reducing communication errors and allowing more information to be transferred between aircraft and ground facilities. Digital communication also presents an opportunity to relieve the overloading of ATC radio frequencies which hampers message exchange during peak traffic hours in many busy terminal areas. A piloted simulation study to develop pilot factor guidelines and assess potential flight crew benefits and liabilities from using data link ATC message exchange was completed. The data link ATC message exchange concept, implemented on an existing navigation computer Control Display Unit (CDU) required maintaining a voice radio telephone link with an appropriate ATC facility. Flight crew comments, scanning behavior, and measurements of time spent in ATC communication activities for data link ATC message exchange were compared to similar measures for simulated conventional voice radio operations. The results show crew preference for the quieter flight deck environment and a perception of lower communication workload.

  10. A Study of the Characteristics of Human-Pilot Control Response to Simulated Aircraft Lateral Motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, Donald C

    1954-01-01

    Report presents the results of studies made in an attempt to provide information on the control operations of the human pilot. These studies included an investigation of the ability of pilots to control simulated unstable yawing oscillations, a study of the basic characteristics of human-pilot control response, and a study to determine whether and to what extent pilot control response can be represented in an analytical form.

  11. Leading teams during simulated pediatric emergencies: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Coolen, Ester H; Draaisma, Jos M; den Hamer, Sabien; Loeffen, Jan L

    2015-01-01

    Leadership has been identified as a key variable for the functioning of teams and as one of the main reasons for success or failure of team-based work systems. Pediatricians often function as team leaders in the resuscitation of a critically ill child. However, pediatric residents often report having little opportunity to perform in the role of team leader during residency. In order to gain more insight into leadership skills and behaviors, we classified leadership styles of pediatric residents during simulated emergencies. We conducted a prospective quantitative study to investigate leadership styles used by pediatric residents during simulated emergencies with clinical deterioration of a child at a pediatric ward. Using videotaped scenarios of 48 simulated critical events among 12 residents, we were able to classify verbal and nonverbal communication into different leadership styles according to the situational leadership theory. The coaching style (mean 54.5%, SD 7.8) is the most frequently applied by residents, followed by the directing style (mean 35.6%, SD 4.1). This pattern conforms to the task- and role-related requirements in our scenarios and it also conforms to the concept of situational leadership. We did not find any significant differences in leadership style according to the postgraduate year or scenario content. The model used in this pilot study helps us to gain a better understanding of the development of effective leadership behavior and supports the applicability of situational leadership theory in training leadership skills during residency.

  12. Leading teams during simulated pediatric emergencies: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Coolen, Ester H; Draaisma, Jos M; den Hamer, Sabien; Loeffen, Jan L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Leadership has been identified as a key variable for the functioning of teams and as one of the main reasons for success or failure of team-based work systems. Pediatricians often function as team leaders in the resuscitation of a critically ill child. However, pediatric residents often report having little opportunity to perform in the role of team leader during residency. In order to gain more insight into leadership skills and behaviors, we classified leadership styles of pediatric residents during simulated emergencies. Methods We conducted a prospective quantitative study to investigate leadership styles used by pediatric residents during simulated emergencies with clinical deterioration of a child at a pediatric ward. Using videotaped scenarios of 48 simulated critical events among 12 residents, we were able to classify verbal and nonverbal communication into different leadership styles according to the situational leadership theory. Results The coaching style (mean 54.5%, SD 7.8) is the most frequently applied by residents, followed by the directing style (mean 35.6%, SD 4.1). This pattern conforms to the task- and role-related requirements in our scenarios and it also conforms to the concept of situational leadership. We did not find any significant differences in leadership style according to the postgraduate year or scenario content. Conclusion The model used in this pilot study helps us to gain a better understanding of the development of effective leadership behavior and supports the applicability of situational leadership theory in training leadership skills during residency. PMID:25610010

  13. Combining simulated patients and simulators: pilot study of hybrid simulation in teaching cardiac auscultation.

    PubMed

    Friederichs, Hendrik; Weissenstein, Anne; Ligges, Sandra; Möller, David; Becker, Jan C; Marschall, Bernhard

    2014-12-01

    Auscultation torsos are widely used to teach position-dependent heart sounds and murmurs. To provide a more realistic teaching experience, both whole body auscultation mannequins and torsos have been used in clinical examination skills training at the Medical Faculty of the University of Muenster since the winter term of 2008-2009. This training has since been extended by simulated patients, which are normal, healthy subjects who have undergone attachment of the electronic components of the auscultation mannequins to their chests to mimic pathophysiological conditions ("hybrid models"). The acceptance of this new learning method was examined in the present pilot study. In total, 143 students in their second preclinical year who were participating in auscultation training were randomized into an intervention group (hybrid models) and a control group (auscultation mannequins). One hundred forty-two (99.3%) of these students completed a self-assessment Likert-scale questionnaire regarding different teaching approaches (where 1 = "very poor" to 100 = "very good"). The questionnaire focused on the "value of learning" of different teaching approaches. Direct comparison showed that students evaluated the hybrid models to be significantly more effective than the auscultation mannequins (median: 83 vs. 64, P < 0.001). The cardiac auscultation training was generally assessed positively (median: 88). Additionally, verbal feedback was obtained from simulated patients and tutors (trained students who had successfully passed the course a few semesters earlier). Personal feedback showed high satisfaction from student tutors and simulated patients. Hybrid simulators for teaching cardiac auscultation elucidated positive responses from students, tutors, and simulated patients.

  14. Pilot In-Trail Procedure Validation Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussink, Frank J. L.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Chamberlain, James P.; Chartrand, Ryan; Jones, Kenneth M.

    2008-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) to investigate the viability of the In-Trail Procedure (ITP) concept from a flight crew perspective, by placing participating airline pilots in a simulated oceanic flight environment. The test subject pilots used new onboard avionics equipment that provided improved information about nearby traffic and enabled them, when specific criteria were met, to request an ITP flight level change referencing one or two nearby aircraft that might otherwise block the flight level change. The subject pilots subjective assessments of ITP validity and acceptability were measured via questionnaires and discussions, and their objective performance in appropriately selecting, requesting, and performing ITP flight level changes was evaluated for each simulated flight scenario. Objective performance and subjective workload assessment data from the experiment s test conditions were analyzed for statistical and operational significance and are reported in the paper. Based on these results, suggestions are made to further improve the ITP.

  15. Use of piloted simulation for studies of fighter departure/spin susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, W. P.; Nguyen, L. T.

    1978-01-01

    The NASA-Langley Research Center has incorporated into its stall/spin research program on military airplanes the use of piloted, fixed-base simulation to complement the existing matrix of unique research testing techniques. The piloted simulations of fighter stall/departure flight dynamics are conducted on the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS). The objectives of the simulation research are reviewed. The rationale underlying the simulation methods and procedures used in the evaluation of airplane characteristics is presented. The evaluation steps used to assess fighter stall/departure characteristics are discussed. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the flight dynamics phenomena dealt with. The considerable experience accumulated in the conduct of piloted stall/departure simulation indicates that simulation provides a realistic evaluation of an airplane's maneuverability at high angles of attack and an assessment of the departure and spin susceptibility of the airplane. This realism is obtained by providing the pilot a complete simulation of the airplane and control system which can be flown using a realistic cockpit and visual display in simulations of demanding air combat maneuvering tasks. The use of the piloted simulation methods and procedures described were found very effective in identifying stability and control problem areas and in developing automatic control concepts to alleviate many of these problems. A good level of correlation between simulated flight dynamics and flight test results were obtained over the many fighter configurations studied in the simulator.

  16. Pilot Comments for High Speed Research Cycle 3 Simulations Study (LaRC.1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Melvin L. (Editor); Jackson, E. Bruce (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This is a compilation of pilot comments from the Boeing High Speed Research Aircraft, Cycle 3 Simulation Study (LaRC.1) conducted from January to March 1997 at NASA Langley Research Center. This simulation study was conducted using the Visual Motion Simulator. The comments are direct tape transcriptions and have been edited for spelling only.

  17. Piloted simulator studies of the HL-20 Lifting Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, Robert A.; Jackson, E. B.; Ragsdale, W. A.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the concept, design and development of the NASA Langley Lifting Body, and the flight simulator studies that have been performed. Attention is given to the aerodynamic shape of the HL-20, vehicle and simulator/cockpit description, and evolution of the HL-20 aerodynamic model. The flight simulation studies have demonstrated the HL-20 to be a viable design for accomplishing precise, unpowered, horizontal landings.

  18. Piloted simulator studies of the HL-20 Lifting Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, Robert A.; Jackson, E. B.; Ragsdale, W. A.

    An overview is presented of the concept, design and development of the NASA Langley Lifting Body, and the flight simulator studies that have been performed. Attention is given to the aerodynamic shape of the HL-20, vehicle and simulator/cockpit description, and evolution of the HL-20 aerodynamic model. The flight simulation studies have demonstrated the HL-20 to be a viable design for accomplishing precise, unpowered, horizontal landings.

  19. Effect of motion cues during complex curved approach and landing tasks: A piloted simulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted to examine the effect of motion cues using a high fidelity simulation of commercial aircraft during the performance of complex approach and landing tasks in the Microwave Landing System (MLS) signal environment. The data from these tests indicate that in a high complexity MLS approach task with moderate turbulence and wind, the pilot uses motion cues to improve path tracking performance. No significant differences in tracking accuracy were noted for the low and medium complexity tasks, regardless of the presence of motion cues. Higher control input rates were measured for all tasks when motion was used. Pilot eye scan, as measured by instrument dwell time, was faster when motion cues were used regardless of the complexity of the approach tasks. Pilot comments indicated a preference for motion. With motion cues, pilots appeared to work harder in all levels of task complexity and to improve tracking performance in the most complex approach task.

  20. Flight simulation using a Brain-Computer Interface: A pilot, pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kryger, Michael; Wester, Brock; Pohlmeyer, Eric A; Rich, Matthew; John, Brendan; Beaty, James; McLoughlin, Michael; Boninger, Michael; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C

    2017-01-01

    As Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems advance for uses such as robotic arm control it is postulated that the control paradigms could apply to other scenarios, such as control of video games, wheelchair movement or even flight. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether our BCI system, which involves decoding the signals of two 96-microelectrode arrays implanted into the motor cortex of a subject, could also be used to control an aircraft in a flight simulator environment. The study involved six sessions in which various parameters were modified in order to achieve the best flight control, including plane type, view, control paradigm, gains, and limits. Successful flight was determined qualitatively by evaluating the subject's ability to perform requested maneuvers, maintain flight paths, and avoid control losses such as dives, spins and crashes. By the end of the study, it was found that the subject could successfully control an aircraft. The subject could use both the jet and propeller plane with different views, adopting an intuitive control paradigm. From the subject's perspective, this was one of the most exciting and entertaining experiments she had performed in two years of research. In conclusion, this study provides a proof-of-concept that traditional motor cortex signals combined with a decoding paradigm can be used to control systems besides a robotic arm for which the decoder was developed. Aside from possible functional benefits, it also shows the potential for a new recreational activity for individuals with disabilities who are able to master BCI control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pilot age and expertise predict flight simulator performance: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Joy L; Kennedy, Quinn; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome A

    2007-02-27

    Expert knowledge may compensate for age-related declines in basic cognitive and sensory-motor abilities in some skill domains. We investigated the influence of age and aviation expertise (indexed by Federal Aviation Administration pilot ratings) on longitudinal flight simulator performance. Over a 3-year period, 118 general aviation pilots aged 40 to 69 years were tested annually, in which their flight performance was scored in terms of 1) executing air-traffic controller communications; 2) traffic avoidance; 3) scanning cockpit instruments; 4) executing an approach to landing; and 5) a flight summary score. More expert pilots had better flight summary scores at baseline and showed less decline over time. Secondary analyses revealed that expertise effects were most evident in the accuracy of executing aviation communications, the measure on which performance declined most sharply over time. Regarding age, even though older pilots initially performed worse than younger pilots, over time older pilots showed less decline in flight summary scores than younger pilots. Secondary analyses revealed that the oldest pilots did well over time because their traffic avoidance performance improved more vs younger pilots. These longitudinal findings support previous cross-sectional studies in aviation as well as non-aviation domains, which demonstrated the advantageous effect of prior experience and specialized expertise on older adults' skilled cognitive performances.

  2. [Study of the flight work capacity of pilots during simulated motion sickness].

    PubMed

    Razsolov, N A; Iakovlev, O P

    1976-01-01

    With the aid of a modified procedure of reading instrumental indications of an aircraft the professional performance of pilots was studied during simulated motion sickness. A ball system was developed to assess the results of reading the instrumental indications. After five exposures to double rotation statokinetically stable pilots developed a latent form and statokinetically unstable pilots developed an overt form of motion sickness. The latent form of motion sickness manifested itself in deteriorated professional performance. The overt form of motion sickness was preceded by a decline of professional performance.

  3. Manual flying of curved precision approaches to landing with electromechanical instrumentation. A piloted simulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted to examine the requirements for using electromechanical flight instrumentation to provide situation information and flight guidance for manually controlled flight along curved precision approach paths to a landing. Six pilots were used as test subjects. The data from these tests indicated that flight director guidance is required for the manually controlled flight of a jet transport airplane on curved approach paths. Acceptable path tracking performance was attained with each of the three situation information algorithms tested. Approach paths with both multiple sequential turns and short final path segments were evaluated. Pilot comments indicated that all the approach paths tested could be used in normal airline operations.

  4. Computer Simulation for Pain Management Education: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Allred, Kelly; Gerardi, Nicole

    2017-08-01

    Effective pain management is an elusive concept in acute care. Inadequate knowledge has been identified as a barrier to providing optimal pain management. This study aimed to determine student perceptions of an interactive computer simulation as a potential method for learning pain management, as a motivator to read and learn more about pain management, preference over traditional lecture, and its potential to change nursing practice. A post-computer simulation survey with a mixed-methods descriptive design was used in this study. A college of nursing in a large metropolitan university in the Southeast United States. A convenience sample of 30 nursing students in a Bachelor of Science nursing program. An interactive computer simulation was developed as a potential alternative method of teaching pain management to nursing students. Increases in educational gain as well as its potential to change practice were explored. Each participant was asked to complete a survey consisting of 10 standard 5-point Likert scale items and 5 open-ended questions. The survey was used to evaluate the students' perception of the simulation, specifically related to educational benefit, preference compared with traditional teaching methods, and perceived potential to change nursing practice. Data provided descriptive statistics for initial evaluation of the computer simulation. The responses on the survey suggest nursing students perceive the computer simulation to be entertaining, fun, educational, occasionally preferred over regular lecture, and with potential to change practice. Preliminary data support the use of computer simulation in educating nursing students about pain management. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pilot Study: Impact of Computer Simulation on Students' Economic Policy Performance. Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domazlicky, Bruce; France, Judith

    Fiscal and monetary policies taught in macroeconomic principles courses are concepts that might require both lecture and simulation methods. The simulation models, which apply the principles gleened from comparative statistics to a dynamic world, may give students an appreciation for the problems facing policy makers. This paper is a report of a…

  6. Initial piloted simulation study of geared flap control for tilt-wing V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerrero, Lourdes M.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1991-01-01

    A simulation study of a representative tilt wing transport aircraft was conducted in 1990 on the Ames Vertical Motion Simulator. This simulation is in response to renewed interest in the tilt wing concept for use in future military and civil applications. For past tilt wing concepts, pitch control in hover and low-speed flight has required a tail rotor or reaction jets at the tail. Use of mono cyclic propellers or a geared flap have also been proposed as alternate methods for providing pitch control at low speed. The geared flap is a subject of this current study. This report describes the geared flap concept, the tilt wing aircraft, the simulation model, the simulation facility and experiment setup, the pilots' evaluation tasks and procedures, and the results obtained from the simulation experiment. The pilot evaluations and comments are also documented in the report appendix.

  7. Preliminary piloted simulation studies of the HL-20 lifting body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, Robert A.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Ragsdale, W. A.

    1994-05-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is developing a lifting body vehicle, designated the HL-20, as one option of the proposed Personnel Launch System for NASA's future manned access to space requirements. Data derived from wind-tunnel and computational fluid dynamics analyses of the conceptual design led to the derivation of a flight simulator model to investigate the potential flight characteristics of the HL-20. A simulation investigation was initiated to determine if satisfactory unpowered horizontal landings could be accomplished. Control law design and trajectory development were directed toward this end. The study uncovered several deficiencies subsequently corrected through design changes, and it validated the predicted subsonic aerodynamic properties. Expanding the investigation to the Mach 4 to Mach 1 regime revealed flight characteristics necessitating the development of innovative control techniques. This article will present the significant results uncovered to date by flight simulator evaluations of a lifting body class of vehicle, and will demonstrate the effectiveness of flight simulation as an integrated part of the conceptual design phase.

  8. Piloted simulation study of two tilt-wing flap control concepts, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Corliss, Lloyd D.; Hindson, William S.; Churchill, Gary B.

    1994-01-01

    A two phase piloted simulation study has been conducted in the Ames Vertical Motion Simulator to investigate alternative wing and flap controls for tilt-wing aircraft. This report documents the flying qualities results and findings of the second phase of the piloted simulation study and describes the simulated tilt-wing aircraft, the flap control concepts, the experiment design and the evaluation tasks. The initial phase of the study compared the flying qualities of both a conventional programmed flap and an innovative geared flap. The second phase of the study introduced an alternate method of pilot control for the geared flap and further studied the flying qualities of the programmed flap and two geared flap configurations. In general, the pilot ratings showed little variation between the programmed flap and the geared flap control concepts. Some differences between the two control concepts were noticed and are discussed in this report. The geared flap configurations had very similar results. Although the geared flap concept has the potential to reduce or eliminate the pitch control power requirements from a tail rotor or a tail thruster at low speeds and in hover, the results did not show reduced tail thruster pitch control power usage with the geared flap configurations compared to the programmed flap configuration. The addition of pitch attitude stabilization in the second phase of simulation study greatly enhanced the aircraft flying qualities compared to the first phase.

  9. Costing Educational Wastage: A Pilot Simulation Study. Current Surveys and Research in Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berstecher, D.

    This pilot simulation study examines the important methodological problems involved in costing educational wastage, focusing specifically on the cost implications of educational wastage in primary education. Purpose of the study is to provide a clearer picture of the underlying rationale and interrelated consequences of reducing educational…

  10. Costing Educational Wastage: A Pilot Simulation Study. Current Surveys and Research in Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berstecher, D.

    This pilot simulation study examines the important methodological problems involved in costing educational wastage, focusing specifically on the cost implications of educational wastage in primary education. Purpose of the study is to provide a clearer picture of the underlying rationale and interrelated consequences of reducing educational…

  11. Mechanical Ventilation Boot Camp: A Simulation-Based Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Jennifer; Fuenning, Charles; George, Richard; Hejal, Rana; Haines, Nhi; Dunn, Diane; Gothard, M. David; Ahmed, Rami A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Management of mechanically ventilated patients may pose a challenge to novice residents, many of which may not have received formal dedicated critical care instruction prior to starting their residency training. There is a paucity of data regarding simulation and mechanical ventilation training in the medical education literature. The purpose of this study was to develop a curriculum to educate first-year residents on addressing and troubleshooting ventilator alarms. Methods. Prospective evaluation was conducted of seventeen residents undergoing a twelve-hour three-day curriculum. Residents were assessed using a predetermined critical action checklist for each case, as well as pre- and postcurriculum multiple-choice cognitive knowledge questionnaires and confidence surveys. Results. Significant improvements in cognitive knowledge, critical actions, and self-reported confidence were demonstrated. The mean change in test score from before to after intervention was +26.8%, and a median score increase of 25% was noted. The ARDS and the mucus plugging cases had statistically significant improvements in critical actions, p < 0.001. A mean increase in self-reported confidence was realized (1.55 to 3.64), p = 0.049. Conclusions. A three-day simulation curriculum for residents was effective in increasing competency, knowledge, and confidence with ventilator management. PMID:26949545

  12. Trauma Boot Camp: A Simulation-Based Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Moftakhar, Yasmin; Dobbins IV, Arthur L; Khan, Ramisha; Dasgupta, Rahul; Blanda, Rachel; Marchand, Tiffany; Ahmed, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Interns are often unprepared to effectively communicate in the acute trauma setting. Despite the many strengths of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) program, the main shortcoming within the course is the deficiency of teamwork and leadership training. In this study, we describe the creation of an interdisciplinary boot camp in which interns' basic trauma knowledge, level of confidence, and teamwork skills are assessed. Methods: We designed a one-day, boot camp curriculum for interns of various specialties with the purpose of improving communication and teamwork skills for effective management of acute trauma patients. Our curriculum consisted of a one-day, twelve-hour experience, which included trauma patient simulations, content expert lectures, group discussion of video demonstrations, and skill development workstations. Baseline and acquired knowledge were assessed through the use of confidence surveys, cognitive questionnaires, and a validated evaluation tool of teamwork and leadership skills for trauma Results: Fifteen interns entered the boot camp with an overall confidence score of 3.2 (1-5 scale) in the management of trauma cases. At the culmination of the study, there was a significant increase in the overall confidence level of interns in role delegation, leadership, Crisis Resource Management (CRM) principles, and in the performance of primary and secondary surveys. No significant changes were seen in determining and effectively using the Glasgow Coma Scale, Orthopedic splinting/reduction skills, and effective use of closed-loop communication. Conclusion: An intensive one-day trauma boot camp demonstrated significant improvement in self-reported confidence of CRM concepts, role delegation, leadership, and performance of primary and secondary surveys. Despite the intensive curriculum, there was no significant improvement in overall teamwork and leadership performance during simulated cases. Our boot camp curriculum offers educators a

  13. Piloted simulation study of an ILS approach of a twin-pusher business/commuter turboprop aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Donald R.; Brandon, Jay M.; Glaab, Louis J.

    1994-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear simulation of a twin-pusher, turboprop business/commuter aircraft configuration representative of the Cessna ATPTB (Advanced turboprop test bed) was developed for use in piloted studies with the Langley General Aviation Simulator. The math models developed are provided, simulation predictions are compared with with Cessna flight-test data for validation purposes, and results of a handling quality study during simulated ILS (instrument landing system) approaches and missed approaches are presented. Simulated flight trajectories, task performance measures, and pilot evaluations are presented for the ILS approach and missed-approach tasks conducted with the vehicle in the presence of moderate turbulence, varying horizontal winds and engine-out conditions. Six test subjects consisting of two research pilots, a Cessna test pilot, and three general aviation pilots participated in the study. This effort was undertaken in cooperation with the Cessna Aircraft Company.

  14. Realization of simulations for blinded internal pilot study based on web.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suzhen; Xia, Jielai; Yu, Lili; Li, Chanjuan; Xu, Li; Zheng, Liang

    2009-04-01

    Misspecification of the designing parameters in the planning of a controlled clinical trial may yield an underpowered or an overpowered study. Internal pilot study, a kind of adaptive design, has gained increased attention for its allowing for sample size adjustment, especially blinded sample size adjustment that do not affect the type I error rate. Several methods were proposed to implement internal pilot design in recent years and some software emerges to simulate or implement it. But most of the software is only running on a stand-alone terminal or Client/Server(C/S) mode. We develop a system to simulate it based on Browser/Server(B/S) mode and realized on web. It allows the web users to input corresponding parameters from the web browser such as Internet Explorer to make simulations. The system was constructed with generic database schema design method and coded with Microsoft Visual Basic and Active Server Pages (ASP) programming languages. Web users on internet can use the system to make blinded variance estimate, sample size adjustment and randomization test for internal pilot study. The application of the simulation is demonstrated through an example. Not only blinded sample size adjustment is implemented but also a randomization test is performed. With applications of blinding one-sample variance for sample size recalculation and randomization test, the type I error rate is also controlled successfully.

  15. Removal of actinides from nuclear reprocessing wastes: a pilot plant study using non-radioactive simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Maxey, H.R.; McIsaac, L.D.; Chamberlain, D.B.; McManus, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes generated at the ICPP contain small amounts of actinides, primarily Pu and Am. Removal of these actinides reduces the long term storage hazards of the waste. The development of a flowsheet to remove trivalent actinides is discussed in this paper. Pilot plant studies used actinide simulants. As a result of these studies, the Height of a Transfer Unit (HTU) was selected as the better measure of pulse column separation efficiency.

  16. ICAAS piloted simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landy, R. J.; Halski, P. J.; Meyer, R. P.

    1994-05-01

    This paper reports piloted simulation results from the Integrated Control and Avionics for Air Superiority (ICAAS) piloted simulation evaluations. The program was to develop, integrate, and demonstrate critical technologies which will enable United States Air Force tactical fighter 'blue' aircraft to achieve superiority and survive when outnumbered by as much as four to one by enemy aircraft during air combat engagements. Primary emphasis was placed on beyond visual range (BVR) combat with provisions for effective transition to close-in combat. The ICAAS system was developed and tested in two stages. The first stage, called low risk ICAAS, was defined as employing aircraft and avionics technology with an initial operational date no later than 1995. The second stage, called medium risk ICAAS, was defined as employing aircraft and avionics technology with an initial operational date no later than 1998. Descriptions of the low risk and medium risk simulation configurations are given. Normalized (unclassified) results from both the low risk and medium risk ICAAS simulations are discussed. The results show the ICAAS system provided a significant improvement in air combat performance when compared to a current weapon system. Data are presented for both current generation and advanced fighter aircraft. The ICAAS technologies which are ready for flight testing in order to transition to the fighter fleet are described along with technologies needing additional development.

  17. Dose and sequence of simulation and direct care experiences among beginning nursing students: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schlairet, Maura C; Fenster, Mark J

    2012-12-01

    Accumulating suggests human patient simulation is an effective instructional technique. Simulated clinical experiences may be a reasonable substitute for direct care experiences. Educators and regulators need to know what mix of simulation and direct care promotes learning and how these experiences can be designed to help nursing students achieve essential outcomes. The goal of this pilot study was to identify a model to promote development of clinical judgment among beginning nursing students. Principles related to types of learning and practice (blocked by type or interleaved) were used in exploring simulation and direct care design schema. Using a 50% interleaved simulation design schema, robust clinical judgment scores and positive perceptions of learning were identified among beginning students participating in a basic nursing concepts and skills course. Further study is warranted to determine whether this schema is effective in other nursing courses or with novice-level students from diverse health care disciplines. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Pilot Interactions in an Over-Constrained Conflict Scenario as Studied in a Piloted Simulation of Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Barhydt, Richard; Barmore, Bryan; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2003-01-01

    Feasibility and safety of autonomous aircraft operations were studied in a multi-piloted simulation of overconstrained traffic conflicts to determine the need for, and utility of, priority flight rules to maintain safety in this extraordinary and potentially hazardous situation. An overconstrained traffic conflict is one in which the separation assurance objective is incompatible with other objectives. In addition, a proposed scheme for implementing priority flight rules by staggering the alerting time between the two aircraft in conflict was tested for effectiveness. The feasibility study was conducted through a simulation in the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center. This research activity is a continuation of the Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management feasibility analysis reported in the 4th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar in December 2001 (paper #48). The over-constrained conflict scenario studied here consisted of two piloted aircraft that were assigned an identical en-route waypoint arrival time and altitude crossing restriction. The simulation results indicated that the pilots safely resolved the conflict without the need for a priority flight rule system. Occurrences of unnecessary maneuvering near the common waypoint were traced to false conflict alerts, generated as the result of including waypoint constraint information in the broadcast data link message issued from each aircraft. This result suggests that, in the conservative interests of safety, broadcast intent information should be based on the commanded trajectory and not on the Flight Management System flight plan, to which the aircraft may not actually adhere. The use of priority flight rules had no effect on the percentage of the aircraft population meeting completely predictable which aircraft in a given pair would meet the constraints and which aircraft would make the first maneuver to yield right-of-way. Therefore, the proposed scheme for

  19. A simulation study of control and display requirements for zero-experience general aviation pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this simulation study was to define the basic human factor requirements for operating an airplane in all weather conditions. The basic human factors requirements are defined as those for an operator who is a complete novice for airplane operations but who is assumed to have automobile driving experience. These operators thus have had no piloting experience or training of any kind. The human factor requirements are developed for a practical task which includes all of the basic maneuvers required to go from one airport to another airport in limited visibility conditions. The task was quite demanding including following a precise path with climbing and descending turns while simultaneously changing airspeed. The ultimate goal of this research is to increase the utility of general aviation airplanes - that is, to make them a practical mode of transportation for a much larger segment of the general population. This can be accomplished by reducing the training and proficiency requirements of pilots while improving the level of safety. It is believed that advanced technologies such as fly-by-wire (or light), and head-up pictorial displays can be of much greater benefit to the general aviation pilot than to the full-time, professional pilot.

  20. Piloted simulator assessments of agility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Edward T.

    1990-01-01

    NASA has utilized piloted simulators for nearly two decades to study high-angle-of-attack flying qualities, agility, and air-to-air combat. These studies have included assessments of an F-16XL aircraft equipped with thrust vectoring, an assessment of the F-18 HARV maneuvering requirements to assist in thrust vectoring control system design, and an agility assessment of the F-18. The F-18 agility assessment was compared with in-flight testing. Open-loop maneuvers such as 180-deg rolls to measure roll rate showed favorable simulator/in-flight comparison. Closed-loop maneuvers such as rolls to 90 deg with precision stops or certain maximum longitudinal pitching maneuvers showed poorer performance due to reduced aggressiveness of pilot inputs in flight to remain within flight envelope limits.

  1. Ride qualities criteria validation/pilot performance study: Flight simulator results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nardi, L. U.; Kawana, H. Y.; Borland, C. J.; Lefritz, N. M.

    1976-01-01

    Pilot performance was studied during simulated manual terrain following flight for ride quality criteria validation. An existing B-1 simulation program provided the data for these investigations. The B-1 simulation program included terrain following flights under varying controlled conditions of turbulence, terrain, mission length, and system dynamics. The flight simulator consisted of a moving base cockpit which reproduced motions due to turbulence and control inputs. The B-1 aircraft dynamics were programmed with six-degrees-of-freedom equations of motion with three symmetric and two antisymmetric structural degrees of freedom. The results provided preliminary validation of existing ride quality criteria and identified several ride quality/handling quality parameters which may be of value in future ride quality/criteria development.

  2. Simulation-based education with deliberate practice may improve intraoperative handoff skills: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pukenas, Erin W; Dodson, Gregory; Deal, Edward R; Gratz, Irwin; Allen, Elaine; Burden, Amanda R

    2014-11-01

    To examine the results of simulation-based education with deliberate practice on the acquisition of handoff skills by studying resident intraoperative handoff communication performances. Preinvention and postintervention pilot study. Simulated operating room of a university-affiliated hospital. Resident handoff performances during 27 encounters simulating elective surgery were studied. Ten residents (CA-1, CA-2, and CA-3) participated in a one-day simulation-based handoff course. Each resident repeated simulated handoffs to deliberately practice with an intraoperative handoff checklist. One year later, 7 of the 10 residents participated in simulated intraoperative handoffs. All handoffs were videotaped and later scored for accuracy by trained raters. A handoff assessment tool was used to characterize the type and frequency of communication failures. The percentage of handoff errors and omissions were compared before simulation and postsimulation-based education with deliberate practice and at one year following the course. Initially, the overall communication failure rate, defined as the percentage of handoff omissions plus errors, was 29.7%. After deliberate practice with the intraoperative handoff checklist, the communication failure rate decreased to 16.8%, and decreased further to 13.2% one year after the course. Simulation-based education using deliberate practice may result in improved intraoperative handoff communication and retention of skills at one year. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Study on fatigue of pilots during simulated flight training based on electroencephalogram].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Li; Li, Jing; Meng, Guo; Li, Ming-Gao

    2013-05-01

    To study EEG during simulated flight training, then to explore the situational character of mental fatigue of the pilots. Fifty male pilots were randomly choice to be recorded their EEG including rest,flight and recovery phase. Then the band waves of EEG were analysed among the three phase. (1) During flight, the amplitude of alpha, beta, SMR, theta, gamma waves tended to increase. These changes seemed obviously in SMR, theta waves. (2) After flight, all the amplitude of the waves declined except for beta wave of the right lobe,and most of them were still higher than those before flight (P < 0.05); (3) The right brain showed a higher cerebration than the left, especially in theta wave. Mental fatigue is started during the flight training, and the right lobe has a severe mental fatigue than the left. After flight, mental fatigue showed a slow recovery.

  4. Piloted simulation study of a balloon-assisted deployment of an aircraft at high altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James; Moes, Timothy; Norlin, Ken; Bauer, Jeffrey; Geenen, Robert; Moulton, Bryan; Hoang, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    A piloted simulation was used to study the feasibility of a balloon assisted deployment of a research aircraft at high altitude. In the simulation study, an unmanned, modified sailplane was carried to 110,000 ft with a high altitude balloon and released in a nose down attitude. A remote pilot controlled the aircraft through a pullout and then executed a zoom climb to a trimmed, 1 g flight condition. A small parachute was used to limit the Mach number during the pullout to avoid adverse transonic effects. The use of small rocket motor was studied for increasing the maximum attainable altitude. Aerodynamic modifications to the basic sailplane included applying supercritical airfoil gloves over the existing wing and tail surfaces. The aerodynamic model of the simulated aircraft was based on low Reynolds number wind tunnel tests and computational techniques, and included large Mach number and Reynolds number effects at high altitude. Parametric variations were performed to study the effects of launch altitude, gross weight, Mach number limit, and parachute size on the maximum attainable stabilized altitude. A test altitude of approx. 95,000 ft was attained, and altitudes in excess of 100,000 ft was attained.

  5. Piloted simulator study of allowable time delays in large-airplane response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.; Bert T.?aetingas, Stephen A.dings with ran; Bert T.?aetingas, Stephen A.dings with ran

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation was performed to determine the permissible time delay and phase shift in the flight control system of a specific large transport-type airplane. The study was conducted with a six degree of freedom ground-based simulator and a math model similar to an advanced wide-body jet transport. Time delays in discrete and lagged form were incorporated into the longitudinal, lateral, and directional control systems of the airplane. Three experienced pilots flew simulated approaches and landings with random localizer and glide slope offsets during instrument tracking as their principal evaluation task. Results of the present study suggest a level 1 (satisfactory) handling qualities limit for the effective time delay of 0.15 sec in both the pitch and roll axes, as opposed to a 0.10-sec limit of the present specification (MIL-F-8785C) for both axes. Also, the present results suggest a level 2 (acceptable but unsatisfactory) handling qualities limit for an effective time delay of 0.82 sec and 0.57 sec for the pitch and roll axes, respectively, as opposed to 0.20 sec of the present specifications for both axes. In the area of phase shift between cockpit input and control surface deflection,the results of this study, flown in turbulent air, suggest less severe phase shift limitations for the approach and landing task-approximately 50 deg. in pitch and 40 deg. in roll - as opposed to 15 deg. of the present specifications for both axes.

  6. Implementing a Workplace Violence Simulation for Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Angel Johann Solorzano

    2017-10-01

    Workplace violence (WPV) is an undesired phenomenon affecting nurses and nursing students. Nursing simulations allow students to learn and practice skills in a controlled setting. The development of the pilot study, "Mental Health Nursing Simulation on Workplace Violence," is presented. A simulated scenario using a standardized patient (SP) behaving as an agitated psychiatric patient was developed for undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a psychiatric nursing course. The simulation aimed to enhance students' knowledge about WPV, increase their confidence and ability to recognize signs of aggression, practice evidence-based interventions to de-escalate agitated patients, and evaluate the simulation. Surveys and the Mental Health Nursing Clinical Confidence Scale were used to measure the aims yielding qualitative and quantitative data. An increase in students' confidence and knowledge was obtained post-simulation. Students rated the simulation as useful. The use of a SP created an experiential learning environment for participants. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(10), 39-44.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Generic Airplane Model Concept and Four Specific Models Developed for Use in Piloted Simulation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffler, Keith D.; Fears, Scott P.; Carzoo, Susan W.

    1997-01-01

    A generic airplane model concept was developed to allow configurations with various agility, performance, handling qualities, and pilot vehicle interface to be generated rapidly for piloted simulation studies. The simple concept allows stick shaping and various stick command types or modes to drive an airplane with both linear and nonlinear components. Output from the stick shaping goes to linear models or a series of linear models that can represent an entire flight envelope. The generic model also has provisions for control power limitations, a nonlinear feature. Therefore, departures from controlled flight are possible. Note that only loss of control is modeled, the generic airplane does not accurately model post departure phenomenon. The model concept is presented herein, along with four example airplanes. Agility was varied across the four example airplanes without altering specific excess energy or significantly altering handling qualities. A new feedback scheme to provide angle-of-attack cueing to the pilot, while using a pitch rate command system, was implemented and tested.

  8. PDA-assisted simulated clinical experiences in undergraduate nursing education: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schlairet, Maura C

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive literature on use of personal digital assistants (PDAs) in nursing education exists; but, quantitative outcome-driven studies of efficacy are lacking. Few studies have explored the integration of technologies like simulated clinical experiences (SCEs) with informatics competencies. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if nursing students' knowledge and attitude scores following a PDA-assisted SCE would be equivalent to textbook-assisted scores. Using a convenience sample of first-semester baccalaureate students and an equivalence design, multiple lessons were learned about the use of PDAs in the context of SCE. Learning was supported through use of PDAs in place of traditional text references; students viewed PDAs as beneficial resources in the provision of care; PDA use prompted reflection and triggered important need-learning connections; orientation to the use of PDAs promoted positive student attitudes; and use of PDAs helped meet nursing informatics curricular requirements.

  9. Muscular workload of veterinary students during simulated open and laparoscopic surgery: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kilkenny, Jessica; Larson, Dennis J; MacCormick, Mathew; Brown, Stephen H M; Singh, Ameet

    2017-08-01

    To compare upper extremity muscle activity and workload between simulated open surgery, multiple port laparoscopic surgery (MLS), and single incision laparoscopic surgery (SLS) techniques in veterinary students. Pilot study. Veterinary students (n = 10) from years 1 to 4. Bipolar skin surface electrodes were fixed bilaterally to the forearm flexor, forearm extensor, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, and upper trapezius muscles. Electromyography data were recorded during one repetition of 2 simulated surgical exercises via open surgery, MLS, and SLS. Participants completed a validated workload survey after each simulated surgical technique. Muscle activity and perceived workload were compared between surgical techniques with 1-way ANOVAs and Fisher's LSD post hoc tests. Muscle activity during peg transfer was higher with MLS and SLS compared to simulated open surgery in the right and left forearm extensors (both P < .0001), right (P < .0001) and left biceps (P = .0005), right triceps (P = .0004), and right upper trapezius muscles (P = .0211). Similar results were found for the right and left forearm extensors (both P < .0001), right (P = .0381) and left (P = .0147) forearm flexors, right biceps (P < .0001), and right triceps (P = .0004) during a simulated suture task. Participants found laparoscopic techniques more mentally demanding, physically demanding, complex, and stressful compared to a simulated open surgical technique. In veterinary students, average muscle activity and perceived workload were highest using MLS and SLS compared to an open surgical technique when performing simulated surgical exercises in a laparoscopic box trainer. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  10. Re-use of pilot data and interim analysis of pivotal data in MRMC studies: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weijie; Samuelson, Frank; Sahiner, Berkman; Petrick, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    Novel medical imaging devices are often evaluated with multi-reader multi-case (MRMC) studies in which radiologists read images of patient cases for a specified clinical task (e.g., cancer detection). A pilot study is often used to measure the effect size and variance parameters that are necessary for sizing a pivotal study (including sizing readers, non-diseased and diseased cases). Due to the practical difficulty of collecting patient cases or recruiting clinical readers, some investigators attempt to include the pilot data as part of their pivotal study. In other situations, some investigators attempt to perform an interim analysis of their pivotal study data based upon which the sample sizes may be re-estimated. Re-use of the pilot data or interim analyses of the pivotal data may inflate the type I error of the pivotal study. In this work, we use the Roe and Metz model to simulate MRMC data under the null hypothesis (i.e., two devices have equal diagnostic performance) and investigate the type I error rate for several practical designs involving re-use of pilot data or interim analysis of pivotal data. Our preliminary simulation results indicate that, under the simulation conditions we investigated, the inflation of type I error is none or only marginal for some design strategies (e.g., re-use of patient data without re-using readers, and size re-estimation without using the effect-size estimated in the interim analysis). Upon further verifications, these are potentially useful design methods in that they may help make a study less burdensome and have a better chance to succeed without substantial loss of the statistical rigor.

  11. A piloted simulator study on augmentation systems to improve helicopter flying qualities in terrain flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T. N.; Talbot, P. D.; Gerdes, R. M.; Dugan, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Four basic single-rotor helicopters, one teetering, on articulated, and two hingeless, which were found to have a variety of major deficiencies in a previous fixed-based simulator study, were selected as baseline configurations. The stability and control augmentation systems (SCAS) include simple control augmentation systems to decouple pitch and yaw responses due to collective input and to quicken the pitch and roll control responses; SCAS of rate-command type designed to optimize the sensitivity and damping and to decouple the pitch-roll due to aircraft angular tate; and attitude-command type SCAS. Pilot ratings and commentary are presented as well as performance data related to the task. SCAS control usages and their gain levels associated with specific rotor types are also discussed.

  12. Aircraft Simulators and Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    Flight simulators are built as realistically as possible, presumably to enhance their training value. Yet, their training value is determined by the way they are used. Traditionally, simulators have been less important for training than have aircraft, but they are currently emerging as primary pilot training vehicles. This new emphasis is an…

  13. Using clinical simulation centers to test design interventions: a pilot study of lighting and color modifications.

    PubMed

    Gray, Whitney Austin; Kesten, Karen S; Hurst, Stephen; Day, Tama Duffy; Anderko, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to test design interventions such as lighting, color, and spatial color patterning on nurses' stress, alertness, and satisfaction, and to provide an example of how clinical simulation centers can be used to conduct research. The application of evidence-based design research in healthcare settings requires a transdisciplinary approach. Integrating approaches from multiple fields in real-life settings often proves time consuming and experimentally difficult. However, forums for collaboration such as clinical simulation centers may offer a solution. In these settings, identical operating and patient rooms are used to deliver simulated patient care scenarios using automated mannequins. Two identical rooms were modified in the clinical simulation center. Nurses spent 30 minutes in each room performing simulated cardiac resuscitation. Subjective measures of nurses' stress, alertness, and satisfaction were collected and compared between settings and across time using matched-pair t-test analysis. Nurses reported feeling less stressed after exposure to the experimental room than nurses who were exposed to the control room (2.22, p = .03). Scores post-session indicated a significant reduction in stress and an increase in alertness after exposure to the experimental room as compared to the control room, with significance levels below .10. (Change in stress scores: 3.44, p = .069); (change in alertness scores: 3.6, p = .071). This study reinforces the use of validated survey tools to measure stress, alertness, and satisfaction. Results support human-centered design approaches by evaluating the effect on nurses in an experimental setting.

  14. Use of a Data-Linked Weather Information Display and Effects on Pilot Navigation Decision Making in a Piloted Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.; Novacek, Paul F.; Burgess, Malcolm A.; Heck, Michael L.; Stokes, Alan F.

    2001-01-01

    This study provides recommendations to the FAA and to prospective manufacturers based on an exploration of the effects of data link weather displays upon pilot decision performance. An experiment was conducted with twenty-four current instrument rated pilots who were divided into two equal groups and presented with a challenging but realistic flight scenario involving weather containing significant embedded convective activity. All flights were flown in a full-mission simulation facility within instrument meteorological conditions. The inflight weather display depicted NexRad images, graphical METARs and textual METARs. The objective was to investigate the potential for misuse of a weather display, and incorporate recommendations for the design and use of these displays. The primary conclusion of the study found that the inflight weather display did not improve weather avoidance decision making. Some of the reasons to support this finding include: the pilot's inability to easily perceive their proximity to the storms, increased workload and difficulty in deciphering METAR textual data. The compelling nature of a graphical weather display caused many pilots to reduce their reliance on corroborating weather information from other sources. Minor changes to the weather display could improve the ability of a pilot to make better decisions on hazard avoidance.

  15. Toward Meaningful Care Plan Clinical Decision Support: Feasibility and Effects of a Simulated Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Gail M; Lopez, Karen Dunn; Yao, Yingwei; Sousa, Vanessa E C; Stifter, Janet; Febretti, Alessandro; Johnson, Andrew; Wilkie, Diana J

    Clinical decision support (CDS) tools-with easily understood and actionable information, at the point of care-are needed to help registered nurses (RNs) make evidence-based decisions. Not clear are the optimal formats of CDS tools. Thorough, preclinical testing is desirable to avoid costly errors associated with premature implementation in electronic health records. The aims of this study were to determine feasibility of the protocol designed to compare multiple CDS formats and evaluate effects of numeracy and graph literacy on RN adoption of best practices and care planning time in a simulated environment. In this pilot study, 60 RNs were randomly assigned to one of four CDS conditions (control, text, text + graph, and text + table) and asked to adjust the plan of care for two patient scenarios over three shifts. Fourteen best practices were identified for the two patients and sent as suggestions with evidence to the three CDS groups. Best practice adoption rates, care planning time, and their relationship to the RN's numeracy and graph literacy scores were assessed. CDS groups had a higher adoption rate of best practices (p < .001) across all shifts and decreased care planning time in shifts 2 (p = .01) and 3 (p = .02) compared with the control group. Higher numeracy and graph literacy were associated with shorter care planning times under text + table (p = .05) and text + graph (p = .01) conditions. No significant differences were found between the three CDS groups on adoption rate and care planning time. This pilot study shows the feasibility of our protocol. Findings show preliminary evidence that CDS improves the efficiency and effectiveness of care planning decisions and that the optimal format may depend on individual RN characteristics. We recommend a study with sufficient power to compare different CDS formats and assess the impact of potential covariates on adoption rates and care planning time.

  16. The Effects of Longitudinal Control-System Dynamics on Pilot Opinion and Response Characteristics as Determined from Flight Tests and from Ground Simulator Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoff, Melvin

    1958-01-01

    The results of a fixed-base simulator study of the effects of variable longitudinal control-system dynamics on pilot opinion are presented and compared with flight-test data. The control-system variables considered in this investigation included stick force per g, time constant, and dead-band, or stabilizer breakout force. In general, the fairly good correlation between flight and simulator results for two pilots demonstrates the validity of fixed-base simulator studies which are designed to complement and supplement flight studies and serve as a guide in control-system preliminary design. However, in the investigation of certain problem areas (e.g., sensitive control-system configurations associated with pilot- induced oscillations in flight), fixed-base simulator results did not predict the occurrence of an instability, although the pilots noted the system was extremely sensitive and unsatisfactory. If it is desired to predict pilot-induced-oscillation tendencies, tests in moving-base simulators may be required. It was found possible to represent the human pilot by a linear pilot analog for the tracking task assumed in the present study. The criterion used to adjust the pilot analog was the root-mean-square tracking error of one of the human pilots on the fixed-base simulator. Matching the tracking error of the pilot analog to that of the human pilot gave an approximation to the variation of human-pilot behavior over a range of control-system dynamics. Results of the pilot-analog study indicated that both for optimized control-system dynamics (for poor airplane dynamics) and for a region of good airplane dynamics, the pilot response characteristics are approximately the same.

  17. Pilot Comments From the Boeing High Speed Research Aircraft, Cycle 3, Simulation Study of the Effects of Aeroservoelasticity (LaRC.3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Melvin L. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This is a compilation of pilot comments from the Boeing High Speed Research Aircraft, Cycle 3, simulation study (LaRC.3) of the effects of aeroservoelasticity, conducted from October to December 1997 at NASA Langley Research Center. This simulation study was conducted using the Visual Motion Simulator. The comments are from direct tape transcriptions and have been edited for spelling only. These comments were made on tape following the completion of each flight card, immediately after the pilot was satisfied with his practice and data recording runs. Six pilots were used in the evaluation and they are identified as pilots A through F.

  18. Is the infant car seat challenge useful? A pilot study in a simulated moving vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Renu; Williams, Georgina; Kilonback, Anna; Toward, Martin; Griffin, Michael; Blair, Peter S; Fleming, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that preterm infants complete a predischarge ‘car seat challenge’ observation for cardiorespiratory compromise while in a car seat. This static challenge does not consider the more upright position in a car or the vibration of the seat when the car is moving. This pilot study was designed to assess the cardiorespiratory effects of vibration, mimicking the effect of being in a moving car, on preterm and term infants. Methods A simulator was designed to reproduce vertical vibration similar to that in a rear-facing car seat at 30 mph. 19 healthy newborn term and 21 preterm infants, ready for hospital discharge, underwent cardiorespiratory measurements while lying flat in a cot (baseline), static in the seat (30°), simulator (40°) and during motion (vibration 40°). Results Median test age was 13 days (range 1–65 days) and median weight was 2.5 kg (IQR: 2.1–3.1 kg). Compared with baseline observations, only the total number of desaturations was significantly increased when infants were placed at 30° (p=0.03). At 40°, or with vibration, respiratory and heart rates increased and oxygen saturation decreased significantly. Profound desaturations <85% significantly increased during motion, regardless of gestational age. Conclusions This is the first study to assess the effect of motion on infants seated in a car safety seat. Term and preterm infants showed significant signs of potentially adverse cardiorespiratory effects in the upright position at 40°, particularly with simulated motion, not identified in the standard challenge. A larger study is required to investigate the significance of these results. PMID:27694399

  19. Effects of alcohol on pilot performance in simulated flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Demosthenes, T.; White, T. R.; O'Hara, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    Ethyl alcohol's known ability to produce reliable decrements in pilot performance was used in a study designed to evaluate objective methods for assessing pilot performance. Four air carrier pilot volunteers were studied during eight simulated flights in a B727 simulator. Total errors increased linearly and significantly with increasing blood alcohol. Planning and performance errors, procedural errors and failures of vigilance each increased significantly in one or more pilots and in the group as a whole.

  20. Piloted simulator study of allowable time delay in pitch flight control system of a transport airplane with negative static stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.; Smith, Paul M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Meyer, Robert T.; Tingas, Stephen A.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted to determine the permissible time delay in the flight control system of a 10-percent statically unstable transport airplane during cruise flight conditions. The math model used for the simulation was a derivative Lockheed L-1011 wide-body jet transport. Data were collected and analyzed from a total of 137 cruising flights in both calm- and turbulent-air conditions. Results of this piloted simulation study verify previous findings that show present military specifications for allowable control-system time delay may be too stringent when applied to transport-size airplanes. Also, the degree of handling-qualities degradation due to time delay is shown to be strongly dependent on the source of the time delay in an advanced flight control system. Maximum allowable time delay for each source of time delay in the control system, in addition to a less stringent overall maximum level of time delay, should be considered for large aircraft. Preliminary results also suggest that adverse effects of control-system time delay may be at least partially offset by variations in control gearing. It is recommended that the data base include different airplane baselines, control systems, and piloting tasks with many pilots participating, so that a reasonable set of limits for control-system time delay can be established to replace the military specification limits currently being used.

  1. A Fixed-Base-Simulator Study of the Ability of a Pilot to Establish Close Orbits Around the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queijo, M. J.; Riley, Donald R.

    1961-01-01

    A study was made on a six-degree-of-freedom fixed-base simulator of the ability of human pilots to modify ballistic trajectories of a 5 space vehicle approaching the moon to establish a circular orbit about 50 miles above the lunar surface. The unmodified ballistic trajectories had miss distances from the lunar surface of from 40 to 80 miles, and a velocity range of from 8,200 to 8,700 feet per second at closest approach. The pilot was given control of the thrust (along the vehicle longitudinal axis) and torques about all three body axes. The information display given to the pilot was a hodograph of the vehicle rate of descent and circumferential velocity, an altimeter, and vehicle attitude and rate meters.

  2. Cognitive load, emotion, and performance in high-fidelity simulation among beginning nursing students: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schlairet, Maura C; Schlairet, Timothy James; Sauls, Denise H; Bellflowers, Lois

    2015-03-01

    Establishing the impact of the high-fidelity simulation environment on student performance, as well as identifying factors that could predict learning, would refine simulation outcome expectations among educators. The purpose of this quasi-experimental pilot study was to explore the impact of simulation on emotion and cognitive load among beginning nursing students. Forty baccalaureate nursing students participated in teaching simulations, rated their emotional state and cognitive load, and completed evaluation simulations. Two principal components of emotion were identified representing the pleasant activation and pleasant deactivation components of affect. Mean rating of cognitive load following simulation was high. Linear regression identiffed slight but statistically nonsignificant positive associations between principal components of emotion and cognitive load. Logistic regression identified a negative but statistically nonsignificant effect of cognitive load on assessment performance. Among lower ability students, a more pronounced effect of cognitive load on assessment performance was observed; this also was statistically non-significant. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. A pilot simulation study of arsenic tracked from CCA-treated decks onto carpets.

    PubMed

    Patch, Steven C; Ullman, Margaret C; Maas, Richard P; Jetter, James J

    2009-11-01

    A controlled simulation experiment was performed to assess whether dislodgeable arsenic can be tracked onto carpets via foot traffic from chromated copper arsenate (CCA) pressure-treated decks. The pilot simulation study demonstrated that it is possible to track arsenic from CCA-decks onto carpets under the test conditions evaluated. A total of nine CCA-decks and two non-CCA-treated control surfaces were tested under wet and dry conditions. Five participants walked in a controlled manner (60 cycles, 11 steps per cycle) across decks and then walked over various lanes of carpet to simulate the tracking of arsenic indoors on the bottoms of shoes under heavy foot traffic conditions. To determine if arsenic was transferred from the CCA-treated wood to the carpet via shoes, laboratory analysis was performed on three different types of samples: (1) wipe samples of dislodgeable arsenic from a 46 cm(2) area of carpet, (2) dust samples obtained from vacuuming a 7442 cm(2) area of carpet, and (3) extractions of 13 cm(2) carpet samples. Wipe samples were also taken directly from the deck lumber. Following digestion and extraction, the amount of arsenic in each sample was measured using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The mean arsenic concentration measured on the carpets was 2.52 microg/(100 cm(2)) and 2.05 microg/(100 cm(2)) with wipes for the dry and wet conditions, respectively, 4.69 microg/(100 cm(2)) and 0.68 microg/(100 cm(2)) with vacuumed dust for the dry and wet conditions, respectively, and 15.56 microg/(100 cm(2)) and 12.31 microg/(100 cm(2)) with carpet extractions for the dry and wet conditions, respectively. The mean arsenic concentration measured on the decks was 22.2 microg/(100 cm(2)) with wipes. Further research is needed to determine if indoor exposure to arsenic due to track-in from outdoor decks via foot traffic is significant compared to exposures from other sources.

  4. Evaluating simulation education via electronic surveys immediately following live critical events: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Happel, Corinne Savides; Lease, Meredith A; Nishisaki, Akira; Braga, Matthew S

    2015-02-01

    Simulation-based medical education has become popular in postgraduate training for medical emergencies; however, the direct impact on learners' clinical performances during live critical events is unknown. Our goal was to evaluate the perceived impact of simulation-based education on pediatric emergencies by auditing pediatric residents immediately after involvement in actual emergency clinical events. Weekly team-based pediatric simulation training for inpatient emergencies was implemented in an academic tertiary care hospital. Immediately after actual pediatric emergency events, each resident involved was audited regarding roles, performed tasks, and perceived effectiveness of earlier simulation-based education. The audit was performed by using a Likert scale. From September 2010 through August 2011, a total of 49 simulation sessions were held. During the same period, 27 pediatric emergency events occurred: 3 code events, 14 rapid response team activations, and 10 emergency transfers to the PICU. Forty-seven survey responses from 20 pediatric residents were obtained after the emergency clinical events. Fifty-three percent of residents felt well prepared, and 45% reported having experienced a similar simulation before the clinical event. A preceding similar simulation experience was perceived as helpful in improving clinical performance. Residents' confidence levels, however, did not differ significantly between those who reported having had a preceding similar simulation and those who had not (median of 4 vs median of 3; P=.16, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). A novel electronic survey was successfully piloted to measure residents' perceptions of simulation education compared with live critical events. Residents perceived that their experiences in earlier similar simulations positively affected their performances during emergencies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Application of digital human modeling and simulation for vision analysis of pilots in a jet aircraft: a case study.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Sougata; Pal, Madhu Sudan; Majumdar, Deepti; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomic evaluation of visual demands becomes crucial for the operators/users when rapid decision making is needed under extreme time constraint like navigation task of jet aircraft. Research reported here comprises ergonomic evaluation of pilot's vision in a jet aircraft in virtual environment to demonstrate how vision analysis tools of digital human modeling software can be used effectively for such study. Three (03) dynamic digital pilot models, representative of smallest, average and largest Indian pilot population were generated from anthropometric database and interfaced with digital prototype of the cockpit in Jack software for analysis of vision within and outside the cockpit. Vision analysis tools like view cones, eye view windows, blind spot area, obscuration zone, reflection zone etc. were employed during evaluation of visual fields. Vision analysis tool was also used for studying kinematic changes of pilot's body joints during simulated gazing activity. From present study, it can be concluded that vision analysis tool of digital human modeling software was found very effective in evaluation of position and alignment of different displays and controls in the workstation based upon their priorities within the visual fields and anthropometry of the targeted users, long before the development of its physical prototype.

  6. Improving Resident Performance Through a Simulated Rapid Response Team: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Burke, Peter A; Vest, Michael T; Kher, Hemant; Deutsch, Joseph; Daya, Sneha

    2015-07-01

    The Joint Commission requires hospitals to develop systems in which a team of clinicians can rapidly recognize and respond to changes in a patient's condition. The rapid response team (RRT) concept has been widely adopted as the solution to this mandate. The role of house staff in RRTs and the impact on resident education has been controversial. At Christiana Care Health System, eligible residents in their second through final years lead the RRTs. To evaluate the use of a team-based, interdisciplinary RRT training program for educating and training first-year residents in an effort to improve global RRT performance before residents start their second year. This pilot study was administered in 3 phases. Phase 1 provided residents with classroom-based didactic sessions using case-based RRT scenarios. Multiple choice examinations were administered, as well as a confidence survey based on a Likert scale before and after phase 1 of the program. Phase 2 involved experiential training in which residents engaged as mentored participants in actual RRT calls. A qualitative survey was used to measure perceived program effectiveness after phase 2. In phase 3, led by senior residents, simulated RRTs using medical mannequins were conducted. Participants were divided into 5 teams, in which each resident would rotate in the roles of leader, nurse, and respiratory therapist. This phase measured resident performance with regard to medical decision making, data gathering, and team behaviors during the simulated RRT scenarios. Performance was scored by an attending and a senior resident. A total of 18 residents were eligible (N=18) for participation. The average multiple choice test score improved by 20% after didactic training. The average confidence survey score before training was 3.44 out of 5 (69%) and after training was 4.13 (83%), indicating a 14% improvement. High-quality team behaviors correlated with medical decision making (0.92) more closely than did high-quality data

  7. Interprofessional orientation for health professionals utilising simulated learning: Findings from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Will, Kristen Kaye; Stepanek, Jan; Brewer, Kathryn K; Colquist, Julie A; Cruz, Jade Ethel S; Donald, Carrlene B; Hartsell, Zachary C; Hust, Steven J; Lowell, Amelia A; Markiewicz, Katherine A; Panchmatia, Bella; Shelton, A Travis; Novais, Barbara S; Wilson, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel, interprofessional educational intervention pilot used to orient new health profession employees through the simulation laboratory. Health profession employees were recruited to engage in a simulation training session that focused on communication, collaboration, and healthcare roles and responsibilities. Learners (N = 11) were divided into two groups with representation from various health disciplines. Each group participated in a simulated patient scenario while the other group actively observed in another classroom. At the end of both sessions, the group reconvened for a debriefing session. Participants were given a survey before and after the training session, to evaluate the content, experience, and value to their practice. The pre- and post-evaluation survey analysis showed improvement in all objectives with a mean (SD) pre-evaluation score of 4.10 (0.40-1.01) and mean (SD) post-evaluation score of 4.73 (0.30-0.81). Results were favourable, and plans to expand this project are under way.

  8. Piloted rover technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrasher, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    This is the May 25, 1990 summary report for Space Transfer Concepts and Analyses (STCA) Study, special study task 9.1, Piloted Rovers Technology Study. Piloted rover concepts, mission scenarios, and the requirements necessary for completion of these missions resulting in the establishment of a lunar base. These tasks were intended to lead to a logical conclusion concerning which piloted rovers technologies are needed to accomplish the various missions, along with a recommended schedule for the development of these technologies.

  9. COLLISION AVOIDANCE TRAINING USING A DRIVING SIMULATOR IN DRIVERS WITH PARKINSON’S DISEASE: A PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Rizzo, Matthew; Anderson, Steven W.; Dastrup, Elizabeth; Uc, Ergun Y.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Parkinson’s disease (PD) impairs driving performance, and simulator studies have shown increased crashes compared to controls. In this pilot study, eight drivers with PD participated in three drive sessions with multiple simulator intersections of varying visibility and traffic load, where an incurring vehicle posed a crash risk. Over the course of the three sessions (once every 1–2 weeks), we observed reduction in crashes (p=0.059) and reaction times (p=0.006) to the vehicle incursion. These findings suggest that our simulator training program is feasible and potentially useful in drivers with PD. Future research questions include transfer of training to different driving tasks, duration of benefit, and the effect on long term real life outcomes in comparison to a standard intervention (e.g., driver education class) in a randomized trial. PMID:24273752

  10. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year`s report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  11. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  12. Microbial Field Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the first year of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology and characterization, facility and treatment design, core experiments, bacterial mobility, and mathematical modeling are addressed. To facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the target reservoir analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. A preliminary design of facilities for the operation of the field pilot test was prepared. In addition, procedures for facilities installation and for injection treatments are described. The Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU), the site of the proposed field pilot study, is described physically, historically, and geologically. The fields current status is presented and the ongoing reservoir simulation is discussed. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. Two possible mechanisms, relative permeability effects and changes in the capillary number, are discussed and related to four Berea core experiments' results. The experiments were conducted at reservoir temperature using SEVVSU oil, brine, and bacteria. The movement and activity of bacteria in porous media were investigated by monitoring the growth of bacteria in sandpack cores under no flow conditions. The rate of bacteria advancement through the cores was determined. A mathematical model of the MEOR process has been developed. The model is a three phase, seven species, one dimensional model. Finite difference methods are used for solution. Advection terms in balance equations are represented with a third- order upwind differencing scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and oscillations. The model is applied to a batch fermentation example. 52 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

  13. An innovative pediatric chest tube insertion task trainer simulation: a technical report and pilot study.

    PubMed

    Al-Qadhi, Samim A; Pirie, Jonathan R; Constas, Nora; Corrin, Michael S C; Ali, Murtaza

    2014-10-01

    Iatrogenic complications associated with chest tube insertion (CTI) could be related to the gaps in the procedural fidelity of the current CTI training models and their insufficiency to support training of procedural mastery. A CTI bench model simulation developed with reference to preexisting curriculum increases trainees' exposure and practice of this clinical skill. Newly developed training models need to be recognized by trainees as a usable learning device. In this report, we describe the development of a novel CTI model, based on curriculum, and survey its usability as a training model among pediatric trainees. Based on the acute trauma life support curriculum for CTI and expert interview, a pediatric CTI task trainer (PCTITT) model was developed, piloted, and then implemented for usability by volunteer pediatric residents and pediatric emergency fellows in 2 procedural training courses. Participants responded to 11 questions designed to capture self-reported attitudes toward the usability of the PCTITT as a training model for CTI. Results were obtained using a subjective 5-point Likert scale. Of the 32 participants, we achieved a response rate of 75%. Of these respondents, 92% had some kind of CTI hands-on training in the past, and 50% had experience with a real patient. Of these respondents, 91% recommended this model for training, and 80% stated that this model was superior to previous models. A PCTITT is an easy to create and feasible bench top task trainer to teach CTI skills, which integrates with other simulations currently in use the process of teaching CTI. Trainees recognized it as usable and superior to previous models. Future work needs to focus on the improvement of model fidelity, skills transferability, and tool validation.

  14. Piloted aircraft simulation concepts and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinacori, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of piloted aircraft simulation is presented that reflects the viewpoint of an aeronautical technologist. The intent is to acquaint potential users with some of the basic concepts and issues that characterize piloted simulation. Application to the development of aircraft are highlighted, but some aspects of training simulators are covered. A historical review is given together with a description of some current simulators. Simulator usages, advantages, and limitations are discussed and human perception qualities important to simulation are related. An assessment of current simulation is presented that addresses validity, fidelity, and deficiencies. Future prospects are discussed and technology projections are made.

  15. A pilot study evaluating the perceptions of Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists toward human patient simulation.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Robert; Bendickson, Lee; Benson, Pretoria; Osborne, Lisa; McPherson, Jennifer; Todd, Larry; Snelson, Jennifer; Bruner, Sandra; Bohan, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    An evaluation was conducted of perceptions of practicing Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) toward use of simulation for initial certification, continuing education, and recertification. The hypothesis was that a 1-day simulation experience would improve their perceptions toward simulation use. The first phase developed content-valid questions to examine CRNAs' perceptions toward simulation. The second phase used these questions to survey practicing CRNAs in the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia. During the third phase, 9 CRNAs were selected to complete a 1-day simulation experience and complete the perception questionnaire before and after the experience. Through content validity index calculations, 25 of 27 questions were retained for use in this study. A total of 378 CRNAs responded to the questionnaire. There was consensus that human patient simulation (HPS) is an important part of anesthesia provider training, and 85.7% strongly agreed, agreed, or somewhat agreed that HPS should be a required component for initial certification. Additionally, 52.9% of respondents agreed (somewhat agreed or strongly agreed) that continuing education units from HPS should be required for recertification. After the simulation, a significant (P < .05) positive change in level of agreement was noted for 13 of 25 questions, including questions related to initial training and recertification.

  16. Flight deck disturbance management: a simulator study of diagnosis and recovery from breakdowns in pilot-automation coordination.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Mark I; Sarter, Nadine B

    2007-08-01

    To examine operator strategies for diagnosing and recovering from errors and disturbances as well as the impact of automation design and time pressure on these processes. Considerable efforts have been directed at error prevention through training and design. However, because errors cannot be eliminated completely, their detection, diagnosis, and recovery must also be supported. Research has focused almost exclusively on error detection. Little is known about error diagnosis and recovery, especially in the context of event-driven tasks and domains. With a confederate pilot, 12 airline pilots flew a 1-hr simulator scenario that involved three challenging automation-related tasks and events that were likely to produce erroneous actions or assessments. Behavioral data were compared with a canonical path to examine pilots' error and disturbance management strategies. Debriefings were conducted to probe pilots' system knowledge. Pilots seldom followed the canonical path to cope with the scenario events. Detection of a disturbance was often delayed. Diagnostic episodes were rare because of pilots' knowledge gaps and time criticality. In many cases, generic inefficient recovery strategies were observed, and pilots relied on high levels of automation to manage the consequences of an error. Our findings describe and explain the nature and shortcomings of pilots' error management activities. They highlight the need for improved automation training and design to achieve more timely detection, accurate explanation, and effective recovery from errors and disturbances. Our findings can inform the design of tools and techniques that support disturbance management in various complex, event-driven environments.

  17. A pilot study of the reliability of the dynamic mode of one BTE Work Simulator.

    PubMed

    Cetinok, E M; Renfro, R R; Coleman, E F

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the reliability of the manual dynamic mode of one BTE Work Simulator. The study was part of an effort to develop a simple method of calibrating the BTE Work Simulator as an evaluation instrument. Weights attached to a 12-in nylon cylinder rotated the shaft of the exercise head against resistance generated by the Work Simulator. A timing device recorded drop times for one complete revolution of the nylon cylinder. The timing device consisted of a digital clock, a photo detector circuit, and a switching circuit. The photo detector recorded one revolution of the cylinder, and the switching circuit started and stopped the clock. Drop times were recorded as fixed weights attached to the nylon cylinder were allowed to drop. The test was repeated a number of times at each combination of weight and exercise level. A minimum of 40 tests were recorded with 4.96-, 10-, 15-, 25-, 30-, and 40-lb weights. This provided accurate measurement of the performance of the Work Simulator in the dynamic mode. Fluctuation in resistance caused drop times for any given weight to vary from -47% to +183.7% from the mean. In some cases the resistance fluctuation was sufficient to either prevent the weight from dropping or stop the weight before the cylinder had rotated one revolution. Resistance variation in the dynamic mode of the BTE Work Simulator was found to produce inconsistent performance. Testing that includes other Work Simulators is in progress.

  18. Single pilot scanning behavior in simulated instrument flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennington, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A simulation of tasks associated with single pilot general aviation flight under instrument flight rules was conducted as a baseline for future research studies on advanced flight controls and avionics. The tasks, ranging from simple climbs and turns to an instrument landing systems approach, were flown on a fixed base simulator. During the simulation the control inputs, state variables, and the pilots visual scan pattern including point of regard were measured and recorded.

  19. Assessment of a clinical performance evaluation tool for use in a simulator-based testing environment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, James A; Tancredi, David N; Binder, William D; Wilkerson, William M; Shaffer, David W

    2003-10-01

    This study assessed a clinical performance evaluation tool for use in a simulator-based testing environment. Twenty-three subjects were evaluated during five standardized encounters using a patient simulator (six emergency medicine students, seven house officers, ten chief resident-fellows). Performance in each 15-minute session was compared with performance on an identical number of oral objective-structured clinical examination (OSCE) sessions used as controls. Each was scored by a faculty rater using a scoring system previously validated for oral certification examinations in emergency medicine (eight skills rated 1-8; passing = 5.75). On both simulator exams and oral controls, chief resident-fellows earned (mean) "passing" scores [sim = 6.4 (95% CI: 6.0-6.8), oral = 6.4 (95% CI: 6.1-6.7)]; house officers earned "borderline" scores [sim = 5.6 (95% CI: 5.2-5.9), oral = 5.5 (95% CI: 5.0-5.9)]; and students earned "failing" scores [sim = 4.3 (95% CI: 3.8-4.7), oral = 4.5 (95% CI: 3.8-5.1)]. There were significant differences among mean scores for the three cohorts, for both oral and simulator test arms (p <.01). In this pilot, a standardized oral OSCE scoring system performed equally well in a simulator-based testing environment.

  20. Evaluating Simulation-Based ACLS Education on Patient Outcomes: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jenny E.; Trammell, Antoine R.; Finklea, James D.; Udoji, Timothy N.; Dressler, Daniel D.; Honig, Eric G.; Abraham, Prasad; Ander, Douglas S.; Cotsonis, George A.; Martin, Greg S.; Schulman, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Simulation training is widely accepted as an effective teaching tool, especially for dealing with high-risk situations. Objective We assessed whether standardized, simulation-based advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) training improved performance in managing simulated and actual cardiac arrests. Methods A total of 103 second- and third-year internal medicine residents were randomized to 2 groups. The first group underwent conventional ACLS training. The second group underwent two 2 1/2-hour sessions of standardized simulation ACLS teaching. The groups were assessed by evaluators blinded to their assignment during in-hospital monthly mock codes and actual inpatient code sheets at 3 large academic hospitals. Primary outcomes were time to initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, time to administration of first epinephrine/vasopressin, time to delivery of first defibrillation, and adherence to American Heart Association guidelines. Results There were no differences in primary outcomes among the study arms and hospital sites. During 21 mock codes, the most common error was misidentification of the initial rhythm (67% [6 of 9] and 58% [7 of 12] control and simulation arms, respectively, P  =  .70). There were no differences in primary outcome among groups in 147 actual inpatient codes. Conclusions This blinded, randomized study found no effect on primary outcomes. A notable finding was the percentage of internal medicine residents who misidentified cardiac arrest rhythms. PMID:25210581

  1. Evaluating Simulation-Based ACLS Education on Patient Outcomes: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Han, Jenny E; Trammell, Antoine R; Finklea, James D; Udoji, Timothy N; Dressler, Daniel D; Honig, Eric G; Abraham, Prasad; Ander, Douglas S; Cotsonis, George A; Martin, Greg S; Schulman, David A

    2014-09-01

    Simulation training is widely accepted as an effective teaching tool, especially for dealing with high-risk situations. We assessed whether standardized, simulation-based advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) training improved performance in managing simulated and actual cardiac arrests. A total of 103 second- and third-year internal medicine residents were randomized to 2 groups. The first group underwent conventional ACLS training. The second group underwent two 2 1/2-hour sessions of standardized simulation ACLS teaching. The groups were assessed by evaluators blinded to their assignment during in-hospital monthly mock codes and actual inpatient code sheets at 3 large academic hospitals. Primary outcomes were time to initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, time to administration of first epinephrine/vasopressin, time to delivery of first defibrillation, and adherence to American Heart Association guidelines. There were no differences in primary outcomes among the study arms and hospital sites. During 21 mock codes, the most common error was misidentification of the initial rhythm (67% [6 of 9] and 58% [7 of 12] control and simulation arms, respectively, P  =  .70). There were no differences in primary outcome among groups in 147 actual inpatient codes. This blinded, randomized study found no effect on primary outcomes. A notable finding was the percentage of internal medicine residents who misidentified cardiac arrest rhythms.

  2. [3D Virtual Reality Laparoscopic Simulation in Surgical Education - Results of a Pilot Study].

    PubMed

    Kneist, W; Huber, T; Paschold, M; Lang, H

    2016-06-01

    The use of three-dimensional imaging in laparoscopy is a growing issue and has led to 3D systems in laparoscopic simulation. Studies on box trainers have shown differing results concerning the benefit of 3D imaging. There are currently no studies analysing 3D imaging in virtual reality laparoscopy (VRL). Five surgical fellows, 10 surgical residents and 29 undergraduate medical students performed abstract and procedural tasks on a VRL simulator using conventional 2D and 3D imaging in a randomised order. No significant differences between the two imaging systems were shown for students or medical professionals. Participants who preferred three-dimensional imaging showed significantly better results in 2D as wells as in 3D imaging. First results on three-dimensional imaging on box trainers showed different results. Some studies resulted in an advantage of 3D imaging for laparoscopic novices. This study did not confirm the superiority of 3D imaging over conventional 2D imaging in a VRL simulator. In the present study on 3D imaging on a VRL simulator there was no significant advantage for 3D imaging compared to conventional 2D imaging. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Effectiveness of Crown Preparation Assessment Software As an Educational Tool in Simulation Clinic: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tiu, Janine; Cheng, Enxin; Hung, Tzu-Chiao; Yu, Chuan-Chia; Lin, Tony; Schwass, Don; Al-Amleh, Basil

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of a new tooth preparation assessment software, Preppr, as an educational tool for dental students in achieving optimal parameters for a crown preparation. In February 2015, 30 dental students in their fourth year in a five-year undergraduate dental curriculum in New Zealand were randomly selected from a pool of volunteers (N=40) out of the total class of 85. The participants were placed into one of three groups of ten students each: Group A, the control group, received only written and pictorial instructions; Group B received tutor evaluation and feedback; and Group C performed self-directed learning with the aid of Preppr. Each student was asked to prepare an all-ceramic crown on the lower first molar typodont within three hours and to repeat the exercise three times over the next four weeks. The exercise stipulated a 1 mm finish line dimension and total convergence angles (TOC) between 10 and 20 degrees. Fulfillment of these parameters was taken as an acceptable preparation. The results showed that Group C had the highest percentage of students who achieved minimum finish line dimensions and acceptable TOC angles. Those students also achieved the stipulated requirements earlier than the other groups. This study's findings provide promising data on the feasibility of using Preppr as a self-directed educational tool for students training to prepare dental crowns.

  4. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 9: Piloted simulator evaluation of the Boeing Vertol model 222 tilt rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenstein, H.; Mcveigh, M. A.; Mollenkof, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a real time piloted simulation to investigate the handling qualities and performance of a tilting rotor aircraft design are presented. The aerodynamic configuration of the aircraft is described. The procedures for conducting the simulator evaluation are reported. Pilot comments of the aircraft handling qualities under various simulated flight conditions are included. The time histories of selected pilot maneuvers are shown.

  5. Pilot study on effectiveness of simulation for surgical robot design using manipulability.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kazuya; Seno, Hiroto; Kobayashi, Yo; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2011-01-01

    Medical technology has advanced with the introduction of robot technology, which facilitates some traditional medical treatments that previously were very difficult. However, at present, surgical robots are used in limited medical domains because these robots are designed using only data obtained from adult patients and are not suitable for targets having different properties, such as children. Therefore, surgical robots are required to perform specific functions for each clinical case. In addition, the robots must exhibit sufficiently high movability and operability for each case. In the present study, we focused on evaluation of the mechanism and configuration of a surgical robot by a simulation based on movability and operability during an operation. We previously proposed the development of a simulator system that reproduces the conditions of a robot and a target in a virtual patient body to evaluate the operability of the surgeon during an operation. In the present paper, we describe a simple experiment to verify the condition of the surgical assisting robot during an operation. In this experiment, the operation imitating suturing motion was carried out in a virtual workspace, and the surgical robot was evaluated based on manipulability as an indicator of movability. As the result, it was confirmed that the robot was controlled with low manipulability of the left side manipulator during the suturing. This simulation system can verify the less movable condition of a robot before developing an actual robot. Our results show the effectiveness of this proposed simulation system.

  6. Piloted Simulation Study of a Dual Thrust-Cutback Procedure for Reducing High-Speed Civil Transport Takeoff Noise Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Donald R.; Glaab, Louis J.; Brandon, Jay M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Glaab, Patricia C.

    1999-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was performed for the purpose of indicating the noise reduction benefits and piloting performance that could occur for a typical 4-engine high-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration during takeoff when a dual thrust-cutback procedure was employed with throttle operation under direct computer control. Two thrust cutbacks were employed with the first cutback performed while the vehicle was accelerating on the run-way and the second cutback performed at a distance farther downrange. Added vehicle performance improvements included the incorporation of high-lift increments into the aerodynamic database of the vehicle and the use of limited engine oversizing. Four single-stream turbine bypass engines that had no noise suppression of any kind were used with this configuration. This approach permitted establishing the additional noise suppression level that was needed to meet Federal Air Regulation Part 36 Stage 3 noise levels for subsonic commercial jet aircraft. Noise level results were calculated with the jet mixing and shock noise modules of the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP).

  7. Pilot study comparing simulation-based and didactic lecture-based critical care teaching for final-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Solymos, Orsolya; O'Kelly, Patrick; Walshe, Criona M

    2015-10-21

    . Simulation is more resource intensive, as demonstrated by increased duration and personnel required, and this may have affected our results. The current pilot may be of use in informing future studies in this area.

  8. Disaster Response Team FAST Skills Training with a Portable Ultrasound Simulator Compared to Traditional Training: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Paddock, Michael T.; Bailitz, John; Horowitz, Russ; Khishfe, Basem; Cosby, Karen; Sergel, Michelle J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pre-hospital focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) has been effectively used to improve patient care in multiple mass casualty events throughout the world. Although requisite FAST knowledge may now be learned remotely by disaster response team members, traditional live instructor and model hands-on FAST skills training remains logistically challenging. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of a novel portable ultrasound (US) simulator with traditional FAST skills training for a deployed mixed provider disaster response team. Methods We randomized participants into one of three training groups stratified by provider role: Group A. Traditional Skills Training, Group B. US Simulator Skills Training, and Group C. Traditional Skills Training Plus US Simulator Skills Training. After skills training, we measured participants’ FAST image acquisition and interpretation skills using a standardized direct observation tool (SDOT) with healthy models and review of FAST patient images. Pre- and post-course US and FAST knowledge were also assessed using a previously validated multiple-choice evaluation. We used the ANOVA procedure to determine the statistical significance of differences between the means of each group’s skills scores. Paired sample t-tests were used to determine the statistical significance of pre- and post-course mean knowledge scores within groups. Results We enrolled 36 participants, 12 randomized to each training group. Randomization resulted in similar distribution of participants between training groups with respect to provider role, age, sex, and prior US training. For the FAST SDOT image acquisition and interpretation mean skills scores, there was no statistically significant difference between training groups. For US and FAST mean knowledge scores, there was a statistically significant improvement between pre- and post-course scores within each group, but again there was not a statistically

  9. Disaster response team FAST skills training with a portable ultrasound simulator compared to traditional training: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Michael T; Bailitz, John; Horowitz, Russ; Khishfe, Basem; Cosby, Karen; Sergel, Michelle J

    2015-03-01

    Pre-hospital focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) has been effectively used to improve patient care in multiple mass casualty events throughout the world. Although requisite FAST knowledge may now be learned remotely by disaster response team members, traditional live instructor and model hands-on FAST skills training remains logistically challenging. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of a novel portable ultrasound (US) simulator with traditional FAST skills training for a deployed mixed provider disaster response team. We randomized participants into one of three training groups stratified by provider role: Group A. Traditional Skills Training, Group B. US Simulator Skills Training, and Group C. Traditional Skills Training Plus US Simulator Skills Training. After skills training, we measured participants' FAST image acquisition and interpretation skills using a standardized direct observation tool (SDOT) with healthy models and review of FAST patient images. Pre- and post-course US and FAST knowledge were also assessed using a previously validated multiple-choice evaluation. We used the ANOVA procedure to determine the statistical significance of differences between the means of each group's skills scores. Paired sample t-tests were used to determine the statistical significance of pre- and post-course mean knowledge scores within groups. We enrolled 36 participants, 12 randomized to each training group. Randomization resulted in similar distribution of participants between training groups with respect to provider role, age, sex, and prior US training. For the FAST SDOT image acquisition and interpretation mean skills scores, there was no statistically significant difference between training groups. For US and FAST mean knowledge scores, there was a statistically significant improvement between pre- and post-course scores within each group, but again there was not a statistically significant difference between

  10. Numerical simulation of a steam-injection pilot study for a PCP-contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Tse, Ken K C; Liou, Tai-Sheng; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2006-07-01

    The following study was focused on the simulation of a steam-injection field pilottest conducted in our past research. The scope of research contained two main subjects: heat transfer and contaminant transport when steam was injected into a pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated aquifer. Numerical simulation of the heat transfer during the field test showed that vertical permeability is more influential to the distribution of water temperature than the horizontal permeability. If the vertical permeability is relatively high, the steam in the aquifer has a higher tendency to migrate upward and cause the aquifer temperature to rise faster. The simulation results also showed that heat convection is very sensitive to the soil permeability. Therefore, high permeability media makes the effect of heat convection more important on applying the steam-injection method. Heat conduction dominates the heat transfer within the hot aqueous zone. However, the hot aqueous zone is relatively smaller than the steam zone when steam is injected into the aquifer. Therefore, heat conduction is not as important as heat convection within the steam zone, which is the same result observed in the field test. Specific heat of soil media is also a sensitive factor. A numerical simulator, T2VOC, was utilized to simulate the PCP transport in the aquifer when steam was injected into the aquifer. The results showed that the shape of PCP distribution was identical to that of steam. It illustrated thatthe steam carried PCP upward and laterally. The high vertical soil permeability causes the steam to migrate upward with PCP easily. A low partitioning coefficient allows PCP to be desorbed easier, also an important factor. A majority of the PCP in the soil was transferred to the aqueous phase as the water temperature increased, showing similar results to those observed in the field test. According to the sensitivity analysis, PCP transport is more sensitive to the vertical permeability than the

  11. Evaluation of fall and fall recovery in a simulated seismic environment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abu-Faraj, Ziad O; Akar, Hassan A; Assaf, Elie H; Al-Qadiri, Mohamad N; Youssef, Elssy G

    2010-01-01

    Fall-related injuries, disabilities, and fatalities are known to seriously affect the healthcare and industry sectors. Nevertheless, an abled individual, as well as a trained senior citizen, is believed to be capable of withstanding and overcoming unusual environmental variations in terms of postural stability and balance. Understanding the biomechanics of fall and fall recovery through quantitative measurements could provide academic and methodical means to maintain human postural stability, of various ages, in such environments. This study assesses human performance and endurance in the most hazardous environment of a simulated violent seismic activity of a magnitude of 6.5 degrees on the Richter's scale. The objective is to evaluate fall and fall recovery in young abled adults using dynamic plantar pressure measurements. The obtained results support the hypothesis that falls in young adults could be prevented via exercise intervention programs. Further investigation is done by our research group to validate the same concept for senior citizens.

  12. Mentored simulation training improves procedural skills in cardiac catheterization: a randomized, controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bagai, Akshay; O'Brien, Sean; Al Lawati, Hatim; Goyal, Prateek; Ball, Warren; Grantcharov, Teodor; Fam, Neil

    2012-10-01

    Despite valuable supplemental training resources for surgical skill acquisition, utility of virtual reality simulators to improve skills relevant to performing cardiac catheterization has not been evaluated. Post baseline cardiac catheterization performance assessment, 27 cardiology trainees were randomized to either mentored training on a virtual reality simulator (n=12) or no simulator training (control; n=15). Cardiac catheterization performance was reassessed 1 week post baseline assessment. Performance scores at 1 week were compared with baseline within each group, and change in score from baseline to 1 week was compared between groups. Linear regression modeling was performed to assess the effect of simulator training as a function of baseline performance. Technical performance improved postintervention in the simulator group (24 versus 18; P=0.008) and changed marginally in the control group (20 versus 18; P=0.054). Improvement in technical performance was greater in the simulator group (6 versus 1; P=0.04). Global performance improved postintervention in both groups (simulator, 24 versus 17, P=0.01; control, 20 versus 18, P=0.02), with a trend toward greater improvement in the simulator group (5 versus 2; P=0.11). Lower scores at baseline were associated with larger differences in postintervention scores between the simulator and control groups (technical performance, P=0.0006; global performance, P<0.0001). Skills required to perform cardiac catheterization can be learned via mentored simulation training and are transferable to actual procedures in the catheterization laboratory. Less proficient operators derive greater benefit from simulator training than more proficient operators.

  13. Protection of firefighters against combustion aerosol particles: simulated workplace protection factor of a half-mask respirator (pilot study).

    PubMed

    Dietrich, James; Yermakov, Michael; Reponen, Tiina; Kulkarni, Pramod; Qi, Chaolong; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2015-01-01

    The present pilot study investigated the penetration of ultrafine particles originated by combustion of different materials into elastomeric half-mask respirators equipped with two P100 filters. We determined the Simulated Workplace Protection Factor (SWPF) for 11 firefighters wearing elastomeric half-mask respirators and performing activities simulating those conducted during fire overhaul operations. The tests were performed in a controlled laboratory setting. A newly-developed battery-operated Portable Aerosol Mobility Spectrometer (PAMS) was used to measure size-resolved aerosol particle concentrations outside (C(out)) and inside (Cin) of an air-purifying respirator donned on a firefighter, and the SWPF was calculated as C(out)/C(in). Based on the total aerosol concentration, the "total" SWPF ranged from 4,222 (minimum) to 35,534 (maximum) with values falling primarily in a range from 11,171 (25 percentile) to 26,604 (75 percentile) and a median value being ≈15,000. This is consistent with the recently reported fit factor (FF) data base.((1)) The size-resolved SWPF data revealed a dependency on the particle size. It was concluded that a portable device such as PAMS can be used on firefighters during overhaul operations (as well as on other workers wearing elastomeric half-mask respirators) to monitor the aerosol concentrations in real time and ultimately help prevent overexposure.

  14. Effects of the chemical-defense antidote atropine sulfate on helicopter-pilot performance: A simulator study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F.R.; Caldwell, J.A.; Stephens, R.L.; Stone, L.W.; Carter, D.J.

    1989-07-01

    Atropine is fielded as an antidote for organophosphate poisoning where chemical nerve agents are used. However, inappropriate self-injection may lead to anticholinergic side effects detrimental to aviators in flight. To determine the scope and magnitude of these possible side effects, 12 male Army helicopter pilots in good health flew several missions in a helicopter simulator after being injected (I.M.) with either a placebo or 2mg or 4mg of atropine sulfate. Physiological effects essentially followed the classical model. The 2 mg dose of atropine caused small degradations on some of laboratory-collected measures, but often did not produce effects, which differed significantly from those produced by a placebo dose. A 4mg dose of atropine, however, exerted a variety of statistically significant effects upon flight performance, contrast sensitivity, cognitive performance, tracking accuracy, and cortical evoked responses. The flight performance evaluations (both subjective and objective) showed statistically significant changes in the subject's abilities to fly the simulator. Results obtained from other tasks in the study suggest, further, the decrements in flight performance resulted from a slowing of both information processing and psychomotor performance. Atropine effects were not of sufficient magnitude to preclude further research under actual flight conditions.

  15. Web-Based Simulation in Psychiatry Residency Training: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorrindo, Tristan; Baer, Lee; Sanders, Kathy M.; Birnbaum, Robert J.; Fromson, John A.; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Romeo, Sarah A.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Medical specialties, including surgery, obstetrics, anesthesia, critical care, and trauma, have adopted simulation technology for measuring clinical competency as a routine part of their residency training programs; yet, simulation technologies have rarely been adapted or used for psychiatry training. Objective: The authors describe…

  16. Using Simulation to Train Junior Psychiatry Residents to Work with Agitated Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigman, Daniel; Young, Meredith; Chalk, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the benefit and feasibility of introducing a new, simulation-based learning intervention for junior psychiatry residents. Method: Junior psychiatry residents were invited to participate in a new simulation-based learning intervention focusing on agitated patients. Questionnaires were used to explore the success of…

  17. Using Simulation to Train Junior Psychiatry Residents to Work with Agitated Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigman, Daniel; Young, Meredith; Chalk, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the benefit and feasibility of introducing a new, simulation-based learning intervention for junior psychiatry residents. Method: Junior psychiatry residents were invited to participate in a new simulation-based learning intervention focusing on agitated patients. Questionnaires were used to explore the success of…

  18. Web-Based Simulation in Psychiatry Residency Training: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorrindo, Tristan; Baer, Lee; Sanders, Kathy M.; Birnbaum, Robert J.; Fromson, John A.; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Romeo, Sarah A.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Medical specialties, including surgery, obstetrics, anesthesia, critical care, and trauma, have adopted simulation technology for measuring clinical competency as a routine part of their residency training programs; yet, simulation technologies have rarely been adapted or used for psychiatry training. Objective: The authors describe…

  19. Flight simulator platform motion and air transport pilot training.

    PubMed

    Lee, A T; Bussolari, S R

    1989-02-01

    The influence of flight simulator platform motion on pilot training and performance was examined in two studies utilizing a B-727-200 aircraft simulator. The simulator, located at Ames Research Center, is certified by the FAA for upgrade and transition training in air carrier operations. Subjective ratings and objective performance of experienced B-727 pilots did not reveal any reliable effects of wide variations in platform motion design. Motion platform variations did, however, affect the acquisition of control skill by pilots with no prior heavy aircraft flying experience. The effect was limited to pitch attitude control inputs during the early phase of landing training. Implications for the definition of platform motion requirements in air transport pilot training are discussed.

  20. Flight Simulator Platform Motion and Air Transport Pilot Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.; Bussolari, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of flight simulator platform motion on pilot training and performance was examined In two studies utilizing a B-727-200 aircraft simulator. The simulator, located at Ames Research Center, Is certified by the FAA for upgrade and transition training in air carrier operations. Subjective ratings and objective performance of experienced B-727 pilots did not reveal any reliable effects of wide variations In platform motion de- sign. Motion platform variations did, however, affect the acquisition of control skill by pilots with no prior heavy aircraft flying experience. The effect was limited to pitch attitude control inputs during the early phase of landing training. Implications for the definition of platform motion requirements in air transport pilot training are discussed.

  1. Mouse Atlas Registration with Non-tomographic Imaging Modalities—a Pilot Study Based on Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates methodologies for the estimation of small animal anatomy from non-tomographic modalities, such as planar X-ray projections, optical cameras, and surface scanners. The key goal is to register a digital mouse atlas to a combination of non-tomographic modalities, in order to provide organ-level anatomical references of small animals in 3D. Procedures A 2D/3D registration method was developed to register the 3D atlas to the combination of non-tomographic imaging modalities. Eleven combinations of three non-tomographic imaging modalities were simulated, and the registration accuracy of each combination was evaluated. Results Comparing the 11 combinations, the top-view X-ray projection combined with the side-view optical camera yielded the best overall registration accuracy of all organs. The use of a surface scanner improved the registration accuracy of skin, spleen, and kidneys. Conclusions The methodologies and evaluation presented in this study should provide helpful information for designing preclinical atlas-based anatomical data acquisition systems. PMID:21983855

  2. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  3. The effect of simulated narratives that leverage EMR data on shared decision-making: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zeng-Treitler, Qing; Gibson, Bryan; Hill, Brent; Butler, Jorie; Christensen, Carrie; Redd, Douglas; Shao, Yijun; Bray, Bruce

    2016-07-22

    Shared decision-making can improve patient satisfaction and outcomes. To participate in shared decision-making, patients need information about the potential risks and benefits of treatment options. Our team has developed a novel prototype tool for shared decision-making called hearts like mine (HLM) that leverages EHR data to provide personalized information to patients regarding potential outcomes of different treatments. These potential outcomes are presented through an Icon array and/or simulated narratives for each "person" in the display. In this pilot project we sought to determine whether the inclusion of simulated narratives in the display affects individuals' decision-making. Thirty subjects participated in this block-randomized study in which they used a version of HLM with simulated narratives and a version without (or in the opposite order) to make a hypothetical therapeutic decision. After each decision, participants completed a questionnaire that measured decisional confidence. We used Chi square tests to compare decisions across conditions and Mann-Whitney U tests to examine the effects of narratives on decisional confidence. Finally, we calculated the mean of subjects' post-experiment rating of whether narratives were helpful in their decision-making. In this study, there was no effect of simulated narratives on treatment decisions (decision 1: Chi squared = 0, p = 1.0; decision 2: Chi squared = 0.574, p = 0.44) or Decisional confidence (decision 1, w = 105.5, p = 0.78; decision 2, w = 86.5, p = 0.28). Post-experiment, participants reported that narratives helped them to make decisions (mean = 3.3/4). We found that simulated narratives had no measurable effect on decisional confidence or decisions and most participants felt that the narratives were helpful to them in making therapeutic decisions. The use of simulated stories holds promise for promoting shared decision-making while minimizing their potential biasing effect.

  4. Computer-simulated biopsy marking system for endoscopic surveillance of gastric lesions: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiling; Wang, Bin; Sun, Leimin; Chen, Shujie; Wang, Liangjing; Wang, Kan; Wu, Jiaguo; Kim, John J; Liu, Jiquan; Dai, Ning; Duan, Huilong; Si, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic tattoo with India ink injection for surveillance of premalignant gastric lesions is technically cumbersome and may not be durable. The aim of the study is to evaluate the accuracy of a novel, computer-simulated biopsy marking system (CSBMS) developed for the endoscopic marking of gastric lesions. Twenty-five patients with history of gastric intestinal metaplasia received both CSBMS-guided marking and India ink injection in five points in the stomach at index endoscopy. A second endoscopy was performed at three months. Primary outcome was accuracy of CSBMS (distance between CSBMS probe-guided site and tattoo site measured by CSBMS). The mean accuracy of CSBMS at angularis was 5.3 ± 2.2 mm, antral lesser curvature 5.7 ± 1.4 mm, antral greater curvature 6.1 ± 1.1 mm, antral anterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm, and antral posterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm. CSBMS (2.3 ± 0.9 versus 12.5 ± 4.6 seconds; P = 0.02) required less procedure time compared to endoscopic tattooing. No adverse events were encountered. CSBMS accurately identified previously marked gastric sites by endoscopic tattooing within 1 cm on follow-up endoscopy.

  5. The neural correlates of movement intentions: A pilot study comparing hypnotic and simulated paralysis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Vera U; Seitz, Jochen; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; Höse, Annett; Abler, Birgit; Hole, Günter; Goebel, Rainer; Walter, Henrik

    2015-09-01

    The distinct feeling of wanting to act and thereby causing our own actions is crucial to our self-perception as free human agents. Disturbances of the link between intention and action occur in several disorders. Little is known, however, about the neural correlates of wanting or intending to act. To investigate these for simple voluntary movements, we used a paradigm involving hypnotic paralysis and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eight healthy women were instructed to sequentially perform left and right hand movements during a normal condition, as well as during simulated weakness, simulated paralysis and hypnotic paralysis of the right hand. Right frontopolar cortex was selectively hypoactivated for attempted right hand movement during simulated paralysis while it was active in all other conditions. Since simulated paralysis was the only condition lacking an intention to move, the activation in frontopolar cortex might be related to the intention or volition to move.

  6. A pilot study of surgical training using a virtual robotic surgery simulator.

    PubMed

    Tergas, Ana I; Sheth, Sangini B; Green, Isabel C; Giuntoli, Robert L; Winder, Abigail D; Fader, Amanda N

    2013-01-01

    Our objectives were to compare the utility of learning a suturing task on the virtual reality da Vinci Skills Simulator versus the da Vinci Surgical System dry laboratory platform and to assess user satisfaction among novice robotic surgeons. Medical trainees were enrolled prospectively; one group trained on the virtual reality simulator, and the other group trained on the da Vinci dry laboratory platform. Trainees received pretesting and post-testing on the dry laboratory platform. Participants then completed an anonymous online user experience and satisfaction survey. We enrolled 20 participants. Mean pretest completion times did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Training with either platform was associated with a similar decrease in mean time to completion (simulator platform group, 64.9 seconds [P = .04]; dry laboratory platform group, 63.9 seconds [P < .01]). Most participants (58%) preferred the virtual reality platform. The majority found the training "definitely useful" in improving robotic surgical skills (mean, 4.6) and would attend future training sessions (mean, 4.5). Training on the virtual reality robotic simulator or the dry laboratory robotic surgery platform resulted in significant improvements in time to completion and economy of motion for novice robotic surgeons. Although there was a perception that both simulators improved performance, there was a preference for the virtual reality simulator. Benefits unique to the simulator platform include autonomy of use, computerized performance feedback, and ease of setup. These features may facilitate more efficient and sophisticated simulation training above that of the conventional dry laboratory platform, without loss of efficacy.

  7. Eye tracking for assessment of workload: a pilot study in an anaesthesia simulator environment.

    PubMed

    Schulz, C M; Schneider, E; Fritz, L; Vockeroth, J; Hapfelmeier, A; Wasmaier, M; Kochs, E F; Schneider, G

    2011-01-01

    Workload assessment is an important tool for improving patient safety in anaesthesia. We tested the hypothesis that heart rate, pupil size, and duration of fixation increase, whereas saccade amplitude decreases with increased workload during simulated critical incidents. Fifteen trainee anaesthetists participated in this randomized cross-over trial. Each participant used a head-mounted eye-tracking device (EyeSeeCam) during induction of general anaesthesia in a full-scale simulation during three different sessions. No critical incident was simulated in the first session. In a randomized order, workload was increased by simulation of a critical incident in the second or third session. Pupil size, duration of fixations, saccadic amplitude, and heart rate of each participant and the simulator conditions were recorded continuously and synchronized. The data were analysed by paired sample t-tests and mixed-effects regression analysis. The findings of the second and third sessions of 11 participants were analysed. Pupil diameter and heart rate increased simultaneously as the severity of the simulated critical incident increased. Allowing for individual effects, the simulator conditions explained 92.6% of the variance in pupil diameter and 93.6% of the variance in heart rate (both P<0.001). The duration of fixation decreased with increased workload. The saccadic amplitude remained unaffected by workload changes. Pupil size and heart rate reflect workload increase within simulator sessions, but they do not permit overall workload comparisons between individuals or sessions. Contrary to our assumption, the duration of fixation decreased with increased workload. Saccade amplitude did not reflect workload fluctuations.

  8. Pilot age and expertise predict flight simulator performance

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Quinn; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Expert knowledge may compensate for age-related declines in basic cognitive and sensory-motor abilities in some skill domains. We investigated the influence of age and aviation expertise (indexed by Federal Aviation Administration pilot ratings) on longitudinal flight simulator performance. Methods Over a 3-year period, 118 general aviation pilots aged 40 to 69 years were tested annually, in which their flight performance was scored in terms of 1) executing air-traffic controller communications; 2) traffic avoidance; 3) scanning cockpit instruments; 4) executing an approach to landing; and 5) a flight summary score. Results More expert pilots had better flight summary scores at baseline and showed less decline over time. Secondary analyses revealed that expertise effects were most evident in the accuracy of executing aviation communications, the measure on which performance declined most sharply over time. Regarding age, even though older pilots initially performed worse than younger pilots, over time older pilots showed less decline in flight summary scores than younger pilots. Secondary analyses revealed that the oldest pilots did well over time because their traffic avoidance performance improved more vs younger pilots. Conclusions These longitudinal findings support previous cross-sectional studies in aviation as well as non-aviation domains, which demonstrated the advantageous effect of prior experience and specialized expertise on older adults’ skilled cognitive performances. PMID:17325270

  9. Endoscopic correction of vesicoureteral reflux simulator curriculum as an effective teaching tool: Pilot study.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Tandis; Hidas, Guy; Kelly, Maryellen S; Kaplan, Adam; Selby, Blake; Billimek, John; Wehbi, Elias; McDougall, Elspeth; McAleer, Irene; McLorie, Gordon; Khoury, Antoine E

    2016-02-01

    It has been well recognized that simulators are effective tools to teach and evaluate technical skills in laparoscopic surgery. Endoscopic injection for the correction of vesicourteral reflux has a definite learning curve. Surgeon experience has also been demonstrated to have an important role in the outcome of the procedure. Simulated training allows for practice in a realistic setting without the inherent risk of harm to the patient. This stress free environment allows the trainee to focus on the acquisition of surgical skills without worry about surgical outcome. The aim was to validate a porcine bladder simulator curriculum for training and assessment of the surgical skills for the endoscopic correction of vesicoureteral reflux. We developed a porcine bladder-based dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Dx/HA) injection simulator consisting of a dissected ex vivo porcine bladder in a polystyrene box with the distal ureters and urethra secured (Figure). We performed content validation by five experienced pediatric urologists. We then organized a simulator curriculum, which included lecture, demonstration, and a 2-h hands-on training on the simulator. Content, discriminant, and concurrent validation of the simulator curriculum were carried out using 11 urology trainees at different levels of expertise. All the trainees were evaluated for each step of the procedure of both their first and last performances on the simulator. Overall, the model demonstrated good content validity by all experts (mean questionnaire score 92%). The simulator curriculum demonstrated a significant improvement in the performance of the trainees between their first and last evaluations (56-92%; p = 0.008). Specific parts of the procedure that showed significant improvement (p < 0.05) were identification of the ureteral orifice, ureteral orifice hydrodistention, first and second injection, and location, size, and depth of the mound after injection. The Dx/HA endoscopic injection simulator is an

  10. Use of simulation to assess electronic health record safety in the intensive care unit: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    March, Christopher A; Steiger, David; Scholl, Gretchen; Mohan, Vishnu; Hersh, William R; Gold, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish the role of high-fidelity simulation training to test the efficacy and safety of the electronic health record (EHR)–user interface within the intensive care unit (ICU) environment. Design Prospective pilot study. Setting Medical ICU in an academic medical centre. Participants Postgraduate medical trainees. Interventions A 5-day-simulated ICU patient was developed in the EHR including labs, hourly vitals, medication administration, ventilator settings, nursing and notes. Fourteen medical issues requiring recognition and subsequent changes in management were included. Issues were chosen based on their frequency of occurrence within the ICU and their ability to test different aspects of the EHR–user interface. ICU residents, blinded to the presence of medical errors within the case, were provided a sign-out and given 10 min to review the case in the EHR. They then presented the case with their management suggestions to an attending physician. Participants were graded on the number of issues identified. All participants were provided with immediate feedback upon completion of the simulation. Primary and secondary outcomes To determine the frequency of error recognition in an EHR simulation. To determine factors associated with improved performance in the simulation. Results 38 participants including 9 interns, 10 residents and 19 fellows were tested. The average error recognition rate was 41% (range 6–73%), which increased slightly with the level of training (35%, 41% and 50% for interns, residents, and fellows, respectively). Over-sedation was the least-recognised error (16%); poor glycemic control was most often recognised (68%). Only 32% of the participants recognised inappropriate antibiotic dosing. Performance correlated with the total number of screens used (p=0.03). Conclusions Despite development of comprehensive EHRs, there remain significant gaps in identifying dangerous medical management issues. This gap remains despite high

  11. The Pilot Training Study: Personnel Flow and the PILOT Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooz, W. E.

    The results of the Rand study of pilot flows and the computer-operated decision model, called the PILOT model, are described. The flows of pilots within the Air Force are caused by policies that require the career-development rotation of pilots from cockpit jobs to desk jobs, the maintenance of a supplement of pilots in excess of cockpit-related…

  12. Pilot performance with a simulated ILS independence pictorial display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, E.; Wempe, T.

    1972-01-01

    As part of a general investigation of the effectiveness of pictorial displays for manual control and monitoring of aircraft approaches and landings, a simulator study was conducted in which pilot performance with three pictorial displays was evaluated. These displays differed in the type of guidance symbology added to the basic perspective runway display. The effect of decreased resolution and update rate of the runway image on pilot performance was also determined. The results indicate that for pictorial displays with added guidance symbology, there was a marked improvement in pilot performance compared to results of a previous study in which the display consisted of only a runway image and aircraft attitude.

  13. Simulator study of the effect of control-system time delays on the occurrence of pilot-induced oscillations and on pilot tracking performance with a space-shuttle-orbiter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. R.; Miller, G. K., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Using a six degree-of-freedom motion-base simulator, the effect of control-system time delays on the occurrence of pilot-induced oscillations (PIO's) on the vehicle handling qualities and on pilot tracking performance for a landing-approach configuration of the Space Shuttle orbiter was studied. A linearized math model was employed which represented a 300-knot orbiter with almost all time delays removed. Additional time delays were then inserted following the pilot's hand-controller signals. Only pitch and roll commands were used for vehicle control. The simulation employed an air to air tracking task as a means of emphasizing PIO tendencies. Two astronauts, two research pilots, and one simulation engineer served as test subjects. Results showed that PIO's occurred when the amount of added time delay approximated that existing for the orbiter configuration flown in the approach and landing tests. Increasing the amount of delay increased PIO occurrences and resulted in degraded tracking performance. Decreasing the amount of time delay eliminated the PIO's.

  14. Teaching cardiopulmonary auscultation in workshops using a virtual patient simulation technology - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, D; Gomes, P; Faria, S; Cruz-Correia, R; Coimbra, M

    2016-08-01

    Auscultation is currently both a powerful screening tool, providing a cheap and quick initial assessment of a patient's clinical condition, and a hard skill to master. The teaching of auscultation in Universities is today reduced to an unsuitable number of hours. Virtual patient simulators can potentially mitigate this problem, by providing an interesting high-quality alternative to teaching with real patients or patient simulators. In this paper we evaluate the pedagogical impact of using a virtual patient simulation technology in a short workshop format for medical students, training them to detect cardiac pathologies. Results showed a significant improvement (+16%) in the differentiation between normal and pathological cases, although longer duration formats seem to be needed to accurately identify specific pathologies.

  15. Expertise and responsibility effects on pilots' reactions to flight deck alerts in a simulator.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yiyuan; Lu, Yanyu; Yang, Zheng; Fu, Shan

    2014-11-01

    Flight deck alerts provide system malfunction information designed to lead corresponding pilot reactions aimed at guaranteeing flight safety. This study examined the roles of expertise and flight responsibility and their relationship to pilots' reactions to flight deck alerts. There were 17 pilots composing 12 flight crews that were assigned into pairs according to flight hours and responsibilities. The experiment included 9 flight scenarios and was carried out in a CRJ-200 flight simulator. Pilot performance was recorded by a wide angle video camera, and four kinds of reactions to alerts were defined for analysis. Pilots tended to have immediate reactions to uninterrupted cautions, with a turning off rate as high as 75%. However, this rate decreased sharply when pilots encountered interrupted cautions and warnings; they also exhibited many wrong reactions to warnings. Pilots with more expertise had more reactions to uninterrupted cautions than those with less expertise, both as pilot flying and pilot monitoring. Meanwhile, the pilot monitoring, regardless of level of expertise, exhibited more reactions than the pilot flying. In addition, more experienced pilots were more likely to have wrong reactions to warnings while acting as the monitoring pilot. These results suggest that both expertise and flight responsibility influence pilots' reactions to alerts. Considering crew pairing strategy, when a pilot flying is a less experienced pilot, a more experience pilot is suggested to be the monitoring pilot. The results of this study have implications for understanding pilots' behaviors to flight deck alerts, calling for specialized training and design of approach alarms on the flight deck.

  16. Learning about the Unit Cell and Crystal Lattice with Computerized Simulations and Games: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luealamai, Sutha; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2012-01-01

    The authors have developed a computer-based learning module on the unit cell of various types of crystal. The module has two components: the virtual unit cell (VUC) part and the subsequent unit cell hunter part. The VUC is a virtual reality simulation for students to actively arrive at the unit cell from exploring, from a broad view, the crystal…

  17. Using Career Exploration Work Simulation Units with the Mentally Retarded--A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Bette; Fifield, Marvin

    1980-01-01

    Six career exploration work simulation units (plumbing, electrical house wiring, photography, brake repair, metal fabrication, and printing) were evaluated with eight mentally retarded adults from a sheltered workshop. Results demonstrated that units designed for nondisabled elementary school children can be used effectively by mentally retarded…

  18. Learning about the Unit Cell and Crystal Lattice with Computerized Simulations and Games: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luealamai, Sutha; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2012-01-01

    The authors have developed a computer-based learning module on the unit cell of various types of crystal. The module has two components: the virtual unit cell (VUC) part and the subsequent unit cell hunter part. The VUC is a virtual reality simulation for students to actively arrive at the unit cell from exploring, from a broad view, the crystal…

  19. Shoulder strengthening exercises adapted to specific shoulder pathologies can be selected using new simulation techniques: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Caecilia; Lädermann, Alexandre; Kevelham, Bart; Chagué, Sylvain; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Holzer, Nicolas

    2017-09-14

    Shoulder strength training exercises represent a major component of rehabilitation protocols designed for conservative or postsurgical management of shoulder pathologies. Numerous methods are described for exercising each shoulder muscle or muscle group. Limited information is available to assess potential deleterious effects of individual methods with respect to specific shoulder pathologies. Thus, the goal of this pilot study was to use a patient-specific 3D measurement technique coupling medical imaging and optical motion capture for evaluation of a set of shoulder strength training exercises regarding glenohumeral, labral and subacromial compression, as well as elongation of the rotator cuff muscles. One volunteer underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and motion capture of the shoulder. Motion data from the volunteer were recorded during three passive rehabilitation exercises and twenty-nine strengthening exercises targeting eleven of the most frequently trained shoulder muscles or muscle groups and using four different techniques when available. For each exercise, glenohumeral and labral compression, subacromial space height and rotator cuff muscles elongation were measured on the entire range of motion. Significant differences in glenohumeral, subacromial and labral compressions were observed between sets of exercises targeting individual shoulder muscles. Muscle lengths computed by simulation compared to MRI measurements showed differences of 0-5%. This study represents the first screening of shoulder strengthening exercises to identify potential deleterious effects on the shoulder joint. Motion capture combined with medical imaging allows for reliable assessment of glenohumeral, labral and subacromial compression, as well as muscle-tendon elongation during shoulder strength training exercises.

  20. Using simulation to train orthopaedic trainees in non-technical skills: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Samuel R; Little, Zoe; Akhtar, Kash; Ramachandran, Manoj; Lee, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    AIM To enhance non-technical skills and to analyse participant’s experience of a course tailored for orthopaedic surgeons. METHODS A Delphi technique was used to develop a course in human factors specific to orthopaedic residents. Twenty-six residents (six per course) participated in total with seven course facilitators all trained in Crisis Resource Management providing structured feedback. Six scenarios recreated challenging real-life situations using high-fidelity mannequins and simulated patients. Environments included a simulated operating suite, clinic room and ward setting. All were undertaken in a purpose built simulation suite utilising actors, mock operating rooms, mock clinical rooms and a high fidelity adult patient simulator organised through a simulation control room. Participants completed a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire (strongly disagree to strongly agree) before and after the course. This assessed their understanding of non-technical skills, scenario validity, relevance to orthopaedic training and predicted impact of the course on future practice. A course evaluation questionnaire was also completed to assess participants’ feedback on the value and quality of the course itself. RESULTS Twenty-six orthopaedic residents participated (24 male, 2 female; post-graduation 5-10 years), mean year of residency program 2.6 out of 6 years required in the United Kingdom. Pre-course questionnaires showed that while the majority of candidates recognised the importance of non-technical (NT) skills in orthopaedic training they demonstrated poor understanding of non-technical skills and their role. This improved significantly after the course (Likert score 3.0-4.2) and the perceived importance of these skills was reported as good or very good in 100%. The course was reported as enjoyable and provided an unthreatening learning environment with the candidates placing particular value on the learning opportunity provided by reflecting on their performance

  1. Using simulation to train orthopaedic trainees in non-technical skills: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Samuel R; Little, Zoe; Akhtar, Kash; Ramachandran, Manoj; Lee, Joshua

    2016-08-18

    To enhance non-technical skills and to analyse participant's experience of a course tailored for orthopaedic surgeons. A Delphi technique was used to develop a course in human factors specific to orthopaedic residents. Twenty-six residents (six per course) participated in total with seven course facilitators all trained in Crisis Resource Management providing structured feedback. Six scenarios recreated challenging real-life situations using high-fidelity mannequins and simulated patients. Environments included a simulated operating suite, clinic room and ward setting. All were undertaken in a purpose built simulation suite utilising actors, mock operating rooms, mock clinical rooms and a high fidelity adult patient simulator organised through a simulation control room. Participants completed a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire (strongly disagree to strongly agree) before and after the course. This assessed their understanding of non-technical skills, scenario validity, relevance to orthopaedic training and predicted impact of the course on future practice. A course evaluation questionnaire was also completed to assess participants' feedback on the value and quality of the course itself. Twenty-six orthopaedic residents participated (24 male, 2 female; post-graduation 5-10 years), mean year of residency program 2.6 out of 6 years required in the United Kingdom. Pre-course questionnaires showed that while the majority of candidates recognised the importance of non-technical (NT) skills in orthopaedic training they demonstrated poor understanding of non-technical skills and their role. This improved significantly after the course (Likert score 3.0-4.2) and the perceived importance of these skills was reported as good or very good in 100%. The course was reported as enjoyable and provided an unthreatening learning environment with the candidates placing particular value on the learning opportunity provided by reflecting on their performance. All agreed that the

  2. Fixed-Base Simulator Studies of the Ability of the Human Pilot to Provide Energy Management Along Abort and Deep-Space Entry Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. W.; Goode, M. W.

    1962-01-01

    A simulation study has been made to determine a pilot's ability to control a low L/D vehicle to a desired point on the earth with initial conditions ranging from parabolic orbits to abort conditions along the boost phase of a deep-space mission. The program was conducted to develop procedures which would allow the pilot to perform the energy management functions required while avoiding the high deceleration or skipout region and to determine the information display required to aid the pilot in flying these procedures. The abort conditions studied extend from a region of relatively high flight-path angles at suborbital velocities while leaving the atmosphere to a region between orbital and near-escape velocity outside the atmosphere. The conditions studied included guidance from suborbital and superorbital aborts as well as guidance following return from a deepspace mission. In this paper, the role of the human pilot?s ability to combine safe return abort procedures with guidance procedures has been investigated. The range capability from various abort and entry conditions is also presented.

  3. Piloted-simulation study of effects of vortex flaps on low-speed handling qualities of a Delta-wing airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Brown, Philip W.; Wunschel, Alfred J.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted-simulation study was conducted to investigate the effects of vortex flaps on low-speed handling qualities of a delta-wing airplane. The simulation math model was developed from wind tunnel tests of a 0.15 scale model of the F-106B airplane. Pilot evaluations were conducted using a six-degree-of-freedom motion base simulator. The results of the investigation showed that the reduced static longitudinal stability caused by the vortex flaps significantly degraded handling qualities in the approach-to-landing task. Acceptable handling qualities could be achieved by limiting the aft center-of-gravity location, consequently reducing the operational envelope of the airplane. Further improvement were possible by modifying the flight control force-feel system to reduce pitch-control sensitivity.

  4. Piloted simulation study of the effects of an automated trim system on flight characteristics of a light twin-engine airplane with one engine inoperative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.; Brown, P. W.; Yenni, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to investigate the piloting problems associated with failure of an engine on a generic light twin-engine airplane. A primary piloting problem for a light twin-engine airplane after an engine failure is maintaining precise control of the airplane in the presence of large steady control forces. To address this problem, a simulated automatic trim system which drives the trim tabs as an open-loop function of propeller slipstream measurements was developed. The simulated automatic trim system was found to greatly increase the controllability in asymmetric powered flight without having to resort to complex control laws or an irreversible control system. However, the trim-tab control rates needed to produce the dramatic increase in controllability may require special design consideration for automatic trim system failures. Limited measurements obtained in full-scale flight tests confirmed the fundamental validity of the proposed control law.

  5. A simulator study of the interaction of pilot workload with errors, vigilance, and decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. P. R.

    1979-01-01

    A full mission simulation of a civil air transport scenario that had two levels of workload was used to observe the actions of the crews and the basic aircraft parameters and to record heart rates. The results showed that the number of errors was very variable among crews but the mean increased in the higher workload case. The increase in errors was not related to rise in heart rate but was associated with vigilance times as well as the days since the last flight. The recorded data also made it possible to investigate decision time and decision order. These also varied among crews and seemed related to the ability of captains to manage the resources available to them on the flight deck.

  6. Evaluation of Veterinary Student Surgical Skills Preparation for Ovariohysterectomy Using Simulators: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Read, Emma K; Vallevand, Andrea; Farrell, Robin M

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of training intended to enhance students' performance on their first live-animal ovariohysterectomy (OVH). Cognitive task analysis informed a seven-page lab manual, 30-minute video, and 46-item OVH checklist (categorized into nine surgery components and three phases of surgery). We compared two spay simulator models (higher-fidelity silicone versus lower-fidelity cloth and foam). Third-year veterinary students were randomly assigned to a training intervention: lab manual and video only; lab manual, video, and $675 silicone-based model; lab manual, video, and $64 cloth and foam model. We then assessed transfer of training to a live-animal OVH. Chi-square analyses determined statistically significant differences between the interventions on four of nine surgery components, all three phases of surgery, and overall score. Odds ratio analyses indicated that training with a spay model improved the odds of attaining an excellent or good rating on 25 of 46 checklist items, six of nine surgery components, all three phases of surgery, and the overall score. Odds ratio analyses comparing the spay models indicated an advantage for the $675 silicon-based model on only 6 of 46 checklist items, three of nine surgery components, and one phase of surgery. Training with a spay model improved performance when compared to training with a manual and video only. Results suggested that training with a lower-fidelity/cost model might be as effective when compared to a higher-fidelity/cost model. Further research is required to investigate simulator fidelity and costs on transfer of training to the operational environment.

  7. Use of Flight Simulators for Pilot-Control Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathert, George A., Jr.; Creer, Brent Y.; Douvillier, Joseph G., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    Comparisons have been made between actual flight results and results obtained with fixed and moving flight simulators in a number of phases of flying airplanes with a wide range of characteristics. These results have been used to study the importance of providing motion stimuli in a simulator in order that the pilot operate the simulator in a realistic manner. Regions of airplane characteristics where motion stimuli are either mandatory or desirable are indicated.

  8. Piloted Simulation Study of the Effects of High-Lift Aerodynamics on the Takeoff Noise of a Representative High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Riley, Donald R.; Brandon, Jay M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Glaab, Patricia C.

    1999-01-01

    As part of an effort between NASA and private industry to reduce airport-community noise for high-speed civil transport (HSCT) concepts, a piloted simulation study was initiated for the purpose of predicting the noise reduction benefits that could result from improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance for a typical HSCT configuration during takeoff and initial climb. Flight profile and engine information from the piloted simulation were coupled with the NASA Langley Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) to estimate jet engine noise and to propagate the resulting source noise to ground observer stations. A baseline aircraft configuration, which also incorporated different levels of projected improvements in low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance, was simulated to investigate effects of increased lift and lift-to-drag ratio on takeoff noise levels. Simulated takeoff flights were performed with the pilots following a specified procedure in which either a single thrust cutback was performed at selected altitudes ranging from 400 to 2000 ft, or a multiple-cutback procedure was performed where thrust was reduced by a two-step process. Results show that improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance provides at least a 4 to 6 dB reduction in effective perceived noise level at the FAA downrange flyover measurement station for either cutback procedure. However, improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance reduced maximum sideline noise levels only when using the multiple-cutback procedures.

  9. Student Achievement and Attitudes in a Pilot Study Comparing an Interactive Videodisc Simulation to Conventional Dissection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Richard T.; Kinzie, Mable B.

    1994-01-01

    Many assert that the use of animals for dissections in the secondary and undergraduate class is unnecessary. This article describes a study conducted to compare the attitudes and achievement of students who use interactive methods instead of conventional dissection. (ZWH)

  10. Resource Utilisation and Situational Awareness in a Computer Simulated Decision Task: A Pilot Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-08

    predictors of loss of SA and subsequent decision error. In support of this, Endsley and Rodgers (1998) investigated errors in air traffic control and...resources (Omodei, Wearing, McLennan, Elliot & Clancy, 7 2001) relative to their allocation of other activities. In regard to the studies by Omodei et...control, that is, one’s ability to self- monitor and self-regulate the state of their working memory (Omodei, Wearing, McLennan, Elliot & Clancy, 2001

  11. Are All Manikins Created Equal? A Pilot Study of Simulator Upper Airway Anatomic Fidelity.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jennifer A; Malekzadeh, Sonya; Malloy, Kelly M; Deutsch, Ellen S

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluates the anatomic fidelity of several commercially available pediatric and adult manikins, including airway task trainers, which could be used in aerodigestive procedure training. Twenty-three experienced otolaryngologists assessed the aerodigestive anatomy of 5 adult and 5 pediatric manikins in a passive state, using rigid and flexible endoscopy. Anatomic fidelity was rated on a 5-point scale for the following: nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, trachea, esophagus, and neck. Mean scores and standard deviations were tabulated for each manikin at each anatomic site. Ratings by survey participants demonstrated variation in the anatomic fidelity of the aerodigestive tract in a range of manikins. Radar chart display of the results allows comparison of manikin fidelity by anatomic site. Differences in scores may allow instructors to select manikins with the best anatomic fidelity for specific educational purposes, and they may contribute to recommendations to improve future manikin design.

  12. Single pilot scanning behavior in simulated instrument flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennington, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Results from a simulation of general aviation instrument flight tasks in which the pilot's scan pattern and lookpoint were measured along with control inputs and state variables are given. The objective was to provide a baseline for comparing results from later studies of advanced avionics. Some of the scanning parameters measured are described, and conclusions from this and subsequent studies are presented.

  13. A pilot study of contralateral homonymous muscle activity simulated electrical stimulation in chronic hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Osu, Rieko; Otaka, Yohei; Ushiba, Junichi; Sakata, Sachiko; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Liu, Meigen

    2012-01-01

    For the recovery of hemiparetic hand function, a therapy was developed called contralateral homonymous muscle activity stimulated electrical stimulation (CHASE), which combines electrical stimulation and bilateral movements, and its feasibility was studied in three chronic stroke patients with severe hand hemiparesis. Patients with a subcortical lesion were asked to extend their wrist and fingers bilaterally while an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle in the unaffected hand. Electric stimulation was applied to the homonymous wrist and finger extensors of the affected side. The intensity of the electrical stimulation was computed based on the EMG and scaled so that the movements of the paretic hand looked similar to those of the unaffected side. The patients received 30-minutes of therapy per day for 2 weeks. Improvement in the active range of motion of wrist extension was observed for all patients. There was a decrease in the scores of modified Ashworth scale in the flexors. Fugl-Meyer assessment scores of motor function of the upper extremities improved in two of the patients. The results suggest a positive outcome can be obtained using the CHASE system for upper extremity rehabilitation of patients with severe hemiplegia.

  14. Fixed-base simulator study of the effect of time delays in visual cues on pilot tracking performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queijo, M. J.; Riley, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Factors were examined which determine the amount of time delay acceptable in the visual feedback loop in flight simulators. Acceptable time delays are defined as delays which significantly affect neither the results nor the manner in which the subject 'flies' the simulator. The subject tracked a target aircraft as it oscillated sinusoidally in a vertical plane only. The pursuing aircraft was permitted five degrees of freedom. Time delays of from 0.047 to 0.297 second were inserted in the visual feedback loop. A side task was employed to maintain the workload constant and to insure that the pilot was fully occupied during the experiment. Tracking results were obtained for 17 aircraft configurations having different longitudinal short-period characteristics. Results show a positive correlation between improved handling qualities and a longer acceptable time delay.

  15. Analytical and Preliminary Simulation Study of a Pilot's Ability to Control the Terminal Phase of a Rendezvous with Simple Optical Devices and a Timer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lineberry, Edgar C., Jr.; Brissenden, Roy F.; Kurbjun, Max C.

    1961-01-01

    One method of controlling the terminal phase of a space rendezvous between two vehicles is first to correct the flight path of the controlled vehicle so that a constant line of sight is established between the vehicles. This correction is accomplished by thrusting normal to the sight line in a direction to arrest the angular motion of this line. Once this collision course has been established, the second step is to control the closure rate for a safe approach along the line of sight. Adequate control of this maneuver requires range and closure-rate information. A combined analytical and preliminary simulation study was conducted to determine the ability of a human pilot to control the rendezvous by this method using visual sightings made during the initial collision-course control to obtain the range and closure rate. The analytical phase of the study reviewed the geometric relations between the vehicles and formed the basis for techniques to transform the angular sightings into range and closure rate. A preliminary simulation was then made to investigate the accuracy of these techniques. The simulation consisted of an analog computer, an oscilloscope to represent the view a pilot would have-with a stabilized sight, and a timer. Results indicate that pilots, using an optical sight and a timer, can successfully arrest the angular motion of the line of sight between two rendezvous vehicles and obtain relative range and closure rate with sufficient accuracy to perform the final braking maneuver successfully.

  16. Pulsed Doppler in Simulated Compartment Syndrome: A Pilot Study to Record Hemodynamic Compromise

    PubMed Central

    Mc Loughlin, Santiago; Mc Loughlin, Mario Jorge; Mateu, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute compartment syndrome occurs when the tissue pressure within a closed muscle compartment exceeds the perfusion pressure. We observed diastolic retrograde arterial flow (DRAF) in 2 patients in the arteries proximal to compartment syndromes in injured limbs. We hypothesized that DRAF may represent an early sign of compartment pressure increments. Methods We mimicked compartment syndrome by using a cuff to produce external compression of the forearm at increasing pressures. We correlated the applied pressure with brachial artery blood flow, velocities, and retrograde flow. We studied the brachial artery at baseline, at external compression of 40 mmHg applied to the forearm, at forearm compression equal to the patient's diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and at forearm compression equal to the patient's mean arterial pressure (MAP). Evaluations included Doppler velocities and DRAF percentage (%). Using a ROC analysis, we selected a DRAF (%) cutoff value for the identification of patients with an applied external pressure equal to or greater than their DBP and calculated its sensitivity and specificity. Results Compared with baseline, DRAF (%) was increased at 40 mmHg (P<0.05), at DBP (P<0.05), and at MAP (P<0.05). DRAF (%) was strongly correlated with applied external pressure (r=0.92, r2=0.85). DRAF 40% presented a 100% sensitivity and a 93% specificity for identifying a compression equal to or greater than the patient's DBP. Conclusion DRAF (%) strongly correlates with the degree of external pressure applied to the brachial artery, suggesting it may represent a useful tool in the detection and evaluation of compartment syndrome. PMID:24357997

  17. Pulsed Doppler in simulated compartment syndrome: a pilot study to record hemodynamic compromise.

    PubMed

    Mc Loughlin, Santiago; Mc Loughlin, Mario Jorge; Mateu, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome occurs when the tissue pressure within a closed muscle compartment exceeds the perfusion pressure. We observed diastolic retrograde arterial flow (DRAF) in 2 patients in the arteries proximal to compartment syndromes in injured limbs. We hypothesized that DRAF may represent an early sign of compartment pressure increments. We mimicked compartment syndrome by using a cuff to produce external compression of the forearm at increasing pressures. We correlated the applied pressure with brachial artery blood flow, velocities, and retrograde flow. We studied the brachial artery at baseline, at external compression of 40 mmHg applied to the forearm, at forearm compression equal to the patient's diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and at forearm compression equal to the patient's mean arterial pressure (MAP). Evaluations included Doppler velocities and DRAF percentage (%). Using a ROC analysis, we selected a DRAF (%) cutoff value for the identification of patients with an applied external pressure equal to or greater than their DBP and calculated its sensitivity and specificity. Compared with baseline, DRAF (%) was increased at 40 mmHg (P<0.05), at DBP (P<0.05), and at MAP (P<0.05). DRAF (%) was strongly correlated with applied external pressure (r=0.92, r(2)=0.85). DRAF 40% presented a 100% sensitivity and a 93% specificity for identifying a compression equal to or greater than the patient's DBP. DRAF (%) strongly correlates with the degree of external pressure applied to the brachial artery, suggesting it may represent a useful tool in the detection and evaluation of compartment syndrome.

  18. The effect of bone fracture unevenness on ultrasound axial transmission measurements: A pilot 2D simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Christiano B.; Pereira, Wagner C. A.; Padilla, Frédéric; Laugier, Pascal

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasound axial transmission (UAT) has been proposed to the diagnosis and follow-up of fracture healing. Some researchers have already pointed out the influence of fracture length, geometry and callus composition on the ultrasound time-of-flight and attenuation, with experimental and simulation studies. The aim of this work was to develop a pilot study on the effect of bone fracture unevenness on UAT measurements. Two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations of ultrasound wave propagation were run using a custom-made finite-difference time domain code (SimSonic2D). Numerical models were composed of two 4-mm thick bone plates, with fracture lengths varying from 0 to 4 mm. For each case, an upward (UWun) and downward (DWun) unevenness of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mm was implemented in the second plate. The 1-MHz emitter and receptor transducers were placed at 40 mm from each other, 20 mm apart from the center fracture. Two configurations were considered: 1.5 mm above the plates (for the 0-mm unevenness case) and transducers in contact with bone plate. For each situation, the time-of-flight of the first arriving signal (TOFFAS) and the FAS energy amplitude loss measured by the sound pressure level (SPLFAS) were computed. Results showed that there was a linear increase in TOFFAS with increasing fracture length, and a decrease of SPLFAS with the presence of a discontinuity. TOFFAS values were decreased with UWun (-0.87 μs for UWun = 1.5 mm), and increased with DWun (+0.99 μs for DWun = 1.5 mm). The SPLFAS increased with both UWun (+3.54 dB for UWun = 1.5 mm) and DWun (+8.15 dB for DWun = 1.5 mm). Both parameters showed the same variability. When transducers were put in contact with bone surface, fracture unevenness had no influence on TOF and SPL estimates. Previous works have already demonstrated that a fracture of 3 mm can increase TOFFAS in an order of 1 μs. Considering these preliminary results, it can be concluded that, although the variable fracture unevenness (until 1

  19. Realistic Radio Communications in Pilot Simulator Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burki-Cohen, Judith; Kendra, Andrew J.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Lee, Alfred T.

    2000-01-01

    Simulators used for total training and evaluation of airline pilots must satisfy stringent criteria in order to assure their adequacy for training and checking maneuvers. Air traffic control and company radio communications simulation, however, may still be left to role-play by the already taxed instructor/evaluators in spite of their central importance in every aspect of the flight environment. The underlying premise of this research is that providing a realistic radio communications environment would increase safety by enhancing pilot training and evaluation. This report summarizes the first-year efforts of assessing the requirement and feasibility of simulating radio communications automatically. A review of the training and crew resource/task management literature showed both practical and theoretical support for the need for realistic radio communications simulation. A survey of 29 instructor/evaluators from 14 airlines revealed that radio communications are mainly role-played by the instructor/evaluators. This increases instructor/evaluators' own workload while unrealistically lowering pilot communications load compared to actual operations, with a concomitant loss in training/evaluation effectiveness. A technology review searching for an automated means of providing radio communications to and from aircraft with minimal human effort showed that while promising, the technology is still immature. Further research and the need for establishing a proof-of-concept are also discussed.

  20. Realistic Radio Communications in Pilot Simulator Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burki-Cohen, Judith; Kendra, Andrew J.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Lee, Alfred T.

    2000-01-01

    Simulators used for total training and evaluation of airline pilots must satisfy stringent criteria in order to assure their adequacy for training and checking maneuvers. Air traffic control and company radio communications simulation, however, may still be left to role-play by the already taxed instructor/evaluators in spite of their central importance in every aspect of the flight environment. The underlying premise of this research is that providing a realistic radio communications environment would increase safety by enhancing pilot training and evaluation. This report summarizes the first-year efforts of assessing the requirement and feasibility of simulating radio communications automatically. A review of the training and crew resource/task management literature showed both practical and theoretical support for the need for realistic radio communications simulation. A survey of 29 instructor/evaluators from 14 airlines revealed that radio communications are mainly role-played by the instructor/evaluators. This increases instructor/evaluators' own workload while unrealistically lowering pilot communications load compared to actual operations, with a concomitant loss in training/evaluation effectiveness. A technology review searching for an automated means of providing radio communications to and from aircraft with minimal human effort showed that while promising, the technology is still immature. Further research and the need for establishing a proof-of-concept are also discussed.

  1. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.

    1991-12-06

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot test in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate-reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been preferentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. During this quarter an additional tracer study was performed in the field to determine pre-treatment flow paths and the first nutrients were injected. 2 figs.

  2. Piloted Aircraft Environment Simulation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    safety program has since been modified to provide protection even under manual control which should prevent any further crashes except for those caused by...two functions. It will obviously serve as a road map for achieving the objective, but perhaps more importantly, it will assist in articulating the need...representing the approach and landing task on a ground based simulator, valuable returns in terms of training costs and safety are potentially

  3. Discrete-time pilot model. [human dynamics and digital simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalli, D.

    1978-01-01

    Pilot behavior is considered as a discrete-time process where the decision making has a sequential nature. This model differs from both the quasilinear model which follows from classical control theory and from the optimal control model which considers the human operator as a Kalman estimator-predictor. An additional factor considered is that the pilot's objective may not be adequately formulated as a quadratic cost functional to be minimized, but rather as a more fuzzy measure of the closeness with which the aircraft follows a reference trajectory. All model parameters, in the digital program simulating the pilot's behavior, were successfully compared in terms of standard-deviation and performance with those of professional pilots in IFR configuration. The first practical application of the model was in the study of its performance degradation when the aircraft model static margin decreases.

  4. Piloting Augmented Reality Technology to Enhance Realism in Clinical Simulation.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Jacqueline; Lister, Michael; Shaw, Ryan J

    2016-09-01

    We describe a pilot study that incorporated an innovative hybrid simulation designed to increase the perception of realism in a high-fidelity simulation. Prelicensure students (N = 12) cared for a manikin in a simulation lab scenario wearing Google Glass, a wearable head device that projected video into the students' field of vision. Students reported that the simulation gave them confidence that they were developing skills and knowledge to perform necessary tasks in a clinical setting and that they met the learning objectives of the simulation. The video combined visual images and cues seen in a real patient and created a sense of realism the manikin alone could not provide.

  5. Exploratory piloted simulator study of the effects of winglets on handling qualities of a representative agricultural airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogburn, M. E.; Brown, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    The effects on handling qualities of adding winglets to a representative agricultural aircraft configuration during swath-run maneuvering were evaluated. Aerodynamic data used in the simulation were based on low-speed wind tunnel tests of a full scale airplane and a subscale model. The Cooper-Harper handling qualities rating scale, supplementary pilot comments, and pilot vehicle performance data were used to describe the handling qualities of the airplane with the different wing-tip configurations. Results showed that the lateral-directional handling qualities of the airplane were greatly affected by the application of winglets and winglet cant angle. The airplane with winglets canted out 20 deg exhibited severely degraded lateral directional handling qualities in comparison to the basic airplane. When the winglets were canted inward 10 deg, the flying qualities of the configuration were markedly improved over those of the winglet-canted-out configuration or the basic configuration without winglets, indicating that proper tailoring of the winglet design may afford a potential benefit in the area of handling qualities.

  6. High Working Memory Load Impairs Language Processing during a Simulated Piloting Task: An ERP and Pupillometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Causse, Mickaël; Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Fabre, Eve F.

    2016-01-01

    Given the important amount of visual and auditory linguistic information that pilots have to process, operating an aircraft generates a high working-memory load (WML). In this context, the ability to focus attention on relevant information and to remain responsive to concurrent stimuli might be altered. Consequently, understanding the effects of WML on the processing of both linguistic targets and distractors is of particular interest in the study of pilot performance. In the present work, participants performed a simplified piloting task in which they had to follow one of three colored aircraft, according to specific written instructions (i.e., the written word for the color corresponding to the color of one of the aircraft) and to ignore either congruent or incongruent concurrent auditory distractors (i.e., a spoken name of color). The WML was manipulated with an n-back sub-task. Participants were instructed to apply the current written instruction in the low WML condition, and the 2-back written instruction in the high WML condition. Electrophysiological results revealed a major effect of WML at behavioral (i.e., decline of piloting performance), electrophysiological, and autonomic levels (i.e., greater pupil diameter). Increased WML consumed resources that could not be allocated to the processing of the linguistic stimuli, as indexed by lower P300/P600 amplitudes. Also, significantly, lower P600 responses were measured in incongruent vs. congruent trials in the low WML condition, showing a higher difficulty reorienting attention toward the written instruction, but this effect was canceled in the high WML condition. This suppression of interference in the high load condition is in line with the engagement/distraction trade-off model. We propose that P300/P600 components could be reliable indicators of WML and that they allow an estimation of its impact on the processing of linguistic stimuli. PMID:27252639

  7. High Working Memory Load Impairs Language Processing during a Simulated Piloting Task: An ERP and Pupillometry Study.

    PubMed

    Causse, Mickaël; Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Fabre, Eve F

    2016-01-01

    Given the important amount of visual and auditory linguistic information that pilots have to process, operating an aircraft generates a high working-memory load (WML). In this context, the ability to focus attention on relevant information and to remain responsive to concurrent stimuli might be altered. Consequently, understanding the effects of WML on the processing of both linguistic targets and distractors is of particular interest in the study of pilot performance. In the present work, participants performed a simplified piloting task in which they had to follow one of three colored aircraft, according to specific written instructions (i.e., the written word for the color corresponding to the color of one of the aircraft) and to ignore either congruent or incongruent concurrent auditory distractors (i.e., a spoken name of color). The WML was manipulated with an n-back sub-task. Participants were instructed to apply the current written instruction in the low WML condition, and the 2-back written instruction in the high WML condition. Electrophysiological results revealed a major effect of WML at behavioral (i.e., decline of piloting performance), electrophysiological, and autonomic levels (i.e., greater pupil diameter). Increased WML consumed resources that could not be allocated to the processing of the linguistic stimuli, as indexed by lower P300/P600 amplitudes. Also, significantly, lower P600 responses were measured in incongruent vs. congruent trials in the low WML condition, showing a higher difficulty reorienting attention toward the written instruction, but this effect was canceled in the high WML condition. This suppression of interference in the high load condition is in line with the engagement/distraction trade-off model. We propose that P300/P600 components could be reliable indicators of WML and that they allow an estimation of its impact on the processing of linguistic stimuli.

  8. Pilot Field Test Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherriff, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The Field Test study is currently in full swing, preceded by the successful completion of the Pilot Field Test study that paved the way for collecting data on the astronauts in the medical tent in Kazakhstan. Abigail Sherriff worked alongside Logan Dobbe on one Field Test aspect to determine foot clearance over obstacles (5cm, 10cm, and 15cm) using APDM Inc. Internal Measurement Units (IMU) worn by the astronauts. They created a program to accurately calculate foot clearance using the accelerometer, magnetometer, and gyroscope data with the IMUs attached to the top of the shoes. To validate the functionality of their program, they completed a successful study on test subjects performing various tasks in an optical motion studio, considered a gold standard in biomechanics research. Future work will include further validation and expanding the program to include other analyses.

  9. Characterization of size-specific particulate matter emission rates for a simulated medical laser procedure--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ramon; Lacey, Steven E; Lippert, Julia F; Liu, Li C; Esmen, Nurtan A; Conroy, Lorraine M

    2015-05-01

    Prior investigation on medical laser interaction with tissue has suggested device operational parameter settings influence laser generated air contaminant emission, but this has not been systematically explored. A laboratory-based simulated medical laser procedure was designed and pilot tested to determine the effect of laser operational parameters on the size-specific mass emission rate of laser generated particulate matter. Porcine tissue was lased in an emission chamber using two medical laser systems (CO2, λ = 10,600 nm; Ho:YAG, λ = 2100 nm) in a fractional factorial study design by varying three operational parameters (beam diameter, pulse repetition frequency, and power) between two levels (high and low) and the resultant plume was measured using two real-time size-selective particle counters. Particle count concentrations were converted to mass emission rates before an analysis of variance was used to determine the influence of operational parameter settings on size-specific mass emission rate. Particle shape and diameter were described for a limited number of samples by collecting particles on polycarbonate filters, and photographed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to examine method of particle formation. An increase in power and decrease in beam diameter led to an increase in mass emission for the Ho:YAG laser at all size ranges. For the CO2 laser, emission rates were dependent on particle size and were not statistically significant for particle ranges between 5 and 10 µm. When any parameter level was increased, emission rate of the smallest particle size range also increased. Beam diameter was the most influential variable for both lasers, and the operational parameters tested explained the most variability at the smallest particle size range. Particle shape was variable and some particles observed by SEM were likely created from mechanical methods. This study provides a foundation for future investigations to better estimate size

  10. Simulator study of the effect of visual-motion time delays on pilot tracking performance with an audio side task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. R.; Miller, G. K., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of time delay was determined in the visual and motion cues in a flight simulator on pilot performance in tracking a target aircraft that was oscillating sinusoidally in altitude only. An audio side task was used to assure the subject was fully occupied at all times. The results indicate that, within the test grid employed, about the same acceptable time delay (250 msec) was obtained for a single aircraft (fighter type) by each of two subjects for both fixed-base and motion-base conditions. Acceptable time delay is defined as the largest amount of delay that can be inserted simultaneously into the visual and motion cues before performance degradation occurs. A statistical analysis of the data was made to establish this value of time delay. Audio side task provided quantitative data that documented the subject's work level.

  11. Ground-based time-guidance algorithm for control of airplanes in a time-metered air traffic control environment: A piloted simulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.; Imbert, N.

    1986-01-01

    The rapidly increasing costs of flight operations and the requirement for increased fuel conservation have made it necessary to develop more efficient ways to operate airplanes and to control air traffic for arrivals and departures to the terminal area. One concept of controlling arrival traffic through time metering has been jointly studied and evaluated by NASA and ONERA/CERT in piloted simulation tests. From time errors attained at checkpoints, airspeed and heading commands issued by air traffic control were computed by a time-guidance algorithm for the pilot to follow that would cause the airplane to cross a metering fix at a preassigned time. These tests resulted in the simulated airplane crossing a metering fix with a mean time error of 1.0 sec and a standard deviation of 16.7 sec when the time-metering algorithm was used. With mismodeled winds representing the unknown in wind-aloft forecasts and modeling form, the mean time error attained when crossing the metering fix was increased and the standard deviation remained approximately the same. The subject pilots reported that the airspeed and heading commands computed in the guidance concept were easy to follow and did not increase their work load above normal levels.

  12. Description of a tilt wing mathematical model for piloted simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totah, Joseph J.

    1991-01-01

    A tilt-wing mathematical model that was used in a piloted six-deg-of-freedom flight simulation application is presented. Two types of control systems developed for the model - a conventional programmed-flap wing-tilt control system and a geared-flap wing-tilt control system - are discussed. The objective of this effort was to develop the capability to study tilt-wing aircraft. Experienced tilt-wing pilots subjectively evaluated the model using programmed-flap control to assess the quality of the simulation. The objective was met and the model was then applied to study geared-flap control to investigate the possibility of eliminating the need for auxiliary pitch control devices. This was performed in the moving-base simulation environment, and the vehicle responses with programmed-flap and geared-flap control were compared.

  13. Fidelity of Simulation for Pilot Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    ene ra l F u ll O uste r 30 0 : 0 M o esa ic o f I Me co rd /p lx yb ac k/ for Pilot Iraiolnin SKI 3ll %t Assambly Sin-Post A suit Electric 5can". d ClGI...Published December 1980 ’ D " i s r /i.....or)Copyright © AGARD 1980 ..... ty codes All Rights ReservedAvallabi1t e _ .Avail ard/or ISBN 92-835-1377-0...Simulator, Group Anthony Fokkerweg 2 Amsterdam - 1017 The Netherlands Dr. John M . Rolfe Research Branch Command Research Officer HQ RAF Support Command RAF

  14. 14 CFR 91.1089 - Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). 91.1089 Section 91.1089 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1089 Qualifications: Check pilots...

  15. 14 CFR 91.1089 - Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). 91.1089 Section 91.1089 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1089 Qualifications: Check pilots...

  16. An Unembalmed Cadaveric Preparation for Simulating Pleural Effusion: A Pilot Study of Chest Percussion Involving Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Mark S.; Kernahan, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Cadaveric simulations are an effective way to add clinical context to an anatomy course. In this study, unembalmed (fresh) cadavers were uniquely prepared to simulate pleural effusion to teach chest percussion and review thoracic anatomy. Thirty first-year medical students were assigned to either an intervention (Group A) or control group (Group…

  17. Flight simulator platform motion and air transport pilot training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.; Bussolari, Steven R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of a flight simulator platform motion on the performance and training of a pilot was evaluated using subjective ratings and objective performance data obtained on experienced B-727 pilots and pilots with no prior heavy aircraft flying experience flying B-727-200 aircraft simulator used by the FAA in the upgrade and transition training for air carrier operations. The results on experienced pilots did not reveal any reliable effects of wide variations in platform motion design. On the other hand, motion variations significantly affected the behavior of pilots without heavy-aircraft experience. The effect was limited to pitch attitude control inputs during the early phase of landing training.

  18. Pilot/vehicle model analysis of visual and motion cue requirements in flight simulation. [helicopter hovering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, S.; Lancraft, R.; Zacharias, G.

    1980-01-01

    The optimal control model (OCM) of the human operator is used to predict the effect of simulator characteristics on pilot performance and workload. The piloting task studied is helicopter hover. Among the simulator characteristics considered were (computer generated) visual display resolution, field of view and time delay.

  19. Can a novel web-based computer test predict poor simulated driving performance? a pilot study with healthy and cognitive-impaired participants.

    PubMed

    Nef, Tobias; Müri, René M; Bieri, Rahel; Jäger, Michael; Bethencourt, Nora; Tarnanas, Ioannis; Mosimann, Urs P

    2013-10-21

    Driving a car is a complex instrumental activity of daily living and driving performance is very sensitive to cognitive impairment. The assessment of driving-relevant cognition in older drivers is challenging and requires reliable and valid tests with good sensitivity and specificity to predict safe driving. Driving simulators can be used to test fitness to drive. Several studies have found strong correlation between driving simulator performance and on-the-road driving. However, access to driving simulators is restricted to specialists and simulators are too expensive, large, and complex to allow easy access to older drivers or physicians advising them. An easily accessible, Web-based, cognitive screening test could offer a solution to this problem. The World Wide Web allows easy dissemination of the test software and implementation of the scoring algorithm on a central server, allowing generation of a dynamically growing database with normative values and ensures that all users have access to the same up-to-date normative values. In this pilot study, we present the novel Web-based Bern Cognitive Screening Test (wBCST) and investigate whether it can predict poor simulated driving performance in healthy and cognitive-impaired participants. The wBCST performance and simulated driving performance have been analyzed in 26 healthy younger and 44 healthy older participants as well as in 10 older participants with cognitive impairment. Correlations between the two tests were calculated. Also, simulated driving performance was used to group the participants into good performers (n=70) and poor performers (n=10). A receiver-operating characteristic analysis was calculated to determine sensitivity and specificity of the wBCST in predicting simulated driving performance. The mean wBCST score of the participants with poor simulated driving performance was reduced by 52%, compared to participants with good simulated driving performance (P<.001). The area under the receiver

  20. A comparison of live tissue training and high-fidelity patient simulator: A pilot study in battlefield trauma training.

    PubMed

    Savage, Erin C; Tenn, Catherine; Vartanian, Oshin; Blackler, Kristen; Sullivan-Kwantes, Wendy; Garrett, Michelle; Blais, Ann-Renee; Jarmasz, Jerzy; Peng, Henry; Pannell, Dylan; Tien, Homer C

    2015-10-01

    Trauma procedural and management skills are often learned on live tissue. However, there is increasing pressure to use simulators because their fidelity improves and as ethical concerns increase. We randomized military medical technicians (medics) to training on either simulators or live tissue to learn combat casualty care skills to determine if the choice of modality was associated with differences in skill uptake. Twenty medics were randomized to trauma training using either simulators or live tissue. Medics were trained to perform five combat casualty care tasks (surgical airway, needle decompression, tourniquet application, wound packing, and intraosseous line insertion). We measured skill uptake using a structured assessment tool. The medics also completed exit questionnaires and interviews to determine which modality they preferred. We found no difference between groups trained with live tissue versus simulators in how they completed each combat casualty care skill. However, we did find that the modality of assessment affected the assessment score. Finally, we found that medics preferred trauma training on live tissue because of the fidelity of tissue handling in live tissue models. However, they also felt that training on simulators also provided additional training value. We found no difference in performance between medics trained on simulators versus live tissue models. Even so, medics preferred live tissue training over simulation. However, more studies are required, and future studies need to address the measurement bias of measuring outcomes in the same model on which the study participants are trained. Therapeutic/care management study, level II.

  1. An electric scooter simulation program for training the driving skills of stroke patients with mobility problems: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jannink, Michiel J A; Erren-Wolters, C Victorien; de Kort, Alexander C; van der Kooij, Herman

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes an electric scooter simulation program and a first evaluation study in which we explored if it is possible to train the driving skills of future users of electric mobility scooters by means of an electric scooter simulation program in addition to conventional electric scooter training. Within this explorative study,10 stroke survivors were randomly assigned to either the control (n=5) or the electric scooter simulation intervention group (n=5). Participants were assessed twice on the functional evaluating rating scale. During the followup measurement, subjective experiences regarding both forms of electric scooter training were elicited by a questionnaire. After a training period of 5 weeks, both groups improved on the Functional Evaluation Rating Scale. It can be concluded that the patients with stroke were satisfied with the electric scooter simulation training.

  2. Flight Hour Reductions in Fleet Replacement Pilot Training through Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smode, Alfred F.

    A project was undertaken to integrate the 2F87F operational flight trainer into the program for training replacement patrol plane pilots. The objectives were to determine the potential of the simulator as a substitute environment for learning aircraft tasks and to effectively utilize the simulator in pilot training. The students involved in the…

  3. A dynamic flow simulation code benchmark study addressing the highly heterogeneous properties of the Stuttgart formation at the Ketzin pilot site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; Class, Holger; Görke, Uwe-Jens; Norden, Ben; Kolditz, Olaf; Kühn, Michael; Walter, Lena; Wang, Wenqing; Zehner, Björn

    2013-04-01

    CO2 injection at the Ketzin pilot site located in Eastern Germany (Brandenburg) about 25 km west of Berlin is undertaken since June 2008 with a scheduled total amount of about 70,000 t CO2 to be injected into the saline aquifer represented by the Stuttgart Formation at a depth of 630 m to 650 m until the end of August 2013. The Stuttgart Formation is of fluvial origin determined by high-permeablity sandstone channels embedded in a floodplain facies of low permeability indicating a highly heterogeneous distribution of reservoir properties as facies distribution, porosity and permeability relevant for dynamic flow simulations. Following the dynamic modelling activities discussed by Kempka et al. (2010), a revised geological model allowed us to history match CO2 arrival times in the observation wells and reservoir pressure with a good agreement (Martens et al., 2012). Consequently, the validated reservoir model of the Stuttgart Formation at the Ketzin pilot site enabled us to predict the development of reservoir pressure and the CO2 plume migration in the storage formation by dynamic flow simulations. A benchmark study of industrial (ECLIPSE 100 as well as ECLIPSE 300 CO2STORE and GASWAT) and scientific dynamic flow simulations codes (TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N, OpenGeoSys and DuMuX) was initiated to address and compare the simulator capabilities considering a highly complex reservoir model. Hence, our dynamic flow simulations take into account different properties of the geological model such as significant variation of porosity and permeability in the Stuttgart Formation as well as structural geological features implemented in the geological model such as seven major faults located at the top of the Ketzin anticline. Integration of the geological model into reservoir models suitable for the different dynamic flow simulators applied demonstrated that a direct conversion of reservoir model discretization between Finite Volume and Finite Element flow simulators is not feasible

  4. Piloted evaluation of an integrated propulsion and flight control simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bright, Michelle M.; Simon, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a piloted evaluation of the integrated flight and propulsion control simulator at NASA Lewis Research Center. The purpose of this evaluation is to demonstrate the suitability and effectiveness of this fixed based simulator for advanced integrated propulsion and airframe control design. The evaluation will cover control effector gains and deadbands, control effectiveness and control authority, and heads up display functionality. For this evaluation the flight simulator is configured for transition flight using an advanced Short Take-Off and vertical Landing fighter aircraft model, a simplified high-bypass turbofan engine model, fighter cockpit, displays, and pilot effectors. The paper describes the piloted tasks used for rating displays and control effector gains. Pilot comments and simulation results confirm that the display symbology and control gains are very adequate for the transition flight task. Additionally, it is demonstrated that this small-scale, fixed base flight simulator facility can adequately perform a real time, piloted control evaluation.

  5. A simulator investigation of the use of digital data link for pilot/ATC communications in a single pilot operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.; Lohr, Gary W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies have shown that radio communications between pilots and air traffic control contribute to high pilot workload and are subject to various errors. These errors result from congestion on the voice radio channel, and missed and misunderstood messages. The use of digital data link has been proposed as a means of reducing this workload and error rate. A critical factor, however, in determining the potential benefit of data link will be the interface between future data link systems and the operator of those systems, both in the air and on the ground. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the pilot interface with various levels of data link capability, in simulated general aviation, single-pilot instrument flight rule operations. Results show that the data link reduced demands on pilots' short-term memory, reduced the number of communication transmissions, and permitted the pilots to more easily allocate time to critical cockpit tasks while receiving air traffic control messages. The pilots who participated unanimously indicated a preference for data link communications over voice-only communications. There were, however, situations in which the pilot preferred the use of voice communications, and the ability for pilots to delay processing the data link messages, during high workload events, caused delays in the acknowledgement of messages to air traffic control.

  6. Comparison of Simulation-Based Performance with Metrics of Critical Thinking Skills in Nursing Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fero, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    Alternative approaches to evaluating critical thinking skills are needed, as pencil and paper assessments may not accurately predict simulated or actual clinical performance. To ensure patient safety, it is imperative to determine how to best promote and measure critical thinking skills. Few studies have examined how these skills are related to…

  7. The Effect of 3D Visual Simulator on Children’s Visual Acuity - A Pilot Study Comparing Two Different Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Mariko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Miyao, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate the efficacy of two non-surgical interventions of vision improvement in children. Methods : A prospective, randomized, pilot study to compare fogging method and the use of head mounted 3D display. Subjects were children, between 5 to 15 years old, with normal best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and up to -3D myopia. Subjects played a video game as near point work, and received one of the two methods of treatments. Measurements of uncorrected far visual acuity (UCVA), refraction with autorefractometer, and subjective accommodative amplitude were taken 3 times, at the baseline, after the near work, and after the treatment. Results : Both methods applied after near work, improved UCVA. Head mounted 3D display group showed significant improvement in UCVA and resulted in better UCVA than baseline. Fogging group showed improvement in subjective accommodative amplitude. While 3D display group did not show change in the refraction, fogging group’s myopic refraction showed significant increase indicating the eyes showed myopic change of eyes after near work and treatment. Discussion : Despite our lack of clear knowledge in the mechanisms, both methods improved UCVA after the treatments. The improvement in UCVA was not correlated to measured refraction values. Conclusion : UCVA after near work can be improved by repeating near and distant accommodation by fogging and 3D image viewing, although at the different degrees. Further investigation on mechanisms of improvements and their clinical significance are warranted. PMID:24222810

  8. Piloted evaluation of an integrated propulsion and flight control simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bright, Michelle M.; Simon, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    A piloted evaluation of the integrated flight and propulsion control simulator for advanced integrated propulsion and airframe control design is described. The evaluation will cover control effector gains and deadbands, control effectiveness and control authority, and heads up display functionality. For this evaluation the flight simulator is configured for transition flight using an advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing fighter aircraft model, a simplified high-bypass turbofan engine model, fighter cockpit displays, and pilot effectors. The piloted tasks used for rating displays and control effector gains are described. Pilot comments and simulation results confirm that the display symbology and control gains are very adequate for the transition flight task. Additionally, it is demonstrated that this small-scale, fixed base flight simulator facility can adequately perform a real time, piloted control evaluation.

  9. End User Comparison of Anatomically Matched 3-Dimensional Printed and Virtual Haptic Temporal Bone Simulation: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Jordan Brent; Rhodes, Charlotte; Kraut, Jay; Pisa, Justyn; Unger, Bertram

    2015-08-01

    Simulation has assumed a prominent role in education. It is important to explore the effectiveness of different modalities. In this article, we directly compare surgical resident impression of 2 distinct temporal bone simulations (physical and haptic). Research Ethics Board-approved prospective cohort study. A haptic voxel-based virtual model (VM) and a physical 3-dimensional printed temporal bone model (PBM) were developed. Participants rated each construct on a number of parameters and performed a direct comparison of the simulations using a survey instrument that employed a 7-point Likert scale and rank lists. Ten otolaryngology residents dissected anatomically identical, matched physical and virtual models. Data for both simulations originated from 10 unique cadaveric micro-computed tomography images. Subjects rated the PBM drill quality as being more similar to cadaveric temporal bone than the VM (cortical bone mean: 5.5 vs 3.2, P = .011; trabecular bone mean: 5.2 vs 2.8, P = .004) and with better air cell system representation (mean: 5.4 vs 4.5, P = .003). Subjects strongly agreed that both simulations are effective educational tools, but they rated the PBM higher (mean: 6.7 vs 5.4, P = .019). Notably, subjects agreed that both modalities should be integrated into training, but they were more favorably inclined toward the PBM (mean: 7.0 vs 5.5, P = .002). In direct comparison, the PBM was the preferred simulation in 7 of 9 educational domains. Appraisal of a PBM and a VM found both to have perceived educational benefit. However, the PBM was considered to have more realistic physical properties and was considered the preferred training instrument. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  10. Occupational exposures to emissions from combustion of diesel and alternative fuels in underground mining--a simulated pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Eric A; Reed, Rustin J; Lee, Vivien S T; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2015-01-01

    Diesel fuel is commonly used for underground mining equipment, yet diesel engine exhaust is a known human carcinogen. Alternative fuels, including biodiesel, and a natural gas/diesel blend, offer the potential to reduce engine emissions and associated health effects. For this pilot study, exposure monitoring was performed in an underground mine during operation of a load-haul-dump vehicle. Use of low-sulfur diesel, 75% biodiesel/25% diesel blend (B75), and natural gas/diesel blend (GD) fuels were compared. Personal samples were collected for total and respirable diesel particulate matter (tDPM and rDPM, respectively) and total and respirable elemental and organic carbon (tEC, rEC, tOC, rOC, respectively), as well as carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, naphthalene, nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Compared to diesel, B75 use was associated with a 33% reduction in rDPM, reductions in rEC, tEC, and naphthalene, increased tDPM, tOC, and NO, and no change in rOC, CO, and NO2. Compared to diesel, GD was associated with a 66% reduction in rDPM and a reduction in all other exposures except CO. The alternative fuels tested both resulted in reduced rDPM, which is the basis for the current Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) occupational exposure standard. Although additional study is needed with a wider variety of equipment, use of alternative fuels have the promise of reducing exposures from vehicular exhaust in underground mining settings.

  11. Using a Simulated Infobutton Linked to an Evidence-Based Resource to Research Drug-Drug Interactions: A Pilot Study with Third-Year Dental Students.

    PubMed

    Dragan, Irina F; Newman, Michael; Stark, Paul; Steffensen, Bjorn; Karimbux, Nadeem

    2015-11-01

    Many health professions students and clinicians are using evidence-based databases that allow for quicker and more accurate clinical decisions. The aims of this pilot study were to compare third-year dental students' speed and accuracy in researching questions about drug-drug interactions (DDI) when using two different methods: a simulated infobutton linked to the evidence-based clinical decision support resource UpToDate versus traditional Internet resources accessed through a computer or smart device. Students researched two simulated cases during two sessions. In the first session, half the students used the infobutton, while the other half used traditional electronic tools only. In the second session, ten days later, a cross-over took place. The sessions were timed, and after researching the case, students answered three questions on the use of antibiotics, analgesics, and local anesthetics. Of the 50 students who volunteered for the study, two were excluded, and 44 participated in both sessions and the exam. The results showed that the students took a similar amount of time to identify DDI whether they used the infobutton (mean=286.5 seconds) or traditional tools (265.2 seconds); the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.429). Their scores using the two research methods were similar in all three content areas: antibiotics (p=0.797), analgesics (p=0.850), and local anesthetics (p=0.850). In a post-intervention survey, students were generally favorable about infobutton and UpToDate, reporting the tool was easy to use (62.5%), provided the answer they were looking for (53.1%), was fast (50%), and they would use it again (68.8%). This pilot study found that the time and accuracy of these students conducting DDI research with the infobutton and UpToDate were about the same as using traditional Internet resources.

  12. A soil vapor extraction pilot study in a deep arid vadose zone Part 2: simulations in support of decision making processes

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, P.H.; Hopkins, J.K.; Anderson, T.

    2007-07-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a vital tool for remediating subsurface volatile organic plumes at waste sites with deep unsaturated zones. Plumes in the vadose zone are affected by many factors including vapor advection and diffusion, liquid movement, and source release processes. Leakage from buried drums may occur at different rates over the lifetime of a waste site, requiring modeling tools that can adequately address uncertain future scenarios. To demonstrate this concept, we present a numerical model of an SVE pilot test on a volatile organic compound (VOC) plume in the subsurface at Material Disposal Area L, Los Alamos National Laboratory. A site-scale numerical model was previously developed to evaluate the impact of subsurface processes on subsurface contaminants associated with waste disposed at the site. One important goal of model development is to support future corrective measures assessment activities. The model has been extensively tested and used to confirm our conceptual model for transport within the very dry mesa-top setting. In this study we present results of simulations of the SVE test. A 2-D radial model is used to test our conceptual model of flow and transport at this site. The 2-D model is calibrated to the SVE pilot test concentration and pressure data using field measured values for in situ permeability, porosity, saturation and site specific details such as asphalt coverage. A dual porosity formulation, including both matrix and fracture nodes, is necessary to fit the test data. Fracture flow at this site is necessary because the data show large drops in concentration from wells around the extraction hole that cannot be modeled as flow through a high porosity matrix. Matrix transport via diffusion into lower permeability storage provides a source term source that can replicate concentration rebound spike seen in data from the extraction borehole and other nearby boreholes. Simulations having matrix only are shown to fit the data at

  13. A pilot study on the Chinese Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 in detecting feigned mental disorders: Simulators classified by using the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Ting; Tam, Wai-Cheong C; Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chiang, Shih-Kuang

    2017-09-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) is often used in forensic psychological/psychiatric assessment. This was a pilot study on the utility of the Chinese MMPI-2 in detecting feigned mental disorders. The sample consisted of 194 university students who were either simulators (informed or uninformed) or controls. All the participants were administered the Chinese MMPI-2 and the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms-2 (SIRS-2). The results of the SIRS-2 were utilized to classify the participants into the feigning or control groups. The effectiveness of eight detection indices was investigated by using item analysis, multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results indicated that informed-simulating participants with prior knowledge of mental disorders did not perform better in avoiding feigning detection than uninformed-simulating participants. In addition, the eight detection indices of the Chinese MMPI-2 were effective in discriminating participants in the feigning and control groups, and the best cut-off scores of three of the indices were higher than those obtained from the studies using the English MMPI-2. Thus, in this sample of university students, the utility of the Chinese MMPI-2 in detecting feigned mental disorders was tentatively supported, and the Chinese Infrequency Scale (ICH), a scale developed specifically for the Chinese MMPI-2, was also supported as a valid scale for validity checking. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. An unembalmed cadaveric preparation for simulating pleural effusion: A pilot study of chest percussion involving medical students.

    PubMed

    Cook, Mark S; Kernahan, Peter J

    2017-03-01

    Cadaveric simulations are an effective way to add clinical context to an anatomy course. In this study, unembalmed (fresh) cadavers were uniquely prepared to simulate pleural effusion to teach chest percussion and review thoracic anatomy. Thirty first-year medical students were assigned to either an intervention (Group A) or control group (Group B). Group A received hands-on training with the cadaveric simulations. They were instructed on how to palpate bony landmarks for identifying the diaphragm and lobes of the lungs, as well as on how to properly perform chest percussion to detect abnormal fluid in the pleural space. Students in Group B practiced on each other. Students in Group A benefited from the training in several ways. They had more confidence in their percussive technique (A = mean 4.3/5.0, B = 2.9/5.0), ability to count the ribs on an intact body (A = mean 4.0/5.0, B = 3.0/5.0), and ability to identify the lobes of the lungs on an intact body (A = mean 3.8/5.0, B = 2.3/5.0). They also demonstrated a greater ability to locate the diaphragm on an intact body (A = 100%, B = 60%) and detect abnormal pleural fluid (A = 93%, B = 53%) with greater confidence (A = mean 3.7/5.0, B = 2.5/5.0). Finally, the hands-on training with the unembalmed cadavers created more excitement around learning in Group A compared with Group B. This study shows that simulating pleural effusion in an unembalmed cadaver is a useful way to enhance anatomy education. Anat Sci Educ 10: 160-169. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Centrifuge Study of Pilot Tolerance to Acceleration and the Effects of Acceleration on Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creer, Brent Y.; Smedal, Harald A.; Wingrove, Rodney C.

    1960-01-01

    A research program the general objective of which was to measure the effects of various sustained accelerations on the control performance of pilots, was carried out on the Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory centrifuge, U.S. Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, PA. The experimental setup consisted of a flight simulator with the centrifuge in the control loop. The pilot performed his control tasks while being subjected to acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a forward-facing pilot flying an atmosphere entry vehicle. The study was divided into three phases. In one phase of the program, the pilots were subjected to a variety of sustained linear acceleration forces while controlling vehicles with several different sets of longitudinal dynamics. Here, a randomly moving target was displayed to the pilot on a cathode-ray tube. For each combination of acceleration field and vehicle dynamics, pilot tracking accuracy was measured and pilot opinion of the stability and control characteristics was recorded. Thus, information was obtained on the combined effects of complexity of control task and magnitude and direction of acceleration forces on pilot performance. These tests showed that the pilot's tracking performance deteriorated markedly at accelerations greater than about 4g when controlling a lightly damped vehicle. The tentative conclusion was also reached that regardless of the airframe dynamics involved, the pilot feels that in order to have the same level of control over the vehicle, an increase in the vehicle dynamic stability was required with increases in the magnitudes of the acceleration impressed upon the pilot. In another phase, boundaries of human tolerance of acceleration were established for acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a pilot flying an orbital vehicle. A special pilot restraint system was developed to increase human tolerance to longitudinal decelerations. The results of the tests showed that human tolerance

  16. Pilot study: evaluation of the use of the convergent interview technique in understanding the perception of surgical design and simulation.

    PubMed

    Logan, Heather; Wolfaardt, Johan; Boulanger, Pierre; Hodgetts, Bill; Seikaly, Hadi

    2013-06-19

    It is important to understand the perceived value of surgical design and simulation (SDS) amongst surgeons, as this will influence its implementation in clinical settings. The purpose of the present study was to examine the application of the convergent interview technique in the field of surgical design and simulation and evaluate whether the technique would uncover new perceptions of virtual surgical planning (VSP) and medical models not discovered by other qualitative case-based techniques. Five surgeons were asked to participate in the study. Each participant was interviewed following the convergent interview technique. After each interview, the interviewer interpreted the information by seeking agreements and disagreements among the interviewees in order to understand the key concepts in the field of SDS. Fifteen important issues were extracted from the convergent interviews. In general, the convergent interview was an effective technique in collecting information about the perception of clinicians. The study identified three areas where the technique could be improved upon for future studies in the SDS field.

  17. Pilot study: evaluation of the use of the convergent interview technique in understanding the perception of surgical design and simulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is important to understand the perceived value of surgical design and simulation (SDS) amongst surgeons, as this will influence its implementation in clinical settings. The purpose of the present study was to examine the application of the convergent interview technique in the field of surgical design and simulation and evaluate whether the technique would uncover new perceptions of virtual surgical planning (VSP) and medical models not discovered by other qualitative case-based techniques. Methods Five surgeons were asked to participate in the study. Each participant was interviewed following the convergent interview technique. After each interview, the interviewer interpreted the information by seeking agreements and disagreements among the interviewees in order to understand the key concepts in the field of SDS. Results Fifteen important issues were extracted from the convergent interviews. Conclusion In general, the convergent interview was an effective technique in collecting information about the perception of clinicians. The study identified three areas where the technique could be improved upon for future studies in the SDS field. PMID:23782771

  18. An Interprofessional Learning Workshop for Mammography and Sonography Students Focusing on Breast Cancer Care and Management Via Simulation: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Giles, Eileen M; Parange, Nayana; Knight, Bronwyn

    2017-08-01

    The literature surrounding interprofessional education claims that students who learn with, from, and about one another in well-designed interprofessional programs will practice together collaboratively upon graduation, given the skills to do so. The objective of this study was to examine attitudes to interprofessional practice before and after an interprofessional learning (IPL) activity. A total of 35 postgraduate medical imaging students attended a week-long mammography workshop. The sessions provided a range of didactic sessions related to diagnosis and management of breast cancer. An IPL session was incorporated on completion of the workshop to consolidate learning. Props and authentic resources were used to increase the fidelity of the simulation. Participants completed pre- and post-workshop questionnaires comprising an interprofessional education and collaboration scale and a quiz to gauge knowledge of specific content related to professional roles. Responses to each statement in the scale and quiz score, pre or post workshop, were compared, whereas responses to open-ended questions in post-workshop survey were thematically analyzed. Seventeen paired surveys were received. There was a significant total improvement of 10.66% (P = .036). After simulation, there was a statistically significant improvement in participants' understanding (P < .05) that IPL offers holistic care to the patient and that teamwork is useful for reducing errors in patient care. Simulation helped participants develop more awareness of their role within the profession, improve their understanding of other professionals, and gain more realistic expectations of team members. This pilot study confirmed learning within an IPL simulation improved attitudes toward shared learning, teamwork, and communication. Simulation provides opportunities for learning in a safe environment, and technology can be used in diverse ways to provide authentic learning. Copyright © 2017 The Association

  19. Modeling human pilot cue utilization with applications to simulator fidelity assessment.

    PubMed

    Zeyada, Y; Hess, R A

    2000-01-01

    An analytical investigation to model the manner in which pilots perceive and utilize visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular cues in a ground-based flight simulator was undertaken. Data from a NASA Ames Research Center vertical motion simulator study of a simple, single-degree-of-freedom rotorcraft bob-up/down maneuver were employed in the investigation. The study was part of a larger research effort that has the creation of a methodology for determining flight simulator fidelity requirements as its ultimate goal. The study utilized a closed-loop feedback structure of the pilot/simulator system that included the pilot, the cockpit inceptor, the dynamics of the simulated vehicle, and the motion system. With the exception of time delays that accrued in visual scene production in the simulator, visual scene effects were not included in this study. Pilot/vehicle analysis and fuzzy-inference identification were employed to study the changes in fidelity that occurred as the characteristics of the motion system were varied over five configurations. The data from three of the five pilots who participated in the experimental study were analyzed in the fuzzy-inference identification. Results indicate that both the analytical pilot/vehicle analysis and the fuzzy-inference identification can be used to identify changes in simulator fidelity for the task examined.

  20. [Obstetrical ultrasound simulator as a tool for improving teaching strategies for beginners: Pilot study and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Chalouhi, G E; Quibel, T; Lamourdedieu, C; Hajal, N J; Gueneuc, A; Benzina, N; Bernardi, V; Ville, Y

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the obstetrical ultrasound simulator as an initiation tool for teaching obstetrical ultrasound scanning for beginners. Twenty medical students with no experience in ultrasound scan (US) received a basic theoretical ultrasonography course on US principles and 2nd trimester biometrical measurements. The participants were then divided into 2 groups (A, B). Only group A received a practical 2nd trimester scan training session on the simulator where they were asked to determine fetal and placental position, and to take the 3 biometrical standardized measurements. Group B had the same training session but with a real ultrasound machine and a pregnant volunteer. The 2 groups were then asked to perform an US session on real patients (22 weeks) during which they had to do the same US study. The time needed to complete the whole scan was analyzed. The quality of the measurements was compared based on the previously published Objective Quality Criteria scoring. The mean total score was significantly (P=0.001) better for group A (14.3±1.4) compared to group B 10.3 (±2.75) for group A and B respectively. The time needed to accomplish the whole exam tended to be longer for group A (569±174s) compared to group A (479±104s) (P=0.18). The simulator might be a useful initiation tool to obstetric ultrasound for those who never practiced. It might prove a time sparing procedure in the training process and allow trainees to reach a basic practice level before performing examinations on actual patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Airline pilot scan patterns during simulated ILS approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, A. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A series of instrument landing system approaches were conducted using seven airline-rated Boeing 737 pilots in a Federal Aviation Administration qualified simulator. The test matrix included both manual and coupled approaches with and without atmospheric turbulence in Category II visibility conditions. A nonintrusive oculometer system was used to track the pilot eye-point-of-regard throughout the approach. The results indicate that, in general, the pilots use different scan techniques for the manual and coupled conditions and that the introduction of atmospheric turbulence does not greatly affect the scan behavior in either case. The pilots consistently ranked the instruments in terms of most used to least used. The ranking obtained from the oculometer data agrees with the pilot ranking for the flight director and airspeed, the most important instruments. However, the pilots apparently ranked the other instruments in terms of their concern for information rather than according to their actual scanning behavior.

  2. Management of Maternal Cardiac Arrest in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy: A Simulation-Based Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jacquelyn; Cepeda Brito, Jose R.; Baker, Lauren; Hughes, Patrick G.; Gothard, M. David; Davis, Jocelyn; Silber, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate confidence, knowledge, and competence after a simulation-based curriculum on maternal cardiac arrest in an Obstetrics & Gynecologic (OBGYN) residency program. Methods. Four simulations with structured debriefing focusing on high yield causes and management of maternal cardiac arrest were executed. Pre- and post-individual knowledge tests (KT) and confidence surveys (CS) were collected along with group scores of critical performance steps evaluated by content experts for the first and final simulations. Results. Significant differences were noted in individual KT scores (pre: 58.9 ± 8.9 versus post: 72.8 ± 6.1, p = 0.01) and CS total scores (pre: 22.2 ± 6.4 versus post: 29.9 ± 3.4, p = 0.007). Significant differences were noted in airway management, p = 0.008; appropriate cycles of drug/shock-CPR, p = 0.008; left uterine displacement, p = 0.008; and identifying causes of cardiac arrest, p = 0.008. Nonsignificant differences were noted for administration of appropriate drugs/doses, p = 0.074; chest compressions, p = 0.074; bag-mask ventilation before intubation, p = 0.074; and return of spontaneous circulation identification, p = 0.074. Groups remained noncompetent in team leader tasks and considering therapeutic hypothermia. Conclusion. This study demonstrated improved OBGYN resident knowledge, confidence, and competence in the management of third trimester maternal cardiac arrest. Several skills, however, will likely require more longitudinal curricular exposure and training to develop and maintain proficiency. PMID:27555967

  3. Management of Maternal Cardiac Arrest in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy: A Simulation-Based Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jacquelyn; Cepeda Brito, Jose R; Baker, Lauren; Hughes, Patrick G; Gothard, M David; McCarroll, Michele L; Davis, Jocelyn; Silber, Angela; Ahmed, Rami A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate confidence, knowledge, and competence after a simulation-based curriculum on maternal cardiac arrest in an Obstetrics & Gynecologic (OBGYN) residency program. Methods. Four simulations with structured debriefing focusing on high yield causes and management of maternal cardiac arrest were executed. Pre- and post-individual knowledge tests (KT) and confidence surveys (CS) were collected along with group scores of critical performance steps evaluated by content experts for the first and final simulations. Results. Significant differences were noted in individual KT scores (pre: 58.9 ± 8.9 versus post: 72.8 ± 6.1, p = 0.01) and CS total scores (pre: 22.2 ± 6.4 versus post: 29.9 ± 3.4, p = 0.007). Significant differences were noted in airway management, p = 0.008; appropriate cycles of drug/shock-CPR, p = 0.008; left uterine displacement, p = 0.008; and identifying causes of cardiac arrest, p = 0.008. Nonsignificant differences were noted for administration of appropriate drugs/doses, p = 0.074; chest compressions, p = 0.074; bag-mask ventilation before intubation, p = 0.074; and return of spontaneous circulation identification, p = 0.074. Groups remained noncompetent in team leader tasks and considering therapeutic hypothermia. Conclusion. This study demonstrated improved OBGYN resident knowledge, confidence, and competence in the management of third trimester maternal cardiac arrest. Several skills, however, will likely require more longitudinal curricular exposure and training to develop and maintain proficiency.

  4. The Results of a Simulator Study to Determine the Effects on Pilot Performance of Two Different Motion Cueing Algorithms and Various Delays, Compensated and Uncompensated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Li-Wen; Cardullo, Frank M.; Telban, Robert J.; Houck, Jacob A.; Kelly, Lon C.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted employing the Visual Motion Simulator (VMS) at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. This study compared two motion cueing algorithms, the NASA adaptive algorithm and a new optimal control based algorithm. Also, the study included the effects of transport delays and the compensation thereof. The delay compensation algorithm employed is one developed by Richard McFarland at NASA Ames Research Center. This paper reports on the analyses of the results of analyzing the experimental data collected from preliminary simulation tests. This series of tests was conducted to evaluate the protocols and the methodology of data analysis in preparation for more comprehensive tests which will be conducted during the spring of 2003. Therefore only three pilots were used. Nevertheless some useful results were obtained. The experimental conditions involved three maneuvers; a straight-in approach with a rotating wind vector, an offset approach with turbulence and gust, and a takeoff with and without an engine failure shortly after liftoff. For each of the maneuvers the two motion conditions were combined with four delay conditions (0, 50, 100 & 200ms), with and without compensation.

  5. Intubation after rapid sequence induction performed by non-medical personnel during space exploration missions: a simulation pilot study in a Mars analogue environment.

    PubMed

    Komorowski, Matthieu; Fleming, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The question of the safety of anaesthetic procedures performed by non anaesthetists or even by non physicians has long been debated. We explore here this question in the hypothetical context of an exploration mission to Mars. During future interplanetary space missions, the risk of medical conditions requiring surgery and anaesthetic techniques will be significant. On Earth, anaesthesia is generally performed by well accustomed personnel. During exploration missions, onboard medical expertise might be lacking, or the crew doctor could become ill or injured. Telemedical assistance will not be available. In these conditions and as a last resort, personnel with limited medical training may have to perform lifesaving procedures, which could include anaesthesia and surgery. The objective of this pilot study was to test the ability for unassisted personnel with no medical training to perform oro-tracheal intubation after a rapid sequence induction on a simulated deconditioned astronaut in a Mars analogue environment. The experiment made use of a hybrid simulation model, in which the injured astronaut was represented by a torso manikin, whose vital signs and hemodynamic status were emulated using a patient simulator software. Only assisted by an interactive computer tool (PowerPoint(®) presentation), five participants with no previous medical training completed a simplified induction of general anaesthesia with intubation. No major complication occurred during the simulated trials, namely no cardiac arrest, no hypoxia, no cardiovascular collapse and no failure to intubate. The study design was able to reproduce many of the constraints of a space exploration mission. Unassisted personnel with minimal medical training and familiarization with the equipment may be able to perform advanced medical care in a safe and efficient manner. Further studies integrating this protocol into a complete anaesthetic and surgical scenario will provide valuable input in designing health

  6. Simulated Conversations With Virtual Humans to Improve Patient-Provider Communication and Reduce Unnecessary Prescriptions for Antibiotics: A Repeated Measure Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite clear evidence that antibiotics do not cure viral infections, the problem of unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics in ambulatory care persists, and in some cases, prescribing patterns have increased. The overuse of antibiotics for treating viral infections has created numerous economic and clinical consequences including increased medical costs due to unnecessary hospitalizations, antibiotic resistance, disruption of gut bacteria, and obesity. Recent research has underscored the importance of collaborative patient-provider communication as a means to reduce the high rates of unnecessary prescriptions for antibiotics. However, most patients and providers do not feel prepared to engage in such challenging conversations. Objectives The aim of this pilot study was to assess the ability of a brief 15-min simulated role-play conversation with virtual humans to serve as a preliminary step to help health care providers and patients practice, and learn how to engage in effective conversations about antibiotics overuse. Methods A total of 69 participants (35 providers and 34 patients) completed the simulation once in one sitting. A pre-post repeated measures design was used to assess changes in patients’ and providers’ self-reported communication behaviors, activation, and preparedness, intention, and confidence to effectively communicate in the patient-provider encounter. Changes in patients’ knowledge and beliefs regarding antibiotic use were also evaluated. Results Patients experienced a short-term positive improvement in beliefs about appropriate antibiotic use for infection (F1,30=14.10, P=.001). Knowledge scores regarding the correct uses of antibiotics improved immediately postsimulation, but decreased at the 1-month follow-up (F1,30=31.16, P<.001). There was no change in patient activation and shared decision-making (SDM) scores in the total sample of patients (P>.10) Patients with lower levels of activation exhibited positive, short

  7. The Utility of the Swine Model to Assess Biological Rhythms and Their Characteristics during Different Stages of Residence in a Simulated Intensive Care Unit: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Leyden, Katrina N.; Hanneman, Sandra K.; Padhye, Nikhil S.; Smolensky, Michael H.; Kang, Duck-Hee; Chow, Diana Shu-Lian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the utility of the mammalian swine model under simulated intensive care unit (sICU) conditions and mechanical ventilation for assessment of the trajectory of circadian rhythms of sedation requirement, core body temperature (CBT), pulmonary mechanics (PM), and gas exchange (GE). Data were collected prospectively with an observational time-series design to describe and compare circadian rhythms of selected study variables in four swine mechanically ventilated for up to 7 consecutive days. We derived the circadian (total variance explained by rhythms of τ between 20–28 h)/ultradian (total variance explained by rhythms of τ between 1 to <20 h) bandpower ratio to assess the robustness of circadian rhythms, and compare findings between the early (first 3 days) and late (subsequent days) sICU stay. All pigs exhibited statistically significant circadian rhythms (τ between 20–28 h) in CBT, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation, but circadian rhythms were detected less frequently for sedation requirement, spontaneous minute volume, arterial oxygen tension, arterial carbon dioxide tension, and arterial pH. Sedation did not appear to mask the circadian rhythms of CBT, PM, and GE. Individual subject observations were more informative than group data, and provided preliminary evidence that (a) circadian rhythms of multiple variables are lost or desynchronized in mechanically ventilated subjects, (b) robustness of circadian rhythm varies with subject morbidity, and (c) healthier pigs develop more robust circadian rhythm profiles over time in the sICU. Comparison of biological rhythm profiles among sICU subjects with similar severity of illness is needed to determine if the results of this pilot study are reproducible. Identification of consistent patterns may provide insight into subject morbidity and timing of such therapeutic interventions as weaning from mechanical ventilation. PMID:26204131

  8. A study evaluating if targeted training for startle effect can improve pilot reactions in handling unexpected situations in a flight simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Michael William

    Recent airline accidents point to a crew's failure to make correct and timely decisions following a sudden and unusual event that startled the crew. This study sought to determine if targeted training could augment decision making during a startle event. Following a startle event cognitive function is impaired for a short duration of time (30-90 seconds). In aviation, critical decisions are often required to be made during this brief, but critical, time frame. A total of 40 volunteer crews (80 individual pilots) were solicited from a global U.S. passenger airline. Crews were briefed that they would fly a profile in the simulator but were not made aware of what the profile would entail. The study participants were asked to complete a survey on their background and flying preferences. Every other crew received training on how to handle a startle event. The training consisted of a briefing and simulator practice. Crew members (subjects) were either presented a low altitude or high altitude scenario to fly in a full-flight simulator. The maneuver scenarios were analyzed using a series of one-way ANOVAs, t-tests and regression for the main effect of training on crew performance. The data indicated that the trained crews flew the maneuver profiles significantly better than the untrained crews and significantly better than the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Airline Transport Pilot (ATP) standards. Each scenario's sub factors were analyzed using regression to examine for specific predictors of performance. The results indicate that in the case of the high altitude profile, problem diagnosis was a significant factor, in the low altitude profile, time management was also a significant factor. These predicators can be useful in further targeting training. The study's findings suggest that targeted training can help crews manage a startle event, leading to a potential reduction of inflight loss of control accidents. The training was broad and intended to cover an

  9. Conducting pilot and feasibility studies.

    PubMed

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-03-01

    Planning a well-designed research study can be tedious and laborious work. However, this process is critical and ultimately can produce valid, reliable study findings. Designing a large-scale randomized, controlled trial (RCT)-the gold standard in quantitative research-can be even more challenging. Even the most well-planned study potentially can result in issues with research procedures and design, such as recruitment, retention, or methodology. One strategy that may facilitate sound study design is the completion of a pilot or feasibility study prior to the initiation of a larger-scale trial. This article will discuss pilot and feasibility studies, their advantages and disadvantages, and implications for oncology nursing research. 
.

  10. Framework for planning and conducting pilot studies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lisa Janette; Harrison, Margaret B

    2009-12-01

    Researchers working with partners in home care to plan a pragmatic multicenter community-based, randomized, controlled trial for leg ulcer compression treatment realized a smaller pilot study would be necessary. Because no framework for conducting pilot studies could be found, the authors developed a framework for pilot study methodology to inform the planning of such research. To this end, an integrative literature review was conducted, guided by an explicit search strategy, retrieval procedures, and appraisal process, to identify recognized pilot study aims, processes, and methodologies used in previously reported community pilot studies. Factors influencing study inclusion were recognized pilot study aims and purposes and a concise working definition of pilot study. Methodologies used in previously conducted community pilot studies were reviewed. Although relevant published research was limited, 11 pilot studies met the inclusion criteria for this review and contained suggestions to further develop or improve plans for larger definitive trials to enable a better fit of protocols within the delivery systems and scopes of practice. Pilot research processes could be divided into two stages: early planning and pilot trial. Direction for procedures and methods was gained relative to planning for an effective pilot study regarding eligibility, recruitment and data collection, management, and analysis. The results were used to develop an organizing framework for the authors' pilot study and named the Pilot Research Process (PReP) Framework. The process was instrumental in working with the authors' research team and clinical partners in the planning of their leg ulcer treatment pilot study. This framework may provide a foundation for others to analyze or develop a pilot study methodology in planning a large-scale study.

  11. A program for assessing pilot mental state in flight simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, A. T.; Bowles, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A program to apply proposed measures of pilot mental state in the simulator flight deck environment has been undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center. Literature survey identified a promising subset of methods for assessing workload, attention and vigilance, and task-related stress, and revealed a need for improved analytical techniques in the physiological area. An effort to apply functional modelling techniques has been initiated. A psychophysiological laboratory has been designed for simulator application. The program is designed to develop improved techniques for evaluating simulator cue fidelity and for imposing realistic workload and attentional demands on the simulator pilot.

  12. Nicotine deprivation and pilot performance during simulated flight.

    PubMed

    Mumenthaler, Martin S; Benowitz, Neal L; Taylor, Joy L; Friedman, Leah; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome A

    2010-07-01

    Most airlines enforce no-smoking policies, potentially causing flight performance decrements in pilots who are smokers. We tested the hypotheses that nicotine withdrawal affects aircraft pilot performance within 12 h of smoking cessation and that chewing nicotine gum leads to significant relief of these withdrawal effects. There were 29 pilots, regular smokers, who were tested in a Frasca 141 flight simulator on two 13-h test days, each including three 75-min flights (0 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr) in a randomized, controlled trial. On the first day (baseline), all pilots smoked one cigarette per hour. On the second day, pilots were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (1) nicotine cigarettes; (2) nicotine gum; (3) placebo gum; (4) no cigarettes/no gum. Flight Summary Scores (FSS) were compared between groups with repeated measures ANOVAs. No statistically significant differences in overall simulator flight performance were revealed between pilots who smoked cigarettes and pilots who were not allowed to smoke cigarettes or chew nicotine gum, but there was a trend for pilots who were not allowed to smoke to perform worse. However, pilots who chewed placebo gum performed significantly worse during the 6-h (FSS = -0.03) as well as during the 12-h flight (FSS = -0.08) than pilots who chewed nicotine gum (FSS = 0.15 / 0.30, respectively). Results suggest that nicotine withdrawal effects can impair aircraft pilot performance within 12 h of smoking cessation and that during smoking abstinence chewing one stick of 4-mg nicotine gum per hour may lead to significantly better overall flight performance compared to chewing placebo gum.

  13. Measurement of human pilot dynamic characteristics in flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, James T.

    1987-01-01

    Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Least Square Error (LSE) estimation techniques were applied to the problem of identifying pilot-vehicle dynamic characteristics in flight simulation. A brief investigation of the effects of noise, input bandwidth and system delay upon the FFT and LSE techniques was undertaken using synthetic data. Data from a piloted simulation conducted at NASA Ames Research Center was then analyzed. The simulation was performed in the NASA Ames Research Center Variable Stability CH-47B helicopter operating in fixed-basis simulator mode. The piloting task consisted of maintaining the simulated vehicle over a moving hover pad whose motion was described by a random-appearing sum of sinusoids. The two test subjects used a head-down, color cathode ray tube (CRT) display for guidance and control information. Test configurations differed in the number of axes being controlled by the pilot (longitudinal only versus longitudinal and lateral), and in the presence or absence of an important display indicator called an 'acceleration ball'. A number of different pilot-vehicle transfer functions were measured, and where appropriate, qualitatively compared with theoretical pilot- vehicle models. Some indirect evidence suggesting pursuit behavior on the part of the test subjects is discussed.

  14. A simulation evaluation of a pilot interface with an automatic terminal approach system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The pilot-machine interface with cockpit automation is a critical factor in achieving the benefits of automation and reducing pilot blunders. To improve this interface, an automatic terminal approach system (ATAS) was conceived that can automatically fly a published instrument approach by using stored instrument approach data to automatically tune airplane radios and control an airplane autopilot and autothrottle. The emphasis in the ATAS concept is a reduction in pilot blunders and work load by improving the pilot-automation interface. A research prototype of an ATAS was developed and installed in the Langley General Aviation Simulator. A piloted simulation study of the ATAS concept showed fewer pilot blunders, but no significant change in work load, when compared with a baseline heading-select autopilot mode. With the baseline autopilot, pilot blunders tended to involve loss of navigational situational awareness or instrument misinterpretation. With the ATAS, pilot blunders tended to involve a lack of awareness of the current ATAS mode state or deficiencies in the pilots' mental model of how the system operated. The ATAS display provided adequate approach status data to maintain situational awareness.

  15. Use of the Learning Curve-Cumulative Summation Test for Leopold Maneuvers Assessment in a Simulator: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Díez-Goñi, Nieves; Guillén, Sergio; Rodríguez-Díez, María C; Pineda, Laura; Alcázar, Juan L

    2015-10-01

    Simulation enables medical students to practice clinical skills in a safe environment. Graduates in medicine must be able to correctly perform an examination on a pregnant woman using Leopold maneuvers. Learning curves-cumulative summation (LC-CUSUM) may help determine when the student has achieved a specific skill. Our objective was to perform the LC-CUSUM test regarding the ability of students to correctly carry out Leopold maneuvers; a pregnancy simulator was used, transferring the results to a clinical setting. Five medical students were trained to carry out Leopold maneuvers using the simulator. Each student performed maneuvers for 50 cases of different fetus positions; a LC-CUSUM was plotted for each student. Afterward, the students performed the Leopold maneuvers on 5 pregnant women. Of the 5 students, 3 achieved a level of proficiency; the attempts needed for reaching this level were 13, 13, and 37, respectively. The other 2 students did not reach proficiency level. Of the students who became successfully proficient with the simulator, one of them attained a 100% success rate in pregnant patients, whereas the other two had success rates of 80%. The students who did not achieve a level of competency with the simulator had only a 60% success rate with patients. Because of the differences observed between students in the number of attempts needed for achieving proficiency in Leopold maneuvers, we believe that each student should build his/her own learning curve. Achieving competency in carrying out Leopold maneuvers using the simulator could be transferable to patients.

  16. An Experimental Study of the Effect of Out-of-the-Window Cues on Training Novice Pilots on a Flight Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia; Heath, Bruce; Ali, Syed F.; Ward, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    The effects of out-of-the-window cues on learning a straight-in landing approach and a level 360deg turn by novice pilots on a flight simulator have been investigated. The treatments consisted of training with and without visual cues as well as density of visual cues. The performance of the participants was then evaluated through similar but more challenging tasks. It was observed that the participants in the landing study who trained with visual cues performed poorly than those who trained without the cues. However the performance of those who trained with a faded-cues sequence performed slightly better than those who trained without visual cues. In the level turn study it was observed that those who trained with the visual cues performed better than those who trained without visual cues. The study also showed that those participants who trained with a lower density of cues performed better than those who trained with a higher density of visual cues.

  17. The marriage of surgical simulation and telementoring for damage-control surgical training of operational first responders: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Tien, Homer; LaPorta, Anthony T.; Lavell, Kit; Keillor, Jocelyn; Wright Beatty, Heather E.; McKee, Jessica Lynn; Brien, Susan; Roberts, Derek J.; Wong, Jonathan; Ball, Chad G.; Beckett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable posttraumatic death. Many such deaths may be potentially salvageable with remote damage-control surgical interventions. As recent innovations in information technology enable remote specialist support to point-of-care providers, advanced interventions, such as remote damage-control surgery, may be possible in remote settings. METHODS An anatomically realistic perfused surgical training mannequin with intrinsic fluid loss measurements (the “Cut Suit”) was used to study perihepatic packing with massive liver hemorrhage. The primary outcome was loss of simulated blood (water) during six stages, namely, incision, retraction, direction, identification, packing, and postpacking. Six fully credentialed surgeons performed the same task as 12 military medical technicians who were randomized to remotely telementored (RTM) (n = 7) or unmentored (UTM) (n=5) real-time guidance by a trauma surgeon. RESULTS There were no significant differences in fluid loss between the surgeons and the UTM group or between the UTM and RTM groups. However, when comparing the RTM group with the surgeons, there was significantly more total fluid loss (p = 0.001) and greater loss during the identification (p = 0.002), retraction (p = 0.035), direction (p = 0.014), and packing(p = 0.022) stages. There were no significant differences in fluid loss after packing between the groups despite differences in the number of sponges used; RTM group used more sponges than the surgeons and significantly more than the UTM group (p = 0.048). However, mentoring significantly increased self-assessed nonsurgeon procedural confidence (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION Perihepatic packing of an exsanguinating liver hemorrhage model was readily performed by military medical technicians after a focused briefing. While real-time telementoring did not improve fluid loss, it significantly increased nonsurgeon procedural confidence, which may augment the feasibility of the

  18. Salivary protein changes in response to acute stress in medical residents performing advanced clinical simulations: a pilot proteomics study.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Rachel K; Saepoo, Muncharie B; Ye, Simiao; White, Donald B; Liu, Rong; Hensley, Kenneth; Rega, Paul; Kazan, Viviane; Giovannucci, David R; Isailovic, Dragan

    Quantitative changes of salivary proteins due to acute stress were detected. To explore protein markers of stress in saliva of eight medical residents who performed emergency medicine simulations. Saliva was collected before the simulations, after the simulations, and following morning upon waking. Proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), identified by mass spectrometry (MS), and relatively quantified by densitometry. Salivary alpha-amylase and S-type cystatins significantly increased, while the ∼26 kDa and low-molecular weight (MW) (<10 kDa) SDS-PAGE bands exhibited changes after stress. Alpha-amylase and cystatins are potential salivary markers of acute stress, but further validation should be performed using larger sample populations.

  19. Transfer Readiness Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Skillman, Thelma; And Others

    The California Community Colleges (CCC) has implemented a prototype model for determining student transfer readiness as a primary means of assessing community college transfer effectiveness. This report provides definitions of transfer readiness and guidelines for colleges participating in the CCC transfer readiness study. First, a memorandum from…

  20. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  1. Piloted simulation of a ground-based time-control concept for air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Green, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    A joint simulation was carried out using a piloted simulator and an advanced-concept air traffic control simulation to study the acceptability and accuracy of the ground-based four-dimensional descent advisor (DA), an automation aid based on accurate models of aircraft performance and weather conditions. In the piloted simulation, airline crews executed controller-issued descent advisories along standard curved-path arrival routes and were able to achieve an arrival-time precision of plus or minus 20 s at the metering fix. An analysis of errors generated in turns resulted in a further enhancement of the DA algorithm.

  2. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  3. The influence of a novel simulated learning environment upon student clinical subjective refraction performance: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Woodman-Pieterse, Emily C; De Souza, Neilsen J; Vincent, Stephen J

    2016-07-01

    Optometry students are taught the process of subjective refraction through lectures and laboratory-based practicals before progressing to supervised clinical practice. Simulated leaning environments (SLEs) form part of an emerging technology used in a range of health disciplines; however, there is limited evidence regarding the effectiveness of clinical simulators as educational tools. Forty optometry students (20 fourth year and 20 fifth year) were assessed twice by a qualified optometrist (two examinations separated by four to eight weeks), while completing a monocular non-cycloplegic subjective refraction on the same patient with an unknown refractive error, simulated using contact lenses. Half of the students were granted access to an online simulated learning environment, The Brien Holden Vision Institute (BHVI) Virtual Refractor, and the remaining students formed a control group. The primary outcome measures at each visit were; accuracy of the clinical refraction compared to a qualified optometrist and relative to the Optometry Council of Australia and New Zealand (OCANZ) subjective refraction examination criteria. Secondary measures of interest included descriptors of student SLE engagement, student self-reported confidence levels and correlations between performance in the simulated and real-world clinical environment. Eighty per cent of students in the intervention group interacted with the simulated learning environment (for an average of 100 minutes); however, there was no correlation between measures of student engagement with the BHVI Virtual Refractor and speed or accuracy of clinical subjective refractions. Fifth year students were typically more confident and refracted more accurately and more quickly than fourth year students. A year group by experimental group interaction (p = 0.03) was observed for accuracy of the spherical component of refraction and post hoc analysis revealed that less experienced students exhibited greater gains in

  4. The validation of an instrumented simulator for the assessment of performance and outcome of knot tying skill: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rojas, David; Cristancho, Sayra; Rueda, Claudia; Grierson, Lawrence; Monclou, Alex; Dubrowski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The construct validity of a surgical bench-top simulator with built-in computer acquired assessments was examined. It features two parallel elastic tubes instrumented with flexion sensors that simulate the walls of a wound. Participants from three groups (9 novices, 7 intermediates, 9 experts) performed 10 two-handed, double square knots. The peak tensions at the initiation of the first knot, the completion of the first knot and the completion of the second knot, as well as measures of movement economy indicated technical performance. Product quality was indicated by knot stability defined as the amount of slippage of the knot under the tension. There were significant differences between experts and novices for peak tension on first knot (p=.03), movement economy (p=.02), and knot stability (p=.002). The results support the construct validity of these objective measures.

  5. Certification Study of a Derivative Model of a Small Jet Transport Airplane Using a Piloted Research Simulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    in rudder effectiveness at maximum deflection can also cause variability in the results. Validation of Mode l 75A minimum con~i’oZ speed determination...data showed valid results in critical test cases, such as the demonstration of static longitudinal stability and minimum control speed , with...Simulation controls through the National Technical Information Flying qualities Airworthiness Service, Springfield , Virginia 22161. Minimum Control Speed

  6. Historical Review of Piloted Simulation at NASA Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Seth B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper traces the conception and development of in-flight and ground based simulators at NASA Ames Research Center, starting in 1947 and continuing to the early 1990's. Problems with their development and operation and how limitations were handled are recounted. Advances needed in simulator equipment to improve performance and fidelity to gain pilot acceptance are discussed. The uses of these simulators in various aircraft research and development programs and their importance to aircraft design and flight testing are reviewed. Challenges remaining include a better understanding of the tradeoff between motion cues and visual cues, the importance of simulation sophistication when examining aircraft with marginal handling qualities characteristics, and the continuing need for upgrading simulation technology as more complex problems are encountered. Additional research is needed to understand the human behavior aspect in the pilot/simulator system.

  7. Effect of hospital simulation tutorials on nursing and pharmacy student perception of interprofessional collaboration: Findings from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stehlik, Paulina; Frotjold, Astrid; Schneider, Carl R

    2017-09-18

    Interprofessional learning (IPL) during formal training enables interprofessional collaboration (IPC) in the workforce; however, on-campus IPL opportunities are seldom incorporated into curricula. We describe the development and implementation of two hospital simulation tutorials between nursing and pharmacy students. Students were required to provide "usual care" to a simulated patient at admission and discharge. A pre-post survey design was used to evaluate changes in Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) score and student perceived educational value of the tutorials. The tutorials had a positive effect on IEPS scores (p < 0.001), whereas gender and profession did not appear to influence scores (p = 0.082 and p = 0.923, respectively). Tutorials were rated either good or very good by 89.9% of students and 79.6% of students reporting new insights into the other profession This tutorial format could be easily adapted by other institutions as an engaging and rewarding strategy to better prepare students for IPC the workforce.

  8. A study of airline pilot morbidity.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Adrian J; Larsen, Peter D; Griffiths, Robin F; Aldington, Sarah

    2012-10-01

    It has long been believed that airline pilots are healthier than the general population. There are a number of reasons why this should be the case. However, there is very little evidence to support this belief as fact. This study investigates the health of the pilot population of an Oceanic based airline compared to the health of the general population. Pilots who conducted their medical certificate renewal at the airline's medical unit between 1 November 2009 and 31 October 2010 were included. A medical questionnaire was completed by each pilot at the time of their medical certificate renewal. Data from the questionnaire was entered into a database as well as the pilot's BMI, blood pressure, lipid profile, and blood glucose level. The comparison population was the population who completed the New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS) between 2006-2007. Demographic, lifestyle characteristics, and health status data from the pilots was compared to the NZHS using a Chi-squared test. Included in the study were 595 pilots. With respect to most medical conditions, pilots had a lower prevalence when compared to the general population. Pilots had a higher prevalence of kidney disease (3.3% vs 0.6%) and melanoma skin cancer (19 per 1000 vs 0.4 per 1000). This study suggests that pilots in New Zealand are healthier than the general population with respect to most medical conditions. The two medical conditions that were identified as being overrepresented in pilots may be the result of the occupational environment.

  9. CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF INFLAMMATION BIOMARKERS DURING SIMULATED CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS USING A MICROFLUIDIC IMMUNOASSAY DEVICE – A PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Sasso, Lawrence A.; Aran, Kiana; Guan, Yulong; Ündar, Akif; Zahn, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    This work demonstrates the use of a continuous online monitoring system for tracking systemic inflammation biomarkers during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures. The ability to monitor inflammation biomarkers during CPB will allow surgical teams to actively treat inflammation and reduce harmful effects on postoperative morbidity and mortality, enabling improved patient outcomes. A microfluidic device has been designed which allows automation of the individual processing steps of a microbead immunoassay to allow continuous tracking of antigen concentrations. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated that the results produced by the micro-immunoassay are comparable to results produced from a standard ELISA (r=0.98). Additionally, integration of the assay with a simulated CPB circuit has been demonstrated with temporal tracking of C3a concentrations within blood continuously sampled from the circuit. The presented work describes the motivation, design challenges, and preliminary experimental results of this project. PMID:23305589

  10. Simulated driving performance of combat veterans with mild tramatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Classen, Sherrilene; Levy, Charles; Meyer, Dustin L; Bewernitz, Megan; Lanford, Desiree N; Mann, William C

    2011-01-01

    We determined differences in driving errors between combat veterans with mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy control participants. We compared 18 postdeployed combat veterans with 20 control participants on drivingerrors in a driving simulator. Combat veterans were more likely to be male; were younger; and had more racial diversity, less formal education, and lower cognitive scores than control participants. Control participants made more signaling errors (t [19] = -2.138, p = .046, SE = 0.395), but combat veterans made more overspeeding (t [17.3] = 4.095, p = .001, SE = 0.708) and adjustment-to-stimuli (t [17] = 2.380, p = .029, SE = 0.140) errors. Young age was related to overspeeding. Combat veterans made more critical driving errors than did control participants. Such errors made on the road may lead to crashes or injuries. Although limited in generalizability, these findings provide early support for developing safe driving interventions for combat veterans.

  11. Investigating pilot performance using mixed-modality simulated data link.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Jeff A; Casali, John G

    2008-04-01

    General aviation (GA) pilot performance utilizing a mixed-modality simulated data link was objectively evaluated based on the time required in accessing, understanding, and executing data link commands. Additional subjective data were gathered on workload, situation awareness (SA), and preference. Research exploring mixed-modality data link integration to the single-pilot GA cockpit is lacking, especially with respect to potential effects on safety. Sixteen visual flight rules (VFR)-rated pilots participated in an experiment using a flight simulator equipped with a mixed-modality data link. Data link modalities were text display, synthesized speech, digitized speech, and synthesized speech/text combination. Flight conditions included VFR (unlimited ceiling and visibility) or marginal VFR flight conditions (clouds 2,800 ft above ground level, 3-mile visibility). Statistically significant differences were found in pilot performance, mental workload, and SA across the data link modalities. Textual data link resulted in increased time and workload as compared with the three speech-type data link conditions, which did not differ. SA measures indicated higher performance with textual and digitized speech data link conditions. Textual data link can be significantly enhanced for single-pilot GA operations by the addition of a speech component. Potential applications include operational safety in future GA systems that incorporate data link for use by a single pilot and guidance in the development of flight performance objectives for these systems.

  12. Experiments in pilot decision-making during simulated low visibility approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, R. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Billings, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    A simulation task is reported which incorporates both kinds of variables, informational and psychological, to successfully study pilot decision making behavior in the laboratory. Preliminary experiments in the measurement of decisions and the inducement of stress in simulated low visibility approaches are described.

  13. Helicopter pilot back pain: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, D F; Reading, T E

    1984-02-01

    Because of the high prevalence of back pain experienced by U.S. Army helicopter pilots, a study was conducted to ascertain the feasibility of reproducing these symptoms in the laboratory. A mock-up of a UH-1H seat and control configuration was mounted to a multi-axis vibration simulator (MAVS). Eleven subjects were tested on the apparatus for two 120-min periods. During one period, the MAVS was programmed to reproduce vibrations recorded from a UH-1H in cruise flight. The subjects received no vibration during the other test period. All subjects reported back pain which they described as identical to the pain they experience during flight, during one or more of their test periods. There was no statistical difference between the vibration and nonvibration test conditions (p greater than 0.05) in terms of time of onset of pain or intensity of pain as measured by a visual analog scale. It appears the vibration at the frequencies and amplitudes tested plays little or no role in the etiology of the back symptoms reported by these pilots. It is proposed that the primary etiological factor for these symptoms is the poor posture pilots are obliged to assume for extended periods while operating helicopters.

  14. A Piloted Simulator Evaluation of Transport Aircraft Rudder Pedal Force/Feel Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    A piloted simulation study has been conducted in a fixed-base research simulator to assess the directional handling qualities for various rudder pedal feel characteristics for commercial transport airplanes. That is, the effects of static pedal force at maximum pedal travel, breakout force, and maximum pedal travel on handling qualities were studied. An artificial maneuver with a severe lateral wind shear and requiring runway tracking at an altitude of 50 feet in a crosswind was used to fully exercise the rudder pedals. Twelve active airline pilots voluntarily participated in the study and flew approximately 500 maneuvers. The pilots rated the maneuver performance with various rudder pedal feel characteristics using the Cooper- Harper rating scale. The test matrix had 15 unique combinations of the 3 static pedal feel characteristics. A 10-term, second-order equation for the Cooper-Harper pilot rating as a function of the 3 independent pedal feel parameters was fit to the data. The test matrix utilized a Central Composite Design that is very efficient for fitting an equation of this form. The equation was used to produce contour plots of constant pilot ratings as a function of two of the parameters with the third parameter held constant. These contour plots showed regions of good handling qualities as well as regions of degraded handling qualities. In addition, a numerical equation solver was used to predict the optimum parameter values (those with the lowest pilot rating). Quantitative pilot performance data were also analyzed. This analysis found that the peak values of the cross power spectra of the pedal force and heading angle could be used to quantify the tendency toward directional pilot induced oscillations (PIO). Larger peak values of the cross power spectra were correlated with larger (degraded) Cooper-Harper pilot ratings. Thus, the subjective data (Cooper-Harper pilot ratings) were consistent with the objective data (peak values of the cross power

  15. Simulators for corporate pilot training and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treichel, Curt

    1992-01-01

    Corporate aviation relies heavily on simulation to meet training and evaluation requirements. It appreciates the savings in fuel, money, noise, and time, and the added safety it provides. Also, simulation provides opportunities to experience many emergencies that cannot be safely practiced in the aircraft. There is a need to focus on the advantages of simulator training over aircraft training and to provide appropriate changes in the regulations to allow the community to make it possible for users to take full advantage of simulation.

  16. Piloted simulation of a ground-based time-control concept for air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Green, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    A concept for aiding air traffic controllers in efficiently spacing traffic and meeting scheduled arrival times at a metering fix was developed and tested in a real time simulation. The automation aid, referred to as the ground based 4-D descent advisor (DA), is based on accurate models of aircraft performance and weather conditions. The DA generates suggested clearances, including both top-of-descent-point and speed-profile data, for one or more aircraft in order to achieve specific time or distance separation objectives. The DA algorithm is used by the air traffic controller to resolve conflicts and issue advisories to arrival aircraft. A joint simulation was conducted using a piloted simulator and an advanced concept air traffic control simulation to study the acceptability and accuracy of the DA automation aid from both the pilot's and the air traffic controller's perspectives. The results of the piloted simulation are examined. In the piloted simulation, airline crews executed controller issued descent advisories along standard curved path arrival routes, and were able to achieve an arrival time precision of + or - 20 sec at the metering fix. An analysis of errors generated in turns resulted in further enhancements of the algorithm to improve the predictive accuracy. Evaluations by pilots indicate general support for the concept and provide specific recommendations for improvement.

  17. Investigating pilot performance using mixed-modality simulated data link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Jeff A.

    Empirical studies of general aviation (GA) pilot performance are lacking, especially with respect to envisioned future requirements. Two research studies were conducted to evaluate human performance using new technologies. In the first study, ten participants completed the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) in an effort to compare the intelligibility of two text-to-speech (TTS) engines (DECtalk and AT&T's Natural Voices) as presented in 85 dB(A) aircraft cockpit engine noise. Results indicated significant differences in intelligibility (p ≤ 0.05) between the two speech synthesizers across the tested speech-to-noise ratios (S/N) (i.e., -5 dB, -8 dB, and -11 dB S/N) with the AT&T engine resulting in superior intelligibility in all of the S/N. The AT&T product was therefore selected as the TTS engine for the second study. In the second study, 16 visual flight rules (VFR) rated pilots were evaluated for their data link performance using a flight simulator (ELITE i-GATE) equipped with a mixed-modality simulated data link within one of two flight conditions. Data link modalities included textual, synthesized speech, digitized speech, and synthesized speech/textual combination. Flight conditions included VFR (unlimited ceiling, visibility) or marginal VFR (MVFR) flight conditions (clouds 2800 feet above ground level [AGL], three miles visibility). Evaluation focused on the time required accessing, understanding, and executing data link commands. Additional data were gathered to evaluate workload, situation awareness, and subjective preference. Results indicated significant differences in pilot performance, mental workload, and situation awareness across the data link modalities and between flight conditions. Textual data link resulted in decreased performance while the other three data link conditions did not differ in performance. Workload evaluation indicated increased workload in the textual data link condition. Situation awareness (SA) measures indicated differences in

  18. 90% Compliance Pilot Studies Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    In early 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced an opportunity for states to participate in energy code compliance evaluation pilot studies. DOE worked with five Regional Energy Efficiency Organizations (REEOs, formerly referred to as Energy Efficiency Partnerships, or EEPs) to fund pilot studies covering nine states. This report details conclusions stated in individual state reports, as well as conclusions drawn by DOE based on their oversight of the pilot studies, and based on discussions held with the REEOs and representatives from the pilot study states and their contractors.

  19. A Simulator Study of the Effectiveness of a Pilot's Indicator which Combined Angle of Attack and Rate of Change of Total Pressure as Applied to the Take-Off Rotation and Climbout of a Supersonic Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Albert W.; Harris, Jack E.

    1961-01-01

    A simulator study has been made to determine the effectiveness of a single instrument presentation as an aid to the pilot in controlling both rotation and climbout path in take-off. The instrument was basically an angle-of-attack indicator, biased with a total-pressure-rate input as a means of suppressing the phugoid oscillation. Linearized six-degree-of-freedom equations of motion were utilized in simulating a hypothetical supersonic transport as the test vehicle. Each of several experienced pilots performed a number of simulated take-offs, using conventional flight instruments and either an angle-of-attack instrument or the combined angle-of-attack and total-pressure-rate instrument. The pilots were able to rotate the airplane, with satisfactory precision, to the 15 deg. angle of attack required for lift-off when using either an angle-of-attack instrument or the instrument which combined total-pressure-rate with angle of attack. At least 4 to 6 second-S appeared to be required for rotation to prevent overshoot, particularly with the latter instrument. The flight paths resulting from take-offs with simulated engine failures were relatively smooth and repeatable within a reasonably narrow band when the combined angle-of-attack and total-pressure-rate instrument presentation was used. Some of the flight paths resulting from take-offs with the same engine-failure conditions were very oscillatory when conventional instruments and an angle-of-attack instrument were used. The pilots considered the combined angle-of-attack and total- pressure-rate instrument a very effective aid. Even though they could, with sufficient practice, perform satisfactory climbouts after simulated engine failure by monitoring the conventional instruments and making correction based on their readings, it was much easier to maintain a smooth flight path with the single combined angle-of-attack and total-pressure-rate instrument.

  20. Utilizing Human Patient Simulators (HPS) to Meet Learning Objectives across Concurrent Core Nursing Courses: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Charman L.; Leadingham, Camille; Vance, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) faculty are challenged by the monumental responsibility of preparing students to function as safe, professional nurses in a two year course of study. Advances in computer technology and emphasis on integrating technology and active learning strategies into existing course structures have prompted many nurse educators…

  1. Utilizing Human Patient Simulators (HPS) to Meet Learning Objectives across Concurrent Core Nursing Courses: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Charman L.; Leadingham, Camille; Vance, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) faculty are challenged by the monumental responsibility of preparing students to function as safe, professional nurses in a two year course of study. Advances in computer technology and emphasis on integrating technology and active learning strategies into existing course structures have prompted many nurse educators…

  2. The effect of aircraft control forces on pilot performance during instrument landings in a flight simulator.

    PubMed

    Hewson, D J; McNair, P J; Marshall, R N

    2001-07-01

    Pilots may have difficulty controlling aircraft at both high and low force levels due to larger variability in force production at these force levels. The aim of this study was to measure the force variability and landing performance of pilots during an instrument landing in a flight simulator. There were 12 pilots who were tested while performing 5 instrument landings in a flight simulator, each of which required different control force inputs. Pilots can produce the least force when pushing the control column to the right, therefore the force levels for the landings were set relative to each pilot's maximum aileron-right force. The force levels for the landings were 90%, 60%, and 30% of maximal aileron-right force, normal force, and 25% of normal force. Variables recorded included electromyographic activity (EMG), aircraft control forces, aircraft attitude, perceived exertion and deviation from glide slope and heading. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to test for differences between landings. Pilots were least accurate in landing performance during the landing at 90% of maximal force (p < 0.05). There was also a trend toward decreased landing performance during the landing at 25% of normal force. Pilots were more variable in force production during the landings at 60% and 90% of maximal force (p < 0.05). Pilots are less accurate at performing instrument landings when control forces are high due to the increased variability of force production. The increase in variability at high force levels is most likely associated with motor unit recruitment, rather than rate coding. Aircraft designers need to consider the reduction in pilot performance at high force levels, as well as pilot strength limits when specifying new standards.

  3. Classroom acoustics: Three pilot studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaldino, Joseph J.

    2005-04-01

    This paper summarizes three related pilot projects designed to focus on the possible effects of classroom acoustics on fine auditory discrimination as it relates to language acquisition, especially English as a second language. The first study investigated the influence of improving the signal-to-noise ratio on the differentiation of English phonemes. The results showed better differentiation with better signal-to-noise ratio. The second studied speech perception in noise by young adults for whom English was a second language. The outcome indicated that the second language learners required a better signal-to-noise ratio to perform equally to the native language participants. The last study surveyed the acoustic conditions of preschool and day care classrooms, wherein first and second language learning occurs. The survey suggested an unfavorable acoustic environment for language learning.

  4. Adolescent Project Pilot for an Outcome Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louden, Jenifer H.; Kamara, Sheku G.

    This report describes a 7-week pilot study conducted to estimate probable participation rates for a planned substance abuse treatment outcomes study. The pilot program tested whether acceptable response rates might be obtained by contacting clients whose records had been examined by an earlier study (retrospective) or by contacting current clients…

  5. Stress and Simulation in Pilot Training. Final Report, May 1977 Through December 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahenbuhl, Gary S.; And Others

    Research was conducted on pilot stress during simulated emergency flight conditions. Catecholamine (adrenaline and non-adrenaline) secretion for twenty United States Air Force student pilots and thirteen instructor pilots was determined during daily activities, during simulated flights performed in high realism simulators, and during actual…

  6. The use of total simulator training in transitioning air-carrier pilots: A field evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J., Jr.; Tanner, T. A.; Hamerman, J. A.; Showalter, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    A field study was conducted in which the performance of air carrier transitioning pilots who had landing training in a landing maneuver approved simulator was compared with the performance of pilots who had landing training in the aircraft. Forty-eight trainees transitioning to the B-727 aircraft and eighty-seven trainees transitioning to the DC-10 were included in the study. The study results in terms of both objectively measured performance indicants and observer and check-pilot ratings did not demonstrate a clear distinction between the two training groups. The results suggest that, for these highly skilled transitioning pilots, a separate training module in the aircraft may be of dubious value.

  7. Kinesthetic control simulator. [for pilot training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, P. R.; Thomas, D. F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A kinesthetic control simulator is reported that has a flat base upon which rests a support structure having a lower spherical surface for rotation on the base plate with columns which support a platform above the support structure at a desired location with respect to the center of curvature of the spherical surface. A handrail is at approximately the elevation of the hips of the operator above the platform with a ring attached to the support structure which may be used to limit the angle of tilt. Five degree freedom-of-motion can be obtained by utilizing an air pad structure for support of the control simulator.

  8. Simulator evaluation of a remotely piloted vehicle lateral landing task using a visual display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrafian, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    A simulator evaluation of a remotely piloted research vehicle was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility to determine the utility of a visual display when studying the influence of changes in the lateral-stick gearing gains during landing approaches. The test vehicle used in this study was a highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) aircraft, which is a 0.44-scale version of an envisioned small, single-seat fighter airplane. Handling qualities ratings and comments obtained from pilots using a simulated visual display of a runway scene and a simulated instrument landing system (ILS) display were compared with the results of actual flight tests. The visual display was found to provide an adequate representation of the test vehicle in a visual landing approach, and it improved the roll response cues provided to the pilot. The handling qualities ratings and comments for flight and simulation visual landing approaches correlated well. The ILS simulation results showed reduced correlation compared with the flight results for ILS approaches. Handling qualities criteria for remotely piloted research vehicles are also discussed in this paper.

  9. Analog Simulation of a Pilot-Controlled Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissenden, Roy F.; Burton, Bert B.; Foudriat, Edwin C.; Whitten, James B.

    1961-01-01

    The rendezvous of a pilot-controlled space ferry vehicle with an orbiting space station was simulated in six degrees of freedom. A fixed-base simulator and an analog computer were used. The ferry vehicle was assumed to have a single main thrusting rocket and to be provided with attitude control. Control of the thrust was provided by a rocket throttle quadrant which could provide either proportional or on-off control. The attitude of the vehicle was controlled during the rendezvous with a two-axis, pencil-type side-arm controller and rudder pedals. For the most part rendezvous maneuvers were made with the target satellite in a circular orbit. In addition, an elliptical station orbit was investigated. Tolerable initial conditions, as well as adequate data presentations, were determined. Results of the investigation indicate that a human pilot can rendezvous successfully with the vehicle and instrumentation considered over a wide band of initial conditions. Coplanar conditions are not necessary. Retro-rocket fuel used is not greatly increased by imposing perturbing influences such as rocket-misalignment torques on the rendezvous vehicle. When excessive attitude-control torques are required to maintain the necessary trim attitudes under misalignment influences, the reaction fuel used for this control increases. The time required for a specific rendezvous varies somewhat between pilots. If control of the time for completing the rendezvous is desired, requirements for retrorocket fuel are affected, and an energy-management schedule is required. Continuous variation of the thrust is not necessary. The pilot positions the throttle to obtain a desired level of thrust, and applies bursts of thrust as required. All data were presented on dialed instruments. The quantities required are range and range rate and line-of-sight rates between the vehicle and the station, vehicle attitudes and angular rates, and the angles subtended by the line of sight. For the equipment assumed

  10. Piloted Evaluation of a UH-60 Mixer Equivalent Turbulence Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lusardi, Jeff A.; Blanken, Chris L.; Tischeler, Mark B.

    2002-01-01

    A simulation study of a recently developed hover/low speed Mixer Equivalent Turbulence Simulation (METS) model for the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter was conducted in the NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS). The experiment was a continuation of previous work to develop a simple, but validated, turbulence model for hovering rotorcraft. To validate the METS model, two experienced test pilots replicated precision hover tasks that had been conducted in an instrumented UH-60 helicopter in turbulence. Objective simulation data were collected for comparison with flight test data, and subjective data were collected that included handling qualities ratings and pilot comments for increasing levels of turbulence. Analyses of the simulation results show good analytic agreement between the METS model and flight test data, with favorable pilot perception of the simulated turbulence. Precision hover tasks were also repeated using the more complex rotating-frame SORBET (Simulation Of Rotor Blade Element Turbulence) model to generate turbulence. Comparisons of the empirically derived METS model with the theoretical SORBET model show good agreement providing validation of the more complex blade element method of simulating turbulence.

  11. From the flight deck to the operating room: an initial pilot study of the feasibility and potential impact of true interdisciplinary team training using high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Paige, John; Kozmenko, Valeriy; Morgan, Barbara; Howell, D Shannon; Chauvin, Sheila; Hilton, Charles; Cohn, Isidore; O'Leary, J Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The operating room is a dynamic environment in which proper teamwork is essential. After piloting a simulation-based interdisciplinary operative team training program, we examined the impact of these sessions on the participants. Three interdisciplinary operating room teams participated in the training model. Each team of 3 or 4 members completed the training in a virtual minimally invasive operating room using a standardized operative scenario. Upon completion of the training, participants completed a voluntary and anonymous training effectiveness questionnaire. All 10 participants completed the training evaluation questionnaires. Across the 3 teams, all participants felt that the training was worthwhile and would participate again. Eight participants said that the session would change their practices in the operating room. All participants felt that the session was effective in promoting team communication skills and crisis-related teamwork. Nine of the 10 felt that the training model was effective in recognizing operating room errors. Implementing true interdisciplinary team training with a high-fidelity simulation can be accomplished effectively. Team training has the potential for facilitating positive behavioral changes in operating room personnel that are important for adaptive team function in a crisis situation.

  12. Human in the Loop Simulation Measures of Pilot Response Delay in a Self-Separation Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Wilson, Sara R.; Sturdy, James; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Wing, David J.

    2010-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation experiment was conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to assess airline transport pilots performance and reported acceptance of the use of procedures relying on airborne separation assistance and trajectory management tools. This study was part of a larger effort involving two NASA centers that includes multiple HITL experiments planned over the next few years to evaluate the use of automated separation assurance (SA) tools by both air traffic controllers and pilots. This paper presents results of measured pilot response delay that subject pilots incurred when interacting with cockpit tools for SA and discusses possible implications for future concept and procedures design.

  13. Flight management research utilizing an oculometer. [pilot scanning behavior during simulated approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, A. A., Jr.; Kurbjun, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the flight management work being conducted using NASA Langley's oculometer system. Tests have been conducted in a Boeing 737 simulator to investigate pilot scan behavior during approach and landing for simulated IFR, VFR, motion versus no motion, standard versus advanced displays, and as a function of various runway patterns and symbology. Results of each of these studies are discussed. For example, results indicate that for the IFR approaches a difference in pilot scan strategy was noted for the manual versus coupled (autopilot) conditions. Also, during the final part of the approach when the pilot looks out-of-the-window he fixates on his aim or impact point on the runway and holds this point until flare initiation.

  14. Piloted Flight Simulator Developed for Icing Effects Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to expand pilot training methods to avoid icing-related accidents, the NASA Glenn Research Center and Bihrle Applied Research Inc. have developed the Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD). ICEFTD simulates the flight characteristics of the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft in a no-ice baseline and in two ice configurations simulating ice-protection-system failures. Key features of the training device are the force feedback in the yoke, the instrument panel and out-the-window graphics, the instructor s workstation, and the portability of the unit.

  15. Identification of multiloop pilot describing functions obtained from simulated approaches to an aircraft carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewell, W. F.

    1981-01-01

    Predicted results of a simulation of the pilot's approach control strategy in the presence of pilot remnant are presented. The aircraft dynamics and the turbulence environment are representative of a trainer-type aircraft. The non-intrusive pilot identification program (NIPIP) was used to identify the pilot's control strategy required by this highly-coupled, multiloop control task. The results are presented in terms of frequency responses of the individual elements of the pilot's control strategy and indicate that NIPIP can identify the pilot's describing functions even in the presence of significant amounts of pilot remnant.

  16. Motion-Based Piloted Simulation Evaluation of a Control Allocation Technique to Recover from Pilot Induced Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craun, Robert W.; Acosta, Diana M.; Beard, Steven D.; Leonard, Michael W.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Weinstein, Michael; Yildiz, Yildiray

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the maturation of a control allocation technique designed to assist pilots in the recovery from pilot induced oscillations (PIOs). The Control Allocation technique to recover from Pilot Induced Oscillations (CAPIO) is designed to enable next generation high efficiency aircraft designs. Energy efficient next generation aircraft require feedback control strategies that will enable lowering the actuator rate limit requirements for optimal airframe design. One of the common issues flying with actuator rate limits is PIOs caused by the phase lag between the pilot inputs and control surface response. CAPIO utilizes real-time optimization for control allocation to eliminate phase lag in the system caused by control surface rate limiting. System impacts of the control allocator were assessed through a piloted simulation evaluation of a non-linear aircraft simulation in the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator. Results indicate that CAPIO helps reduce oscillatory behavior, including the severity and duration of PIOs, introduced by control surface rate limiting.

  17. BIMOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  18. BIMOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  19. Aircraft control forces and EMG activity: comparison of novice and experienced pilots during simulated take-off and landing.

    PubMed

    Hewson, D J; McNair, P J; Marshall, R N

    1999-08-01

    Flying an aircraft requires a considerable degree of coordination, particularly during activities such as takeoff and landing. No studies have examined the magnitude and phasing of muscle activity required to fly an aircraft. The aim of this study was to examine the muscle activation patterns and control forces of novice and experienced pilots during simulated flight. Twelve experienced and nine novice pilots were tested on an Aermacchi flight simulator while performing a randomized set of take-off and landing maneuvers. Four different runaway trim settings were used to increase the difficulty of the landings (elevator-up, elevator-down, aileron-left, and aileron-right). Variables recorded included aircraft attitude, pilot applied forces, and electromyographic (EMG) activity. Discriminant function analysis was used to distinguish between novice and experienced pilots. Across all landings, wrist flexors and wrist extensors were the predominant muscles used, with EMG activity consistently around 20-30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). In respect to differences in EMG activity between novice and experienced pilots, novices had significantly more activity in wrist extensors during all landings. In contrast, experienced pilots had consistently more vastus lateralis activity for all landings than did novice pilots. Over all landings and take-off, 89.5% of pilots were correctly classified as novice or experienced. When the maneuvers were analyzed individually, normal, elevator-down, and aileron-left landings were the most accurate maneuvers for pilot prediction. EMG and force variables were more important than aircraft attitude in discriminating between novice and experienced pilots (83%, 79%, and 65%, respectively). The consistency of the finding that EMG activity and control forces are accurate discriminators of pilot experience is indicative of underlying differences in neuromuscular control strategies between novice and experienced pilots.

  20. Spatiotemporal Dynamic Simulation of Acute Perfusion/Diffusion Ischemic Stroke Lesions Evolution: A Pilot Study Derived from Longitudinal MR Patient Data

    PubMed Central

    Rekik, Islem; Allassonnière, Stéphanie; Durrleman, Stanley; Carpenter, Trevor; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal evolution of stroke lesions, from acute injury to final tissue damage, is complex. Diffusion-weighted (DWI) and perfusion-weighted (PWI) imaging is commonly used to detect early ischemic changes and attempts to distinguish between permanently damaged and salvageable tissues. To date, 2D and 3D measures of diffusion/perfusion regions at individual timepoints have been widely used but may underestimate the true lesion spatio-temporal dynamics. Currently there is no spatio-temporal 4D dynamic model that simulates the continuous evolution of ischemic stroke from MR images. We determined whether a 4D current-based diffeomorphic model, developed in the field of statistical modeling for measuring the variability of anatomical surfaces, could estimate patient-specific spatio-temporal continuous evolution for MR PWI (measured as mean transit time, (MTT)) and DWI lesions. In our representative pilot sample, the model fitted the data well. Our dynamic analysis of lesion evolution showed different patterns; for example, some DWI/PWI dynamic changes corresponded with DWI lesion expansion into PWI lesions, but other patterns were much more complex and diverse. There was wide variation in the time when the final tissue damage was reached after stroke for DWI and MTT. PMID:23853669

  1. Psychophysiological Assessment in Pilots Performing Challenging Simulated and Real Flight Maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Bernd; Rothe, Stefanie; Gens, André; Westphal, Soeren; Birkenfeld, Katja; Mulder, Edwin; Rittweger, Jörn; Ledderhos, Carla

    2017-09-01

    The objective assessment of psychophysiological arousal during challenging flight maneuvers is of great interest to aerospace medicine, but remains a challenging task. In the study presented here, a vector-methodological approach was used which integrates different psychophysiological variables, yielding an integral arousal index called the Psychophysiological Arousal Value (PAV). The arousal levels of 15 male pilots were assessed during predetermined, well-defined flight maneuvers performed under simulated and real flight conditions. The physiological data, as expected, revealed inter- and intra-individual differences for the various measurement conditions. As indicated by the PAV, air-to-air refueling (AAR) turned out to be the most challenging task. In general, arousal levels were comparable between simulator and real flight conditions. However, a distinct difference was observed when the pilots were divided by instructors into two groups based on their proficiency in AAR with AWACS (AAR-Novices vs. AAR-Professionals). AAR-Novices had on average more than 2000 flight hours on other aircrafts. They showed higher arousal reactions to AAR in real flight (contact: PAV score 8.4 ± 0.37) than under simulator conditions (7.1 ± 0.30), whereas AAR-Professionals did not (8.5 ± 0.46 vs. 8.8 ± 0.80). The psychophysiological arousal value assessment was tested in field measurements, yielding quantifiable arousal differences between proficiency groups of pilots during simulated and real flight conditions. The method used in this study allows an evaluation of the psychophysiological cost during a certain flying performance and thus is possibly a valuable tool for objectively evaluating the actual skill status of pilots.Johannes B, Rothe S, Gens A, Westphal S, Birkenfeld K, Mulder E, Rittweger J, Ledderhos C. Psychophysiological assessment in pilots performing challenging simulated and real flight maneuvers. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(9):834-840.

  2. A Low Cost Simulation System to Demonstrate Pilot Induced Oscillation Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Syed Firasat

    1997-01-01

    A flight simulation system with graphics and software on Silicon Graphics computer workstations has been installed in the Flight Vehicle Design Laboratory at Tuskegee University. The system has F-15E flight simulation software from NASA Dryden which uses the graphics of SGI flight simulation demos. On the system, thus installed, a study of pilot induced oscillations is planned for future work. Preliminary research is conducted by obtaining two sets of straight level flights with pilot in the loop. In one set of flights no additional delay is used between the stick input and the appearance of airplane response on the computer monitor. In another set of flights, a 500 ms additional delay is used. The flight data is analyzed to find cross correlations between deflections of control surfaces and response of the airplane. The pilot dynamics features depicted from cross correlations of straight level flights are discussed in this report. The correlations presented here will serve as reference material for the corresponding correlations in a future study of pitch attitude tracking tasks involving pilot induced oscillations.

  3. Pilot Biofeedback Training in the Cognitive Awareness Training Study (CATS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uenking, M.

    2000-01-01

    One of the ongoing problems that pilots face today is a diminished state of awareness such as boredom, sleepiness, or fatigue during cruise conditions that could result in various pilot errors. This study utilized a cognitive training exercise to sharpen the pilot's awareness during simulated flight thereby providing them with a means to overcome these diminished states of awareness. This study utilizes psychophysiological methods in an attempt to assess a pilot's state of awareness more directly. In turn, the pilots will be able to train themselves to recognize these states of awareness and be more mentally sharp during mundane tasks such as those experienced in cruise conditions. The use of these measurement tools may be beneficial for researchers working within the NASA Aviation Safety Program. This paper will provide the reader with some background information concerning the motivation for the study, a brief description of the experimental setup and design matrix, the dependent and independent variables that were employed, and some preliminary findings based on some of the subjective and objective data that was collected. These preliminary findings are of part of an ongoing study being conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.

  4. Pilot interaction with cockpit automation 2: An experimental study of pilots' model and awareness of the Flight Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarter, Nadine B.; Woods, David D.

    1994-01-01

    Technological developments have made it possible to automate more and more functions on the commercial aviation flight deck and in other dynamic high-consequence domains. This increase in the degrees of freedom in design has shifted questions away from narrow technological feasibility. Many concerned groups, from designers and operators to regulators and researchers, have begun to ask questions about how we should use the possibilities afforded by technology skillfully to support and expand human performance. In this article, we report on an experimental study that addressed these questions by examining pilot interaction with the current generation of flight deck automation. Previous results on pilot-automation interaction derived from pilot surveys, incident reports, and training observations have produced a corpus of features and contexts in which human-machine coordination is likely to break down (e.g., automation surprises). We used these data to design a simulated flight scenario that contained a variety of probes designed to reveal pilots' mental model of one major component of flight deck automation: the Flight Management System (FMS). The events within the scenario were also designed to probe pilots' ability to apply their knowledge and understanding in specific flight contexts and to examine their ability to track the status and behavior of the automated system (mode awareness). Although pilots were able to 'make the system work' in standard situations, the results reveal a variety of latent problems in pilot-FMS interaction that can affect pilot performance in nonnormal time critical situations.

  5. Pilot interaction with cockpit automation 2: An experimental study of pilots' model and awareness of the Flight Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarter, Nadine B.; Woods, David D.

    1994-01-01

    Technological developments have made it possible to automate more and more functions on the commercial aviation flight deck and in other dynamic high-consequence domains. This increase in the degrees of freedom in design has shifted questions away from narrow technological feasibility. Many concerned groups, from designers and operators to regulators and researchers, have begun to ask questions about how we should use the possibilities afforded by technology skillfully to support and expand human performance. In this article, we report on an experimental study that addressed these questions by examining pilot interaction with the current generation of flight deck automation. Previous results on pilot-automation interaction derived from pilot surveys, incident reports, and training observations have produced a corpus of features and contexts in which human-machine coordination is likely to break down (e.g., automation surprises). We used these data to design a simulated flight scenario that contained a variety of probes designed to reveal pilots' mental model of one major component of flight deck automation: the Flight Management System (FMS). The events within the scenario were also designed to probe pilots' ability to apply their knowledge and understanding in specific flight contexts and to examine their ability to track the status and behavior of the automated system (mode awareness). Although pilots were able to 'make the system work' in standard situations, the results reveal a variety of latent problems in pilot-FMS interaction that can affect pilot performance in nonnormal time critical situations.

  6. Advanced Simulation in Undergraduate Pilot Training: Systems Integration. Final Report (February 1972-March 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, D. F.; Terry, C.

    The Advanced Simulator for Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT) was designed to investigate the role of simulation in the future Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT) program. The problem addressed in this report was one of integrating two unlike components into one synchronized system. These two components were the Basic T-37 Simulators and their…

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated RH TRU waste experiments: Data and interpretation pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M.A.; Argueello, G.J.; Beraun, R.

    1993-04-01

    The simulated, i.e., nonradioactive remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU) experiments being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were emplaced in mid-1986 and have been in heated test operation since 9/23/86. These experiments involve the in situ, waste package performance testing of eight full-size, reference RH TRU containers emplaced in horizontal, unlined test holes in the rock salt ribs (walls) of WIPP Room T. All of the test containers have internal electrical heaters; four of the test emplacements were filled with bentonite and silica sand backfill materials. We designed test conditions to be ``near-reference`` with respect to anticipated thermal outputs of RH TRU canisters and their geometrical spacing or layout in WIPP repository rooms, with RH TRU waste reference conditions current as of the start date of this test program. We also conducted some thermal overtest evaluations. This paper provides a: detailed test overview; comprehensive data update for the first 5 years of test operations; summary of experiment observations; initial data interpretations; and, several status; experimental objectives -- how these tests support WIPP TRU waste acceptance, performance assessment studies, underground operations, and the overall WIPP mission; and, in situ performance evaluations of RH TRU waste package materials plus design details and options. We provide instrument data and results for in situ waste container and borehole temperatures, pressures exerted on test containers through the backfill materials, and vertical and horizontal borehole-closure measurements and rates. The effects of heat on borehole closure, fracturing, and near-field materials (metals, backfills, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored and are summarized, as are assorted test observations. Predictive 3-dimensional thermal and structural modeling studies of borehole and room closures and temperature fields were also performed.

  8. Hypoxia and flight performance of military instructor pilots in a flight simulator.

    PubMed

    Temme, Leonard A; Still, David L; Acromite, Michael T

    2010-07-01

    Military aircrew and other operational personnel frequently perform their duties at altitudes posing a significant hypoxia risk, often with limited access to supplemental oxygen. Despite the significant risk hypoxia poses, there are few studies relating it to primary flight performance, which is the purpose of the present study. Objective, quantitative measures of aircraft control were collected from 14 experienced, active duty instructor pilot volunteers as they breathed an air/nitrogen mix that provided an oxygen partial pressure equivalent to the atmosphere at 18,000 ft (5486.4 m) above mean sea level. The flight task required holding a constant airspeed, altitude, and heading at an airspeed significantly slower than the aircraft's minimum drag speed. The simulated aircraft's inherent instability at the target speed challenged the pilot to maintain constant control of the aircraft in order to minimize deviations from the assigned flight parameters. Each pilot's flight performance was evaluated by measuring all deviations from assigned target values. Hypoxia degraded the pilot's precision of altitude and airspeed control by 53%, a statistically significant decrease in flight performance. The effect on heading control effects was not statistically significant. There was no evidence of performance differences when breathing room air pre- and post-hypoxia. Moderate levels of hypoxia degraded the ability of military instructor pilots to perform a precision slow flight task. This is one of a small number of studies to quantify an effect of hypoxia on primary flight performance.

  9. Piloted simulator investigation of helicopter control systems effects on handling qualities during instrument flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, R. D.; Chen, R. T. N.; Gerdes, R. M.; Alderete, T. S.; Gee, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    An exploratory piloted simulation was conducted to investigate the effects of the characteristics of helicopter flight control systems on instrument flight handling qualities. This joint FAA/NASA study was motivated by the need to improve instrument flight capability. A near-term objective is to assist in updating the airworthiness criteria for helicopter instrument flight. The experiment consisted of variations of single-rotor helicopter types and levels of stability and control augmentation systems (SCAS). These configurations were evaluated during an omnirange approach task under visual and instrument flight conditions. The levels of SCAS design included a simple rate damping system, collective decoupling plus rate damping, and an attitude command system with collective decoupling. A limited evaluation of stick force versus airspeed stability was accomplished. Some problems were experienced with control system mechanization which had a detrimental effect on longitudinal stability. Pilot ratings, pilot commentary, and performance data related to the task are presented.

  10. An Investigation of the Impact of Aerodynamic Model Fidelity on Close-In Combat Effectiveness Prediction in Piloted Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persing, T. Ray; Bellish, Christine A.; Brandon, Jay; Kenney, P. Sean; Carzoo, Susan; Buttrill, Catherine; Guenther, Arlene

    2005-01-01

    Several aircraft airframe modeling approaches are currently being used in the DoD community for acquisition, threat evaluation, training, and other purposes. To date there has been no clear empirical study of the impact of airframe simulation fidelity on piloted real-time aircraft simulation study results, or when use of a particular level of fidelity is indicated. This paper documents a series of piloted simulation studies using three different levels of airframe model fidelity. This study was conducted using the NASA Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator. Evaluations were conducted with three pilots for scenarios requiring extensive maneuvering of the airplanes during air combat. In many cases, a low-fidelity modified point-mass model may be sufficient to evaluate the combat effectiveness of the aircraft. However, in cases where high angle-of-attack flying qualities and aerodynamic performance are a factor or when precision tracking ability of the aircraft must be represented, use of high-fidelity models is indicated.

  11. Computer simulation of a single pilot flying a modern high-performance helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipf, Mark E.; Vogt, William G.; Mickle, Marlin H.; Hoelzeman, Ronald G.; Kai, Fei; Mihaloew, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a computer simulation of a human response pilot model able to execute operational flight maneuvers and vehicle stabilization of a modern high-performance helicopter. Low-order, single-variable, human response mechanisms, integrated to form a multivariable pilot structure, provide a comprehensive operational control over the vehicle. Evaluations of the integrated pilot were performed by direct insertion into a nonlinear, total-force simulation environment provided by NASA Lewis. Comparisons between the integrated pilot structure and single-variable pilot mechanisms are presented. Static and dynamically alterable configurations of the pilot structure are introduced to simulate pilot activities during vehicle maneuvers. These configurations, in conjunction with higher level, decision-making processes, are considered for use where guidance and navigational procedures, operational mode transfers, and resource sharing are required.

  12. Using Simulation to Isolate Physician Variation in ICU Admission Decision Making for Critically Ill Elders with End-Stage Cancer: A Pilot Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Barnato, Amber E.; Hsu, Heather E.; Bryce, Cindy L.; Lave, Judith R.; Emlet, Lillian L.; Angus, Derek C.; Arnold, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the feasibility of high-fidelity simulation for studying variation in ICU admission decision making for critically ill elders with end-stage cancer. Design Mixed qualitative and quantitative analysis of physician subjects participating in a simulation scenario using a hospital set, actors, medical chart, and vital signs tracings. The simulation depicted a 78 year-old man with metastatic gastric cancer, life-threatening hypoxia most likely attributable to cancer progression, and stable preferences to avoid ICU admission and intubation. Two independent raters assesed the simulations and subjects completed a post-simulation web-based survey and debriefing interview. Setting Peter M. Winter Institute for Simulation Education and Research at the University of Pittsburgh. Subjects 27 hospital-based attending physicians, including 6 emergency physicians, 13 hospitalists, and 8 intensivists. Measurements and Main Results Outcomes included qualitative report of clinical verisimilitude during the debriefing interview, survey-reported diagnosis and prognosis, and observed treatment decisions. Independent variables included physician demographics, risk attitude, and reactions to uncertainty. All (100%) reported that the case and simulation were highly realistic, and their diagnostic and prognostic assessments were consistent with our intent. Eight (29.6%) physicians admitted the patient to the ICU. Among the 8 physicians who admitted the patient to the ICU, 3 (37%) initiated palliation, 2 (25%) documented the patient’s code status (DNI/DNR), and 1 intubated the patient. Among the 19 physicians not admitting to the ICU, 13 (68%) initiated palliation and 5 (42%) documented code status. Intensivists and emergency physicians (P=0.048) were more likely to admit the patient to the ICU. Years since medical school graduation were inversely associated with the initiation of palliative care (P=0.043). Conclusions Simulation can reproduce the decision context of

  13. Computer simulation of a pilot in V/STOL aircraft control loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, William G.; Mickle, Marlin H.; Zipf, Mark E.; Kucuk, Senol

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to develop a computerized adaptive pilot model for the computer model of the research aircraft, the Harrier II AV-8B V/STOL with special emphasis on propulsion control. In fact, two versions of the adaptive pilot are given. The first, simply called the Adaptive Control Model (ACM) of a pilot includes a parameter estimation algorithm for the parameters of the aircraft and an adaption scheme based on the root locus of the poles of the pilot controlled aircraft. The second, called the Optimal Control Model of the pilot (OCM), includes an adaption algorithm and an optimal control algorithm. These computer simulations were developed as a part of the ongoing research program in pilot model simulation supported by NASA Lewis from April 1, 1985 to August 30, 1986 under NASA Grant NAG 3-606 and from September 1, 1986 through November 30, 1988 under NASA Grant NAG 3-729. Once installed, these pilot models permitted the computer simulation of the pilot model to close all of the control loops normally closed by a pilot actually manipulating the control variables. The current version of this has permitted a baseline comparison of various qualitative and quantitative performance indices for propulsion control, the control loops and the work load on the pilot. Actual data for an aircraft flown by a human pilot furnished by NASA was compared to the outputs furnished by the computerized pilot and found to be favorable.

  14. The DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; King, A.W.; Miller, M.A.; Springer, E.P.; Wesely, M.L.; Bashford, K.E.; Conrad, M.E.; Costigan, K.; Foster, P.N.; Gibbs, H.K.; Jin, J.; Klazura, J.; Lesht, B.M.; Machavaram, M.V.; Pan, F.; Song, J.; Troyan, D.; Washington-Allen, R.A.

    2003-09-20

    A Department of Energy (DOE) multi-laboratory Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) investigated components of the local water budget at the Walnut River Watershed in Kansas to study the relative importance of various processes and to determine the feasibility of observational water budget closure. An extensive database of local meteorological time series and land surface characteristics was compiled. Numerical simulations of water budget components were generated and, to the extent possible, validated for three nested domains within the Southern Great Plains; the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement/Cloud Atmospheric Radiation Testbed (ARM/CART), the Walnut River Watershed (WRW), and the Whitewater Watershed (WW), Kansas A 2-month Intensive Observation Period (IOP) was conducted to gather detailed observations relevant to specific details of the water budget, including fine-scale precipitation, streamflow, and soil moisture measurements not made routinely by other programs. Event and season al water isotope (delta 18O, delta D) sampling in rainwater, streams, soils, lakes, and wells provided a means of tracing sources and sinks within and external to the WW, WRW, and the ARM/CART domains. The WCPS measured changes in leaf area index for several vegetation types, deep groundwater variations at two wells, and meteorological variables at a number of sites in the WRW. Additional activities of the WCPS include code development toward a regional climate model with water isotope processes, soil moisture transect measurements, and water level measurements in ground water wells.

  15. PILOT STUDY: THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools for children in the age range of 1-5 years old. The pilot study focused on (a) simple, cost-...

  16. Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training: Design of Automated Performance Measurement System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    reverse aide if necessary and identify by block number) pilot pertormance measurement Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) Aircrew performance...Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ). This report documents that development effort and describes the current status of the measurement system. It was...Continued): cj;? /To date, the following scenarios have been implemented on the ASPT : (a)1’nusition Tasks - Straight and Level, Airspeed Changes, Turns

  17. The Effects of Stress on Pilot Judgment in a MIDIS Simulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    predictions were tested on MIDIS, a microcamputer-based pilot decision simulator. Performance on a series of 38 decision problems was ompared between ten...attributes, assessed on a battery of standardized tests . These attributes are defined in Table 2. The analysis of decision performance in this study...for novices. In particular, while: performance on dynamic problems was predicced for both groups by tests of the working memory of capacity

  18. A piloted simulator investigation of helicopter precision decelerating approaches to hover to determine single-pilot IFR /SPIFR/ requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phatak, A. V.; Peach, L. L., Jr.; Hess, R. A.; Ross, V. L.; Hall, G. W.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    The results of single-pilot instrument flight rules (SPIFR) experiments conducted on the NASA-Ames V/STOLAND simulator are presented. Several factors having a significant impact on requirements for helicopter SPIFR decelerating, steep approaches to landing are considered: (1) approach weather conditions, (2) flight path geometry, (3) deceleration guidance law, (4) level of stability and command augmentation, (5) cockpit display sophistication, (6) accuracy of navigation aids, and (7) helipad lighting and visual aids. Particular emphasis is placed on the relative effects of deceleration profile, control augmentation, and flight director parameters on pilot performance, workload, and opinion rating. Problems associated with the development of a pilot acceptance analytical methodology are outlined.

  19. Aircraft control forces and EMG activity: comparison of novice and experienced pilots during simulated rolls, loops and turns.

    PubMed

    Hewson, D J; McNair, P J; Marshall, R N

    2000-08-01

    Flying an aircraft requires a considerable degree of coordination, particularly during aerobatic activities such as rolls, loops and turns. Only one previous study has examined the magnitude of muscle activity required to fly an aircraft, and that was restricted to takeoff and landing maneuvers. The aim of this study was to examine the phasing of muscle activation and control forces of novice and experienced pilots during more complex simulated flight maneuvers. There were 12 experienced and 9 novice pilots who were tested on an Aermacchi flight simulator while performing a randomized set of rolling, looping, and turning maneuvers. Four different runaway trim settings were used to increase the difficulty of the turns (elevator-up, elevator-down, aileron-left, and aileron-right). Variables recorded included aircraft attitude, pilot applied forces, and electromyographic (EMG) activity. Discriminant function analysis was used to distinguish between novice and experienced pilots. Over all maneuvers, 70% of pilots were correctly classified as novice or experienced. Better levels of classification were achieved when maneuvers were analyzed individually (67-91%), although the maneuvers that required the greatest force application, elevator-up turns, were unable to discriminate between novice and experienced pilots. There were no differences in the phasing of muscle activity between experienced and novice pilots. The only consistent difference in EMG activity between novice and experienced pilots was the reduced EMG activity in the wrist extensors of experienced pilots (p < 0.05). The increased wrist extensor activity of the novice pilots is indicative of a distal control strategy, whereby distal muscles with smaller motor units are used to perform a task that requires precise control. Muscle activity sensors could be used to detect the onset of high G maneuvers prior to any change in aircraft attitude and control G-suit inflation accordingly.

  20. Pilot-in-the-Loop Analysis of Aileron Operation and Flight Simulator Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujinaga, Jin; Tokutake, Hiroshi; Miura, Yumiko

    Lateral-directional piloted simulation experiments were conducted in order to analyze pilot responses when the pilot controls an aircraft with only the ailerons after rudder failure. The experiments were carried out using a fixed-base flight simulator and four pilots. Six aircraft configurations, made by changing the stability derivatives, were tested, and pilot models were identified using the least-squares method. An analysis of the closed-loop shows that the closed-loop gain and stabilities correlate with the tracking error of the compensation task. Additionally, from the results of analysis, an evaluation function using pilot-in-the-loop with a fixed pilot model was developed. This function was able to predict the compensational error analytically from the airplane dynamics.

  1. The effect of visual-motion time-delays on pilot performance in a simulated pursuit tracking task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, G. K., Jr.; Riley, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental study was made to determine the effect on pilot performance of time delays in the visual and motion feedback loops of a simulated pursuit tracking task. Three major interrelated factors were identified: task difficulty either in the form of airplane handling qualities or target frequency, the amount and type of motion cues, and time delay itself. In general, the greater the task difficulty, the smaller the time delay that could exist without degrading pilot performance. Conversely, the greater the motion fidelity, the greater the time delay that could be tolerated. The effect of motion was, however, pilot dependent.

  2. Measuring third year undergraduate nursing students' reflective thinking skills and critical reflection self-efficacy following high fidelity simulation: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tutticci, Naomi; Lewis, Peter A; Coyer, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Critical reflection underpins critical thinking, a highly desirable generic nursing graduate capability. To improve the likelihood of critical thinking transferring to clinical practice, reflective thinking needs to be measured within the learning space of simulation. This study was divided into two phases to address the reliability and validity measures of previously untested surveys. Phase One data was collected from individuals (n = 6) using a 'think aloud' approach and an expert panel to review content validity, and verbatim comment analysis was undertaken. The Reflective Thinking Instrument and Critical Reflection Self-Efficacy Visual Analogue Scale items were contextualised to simulation. The expert review confirmed these instruments exhibited content validity. Phase Two data was collected through an online survey (n = 58). Cronbach's alpha measured internal consistency and was demonstrated by all subscales and the Instrument as a whole (.849). There was a small to medium positive correlation between critical reflection self-efficacy and general self-efficacy (r = .324, n = 56, p = .048). Participant responses were positive regarding the simulation experience. The research findings demonstrated that the Reflective Thinking and Simulation Satisfaction survey is reliable. Further development of this survey to establish validity is recommended to make it viable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbial field pilot study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m{sup 3}) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO{sub 2} content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  4. Effects of helicopter noise and vibration on pilot performance (as measured in a fixed-base flight simulator)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stave, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of noise and vibration on pilot performance are described. Pilot subjects were required to fly VTOL commercial IFR schedules using the computer simulation facilities. The routes flown simulated closely metropolitan routes flown currently by a helicopter airline. The duration of simulator flights ranged from 3 to 8 hours. Subjects were exposed to noise sound pressure levels ranging from 74dB (ambient) to 100dB and 17 Hz vibration stimuli ranging from .1 g to .3 g measured at the floor directly beneath the pilot's seat. Despite subject reports of extreme fatigue in these long flights, performance did not degrade. A curve of performance shows a slow improvement for the first three hours of exposure and a slight loss in performance during the remainder of the flight. As environmental stress conditions (noise, vibration, and time in the simulator) increased, subject performance improved. Within the limits of this study, the higher the stress the better the performance.

  5. Human Challenge Pilot Study with Cyclospora cayetanensis

    PubMed Central

    Eberhard, Mark L.; Seed, John R.; Weber, David J.; Won, Kimberly Y.; Nace, Eva K.; Moe, Christine L.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a pilot study that attempted to infect human volunteers with Cyclospora cayetanensis. Seven healthy volunteers ingested an inoculum of Cyclospora oocysts (approximately 200–49,000 oocysts). The volunteers did not experience symptoms of gastroenteritis, and no oocysts were detected in any stool samples during the 16 weeks volunteers were monitored. PMID:15200870

  6. The effect of helmet loader G-cueing on pilot's simulator performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, B. R.; Mckissick, B. T.

    1978-01-01

    A helmet loader has been designed and tested in a differential maneuvering simulator which provides the proper cues without restricting the pilot's movement or requiring cumbersome attachments. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the loader on both test pilots and operational F-15 pilots. Both the objective and subjective data from the experiment were used to determine the effect of the helmet provided acceleration cues on the simulator pilot's performance. An analysis of the obtained data indicates that the helmet-loader does have measurable effect on the pilot/simulator system. The effect is mainly seen in the transition portion of the task. The pilots significantly increase their control outputs for pitch which causes a significant increase in aircraft pitch rate.

  7. Piloted Simulation of a Model-Predictive Automated Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, James (Yuan); Litt, Jonathan; Sowers, T. Shane; Owens, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes a model-predictive automatic recovery system for aircraft on the verge of a loss-of-control situation. The system determines when it must intervene to prevent an imminent accident, resulting from a poor approach. It estimates the altitude loss that would result from a go-around maneuver at the current flight condition. If the loss is projected to violate a minimum altitude threshold, the maneuver is automatically triggered. The system deactivates to allow landing once several criteria are met. Piloted flight simulator evaluation showed the system to provide effective envelope protection during extremely unsafe landing attempts. The results demonstrate how flight and propulsion control can be integrated to recover control of the vehicle automatically and prevent a potential catastrophe.

  8. Comparison of flying qualities derived from in-flight and ground-based simulators for a jet-transport airplane for the approach and landing pilot tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective was to provide information to the flight controls/flying qualities engineer that will assist him in determining the incremental flying qualities and/or pilot-performance differences that may be expected between results obtained via ground-based simulation (and, in particular, the six-degree-of-freedom Langley Visual/Motion Simulator (VMS)) and flight tests. Pilot opinion and performance parameters derived from a ground-based simulator and an in-flight simulator are compared for a jet-transport airplane having 32 different longitudinal dynamic response characteristics. The primary pilot tasks were the approach and landing tasks with emphasis on the landing-flare task. The results indicate that, in general, flying qualities results obtained from the ground-based simulator may be considered conservative-especially when the pilot task requires tight pilot control as during the landing flare. The one exception to this, according to the present study, was that the pilots were more tolerant of large time delays in the airplane response on the ground-based simulator. The results also indicated that the ground-based simulator (particularly the Langley VMS) is not adequate for assessing pilot/vehicle performance capabilities (i.e., the sink rate performance for the landing-flare task when the pilot has little depth/height perception from the outside scene presentation).

  9. Piloted simulation of hover and transition of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    Piloted simulation studies of candidate control systems for VATOL aircraft were conducted on a six degree of freedom simulator. Hover and transitions from wing-born to hovering flight were performed, with and without turbulence, on a representative high performance fighter configuration. Deflection of the rear engine nozzle provided pitch and yaw control moments in concert with reaction controls for roll. Unique motion cues in hover result from the vertical displacement of the cockpit and the thrust vectoring nozzles. Abundant control power available with moderate engine nozzle deflection combined with rate feedback for stability augmentation provided very satisfactory control.

  10. Piloted simulation evaluation of pitch control designs for highly augmented STOVL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelland, S. A.; Franklin, J. A.; Stortz, M. W.; Hardy, G. H.

    1992-01-01

    Analyses of design variations on a pitch axis stabilization and command augmentation system (SCAS) for a STOVL fighter aircraft are performed in a moving base simulation experiment. The primary goal of this study is to determine if turbulence-induced control activity could be reduced by modifying SCAS parameters while keeping the response-to-command characteristics of the baseline system that provide Level 1 flying qualities. Pilot ratings and control utilization statistics for the baseline system are in agreement with similar data gathered in a prior simulation test involving the same aircraft and control system.

  11. Prospective memory failures as an unexplored threat to patient safety: results from a pilot study using patient simulators to investigate the missed execution of intentions.

    PubMed

    Dieckmann, P; Reddersen, S; Wehner, T; Rall, M

    This study investigated failures of prospective memory (PM) as a relevant but neglected error type in medicine. A patient simulator was used to investigate PM failures. The influence of subjective importance (high, low) and type of intention (educational, internal, external) on the (missed) execution of intention was investigated in a 2 x 2 design. The effects on missed executions by importance (high < low) and type of intention (educational < external < internal) were hypothesized. Of 73 valid intentions in 40 prepared simulator scenarios 19 (26%) were missed overall. A total of 64% of unimportant and 80% of important intentions were executed 79% of educational 67% of external and 72% of internal intentions were executed. Neither difference was statistically significant using chi(2) tests. Interaction was significant for missed executions (p = 0.025; n = 19; df = 2; chi(2) = 7.41) and for executions (p = 0.002; n = 54; df = 2; chi(2) = 12.50). Despite low statistical support and some methodological limitations, it was possible to show that PM failures are relevant to patient safety and that patient simulators are a suitable but so far unused tool for their investigation.

  12. Assessment of simulation fidelity using measurements of piloting technique in flight. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, S. W.; Clement, W. F.; Hoh, R. H.; Cleveland, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    Two components of the Vertical Motion Simulator (presently being used to assess the fidelity of UH-60A simulation) are evaluated: (1) the dash/quickstop Nap-of-the-earth (NOE) piloting task, and (2) the bop-up task. Data from these two flight test experiments are presented which provide information on the effect of reduced visual field of view, variation in scene content and texture, and the affect of pure time delay in the closed-loop pilot response. In comparison with task performance results obtained in flight tests, the results from the simulation indicate that the pilot's NOE task performance in the simulator is significantly degraded.

  13. Does the use of a chest compression system in children improve the effectiveness of chest compressions? A randomised crossover simulation pilot study.

    PubMed

    Szarpak, Łukasz; Truszewski, Zenon; Smereka, Jacek; Czyżewski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Providing high-quality chest compressions is a key element affecting the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). To evaluate the effectiveness of standard (manual) chest compressions (Standard BLS, standard basic life support) and those performed with the use of the Lifeline ARM chest compression system (ARM; Defibtech). The study was designed as a randomised crossover study. In total, 37 nurses participated in the study. They performed a randomized 2-min asynchronous resuscitation using the Standard BLS method or the ARM system. The following parameters were measured: the total number of chest compressions, the frequency of compressions (min-1), compression depth (mm), and the percentage of correctly performed chest compressions and total chest decompressions. The authors also analysed the participants' preferences concerning the use of particular CPR techniques in the clinical setting. The results obtained during the simulation study with the application of the ARM system were statistically significantly better than those with the Standard BLS method (p < 0.05) in the case of all analysed parameters. During the simulated child resuscitation performed by the nurses, the application of the Lifeline ARM chest compression system significantly improved the effectiveness of chest compressions.

  14. Simulation of Controller Pilot Data Link Communications over VHF Digital Link Mode 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretmersky, Steven C.; Murawski, Robert; Nguyen, Thanh C.; Raghavan, Rajesh S.

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has established an operational plan for the future Air Traffic Management (ATM) system, in which the Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) is envisioned to evolve into digital messaging that will take on an ever increasing role in controller to pilot communications, significantly changing the way the National Airspace System (NAS) is operating. According to FAA, CPDLC represents the first phase of the transition from the current analog voice system to an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) compliant system in which digital communication becomes the alternate and perhaps primary method of routine communication. The CPDLC application is an Air Traffic Service (ATS) application in which pilots and controllers exchange messages via an addressed data link. CPDLC includes a set of clearance, information, and request message elements that correspond to existing phraseology employed by current Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. These message elements encompass altitude assignments, crossing constraints, lateral deviations, route changes and clearances, speed assignments, radio frequency assignments, and various requests for information. The pilot is provided with the capability to respond to messages, to request clearances and information, to report information, and to declare/rescind an emergency. A 'free text' capability is also provided to exchange information not conforming to defined formats. This paper presents simulated results of the aeronautical telecommunication application Controller Pilot Data Link Communications over VHF Digital Link Mode 3 (VDL Mode 3). The objective of this simulation study was to determine the impact of CPDLC traffic loads, in terms of timely message delivery and capacity of the VDL Mode 3 subnetwork. The traffic model is based on and is used for generating air/ground messages with different priorities. Communication is modeled for the en route domain of the Cleveland

  15. The effects of motion and g-seat cues on pilot simulator performance of three piloting tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Showalter, T. W.; Parris, B. L.

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented that show the effects of motion system cues, g-seat cues, and pilot experience on pilot performance during takeoffs with engine failures, during in-flight precision turns, and during landings with wind shear. Eight groups of USAF pilots flew a simulated KC-135 using four different cueing systems. The basic cueing system was a fixed-base type (no-motion cueing) with visual cueing. The other three systems were produced by the presence of either a motion system or a g-seat, or both. Extensive statistical analysis of the data was performed and representative performance means were examined. These data show that the addition of motion system cueing results in significant improvement in pilot performance for all three tasks; however, the use of g-seat cueing, either alone or in conjunction with the motion system, provides little if any performance improvement for these tasks and for this aircraft type.

  16. Helistat simulation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. B.; Ashkenas, I. L.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of the flight dynamics and piloted control characteristics of the Helistat, a quadrotor heavy-lift airship, was completed using the HYBRDS airship simulation facility. The analysis covered the full operating flight envelope, including likely ranges of altitude, airspeed, sideslip, and loading variations. Particular areas of study were performance, trim, power requirements, linearized dynamics, handling qualities, and mooring operations. The key assumptions were: a rigid vehicle, no control system dynamics, fixed rotor and propeller RPM, and no ballonet dynamics. The nominal cruise speed for the H34 engines operating at 1275 HP was found to be 40-50 kts, depending on the loading condition. The maximum payload capability was calculated as 45,000 lbs for sea level-based operations. The crosswind capability in hover is 5-10 kts depending on the loading conditions, but this requires excessive roll angle due to the roll-to-translate control gearing. Sideslip angles of 110-135 degrees (wind from aft quarters) are critical for directional trim and stability, and should be avoided.

  17. Handling Qualities Results of an Initial Geared Flap Tilt Wing Piloted Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerrero, Lourdes M.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1991-01-01

    An exploratory simulation study of a novel approach to pitch control for a tilt wing aircraft was conducted in 1990 on the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator. The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the handling qualities of both a conventional and a geared flap tilt wing control configuration. The geared flap is an innovative control concept which has the potential for reducing or eliminating the horizontal pitch control tail rotor or reaction jets required by prior tilt wing designs. The handling qualities results of the geared flap control configuration are presented in this paper and compared to the conventional (programmed flap) tilt wing control configuration. This paper also describes the geared flap concept, the tilt wing aircraft, the simulation model, the simulation facility and experiment setup, and the pilot evaluation tasks and procedures.

  18. Handling Qualities Results of an Initial Geared Flap Tilt Wing Piloted Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerrero, Lourdes M.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1991-01-01

    An exploratory simulation study of a novel approach to pitch control for a tilt wing aircraft was conducted in 1990 on the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator. The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the handling qualities of both a conventional and a geared flap tilt wing control configuration. The geared flap is an innovative control concept which has the potential for reducing or eliminating the horizontal pitch control tail rotor or reaction jets required by prior tilt wing designs. The handling qualities results of the geared flap control configuration are presented in this paper and compared to the conventional (programmed flap) tilt wing control configuration. This paper also describes the geared flap concept, the tilt wing aircraft, the simulation model, the simulation facility and experiment setup, and the pilot evaluation tasks and procedures.

  19. Simulation of groundwater flow around a pilot waste tire site

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.; Chyi, L.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-04-01

    The groundwater system in the area contains several aquifers divided by underclays as confining layers. The three aquifers addressed under this research include the upper aquifer above the No. 6 underclay, the middle aquifer above the No. 5 underclay and the lower aquifer above the No. 4 underclay. A quasi-3D conceptual model is used in simulating groundwater flow and MODFLOW is used for the actual modeling. The boundary of the model area is defined by a local divide on the north, the Hugle Run on the west and the Temple Ditch on the east and the Sandy Creek on the south. The model consists of three aquifer layers and two confining layers. The upper one is unconfined, the middle one is a hybrid, and the lower one is confined. In the simulation of the upper aquifer, drain boundary condition is defined to include seepage. In the simulation of the middle aquifer, the Hugle Run and the Temple ditch associated with the alluvium represent a drain boundary and the Sand Creek to the south represents a constant head. The lower aquifer does not have a natural hydrogeologic boundary. The equipotential contours are assigned as constant head boundary. Simulation has indicated that minimal groundwater flow existed in the upper aquifer and it is flowing toward the southwest. Groundwater flow in the middle aquifer near the pilot waste site is somewhat divergent to the south. The velocity is slow near the site but increases quickly toward the southwest. Leakage from the upper aquifer appears to be predominant over the regional flow in the recharge of the middle aquifer. The lower aquifer is recharged mainly by the regional flow and is flowing almost due south.

  20. Image processing of angiograms: A pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, L. E.; Evans, R. A.; Roehm, J. O., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The technology transfer application this report describes is the result of a pilot study of image-processing methods applied to the image enhancement, coding, and analysis of arteriograms. Angiography is a subspecialty of radiology that employs the introduction of media with high X-ray absorption into arteries in order to study vessel pathology as well as to infer disease of the organs supplied by the vessel in question.

  1. Simulator based angiography education in neurosurgery: results of a pilot educational program.

    PubMed

    Fargen, Kyle Michael; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Veznedaroglu, Erol; Turner, Raymond D; Ringer, Andrew J; Mocco, J

    2012-11-01

    The use of simulators in medical training has been on the rise over the past decade as a means to teach procedural skills to trainees in a risk free environment. The goal of this study was to pilot a simulator based skills course for inexperienced neurosurgical residents to teach the fundamentals of cervicocerebral catheterization and angiography, with the ultimate goal of defining a universal simulator based curriculum that could be incorporated into neurosurgical resident training in the future. Seven neurosurgery residents with no prior angiographic experience served as the pilot participants for this 2 day course. Four neurointerventional trained neurosurgeons served as faculty for instruction and evaluation. The majority of the course focused on hands-on simulator practice with close mentoring by faculty. Participants were evaluated with pre-course and post-course assessments. Post-course written test scores were significantly higher than pre-course scores (p<0.001). Faculty assessments of participants' technical skills with angiography (graded 0-10, with 10 being best) also improved significantly from pre-course to post-course (pre 2.1; post 5.9; p<0.001). Objective simulator recorded assessments demonstrated a significant decrease in the time needed to complete a four vessel angiogram (p<0.001) and total fluoroscopic time (p<0.001). Participant angiography skills, based on both faculty and simulator assessments, as well as participant knowledge, improved after this didactic, hands-on simulator course. Neuroendovascular simulator training appears to be a viable means of training inexperienced neurosurgery residents in the early learning stages of basic endovascular neurosurgery. Further studies evaluating the translation of procedural skills learned on the simulator to actual clinical skills in the angiography suite is necessary.

  2. Mechanical compaction of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, B.M. ); Thompson, T.W.; VanBuskirk, R.G.; Patti, N.C. )

    1991-06-01

    The investigation described in this report acquired experimental information about how materials simulating transuranic (TRU) waste compact under axial compressive stress, and used these data to define a model for use in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal room analyses. The first step was to determine compaction curves for various simultant materials characteristic of TRU waste. Stress-volume compaction curves for various combinations of these materials were than derived to represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories. Prediction of compaction response in this manner is considered essential for the WIPP program because of the difficulties inherent in working with real (radioactive) waste. Next, full-sized 55-gallon drums of simulated combustible, metallic, and sludge waste were axially compacted. These results provided data that can be directly applied to room consolidation and data for comparison with the predictions obtained in Part 1 of the investigation. Compaction curves, which represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories, were determined, and a curve for the averaged waste inventory of the entire repository was derived. 9 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of the pseudo pilot effect on baseline controller study data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomb, Linda C.

    1988-01-01

    The Baseline Controller Study requires the support of pseudo pilots who input computer commands in response to air data in a simulated environment. Errors committed either by pseudo pilots, or by the computer's failure to accept commands, can result in data that is not representative of controller capabilities. Therefore, it became necessary to evaluate the actions of the pseudo pilots and determine what effect, if any, those actions had upon a given set of baseline data. The Pseudo Pilot Stations (PPS) associated with the Baseline Controller Study are user unfriendly. This fact, coupled with the human factor of the pilots themselves, required exploration of the degree the pseudo pilot's actions affected the subject air traffic controller actions during the collection of baseline data. Examination of the preliminary data collected by the Basline Controller Study subjectively determined that pseudo pilot actions do, indeed, affect the the research data. Further study is needed to quantify that affect and, perhaps, assign a value to the pseudo pilot factor rather than merely decide which simulations are valid and which are not.

  4. Piloted Simulation Assessment of the Impact of Flexible Structures on Handling Qualities of Generic Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringer, Mary T.; Cowen, Brandon; Hoffler, Keith D.; Couch, Jesse C.; Ogburn, Marilyn E.; Diebler, Corey G.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center Cockpit Motion Facility (CMF) was used to conduct a piloted simulation assessment of the impact of flexible structures on flying qualities. The CMF was used because of its relatively high bandwidth, six degree-of-freedom motion capability. Previous studies assessed and attempted to mitigate the effects of multiple dynamic aeroservoelastic modes (DASE). Those results indicated problems existed, but the specific cause and effect was difficult to ascertain. The goal of this study was to identify specific DASE frequencies, damping ratios, and gains that cause degradation in handling qualities. A generic aircraft simulation was developed and designed to have Cooper-Harper Level 1 handling qualities when flown without DASE models. A test matrix of thirty-six DASE modes was implemented. The modes had frequencies ranging from 1 to 3.5 Hz and were applied to each axis independently. Each mode consisted of a single axis, frequency, damping, and gain, and was evaluated individually by six subject pilots with test pilot backgrounds. Analysis completed to date suggests that a number of the DASE models evaluated degrade the handling qualities of this class of aircraft to an uncontrollable condition.

  5. Pilot Study of the Effects of Simulated Turbine Passage Pressure on Juvenile Chinook Salmon Acclimated with Access to Air at Absolute Pressures Greater than Atmospheric

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2005-04-28

    The impacts of pressure on juvenile salmon who pass through the turbines of hydroelectric dams while migrating downstream on the Columbia and Snake rivers has not been well understood, especially as these impacts relate to injury to the fish's swim bladder. The laboratory studies described here were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Army Corps of Engineers Portland District at PNNL's fisheries research laboratories in 2004 to investigate the impacts of simulated turbine passage pressure on fish permitted to achieve neutral buoyancy at pressures corresponding to depths at which they are typically observed during downstream migration. Two sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon were tested, 80-100mm and 125-145mm total length. Test fish were acclimated for 22 to 24 hours in hyperbaric chambers at pressures simulating depths of 15, 30, or 60 ft, with access to a large air bubble. High rates of deflated swim bladders and mortality were observed. Our results while in conclusive show that juvenile salmon are capable of drawing additional air into their swimbladder to compensate for the excess mass of implanted telemetry devices. However they may pay a price in terms of increased susceptibility to injury, predation, and death for this additional air.

  6. Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Varner, J.

    2006-12-01

    The results of a pilot study to assess the risk from tsunamis for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon region will be presented. To determine the risk from tsunamis, it is first necessary to establish the hazard or probability that a tsunami of a particular magnitude will occur within a certain period of time. Tsunami inundation maps that provide 100-year and 500-year probabilistic tsunami wave height contours for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon, region were developed as part of an interagency Tsunami Pilot Study(1). These maps provided the probability of the tsunami hazard. The next step in determining risk is to determine the vulnerability or degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of tsunamis due to exposure and fragility. The tsunami vulnerability assessment methodology used in this study was developed by M. Papathoma and others(2). This model incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters related to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. Data provided with FEMA's HAZUS loss estimation software and Clatsop County, Oregon, tax assessment data were used as input to the model. The results, presented within a geographic information system, reveal the percentage of buildings in need of reinforcement and the population density in different inundation depth zones. These results can be used for tsunami mitigation, local planning, and for determining post-tsunami disaster response by emergency services. (1)Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study--Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps, Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2006, Final Draft. (2)Papathoma, M., D. Dominey-Howes, D.,Y. Zong, D. Smith, Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 377-389.

  7. Breakthrough Listen on MWA Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, S.; Siemion, A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Tremblay, S.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a pilot study, using the Voltage Capture System, for Breakthrough Listen on the MWA. Breakthrough Listen (BL) is a major new project that aims to dramatically improve the coverage of parameter space in the search for intelligent life beyond Earth. BL has already deployed hardware and software to the Green Bank Telescope, and will bring a similar program with the Parkes Telescope online in the second half of 2016. The low frequency sky is however currently very poorly explored. The superb capabilities of the MWA (large field of view, low frequency of operation, and location in a very radio quiet site) provide a unique opportunity for a pilot study to obtain voltage data for a SETI (Search For Extraterrestrial Intelligence) study of the Galactic Plane. We propose commensal observations, piggybacking on the proposed pulsar search of Tremblay et al. Using existing VCS software, combined with the pipeline developed for Breakthrough Listen at GBT and Parkes, we will perform a blind search for candidate signals from extraterrestrial intelligence. Although the chances of a detection are not large, particularly for a pilot study such as that proposed here, the Breakthrough Listen team plan to perform extensive testing and analysis on the data obtained which should be useful for other users of the MWA VCS. We will make the secondary SETI data products and associated documentation available as a resource to the community via the Breakthrough Listen online archive.

  8. The Role and Interpretation of Pilot Studies in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Andrew C.; Davis, Lori L.; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot studies represent a fundamental phase of the research process. The purpose of conducting a pilot study is to examine the feasibility of an approach that is intended to be used in a larger scale study. The roles and limitations of pilot studies are described here using a clinical trial as an example. A pilot study can be used to evaluate the feasibility of recruitment, randomization, retention, assessment procedures, new methods, and implementation of the novel intervention. A pilot study is not a hypothesis testing study. Safety, efficacy and effectiveness are not evaluated in a pilot. Contrary to tradition, a pilot study does not provide a meaningful effect size estimate for planning subsequent studies due to the imprecision inherent in data from small samples. Feasibility results do not necessarily generalize beyond the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the pilot design. A pilot study is a requisite initial step in exploring a novel intervention or an innovative application of an intervention. Pilot results can inform feasibility and identify modifications needed in the design of a larger, ensuing hypothesis testing study. Investigators should be forthright in stating these objectives of a pilot study. Grant reviewers and other stakeholders should expect no more. PMID:21035130

  9. Effects of visual and motion simulation cueing systems on pilot performance during takeoffs with engine failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parris, B. L.; Cook, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Data are presented that show the effects of visual and motion during cueing on pilot performance during takeoffs with engine failures. Four groups of USAF pilots flew a simulated KC-135 using four different cueing systems. The most basic of these systems was of the instrument-only type. Visual scene simulation and/or motion simulation was added to produce the other systems. Learning curves, mean performance, and subjective data are examined. The results show that the addition of visual cueing results in significant improvement in pilot performance, but the combined use of visual and motion cueing results in far better performance.

  10. Catalyst Residence Time Distributions in Riser Reactors for Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis. Part 2: Pilot-Scale Simulations and Operational Parameter Study

    DOE PAGES

    Foust, Thomas D.; Ziegler, Jack L.; Pannala, Sreekanth; ...

    2017-02-21

    Here, wsing the validated simulation model developed in part one of this study for biomass catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP), we assess the functional utility of using this validated model to assist in the development of CFP processes in fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) reactors to a commercially viable state. Specifically, we examine the effects of mass flow rates, boundary conditions (BCs), pyrolysis vapor molecular weight variation, and the impact of the chemical cracking kinetics on the catalyst residence times. The factors that had the largest impact on the catalyst residence time included the feed stock molecular weight and the degree ofmore » chemical cracking as controlled by the catalyst activity. Lastly, because FCC reactors have primarily been developed and utilized for petroleum cracking, we perform a comparison analysis of CFP with petroleum and show the operating regimes are fundamentally different.« less

  11. Biomarkers of Human Cardiopulmonary Response After Short-Term Exposures to Medical Laser-Generated Particulate Matter From Simulated Procedures: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ramon; Farber, Mark O; Wong, Vincent; Lacey, Steven E

    2016-09-01

    We conducted an exposure chamber study in humans using a simulated clinical procedure lasing porcine tissue to demonstrate evidence of effects of exposure to laser-generated particulate matter (LGPM). We measured pre- and post-exposure changes in exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), spirometry, heart rate variability (HRV), and blood markers of inflammation in five volunteers. Change in pre- and post-exposure measurements of eNO and spirometry was unremarkable. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts increased and fibrinogen levels decreased in four of the five subjects. Measures of HRV showed decreases in the standard deviation of normal between beat intervals and sequential 5-minute intervals. These data represent the first evidence of human physiologic response to LGPM exposure. Further exploration of coagulation effects and HRV is warranted.

  12. Use of piloted simulation for high-angle-of-attack agility research and design criteria development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogburn, Marilyn E.; Foster, John V.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    The application of piloted simulations in the development of advanced fighter aircraft is reviewed in the context of the NASA High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP). The HATP combines wind-tunnel experiments, computational aerodynamics, piloted simulations, and flight tests on a modified F-18 testbed aircraft and utilizes the experience and facilities of several NASA centers. Consideration is given to the role of simulation in the overall research process, simulation capabilities and software requirements, simulation flexibility and fidelity, evaluation maneuvers, the role of simulator pilots in evaluations, the analysis of simulation results, flight validation of maneuvers and rating approaches, and the use of simulations to define design criteria. Extensive diagrams, graphs, and flow charts are included.

  13. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Providing a web-based digital information management system of information for scientists and the public, including a system that supports the work of those officials who must make decisions that affect the state of the bay. The Tampa Bay Study is in its sixth year and will continue through September 2007. This paper presents a non-inclusive summary of key findings associated with the six primary project components listed above. Component 4 (above) is described in detail in the following chapter 13. More information on the Tampa Bay Study is available from our on-line digital information system for the Tampa Bay Study at http://gulfsci.usgs.gov.

  14. Assessment of simulation fidelity using measurements of piloting technique in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, W. F.; Cleveland, W. B.; Key, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Army and NASA joined together on a project to conduct a systematic investigation and validation of a ground based piloted simulation of the Army/Sikorsky UH-60A helicopter. Flight testing was an integral part of the validation effort. Nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) piloting tasks which were investigated included the bob-up, the hover turn, the dash/quickstop, the sidestep, the dolphin, and the slalom. Results from the simulation indicate that the pilot's NOE task performance in the simulator is noticeably and quantifiably degraded when compared with the task performance results generated in flight test. The results of the flight test and ground based simulation experiments support a unique rationale for the assessment of simulation fidelity: flight simulation fidelity should be judged quantitatively by measuring pilot's control strategy and technique as induced by the simulator. A quantitative comparison is offered between the piloting technique observed in a flight simulator and that observed in flight test for the same tasks performed by the same pilots.

  15. Assessment of simulation fidelity using measurements of piloting technique in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, W. F.; Cleveland, W. B.; Key, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Army and NASA joined together on a project to conduct a systematic investigation and validation of a ground based piloted simulation of the Army/Sikorsky UH-60A helicopter. Flight testing was an integral part of the validation effort. Nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) piloting tasks which were investigated included the bob-up, the hover turn, the dash/quickstop, the sidestep, the dolphin, and the slalom. Results from the simulation indicate that the pilot's NOE task performance in the simulator is noticeably and quantifiably degraded when compared with the task performance results generated in flight test. The results of the flight test and ground based simulation experiments support a unique rationale for the assessment of simulation fidelity: flight simulation fidelity should be judged quantitatively by measuring pilot's control strategy and technique as induced by the simulator. A quantitative comparison is offered between the piloting technique observed in a flight simulator and that observed in flight test for the same tasks performed by the same pilots.

  16. Life and Microgravity Sciences Spacelab Mission: Human Research Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B. (Editor); Walker, Karen R. (Editor); Hargens, Alan (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Life Sciences, Microgravity Science and Spacelab Mission contains a number of human experiments directed toward identifying the functional, metabolic and neurological characteristics of muscle weakness and atrophy during space flight. To ensure the successful completion of the flight experiments, a ground-based pilot study, designed to mimic the flight protocols as closely as possible, was carried out in the head-down tilt bed rest model. This report records the rationales, procedures, preliminary results and estimated value of the pilot study, the first of its kind, for 12 of the 13 planned experiments in human research. The bed rest study was conducted in the Human Research Facility at Ames Research Center from July 11 - August 28, 1995. Eight healthy male volunteers performed the experiments before, during and after 17 days bed rest. The immediate purposes of this simulation were to integrate the experiments, provide data in a large enough sample for publication of results, enable investigators to review individual experiments in the framework of a multi-disciplinary study and relay the experience of the pilot study to the mission specialists prior to launch.

  17. Learner Intonation -- A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Nancy

    This study is concerned with problems in language learners' intonation of English. Ten intonation problems were found in the learner speech of two adult Spanish-speaking males: (1) range of pitch, (2) initial rise, (3) final fall, (4) rise to final stressed syllable, (5) placement of prominence, (6) final rise for questions, (7) total question…

  18. Pre-Study Walkthrough with a Commercial Pilot for a Preliminary Single Pilot Operations Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connor-Dreher, Ryan; Roberts, Z.; Ziccardi, J.; Vu, K-P. L.; Strybel, T.; Koteskey, Robert William; Lachter, Joel B.; Vi Dao, Quang; Johnson, Walter W.; Battiste, V.

    2013-01-01

    The number of crew members in commercial flights has decreased to two members, down from the five-member crew required 50 years ago. One question of interest is whether the crew should be reduced to one pilot. In order to determine the critical factors involved in safely transitioning to a single pilot, research must examine whether any performance deficits arise with the loss of a crew member. With a concrete understanding of the cognitive and behavioral role of a co-pilot, aeronautical technologies and procedures can be developed that make up for the removal of the second aircrew member. The current project describes a pre-study walkthrough process that can be used to help in the development of scenarios for testing future concepts and technologies for single pilot operations. Qualitative information regarding the tasks performed by the pilots can be extracted with this technique and adapted for future investigations of single pilot operations.

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Simulation-Based Teaching versus Traditional Instruction in Medicine: A Pilot Study among Clinical Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, James A.; Shaffer, David W.; Raemer, Daniel B.; Pawlowski, John; Hurford, William E.; Cooper, Jeffrey B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare simulator-based teaching with traditional instruction among clinical medical students. Methods: Randomized controlled trial with written pre-post testing. Third-year medical students (n = 38) received either a myocardial infarction (MI) simulation followed by a reactive airways disease (RAD) lecture, or a RAD simulation…

  20. Can Verbalisers Learn as well as Visualisers in Simulation-Based CAL with Predominantly Visual Representations? Preliminary Evidence from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tzu-Chien; Kinshuk; Lin, Yi-Chun; Wang, Ssu-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Simulation-based computer-assisted learning (CAL) is emerging as new technologies are finding a place in mainstream education. Dynamically linked multiple representations (DLMRs) is at the core of simulation-based CAL. DLMRs includes multiple visual representations, and it enables students to manipulate one representation and to immediately…

  1. Can Verbalisers Learn as well as Visualisers in Simulation-Based CAL with Predominantly Visual Representations? Preliminary Evidence from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tzu-Chien; Kinshuk; Lin, Yi-Chun; Wang, Ssu-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Simulation-based computer-assisted learning (CAL) is emerging as new technologies are finding a place in mainstream education. Dynamically linked multiple representations (DLMRs) is at the core of simulation-based CAL. DLMRs includes multiple visual representations, and it enables students to manipulate one representation and to immediately…

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Simulation-Based Teaching versus Traditional Instruction in Medicine: A Pilot Study among Clinical Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, James A.; Shaffer, David W.; Raemer, Daniel B.; Pawlowski, John; Hurford, William E.; Cooper, Jeffrey B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare simulator-based teaching with traditional instruction among clinical medical students. Methods: Randomized controlled trial with written pre-post testing. Third-year medical students (n = 38) received either a myocardial infarction (MI) simulation followed by a reactive airways disease (RAD) lecture, or a RAD simulation…

  3. Study of the use of a nonlinear, rate limited, filter on pilot control signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of a filter on the pilot's control output could improve the performance of the pilot-aircraft system. What is needed is a filter with a sharp high frequency cut-off, no resonance peak, and a minimum of lag at low frequencies. The present investigation studies the usefulness of a nonlinear, rate limited, filter in performing the needed function. The nonlinear filter is compared with a linear, first order filter, and no filter. An analytical study using pilot models and a simulation study using experienced test pilots was performed. The results showed that the nonlinear filter does promote quick, steady maneuvering. It is shown that the nonlinear filter attenuates the high frequency remnant and adds less phase lag to the low frequency signal than does the linear filter. It is also shown that the rate limit in the nonlinear filter can be set to be too restrictive, causing an unstable pilot-aircraft system response.

  4. Tinnitus Treatment with Oxytocin: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Andreia Aparecida; Figueiredo, Ricardo Rodrigues; Elgoyhen, Ana Belen; Langguth, Berthold; Penido, Norma De Oliveira; Schlee, Winfried

    2017-01-01

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of an external stimulus. It is a frequent condition for which there is as yet no pharmacological treatment approved. Auditory and non-auditory pathways are involved in tinnitus' pathophysiology. Oxytocin is a neurohormone and eventual neurotransmitter that plays a complex role in social cognition and behavior. To evaluate the potential of oxytocin as a tinnitus treatment. Two studies were performed. Study 1 was a long-term open pilot study, while study 2 investigated short-term effects with a double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over study. Ambulatory ENT care. In study 1, 15 patients were investigated over a 10-week period in an open pilot study. In study 2, 16 patients were included in a placebo-controlled crossover trial to investigate short-term effects following a single dose. For the long-term study (study 1), analysis of variance revealed a significant decrease in tinnitus sensation, both for the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and Clinical Global Impression (CGI). Also, the short-term effects in study 2 revealed a significant reduction of tinnitus because of the oxytocin nasal spray as measured with the Visual Analog Scale and the CGI Scale. These preliminary studies demonstrated that oxytocin may represent a helpful tool for treating tinnitus and further larger controlled studies are warranted.

  5. Probing the Process of Information Source Selection Using Palm Pilots: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Wonsik

    2002-01-01

    This pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using PDAs (personal digital assistants or palm pilots) as a data collection device in studying information seeking behaviors of undergraduate students. Discusses results that shows heavy use of Internet search engines and that most information searches do not extend beyond the first…

  6. PFLOTRAN Simulation of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Single Waste Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H.; Hammond, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the deep geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. WIPP performance assessment (PA) calculations estimate the probability and consequence of potential radionuclide releases from the repository to the accessible environment arising from events and processes that could occur over the 10,000 year regulatory period. The conceptual model estimates three possible cases and the combinations of these cases: 1) undisturbed condition of the repository, 2) human borehole intrusion condition that penetrates the repository, and 3) human borehole intrusion that penetrates pressurized brine underlying the repository. To date, WIPP PA calculations have employed multiple two-dimensional (2D) numerical models requiring simplification of the mesh and processes including homogenization of materials and regions while maintaining volume aspect ratio. Introducing three-dimensional (3D) numerical models within WIPP PA enables increasingly realistic representations of the WIPP subsurface domain and improved flexibility for incorporating relevant features. PFLOTRAN is a state-of-art massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport code that will be implemented to enhance PA with more physically realistic 3D flow and transport models; eliminating the need for multiple related, but decoupled 2D models. This paper demonstrates PFLOTRAN simulation of a single waste panel of the WIPP undisturbed condition in 3D. The simulation also employs newly implemented WIPP specific functionalities to PFLOTRAN: 1) gas generation from the wastes, 2) creep closure of bedded salt formation, 3) fractures of marker beds near the excavation, 4) Klinkenberg effect on gas permeability in low-permeable materials, and 5) Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state for gas density.

  7. [Pilot study on hairdresser eczema].

    PubMed

    Zelger, J

    1999-11-01

    From 1990 to 1992 the allergy profile of 1042 prospective hairdressers (personal and family history, atopic skin, serum IgE, patch and prick tests) was determined and their occupational suitability was evaluated. Up to 1997 a follow up of 375 hairdressers was obtained by way of questionnaires, re-examination, official reports and expert opinions of the social accident insurance. The frequency of initial eczema was 30%. A change of occupation on account of hairdresser eczema was documented in 11%. The prognostic evaluation of occupational suitability proved to be unsatisfactory. In this longitudinal study, the frequency of pre-occupational skin symptoms increased from 13 to 18%. The other atopic criteria indicated no uniform tendency. There was a significant increase in nickel allergy from 18.7 to 45.5% resulting partly from sensitization after entering the occupation and partly from an increase in nickel allergy at time of entry. Both atopic skin and pre-occupational nickel allergy increase the risk of hairdresser eczema, it is not so great as to justify dissuading such young people from entering the profession.

  8. The Virtual Flier: The Link Trainer, Flight Simulation, and Pilot Identity.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Chihyung

    2015-01-01

    The Link Trainer is often described as the first successful attempt at what we now recognize as flight simulation and even virtual reality. Instead of asking how well the device simulated flight conditions, this article shows that what the Link Trainer simulated was not the conditions of the air, but rather the conditions of the cockpit that was gradually filled with flight instruments. The article also considers the Link Trainer as a cultural space in which shifting ideas about what it meant to be a pilot were manifested. A pilot in the Link Trainer was trained into a new category of flier-the virtual flier-who was an avid reader of instruments and an attentive listener to signals. This article suggests that, by situating the pilot within new spaces, protocols, and relationships, technologies of simulation have constituted the identity of the modern pilot and other operators of machines.

  9. Preliminary report on airline pilot scan patterns during simulated ILS approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, A. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A series of ILS approaches using seven airline-rated Boeing 737 pilots in an FAA qualified simulator have been conducted. The test matrix included both manual and coupled approaches with and without atmospheric turbulence in Category II weather. A nonintrusive oculometer system was used to track the pilot's eye-point-of-regard throughout the approach. The results indicate that, in general, the pilots use a different scan technique for the manual and coupled conditions; however, the introduction of atmospheric turbulence does not greatly affect the scan behavior in either case. A comparison is made between the objective measures of the instrument scan (oculometer data) and the pilots' opinions of their instrument use. The data show a high degree of consistency among pilots for both the quantitative data and the qualitative data (pilots' opinions). However, there is a slightly lower agreement between the quantitative and qualitative measures.

  10. Pilot simulation study using meat inspection data for syndromic surveillance: use of whole carcass condemnation of adult cattle to assess the performance of several algorithms for outbreak detection.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, C; Morignat, E; Dorea, F; Ducrot, C; Calavas, D; Gay, E

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the performance of several algorithms for outbreak detection based on weekly proportions of whole carcass condemnations. Data from one French slaughterhouse over the 2005-2009 period were used (177 098 slaughtered cattle, 0.97% of whole carcass condemnations). The method involved three steps: (i) preparation of an outbreak-free historical baseline over 5 years, (ii) simulation of over 100 years of baseline time series with injection of artificial outbreak signals with several shapes, durations and magnitudes, and (iii) assessment of the performance (sensitivity, specificity, outbreak detection precocity) of several algorithms to detect these artificial outbreak signals. The algorithms tested included the Shewart p chart, confidence interval of the negative binomial model, the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA); and cumulative sum (CUSUM). The highest sensitivity was obtained using a negative binomial algorithm and the highest specificity with CUSUM or EWMA. EWMA sensitivity was too low to select this algorithm for efficient outbreak detection. CUSUM's performance was complementary to the negative binomial algorithm. The use of both algorithms on real data for a prospective investigation of the whole carcass condemnation rate as a syndromic surveillance indicator could be relevant. Shewart could also be a good option considering its high sensitivity and simplicity of implementation.

  11. A Piloted Simulator Investigation of Side-Stick Controller/Stability and Control Augmentation System Requirements for Helicopter Visual Flight Tasks,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Control System Concept AFC It 0 FWD UTUT COOM11111E1DWACK UBUSIMO H Figure 4. Primary Flight Control System Cne Forward path lead-lag shaping was...For the low speed tasks the pilots were simulation study --one each from Boelng-Vertol, given time to feel out the system before each NASA, the U.S...of the evaluation EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS pilots, (A, C, and D), participated in the previous ADOCS simulation study (Reference 1). Experimental results

  12. A piloted simulation of the backup control system engagement for the YAH-64

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanken, C. L.; Aiken, E. W.; Merrill, R. K.; Ross, V. L.

    1981-01-01

    A piloted simulator experiment, designed to evaluate and optimize certain backup control system (BUCS) engagement parameters and to provide pilot familiarization with aircraft response prior to flight test of the BUCS in the YAH-64 Advanced Attack Helicopter, is described. Key elements of the simulation were the representation of a control system jam, the pilot's breaking of a shear pin in the jammed control, and the resultant BUCS engagement. To minimize the excursions in aircraft motion which could result from the pilot's control inputs after shear pin breakage, the BUCS control function is blended in gradually. The experiment's results indicate that optimum time to full control authority after shear pin breakage is three seconds in all axes for certain critical tasks. Special pilot training in the recovery from a control system jam may be necessary to minimize unacceptably large aircraft transients in the off-axis.

  13. T-4G Simulator and T-4 Ground Training Devices in USAF Undergraduate Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Robert R.; Smith, James F.

    The objective of the project was to investigate the utility of using an A/F37A-T4G T-37 flight simulator within the context of Air Force undergraduate pilot training. Twenty-one subjects, selected from three undergraduate pilot training classes, were given contact flight training in a TP4G/EPT simulator before going to T-37 aircraft for further…

  14. A remotely piloted aircraft system in major incident management: concept and pilot, feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, Håkon B

    2015-06-10

    Major incidents are complex, dynamic and bewildering task environments characterised by simultaneous, rapidly changing events, uncertainty and ill-structured problems. Efficient management, communication, decision-making and allocation of scarce medical resources at the chaotic scene of a major incident is challenging and often relies on sparse information and data. Communication and information sharing is primarily voice-to-voice through phone or radio on specified radio frequencies. Visual cues are abundant and difficult to communicate between teams and team members that are not co-located. The aim was to assess the concept and feasibility of using a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) system to support remote sensing in simulated major incident exercises. We carried out an experimental, pilot feasibility study. A custom-made, remotely controlled, multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle with vertical take-off and landing was equipped with digital colour- and thermal imaging cameras, a laser beam, a mechanical gripper arm and an avalanche transceiver. We collected data in five simulated exercises: 1) mass casualty traffic accident, 2) mountain rescue, 3) avalanche with buried victims, 4) fisherman through thin ice and 5) search for casualties in the dark. The unmanned aerial vehicle was remotely controlled, with high precision, in close proximity to air space obstacles at very low levels without compromising work on the ground. Payload capacity and tolerance to wind and turbulence were limited. Aerial video, shot from different altitudes, and remote aerial avalanche beacon search were streamed wirelessly in real time to a monitor at a ground base. Electromagnetic interference disturbed signal reception in the ground monitor. A small remotely piloted aircraft can be used as an effective tool carrier, although limited by its payload capacity, wind speed and flight endurance. Remote sensing using already existing remotely piloted aircraft technology in pre

  15. Nursing Students' Clinical Experience With Death: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Heise, Barbara A; Gilpin, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    Although debriefing in simulation settings is routine in nursing education, debriefing does not routinely take place in clinical settings with nursing students after a patient has died. This pilot study sought to explore nursing students' perceptions of their first experience with the death of a patient. Students reported emotional distress and feelings of inadequacy with regard to communicating with and supporting the family of the dying patient. Only half the students sampled reported debriefing by their clinical instructor or staff. Nurse educators must include debriefing and student support following a patient death in the clinical setting.

  16. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A pilot study of a spaceborne sidelooking radar is summarized. The results of the system trade studies are given along with the electrical parameters for the proposed subsystems. The mechanical aspects, packaging, thermal control and dynamics of the proposed design are presented. Details of the data processor are given. A system is described that allows the data from a pass over the U. S. to be in hard copy form within two hours. Also included are the proposed schedule, work breakdown structure, and cost estimate.

  17. Effect of caffeine on simulator flight performance in sleep-deprived military pilot students.

    PubMed

    Lohi, Jouni J; Huttunen, Kerttu H; Lahtinen, Taija M M; Kilpeläinen, Airi A; Muhli, Arto A; Leino, Tuomo K

    2007-09-01

    Caffeine has been suggested to act as a countermeasure against fatigue in military operations. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effect of caffeine on simulator flight performance was examined in 13 military pilots during 37 hours of sleep deprivation. Each subject performed a flight mission in simulator four times. The subjects received either a placebo (six subjects) or 200 mg of caffeine (seven subjects) 1 hour before the simulated flights. A moderate 200 mg intake of caffeine was associated with higher axillary temperatures, but it did not affect subjectively assessed sleepiness. Flight performance was similar in both groups during the four rounds flown under sleep deprivation. However, subjective evaluation of overall flight performance in the caffeine group tended to be too optimistic, indicating a potential flight safety problem. Based on our results, we do not recommend using caffeine pills in military flight operations.

  18. Flight Simulator Experiments on Influence of Wideness of Front View for Pilot's Roll Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumata, Kazunari; Nishihata, Michiteru; Kobayashi, Osamu

    Fixed based flight simulator experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of wideness of front view for pilot's roll control. In these experiments, the airplane's motion was considered as a single-degree-of-freedom system in roll, and three front views having different view-angle were provided. The results of these experiments showed that the pilot's roll control characteristics, and the pilot's sensing parameter and reaction time for rolling motion were influenced by the differences of wideness of front view in flight simulator.

  19. A mathematical model of a tilt-wing aircraft for piloted simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totah, Joseph J.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model of a tilt-wing aircraft that was used in a piloted, six-degree-of-freedom flight simulation application is described. Two types of control systems developed for the math model are discussed: a conventional, programmed-flap wing-tilt control system and a geared-flap wing-tilt control system. The primary objective was to develop the capability to study tilt-wing aircraft. Experienced Tilt-wing pilots subjectively evaluated the model using programmed-flap control to assess the quality of the simulation. The math model was then applied to study geared-flap control to investigate the possibility of eliminating the need for auxilary pitch-control devices (such as the horizontal tail rotor or tail jet used in earlier tilt-wing designs). This investigation was performed in the moving-base simulation environment, and the vehicle responses with programmed-flap and geared-flap control were compared. The results of the evaluation of the math model are discussed.

  20. NORTHWEST ORGEON PILOT STUDY AREA (USA): THE USE OF LANDSCAPE SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northwest Oregon Pilot Study Area encompasses approximately 59,167 km2 and varies in elevation from sea level to 3,200 m. Annual precipitation varies with elevation and meridian and ranges from 25 - 460cm. The study area comprises a mixture of federal, state, and privately ow...

  1. NORTHWEST ORGEON PILOT STUDY AREA (USA): THE USE OF LANDSCAPE SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northwest Oregon Pilot Study Area encompasses approximately 59,167 km2 and varies in elevation from sea level to 3,200 m. Annual precipitation varies with elevation and meridian and ranges from 25 - 460cm. The study area comprises a mixture of federal, state, and privately ow...

  2. Pilot Evaluation of Adaptive Control in Motion-Based Flight Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneshige, John T.; Campbell, Stefan Forrest

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the strengths, weaknesses, and robustness characteristics of several MRAC (Model-Reference Adaptive Control) based adaptive control technologies garnering interest from the community as a whole. To facilitate this, a control study using piloted and unpiloted simulations to evaluate sensitivities and handling qualities was conducted. The adaptive control technologies under consideration were ALR (Adaptive Loop Recovery), BLS (Bounded Linear Stability), Hybrid Adaptive Control, L1, OCM (Optimal Control Modification), PMRAC (Predictor-based MRAC), and traditional MRAC

  3. PILOT STUDY: CCQM-P13 pilot study. Metals in artificial food digest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff Briche, C. S. J.

    2003-01-01

    The accuracy of elemental analyses in complex matrices is usually assessed by analysis of a suitable matrix reference material. The reference value is ascribed by consensus mean and by application of primary methods of analysis. However, the quality of this value will be affected by problems such as matrix-induced interferences, moisture corrections and heterogeneity. Pilot study CCQM-P13 was undertaken to assess the capabilities of National Metrology Institutes to analyse Ca, Cu and Cd in an acidic solution that simulates the digest of a food sample. This study filled the gap between the analysis of a gravimetrically prepared calibration solution and the analysis of an unknown in a complex matrix requiring extensive sample preparation. Having an independent reference value, with a small uncertainty, allowed a more rigorous estimation of the reliability of the institutes' analysis and uncertainty estimates, without including issues around sample digestion. The reference values were: 1.6617 +/- 0.0020 µmol/g for Ca, 7.037 +/- 0.012 nmol/g for Cu and 45.57 +/- 0.10 pmol/g for Cd (expanded uncertainties are quoted with coverage factor of 2). The other elements in the matrix were: Na (~25 µg/g), K (~90 µg/g), Cl (~120 µg/g), Fe (~100 ng/g), Mg (~5 µg/g), P (~5 µg/g), Sn (~80 ng/g) and Zn (~200 ng/g). Twelve international laboratories, representing eight countries, determined the amount content of the analytes. A range of techniques that include ID-ICP-MS (high resolution and collision cell), ICP-MS, ICP-OES, AAS, voltametry and potentiometry were used. The results for this pilot study averaged: 1.654 +/- 0.058 µmol/g for Ca (n = 10), 7.26 +/- 0.53 nmol/g for Cu (n = 12) and 45.2 +/- 5.1 pmol/g for Cd (n = 11) where the values associated with the averages are the standard deviations of n participants. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database

  4. A piloted simulation investigation of yaw dynamics requirements for turreted gun use in low-level helicopter air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Morris, Patrick M.; Williams, Jeffrey N.

    1988-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation study was conducted to investigate the handling qualities requirements for helicopter air-to-air combat using turreted guns in the near-terrain environment. The study used a version of the helicopter air combat system developed at NASA Ames Research Center for one-on-one air combat. The study focused on the potential trade-off between gun angular movement capability and required yaw axis response. Experimental variables included yaw axis response frequency and damping and the size of the gun-movement envelope. A helmet position and sighting system was used for pilot control of gun aim. Approximately 340 simulated air combat engagements were evaluated by pilots from the Army and industry. Results from the experiment indicate that a highly-damped, high frequency yaw response was desired for Level I handling qualities. Pilot preference for those characteristics became more pronounced as gun turret movement was restricted; however, a stable, slow-reacting platform could be used with a large turret envelope. Most pilots preferred to engage with the opponent near the own-ship centerline. Turret elevation restriction affected the engagement more than azimuth restrictions.

  5. A piloted simulation investigation of yaw dynamics requirements for turreted gun use in low-level helicopter air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Morris, Patrick M.; Williams, Jeffrey N.

    1988-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation study was conducted to investigate the handling qualities requirements for helicopter air-to-air combat using turreted guns in the near-terrain environment. The study used a version of the helicopter air combat system developed at NASA Ames Research Center for one-on-one air combat. The study focused on the potential trade-off between gun angular movement capability and required yaw axis response. Experimental variables included yaw axis response frequency and damping and the size of the gun-movement envelope. A helmet position and sighting system was used for pilot control of gun aim. Approximately 340 simulated air combat engagements were evaluated by pilots from the Army and industry. Results from the experiment indicate that a highly-damped, high frequency yaw response was desired for Level I handling qualities. Pilot preference for those characteristics became more pronounced as gun turret movement was restricted; however, a stable, slow-reacting platform could be used with a large turret envelope. Most pilots preferred to engage with the opponent near the own-ship centerline. Turret elevation restriction affected the engagement more than azimuth restrictions.

  6. Creating a Realistic Weather Environment for Motion-Based Piloted Flight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Evans, Emory T.; Neece, Robert T.; Young, Steve D.

    2012-01-01

    A flight simulation environment is being enhanced to facilitate experiments that evaluate research prototypes of advanced onboard weather radar, hazard/integrity monitoring (HIM), and integrated alerting and notification (IAN) concepts in adverse weather conditions. The simulation environment uses weather data based on real weather events to support operational scenarios in a terminal area. A simulated atmospheric environment was realized by using numerical weather data sets. These were produced from the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model hosted and run by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To align with the planned flight simulation experiment requirements, several HRRR data sets were acquired courtesy of NOAA. These data sets coincided with severe weather events at the Memphis International Airport (MEM) in Memphis, TN. In addition, representative flight tracks for approaches and departures at MEM were generated and used to develop and test simulations of (1) what onboard sensors such as the weather radar would observe; (2) what datalinks of weather information would provide; and (3) what atmospheric conditions the aircraft would experience (e.g. turbulence, winds, and icing). The simulation includes a weather radar display that provides weather and turbulence modes, derived from the modeled weather along the flight track. The radar capabilities and the pilots controls simulate current-generation commercial weather radar systems. Appropriate data-linked weather advisories (e.g., SIGMET) were derived from the HRRR weather models and provided to the pilot consistent with NextGen concepts of use for Aeronautical Information Service (AIS) and Meteorological (MET) data link products. The net result of this simulation development was the creation of an environment that supports investigations of new flight deck information systems, methods for incorporation of better weather information, and pilot interface and operational improvements

  7. The use of a novel perfusion-based cadaveric simulation model with cerebrospinal fluid reconstitution comparing dural repair techniques: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bakhsheshian, Joshua; Strickland, Ben A; Patel, Neil N; Jakoi, Andre M; Minneti, Michael; Zada, Gabriel; Acosta, Frank L; Hsieh, Patrick C; Wang, Jeffrey C; Liu, John C; Pham, Martin H

    2017-09-01

    Watertight dural repair is crucial for both incidental durotomy and closure after intradural surgery. The study aimed to describe a perfusion-based cadaveric simulation model with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reconstitution and to compare spine dural repair techniques. The study is set in a fresh tissue dissection laboratory. The sample includes eight fresh human cadavers. A watertight closure was achieved when pressurized saline up to 40 mm Hg did not cause further CSF leakage beyond the suture lines. Fresh human cadaveric specimens underwent cannulation of the intradural cervical spine for intrathecal reconstitution of the CSF system. The cervicothoracic dura was then exposed from C7-T12 via laminectomy. The entire dura was then opened in six cadavers (ALLSPINE) and closed with 6-0 Prolene (n=3) or 4-0 Nurolon (n=3), and pressurized with saline via a perfusion system to 60 mm Hg to check for leakage. In two cadavers (INCISION), six separate 2-cm incisions were made and closed with either 6-0 Prolene or 4-0 Nurolon, and then pressurized. A hydrogel sealant was then added and the closure was pressurized again to check for further leakage. Spinal laminectomy with repair of intentional durotomy was successfully performed in eight cadavers. The operative microscope was used in all cases, and the model provided a realistic experience of spinal durotomy repair. For ALLSPINE cadavers (mean: 240 mm dura/cadaver repaired), the mean pressure threshold for CSF leakage was observed at 66.7 (±2.9) mm Hg in the 6-0 Prolene group and at 43.3 (±14.4) mm Hg in the 4-0 Nurolon group (p>.05). For INCISION cadavers, the mean pressure threshold for CSF leakage without hydrogel sealant was significantly higher in 6-0 Prolene group than in the 4-0 Nurolon group (6-0 Prolene: 80.0±4.5 mm Hg vs. 4-0 Nurolon: 32.5±2.7 mm Hg; p<.01). The mean pressure threshold for CSF leakage with the hydrogel sealants was not significantly different (6-0 Prolene: 100.0±0.0

  8. Trapezius muscle metabolism measured with NIRS in helicopter pilots flying a simulator.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Michael F; Neary, J Patrick; Albert, Wayne J; Veillette, Dan W; McKenzie, Neil P; Croll, James C

    2007-02-01

    This study examined metabolic and hemodynamic responses during night vision goggle (NVG) induced neck strain among military helicopter pilots. We hypothesized that near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) would be capable of identifying metabolic differences in the trapezius muscles of pilots between simulated flights with and without NVG. There were 33 pilots who were monitored on consecutive days during Day and NVG flight simulator missions. NIRS probes were attached bilaterally to the trapezius muscles at the C7 level to record total oxygenation index (TOI, %), total hemoglobin (tHb), oxyhemoglobin (HbO2), and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb). Significant differences in tHb were found between Day (0.51+/-2.31 micromol x cm (-1)) and NVG (4.14 +/- 2.74 micromol x cm(-1)) missions, and for HbO2 (Dayend 2.63+/-1.64 micromol x cm(-1); NVGend 5.77+/-1.98 micromol x cm(-1)). Significant left and right side differences between Day and NVG were found for tHb (NVGleit -1.83+/-2.55; NVGright 10.45+/-2.86 micromol x cm(-1)), HbO2 (NVGleft 1.77+/-1.90; NVGright 9.95+/-2.07 micromol x cm(-1)), and HHb (Dayleft -1.84+/-0.95; Dayright -2.32+/-0.87 micromol x cm (-1); NVGleft -3.60+/-1.05 micromol x cm(-1); NVGright 0.49+/-1.16 micromol x cm(-1). These results support NIRS's utility in assessing the significant metabolic and hemodynamic effects of NVG on neck musculature during real-time missions for 1) left and right side differences; and 2) Day vs. NVG missions. The additional mass of the NVG equipment does increase the metabolic stress of these muscles during simulated missions.

  9. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  10. Ballet and stress. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tomei, G; Casale, T; Rosati, M V; Melcarne, R; Sinibaldi, F; Capozzella, A; Di Giorgio, V; Giubilati, R; Sacco, C; Tomei, F; Sancini, A

    2015-01-01

    Work-related stress is a complex problem requiring a work environment-based assessment. Artists like dancers represent a category of atypical workers potentially at high risk for work-related stress. Aim of our pilot study is to evaluate organizational stress in a population of professional dancers, using the HSE Indicator Tool for Work Related Stress. We administered the Italian version of the HSE Indicator Tool to 38 ballet dancers, males and females. The questionnaire evaluates 7 key organizational dimensions: demand, control, managers' support, peer support, relationships, role and change. The standards required-ideal conditions are achieved in none of the above-mentioned dimensions. Change is the only dimension for which results fall between the 20th and the 50th percentile, while for other dimensions results fall below the 20th percentile suggesting the need for immediate corrective action. In male dancers an acceptable situation is highlighted for the dimension "change" compared to female dancers. In both sexes there is a high frequency of subjects complaining of verbal abuse, bullying and harassment. Despite the small sample size, our pilot study highlights the presence of heightened levels of organizational stress. Preventive measures targeted towards improving communication between managers and dancers and aimed at team building should be implemented.

  11. Simulation of carbon degradation in a rotary drum pilot scale composting process.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor, J; Rodríguez Mayor, L; Rodríguez Romero, L; Fernández, F J

    2012-10-15

    This paper studies the simulation of carbon degradation in pilot scale solid waste composting processes using first-order kinetic models previously calibrated by laboratory experiments at different temperatures. Different solid biowastes (olive mill waste, winery waste, sewage sludge and reed biomass) were used. Three mixtures were prepared from combinations of the materials listed above, and they were used in both the laboratory kinetic experiments and the pilot scale composting experiments. Lab experiments were conducted in small reactors with temperature (T) control and forced aeration of the solid mixture. Each biowaste mixture was treated at four different temperatures, 25, 40, 50 and 60 °C, with controlled moisture; the carbon (C) concentration of the samples was measured weekly. Two different kinetic models were used to fit the carbon mineralisation curves: the 2C model, which considers two organic fractions (biodegradable and non-biodegradable), and the 3C model, which considers three fractions (easily biodegradable, slowly biodegradable and non-biodegradable). In both cases, the kinetic rate constants were calculated by mathematical fitting. The influence of temperature on the rate constants was also studied for both models using a T-dependent equation. The theoretical k(T) curves showed classical shapes, and the temperatures for optimum k values and thermal inactivation were obtained. Once the C degradation rate constants and their T dependence equations were available, it was possible to simulate the evolution of C degradation in an actual pilot scale rotary drum composting process under varying temperatures and using the same biowaste mixtures. The comparison between the theoretical profiles and the experimental data showed that the thermophilic stage could be accurately simulated; however, errors and lower levels of model accuracy occurred when the maturation stage was simulated. The simulation was valid for all of the viewed biowaste mixtures. The 2C

  12. How big should the pilot study for my cluster randomised trial be?

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Sandra M; Costelloe, Ceire E; Kahan, Brennan C; Lancaster, Gillian A; Kerry, Sally M

    2016-06-01

    There is currently a lot of interest in pilot studies conducted in preparation for randomised controlled trials. This paper focuses on sample size requirements for external pilot studies for cluster randomised trials. We consider how large an external pilot study needs to be to assess key parameters for input to the main trial sample size calculation when the primary outcome is continuous, and to estimate rates, for example recruitment rates, with reasonable precision. We used simulation to provide the distribution of the expected number of clusters for the main trial under different assumptions about the natural cluster size, intra-cluster correlation, eventual cluster size in the main trial, and various decisions made at the piloting stage. We chose intra-cluster correlation values and pilot study size to reflect those commonly reported in the literature. Our results show that estimates of sample size required for the main trial are likely to be biased downwards and very imprecise unless the pilot study includes large numbers of clusters and individual participants. We conclude that pilot studies will usually be too small to estimate parameters required for estimating a sample size for a main cluster randomised trial (e.g. the intra-cluster correlation coefficient) with sufficient precision and too small to provide reliable estimates of rates for process measures such as recruitment or follow-up rates.

  13. Pilot expertise and hippocampal size: associations with longitudinal flight simulator performance.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Maheen M; Bayley, Peter J; Scanlon, Blake K; Farrell, Michelle E; Hernandez, Beatriz; Weiner, Michael W; Yesavage, Jerome A; Taylor, Joy L

    2012-09-01

    Previous research suggests that the size of the hippocampus can vary in response to intensive training (e.g., during the acquisition of expert knowledge). However, the role of the hippocampus in maintenance of skilled performance is not well understood. The Stanford/Veterans Affairs Aviation MRI Study offers a unique opportunity to observe the interaction of brain structure and multiple levels of expertise on longitudinal flight simulator performance. The current study examined the relationship between hippocampal volume and three levels of aviation expertise, defined by pilot proficiency ratings issued by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (11). At 3 annual time points, 60 pilots who varied in their level of aviation expertise (ages ranging from 45 to 69 yr) were tested. At baseline, higher expertise was associated with better flight simulator performance, but not with hippocampal volume. Longitudinally, there was an Expertise x Hippocampal volume interaction, in the direction that a larger hippocampus was associated with better performance at higher levels of expertise. These results are consistent with the notion that expertise in a cognitively demanding domain involves the interplay of acquired knowledge ('mental schemas') and basic hippocampal-dependent processes.

  14. The Effectiveness of a Simulation-Based Flipped Classroom in the Acquisition of Laparoscopic Suturing Skills in Medical Students-A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Kang, Yi-No; Wang, Wei-Lin; Huang, Hung-Chang; Wu, Chien-Chih; Hsu, Wayne; Tong, Yiu-Shun; Wei, Po-Li

    2017-07-19

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a simulation-based flipped classroom in gaining the laparoscopic skills in medical students. An intervention trial. Taipei Medical University Hospital, an academic teaching hospital. Fifty-nine medical students participating in a 1-hour laparoscopic skill training session were randomly assigned to a conventional classroom (n = 29) or a flipped classroom approach (n = 30) based on their registered order. At the end of the session, instructors assessed participants' performance in laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot-tying using the assessment checklist based on a modified Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills tool. Students in the flipped group completed more numbers of stitches (mean [M] = 0.47; standard deviation [SD] = 0.507) than those in the conventional group (M = 0.10; SD = 0.310) (mean difference: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.114-582; p = 0.002). Moreover, students in the flipped group also had higher stitch quality scores (M = 7.17; SD = 2.730) than those in the conventional group (M = 5.14; SD = 1.767) (mean difference = 2.03; 95% CI: 0.83-3.228; p = 0.001). Meanwhile, students in the flipped group had higher pass rates for the second throw (p < 0.001), third throw (p = 0.002), appropriate tissue reapproximation without loosening or strangulation (p < 0.001), needle cut from suture under direct visualization (p = 0.004), and needle safely removed under direct visualization (p = 0.018) than those in the conventional group. Comparing with traditional approach, a simulation-based flipped classroom approach may improve laparoscopic intracorporeal knot-tying skill acquisition in medical students. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Community parenteral therapy project: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Foster, L; McMurray, A

    1998-01-01

    The pilot study reported in this paper was devised to develop and compare service delivery models that would achieve the provision of high quality parenteral therapy care to patients in the Gold Coast District Health Service community. All data were collected on 113 patients for a 12-month period, January to December 1996. The study compared the provision of outreach nursing services and contracted nursing services on measures of satisfaction and cost. The study showed that patient and carers indicated a preference for community care, medical officers advocated the benefits of administering parenteral therapies in the community, general practitioners were interested in managing future community parenteral therapies, and contracted (nurse) service providers endorsed the development of a parenteral therapy resource centre. The findings also revealed considerable potential cost savings in community-based care.

  16. Pilot performance during a simulated standard instrument procedure turn with and without a predictor display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Wempe, T.

    1973-01-01

    A simulator study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of predictor information incorporated into a CRT display of a computer simulated aircraft's horizontal and vertical situation. Professional pilots served as subjects for the task of executing a standard instrument procedure turn at constant altitude in constant crosswinds with and without their predicted ground track displayed. The results showed that the display with the predicted ground track was markedly and significantly superior to the display without this information and that the subjects were generally satisfied with this type of information. Mean rms lateral path error was independent of the crosswind velocity with the predictor information, and increased without it and with increasing wind velocity. Rms stick activity decreased with the predictor display which also uncoupled aileron and elevator activity.

  17. Pilot performance during a simulated standard instrument procedure turn with and without a predictor display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Wempe, T.

    1973-01-01

    A simulator study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of predictor information incorporated into a CRT display of a computer simulated aircraft's horizontal and vertical situation. Professional pilots served as subjects for the task of executing a standard instrument procedure turn at constant altitude in constant crosswinds with and without their predicted ground track displayed. The results show that the display with the predicted ground track was markedly and significantly superior to the display without this information and that the subjects were generally satisfied with this type of information. Mean rms lateral path error was independent of the crosswind velocity with the predictor information, and increased without it with increasing wind velocity. Rms stick activity decreased with the predictor display which also uncoupled aileron and elevator activity.

  18. Computer simulation of multiple pilots flying a modern high performance helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipf, Mark E.; Vogt, William G.; Mickle, Marlin H.; Hoelzeman, Ronald G.; Kai, Fei; Mihaloew, James R.

    1988-01-01

    A computer simulation of a human response pilot mechanism within the flight control loop of a high-performance modern helicopter is presented. A human response mechanism, implemented by a low order, linear transfer function, is used in a decoupled single variable configuration that exploits the dominant vehicle characteristics by associating cockpit controls and instrumentation with specific vehicle dynamics. Low order helicopter models obtained from evaluations of the time and frequency domain responses of a nonlinear simulation model, provided by NASA Lewis Research Center, are presented and considered in the discussion of the pilot development. Pilot responses and reactions to test maneuvers are presented and discussed. Higher level implementation, using the pilot mechanisms, are discussed and considered for their use in a comprehensive control structure.

  19. In-flight simulation with pilot-center of gravity offset and velocity mismatch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Similarity transformations which preserve modal characteristics and pilot's acceleration cues in in-flight simulation are presented. The model transformation for lateral acceleration matching is developed. A velocity-mismatch example, based on a VRA simulation of the Space Shuttle, illustrates that acceleration matching is achieved at the expense of mismatching in cues which are secondary to the simulated piloting task, while primarily cues are preserved. The approach is applicable for both implicit and explicit model-following, and it can easily be extended to the longitudinal case.

  20. Assessment of simulation fidelity using measurements of piloting technique in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, S. W.; Clement, W. F.; Cleveland, W. B.; Key, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Army and NASA have undertaken the systematic validation of a ground-based piloted simulator for the UH-60A helicopter. The results of previous handling quality and task performance flight tests for this helicopter have been used as a data base for evaluating the fidelity of the present simulation, which is being conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center's Vertical Motion Simulator. Such nap-of-the-earth piloting tasks as pop-up, hover turn, dash/quick stop, sidestep, dolphin, and slalom, have been investigated. It is noted that pilot simulator performance is significantly and quantifiable degraded by comparison with flight test results for the same tasks.

  1. Assessment of simulation fidelity using measurements of piloting technique in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, S. W.; Clement, W. F.; Cleveland, W. B.; Key, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Army and NASA have undertaken the systematic validation of a ground-based piloted simulator for the UH-60A helicopter. The results of previous handling quality and task performance flight tests for this helicopter have been used as a data base for evaluating the fidelity of the present simulation, which is being conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center's Vertical Motion Simulator. Such nap-of-the-earth piloting tasks as pop-up, hover turn, dash/quick stop, sidestep, dolphin, and slalom, have been investigated. It is noted that pilot simulator performance is significantly and quantifiable degraded by comparison with flight test results for the same tasks.

  2. Assessing retinol stability in a hydroquinone 4%/retinol 0.3% cream in the presence of antioxidants and sunscreen under simulated-use conditions: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Arash; Levitt, Jacob

    2008-03-01

    Retinol (ie,vitamin A) is commonly used in dermatology as an adjunct to treat rhytids, acne,and dyschromia. However, vitamin A and many of its derivatives have poor photostability and are unstable in the presence of oxygen. We aimed to assess the stability of retinol under simulated patient application conditions in a commercially available hydroquinone 4% cream containing retinol 0.3%, avobenzone (ultraviolet-A sunscreen), octinoxate (ultraviolet-B sunscreen), vitamins C and E (antioxidants), and moisturizers. One gram of the preparation was applied as a thin film to the inside base of 4 groups of four 100-mL wide-mouthed beakers, incubated in a 37+/-2 degrees C water bath. Each experimental group consisted of 4 beakers for assays at 0.5,1,2,and 4 hours. The samples were exposed to varying combinations of full spectrum light and headspace gas (air or inert nitrogen gas [N2 ]). Retinol content was assayed via high-pressure liquid chromatography using a 1:9 water:methanol solvent system. The control group (group 5) was not exposed to full-spectrum light or headspace gas but served for comparative purposes. On exposure to light and room air, retinol stability was 94.4% at 0.5 hour, 94.8% at 1 hour, 92.4% at 2 hours, and 91.5% at 4 hours. The retinol contained in the preparation was stable for >or=4 hours. Samples exposed to light and N 2 gas demonstrated 96.5% and 91.3% stability at 0.5 hour and 4 hours exposure times, respectively. Samples that were not exposed to light had a stability of 99.2% (group 3, exposed to air) and 96.9% (group 4, exposed to N(2)) of the initial retinol present after 4 hours. The retinol in the hydroquinone 4%/ retinol 0.3% cream with antioxidants and sunscreens underwent <10% degradation under simulated-use conditions, including exposure to UV light, oxygen, and body temperature.

  3. Piloted studies of Enhanced or Synthetic Vision display parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Randall L., Sr.; Parrish, Russell V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of several studies conducted at Langley Research Center over the past few years. The purposes of these studies were to investigate parameters of pictorial displays and imaging sensors that affect pilot approach and landing performance. Pictorial displays have demonstrated exceptional tracking performance and improved the pilots' spatial awareness. Stereopsis cueing improved pilot flight performance and reduced pilot stress. Sensor image parameters such as increased field-of-view. faster image update rate, and aiding symbology improved flare initiation. Finer image resolution and magnification improved attitude control performance parameters.

  4. Advanced Simulation in Undergraduate Pilot Training: Automatic Instructional System. Final Report for the Period March 1971-January 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faconti, Victor; Epps, Robert

    The Advanced Simulator for Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT) was designed to investigate the role of simulation in the future Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT) program. The Automated Instructional System designed for the ASUPT simulator was described in this report. The development of the Automated Instructional System for ASUPT was based upon…

  5. Pilot physiology, cognition and flight performance during flight simulation exposed to a 3810-m hypoxic condition.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Corey A; Weber, Raymond; Sanders, Gabriel J; Seo, Yongsuk; Kean, David; Pollock, Brandon S; Burns, Keith J; Cain, Mark; LaScola, Phillip; Glickman, Ellen L

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxia is a physiological state defined as a reduction in the distribution of oxygen to the tissues of the body. It has been considered a major factor in aviation safety worldwide because of its potential for pilot disorientation. Pilots are able to operate aircrafts up to 3810 m without the use of supplemental oxygen and may exhibit symptoms associated with hypoxia. To determine the effects of 3810 m on physiology, cognition and performance in pilots during a flight simulation. Ten healthy male pilots engaged in a counterbalanced experimental protocol comparing a 0-m normoxic condition (NORM) with a 3810-m hypoxic condition (HYP) on pilot physiology, cognition and flight performance. Repeated-measures analysis of variance demonstrated a significant (p ≤ 0.05) time by condition interaction for physiological and cognitive alterations during HYP. A paired-samples t test demonstrated no differences in pilot performance (p ≥ 0.05) between conditions. Pilots exhibited physiological and cognitive impairments; however, pilot performance was not affected by HYP.

  6. Impact of a web based interactive simulation game (PULSE) on nursing students' experience and performance in life support training--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cook, Neal F; McAloon, Toni; O'Neill, Philip; Beggs, Richard

    2012-08-01

    The delivery of effective life support measures is highly associated with the quality, design and implementation of the education that underpins it. Effectively responding to a critical event is a requirement for all nurses illustrating the need for effective educational approaches from pre-registration training through to enhancing and maintaining life support skills after qualification. This paper reports the findings of utilising a web-based multimedia simulation game PULSE (Platform for Undergraduate Life Support Education). The platform was developed to enhance the student experience of life support education, to motivate on-going learning and engagement and to improve psychomotor skills associated with the provision of Intermediate Life Support (ILS) training. Pre training participants played PULSE and during life support training data was collected from an intervention and a control group of final year undergraduate nursing students (N=34). Quantitative analysis of performance took place and qualitative data was generated from a questionnaire assessing the learning experience. A statistically significant difference was found between the competence the groups displayed in the three skills sets of checking equipment, airway assessment and the safe/effective use of defibrillator at ILS level, and PULSE was positively evaluated as an educational tool when used alongside traditional life support training.

  7. DU-AGG pilot plant design study

    SciTech Connect

    Lessing, P.A.; Gillman, H.

    1996-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is developing new methods to produce high-density aggregate (artificial rock) primarily consisting of depleted uranium oxide. The objective is to develop a low-cost method whereby uranium oxide powder (UO[sub 2], U[sub 3]O[sub ]8, or UO[sub 3]) can be processed to produce high-density aggregate pieces (DU-AGG) having physical properties suitable for disposal in low-level radioactive disposal facilities or for use as a component of high-density concrete used as shielding for radioactive materials. A commercial company, G-M Systems, conducted a design study for a manufacturing pilot plant to process DU-AGG. The results of that study are included and summarized in this report. Also explained are design considerations, equipment capacities, the equipment list, system operation, layout of equipment in the plant, cost estimates, and the proposed plan and schedule.

  8. Location Independent Professional Project: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, J.A.; Long, J.P.; Miller, M.M.

    1999-02-01

    This pilot study project explored the problem of providing access to the nomadic worker who desires to connect a computer through network access points at a number of different locations within the SNL/NM campus as well as outside the campus. The design and prototype development gathered knowledge that may allow a design to be developed that could be extended to a larger number of SNL/NM network drop boxes. The focus was to provide a capability for a worker to access the SNL IRN from a network drop box (e.g. in a conference room) as easily as when accessing the computer network from the office normally used by the worker. Additional study was done on new methods to authenticate the off campus worker, and protect and control access to data.

  9. NASA X-57 Simulator Prepares Pilots, Engineers for Flight of Electric X-Plane

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-29

    NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden, a former pilot and astronaut who flew on four shuttle missions, appeared natural at the controls of the X-57 simulator cockpit, and flew a pair of simulations where he landed on the Edwards Air Force Base runway.

  10. Pilot perception and confidence of location during a simulated helicopter navigation task.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji Hyun; Cowden, Bradley T; Kennedy, Quinn; Schramm, Harrison; Sullivan, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    This paper aims to provide insights into human perception, navigation performance, and confidence in helicopter overland navigation. Helicopter overland navigation is a challenging mission area because it is a complex cognitive task, and failing to recognize when the aircraft is off-course can lead to operational failures and mishaps. A human-in-the-loop experiment to investigate pilot perception during simulated overland navigation by analyzing actual navigation trajectory, pilots' perceived location, and corresponding confidence levels was designed. There were 15 military officers with prior overland navigation experience who completed 4 simulated low-level navigation routes, 2 of which entailed auto-navigation. This route was paused roughly every 30 s for the subject to mark their perceived location on the map and their confidence level using a customized program. Analysis shows that there is no correlation between perceived and actual location of the aircraft, nor between confidence level and actual location. There is, however, some evidence that there is a correlation (rho = -0.60 to approximately 0.65) between perceived location and intended route of flight, suggesting that there is a bias toward believing one is on the intended flight route. If aviation personnel can proactively identify the circumstances in which usual misperceptions occur in navigation, they may reduce mission failure and accident rate. Fleet squadrons and instructional commands can benefit from this study to improve operations that require low-level flight while also improving crew resource management.

  11. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in commercial airline pilots: a cohort study of 2630 pilots.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, S; Venemans-Jellema, A; Cannegieter, S C; van Haften, M; Middeldorp, S; Büller, H R; Rosendaal, F R

    2014-08-01

    Airline pilots may be at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) because air travel has recently been established as a risk factor for VTE. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of VTE in a cohort of Dutch airline pilots. Airline pilots who had been active members of the Dutch aviation society (VNV) were questioned for the occurrence of VTE, presence of risk factors for VTE and number of flight hours per year and rank. Incidence rates among pilots were compared with those of the general Dutch population and with a population of frequently flying employees of multinational organizations. A total of 2630 male pilots were followed-up for a total of 20420 person-years (py). Six venous thromboses were reported, yielding an incidence rate of 0.3 per 1000 py. The standardized morbidity ratio, comparing these pilots with the general Dutch population adjusted for age, was 0.8. Compared with the international employee cohort, the standardized morbidity ratio was 0.7 when all employees were included and 0.6 when only the frequently travelling employees were included. The incidence rate did not increase with number of flight hours per year and did not clearly vary by rank. We conclude that the risk of VTE is not increased amongst airline pilots. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  12. Simulation verification techniques study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonmaker, P. B.; Wenglinski, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    Results are summarized of the simulation verification techniques study which consisted of two tasks: to develop techniques for simulator hardware checkout and to develop techniques for simulation performance verification (validation). The hardware verification task involved definition of simulation hardware (hardware units and integrated simulator configurations), survey of current hardware self-test techniques, and definition of hardware and software techniques for checkout of simulator subsystems. The performance verification task included definition of simulation performance parameters (and critical performance parameters), definition of methods for establishing standards of performance (sources of reference data or validation), and definition of methods for validating performance. Both major tasks included definition of verification software and assessment of verification data base impact. An annotated bibliography of all documents generated during this study is provided.

  13. The Pilot Staffing Conundrum: A Delphi Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Project, AFIT/ GMO /LAL/98J-2. School of Logistics and Acquisition Management, Air Force Institute of Technology (AU), Wright Patterson AFB, OH, June...Kafer, John H. Relationship of Airline Pilot Demand and Air Force Pilot Retention. Graduate Research Project, AFIT/ GMO /LAL/98J-11. School of Logistics

  14. Immigration and HIV infection: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Loue, S; Oppenheim, S

    1994-02-01

    This pilot study was conducted to determine areas in which additional education regarding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is needed by the undocumented and recently immigrated HIV-infected population, and to obtain preliminary information on the ability of this community to access medical treatment for HIV. Information regarding health status, immigration status, and the use of medical services was obtained from all HIV-infected undocumented and recently immigrated individuals who sought services from a Southern California nonprofit agency between July 1, 1990 and December 31, 1990. A total of 54 such individuals presented for services. Thirteen individuals reported participating in shared needle usage for the administration of medication or vitamins, in addition to other known risk factors for HIV. Only one of these 13 individuals had access to nonemergency medical care. Additional research is necessary to determine the reasons for these needle sharing behaviors. Educational outreach is needed to address these behaviors as a possible risk factor for HIV transmission.

  15. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHODS DEVELOPMENT PILOTS FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are needed to link exposure with health effects. EPA began methods development pilot studies in 2000 to address general questions about exposures and outcome measures. Selected pilot studies are highlighted in this poster. The “Literature Re...

  16. School Nurses' Support for Bereaved Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohan, Janet A.

    2006-01-01

    Children may have difficulty with schoolwork because of grief over the death of an important person in their lives. School nurses provide support to these children. This pilot study consisted of a Web-based survey completed by 6 school nurses in a 3-county area in Washington state. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the need for…

  17. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHODS DEVELOPMENT PILOTS FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are needed to link exposure with health effects. EPA began methods development pilot studies in 2000 to address general questions about exposures and outcome measures. Selected pilot studies are highlighted in this poster. The “Literature Re...

  18. Validation of the MUFITS reservoir simulator against standard industrial simulation tools for CO2 storage at the Ketzin pilot site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Andrey; Kempka, Thomas; Kühn, Michael; Melnik, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    We give an overview of the reservoir simulator MUFITS capabilities for modelling underground carbon dioxide storage using the EOS-modules GASSTORE and BLACKOIL. The GASSTORE module covers three-phase solid-liquid-gas flows of water, carbon dioxide and salt components. The extended black-oil model is utilized in the BLACKOIL module, which can be applied in the CO2 storage scenarios to two-phase flows of CO2 and brine components. The modules allow comprehensive options including salt precipitation/dissolution, thermal processes, multiple properties regions, and complicated initial vertical equilibration. The PVT tables for the BLACKOIL module can be generated automatically from the GASSTORE module for a given reservoir temperature and brine salinity. We test the simulator against published benchmarking studies. We then consider an application case of CO2 storage at the Ketzin pilot site in Germany. For that purpose, we use a calibrated 3D geological reservoir model comprising a highly heterogeneous distribution of porosity and permeability in a fluvial geological setting. The simulation is conducted using the EOS-module BLACKOIL and the modelling results are in excellent agreement with the results of the industrial simulators applied in previous benchmarks. In particular, the bottom-hole pressure in the injection well, the total mass of dissolved CO2 and spatial CO2 distribution are identical with previously published results.

  19. Instructor and student pilots' subjective evaluation of a general aviation simulator with a terrain visual system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiteley, G. W.; Harris, R. L., Sr.

    1978-01-01

    Ten student pilots were given a 1 hour training session in the NASA Langley Research Center's General Aviation Simulator by a certified flight instructor and a follow-up flight evaluation was performed by the student's own flight instructor, who has also flown the simulator. The students and instructors generally felt that the simulator session had a positive effect on the students. They recommended that a simulator with a visual scene and a motion base would be useful in performing such maneuvers as: landing approaches, level flight, climbs, dives, turns, instrument work, and radio navigation, recommending that the simulator would be an efficient means of introducing the student to new maneuvers before doing them in flight. The students and instructors estimated that about 8 hours of simulator time could be profitably devoted to the private pilot training.

  20. Seat cushion to provide realistic acceleration cues to aircraft simulator pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, B. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Seat cushions, each including an air cell with a non-compressible surface, are disclosed. The apparatus are provided for initially controlling the air pressure in the air cells to allow the two main support areas of the simulator pilot to touch the non-compressible surface and thus begin to compress the flesh near these areas. During a simulated flight the apparatus control the air pressure in the cells to simulate the events that occur in a seat cushion during actual flight.

  1. Study of occupational stress among railway engine pilots.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devesh; Singh, Jai Vir; Kharwar, Poonam S

    2011-01-01

    Traffic volume and speed is going to be increased in Indian Railways successively, leading to higher stress in staff connected with train operations. The jobs of railway engine pilots come under the category of high-strain jobs, necessitating a need to conduct multicentric study to unfold the factors associated with occupational stress and organizational strategies. Present study covered 185 railway engine pilots and office clerks working in various railway zones by incidental method. Occupational Stress Index (OSI) test developed by Srivastva and Singh, questionnaire of specific stressors constructed by authors and laboratory test battery for psychological screening of high-speed train pilots were used as tools. Means of OSI and all the 12 occupational stressors of railway engine pilots were found significantly higher to that of office clerks. Means of OSI and occupational stressors of goods train pilots were significantly higher in comparison to high-speed train pilots and passenger train pilots. Study revealed positive correlation of speed perception and complex reaction time tests and negative correlation of other constituent tests of laboratory test battery to OSI test. Highest subgroup of stressor observedwas role overload followed by role conflict. These findings provide a prima facie evidence of higher occupational stress among railway engine pilots because of identified specific stressors prevalent in their job and explore the possible intervention strategies for its reduction. Significant correlation is noticed between OSI and laboratory test results, indicating its relevant utility in preliminary psychological screening.

  2. Study of occupational stress among railway engine pilots

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Devesh; Singh, Jai Vir; Kharwar, Poonam S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traffic volume and speed is going to be increased in Indian Railways successively, leading to higher stress in staff connected with train operations. The jobs of railway engine pilots come under the category of high-strain jobs, necessitating a need to conduct multicentric study to unfold the factors associated with occupational stress and organizational strategies. Materials and Methods: Present study covered 185 railway engine pilots and office clerks working in various railway zones by incidental method. Occupational Stress Index (OSI) test developed by Srivastva and Singh, questionnaire of specific stressors constructed by authors and laboratory test battery for psychological screening of high-speed train pilots were used as tools. Results: Means of OSI and all the 12 occupational stressors of railway engine pilots were found significantly higher to that of office clerks. Means of OSI and occupational stressors of goods train pilots were significantly higher in comparison to high-speed train pilots and passenger train pilots. Study revealed positive correlation of speed perception and complex reaction time tests and negative correlation of other constituent tests of laboratory test battery to OSI test. Highest subgroup of stressor observedwas role overload followed by role conflict. Conclusions: These findings provide a prima facie evidence of higher occupational stress among railway engine pilots because of identified specific stressors prevalent in their job and explore the possible intervention strategies for its reduction. Significant correlation is noticed between OSI and laboratory test results, indicating its relevant utility in preliminary psychological screening. PMID:21808497

  3. A piloted simulator investigation of augmentation systems to improve helicopter nap-of-the-earth handling qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T. N.; Talbot, P. D.; Gerdes, R. M.; Dugan, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    A piloted simulation study assessed various levels of stability and control augmentation designed to improve the handling qualities of several helicopters in nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight. Five basic single rotor helicopters - one teetering, two articulated, and two hingeless - which were found to have a variety of major deficiencies in a previous fixed-based simulator study were selected as baseline configurations. The stability and control augmentation systems (SCAS) include simple control augmentation systems (CAS) to decouple pitch and yaw responses due to collective input and to quicken the pitch and roll control responses; SCAS of rate command type designed to optimize the sensitivity and damping and to decouple the pitch-roll due to aircraft angular rate; and attitude command type SCAS. Pilot ratings and commentary are presented as well as performance data related to the task. SCAS control usage and their gain levels associated with specific rotor type are also discussed.

  4. H-Coal-pilot-plant startup-oil study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This bench-unit program simulated the Catlettsburg H-Coal Pilot Plant start-up procedure in Run 6, which used catalytic cracker slurry oil, an aromatic petroleum oil. The program was designed to explore the reasons for Pilot Plant operational difficulties which included reactor product instability, vacuum pumping difficulties and unexpected product yields. Startup oil, hydroclone overflow and withdrawn catalyst were obtained from the Pilot Plant for use in this run with Illinois No. 6 coal. In this run the ratio of startup oil/coal was varied in Periods 1-10, from 2 to 0.2, while the ratio of recycle oil to coal was increased from 0 to 1.8. Recycle oils generated during this run were used as slurry oils in Periods 11 and 12. Initially, the C/sub 4/-975/sup 0/F total distillate yield was 57.4 W %. As the startup oil feed was eliminated later in the run, the C/sub 4/-974/sup 0/F yield fell to 45.4 W %. Ancillary studies were performed on separator bottoms in order to establish their viscosity and settling characteristics as a function of time. Viscosity measurements were also made on bottoms containing 1 to 30 W % 975/sup 0/F/sup -/ distillate. For comparison, viscosities were measured as a function of temperature using PDU Run 5 hydroclone overflow samples which were vacuum distilled to contain < 33 W % 975/sup 0/F distillate. The propensity toward carbon formation was investigated by a series of Ramsbottom carbon residue (RCR) measurements on separator bottoms which covered the range of startup oil/coal ratios from 2 to 0. Finally, microautoclave tests were performed on startup oil and hydroclone overflow oils in order to assess their ability to dissolve coal.

  5. Status of NASA/Army rotorcraft research and development piloted flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gregory W.; Gossett, Terrence D.

    1988-01-01

    The status of the major NASA/Army capabilities in piloted rotorcraft flight simulation is reviewed. The requirements for research and development piloted simulation are addressed as well as the capabilities and technologies that are currently available or are being developed by NASA and the Army at Ames. The application of revolutionary advances (in visual scene, electronic cockpits, motion, and modelling of interactive mission environments and/or vehicle systems) to the NASA/Army facilities are also addressed. Particular attention is devoted to the major advances made in integrating these individual capabilities into fully integrated simulation environment that were or are being applied to new rotorcraft mission requirements. The specific simulators discussed are the Vertical Motion Simulator and the Crew Station Research and Development Facility.

  6. Pilot-Induced Oscillation Prediction With Three Levels of Simulation Motion Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Jeffery A.; Chung, William W. Y.; Tran, Duc T.; Laforce, Soren; Bengford, Norman J.

    2001-01-01

    Simulator motion platform characteristics were examined to determine if the amount of motion affects pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) prediction. Five test pilots evaluated how susceptible 18 different sets of pitch dynamics were to PIOs with three different levels of simulation motion platform displacement: large, small, and none. The pitch dynamics were those of a previous in-flight experiment, some of which elicited PIOs These in-flight results served as truth data for the simulation. As such, the in-flight experiment was replicated as much as possible. Objective and subjective data were collected and analyzed With large motion, PIO and handling qualities ratings matched the flight data more closely than did small motion or no motion. Also, regardless of the aircraft dynamics, large motion increased pilot confidence in assigning handling qualifies ratings, reduced safety pilot trips, and lowered touchdown velocities. While both large and small motion provided a pitch rate cue of high fidelity, only large motion presented the pilot with a high fidelity vertical acceleration cue.

  7. An experimental study of human pilot's scanning behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washizu, K.; Tanaka, K.; Osawa, T.

    1982-01-01

    The scanning behavior and the control behavior of the pilot who manually controls the two-variable system, which is the most basic one of multi-variable systems are investigated. Two control tasks which simulate the actual airplane attitude and airspeed control were set up. In order to simulate the change of the situation where the pilot is placed, such as changes of flight phase, mission and others, the subject was requested to vary the weightings, as his control strategy, upon each task. Changes of human control dynamics and his canning properties caused by the modification of the situation were investigated. By making use of the experimental results, the optimal model of the control behavior and the scanning behavior of the pilot in the two-variable system is proposed from the standpoint of making the performance index minimal.

  8. An experimental study of human pilot's scanning behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washizu, K.; Tanaka, K.; Osawa, T.

    1982-01-01

    The scanning behavior and the control behavior of the pilot who manually controls the two-variable system, which is the most basic one of multi-variable systems are investigated. Two control tasks which simulate the actual airplane attitude and airspeed control were set up. In order to simulate the change of the situation where the pilot is placed, such as changes of flight phase, mission and others, the subject was requested to vary the weightings, as his control strategy, upon each task. Changes of human control dynamics and his canning properties caused by the modification of the situation were investigated. By making use of the experimental results, the optimal model of the control behavior and the scanning behavior of the pilot in the two-variable system is proposed from the standpoint of making the performance index minimal.

  9. Climatotherapy in Japan: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanayama, Hitomi; Kusaka, Yukinori; Hirai, Takayoshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Agishi, Yuko; Schuh, Angela

    2017-08-01

    Twenty-nine urban inhabitants participated in a half-day climatotherapy programme at the moderate mountain area and lowland area in the northwest part of the main island of Japan. The current study was aimed to investigate physically and mentally the objective and subjective influence of our short programme, which was a prospective pilot study of single intervention. Blood pressure was significantly descended during terrain cure at the uphill mountain path and returned after fresh-air rest cure, while there was no significant change throughout the programme at lowland flat path. Heart rate was significantly ascended and descended at both area, and more clearly changed at the mountain path. Profile of Mood Status brief form Japanese version administered before and after our half-day programme. Age adjusted T score of negative subscales, `tension-anxiety', `depression', `anger-hostility', `fatigue' and `confusion' were significantly lower after climatotherapy at both sites. Whereas, there was no significant change concerning `vigour' score. This short-version climatotherapy programme has been designed for people without enough time for long stay at health resort. It turned out our half-day climatotherapy programme contribute to mood status improvement. In addition, repeated practice of our short-version programme including endurance exercise with cool body shell using uphill path can be expected that blood pressure will go toward the normal range and heart rate will decrease both in usual time and during exercise. Therefore, health benefits can be expected of this climatotherapy programme.

  10. A pilot study of intraoral temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Youngson, C C; Barclay, C W

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this in vivo pilot study was to record variations in temperature at various sites in a subject's mouth in response to a standardised thermal challenge and to determine a more realistic thermocycling regimen for future use. A volunteer who suffered from no dentinal hypersensitivity had modified study models prepared for constructing vacuum-formed PVC splints. Perforations 2 mm in diameter were placed for thermocouples facially and lingually in the midcoronal sites of the upper and lower central incisors, canines, second premolars, and second molars to measure temperatures at these sites. A standardised drinking regimen was followed of hot black coffee (72.5 degrees C) followed by cold orange juice (6.0 degrees C). Contralateral sites experienced similar temperature changes of short duration. A maximum of 68.0 degrees C and a minimum of 15.4 degrees C were recorded. Less extreme temperatures were experienced posteriorly, and little or no discernible changes were noted at the facial aspects of the upper second molars or lingually on the lower second molars. Most commonly used thermocycling regimens are clinically unrealistic, and temperatures vary widely throughout the mouth when hot or cold drinks are taken.

  11. A simulator application of a 'hands-on throttle and stick' concept to a transport pilot/autopilot interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busquets, A. M.; Parrish, R. V.; Hogge, T. W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the initial experiences garnered in applying a multifunction control strategy, based on the U.S. Air Force's 'Hands-On Throttle-and-Stick' concept for fighter aircraft to a transport aircraft simulator. The multifunction control strategy involves the activation of various flight system/subsystem operations (such as guidance and control, communication, and navigation functions) by use of menu displays and throttle and stick switches. The initial application of this multifunction control (MFC) concept was developed around a pilot/autopilot interface, contrasting a conventional, dedicated autopilot interface to an MFC implementation. The simulator characteristics and autopilot functions, as well as the conventional interface and MFC hardware/software, which were utilized in the application, are described herein. Initial pilot reaction and suggested improvements to this particular implementation are discussed. The paper terminates with a glance at plans for improvements and future applications based on the outcome of this initial study.

  12. Users guide: The LaRC human-operator-simulator-based pilot model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogart, E. H.; Waller, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    A Human Operator Simulator (HOS) based pilot model has been developed for use at NASA LaRC for analysis of flight management problems. The model is currently configured to simulate piloted flight of an advanced transport airplane. The generic HOS operator and machine model was originally developed under U.S. Navy sponsorship by Analytics, Inc. and through a contract with LaRC was configured to represent a pilot flying a transport airplane. A version of the HOS program runs in batch mode on LaRC's (60-bit-word) central computer system. This document provides a guide for using the program and describes in some detail the assortment of files used during its operation.

  13. Simulation Evaluation of Pilot Inputs for Real Time Modeling During Commercial Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martos, Borja; Ranaudo, Richard; Oltman, Ryan; Myhre, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Aircraft dynamics characteristics can only be identified from flight data when the aircraft dynamics are excited sufficiently. A preliminary study was conducted into what types and levels of manual piloted control excitation would be required for accurate Real-Time Parameter IDentification (RTPID) results by commercial airline pilots. This includes assessing the practicality for the pilot to provide this excitation when cued, and to further understand if pilot inputs during various phases of flight provide sufficient excitation naturally. An operationally representative task was evaluated by 5 commercial airline pilots using the NASA Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD). Results showed that it is practical to use manual pilot inputs only as a means of achieving good RTPID in all phases of flight and in flight turbulence conditions. All pilots were effective in satisfying excitation requirements when cued. Much of the time, cueing was not even necessary, as just performing the required task provided enough excitation for accurate RTPID estimation. Pilot opinion surveys reported that the additional control inputs required when prompted by the excitation cueing were easy to make, quickly mastered, and required minimal training.

  14. Functional Allocation with Airborne Self-Separation Evaluated in a Piloted Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Chamberlain, James P.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Hoardley, Sherwood T.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Palmer, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation experiment was designed and conducted to evaluate an airborne self-separation concept. The activity supports the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) research focus on function allocation for separation assurance. The objectives of the experiment were twofold: (1) use experiment design features in common with a companion study of ground-based automated separation assurance to promote comparability, and (2) assess agility of self-separation operations in managing trajectory-changing events in high traffic density, en-route operations with arrival time constraints. This paper describes the experiment and presents initial results associated with subjective workload ratings and group discussion feedback obtained from the experiment s commercial transport pilot participants.

  15. Effect of different runway sizes on pilot performance during simulated night landing approaches.

    PubMed

    Mertens, H W; Lewis, M F

    1982-05-01

    Both anecdotal reports from pilots and theories of visual cues would predict lower approaches to narrow or long runways than to wide and short runways. Similar, practice approaches made by pilots to a particular width of runway should lead to an increase in subsequent approach angles flown to wider runways and a decrease in approach angles flown to narrower runways. Two experiments with instrument-rated pilots made quantitative tests and these predictions. In Experiment I, three pilots flew simulated approaches and landings in a fixed-base simulator with a computer-generated image visual display. Practice approaches were flown with an 8,000-ft long runway that was either 75, 150, or 300 ft wide; test approaches were to runways with widths or 75, 100, 150, 200, and 300 ft. In Experiment II, 40 pilots controlled the slant of a moving model runway during simulated night visual approaches. Five different models simulated runways from 100 to 300 ft wide and 3,000 to 9,000 ft long. As predicted, training on a wide runway in Experiment I lowered approach angle in approaches to narrower runways; a narrow practice runway also raised approach angles to wider runways. The magnitude of these practice effects increased as distance from runway threshold decreased. There was also a general tendency for approach angles to decrease as runway width decreased. The latter effect was corroborated in Experiment II; in addition, generated approach angles decreased with increasing runway length. Giving half the pilots information about runway size prior to each approach had no effect on responses. These findings add to the quantitative evidence of danger in night visual approaches due to visual illusions and large variability in the visual perception of approach angle.

  16. A PILOT-SCALE STUDY ON THE COMBUSTION OF WASTE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Symposium Paper Post-consumer carpet is a potential substitute fuel for high temperature thermal processes such as cement kilns and boilers.This paper reports on results examining emissions of PCDDs/Fs from a series of pilot-scale experiments performed on the EPA's rotary kiln incinerator simulator facility in Research triangle Park, NC.

  17. Use of Piloted Simulation for High-Angle-of-Attack Agility Research and Design Criteria Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogburn, Marilyn E.; Foster, John V.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    The use of piloted simulation at Langley Research Center as part of the NASA High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP) to provide methods and concepts for the design of advanced fighter aircraft is discussed. A major focus is to develop the design process required to fully exploit the benefits from advanced control concepts for high-angle-of attack agility.

  18. Biodynamic Assessment of Pilot Knee-Board Configurations During Simulated T-38 Catapult Acceleration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    0041 Biodynamic Assessment of Pilot Knee -Board Configurations During Simulated T-38 Catapult Acceleration Mr. Chris Perry Mr. Chris...distribution unlimited. STINFO COPY AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY 711 HUMAN PERFORMANCE WING, HUMAN EFFECTIVENESS DIRECTORATE, WRIGHT...PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OH 45433 AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings

  19. Correlations between visual test results and flying performance on the advanced simulator for pilot training (ASPT).

    PubMed

    Kruk, R; Regan, D; Beverley, K I; Longridge, T

    1981-08-01

    Looking for visual differences in pilots to account for differences in flying performance, we tested five groups of subjects: Air Force primary student jet pilots, graduating (T38 aircraft) students, Air Force pilot instructors, and two control groups made up of experienced nonpilot aircrew and nonflying civilians. This interim report compares 13 different visual test results with low-visibility landing performance on the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory ASPT simulator. Performance was assessed by the number of crashes and by the distance of the aircraft from the runway threshold at the time of the first visual flight correction. Our main finding was that, for student pilots, landing performance correlated with tracking performance for a target that changed size (as if moving in depth) and also with tracking performance for a target that moved sideways. On the other hand, landing performance correlated comparatively weakly with psychophysical thresholds for motion and contrast. For student pilots, several of the visual tests gave results that correlated with flying grades in T37 and T38 jet aircraft. Tracking tests clearly distinguished between the nonflying group and all the flying groups. On the other hand, visual threshold tests did not distinguish between nonflying and flying groups except for grating contrast, which distinguished between the nonflying group and the pilot instructors. The sideways-motion tracking task was sensitive enough to distinguish between the various flying groups.

  20. Partnering to Establish and Study Simulation in International Nursing Education.

    PubMed

    Garner, Shelby L; Killingsworth, Erin; Raj, Leena

    The purpose of this article was to describe an international partnership to establish and study simulation in India. A pilot study was performed to determine interrater reliability among faculty new to simulation when evaluating nursing student competency performance. Interrater reliability was below the ideal agreement level. Findings in this study underscore the need to obtain baseline interrater reliability data before integrating competency evaluation into a simulation program.

  1. Hypoxia and Flight Performance of Military Instructor Pilots in a Flight Simulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    aircraft or flight simulators a LinkGAT-l instrument trainer ronttcl~d ~ quent report accuracy and the occurrence of errors during cross- country Hights ...in procedural errors due to hypoxia, but no ronvincing evidence for any impact on primary Hight performance, i.e., the pilot’s stick and rudder...control of the aircraft. Most recently, a presentation reported a de- crease in simulated Hight performance that correlated with a decrease in cognitive

  2. 1999 ANNUAL REPORT NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This annual report present the proceedings of the second annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Belfast, UK in March 1999. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the research arena of clean products, clean processes, and pollution prevention tools.

  3. 1999 ANNUAL REPORT NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This annual report present the proceedings of the second annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Belfast, UK in March 1999. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the research arena of clean products, clean processes, and pollution prevention tools.

  4. Answering Fixed Response Items in Chemistry: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hateley, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a pilot study on student thinking in chemistry. Verbal comments of a group of six college students were recorded and analyzed to identify how each student arrives at the correct answer in fixed response items in chemisty. (HM)

  5. Differential activation of brain regions involved with error-feedback and imitation based motor simulation when observing self and an expert's actions in pilots and non-pilots on a complex glider landing task.

    PubMed

    Callan, Daniel E; Terzibas, Cengiz; Cassel, Daniel B; Callan, Akiko; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sato, Masa-Aki

    2013-05-15

    In this fMRI study we investigate neural processes related to the action observation network using a complex perceptual-motor task in pilots and non-pilots. The task involved landing a glider (using aileron, elevator, rudder, and dive brake) as close to a target as possible, passively observing a replay of one's own previous trial, passively observing a replay of an expert's trial, and a baseline do nothing condition. The objective of this study is to investigate two types of motor simulation processes used during observation of action: imitation based motor simulation and error-feedback based motor simulation. It has been proposed that the computational neurocircuitry of the cortex is well suited for unsupervised imitation based learning, whereas, the cerebellum is well suited for error-feedback based learning. Consistent with predictions, pilots (to a greater extent than non-pilots) showed significant differential activity when observing an expert landing the glider in brain regions involved with imitation based motor simulation (including premotor cortex PMC, inferior frontal gyrus IFG, anterior insula, parietal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, and middle temporal MT area) than when observing one's own previous trial which showed significant differential activity in the cerebellum (only for pilots) thought to be concerned with error-feedback based motor simulation. While there was some differential brain activity for pilots in regions involved with both Execution and Observation of the flying task (potential Mirror System sites including IFG, PMC, superior parietal lobule) the majority was adjacent to these areas (Observation Only Sites) (predominantly in PMC, IFG, and inferior parietal loblule). These regions showing greater activity for observation than for action may be involved with processes related to motor-based representational transforms that are not necessary when actually carrying out the task. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Near-real-time simulation and internet-based delivery of forecast-flood inundation maps using two-dimensional hydraulic modeling--A pilot study for the Snoqualmie River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joseph L.; Fulford, Janice M.; Voss, Frank D.

    2002-01-01

    interface programming should allow the technology developed in the pilot study to be applied to other river systems where NWS forecasts are provided routinely.

  7. Freshman Strategy Seminar. A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magid, Annette; And Others

    In fall 1987, a Freshman Strategy Seminar (FSS) was pilot tested and evaluated at Erie Community College's (ECC's) South Campus to assist students lacking basic English and mathematics skills. Developmental class sections in writing, reading and math were reserved for the FSS students, in the hope that a cluster course approach would reduce…

  8. The Pilot Training Study: Precommissioning Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, J. W.

    The cost of training, as conducted by the Air Force Academy, Reserve Officer Training Corps, and Officer Training School, and leading to the commissioning of new Air Force officers is presented. The student flows, personnel resources required to support the flows, and costs of pilot candidates graduating from each of the three commissioning…

  9. Piloted Simulations Of A V/STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskey, Megan A.; Wilson, Samuel B., III

    1989-01-01

    Flight and control characteristics evaluated. Report describes simulated flight tests to evaluate handling qualities and flight characteristics of Grumman Design 698 aircraft, vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft.

  10. Where have all the pilot studies gone? A follow-up on 30 years of pilot studies in Clinical Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Navaldeep; Figueiredo, Sabrina; Bouchard, Vanessa; Moriello, Carolina; Mayo, Nancy

    2017-09-01

    Pilot studies are meritorious for determining the feasibility of a definitive clinical trial in terms of conduct and potential for efficacy, but their possible applications for planning a future trial are not always fully realized. The purpose of this review was to estimate the extent to which pilot/feasibility studies: (i) addressed needed objectives; (ii) led to definitive trials; and (iii) whether the subsequent undertaking of a definitive trial was influenced by the strength of the evidence of outcome improvement. Trials published in the journal Clinical Rehabilitation, since its inception, were eligible if the word 'pilot' or 'feasibility' was specified somewhere in the article. A total of 191 studies were reviewed, results were summarized descriptively, and between-group effect sizes were computed. The specific purposes of piloting were stated in only 58% ( n = 110) of the studies. The most frequent purpose was to estimate the potential for efficacy (85%), followed by testing the feasibility of the intervention (60%). Only 12% of the studies were followed by a definitive trial; <4% of studies had a main study underway or a published study protocol. There was no relationship between observed effect size and follow-up of pilot studies, although the confidence intervals were very wide owing to small number of trials that followed on. Labelling and reporting of pilot studies needs to be improved to be concordant with the recently issued CONSORT guidelines. Feasibility needs to be fully tested and demonstrated prior to committing considerable human and monetary resources.

  11. A Pilot Opinion Study of Lateral Control Requirements for Fighter-Type Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creer, Brent Y.; Stewart, John D.; Merrick, Robert B.; Drinkwater, Fred J., III

    1959-01-01

    As part of a continuing NASA program of research on airplane handling qualities, a pilot opinion investigation has been made on the lateral control requirements of fighter aircraft flying in their combat speed range. The investigation was carried out using a stationary flight simulator and a moving flight simulator, and the flight simulator results were supplemented by research tests in actual flight. The flight simulator study was based on the presumption that the pilot rates the roll control of an airplane primarily on a single-degree-of-freedom basis; that is, control of angle of roll about the aircraft body axis being of first importance. From the assumption of a single degree of freedom system it follows that there are two fundamental parameters which govern the airplane roll response, namely the roll damping expressed as a time constant and roll control power in terms of roll acceleration. The simulator study resulted in a criterion in terms of these two parameters which defines satisfactory, unsatisfactory, and unacceptable roll performance from a pilot opinion standpoint. The moving simulator results were substantiated by the in-flight investigation. The derived criterion was compared with the roll performance criterion based upon wing tip helix angle and also with other roll performance concepts which currently influence the roll performance design of military fighter aircraft flying in their combat speed range.

  12. Development and Utility of a Piloted Flight Simulator for Icing Effects Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Ranaudo, Richard J.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Dickes, Edward G.; Gingras, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A piloted flight simulator called the Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD), which uses low cost desktop components and a generic cockpit replication is being developed. The purpose of this device is to demonstrate the effectiveness of its use for training pilots to recognize and recover from aircraft handling anomalies that result from airframe ice formations. High-fidelity flight simulation models for various baseline (non-iced) and iced configurations were developed from wind tunnel tests of a subscale DeHavilland DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft model. These simulation models were validated with flight test data from the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft, which included the effects of ice on wing and tail stall characteristics. These simulation models are being implemented into an ICEFTD that will provide representative aircraft characteristics due to airframe icing. Scenario-based exercises are being constructed to give an operational-flavor to the simulation. Training pilots will learn to recognize iced aircraft characteristics from the baseline, and will practice and apply appropriate recovery procedures to a handling event.

  13. [EEG-correlates of pilots' functional condition in simulated flight dynamics].

    PubMed

    Kiroy, V N; Aslanyan, E V; Bakhtin, O M; Minyaeva, N R; Lazurenko, D M

    2015-01-01

    The spectral characteristics of the EEG recorded on two professional pilots in the simulator TU-154 aircraft in flight dynamics, including takeoff, landing and horizontal flight (in particular during difficult conditions) were analyzed. EEG recording was made with frequency band 0.1-70 Hz continuously from 15 electrodes. The EEG recordings were evaluated using analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Statistical significant of the identified differences and the influence of the main factors and their interactions were evaluated using Greenhouse - Gaiser corrections. It was shown that the spectral characteristics of the EEG are highly informative features of the state of the pilots, reflecting the different flight phases. High validity ofthe differences including individual characteristic, indicates their non-random nature and the possibility of constructing a system of pilots' state control during all phases of flight, based on EEG features.

  14. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: SOIL STABILIZATION PILOT STUDY, UNITED CHROME NPL SITE PILOT STUDY AND HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAM, UNITED CHROME NPL SITE PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a project plan for a pilot study at the United Chrome NPL site, Corvallis, Oregon and includes the health and safety and quality assurance/quality control plans. The plan reports results of a bench-scale study of the treatment process as iieasured by the ...

  15. Ride qualities criteria validation/pilot performance study: Flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nardi, L. U.; Kawana, H. Y.; Greek, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Pilot performance during a terrain following flight was studied for ride quality criteria validation. Data from manual and automatic terrain following operations conducted during low level penetrations were analyzed to determine the effect of ride qualities on crew performance. The conditions analyzed included varying levels of turbulence, terrain roughness, and mission duration with a ride smoothing system on and off. Limited validation of the B-1 ride quality criteria and some of the first order interactions between ride qualities and pilot/vehicle performance are highlighted. An earlier B-1 flight simulation program correlated well with the flight test results.

  16. Piloted Investigation of a Remotely Piloted Vehicle Remote Operator’s Station Volume I. Simulation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    display. (4) Hydraulic System Panel: This panel is non-functional and serves only to simulate a required display. (5) Fuel System Panel: This panel is...Engine Instruments: The RPM display is functional. Fuel flow, EGT and oil pressure are driven as a function of RPM and simulate typical displays...itself - the stick. 107 mtm .. ^^r.1«^,^^^.^-^,^,,. .. ~; . üüii^iÜMiiiiiirrMiMMi iii’"’-- — ■—■ ■ i ! fcM < p^M^lMM^awy^AUMW^MW

  17. Simulator Investigation of Pilot Aids for Helicopter Terminal Area Operations with One Engine Inoperative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iseler, Laura; Chen, Robert; Dearing, Munro; Decker, William; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Two recent piloted simulation experiments have investigated advanced display concepts applied to civil transport helicopter terminal area operations. Civil Category A helicopter operations apply to multi-engine helicopters wherein a safe recovery (land or fly out) is required in the event of a single engine failure. The investigation used the NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator, which has a full six degrees of freedom, to simulate the flight task as closely as possible. The goal of these experiments was to use advanced cockpit displays to improve flight safety and enhance the mission performance of Category A terminal area operations in confined areas. The first experiment investigated the use of military display formats to assist civil rotorcraft in performing a Category A takeoff in confined terminal areas. Specifically, it addressed how well a difficult hovering backup path could be followed using conventional instruments in comparison to panel mounted integrated displays. The hovering backup takeoff, which enables pilots to land back to the confined area pad in the event of an engine failure, was chosen since it is a difficult task to perform. Seven NASA and Army test pilots participated in the experiment. Evaluations, based on task performance and pilot workload, showed that an integrated display enabled the pilot to consistently achieve adequate or desired performance with reasonable pilot workload. Use of conventional instruments, however, frequently resulted in unacceptable performance (poor flight path tracking), higher pilot workload, and poor situational awareness. Although OEI landbacks were considered a visual task, the improved performance on the backup portion, in conjunction with increased situational awareness resulting from use of integrated displays, enabled the pilots to handle an engine failure and land back safely. In contrast, use of conventional instruments frequently led to excessive rates of sink at touchdown. A second

  18. Simulator Investigation of Pilot Aids for Helicopter Terminal Area Operations with One Engine Inoperative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iseler, Laura; Chen, Robert; Dearing, Munro; Decker, William; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Two recent piloted simulation experiments have investigated advanced display concepts applied to civil transport helicopter terminal area operations. Civil Category A helicopter operations apply to multi-engine helicopters wherein a safe recovery (land or fly out) is required in the event of a single engine failure. The investigation used the NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator, which has a full six degrees of freedom, to simulate the flight task as closely as possible. The goal of these experiments was to use advanced cockpit displays to improve flight safety and enhance the mission performance of Category A terminal area operations in confined areas. The first experiment investigated the use of military display formats to assist civil rotorcraft in performing a Category A takeoff in confined terminal areas. Specifically, it addressed how well a difficult hovering backup path could be followed using conventional instruments in comparison to panel mounted integrated displays. The hovering backup takeoff, which enables pilots to land back to the confined area pad in the event of an engine failure, was chosen since it is a difficult task to perform. Seven NASA and Army test pilots participated in the experiment. Evaluations, based on task performance and pilot workload, showed that an integrated display enabled the pilot to consistently achieve adequate or desired performance with reasonable pilot workload. Use of conventional instruments, however, frequently resulted in unacceptable performance (poor flight path tracking), higher pilot workload, and poor situational awareness. Although OEI landbacks were considered a visual task, the improved performance on the backup portion, in conjunction with increased situational awareness resulting from use of integrated displays, enabled the pilots to handle an engine failure and land back safely. In contrast, use of conventional instruments frequently led to excessive rates of sink at touchdown. A second

  19. Airline pilot scanning behavior during approaches and landing in a Boeing 737 simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, A. A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A series of approaches using airline-rated Boeing 737 pilots in an FAA qualified simulator has been conducted. The test matrices include both manual and coupled approaches for VFR, Category I and Category II conditions. A nonintrusive oculometer system was used to track the pilot's eye-point-of-regard throughout the approach. The results indicate that, in general, the pilots use a different scan technique for the manual and coupled (auto-pilot with manual throttle) conditions. For the manual approach 73 percent of the time was spent on the Flight Director and 13 percent on airspeed as opposed to 50 percent on Flight Director and 23 percent on airspeed for the coupled approaches. For the visual portion of approach from less than 100 m (300 ft) to touchdown or when the touchdown point came into view, the pilots tend to fixate on their aim or touchdown area until the flare initiation, at which time they let their eye-point-of-regard move up the runway to use the centerline lights for rollout guidance.

  20. Airline pilot scanning behavior during approaches and landing in a Boeing 737 simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, A. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A series of approaches using airline-rated Boeing 737 pilots in an FAA qualified simulator was conducted. The test matrices include both manual and coupled approaches for VFR, Category 1 and Category 2 conditions. A nonintrusive oculometer system was used to track the pilot's eye-point-of-regard throughout the approach. The results indicate that, in general, the pilots use a different scan technique for the manual and coupled (auto-pilot with manual throttle) conditions. For the manual approach 73 percent of the time was spent on the Flight Director and 13 percent on airspeed as opposed to 50 percent on Flight Director and 23 percent on airspeed for the coupled approaches. For the visual portion of approach from less than 100m to touchdown or when the touchdown point came into view, the pilots tend to fixate on their aim or touchdown area until the flare initiation, at which time they let their eye-point-of-regard move up the runway to use the centerline lights for rollout guidance.

  1. Advanced Simulation in Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT) Facility Utilization Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagin, William V.; Smith, James F.

    The capabilities of a flight simulation research facility located at Williams AFB, Arizona are described. Research philosophy to be applied is discussed. Long range and short range objectives are identified. A time phased plan for long range research accomplishment is described. In addition, some examples of near term research efforts which will…

  2. Piloting an online grocery store simulation to assess children's food choices.

    PubMed

    Heard, Amy M; Harris, Jennifer L; Liu, Sai; Schwartz, Marlene B; Li, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Public health interventions must address poor diet among U.S. children, but research is needed to better understand factors influencing children's food choices. Using an online grocery store simulation, this research piloted a novel method to assess children's snack selection in a controlled but naturalistic laboratory setting, evaluate predictors of choice, and experimentally test whether promotions on food packages altered choices. Children (7-12 years, N = 61) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: promotions on healthy products; promotions on unhealthy products; and no promotions (control). They selected from a variety of healthy and unhealthy foods and beverages and rated all products on healthfulness and taste. Promotions on food packaging did not affect snack selection in this study, but findings supported our other hypothesis that perceived taste would be the strongest predictor of food choice. Children accurately rated product healthfulness, but these ratings did not predict healthy snack choices or taste ratings for healthy or unhealthy snacks. These results suggest that interventions to improve children's food choices should focus on increasing availability of healthy options and identifying opportunities to enhance children's liking of healthy options. However, nutrition education alone is unlikely to improve children's diets. Further testing is required, but the simulated online grocery store method shows potential for measuring children's food choices.

  3. Piloted Simulator Investigation of Techniques to Achieve Attitude Command Response with Limited Authority Servos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, David L.; Heffley, Robert K.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop generic design principles for obtaining attitude command response in moderate to aggressive maneuvers without increasing SCAS series servo authority from the existing +/- 10%. In particular, to develop a scheme that would work on the UH-60 helicopter so that it can be considered for incorporation in future upgrades. The basic math model was a UH-60A version of GENHEL. The simulation facility was the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS). Evaluation tasks were Hover, Acceleration-Deceleration, and Sidestep, as defined in ADS-33D-PRF for Degraded Visual Environment (DVE). The DVE was adjusted to provide a Usable Cue Environment (UCE) equal to two. The basic concept investigated was the extent to which the limited attitude command authority achievable by the series servo could be supplemented by a 10%/sec trim servo. The architecture used provided angular rate feedback to only the series servo, shared the attitude feedback between the series and trim servos, and when the series servo approached saturation the attitude feedback was slowly phased out. Results show that modest use of the trim servo does improve pilot ratings, especially in and around hover. This improvement can be achieved with little degradation in response predictability during moderately aggressive maneuvers.

  4. Simulating extreme environments: Ergonomic evaluation of Chinese pilot performance and heat stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Tian, Yinsheng; Ding, Li; Zou, Huijuan; Ren, Zhaosheng; Shi, Liyong; Feathers, David; Wang, Ning

    2015-06-05

    High-temperatures in the cockpit environment can adversely influence pilot behavior and performance. To investigate the impact of high thermal environments on Chinese pilot performance in a simulated cockpit environment. Ten subjects volunteered to participate in the tests under 40°C and 45°C high-temperature simulations in an environmentally controlled chamber. Measures such as grip strength, perception, dexterity, somatic sense reaction, and analytical reasoning were taken. The results were compared to the Combined Index of Heat Stress (CIHS). CIHS exceeded the heat stress safety limit after 45 min under 40°C, grip strength decreased by 12% and somatic perception became 2.89 times larger than the initial value. In the case of 45°C, CIHS exceeded the safety limit after only 20 min, while the grip strength decreased just by 3.2% and somatic perception increased to 4.36 times larger than the initial value. Reaction and finger dexterity were not statistically different from baseline measurements, but the error rate of analytical reasoning test rose remarkably. Somatic perception was the most sensitive index to high-temperature, followed by grip strength. Results of this paper may help to improve environmental control design of new fighter cockpit and for pilot physiology and cockpit environment ergonomics research for Chinese pilots.

  5. Controllers and Pilots Play a Key Role in Runway Safety Initiatives Through Real-Time Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madson, Mike; Bender, Kim

    2004-01-01

    A new and innovative way to evaluate runway safety initiatives for airports is through the use of interactive real-time simulation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) operates an integrated suite of simulators that can give both pilots and tower controllers the ability to simultaneously "try out" ideas in the safety of virtual reality. In February of 2003, the FAA conducted a demonstration in the NASA facilities for Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) of a concept to reduce runway crossings and enhance the efficiency of the airport. Currently DFW experiences about 1,700 runway crossings per day, which contribute to arrival and departure delays and the potential for runway incursions. The proposed concept included the addition of new perimeter taxiways on the East and West sides of the airport. Through use of NASA's unique simulation capabilities, DFW controllers and commercial pilots provided expert feedback on the safety and operational implications by directly experiencing the proposed changes. Overall, the data collected from the participants and the simulators demonstrated that the concept would improve operations at DFW, if implemented. Improvements were observed in many areas including departure rates, taxi duration, runway crossings, and controller and pilot communications.

  6. Development and validation of a piloted simulation of a helicopter and external sling load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, J. D.; Deaux, T. N.; Yenni, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    A generalized, real time, piloted, visual simulation of a single rotor helicopter, suspension system, and external load is described and validated for the full flight envelope of the U.S. Army CH-54 helicopter and cargo container as an example. The mathematical model described uses modified nonlinear classical rotor theory for both the main rotor and tail rotor, nonlinear fuselage aerodynamics, an elastic suspension system, nonlinear load aerodynamics, and a loadground contact model. The implementation of the mathematical model on a large digital computing system is described, and validation of the simulation is discussed. The mathematical model is validated by comparing measured flight data with simulated data, by comparing linearized system matrices, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors with manufacturers' data, and by the subjective comparison of handling characteristics by experienced pilots. A visual landing display system for use in simulation which generates the pilot's forward looking real world display was examined and a special head up, down looking load/landing zone display is described.

  7. Controllers and Pilots Play a Key Role in Runway Safety Initiatives Through Real-Time Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madson, Mike; Bender, Kim

    2004-01-01

    A new and innovative way to evaluate runway safety initiatives for airports is through the use of interactive real-time simulation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) operates an integrated suite of simulators that can give both pilots and tower controllers the ability to simultaneously "try out" ideas in the safety of virtual reality. In February of 2003, the FAA conducted a demonstration in the NASA facilities for Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) of a concept to reduce runway crossings and enhance the efficiency of the airport. Currently DFW experiences about 1,700 runway crossings per day, which contribute to arrival and departure delays and the potential for runway incursions. The proposed concept included the addition of new perimeter taxiways on the East and West sides of the airport. Through use of NASA's unique simulation capabilities, DFW controllers and commercial pilots provided expert feedback on the safety and operational implications by directly experiencing the proposed changes. Overall, the data collected from the participants and the simulators demonstrated that the concept would improve operations at DFW, if implemented. Improvements were observed in many areas including departure rates, taxi duration, runway crossings, and controller and pilot communications.

  8. A piloted simulation of helicopter air combat to investigate effects of variations in selected performance and control response characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michael S.; Mansur, M. Hossein; Chen, Robert T. N.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study investigating handling qualities and flight characteristics required for helicopter air to air combat is presented. The Helicopter Air Combat system was used to investigate this role for Army rotorcraft. Experimental variables were the maneuver envelope size (load factor and sideslip), directional axis handling qualities, and pitch and roll control-response type. Over 450 simulated, low altitude, one-on-one engagements were conducted. Results from the experiment indicate that a well damped directional response, low sideforce caused by sideslip, and some effective dihedral are all desirable for weapon system performance, good handling qualities, and low pilot workload. An angular rate command system was favored over the attitude type pitch and roll response for most applications, and an enhanced maneuver envelope size over that of current generation aircraft was found to be advantageous. Pilot technique, background, and experience are additional factors which had a significant effect on performance in the air combat tasks investigated. The implication of these results on design requirements for future helicopters is presented.

  9. Comparisons of pilot performance in simulated and actual flight. [effects of ingested barbiturates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Gerke, R. J.; Wick, R. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Five highly experienced professional pilots performed instrument landing system approaches under simulated instrument flight conditions in a Cessna 172 airplane and in a Link-Singer GAT-1 simulator while under the influence of orally administered secobarbital (0, 100, and 200 mg). Tracking performance in two axes and airspeed control were evaluated continuously during each approach. Error and RMS variability were about half as large in the simulator as in the airplane. The observed data were more strongly associated with the drug level in the simulator than in the airplane. Further, the drug-related effects were more consistent in the simulator. Improvement in performance suggestive of learning effects were seen in the simulator, but not in actual flight.

  10. AFHRL/FT [Air Force Human Resources Laboratory/Flight Training] Capabilities in Undergraduate Pilot Training Simulation Research: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheny, W. G.; And Others

    The document presents a summary description of the Air Force Human Resource Laboratory's Flying Training Division (AFHRL/FT) research capabilities for undergraduate pilot training. One of the research devices investigated is the Advanced Simulator for Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT). The equipment includes the ASUPT, the instrumented T-37…

  11. The effect of simulator dynamics on pilot response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weener, E. F.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of visual display dynamics on the altitude tracking performance of a subject in a fixed base flight simulator are considered. The subject, flying the linearized longitudinal equations of motion, attempts to maintain the same altitude as two airplanes positioned three hundred feet ahead, as in level formation flying. The horizon together with the two leading aircraft are represented symbolically on a CRT display. The subject's aircraft is disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The data indicate a relationship between the bandwidth of the display dynamics and the short period characteristics of the simulated airplane. For an airplane with a relatively fast pitch response the presence of altitude display dynamics, with a bandwidth as high as five times the short period natural frequency, causes significant degradation of altitude tracking performance.

  12. Advanced Simulation in Undergraduate Pilot Training: Motion System Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    Resources Laboratory * a~ October 1975 DISTRIBUTED BY: National Technical Infolmation Service U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 329055 AFHRL-TR-75.59(11) AIR...1911 - March 1975 0 A plloved (or publ( rele.Le; ditribution unlii h¢uted. E S LABORATORY NATIONAL TECHNICAL I INFORMATION SERVICEIJS D-pvt-f Of ,CU...Force IHuman Resources Laboratory (AFSC), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ohio 45433. Mr. Don R. Gur.i Simulation Techniques Branch. was tile contract

  13. Secondary task for full flight simulation incorporating tasks that commonly cause pilot error: Time estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosch, E.

    1975-01-01

    The task of time estimation, an activity occasionally performed by pilots during actual flight, was investigated with the objective of providing human factors investigators with an unobtrusive and minimally loading additional task that is sensitive to differences in flying conditions and flight instrumentation associated with the main task of piloting an aircraft simulator. Previous research indicated that the duration and consistency of time estimates is associated with the cognitive, perceptual, and motor loads imposed by concurrent simple tasks. The relationships between the length and variability of time estimates and concurrent task variables under a more complex situation involving simulated flight were clarified. The wrap-around effect with respect to baseline duration, a consequence of mode switching at intermediate levels of concurrent task distraction, should contribute substantially to estimate variability and have a complex effect on the shape of the resulting distribution of estimates.

  14. A Few Comments on Visual Systems of Ship Handling Simulator for Sea Pilot's Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Koji; Okazaki, Tadatsugi; Hayashi, Yuji

    We are using a ship handling simulator for sea pilot's training; however, in case of entering a port, it is not enough for a visual image around own ship. The general ship handling simulator does not have the visual image (screen) around own ship. We challenge to clear the effect of a visual system around own ship for entering a port. The training for entering a port is one of important training factor for a sea pilot. This paper describes characteristics of captain's visual observation area and the mental workload for ship handling when entering a port. The visual observation area comes from eye movement and the mental workload comes from heart rate variability (R-R interval), nasal temperature. The results show that the visual system around own ship gives their safe ship handling for entering a port based on eye movement.

  15. Experimental Design of a Piloted Helicopter Off-Axis-Tracking Simulation Using a Helmet Mounted Display.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    A- N , 04vI imagery to a HMD monocle in front of the right eye along with flight symbology from a symbol generator. Pilot line of sight...simulation cockpit for air-to-air helicopter handlings qualities evaluations with the IHADSS had used a transparent HDU monocle with only symbology to track...eye to perceive both the flight and weapon symbology superimposed on the monocle while also attempting to view the terrain imagery from the FL JR

  16. Flight simulator requirements for airline transport pilot training - An evaluation of motion system design alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. T.; Bussolari, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of motion platform systems on pilot behavior is considered with emphasis placed on civil aviation applications. A dynamic model for human spatial orientation based on the physiological structure and function of the human vestibular system is presented. Motion platform alternatives were evaluated on the basis of the following motion platform conditions: motion with six degrees-of-freedom required for Phase II simulators and two limited motion conditions. Consideration was given to engine flameout, airwork, and approach and landing scenarios.

  17. Data requirements for EOR surfactant-polymer process simulation and analysis of El Dorado pilot-project simulation, Butler County, Kansas. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Claridge, E.L.; Lohse, A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of computer simulation of the El Dorado surfactant-polymer EOR pilot project, Butler County, Kansas indicated that conventional data from the project and other data in the public domain were not adequate for geologic, reservoir and process characterizations in a complex numerical simulation. As used by GURC in geologic characterization, and by INTERCOMP in process characterization and input into the CFTE simulator, the collective body of field and chemical data and related assumptions necessary for simulator input was not sufficient to predict how the chemical flood would behave in the Admire 650-foot sandstone reservoir. Based upon this study, a comprehensive body of data requirements for EOR simulation is defined in detail. Geologic characterization includes descriptors for rock, interwell and intrasystem correlations; reservoir characterization includes descriptors for fluid/rock, production, and flow rate properties; process characterization includes descriptors for chemical properties, interactions and functions. Reservoir heterogeneity is a principal problem in EOR simulation. It can be overcome within reasonable economic limits by successive orders of descriptors from: microscale (rock), achieved through borehole and core analyses; to macroscale (interwell), achieved through multiple borehole correlations; to megascale (intrasystem), achieved through extrapolation of rock and correlative well data into a generic depositional model that contains a description of internal mass properties within a given external morphology. Volume II contains appendices for: flow chart for surfactant-polymer process simulation; INTERCOMP reports to GURC describing the CFTE simulator program used in this study.

  18. Data requirements for EOR surfactant-polymer process simulation and analysis of El Dorado pilot-project simulation, Butler County, Kansas. Volume I. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Claridge, E.L.; Lohse, A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of computer simulation of the El Dorado surfactant-polymer EOR pilot project, Butler County, Kansas indicated that conventional data from the project and other data in the public domain were not adequate for geologic, reservoir and process characterizations in a complex numerical simulation. As used by GURC in geologic characterization, and by INTERCOMP in process characterization and input into the CFTE simulator, the collective body of field and chemical data and related assumptions necessary for simulator input was not sufficient to predict how the chemical flood would behave in the Admire 650-foot sandstone reservoir. Based upon this study, a comprehensive body of data requirements for EOR simulation is defined in detail. Geologic characterization includes descriptors for rock, interwell and intrasystem correlations; reservoir characterization includes descriptors for fluid/rock, production, and flow rate properties; process characterization includes descriptors for chemical properties, interactions and functions. Reservoir heterogeneity is a principal problem in EOR simulation. It can be overcome within reasonable economic limits by successive orders of descriptors from: microscale (rock), achieved through borehole and core analyses; to macroscale (interwell), achieved through multiple borehole correlations; to megascale (intrasystem), achieved through extrapolation of rock and correlative well data into a generic depositional model that contains a description of internal mass properties within a given external morphology. Volume II contains appendices for: flow chart for surfactant-polymer process simulation; INTERCOMP reports to GURC describing the CFTE simulator program used in this study.

  19. THE EFFECT OF THERMAL ENVIRONMENT ON LEARNING, A PILOT STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PECCOLO, CHARLES

    THIS IS A REPORT OF A FIRST PILOT STUDY WHICH PRECEDES A SERIES OF STUDIES BEING CONDUCTED BY THE IOWA CENTER FOR RESEARCH IN SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION AND LENNOX INDUSTRIES INC., MARSHALLTOWN, IOWA. IT IS A DIGEST OF A THESIS BY DR. CHARLES PECCOLO WHO SERVED AS RESEARCHER ON THIS FIRST STUDY. THE STUDY AIMED AT MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF THERMAL…

  20. Piloted simulation of one-on-one helicopter air combat at NOE flight levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. S.; Aiken, E. W.

    1985-01-01

    A piloted simulation designed to examine the effects of terrain proximity and control system design on helicopter performance during one-on-one air combat maneuvering (ACM) is discussed. The NASA Ames vertical motion simulator (VMS) and the computer generated imagery (CGI) systems were modified to allow two aircraft to be independently piloted on a single CGI data base. Engagements were begun with the blue aircraft already in a tail-chase position behind the red, and also with the two aircraft originating from positions unknown to each other. Maneuvering was very aggressive and safety requirements for minimum altitude, separation, and maximum bank angles typical of flight test were not used. Results indicate that the presence of terrain features adds an order of complexiaty to the task performed over clear air ACM and that mix of attitude and rate command-type stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) design may be desirable. The simulation system design, the flight paths flown, and the tactics used were compared favorably by the evaluation pilots to actual flight test experiments.

  1. Preparation, piloting and validation for a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Golding, Jean

    2009-07-01

    No longitudinal study should go into the field prior to detailed piloting and validation studies of the measures and techniques to be used. Preparation should also involve the training of staff, the acquisition of space and appropriate equipment, and liaison with the community and ethical committees as well as with scientific collaborators. Because different measures will continually be introduced as the participants age, the preparation, piloting and validation studies have to be ongoing. Here we describe some of the different strategies that should be used.

  2. Automatic Generation of Test Oracles - From Pilot Studies to Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Smith, Ben

    1998-01-01

    There is a trend towards the increased use of automation in V&V. Automation can yield savings in time and effort. For critical systems, where thorough V&V is required, these savings can be substantial. We describe a progression from pilot studies to development and use of V&V automation. We used pilot studies to ascertain opportunities for, and suitability of, automating various analyses whose results would contribute to V&V. These studies culminated in the development of an automatic generator of automated test oracles. This was then applied and extended in the course of testing an Al planning system that is a key component of an autonomous spacecraft.

  3. 3D Unsteady Multiphase Simulation of Uranium Tetrafluoride Particle Fluorination in Fluidized Bed Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konan, N. A.; Neau, H.; Simonin, O.; Dupoizat, M.; Le Geaziou, T.

    This paper investigates Eulerian simulation approach of uranium hexafluoride production in fluidized bed pilot. Mass transfer is modeled by using the shrinking particle model. The model successfully predicts expected amount of uranium hexafluoride. As heat transfers with wall are neglected, temperature increases within the reactor and there is no gradient in wall-normal direction of reactor. External diffusion model of reactive gas around particle is developed. Effect of fluorine diffusion within nitrogen is found to be negligible under the simulation conditions. Moreover, inter-particle radiative heat transfer between particles of dense phase in the bed is investigated in the frame of Rosseland approximation.

  4. Art as an Evaluative Tool: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Mary-Ann; Graham, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a pilot study completed in preparation for a multisite study of the effectiveness of children's grief support groups. Uses art therapy to assess children's perspectives of their experience in a grief support group. Results of study support the use of art as an effective qualitative tool that can be utilized in future evaluations of…

  5. Say yes to life: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wood, C; Keen, A

    1988-03-01

    In an attempt to assess whether there are any characteristics which a majority of ordinary people regard as life-affirming or life-denying, a questionnaire was given to a pilot group of 167 respondents, representing three different age and social categories. Five life-affirming and five life-denying characteristics were mentioned by more than 10% of respondents. Of the former, Drive, Sociability, Happiness and Optimism were endorsed by 15-20%. Of the latter, Unsociability and Poor Coping were mentioned by 22%, making them distinctly more frequent than the following categories of Pessimism, Lack of Drive and Unhappiness (11-14%). It is suggested that a number of these subjectively determined characteristics, which the general public perceive as being life-affirming or denying, do indeed influence physical or mental health, illness or illness behaviour. It may therefore be of value to utilize this set of public perceptions in future programmes of health education.

  6. Say yes to life: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, C; Keen, A

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to assess whether there are any characteristics which a majority of ordinary people regard as life-affirming or life-denying, a questionnaire was given to a pilot group of 167 respondents, representing three different age and social categories. Five life-affirming and five life-denying characteristics were mentioned by more than 10% of respondents. Of the former, Drive, Sociability, Happiness and Optimism were endorsed by 15-20%. Of the latter, Unsociability and Poor Coping were mentioned by 22%, making them distinctly more frequent than the following categories of Pessimism, Lack of Drive and Unhappiness (11-14%). It is suggested that a number of these subjectively determined characteristics, which the general public perceive as being life-affirming or denying, do indeed influence physical or mental health, illness or illness behaviour. It may therefore be of value to utilize this set of public perceptions in future programmes of health education. PMID:3357158

  7. Piloted-simulation evaluation of escape guidance for microburst wind shear encounters. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Numerous air carrier accidents and incidents result from encounters with the atmospheric wind shear associated with microburst phenomena, in some cases resulting in heavy loss of life. An important issue in current wind shear research is how to best manage aircraft performance during an inadvertent wind shear encounter. The goals of this study were to: (1) develop techniques and guidance for maximizing an aircraft's ability to recover from microburst encounters following takeoff, (2) develop an understanding of how theoretical predictions of wind shear recovery performance might be achieved in actual use, and (3) gain insight into the piloting factors associated with recovery from microburst encounters. Three recovery strategies were implemented and tested in piloted simulation. Results show that a recovery strategy based on flying a flight path angle schedule produces improved performance over constant pitch attitude or acceleration-based recovery techniques. The best recovery technique was initially counterintuitive to the pilots who participated in the study. Evidence was found to indicate that the techniques required for flight through the turbulent vortex of a microburst may differ from the techniques being developed using classical, nonturbulent microburst models.

  8. Soil vapor extraction pilot study at a Piedmont UST site

    SciTech Connect

    Widdowson, M.A.; Aelion, C.M.; Ray, R.P.; Reeves, H.W.

    1995-12-31

    A pilot study of soil vapor extraction (SVE) at a gasoline-contaminated site in the Piedmont physiographic region of South Carolina is presented. The objective of the pilot study is to determine the efficacy of SVE in remediating petroleum-contaminated Piedmont sites. Soil of the Piedmont region is characterized by fine-grained materials that exhibit a stratified, anisotropic structure, often dominated by zones of low permeability. The pilot remediation project consists of a multiple-well SVE and air sparging system located in the contaminant source area. Hourly measurement of mass extraction rates show elevated hydrocarbon (HC) concentrations during the first hour of operation and a rapid decline to asymptotic values. Time-averaged hydrocarbon mass extraction rates range from 22 to 68 kg HC per day for eight SVE wells operating 6 to 8 h per day. Elevated levels of CO{sub 2} in extracted soil vapors indicate microbial activity contributing to bioremediation at the site.

  9. First Breath prenatal smoking cessation pilot study: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Jehn, Lisette; Lokker, Nicole; Matitz, Debra; Christiansen, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Despite the many dangers associated with smoking during pregnancy, it remains a salient public health problem for Wisconsin women. The First Breath pilot program was developed in an attempt to reduce rates of smoking during pregnancy among low-income women. Preliminary results suggest that the First Breath counseling-based approach is effective, with a quit rate of 43.8% among First Breath enrollees at 1 month postpartum. Women receiving First Breath cessation counseling also had higher quit rates at every measurement period versus women in a comparison group who were receiving whatever cessation care was available in their county in the absence of First Breath. The First Breath pilot study has demonstrated success in helping pregnant women quit smoking and in creating a model for integration of cessation services into prenatal health care service provision. It is through this success that First Breath is expanding beyond the pilot study stage to a statewide program in 2003.

  10. Coastal Response on Multiple Scales: a Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luijendijk, A.; Walstra, D.

    2010-12-01

    There is a growing demand to assess the impact of both small scale and large scale anthropogenic activities on all relevant spatial and temporal scales (e.g. from 10 m to 100 km and hours to decades) including effects of climate change and sea level rise. This requires a comprehensive approach which deals with the appropriate scales in a continuous way. However, most of our knowledge and predictive tools are designed to cover very specific scales. Furthermore, the fact that coupled behavior covering multiple scales may be the dominant force does not allow for a simple sub-division of scales and study approaches without taking the interaction into account. In essence we anticipate that such a modeling framework will primarily be related to innovative application, combination and interpretation of existing techniques and models rather then the improvement of individual models. As a first step a pilot study was initiated in which the impact of the extension of the IJmuiden harbor moles in 1965 was investigated (Figure 1). The long term dataset enables us to investigate the harbor impact on various temporal and spatial scales. To that end a combined modeling approach was set up focusing on the local scale using the Delft3D model and a coastline model Unibest-CL+ covering the entire Holland coast. The models were first individually calibrated and validated to assess their performance and ability to simulate the relevant impacts. This should provide insight into the benefits of such a combined approach and identify the different levels of impact in both time and space. Holland Coast with the IJmuiden Port (left plot) and dtail of the IJmuiden harbor (2008) and the 1965 mean low water (blue), mean high water (green) and dune foot positions (red) (right plot) Target transports based on sediment budget (dashed) and simulated transports (red) along the Holland coast (IJmuiden is located at KM = 61)

  11. Evaluating midwifery units (EMU): lessons from the pilot study.

    PubMed

    Monk, Amy R; Tracy, Sally K; Foureur, Maralyn; Tracy, Mark

    2013-08-01

    this paper describes the pilot study that was undertaken to test the feasibility of the recruitment plan designed to recruit women who booked to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units in NSW, Australia. The pilot preceded the full prospective cohort study, Evaluating Midwifery Units (EMU), which aimed to examine the antenatal, birth and postnatal outcomes of women planning to give birth in freestanding midwifery units compared to those booked to give birth in tertiary level maternity units in Australia and New Zealand. a prospective cohort study with two mutually-exclusive cohorts. two freestanding midwifery units in NSW and their corresponding tertiary referral hospitals. a total of 146 women with few identified risk factors recruited between 13 September 2009 and 31 March 2010 whose planned place of birth was either a freestanding midwifery unit or tertiary maternity unit. the pilot study identified the feasibility of relying on the booking midwife to recruit eligible women from several antenatal booking clinics to the study. Low rates of eligible women were invited resulting in a lower than expected consent rate. In addition, although mostly only low-risk women were invited to participate, some women requiring medical consultation at the time of booking were inadvertently recruited into the study. The results of this pilot study led us to revise the study protocol to find ways of including the outcomes of all women without identified risk factors who booked at either the freestanding midwifery units or the tertiary referral hospital in that area. This paper describes the revisions that were made to the study plan. five lessons were learned from the pilot study. We found that recruitment protocols employed for the cohort study were too complicated and required simplification to maximise the potential of the study. The study protocol needed to be changed for the main study to ensure a larger sample size and to ensure the risk profile of each cohort was as

  12. A Computerized Adaptive Mathematics Screening Test: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, James R.

    A pilot study of a computerized adaptive test of mathematics achievement was conducted in May and June 1989 in selected schools of the San Diego Unified School District. The study evaluated the usefulness of the test for determining eligibility for Chapter 1 programs in mathematics. The test was a prototype battery of three adaptive tests: (1)…

  13. Behavioral Activation for Depressed Teens: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritschel, Lorie A.; Ramirez, Cynthia L.; Jones, Meredith; Craighead, W. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) is a psychosocial intervention that has shown promising treatment outcome results with depressed adults. The current pilot study evaluated a version of BA adapted for depressed adolescents. Six teens (3 male, 3 female, ages 14-17) who met criteria for major depressive disorder participated in the study. Participants were…

  14. Technical Writing Redesign and Assessment: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Gaye Bush

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare scores on writing assignments from traditional, fully online courses in technical writing to pilot, hybrid courses at a southern university. A total of 232 students' assignments were compared in this study. All writing assignments were scored by six trained instructors of English using the same five point…

  15. Behavioral Activation for Depressed Teens: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritschel, Lorie A.; Ramirez, Cynthia L.; Jones, Meredith; Craighead, W. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) is a psychosocial intervention that has shown promising treatment outcome results with depressed adults. The current pilot study evaluated a version of BA adapted for depressed adolescents. Six teens (3 male, 3 female, ages 14-17) who met criteria for major depressive disorder participated in the study. Participants were…

  16. Indonesian EFL Students' Perspective on Writing Process: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermilinda Abas, Imelda; Aziz, Noor Hashima Abd

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed at understanding the EFL Indonesian students' perspective on the writing process. The pilot study involved two male Indonesian postgraduate students in Universiti Utara Malaysia. The Indonesian students were selected based on the following criteria: (1) had enough knowledge in English writing, indicated by the completion of…

  17. Circadian pattern of simulated flight performance of pilots is derived from ultradian components.

    PubMed

    Shub, Y; Lewy, H; Ashkenazi, I E

    2001-11-01

    Studies suggest some physiologic, cognitive, and behavioral 24h rhythms are generated by cyclic components that are shorter in period than circadian. The aim of this study was (1) to examine the hypothesis that 24h human performance rhythms arise from the integration of high-frequency endogenous components and (2) to quantify the contribution of each higher frequency component to the phenotype of the rhythm. We monitored the performance of 9 experienced pilots by employing an array of cognitive-based tests conducted in a flight simulator so that, over the 6-day experiment, data were obtained for each 2h interval of the 24h. The activity-rest schedule of the subjects, no matter the exact clock time schedule of sleep and activity, always consisted of 14h activity (when they carried out regular professional duties) and 10h rest, with at least 8h of sleep. The simulated combat scenarios consisted of simple and complex tasks associated with target interception, aircraft maneuvering, and target shooting and downing. The results yielded two indices: the number of prominent periodicities in the time series and the relative magnitude of the amplitude of each relative to the construction of the composite 24h waveform. Three cyclic components (8h, 12h, and 24h) composed the observed 24h performance pattern. The dominant period and acrophase (peak time) of the compound output rhythm were determined by the interplay between the amplitudes of the various individual ultradian components. Task complexity (workload) increases the expression of the ultradian entities in the 24h pattern. We constructed a model composed of the multiple ultradian components; the composite output defined a "time span" (of 2h-4h duration) as opposed to an exact "time point" of high and low performance, endowing elevated functional capability.

  18. A study of decision-making behavior of aircraft pilots deviating from a planned flight.

    PubMed

    Flathers, G W; Giffin, W C; Rockwell, T H

    1982-10-01

    This paper outlines an investigation into the worth structures of pilots facing a deviation from a planned flight. A "paper and pencil" simulation was used to frame the situation into which pilots interjected their own decision-making skills in a simple ranking of candidate diversion airports with varying locational, navigational aid, radar, and weather attributes. Using the conjoint measurement technique, attribute worth functions of 30 pilots were constructed. Systematic differences in the worth functions of the pilots were not found as a result of dividing the pilot sample according to any measure of flight hours' experience. However, differences were found when the pilot sample was grouped according to grade of pilot certificate, type of pilot training, and type of flying most commonly done.

  19. A study of decision-making behavior of aircraft pilots deviating from a planned flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flather, G. W., II; Giffin, W. C.; Rockwell, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper outlines an investigation into the worth structures of pilots facing a deviation from a planned flight. A 'paper and pencil' simulation was used to frame the situation into which pilots interjected their own decision making skills in a simple ranking of candidate diversion airports with varying locational, navigational aid, radar and weather attributes. Using the conjoint measurement technique, attribute worth functions of 30 pilots were constructed. It was discovered that systematic differences in the worth functions of the pilots did not occur as a result of dividing the pilot sample according to any measure of flight hour experience. However, differences were found when the pilot sample was grouped according to grade of pilot certificate, type of pilot training, and type of flying most commonly done.

  20. Physiological Effects of Acceleration Observed During a Centrifuge Study of Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedal, Harald A.; Creer, Brent Y.; Wingrove, Rodney C.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Ames Research Center, and the Naval Air Development Center, Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory, to study the effects of acceleration on pilot performance and to obtain some meaningful data for use in establishing tolerance to acceleration levels. The flight simulator used in the study was the Johnsville centrifuge operated as a closed loop system. The pilot was required to perform a control task in various sustained acceleration fields typical of those that Might be encountered by a pilot flying an entry vehicle in which he is seated in a forward-facing position. A special restraint system was developed and designed to increase the pilot's tolerance to these accelerations. The results of this study demonstrated that a well-trained subject, such as a test pilot, can adequately carry out a control task during moderately high accelerations for prolonged periods of time. The maximum levels of acceleration tolerated were approximately 6 times that of gravity for approximately 6 minutes, and varied slightly with the acceleration direction. The tolerance runs were in each case terminated by the subject. In all but two instances, the cause was extreme fatigue. On two occasions the subject terminated the run when he "grayed out." Although there were subjective and objective findings involving the visual and cardiovascular systems, the respiratory system yielded the more critical limiting factors. It would appear that these limiting factors were less severe during the "eyeballs-out" accelerations when compared with the "eyeballs-in" accelerations. These findings are explained on the basis of the influence that the inertial forces of acceleration have on the mechanics of respiration. A condensed version of this report was presented at the Annual Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, Miami Beach, May 5-11, 1960, in a paper entitled "Ability of Pilots to Perform a Control Task in

  1. Understanding nutritional health in older adults. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Callen, Bonnie

    2004-01-01

    A pilot study of adults ages 65 and older admitted to an acute care setting was conducted to compare nutritional risk as measured by hospital dieticians with two Nutrition Screening Initiative tools, the DETERMINE Your Nutritional Health Checklist and the Level I Screen, and to elicit from patients their own perceptions of nutritional health. Ten community-living older adults were interviewed. Although all 10 were at nutritional risk as measured by both hospital assessment and nutritional risk screening tools, none of these patients believed themselves to be at risk. One conclusion of this pilot is that interventions and education need to be tailored to the perceptions of targeted individuals.

  2. Pershing 2 simulation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J. D.; Lynch, R. L.; Pyles, D. A.; Seitz, R. N.; Thornton, T. V.

    1982-07-01

    Pershing 2 flight simulations were performed using the U70 missile simulation program to determine (1) in the event of an accidental nozzle deflection, how fast the missile would leave its (safe) flight corridor; (2) how well the U70 aerodynamic simulation matches the actual flight data; and (3) the trajectory profiles for nine Tactical Ballistic Missile flight trajectories. Also an advanced simulation program developed by TRW, Inc. was partially converted to run on an inhouse computer.

  3. Piloted simulator investigations of a civil tilt-rotor aircraft on steep instrument approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Ames has used its Vertical Motion Simulator to investigate steep-glideslope instrument approaches for a civil transport tilt-rotor aircraft in two different cases: (1) where pilots used raw glideslope and localized error data for 6-25 deg slopes, terminating in slow roll-on landings, and (2) where a flight director commanded manual conversion from fixed-wing to helicopter modes and a deceleration on the glideslope led to a vertical landing on a small urban helipad. In the former, there occurred control problems directly ascribable to the slow approach speed; in the latter, the four-cue flight director's cockpit augmentation furnished adequate pilot ratings up to 15-deg glideslope.

  4. 78 FR 23941 - Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational... the Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) Applications pilot program to May 8... ``Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE) for Early Feasibility Medical Device Clinical Studies, Including...

  5. 76 FR 70152 - Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational... technologies to participate in a pilot program for early feasibility study investigational device exemption... entitled ``Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE) for Early Feasibility Medical Device Clinical Studies...

  6. Direct spectral/hp element simulation of piloted jet non-premixed flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastase, Cristian R.

    2004-11-01

    The spectral/hp element method is used for direct numerical simulation (DNS) of piloted non premixed methane jet flames. This method combines the accuracy of spectral methods with versatility of finite element methods, and allows accurate simulations of complex flows on structured and unstructured grids. Here, the methodology is extended for simulation of multi-species, reactive flows using the discontinuous Galerkin formulation. Parallel computation is performed via MPI standards coupled with a domain decomposition methodology. The overall computational scheme allows for an efficient partitioning of the flow configuration. Tests performed with up to 64 processors show quasi-linear parallel performance and scalability. The flame configurations are similar to the piloted jet non-premixed flame considered at the Combustion Research Facility at the Sandia National Laboratories. For a momentum dominated flame, the simulated results portray many of the features observed experimentally. This pertains to both the spatial and the compositional structures of the flow. For a buoyancy controlled flame (at elevated gravity levels), the results indicate an increase in both the turbulence levels and flow acceleration. Departure from equilibrium, including localized extinction is observed on a significant portion of this flame.

  7. Intraindividual variability in basic reaction time predicts middle-aged and older pilots' flight simulator performance.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Heraldez, Daniel; Noda, Art; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Yesavage, Jerome

    2013-07-01

    Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40-69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%-12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance.

  8. Tantrums and Anxiety in Early Childhood: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mireault, Gina; Trahan, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    Tantrums, or emotional reactions that are out of proportion to a situation, appear to be a common childhood phenomenon--yet have drawn little research attention. This pilot study describes tantrum precipitants; their frequency, intensity, and duration; and parental responses in a small community sample (N = 33) of 3- to 5-year-olds. Tantrum…

  9. Tai Chi for People with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miszko, Tanya A.; Ramsey, Vincent K.; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the physical and psychological outcomes of a tai chi exercise program for eight adults with visual impairments. It found that after eight weeks of orientation and mobility training and tai chi practice, the participants' single leg-stance time and total knee flexion work and power improved, as did their frequency of,…

  10. Results of the "In Control: No Alcohol!" Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mares, Suzanne H. W.; van der Vorst, Haske; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    More than 50% of Dutch 12-year olds already started drinking. Since it is known that delaying the onset of alcohol use results in a lower risk of alcohol-related problems, the recently developed "In control: No alcohol!" prevention program is targeted at elementary school children and their mothers. In this pilot study, the success of…

  11. Human Exposures to PAHs: an Eastern United States Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure monitoring for select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed as part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Pilot Study in Baltimore, MD and in four surrounding counties (NHEXAS-Maryland). An objective of this effort was to esta...

  12. The Effect of Background Music on Bullying: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Naomi; Dolev, Einat

    2013-01-01

    School bullying is a source of growing concern. A number of intervention programs emphasize the importance of a positive school climate in preventing bullying behavior. The aim of the presented pilot study was to examine whether calming background music, through its effect on arousal and mood, could create a pleasant atmosphere and reduce bullying…

  13. Assessing Student Engagement: HSSSE Pilot Study with Independent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    NAIS and the NAIS Commission on Accreditation recently launched a three-year pilot study on the use of the High School Survey of Student Engagement (HSSSE) among independent schools. HSSSE, administered by Indiana University, is a survey designed to investigate the attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs of high school students about their work. This…

  14. Initial Scale Development: Sample Size for Pilot Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, George A.; Brooks, Gordon P.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot studies are often recommended by scholars and consultants to address a variety of issues, including preliminary scale or instrument development. Specific concerns such as item difficulty, item discrimination, internal consistency, response rates, and parameter estimation in general are all relevant. Unfortunately, there is little discussion…

  15. Assessing the Flipped Classroom in Operations Management: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prashar, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…

  16. The Effect of Background Music on Bullying: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Naomi; Dolev, Einat

    2013-01-01

    School bullying is a source of growing concern. A number of intervention programs emphasize the importance of a positive school climate in preventing bullying behavior. The aim of the presented pilot study was to examine whether calming background music, through its effect on arousal and mood, could create a pleasant atmosphere and reduce bullying…

  17. Nutrition education program for food bank clients: A pilot study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many low income families depend on foods from food banks. The objective of the study was to determine program content and examine feasibility of a pilot nutrition education program for food bank clients. Formative research was conducted with staff at a local food bank and its pantries and adult clie...

  18. Physical activity in Georgia state parks: A pilot study

    Treesearch

    Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the role of Georgia State Parks in the promotion of physical activity among different racial/ethnic and age groups. Data were collected at three state parks in north Georgia during the summer of 2009 using two research methods: behavior observations (N=2281) and intercept surveys (N=473).

  19. Evaluation Study of "Language, Literacy, & Vocabulary!" Spring 2006 Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNabb, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: A pilot study of the "Language, Literacy, & Vocabulary!" program was conducted by Learning Gauger, Inc., for National Geographic School Publishing, in spring 2006. The program evaluation examined the classroom adoption approaches used by participating teachers and the subsequent impact of the "Language, Literacy, &…

  20. CSO DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY: SPRING CREEK CSO STORAGE FACILITY UPGRADE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research summary presents the results of a pilot-scale disinfection study performed for the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) under a contract to Camp Dresser & McKee of Woodbury, New York. The main ob...

  1. Elderly Homosexual Women and Men: Report on a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnigerode, Fred A.; Adelman, Marcy R.

    1978-01-01

    A pilot study is described in which four- to five-hour tape-recorded interviews were conducted with 11 homosexual women and men, 60-77 years of age. Areas examined included: physical change and physical health; work, retirement and leisure time; social behavior; psychological functioning; sexual behavior; and personal perspectives on the life…

  2. Job Rotation at Cardiff University Library Service: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earney, Sally; Martins, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents case study research of a job rotation pilot involving six library assistants in Cardiff University Library Service (ULS). Firstly, it investigates whether job rotation improves motivation and secondly, whether there is an improvement in skills, both technical and "soft". Following a review of the literature,…

  3. Pasadena City College SIGI Project Research Design. Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, John J.; Tulley, John E.

    A pilot study evaluation of SIGI (System of Interactive Guidance and Information) at Pasadena City College in 1974-75 tested the effectiveness of an experimental research design for an expanded field test of the system the following year. (SIGI is a computer based career guidance program designed by Educational Testing Service to assist community…

  4. Pasadena City College SIGI Project Research Design. Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, John J.; Tulley, John E.

    A pilot study evaluation of SIGI (System of Interactive Guidance and Information) at Pasadena City College in 1974-75 tested the effectiveness of an experimental research design for an expanded field test of the system the following year. (SIGI is a computer based career guidance program designed by Educational Testing Service to assist community…

  5. Outcome evaluation of a pilot study using "nudges"

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Every school day, over 31 million U.S. children eat school lunches. Unfortunately, students often do not choose the healthy options in the school cafeteria. This paper describes outcome results of a pilot study using "nudges" to improve elementary school students' fruits and vegetables selections. A...

  6. Consumer Understanding of Nutrition Marketing Terms: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroldson, Amber; Yen, Chih-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the validity of a questionnaire developed to assess adult consumer understanding of nutrition marketing terms and the resulting impact on consumer behavior. Participants (n = 40) completed an electronic questionnaire. Efforts to establish validity and reliability suggest that the questionnaire is a…

  7. Will More Diversified Staffs Diversify Newspaper Content? A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedler, Fred; and Others

    A pilot study asked 94 students enrolled in introductory newswriting classes at three separate universities to evaluate 18 news stories. About half the stories concerned topics that proponents of multiculturalism have suggested would receive more emphasis if newspapers employed more women and minorities: topics such as breast cancer, divorce,…

  8. Causes of Mortality among American College Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James C.; Leno, E. Victor; Keller, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study from self-selected institutions of higher education provides an estimate of the causes and rates of mortality among college students between the ages of 18 and 24 years old. One hundred fifty-seven 4-year colleges participated in an online survey of student deaths during one academic year. A total of 254 deaths were reported. The…

  9. SIGI: Report of a Pilot Study Under Field Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Warren; And Others

    This paper describes the procedures and results of a pilot study of a computer-based System of Interactive Guidance and Information (SIGI) which was designed to help community college students make rational career decisions. A number of the important features of the system are summarized in terms of the source of the value dimensions used in SIGI,…

  10. Causes of Mortality among American College Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James C.; Leno, E. Victor; Keller, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study from self-selected institutions of higher education provides an estimate of the causes and rates of mortality among college students between the ages of 18 and 24 years old. One hundred fifty-seven 4-year colleges participated in an online survey of student deaths during one academic year. A total of 254 deaths were reported. The…

  11. Assessing Student Engagement: HSSSE Pilot Study with Independent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    NAIS and the NAIS Commission on Accreditation recently launched a three-year pilot study on the use of the High School Survey of Student Engagement (HSSSE) among independent schools. HSSSE, administered by Indiana University, is a survey designed to investigate the attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs of high school students about their work. This…

  12. Achieving Competence: Army-VOTEC School Partnership Pilot Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Mary W.

    To reduce Army training costs, the Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) investigated use of training at civilian secondary and postsecondary vocational-technical (VOTEC) institutions as an alternative to initial job training in Army service schools. Three models were used in the pilot study: the preservice training model in which…

  13. Human Exposures to PAHs: an Eastern United States Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure monitoring for select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed as part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Pilot Study in Baltimore, MD and in four surrounding counties (NHEXAS-Maryland). An objective of this effort was to esta...

  14. CSO DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY: SPRING CREEK CSO STORAGE FACILITY UPGRADE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research summary presents the results of a pilot-scale disinfection study performed for the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) under a contract to Camp Dresser & McKee of Woodbury, New York. The main ob...

  15. Danish Health Professionals' Experiences of Being Coached: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammentorp, Jette; Jensen, Hanne Irene; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, coaching, as a supplement to professional development, has received increased attention, especially in nursing. Still, only little is known about how health professionals experience participating in coaching sessions. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe and analyze health professionals' experiences from…

  16. Assessing the Flipped Classroom in Operations Management: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prashar, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…

  17. Consumer Understanding of Nutrition Marketing Terms: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroldson, Amber; Yen, Chih-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the validity of a questionnaire developed to assess adult consumer understanding of nutrition marketing terms and the resulting impact on consumer behavior. Participants (n = 40) completed an electronic questionnaire. Efforts to establish validity and reliability suggest that the questionnaire is a…

  18. Danish Health Professionals' Experiences of Being Coached: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammentorp, Jette; Jensen, Hanne Irene; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, coaching, as a supplement to professional development, has received increased attention, especially in nursing. Still, only little is known about how health professionals experience participating in coaching sessions. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe and analyze health professionals' experiences from…

  19. Teaching Speech Communication with a Foreign Accent: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Guo-Ming; Chung, Jensen

    A pilot study examined problems encountered by foreign instructors teaching in American colleges. Fourteen Chinese-born instructors teaching in Speech Communication answered a questionnaire containing 12 open-ended questions. Recurring themes were coded from the answers, and then organized into three categories: cultural differences; linguistic…

  20. The CITRA pilot studies program: mentoring translational research.

    PubMed

    Wethington, Elaine; Breckman, Risa; Meador, Rhoda; Reid, M Carrington; Sabir, Myra; Lachs, Mark; Pillemer, Karl A

    2007-12-01

    We developed an innovative pilot studies program to foster partnerships between university researchers and agencies serving older people in New York City. The development of researchers willing to collaborate with frontline service agencies and service agencies ready to partner with researchers is critical for translating scientific research into evidence-based practice that benefits community-dwelling older adults. We adapted the traditional academic pilot studies model to include key features of community-based participatory research. In partnership with a network of 265 senior centers and service agencies, we built a multistep program to recruit and educate scientific investigators and agencies in the principles of community-based research and to fund research partnerships that fulfilled essential elements of research translation from university to community: scientific rigor, sensitivity to community needs, and applicability to frontline practice. We also developed an educational and monitoring infrastructure to support projects. Pilot studies programs developing community-based participatory research require an infrastructure that can supplement individual pilot investigator efforts with centralized resources to ensure proper implementation and dissemination of the research. The financial and time investment required to maintain programs such as those at the Cornell Institute for Translational Research on Aging, or CITRA, may be a barrier to establishing similar programs.

  1. Effects of motion base and g-seat cueing of simulator pilot performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, B. R.; Mckissick, B. T.; Parrish, R. V.

    1984-01-01

    In order to measure and analyze the effects of a motion plus g-seat cueing system, a manned-flight-simulation experiment was conducted utilizing a pursuit tracking task and an F-16 simulation model in the NASA Langley visual/motion simulator. This experiment provided the information necessary to determine whether motion and g-seat cues have an additive effect on the performance of this task. With respect to the lateral tracking error and roll-control stick force, the answer is affirmative. It is shown that presenting the two cues simultaneously caused significant reductions in lateral tracking error and that using the g-seat and motion base separately provided essentially equal reductions in the pilot's lateral tracking error.

  2. Dissolution studies with pilot plant and actual INTEC calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, R.S.; Garn, T.G.

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated {gt}95 wt.% of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt.% dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt.% dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  3. Dissolution Studies With Pilot Plant and Actual INTEC Calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, Ronald Scott; Garn, Troy Gerry

    1999-04-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/ Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive A1(NO3)3 solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated >95 wt. % of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt. % dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt. % dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines.

  4. A piloted evaluation of an oblique-wing research aircraft motion simulation with decoupling control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Mcneill, Walter E.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Maine, Trindel A.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center developed an oblique-wing research plane from NASA's digital fly-by-wire airplane. Oblique-wing airplanes show large cross-coupling in control and dynamic behavior which is not present on conventional symmetric airplanes and must be compensated for to obtain acceptable handling qualities. The large vertical motion simulator at NASA Ames-Moffett was used in the piloted evaluation of a proposed flight control system designed to provide decoupled handling qualities. Five discrete flight conditions were evaluated ranging from low altitude subsonic Mach numbers to moderate altitude supersonic Mach numbers. The flight control system was effective in generally decoupling the airplane. However, all participating pilots objected to the high levels of lateral acceleration encountered in pitch maneuvers. In addition, the pilots were more critical of left turns (in the direction of the trailing wingtip when skewed) than they were of right turns due to the tendency to be rolled into the left turns and out of the right turns. Asymmetric side force as a function of angle of attack was the primary cause of lateral acceleration in pitch. Along with the lateral acceleration in pitch, variation of rolling and yawing moments as functions of angle of attack caused the tendency to roll into left turns and out of right turns.

  5. Airblast Simulator Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    predicted in steady state theory . 0 The Army has decided on the basis of other arguments that 10% blockage is acceptable for a large blast simulator. These...Proceedings, 28-30 April 1965, p. 259. 16. Sanal , M4., Lindberg, H.E. and Colton, J.D., "Simulation of Blast Waves with Tailored Explosive Charges", SRI

  6. Pilot scale processing of simulated Savannah River Site high level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Ritter, J.A.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory operates the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), which is a pilot-scale test facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the US Department of Energy's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, the IDMS is used in the evaluation of the DWPF melter and its associated feed preparation and offgass treatment systems. This article provides a general overview of some of the test work which has been conducted in the IDMS facility. The chemistry associated with the chemical treatment of the sludge (via formic acid adjustment) is discussed. Operating experiences with simulated sludge containing high levels of nitrite, mercury, and noble metals are summarized.

  7. Statistical analysis of piloted simulation of real time trajectory optimization algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    A simulation of time-optimal intercept algorithms for on-board computation of control commands is described. The effects of three different display modes and two different computation modes on the pilots' ability to intercept a moving target in minimum time were tested. Both computation modes employed singular perturbation theory to help simplify the two-point boundary value problem associated with trajectory optimization. Target intercept time was affected by both the display and computation modes chosen, but the display mode chosen was the only significant influence on the miss distance.

  8. Underground tank vitrification: A pilot-scale in situ vitrification test of a tank containing a simulated mixed waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.E.; Powell, T.D.; Tixier, J.S.; Miller, M.C.; Owczarski, P.C.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents research on sludge vitrification. The first pilot scale in-situ vitrification test of a simulated underground tank was successfully completed by researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The vitrification process effectively immobilized the vast majority of radionuclides simulants and toxic metals were retained in the melt and uniformly distributed throughout the monolith.

  9. Introducing technology into medical education: two pilot studies.

    PubMed

    George, Paul; Dumenco, Luba; Dollase, Richard; Taylor, Julie Scott; Wald, Hedy S; Reis, Shmuel P

    2013-12-01

    Educators are integrating new technology into medical curriculum. The impact of newer technology on educational outcomes remains unclear. We aimed to determine if two pilot interventions, (1) introducing iPads into problem-based learning (PBL) sessions and (2) online tutoring would improve the educational experience of our learners. We voluntarily assigned 26 second-year medical students to iPad-based PBL sessions. Five students were assigned to Skype for exam remediation. We performed a mixed-method evaluation to determine efficacy. Pilot 1: Seventeen students completed a survey following their use of an iPad during the second-year PBL curriculum. Students noted the iPad allows for researching information in real time, annotating lecture notes, and viewing sharper images. Data indicate that iPads have value in medical education and are a positive addition to the curriculum. Pilot 2: Students agreed that online tutoring is at least or more effective than in-person tutoring. In our pilot studies, students experienced that iPads and Skype are beneficial in medical education and can be successfully employed in areas such as PBL and remediation. Educators should continue to further examine innovative opportunities for introducing technology into medical education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nursing Student Perceptions of Digital Textbooks: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Mennenga, Heidi A

    2016-01-01

    Digital textbooks are increasing in popularity, often resulting from the perception that students demand the use of technology in academics. However, few studies have been done on student perceptions of digital textbooks. A pilot study was conducted with students enrolled in a nursing research course; 123 nursing students participated. This study found that students overwhelmingly preferred print textbooks over digital textbooks. More research needs to be done before assuming students would prefer digital textbooks over print.

  11. Ultrasound measurements of the masseter muscle as predictors of cephalometric indices in orthodontics: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Naser-Ud-Din, S; Sampson, W J; Dreyer, C W; Thoirs, K

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated the potential of ultrasound measurements of the masseter muscle to accurately predict indices normally derived from cephalograms. Masseter muscle measurements on 11 adults (22 to 30 y) were made using lateral cephalometrics and extended field-of-view ultrasound. The ultrasound technique was validated in a simulation pilot study using 12 dry skulls and raw chicken breasts. Twenty cephalometric variables were analyzed against four ultrasound measurements of the masseter muscle. Highly significant correlations (r = 0.81-0.85, p = 0.001-0.002) between ultrasound measurements of the masseter muscle and cephalometric measurements representing the length of the superficial masseter muscle, the length and shape of the mandible and vertical facial proportions were demonstrated. Predictive equations from regression analyses were constructed to deduce ramus length and shape from the ultrasound measurements. The results provide pilot data suggesting that ultrasound is a potential clinical tool for sequential evaluation of masseter muscle length in orthodontics and facial muscle growth studies.

  12. 76 FR 12367 - Proposed Information Collection; Visibility Valuation Survey Pilot Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Visibility Valuation Survey Pilot Study AGENCY... Control Number 1024-0255). The purpose of this IC is to conduct a pilot study to test the survey... collection. Title: Visibility Valuation Survey Pilot Study. Type of Request: New. Affected Public...

  13. Robotic surgery basic skills training: Evaluation of a pilot multidisciplinary simulation-based curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Foell, Kirsten; Finelli, Antonio; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Bernardini, Marcus Q.; Waddell, Thomas K.; Pace, Kenneth T.; Honey, R. John D.’A.; Lee, Jason Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Simulation-based training improves clinical skills, while minimizing the impact of the educational process on patient care. We present results of a pilot multidisciplinary, simulation-based robotic surgery basic skills training curriculum (BSTC) for robotic novices. Methods: A 4-week, simulation-based, robotic surgery BSTC was offered to the Departments of Surgery and Obstetrics & Gynecology (ObGyn) at the University of Toronto. The course consisted of various instructional strategies: didactic lecture, self-directed online-training modules, introductory hands-on training with the da Vinci robot (dVR) (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA), and dedicated training on the da Vinci Skills Simulator (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) (dVSS). A third of trainees participated in competency-based dVSS training, all others engaged in traditional time-based training. Pre- and post-course skill testing was conducted on the dVR using 2 standardized skill tasks: ring transfer (RT) and needle passing (NP). Retention of skills was assessed at 5 months post-BSTC. Results: A total of 37 participants completed training. The mean task completion time and number of errors improved significantly post-course on both RT (180.6 vs. 107.4 sec, p < 0.01 and 3.5 vs. 1.3 sec, p < 0.01, respectively) and NP (197.1 vs. 154.1 sec, p < 0.01 and 4.5 vs. 1.8 sec, p = 0.04, respectively) tasks. No significant difference in performance was seen between specialties. Competency-based training was associated with significantly better post-course performance. The dVSS demonstrated excellent face validity. Conclusions: The implementation of a pilot multidisciplinary, simulation-based robotic surgery BSTC revealed significantly improved basic robotic skills among novice trainees, regardless of specialty or level of training. Competency-based training was associated with significantly better acquisition of basic robotic skills. PMID:24381662

  14. Robotic surgery basic skills training: Evaluation of a pilot multidisciplinary simulation-based curriculum.

    PubMed

    Foell, Kirsten; Finelli, Antonio; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Bernardini, Marcus Q; Waddell, Thomas K; Pace, Kenneth T; Honey, R John D 'a; Lee, Jason Y

    2013-01-01

    Simulation-based training improves clinical skills, while minimizing the impact of the educational process on patient care. We present results of a pilot multidisciplinary, simulation-based robotic surgery basic skills training curriculum (BSTC) for robotic novices. A 4-week, simulation-based, robotic surgery BSTC was offered to the Departments of Surgery and Obstetrics & Gynecology (ObGyn) at the University of Toronto. The course consisted of various instructional strategies: didactic lecture, self-directed online-training modules, introductory hands-on training with the da Vinci robot (dVR) (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA), and dedicated training on the da Vinci Skills Simulator (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) (dVSS). A third of trainees participated in competency-based dVSS training, all others engaged in traditional time-based training. Pre- and post-course skill testing was conducted on the dVR using 2 standardized skill tasks: ring transfer (RT) and needle passing (NP). Retention of skills was assessed at 5 months post-BSTC. A total of 37 participants completed training. The mean task completion time and number of errors improved significantly post-course on both RT (180.6 vs. 107.4 sec, p < 0.01 and 3.5 vs. 1.3 sec, p < 0.01, respectively) and NP (197.1 vs. 154.1 sec, p < 0.01 and 4.5 vs. 1.8 sec, p = 0.04, respectively) tasks. No significant difference in performance was seen between specialties. Competency-based training was associated with significantly better post-course performance. The dVSS demonstrated excellent face validity. The implementation of a pilot multidisciplinary, simulation-based robotic surgery BSTC revealed significantly improved basic robotic skills among novice trainees, regardless of specialty or level of training. Competency-based training was associated with significantly better acquisition of basic robotic skills.

  15. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Greenbelt Homes, Inc. Pilot Retrofit Project

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc., (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. With the community upgrade fully funded by the cooperative through their membership without outside subsidies, this project presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects that include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy-savings benefits of improvements. Phase 1—baseline evaluation for a representative set of 28 homes sited in seven buildings; Phase 2—installation of the building envelope improvements and continued monitoring of the energy consumption for the heating season; Phase 3—energy simulations supporting recommendations for HVAC and water heating upgrades.

  16. Structural Differences in Gray Matter between Glider Pilots and Non-Pilots. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahamed, Tosif; Kawanabe, Motoaki; Ishii, Shin; Callan, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Glider flying is a unique skill that requires pilots to control an aircraft at high speeds in three dimensions and amidst frequent full-body rotations. In the present study, we investigated the neural correlates of flying a glider using voxel-based morphometry. The comparison between gray matter densities of 15 glider pilots and a control group of 15 non-pilots exhibited significant gray matter density increases in left ventral premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and the supplementary eye field. We posit that the identified regions might be associated with cognitive and motor processes related to flying, such as joystick control, visuo-vestibular interaction, and oculomotor control. PMID:25506339

  17. Evaluation of a Pilot Project to Introduce Simulation-Based Team Training to Pediatric Surgery Trauma Room Care

    PubMed Central

    Heimberg, Ellen; Hoffmann, Florian; Heinzel, Oliver; Kirschner, Hans-Joachim; Heinrich, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Several studies in pediatric trauma care have demonstrated substantial deficits in both prehospital and emergency department management. Methods. In February 2015 the PAEDSIM collaborative conducted a one and a half day interdisciplinary, simulation based team-training course in a simulated pediatric emergency department. 14 physicians from the medical fields of pediatric surgery, pediatric intensive care and emergency medicine, and anesthesia participated, as well as four pediatric nurses. After a theoretical introduction and familiarization with the simulator, course attendees alternately participated in six simulation scenarios and debriefings. Each scenario incorporated elements of pediatric trauma management as well as Crew Resource Management (CRM) educational objectives. Participants completed anonymous pre- and postcourse questionnaires and rated the course itself as well as their own medical qualification and knowledge of CRM. Results. Participants found the course very realistic and selected scenarios highly relevant to their daily work. They reported a feeling of improved medical and nontechnical skills as well as no uncomfortable feeling during scenarios or debriefings. Conclusion. To our knowledge this pilot-project represents the first successful implementation of a simulation-based team-training course focused on pediatric trauma care in German-speaking countries with good acceptance. PMID:28286528

  18. Treatment of premenstrual depression with nortriptyline: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Harrison, W M; Endicott, J; Nee, J

    1989-04-01

    There are no reports on treatment of premenstrual syndrome with antidepressants, although depression is a common symptom of the syndrome. Eleven women who met DSM-III-R criteria for late luteal phase dysphoric disorder were treated with nortriptyline in an open pilot study after they failed to respond to placebo or another medication. Eight of 11 patients had a good therapeutic response. The efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of premenstrual depression needs confirmation with double-blind studies.

  19. Pilot Inter-Laboratory Studies for Evaluating Weathering-Induced Release of Carbon Nanotubes from Solid Matrices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanomaterials are increasingly being used in polymer composites to enhance the properties of these materials. Here we present results of a pilot inter-laboratory study to simulate the effects of weathering on the potential release of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) from thei...

  20. Pilot Inter-Laboratory Studies for Evaluating Weathering-Induced Release of Carbon Nanotubes from Solid Matrices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanomaterials are increasingly being used in polymer composites to enhance the properties of these materials. Here we present results of a pilot inter-laboratory study to simulate the effects of weathering on the potential release of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) from thei...