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Sample records for piloted simulation study

  1. A pilot study to evaluate gaze behavior in aircraft simulations.

    PubMed

    Russi-Vigoya, Maria Natalia; Patterson, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Pilots encounter dynamic situations in which there are drastic changes in weather or where their primary equipment fails. The glass cockpit interface, a computerized system, is often used in today?s aircraft to integrate information about aircraft status onto a visual display. When adverse, life-threatening, situations occur, pilots have to make decisions, with or without their primary equipment. One of the most important tools that pilots have to prepare for adverse situations is simulation training. This study evaluated the link between situational awareness and eye behavior while using a flight simulator to present different adverse situations.

  2. Piloted simulation study of two tilt-wing control concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1994-01-01

    A two-phase piloted simulation study was conducted to investigate alternative wing and flap controls for tilt-wing aircraft. The initial phase of the study compared the flying qualities of both a conventional (programmed) flap and an innovative geared flap. The second phase of the study introduced an alternate method of pilot control for the geared flap and further studied the flying qualities of the programmed flap, and two geared flap configurations. In general, the pilot rating showed little variation between the programmed flap and the geared flap control concepts. Some differences between the two concepts were noticed and are discussed in this paper. The addition of pitch attitude stabilization in the second phase of the study greatly enhanced the aircraft flying qualities. This paper describes the simulated tilt-wing aircraft and the flap control concepts and presents the results of both phases of the simulation study.

  3. Airflow Hazard Visualization for Helicopter Pilots: Flight Simulation Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2005-01-01

    Airflow hazards such as vortices or low level wind shear have been identified as a primary contributing factor in many helicopter accidents. US Navy ships generate airwakes over their decks, creating potentially hazardous conditions for shipboard rotorcraft launch and recovery. Recent sensor developments may enable the delivery of airwake data to the cockpit, where visualizing the hazard data may improve safety and possibly extend ship/helicopter operational envelopes. A prototype flight-deck airflow hazard visualization system was implemented on a high-fidelity rotorcraft flight dynamics simulator. Experienced helicopter pilots, including pilots from all five branches of the military, participated in a usability study of the system. Data was collected both objectively from the simulator and subjectively from post-test questionnaires. Results of the data analysis are presented, demonstrating a reduction in crash rate and other trends that illustrate the potential of airflow hazard visualization to improve flight safety.

  4. Piloted Simulation Study of Rudder Pedal Force/Feel Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation was conducted in 2006 to determine optimum rudder pedal force/feel characteristics for transport aircraft. As part of this research, an evaluation of four metrics for assessing rudder pedal characteristics previously presented in the literature was conducted. This evaluation was based upon the numerical handling qualities ratings assigned to a variety of pedal force/feel systems used in the simulation study. It is shown that, with the inclusion of a fifth metric, most of the rudder pedal force/feel system designs that were rated poorly by the evaluation pilots could be identified. It is suggested that these metrics form the basis of a certification requirement for transport aircraft.

  5. A piloted simulation study of data link ATC message exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Marvin C.; Lohr, Gary W.

    1989-01-01

    Data link Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Air Traffic Service (ATS) message and data exchange offers the potential benefits of increased flight safety and efficiency by reducing communication errors and allowing more information to be transferred between aircraft and ground facilities. Digital communication also presents an opportunity to relieve the overloading of ATC radio frequencies which hampers message exchange during peak traffic hours in many busy terminal areas. A piloted simulation study to develop pilot factor guidelines and assess potential flight crew benefits and liabilities from using data link ATC message exchange was completed. The data link ATC message exchange concept, implemented on an existing navigation computer Control Display Unit (CDU) required maintaining a voice radio telephone link with an appropriate ATC facility. Flight crew comments, scanning behavior, and measurements of time spent in ATC communication activities for data link ATC message exchange were compared to similar measures for simulated conventional voice radio operations. The results show crew preference for the quieter flight deck environment and a perception of lower communication workload.

  6. Leading teams during simulated pediatric emergencies: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Coolen, Ester H; Draaisma, Jos M; den Hamer, Sabien; Loeffen, Jan L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Leadership has been identified as a key variable for the functioning of teams and as one of the main reasons for success or failure of team-based work systems. Pediatricians often function as team leaders in the resuscitation of a critically ill child. However, pediatric residents often report having little opportunity to perform in the role of team leader during residency. In order to gain more insight into leadership skills and behaviors, we classified leadership styles of pediatric residents during simulated emergencies. Methods We conducted a prospective quantitative study to investigate leadership styles used by pediatric residents during simulated emergencies with clinical deterioration of a child at a pediatric ward. Using videotaped scenarios of 48 simulated critical events among 12 residents, we were able to classify verbal and nonverbal communication into different leadership styles according to the situational leadership theory. Results The coaching style (mean 54.5%, SD 7.8) is the most frequently applied by residents, followed by the directing style (mean 35.6%, SD 4.1). This pattern conforms to the task- and role-related requirements in our scenarios and it also conforms to the concept of situational leadership. We did not find any significant differences in leadership style according to the postgraduate year or scenario content. Conclusion The model used in this pilot study helps us to gain a better understanding of the development of effective leadership behavior and supports the applicability of situational leadership theory in training leadership skills during residency. PMID:25610010

  7. Combining simulated patients and simulators: pilot study of hybrid simulation in teaching cardiac auscultation.

    PubMed

    Friederichs, Hendrik; Weissenstein, Anne; Ligges, Sandra; Möller, David; Becker, Jan C; Marschall, Bernhard

    2014-12-01

    Auscultation torsos are widely used to teach position-dependent heart sounds and murmurs. To provide a more realistic teaching experience, both whole body auscultation mannequins and torsos have been used in clinical examination skills training at the Medical Faculty of the University of Muenster since the winter term of 2008-2009. This training has since been extended by simulated patients, which are normal, healthy subjects who have undergone attachment of the electronic components of the auscultation mannequins to their chests to mimic pathophysiological conditions ("hybrid models"). The acceptance of this new learning method was examined in the present pilot study. In total, 143 students in their second preclinical year who were participating in auscultation training were randomized into an intervention group (hybrid models) and a control group (auscultation mannequins). One hundred forty-two (99.3%) of these students completed a self-assessment Likert-scale questionnaire regarding different teaching approaches (where 1 = "very poor" to 100 = "very good"). The questionnaire focused on the "value of learning" of different teaching approaches. Direct comparison showed that students evaluated the hybrid models to be significantly more effective than the auscultation mannequins (median: 83 vs. 64, P < 0.001). The cardiac auscultation training was generally assessed positively (median: 88). Additionally, verbal feedback was obtained from simulated patients and tutors (trained students who had successfully passed the course a few semesters earlier). Personal feedback showed high satisfaction from student tutors and simulated patients. Hybrid simulators for teaching cardiac auscultation elucidated positive responses from students, tutors, and simulated patients.

  8. Pilot In-Trail Procedure Validation Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussink, Frank J. L.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Chamberlain, James P.; Chartrand, Ryan; Jones, Kenneth M.

    2008-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) to investigate the viability of the In-Trail Procedure (ITP) concept from a flight crew perspective, by placing participating airline pilots in a simulated oceanic flight environment. The test subject pilots used new onboard avionics equipment that provided improved information about nearby traffic and enabled them, when specific criteria were met, to request an ITP flight level change referencing one or two nearby aircraft that might otherwise block the flight level change. The subject pilots subjective assessments of ITP validity and acceptability were measured via questionnaires and discussions, and their objective performance in appropriately selecting, requesting, and performing ITP flight level changes was evaluated for each simulated flight scenario. Objective performance and subjective workload assessment data from the experiment s test conditions were analyzed for statistical and operational significance and are reported in the paper. Based on these results, suggestions are made to further improve the ITP.

  9. Pilot Comments for High Speed Research Cycle 3 Simulations Study (LaRC.1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Melvin L. (Editor); Jackson, E. Bruce (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This is a compilation of pilot comments from the Boeing High Speed Research Aircraft, Cycle 3 Simulation Study (LaRC.1) conducted from January to March 1997 at NASA Langley Research Center. This simulation study was conducted using the Visual Motion Simulator. The comments are direct tape transcriptions and have been edited for spelling only.

  10. Effect of motion cues during complex curved approach and landing tasks: A piloted simulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted to examine the effect of motion cues using a high fidelity simulation of commercial aircraft during the performance of complex approach and landing tasks in the Microwave Landing System (MLS) signal environment. The data from these tests indicate that in a high complexity MLS approach task with moderate turbulence and wind, the pilot uses motion cues to improve path tracking performance. No significant differences in tracking accuracy were noted for the low and medium complexity tasks, regardless of the presence of motion cues. Higher control input rates were measured for all tasks when motion was used. Pilot eye scan, as measured by instrument dwell time, was faster when motion cues were used regardless of the complexity of the approach tasks. Pilot comments indicated a preference for motion. With motion cues, pilots appeared to work harder in all levels of task complexity and to improve tracking performance in the most complex approach task.

  11. Assessment of APRN Student Competency Using Simulation: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kesten, Karen S; Brown, Helen F; Meeker, Meaghan C

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and evaluation of competency for advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) is a challenge facing educators, regulators, and consumers of health care. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using simulation to assess and evaluate APRN student competence in managing complex cases. Students were videotaped in the simulation laboratory at four separate intervals; two independent reviewers used the APRN Competency Evaluation Tool to review the simulation. Results showed statistically significant improvement in all categories of evaluation following increased exposure to simulation of complex cases. Student competence increased for managing complex patients, use of evidence-based guidelines, patient safety, leadership, prioritization, delegation, collaboration, communication, and professionalism. PMID:26521505

  12. Pilot Study: Impact of Computer Simulation on Students' Economic Policy Performance. Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domazlicky, Bruce; France, Judith

    Fiscal and monetary policies taught in macroeconomic principles courses are concepts that might require both lecture and simulation methods. The simulation models, which apply the principles gleened from comparative statistics to a dynamic world, may give students an appreciation for the problems facing policy makers. This paper is a report of a…

  13. Initial piloted simulation study of geared flap control for tilt-wing V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerrero, Lourdes M.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1991-01-01

    A simulation study of a representative tilt wing transport aircraft was conducted in 1990 on the Ames Vertical Motion Simulator. This simulation is in response to renewed interest in the tilt wing concept for use in future military and civil applications. For past tilt wing concepts, pitch control in hover and low-speed flight has required a tail rotor or reaction jets at the tail. Use of mono cyclic propellers or a geared flap have also been proposed as alternate methods for providing pitch control at low speed. The geared flap is a subject of this current study. This report describes the geared flap concept, the tilt wing aircraft, the simulation model, the simulation facility and experiment setup, the pilots' evaluation tasks and procedures, and the results obtained from the simulation experiment. The pilot evaluations and comments are also documented in the report appendix.

  14. Piloted simulation study of two tilt-wing flap control concepts, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Corliss, Lloyd D.; Hindson, William S.; Churchill, Gary B.

    1994-01-01

    A two phase piloted simulation study has been conducted in the Ames Vertical Motion Simulator to investigate alternative wing and flap controls for tilt-wing aircraft. This report documents the flying qualities results and findings of the second phase of the piloted simulation study and describes the simulated tilt-wing aircraft, the flap control concepts, the experiment design and the evaluation tasks. The initial phase of the study compared the flying qualities of both a conventional programmed flap and an innovative geared flap. The second phase of the study introduced an alternate method of pilot control for the geared flap and further studied the flying qualities of the programmed flap and two geared flap configurations. In general, the pilot ratings showed little variation between the programmed flap and the geared flap control concepts. Some differences between the two control concepts were noticed and are discussed in this report. The geared flap configurations had very similar results. Although the geared flap concept has the potential to reduce or eliminate the pitch control power requirements from a tail rotor or a tail thruster at low speeds and in hover, the results did not show reduced tail thruster pitch control power usage with the geared flap configurations compared to the programmed flap configuration. The addition of pitch attitude stabilization in the second phase of simulation study greatly enhanced the aircraft flying qualities compared to the first phase.

  15. Costing Educational Wastage: A Pilot Simulation Study. Current Surveys and Research in Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berstecher, D.

    This pilot simulation study examines the important methodological problems involved in costing educational wastage, focusing specifically on the cost implications of educational wastage in primary education. Purpose of the study is to provide a clearer picture of the underlying rationale and interrelated consequences of reducing educational…

  16. Mechanical Ventilation Boot Camp: A Simulation-Based Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Jennifer; Fuenning, Charles; George, Richard; Hejal, Rana; Haines, Nhi; Dunn, Diane; Gothard, M. David; Ahmed, Rami A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Management of mechanically ventilated patients may pose a challenge to novice residents, many of which may not have received formal dedicated critical care instruction prior to starting their residency training. There is a paucity of data regarding simulation and mechanical ventilation training in the medical education literature. The purpose of this study was to develop a curriculum to educate first-year residents on addressing and troubleshooting ventilator alarms. Methods. Prospective evaluation was conducted of seventeen residents undergoing a twelve-hour three-day curriculum. Residents were assessed using a predetermined critical action checklist for each case, as well as pre- and postcurriculum multiple-choice cognitive knowledge questionnaires and confidence surveys. Results. Significant improvements in cognitive knowledge, critical actions, and self-reported confidence were demonstrated. The mean change in test score from before to after intervention was +26.8%, and a median score increase of 25% was noted. The ARDS and the mucus plugging cases had statistically significant improvements in critical actions, p < 0.001. A mean increase in self-reported confidence was realized (1.55 to 3.64), p = 0.049. Conclusions. A three-day simulation curriculum for residents was effective in increasing competency, knowledge, and confidence with ventilator management. PMID:26949545

  17. Trauma Boot Camp: A Simulation-Based Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Moftakhar, Yasmin; Dobbins IV, Arthur L; Khan, Ramisha; Dasgupta, Rahul; Blanda, Rachel; Marchand, Tiffany; Ahmed, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Interns are often unprepared to effectively communicate in the acute trauma setting. Despite the many strengths of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) program, the main shortcoming within the course is the deficiency of teamwork and leadership training. In this study, we describe the creation of an interdisciplinary boot camp in which interns' basic trauma knowledge, level of confidence, and teamwork skills are assessed. Methods: We designed a one-day, boot camp curriculum for interns of various specialties with the purpose of improving communication and teamwork skills for effective management of acute trauma patients. Our curriculum consisted of a one-day, twelve-hour experience, which included trauma patient simulations, content expert lectures, group discussion of video demonstrations, and skill development workstations. Baseline and acquired knowledge were assessed through the use of confidence surveys, cognitive questionnaires, and a validated evaluation tool of teamwork and leadership skills for trauma Results: Fifteen interns entered the boot camp with an overall confidence score of 3.2 (1-5 scale) in the management of trauma cases. At the culmination of the study, there was a significant increase in the overall confidence level of interns in role delegation, leadership, Crisis Resource Management (CRM) principles, and in the performance of primary and secondary surveys. No significant changes were seen in determining and effectively using the Glasgow Coma Scale, Orthopedic splinting/reduction skills, and effective use of closed-loop communication. Conclusion: An intensive one-day trauma boot camp demonstrated significant improvement in self-reported confidence of CRM concepts, role delegation, leadership, and performance of primary and secondary surveys. Despite the intensive curriculum, there was no significant improvement in overall teamwork and leadership performance during simulated cases. Our boot camp curriculum offers educators a

  18. Piloted simulation study of an ILS approach of a twin-pusher business/commuter turboprop aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Donald R.; Brandon, Jay M.; Glaab, Louis J.

    1994-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear simulation of a twin-pusher, turboprop business/commuter aircraft configuration representative of the Cessna ATPTB (Advanced turboprop test bed) was developed for use in piloted studies with the Langley General Aviation Simulator. The math models developed are provided, simulation predictions are compared with with Cessna flight-test data for validation purposes, and results of a handling quality study during simulated ILS (instrument landing system) approaches and missed approaches are presented. Simulated flight trajectories, task performance measures, and pilot evaluations are presented for the ILS approach and missed-approach tasks conducted with the vehicle in the presence of moderate turbulence, varying horizontal winds and engine-out conditions. Six test subjects consisting of two research pilots, a Cessna test pilot, and three general aviation pilots participated in the study. This effort was undertaken in cooperation with the Cessna Aircraft Company.

  19. Pilot Interactions in an Over-Constrained Conflict Scenario as Studied in a Piloted Simulation of Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Barhydt, Richard; Barmore, Bryan; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2003-01-01

    Feasibility and safety of autonomous aircraft operations were studied in a multi-piloted simulation of overconstrained traffic conflicts to determine the need for, and utility of, priority flight rules to maintain safety in this extraordinary and potentially hazardous situation. An overconstrained traffic conflict is one in which the separation assurance objective is incompatible with other objectives. In addition, a proposed scheme for implementing priority flight rules by staggering the alerting time between the two aircraft in conflict was tested for effectiveness. The feasibility study was conducted through a simulation in the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center. This research activity is a continuation of the Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management feasibility analysis reported in the 4th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar in December 2001 (paper #48). The over-constrained conflict scenario studied here consisted of two piloted aircraft that were assigned an identical en-route waypoint arrival time and altitude crossing restriction. The simulation results indicated that the pilots safely resolved the conflict without the need for a priority flight rule system. Occurrences of unnecessary maneuvering near the common waypoint were traced to false conflict alerts, generated as the result of including waypoint constraint information in the broadcast data link message issued from each aircraft. This result suggests that, in the conservative interests of safety, broadcast intent information should be based on the commanded trajectory and not on the Flight Management System flight plan, to which the aircraft may not actually adhere. The use of priority flight rules had no effect on the percentage of the aircraft population meeting completely predictable which aircraft in a given pair would meet the constraints and which aircraft would make the first maneuver to yield right-of-way. Therefore, the proposed scheme for

  20. High-altitude balloon-launched aircraft - A piloted simulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James E.; Moes, Timothy R.; Norlin, Ken

    1993-01-01

    A real-time piloted simulation at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility was used to study the feasibility of launching a research aircraft from a high-altitude balloon. In the study, the simulated aircraft was launched in a nosedown attitude at zero airspeed from 110,000 ft. After launch, the pilot flew the aircraft through a near-maximum-lift pullout and then through a zoom climb to a trimmed, l-g flight condition at the test altitude. The study included parametric variations to measure the effects of launch altitude, gross weight, Mach number limit, and parachute size on the test altitude attained. The aerodynamic model of the simulated aircraft was based on flight test results, low Reynolds number windtunnel tests, and computational models; the model included significant Mach number and Reynolds number effects at high altitude. A small parachute was included in the simulation to limit Mach number during the pullout to avoid adverse transonic effects and their resultant energy losses. A small rocket motor was included in the simulation and was investigated for boosting the aircraft to a higher test altitude. In the study, a test altitude of approximately 95,000 ft was attained without rocket boost, and a test altitude in excess of 100,000 ft was attained using small rocket boost.

  1. A simulation study of control and display requirements for zero-experience general aviation pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this simulation study was to define the basic human factor requirements for operating an airplane in all weather conditions. The basic human factors requirements are defined as those for an operator who is a complete novice for airplane operations but who is assumed to have automobile driving experience. These operators thus have had no piloting experience or training of any kind. The human factor requirements are developed for a practical task which includes all of the basic maneuvers required to go from one airport to another airport in limited visibility conditions. The task was quite demanding including following a precise path with climbing and descending turns while simultaneously changing airspeed. The ultimate goal of this research is to increase the utility of general aviation airplanes - that is, to make them a practical mode of transportation for a much larger segment of the general population. This can be accomplished by reducing the training and proficiency requirements of pilots while improving the level of safety. It is believed that advanced technologies such as fly-by-wire (or light), and head-up pictorial displays can be of much greater benefit to the general aviation pilot than to the full-time, professional pilot.

  2. Piloted simulator assessments of agility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Edward T.

    1990-01-01

    NASA has utilized piloted simulators for nearly two decades to study high-angle-of-attack flying qualities, agility, and air-to-air combat. These studies have included assessments of an F-16XL aircraft equipped with thrust vectoring, an assessment of the F-18 HARV maneuvering requirements to assist in thrust vectoring control system design, and an agility assessment of the F-18. The F-18 agility assessment was compared with in-flight testing. Open-loop maneuvers such as 180-deg rolls to measure roll rate showed favorable simulator/in-flight comparison. Closed-loop maneuvers such as rolls to 90 deg with precision stops or certain maximum longitudinal pitching maneuvers showed poorer performance due to reduced aggressiveness of pilot inputs in flight to remain within flight envelope limits.

  3. Ride qualities criteria validation/pilot performance study: Flight simulator results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nardi, L. U.; Kawana, H. Y.; Borland, C. J.; Lefritz, N. M.

    1976-01-01

    Pilot performance was studied during simulated manual terrain following flight for ride quality criteria validation. An existing B-1 simulation program provided the data for these investigations. The B-1 simulation program included terrain following flights under varying controlled conditions of turbulence, terrain, mission length, and system dynamics. The flight simulator consisted of a moving base cockpit which reproduced motions due to turbulence and control inputs. The B-1 aircraft dynamics were programmed with six-degrees-of-freedom equations of motion with three symmetric and two antisymmetric structural degrees of freedom. The results provided preliminary validation of existing ride quality criteria and identified several ride quality/handling quality parameters which may be of value in future ride quality/criteria development.

  4. Piloted simulation study of a balloon-assisted deployment of an aircraft at high altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James; Moes, Timothy; Norlin, Ken; Bauer, Jeffrey; Geenen, Robert; Moulton, Bryan; Hoang, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    A piloted simulation was used to study the feasibility of a balloon assisted deployment of a research aircraft at high altitude. In the simulation study, an unmanned, modified sailplane was carried to 110,000 ft with a high altitude balloon and released in a nose down attitude. A remote pilot controlled the aircraft through a pullout and then executed a zoom climb to a trimmed, 1 g flight condition. A small parachute was used to limit the Mach number during the pullout to avoid adverse transonic effects. The use of small rocket motor was studied for increasing the maximum attainable altitude. Aerodynamic modifications to the basic sailplane included applying supercritical airfoil gloves over the existing wing and tail surfaces. The aerodynamic model of the simulated aircraft was based on low Reynolds number wind tunnel tests and computational techniques, and included large Mach number and Reynolds number effects at high altitude. Parametric variations were performed to study the effects of launch altitude, gross weight, Mach number limit, and parachute size on the maximum attainable stabilized altitude. A test altitude of approx. 95,000 ft was attained, and altitudes in excess of 100,000 ft was attained.

  5. Generic Airplane Model Concept and Four Specific Models Developed for Use in Piloted Simulation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffler, Keith D.; Fears, Scott P.; Carzoo, Susan W.

    1997-01-01

    A generic airplane model concept was developed to allow configurations with various agility, performance, handling qualities, and pilot vehicle interface to be generated rapidly for piloted simulation studies. The simple concept allows stick shaping and various stick command types or modes to drive an airplane with both linear and nonlinear components. Output from the stick shaping goes to linear models or a series of linear models that can represent an entire flight envelope. The generic model also has provisions for control power limitations, a nonlinear feature. Therefore, departures from controlled flight are possible. Note that only loss of control is modeled, the generic airplane does not accurately model post departure phenomenon. The model concept is presented herein, along with four example airplanes. Agility was varied across the four example airplanes without altering specific excess energy or significantly altering handling qualities. A new feedback scheme to provide angle-of-attack cueing to the pilot, while using a pitch rate command system, was implemented and tested.

  6. Pilot Training Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooz, William E.

    The purpose of the Pilot Training Study is to produce tools with which to analyze the pilot training process of the Air Force in terms of the resources required to train pilots and the cost of pilot training. These tools allow examination of the training courses themselves, and also of the policy factors which drive the need for pilots. The tools…

  7. A piloted simulator study on augmentation systems to improve helicopter flying qualities in terrain flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T. N.; Talbot, P. D.; Gerdes, R. M.; Dugan, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Four basic single-rotor helicopters, one teetering, on articulated, and two hingeless, which were found to have a variety of major deficiencies in a previous fixed-based simulator study, were selected as baseline configurations. The stability and control augmentation systems (SCAS) include simple control augmentation systems to decouple pitch and yaw responses due to collective input and to quicken the pitch and roll control responses; SCAS of rate-command type designed to optimize the sensitivity and damping and to decouple the pitch-roll due to aircraft angular tate; and attitude-command type SCAS. Pilot ratings and commentary are presented as well as performance data related to the task. SCAS control usages and their gain levels associated with specific rotor types are also discussed.

  8. Use of a Data-Linked Weather Information Display and Effects on Pilot Navigation Decision Making in a Piloted Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.; Novacek, Paul F.; Burgess, Malcolm A.; Heck, Michael L.; Stokes, Alan F.

    2001-01-01

    This study provides recommendations to the FAA and to prospective manufacturers based on an exploration of the effects of data link weather displays upon pilot decision performance. An experiment was conducted with twenty-four current instrument rated pilots who were divided into two equal groups and presented with a challenging but realistic flight scenario involving weather containing significant embedded convective activity. All flights were flown in a full-mission simulation facility within instrument meteorological conditions. The inflight weather display depicted NexRad images, graphical METARs and textual METARs. The objective was to investigate the potential for misuse of a weather display, and incorporate recommendations for the design and use of these displays. The primary conclusion of the study found that the inflight weather display did not improve weather avoidance decision making. Some of the reasons to support this finding include: the pilot's inability to easily perceive their proximity to the storms, increased workload and difficulty in deciphering METAR textual data. The compelling nature of a graphical weather display caused many pilots to reduce their reliance on corroborating weather information from other sources. Minor changes to the weather display could improve the ability of a pilot to make better decisions on hazard avoidance.

  9. Aircraft Simulators and Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    Flight simulators are built as realistically as possible, presumably to enhance their training value. Yet, their training value is determined by the way they are used. Traditionally, simulators have been less important for training than have aircraft, but they are currently emerging as primary pilot training vehicles. This new emphasis is an…

  10. Pilot Comments From the Boeing High Speed Research Aircraft, Cycle 3, Simulation Study of the Effects of Aeroservoelasticity (LaRC.3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Melvin L. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This is a compilation of pilot comments from the Boeing High Speed Research Aircraft, Cycle 3, simulation study (LaRC.3) of the effects of aeroservoelasticity, conducted from October to December 1997 at NASA Langley Research Center. This simulation study was conducted using the Visual Motion Simulator. The comments are from direct tape transcriptions and have been edited for spelling only. These comments were made on tape following the completion of each flight card, immediately after the pilot was satisfied with his practice and data recording runs. Six pilots were used in the evaluation and they are identified as pilots A through F.

  11. Effects of alcohol on pilot performance in simulated flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Demosthenes, T.; White, T. R.; O'Hara, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    Ethyl alcohol's known ability to produce reliable decrements in pilot performance was used in a study designed to evaluate objective methods for assessing pilot performance. Four air carrier pilot volunteers were studied during eight simulated flights in a B727 simulator. Total errors increased linearly and significantly with increasing blood alcohol. Planning and performance errors, procedural errors and failures of vigilance each increased significantly in one or more pilots and in the group as a whole.

  12. Piloted simulator study of allowable time delay in pitch flight control system of a transport airplane with negative static stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.; Smith, Paul M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Meyer, Robert T.; Tingas, Stephen A.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted to determine the permissible time delay in the flight control system of a 10-percent statically unstable transport airplane during cruise flight conditions. The math model used for the simulation was a derivative Lockheed L-1011 wide-body jet transport. Data were collected and analyzed from a total of 137 cruising flights in both calm- and turbulent-air conditions. Results of this piloted simulation study verify previous findings that show present military specifications for allowable control-system time delay may be too stringent when applied to transport-size airplanes. Also, the degree of handling-qualities degradation due to time delay is shown to be strongly dependent on the source of the time delay in an advanced flight control system. Maximum allowable time delay for each source of time delay in the control system, in addition to a less stringent overall maximum level of time delay, should be considered for large aircraft. Preliminary results also suggest that adverse effects of control-system time delay may be at least partially offset by variations in control gearing. It is recommended that the data base include different airplane baselines, control systems, and piloting tasks with many pilots participating, so that a reasonable set of limits for control-system time delay can be established to replace the military specification limits currently being used.

  13. A Fixed-Base-Simulator Study of the Ability of a Pilot to Establish Close Orbits Around the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queijo, M. J.; Riley, Donald R.

    1961-01-01

    A study was made on a six-degree-of-freedom fixed-base simulator of the ability of human pilots to modify ballistic trajectories of a 5 space vehicle approaching the moon to establish a circular orbit about 50 miles above the lunar surface. The unmodified ballistic trajectories had miss distances from the lunar surface of from 40 to 80 miles, and a velocity range of from 8,200 to 8,700 feet per second at closest approach. The pilot was given control of the thrust (along the vehicle longitudinal axis) and torques about all three body axes. The information display given to the pilot was a hodograph of the vehicle rate of descent and circumferential velocity, an altimeter, and vehicle attitude and rate meters.

  14. Selected physiological responses during batting in a simulated cricket work bout: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Christie, Candice J; Todd, Andrew I; King, Gregory A

    2008-11-01

    As limited research has focused on the physiological responses associated with cricket activity, the aim of this pilot study was to measure selected physiological responses during batting in a simulated high-scoring 1-day cricket game. Ten male university cricketers performed a batting specific work bout consisting of four sprints per over (six balls) for a seven over period. Testing was conducted outdoors with players wearing full batting gear. All experimentation was conducted under temperate environmental conditions. During the simulated work bout, a portable on-line metabolic system (the k4b(2)) was attached to the subjects for the continuous assessment of selected physiological variables including heart rate (HR), ventilation (F(B), V(T) and V(E)), oxygen uptake (V(O2)) and metabolic carbon dioxide (V(CO2)) production. Energy expenditure was calculated from the oxygen consumption responses and substrate use was calculated from the V(O2)/V(CO2) responses. The results demonstrate that although the first over carried a statistically (p<0.05) lower energetic cost than the remaining six overs, most physiological responses stabilised thereafter. This excluded the heart rate responses which increased significantly (p<0.05) during the first three overs after which marginal increases were observed with no statistical difference between the last four overs (heart rate ranged from 149+/-19bt min(-1) in the fourth over to 155+/-18bt min(-1) in the last over). There was a mean energy expenditure of 2536kJh(-1) over the duration of the work bout.

  15. Cognitive load, emotion, and performance in high-fidelity simulation among beginning nursing students: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schlairet, Maura C; Schlairet, Timothy James; Sauls, Denise H; Bellflowers, Lois

    2015-03-01

    Establishing the impact of the high-fidelity simulation environment on student performance, as well as identifying factors that could predict learning, would refine simulation outcome expectations among educators. The purpose of this quasi-experimental pilot study was to explore the impact of simulation on emotion and cognitive load among beginning nursing students. Forty baccalaureate nursing students participated in teaching simulations, rated their emotional state and cognitive load, and completed evaluation simulations. Two principal components of emotion were identified representing the pleasant activation and pleasant deactivation components of affect. Mean rating of cognitive load following simulation was high. Linear regression identiffed slight but statistically nonsignificant positive associations between principal components of emotion and cognitive load. Logistic regression identified a negative but statistically nonsignificant effect of cognitive load on assessment performance. Among lower ability students, a more pronounced effect of cognitive load on assessment performance was observed; this also was statistically non-significant.

  16. Application of digital human modeling and simulation for vision analysis of pilots in a jet aircraft: a case study.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Sougata; Pal, Madhu Sudan; Majumdar, Deepti; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomic evaluation of visual demands becomes crucial for the operators/users when rapid decision making is needed under extreme time constraint like navigation task of jet aircraft. Research reported here comprises ergonomic evaluation of pilot's vision in a jet aircraft in virtual environment to demonstrate how vision analysis tools of digital human modeling software can be used effectively for such study. Three (03) dynamic digital pilot models, representative of smallest, average and largest Indian pilot population were generated from anthropometric database and interfaced with digital prototype of the cockpit in Jack software for analysis of vision within and outside the cockpit. Vision analysis tools like view cones, eye view windows, blind spot area, obscuration zone, reflection zone etc. were employed during evaluation of visual fields. Vision analysis tool was also used for studying kinematic changes of pilot's body joints during simulated gazing activity. From present study, it can be concluded that vision analysis tool of digital human modeling software was found very effective in evaluation of position and alignment of different displays and controls in the workstation based upon their priorities within the visual fields and anthropometry of the targeted users, long before the development of its physical prototype.

  17. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  18. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year`s report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  19. Microbial Field Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the first year of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology and characterization, facility and treatment design, core experiments, bacterial mobility, and mathematical modeling are addressed. To facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the target reservoir analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. A preliminary design of facilities for the operation of the field pilot test was prepared. In addition, procedures for facilities installation and for injection treatments are described. The Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU), the site of the proposed field pilot study, is described physically, historically, and geologically. The fields current status is presented and the ongoing reservoir simulation is discussed. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. Two possible mechanisms, relative permeability effects and changes in the capillary number, are discussed and related to four Berea core experiments' results. The experiments were conducted at reservoir temperature using SEVVSU oil, brine, and bacteria. The movement and activity of bacteria in porous media were investigated by monitoring the growth of bacteria in sandpack cores under no flow conditions. The rate of bacteria advancement through the cores was determined. A mathematical model of the MEOR process has been developed. The model is a three phase, seven species, one dimensional model. Finite difference methods are used for solution. Advection terms in balance equations are represented with a third- order upwind differencing scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and oscillations. The model is applied to a batch fermentation example. 52 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

  20. Application of data to piloted simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, Richard S.

    1987-01-01

    The application of a further developed analytical model and JAWS data to a piloted simulator is addressed. The Ames simulator provides a facility for the development of piloting procedures, and for the selection of training scenarios. The system is operational with the new wind shear models and comprehensive data output. The use of these models with the simulator is dicussed in detail.

  1. Heart rate, anxiety and performance of residents during a simulated critical clinical encounter: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High-fidelity patient simulation has been praised for its ability to recreate lifelike training conditions. The degree to which high fidelity simulation elicits acute emotional and physiologic stress among participants – and the influence of acute stress on clinical performance in the simulation setting – remain areas of active exploration. We examined the relationship between residents’ self-reported anxiety and a proxy of physiologic stress (heart rate) as well as their clinical performance in a simulation exam using a validated assessment of non-technical skills, the Ottawa Crisis Resource Management Global Rating Scale (Ottawa GRS). Methods This was a prospective observational cohort study of emergency medicine residents at a single academic center. Participants managed a simulated clinical encounter. Anxiety was assessed using a pre- and post-simulation survey, and continuous cardiac monitoring was performed on each participant during the scenario. Performance in the simulation scenario was graded by faculty raters using a critical actions checklist and the Ottawa GRS instrument. Results Data collection occurred during the 2011 academic year. Of 40 eligible residents, 34 were included in the analysis. The median baseline heart rate for participants was 70 beats per minute (IQR: 62 – 78). During the simulation, the median maximum heart rate was 140 beats per minute (IQR: 137 – 151). The median minimum heart rate during simulation was 81 beats per minute (IQR: 72 – 92), and mean heart rate was 117 beats per minute (95% CI: 111 – 123). Pre- and post-simulation anxiety scores were equal (mean 3.3, IQR: 3 to 4). The minimum and maximum Overall Ottawa GRS scores were 2.33 and 6.67, respectively. The median Overall score was 5.63 (IQR: 5.0 to 6.0). Of the candidate predictors of Overall performance in a multivariate logistic regression model, only PGY status showed statistical significance (P = 0.02). Conclusions Simulation is associated

  2. Piloted aircraft simulation concepts and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinacori, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of piloted aircraft simulation is presented that reflects the viewpoint of an aeronautical technologist. The intent is to acquaint potential users with some of the basic concepts and issues that characterize piloted simulation. Application to the development of aircraft are highlighted, but some aspects of training simulators are covered. A historical review is given together with a description of some current simulators. Simulator usages, advantages, and limitations are discussed and human perception qualities important to simulation are related. An assessment of current simulation is presented that addresses validity, fidelity, and deficiencies. Future prospects are discussed and technology projections are made.

  3. Effectiveness of Crown Preparation Assessment Software As an Educational Tool in Simulation Clinic: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tiu, Janine; Cheng, Enxin; Hung, Tzu-Chiao; Yu, Chuan-Chia; Lin, Tony; Schwass, Don; Al-Amleh, Basil

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of a new tooth preparation assessment software, Preppr, as an educational tool for dental students in achieving optimal parameters for a crown preparation. In February 2015, 30 dental students in their fourth year in a five-year undergraduate dental curriculum in New Zealand were randomly selected from a pool of volunteers (N=40) out of the total class of 85. The participants were placed into one of three groups of ten students each: Group A, the control group, received only written and pictorial instructions; Group B received tutor evaluation and feedback; and Group C performed self-directed learning with the aid of Preppr. Each student was asked to prepare an all-ceramic crown on the lower first molar typodont within three hours and to repeat the exercise three times over the next four weeks. The exercise stipulated a 1 mm finish line dimension and total convergence angles (TOC) between 10 and 20 degrees. Fulfillment of these parameters was taken as an acceptable preparation. The results showed that Group C had the highest percentage of students who achieved minimum finish line dimensions and acceptable TOC angles. Those students also achieved the stipulated requirements earlier than the other groups. This study's findings provide promising data on the feasibility of using Preppr as a self-directed educational tool for students training to prepare dental crowns. PMID:27480712

  4. Evaluating Simulation-Based ACLS Education on Patient Outcomes: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jenny E.; Trammell, Antoine R.; Finklea, James D.; Udoji, Timothy N.; Dressler, Daniel D.; Honig, Eric G.; Abraham, Prasad; Ander, Douglas S.; Cotsonis, George A.; Martin, Greg S.; Schulman, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Simulation training is widely accepted as an effective teaching tool, especially for dealing with high-risk situations. Objective We assessed whether standardized, simulation-based advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) training improved performance in managing simulated and actual cardiac arrests. Methods A total of 103 second- and third-year internal medicine residents were randomized to 2 groups. The first group underwent conventional ACLS training. The second group underwent two 2 1/2-hour sessions of standardized simulation ACLS teaching. The groups were assessed by evaluators blinded to their assignment during in-hospital monthly mock codes and actual inpatient code sheets at 3 large academic hospitals. Primary outcomes were time to initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, time to administration of first epinephrine/vasopressin, time to delivery of first defibrillation, and adherence to American Heart Association guidelines. Results There were no differences in primary outcomes among the study arms and hospital sites. During 21 mock codes, the most common error was misidentification of the initial rhythm (67% [6 of 9] and 58% [7 of 12] control and simulation arms, respectively, P  =  .70). There were no differences in primary outcome among groups in 147 actual inpatient codes. Conclusions This blinded, randomized study found no effect on primary outcomes. A notable finding was the percentage of internal medicine residents who misidentified cardiac arrest rhythms. PMID:25210581

  5. Piloted Simulation Study of a Dual Thrust-Cutback Procedure for Reducing High-Speed Civil Transport Takeoff Noise Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Donald R.; Glaab, Louis J.; Brandon, Jay M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Glaab, Patricia C.

    1999-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was performed for the purpose of indicating the noise reduction benefits and piloting performance that could occur for a typical 4-engine high-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration during takeoff when a dual thrust-cutback procedure was employed with throttle operation under direct computer control. Two thrust cutbacks were employed with the first cutback performed while the vehicle was accelerating on the run-way and the second cutback performed at a distance farther downrange. Added vehicle performance improvements included the incorporation of high-lift increments into the aerodynamic database of the vehicle and the use of limited engine oversizing. Four single-stream turbine bypass engines that had no noise suppression of any kind were used with this configuration. This approach permitted establishing the additional noise suppression level that was needed to meet Federal Air Regulation Part 36 Stage 3 noise levels for subsonic commercial jet aircraft. Noise level results were calculated with the jet mixing and shock noise modules of the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP).

  6. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  7. Numerical simulation of a steam-injection pilot study for a PCP-contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Tse, Ken K C; Liou, Tai-Sheng; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2006-07-01

    The following study was focused on the simulation of a steam-injection field pilottest conducted in our past research. The scope of research contained two main subjects: heat transfer and contaminant transport when steam was injected into a pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated aquifer. Numerical simulation of the heat transfer during the field test showed that vertical permeability is more influential to the distribution of water temperature than the horizontal permeability. If the vertical permeability is relatively high, the steam in the aquifer has a higher tendency to migrate upward and cause the aquifer temperature to rise faster. The simulation results also showed that heat convection is very sensitive to the soil permeability. Therefore, high permeability media makes the effect of heat convection more important on applying the steam-injection method. Heat conduction dominates the heat transfer within the hot aqueous zone. However, the hot aqueous zone is relatively smaller than the steam zone when steam is injected into the aquifer. Therefore, heat conduction is not as important as heat convection within the steam zone, which is the same result observed in the field test. Specific heat of soil media is also a sensitive factor. A numerical simulator, T2VOC, was utilized to simulate the PCP transport in the aquifer when steam was injected into the aquifer. The results showed that the shape of PCP distribution was identical to that of steam. It illustrated thatthe steam carried PCP upward and laterally. The high vertical soil permeability causes the steam to migrate upward with PCP easily. A low partitioning coefficient allows PCP to be desorbed easier, also an important factor. A majority of the PCP in the soil was transferred to the aqueous phase as the water temperature increased, showing similar results to those observed in the field test. According to the sensitivity analysis, PCP transport is more sensitive to the vertical permeability than the

  8. The Pilot Training Study: Personnel Flow and the PILOT Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooz, W. E.

    The results of the Rand study of pilot flows and the computer-operated decision model, called the PILOT model, are described. The flows of pilots within the Air Force are caused by policies that require the career-development rotation of pilots from cockpit jobs to desk jobs, the maintenance of a supplement of pilots in excess of cockpit-related…

  9. Identifying Issues and Concerns with the Use of Interval-Based Systems in Single Case Research Using a Pilot Simulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Lane, Justin D.; Lam, Man Fung

    2015-01-01

    Momentary time sampling (MTS), whole interval recording (WIR), and partial interval recording (PIR) are commonly used in applied research. We discuss potential difficulties with analyzing data when these systems are used and present results from a pilot simulation study designed to determine the extent to which these issues are likely to be…

  10. Using Simulation to Train Junior Psychiatry Residents to Work with Agitated Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigman, Daniel; Young, Meredith; Chalk, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the benefit and feasibility of introducing a new, simulation-based learning intervention for junior psychiatry residents. Method: Junior psychiatry residents were invited to participate in a new simulation-based learning intervention focusing on agitated patients. Questionnaires were used to explore the success of…

  11. Web-Based Simulation in Psychiatry Residency Training: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorrindo, Tristan; Baer, Lee; Sanders, Kathy M.; Birnbaum, Robert J.; Fromson, John A.; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Romeo, Sarah A.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Medical specialties, including surgery, obstetrics, anesthesia, critical care, and trauma, have adopted simulation technology for measuring clinical competency as a routine part of their residency training programs; yet, simulation technologies have rarely been adapted or used for psychiatry training. Objective: The authors describe…

  12. Effects of the chemical-defense antidote atropine sulfate on helicopter-pilot performance: A simulator study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F.R.; Caldwell, J.A.; Stephens, R.L.; Stone, L.W.; Carter, D.J.

    1989-07-01

    Atropine is fielded as an antidote for organophosphate poisoning where chemical nerve agents are used. However, inappropriate self-injection may lead to anticholinergic side effects detrimental to aviators in flight. To determine the scope and magnitude of these possible side effects, 12 male Army helicopter pilots in good health flew several missions in a helicopter simulator after being injected (I.M.) with either a placebo or 2mg or 4mg of atropine sulfate. Physiological effects essentially followed the classical model. The 2 mg dose of atropine caused small degradations on some of laboratory-collected measures, but often did not produce effects, which differed significantly from those produced by a placebo dose. A 4mg dose of atropine, however, exerted a variety of statistically significant effects upon flight performance, contrast sensitivity, cognitive performance, tracking accuracy, and cortical evoked responses. The flight performance evaluations (both subjective and objective) showed statistically significant changes in the subject's abilities to fly the simulator. Results obtained from other tasks in the study suggest, further, the decrements in flight performance resulted from a slowing of both information processing and psychomotor performance. Atropine effects were not of sufficient magnitude to preclude further research under actual flight conditions.

  13. Protection of firefighters against combustion aerosol particles: simulated workplace protection factor of a half-mask respirator (pilot study).

    PubMed

    Dietrich, James; Yermakov, Michael; Reponen, Tiina; Kulkarni, Pramod; Qi, Chaolong; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2015-01-01

    The present pilot study investigated the penetration of ultrafine particles originated by combustion of different materials into elastomeric half-mask respirators equipped with two P100 filters. We determined the Simulated Workplace Protection Factor (SWPF) for 11 firefighters wearing elastomeric half-mask respirators and performing activities simulating those conducted during fire overhaul operations. The tests were performed in a controlled laboratory setting. A newly-developed battery-operated Portable Aerosol Mobility Spectrometer (PAMS) was used to measure size-resolved aerosol particle concentrations outside (C(out)) and inside (Cin) of an air-purifying respirator donned on a firefighter, and the SWPF was calculated as C(out)/C(in). Based on the total aerosol concentration, the "total" SWPF ranged from 4,222 (minimum) to 35,534 (maximum) with values falling primarily in a range from 11,171 (25 percentile) to 26,604 (75 percentile) and a median value being ≈15,000. This is consistent with the recently reported fit factor (FF) data base.((1)) The size-resolved SWPF data revealed a dependency on the particle size. It was concluded that a portable device such as PAMS can be used on firefighters during overhaul operations (as well as on other workers wearing elastomeric half-mask respirators) to monitor the aerosol concentrations in real time and ultimately help prevent overexposure. PMID:25625543

  14. Virtual patient simulation in psychiatric care - A pilot study of digital support for collaborate learning.

    PubMed

    Sunnqvist, Charlotta; Karlsson, Karin; Lindell, Lisbeth; Fors, Uno

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatric and mental health nursing is built on a trusted nurse and patient relationship. Therefore communication and clinical reasoning are two important issues. Our experiences as teachers in psychiatric educational programmes are that the students feel anxiety and fear before they start their clinical practices in psychiatry. Therefore there is a need for bridging over the fear. Technology enhanced learning might support such activities so we used Virtual patients (VPs), an interactive computer simulations of real-life clinical scenarios. The aim of this study was to investigate 4th term nursing students' opinions on the use of Virtual Patients for assessment in a Mental Health and Ill-health course module. We asked 24 volunteering students to practise with five different VP cases during almost 10 weeks before the exam. The participants were gathered together for participating in a written and an oral evaluation. The students were positive to the use of VPs in psychiatry and were very positive to use VPs in their continued nursing education. It seems that Virtual Patients can be an activity producing pedagogic model promoting students' independent knowledge development, critical thinking, reflection and problem solving ability for nurse students in psychiatric care.

  15. Virtual patient simulation in psychiatric care - A pilot study of digital support for collaborate learning.

    PubMed

    Sunnqvist, Charlotta; Karlsson, Karin; Lindell, Lisbeth; Fors, Uno

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatric and mental health nursing is built on a trusted nurse and patient relationship. Therefore communication and clinical reasoning are two important issues. Our experiences as teachers in psychiatric educational programmes are that the students feel anxiety and fear before they start their clinical practices in psychiatry. Therefore there is a need for bridging over the fear. Technology enhanced learning might support such activities so we used Virtual patients (VPs), an interactive computer simulations of real-life clinical scenarios. The aim of this study was to investigate 4th term nursing students' opinions on the use of Virtual Patients for assessment in a Mental Health and Ill-health course module. We asked 24 volunteering students to practise with five different VP cases during almost 10 weeks before the exam. The participants were gathered together for participating in a written and an oral evaluation. The students were positive to the use of VPs in psychiatry and were very positive to use VPs in their continued nursing education. It seems that Virtual Patients can be an activity producing pedagogic model promoting students' independent knowledge development, critical thinking, reflection and problem solving ability for nurse students in psychiatric care. PMID:27038085

  16. Computer-Simulated Biopsy Marking System for Endoscopic Surveillance of Gastric Lesions: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Weiling; Wang, Bin; Sun, Leimin; Chen, Shujie; Wang, Liangjing; Wang, Kan; Wu, Jiaguo; Kim, John J.; Liu, Jiquan; Dai, Ning; Duan, Huilong; Si, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic tattoo with India ink injection for surveillance of premalignant gastric lesions is technically cumbersome and may not be durable. The aim of the study is to evaluate the accuracy of a novel, computer-simulated biopsy marking system (CSBMS) developed for the endoscopic marking of gastric lesions. Twenty-five patients with history of gastric intestinal metaplasia received both CSBMS-guided marking and India ink injection in five points in the stomach at index endoscopy. A second endoscopy was performed at three months. Primary outcome was accuracy of CSBMS (distance between CSBMS probe-guided site and tattoo site measured by CSBMS). The mean accuracy of CSBMS at angularis was 5.3 ± 2.2 mm, antral lesser curvature 5.7 ± 1.4 mm, antral greater curvature 6.1 ± 1.1 mm, antral anterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm, and antral posterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm. CSBMS (2.3 ± 0.9 versus 12.5 ± 4.6 seconds; P = 0.02) required less procedure time compared to endoscopic tattooing. No adverse events were encountered. CSBMS accurately identified previously marked gastric sites by endoscopic tattooing within 1 cm on follow-up endoscopy. PMID:25954747

  17. Computer-simulated biopsy marking system for endoscopic surveillance of gastric lesions: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiling; Wang, Bin; Sun, Leimin; Chen, Shujie; Wang, Liangjing; Wang, Kan; Wu, Jiaguo; Kim, John J; Liu, Jiquan; Dai, Ning; Duan, Huilong; Si, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic tattoo with India ink injection for surveillance of premalignant gastric lesions is technically cumbersome and may not be durable. The aim of the study is to evaluate the accuracy of a novel, computer-simulated biopsy marking system (CSBMS) developed for the endoscopic marking of gastric lesions. Twenty-five patients with history of gastric intestinal metaplasia received both CSBMS-guided marking and India ink injection in five points in the stomach at index endoscopy. A second endoscopy was performed at three months. Primary outcome was accuracy of CSBMS (distance between CSBMS probe-guided site and tattoo site measured by CSBMS). The mean accuracy of CSBMS at angularis was 5.3 ± 2.2 mm, antral lesser curvature 5.7 ± 1.4 mm, antral greater curvature 6.1 ± 1.1 mm, antral anterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm, and antral posterior wall 6.9 ± 1.6 mm. CSBMS (2.3 ± 0.9 versus 12.5 ± 4.6 seconds; P = 0.02) required less procedure time compared to endoscopic tattooing. No adverse events were encountered. CSBMS accurately identified previously marked gastric sites by endoscopic tattooing within 1 cm on follow-up endoscopy. PMID:25954747

  18. The neural correlates of movement intentions: A pilot study comparing hypnotic and simulated paralysis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Vera U; Seitz, Jochen; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; Höse, Annett; Abler, Birgit; Hole, Günter; Goebel, Rainer; Walter, Henrik

    2015-09-01

    The distinct feeling of wanting to act and thereby causing our own actions is crucial to our self-perception as free human agents. Disturbances of the link between intention and action occur in several disorders. Little is known, however, about the neural correlates of wanting or intending to act. To investigate these for simple voluntary movements, we used a paradigm involving hypnotic paralysis and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eight healthy women were instructed to sequentially perform left and right hand movements during a normal condition, as well as during simulated weakness, simulated paralysis and hypnotic paralysis of the right hand. Right frontopolar cortex was selectively hypoactivated for attempted right hand movement during simulated paralysis while it was active in all other conditions. Since simulated paralysis was the only condition lacking an intention to move, the activation in frontopolar cortex might be related to the intention or volition to move. PMID:26036837

  19. Flight simulator platform motion and air transport pilot training.

    PubMed

    Lee, A T; Bussolari, S R

    1989-02-01

    The influence of flight simulator platform motion on pilot training and performance was examined in two studies utilizing a B-727-200 aircraft simulator. The simulator, located at Ames Research Center, is certified by the FAA for upgrade and transition training in air carrier operations. Subjective ratings and objective performance of experienced B-727 pilots did not reveal any reliable effects of wide variations in platform motion design. Motion platform variations did, however, affect the acquisition of control skill by pilots with no prior heavy aircraft flying experience. The effect was limited to pitch attitude control inputs during the early phase of landing training. Implications for the definition of platform motion requirements in air transport pilot training are discussed.

  20. Flight Simulator Platform Motion and Air Transport Pilot Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.; Bussolari, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of flight simulator platform motion on pilot training and performance was examined In two studies utilizing a B-727-200 aircraft simulator. The simulator, located at Ames Research Center, Is certified by the FAA for upgrade and transition training in air carrier operations. Subjective ratings and objective performance of experienced B-727 pilots did not reveal any reliable effects of wide variations In platform motion de- sign. Motion platform variations did, however, affect the acquisition of control skill by pilots with no prior heavy aircraft flying experience. The effect was limited to pitch attitude control inputs during the early phase of landing training. Implications for the definition of platform motion requirements in air transport pilot training are discussed.

  1. Simulator study of the effect of control-system time delays on the occurrence of pilot-induced oscillations and on pilot tracking performance with a space-shuttle-orbiter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. R.; Miller, G. K., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Using a six degree-of-freedom motion-base simulator, the effect of control-system time delays on the occurrence of pilot-induced oscillations (PIO's) on the vehicle handling qualities and on pilot tracking performance for a landing-approach configuration of the Space Shuttle orbiter was studied. A linearized math model was employed which represented a 300-knot orbiter with almost all time delays removed. Additional time delays were then inserted following the pilot's hand-controller signals. Only pitch and roll commands were used for vehicle control. The simulation employed an air to air tracking task as a means of emphasizing PIO tendencies. Two astronauts, two research pilots, and one simulation engineer served as test subjects. Results showed that PIO's occurred when the amount of added time delay approximated that existing for the orbiter configuration flown in the approach and landing tests. Increasing the amount of delay increased PIO occurrences and resulted in degraded tracking performance. Decreasing the amount of time delay eliminated the PIO's.

  2. Learning about the Unit Cell and Crystal Lattice with Computerized Simulations and Games: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luealamai, Sutha; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2012-01-01

    The authors have developed a computer-based learning module on the unit cell of various types of crystal. The module has two components: the virtual unit cell (VUC) part and the subsequent unit cell hunter part. The VUC is a virtual reality simulation for students to actively arrive at the unit cell from exploring, from a broad view, the crystal…

  3. Using simulation to train orthopaedic trainees in non-technical skills: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Samuel R; Little, Zoe; Akhtar, Kash; Ramachandran, Manoj; Lee, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    AIM To enhance non-technical skills and to analyse participant’s experience of a course tailored for orthopaedic surgeons. METHODS A Delphi technique was used to develop a course in human factors specific to orthopaedic residents. Twenty-six residents (six per course) participated in total with seven course facilitators all trained in Crisis Resource Management providing structured feedback. Six scenarios recreated challenging real-life situations using high-fidelity mannequins and simulated patients. Environments included a simulated operating suite, clinic room and ward setting. All were undertaken in a purpose built simulation suite utilising actors, mock operating rooms, mock clinical rooms and a high fidelity adult patient simulator organised through a simulation control room. Participants completed a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire (strongly disagree to strongly agree) before and after the course. This assessed their understanding of non-technical skills, scenario validity, relevance to orthopaedic training and predicted impact of the course on future practice. A course evaluation questionnaire was also completed to assess participants’ feedback on the value and quality of the course itself. RESULTS Twenty-six orthopaedic residents participated (24 male, 2 female; post-graduation 5-10 years), mean year of residency program 2.6 out of 6 years required in the United Kingdom. Pre-course questionnaires showed that while the majority of candidates recognised the importance of non-technical (NT) skills in orthopaedic training they demonstrated poor understanding of non-technical skills and their role. This improved significantly after the course (Likert score 3.0-4.2) and the perceived importance of these skills was reported as good or very good in 100%. The course was reported as enjoyable and provided an unthreatening learning environment with the candidates placing particular value on the learning opportunity provided by reflecting on their performance

  4. Using simulation to train orthopaedic trainees in non-technical skills: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Samuel R; Little, Zoe; Akhtar, Kash; Ramachandran, Manoj; Lee, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    AIM To enhance non-technical skills and to analyse participant’s experience of a course tailored for orthopaedic surgeons. METHODS A Delphi technique was used to develop a course in human factors specific to orthopaedic residents. Twenty-six residents (six per course) participated in total with seven course facilitators all trained in Crisis Resource Management providing structured feedback. Six scenarios recreated challenging real-life situations using high-fidelity mannequins and simulated patients. Environments included a simulated operating suite, clinic room and ward setting. All were undertaken in a purpose built simulation suite utilising actors, mock operating rooms, mock clinical rooms and a high fidelity adult patient simulator organised through a simulation control room. Participants completed a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire (strongly disagree to strongly agree) before and after the course. This assessed their understanding of non-technical skills, scenario validity, relevance to orthopaedic training and predicted impact of the course on future practice. A course evaluation questionnaire was also completed to assess participants’ feedback on the value and quality of the course itself. RESULTS Twenty-six orthopaedic residents participated (24 male, 2 female; post-graduation 5-10 years), mean year of residency program 2.6 out of 6 years required in the United Kingdom. Pre-course questionnaires showed that while the majority of candidates recognised the importance of non-technical (NT) skills in orthopaedic training they demonstrated poor understanding of non-technical skills and their role. This improved significantly after the course (Likert score 3.0-4.2) and the perceived importance of these skills was reported as good or very good in 100%. The course was reported as enjoyable and provided an unthreatening learning environment with the candidates placing particular value on the learning opportunity provided by reflecting on their performance

  5. The Pilot Training Study: Advanced Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, P. J.

    An overview is presented of advanced pilot training and of the formal advanced pilot training program that constitutes the primary means of providing this training. Section I deals with the various phases of advanced pilot training that a pilot may encounter during his career; Section II deals with the types of aircraft that require some form of…

  6. Fixed-Base Simulator Studies of the Ability of the Human Pilot to Provide Energy Management Along Abort and Deep-Space Entry Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. W.; Goode, M. W.

    1962-01-01

    A simulation study has been made to determine a pilot's ability to control a low L/D vehicle to a desired point on the earth with initial conditions ranging from parabolic orbits to abort conditions along the boost phase of a deep-space mission. The program was conducted to develop procedures which would allow the pilot to perform the energy management functions required while avoiding the high deceleration or skipout region and to determine the information display required to aid the pilot in flying these procedures. The abort conditions studied extend from a region of relatively high flight-path angles at suborbital velocities while leaving the atmosphere to a region between orbital and near-escape velocity outside the atmosphere. The conditions studied included guidance from suborbital and superorbital aborts as well as guidance following return from a deepspace mission. In this paper, the role of the human pilot?s ability to combine safe return abort procedures with guidance procedures has been investigated. The range capability from various abort and entry conditions is also presented.

  7. Three dimensional approach for realistic simulation of facial soft tissue response: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    El-Molla, Mohammed M; El-Beialy, Amr R; Kandil, Ahmed H; El-Bialy, Ahmed M; Mostafa, Yehya A

    2011-01-01

    Facial attractiveness is ranked as a principal priority among patients seeking orthodontic treatment or combined surgical orthodontic therapy. A successful treatment planning process necessitates an accurate prediction of the postoperative facial profile. In this manuscript, the simulation procedure on a real clinical case using virtual volumetric 3D mesh through different scenarios of orthognathic procedures was done. Results depict several facial soft tissue outcomes, with the likelihood of sharing with the patient the most esthetically pleasing end result prior to carrying out the surgical procedure.

  8. Piloted-simulation study of effects of vortex flaps on low-speed handling qualities of a Delta-wing airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Brown, Philip W.; Wunschel, Alfred J.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted-simulation study was conducted to investigate the effects of vortex flaps on low-speed handling qualities of a delta-wing airplane. The simulation math model was developed from wind tunnel tests of a 0.15 scale model of the F-106B airplane. Pilot evaluations were conducted using a six-degree-of-freedom motion base simulator. The results of the investigation showed that the reduced static longitudinal stability caused by the vortex flaps significantly degraded handling qualities in the approach-to-landing task. Acceptable handling qualities could be achieved by limiting the aft center-of-gravity location, consequently reducing the operational envelope of the airplane. Further improvement were possible by modifying the flight control force-feel system to reduce pitch-control sensitivity.

  9. Piloted simulation study of the effects of an automated trim system on flight characteristics of a light twin-engine airplane with one engine inoperative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.; Brown, P. W.; Yenni, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to investigate the piloting problems associated with failure of an engine on a generic light twin-engine airplane. A primary piloting problem for a light twin-engine airplane after an engine failure is maintaining precise control of the airplane in the presence of large steady control forces. To address this problem, a simulated automatic trim system which drives the trim tabs as an open-loop function of propeller slipstream measurements was developed. The simulated automatic trim system was found to greatly increase the controllability in asymmetric powered flight without having to resort to complex control laws or an irreversible control system. However, the trim-tab control rates needed to produce the dramatic increase in controllability may require special design consideration for automatic trim system failures. Limited measurements obtained in full-scale flight tests confirmed the fundamental validity of the proposed control law.

  10. A simulator study of the interaction of pilot workload with errors, vigilance, and decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. P. R.

    1979-01-01

    A full mission simulation of a civil air transport scenario that had two levels of workload was used to observe the actions of the crews and the basic aircraft parameters and to record heart rates. The results showed that the number of errors was very variable among crews but the mean increased in the higher workload case. The increase in errors was not related to rise in heart rate but was associated with vigilance times as well as the days since the last flight. The recorded data also made it possible to investigate decision time and decision order. These also varied among crews and seemed related to the ability of captains to manage the resources available to them on the flight deck.

  11. Piloted Simulation Study of the Effects of High-Lift Aerodynamics on the Takeoff Noise of a Representative High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Riley, Donald R.; Brandon, Jay M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Glaab, Patricia C.

    1999-01-01

    As part of an effort between NASA and private industry to reduce airport-community noise for high-speed civil transport (HSCT) concepts, a piloted simulation study was initiated for the purpose of predicting the noise reduction benefits that could result from improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance for a typical HSCT configuration during takeoff and initial climb. Flight profile and engine information from the piloted simulation were coupled with the NASA Langley Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) to estimate jet engine noise and to propagate the resulting source noise to ground observer stations. A baseline aircraft configuration, which also incorporated different levels of projected improvements in low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance, was simulated to investigate effects of increased lift and lift-to-drag ratio on takeoff noise levels. Simulated takeoff flights were performed with the pilots following a specified procedure in which either a single thrust cutback was performed at selected altitudes ranging from 400 to 2000 ft, or a multiple-cutback procedure was performed where thrust was reduced by a two-step process. Results show that improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance provides at least a 4 to 6 dB reduction in effective perceived noise level at the FAA downrange flyover measurement station for either cutback procedure. However, improved low-speed high-lift aerodynamic performance reduced maximum sideline noise levels only when using the multiple-cutback procedures.

  12. Fixed-base simulator study of the effect of time delays in visual cues on pilot tracking performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queijo, M. J.; Riley, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Factors were examined which determine the amount of time delay acceptable in the visual feedback loop in flight simulators. Acceptable time delays are defined as delays which significantly affect neither the results nor the manner in which the subject 'flies' the simulator. The subject tracked a target aircraft as it oscillated sinusoidally in a vertical plane only. The pursuing aircraft was permitted five degrees of freedom. Time delays of from 0.047 to 0.297 second were inserted in the visual feedback loop. A side task was employed to maintain the workload constant and to insure that the pilot was fully occupied during the experiment. Tracking results were obtained for 17 aircraft configurations having different longitudinal short-period characteristics. Results show a positive correlation between improved handling qualities and a longer acceptable time delay.

  13. Realistic Radio Communications in Pilot Simulator Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burki-Cohen, Judith; Kendra, Andrew J.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Lee, Alfred T.

    2000-01-01

    Simulators used for total training and evaluation of airline pilots must satisfy stringent criteria in order to assure their adequacy for training and checking maneuvers. Air traffic control and company radio communications simulation, however, may still be left to role-play by the already taxed instructor/evaluators in spite of their central importance in every aspect of the flight environment. The underlying premise of this research is that providing a realistic radio communications environment would increase safety by enhancing pilot training and evaluation. This report summarizes the first-year efforts of assessing the requirement and feasibility of simulating radio communications automatically. A review of the training and crew resource/task management literature showed both practical and theoretical support for the need for realistic radio communications simulation. A survey of 29 instructor/evaluators from 14 airlines revealed that radio communications are mainly role-played by the instructor/evaluators. This increases instructor/evaluators' own workload while unrealistically lowering pilot communications load compared to actual operations, with a concomitant loss in training/evaluation effectiveness. A technology review searching for an automated means of providing radio communications to and from aircraft with minimal human effort showed that while promising, the technology is still immature. Further research and the need for establishing a proof-of-concept are also discussed.

  14. Discrete-time pilot model. [human dynamics and digital simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalli, D.

    1978-01-01

    Pilot behavior is considered as a discrete-time process where the decision making has a sequential nature. This model differs from both the quasilinear model which follows from classical control theory and from the optimal control model which considers the human operator as a Kalman estimator-predictor. An additional factor considered is that the pilot's objective may not be adequately formulated as a quadratic cost functional to be minimized, but rather as a more fuzzy measure of the closeness with which the aircraft follows a reference trajectory. All model parameters, in the digital program simulating the pilot's behavior, were successfully compared in terms of standard-deviation and performance with those of professional pilots in IFR configuration. The first practical application of the model was in the study of its performance degradation when the aircraft model static margin decreases.

  15. High Working Memory Load Impairs Language Processing during a Simulated Piloting Task: An ERP and Pupillometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Causse, Mickaël; Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Fabre, Eve F.

    2016-01-01

    Given the important amount of visual and auditory linguistic information that pilots have to process, operating an aircraft generates a high working-memory load (WML). In this context, the ability to focus attention on relevant information and to remain responsive to concurrent stimuli might be altered. Consequently, understanding the effects of WML on the processing of both linguistic targets and distractors is of particular interest in the study of pilot performance. In the present work, participants performed a simplified piloting task in which they had to follow one of three colored aircraft, according to specific written instructions (i.e., the written word for the color corresponding to the color of one of the aircraft) and to ignore either congruent or incongruent concurrent auditory distractors (i.e., a spoken name of color). The WML was manipulated with an n-back sub-task. Participants were instructed to apply the current written instruction in the low WML condition, and the 2-back written instruction in the high WML condition. Electrophysiological results revealed a major effect of WML at behavioral (i.e., decline of piloting performance), electrophysiological, and autonomic levels (i.e., greater pupil diameter). Increased WML consumed resources that could not be allocated to the processing of the linguistic stimuli, as indexed by lower P300/P600 amplitudes. Also, significantly, lower P600 responses were measured in incongruent vs. congruent trials in the low WML condition, showing a higher difficulty reorienting attention toward the written instruction, but this effect was canceled in the high WML condition. This suppression of interference in the high load condition is in line with the engagement/distraction trade-off model. We propose that P300/P600 components could be reliable indicators of WML and that they allow an estimation of its impact on the processing of linguistic stimuli. PMID:27252639

  16. High Working Memory Load Impairs Language Processing during a Simulated Piloting Task: An ERP and Pupillometry Study.

    PubMed

    Causse, Mickaël; Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Fabre, Eve F

    2016-01-01

    Given the important amount of visual and auditory linguistic information that pilots have to process, operating an aircraft generates a high working-memory load (WML). In this context, the ability to focus attention on relevant information and to remain responsive to concurrent stimuli might be altered. Consequently, understanding the effects of WML on the processing of both linguistic targets and distractors is of particular interest in the study of pilot performance. In the present work, participants performed a simplified piloting task in which they had to follow one of three colored aircraft, according to specific written instructions (i.e., the written word for the color corresponding to the color of one of the aircraft) and to ignore either congruent or incongruent concurrent auditory distractors (i.e., a spoken name of color). The WML was manipulated with an n-back sub-task. Participants were instructed to apply the current written instruction in the low WML condition, and the 2-back written instruction in the high WML condition. Electrophysiological results revealed a major effect of WML at behavioral (i.e., decline of piloting performance), electrophysiological, and autonomic levels (i.e., greater pupil diameter). Increased WML consumed resources that could not be allocated to the processing of the linguistic stimuli, as indexed by lower P300/P600 amplitudes. Also, significantly, lower P600 responses were measured in incongruent vs. congruent trials in the low WML condition, showing a higher difficulty reorienting attention toward the written instruction, but this effect was canceled in the high WML condition. This suppression of interference in the high load condition is in line with the engagement/distraction trade-off model. We propose that P300/P600 components could be reliable indicators of WML and that they allow an estimation of its impact on the processing of linguistic stimuli. PMID:27252639

  17. Piloting Augmented Reality Technology to Enhance Realism in Clinical Simulation.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Jacqueline; Lister, Michael; Shaw, Ryan J

    2016-09-01

    We describe a pilot study that incorporated an innovative hybrid simulation designed to increase the perception of realism in a high-fidelity simulation. Prelicensure students (N = 12) cared for a manikin in a simulation lab scenario wearing Google Glass, a wearable head device that projected video into the students' field of vision. Students reported that the simulation gave them confidence that they were developing skills and knowledge to perform necessary tasks in a clinical setting and that they met the learning objectives of the simulation. The video combined visual images and cues seen in a real patient and created a sense of realism the manikin alone could not provide. PMID:27258807

  18. Piloting Augmented Reality Technology to Enhance Realism in Clinical Simulation.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Jacqueline; Lister, Michael; Shaw, Ryan J

    2016-09-01

    We describe a pilot study that incorporated an innovative hybrid simulation designed to increase the perception of realism in a high-fidelity simulation. Prelicensure students (N = 12) cared for a manikin in a simulation lab scenario wearing Google Glass, a wearable head device that projected video into the students' field of vision. Students reported that the simulation gave them confidence that they were developing skills and knowledge to perform necessary tasks in a clinical setting and that they met the learning objectives of the simulation. The video combined visual images and cues seen in a real patient and created a sense of realism the manikin alone could not provide.

  19. Ground-based time-guidance algorithm for control of airplanes in a time-metered air traffic control environment: A piloted simulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.; Imbert, N.

    1986-01-01

    The rapidly increasing costs of flight operations and the requirement for increased fuel conservation have made it necessary to develop more efficient ways to operate airplanes and to control air traffic for arrivals and departures to the terminal area. One concept of controlling arrival traffic through time metering has been jointly studied and evaluated by NASA and ONERA/CERT in piloted simulation tests. From time errors attained at checkpoints, airspeed and heading commands issued by air traffic control were computed by a time-guidance algorithm for the pilot to follow that would cause the airplane to cross a metering fix at a preassigned time. These tests resulted in the simulated airplane crossing a metering fix with a mean time error of 1.0 sec and a standard deviation of 16.7 sec when the time-metering algorithm was used. With mismodeled winds representing the unknown in wind-aloft forecasts and modeling form, the mean time error attained when crossing the metering fix was increased and the standard deviation remained approximately the same. The subject pilots reported that the airspeed and heading commands computed in the guidance concept were easy to follow and did not increase their work load above normal levels.

  20. Comparisons of pilot performance in simulated and actual flight.

    PubMed

    Billings, C E; Gerke, R J; Wick, R L

    1975-03-01

    Five highly experienced professional pilots performed instrument landing system approaches under simulated instrument flight conditions in a Cessna 172 airplane and in a Link-Singer GAT-1 simulator while under the influence of orally administered secobarbital (0, 100, and 200 mg). Tracking performance in two axes and airspeed control were evaluated continuously during each approach. The data from the airplane and simulator were compared. Error and RMS variability were about half as large in the simulator as in the airplane. The observed data were more strongly associated with the drug level in the simulator than in the airplane. Further, the drug-related effects were more consistent in the simulator. Improvement in performance suggestive of learning effects were seen in the simulator, but not in actual flight. It is concluded that the GAT-1 simulator is a useful and sensitive device for studies of the effects of mild stress on pilot performance, but extrapolation of simulator data to the flight environment must be approached with considerable caution.

  1. Can a Novel Web-Based Computer Test Predict Poor Simulated Driving Performance? A Pilot Study With Healthy and Cognitive-Impaired Participants

    PubMed Central

    Nef, Tobias; Bieri, Rahel; Jäger, Michael; Bethencourt, Nora; Tarnanas, Ioannis; Mosimann, Urs P

    2013-01-01

    Background Driving a car is a complex instrumental activity of daily living and driving performance is very sensitive to cognitive impairment. The assessment of driving-relevant cognition in older drivers is challenging and requires reliable and valid tests with good sensitivity and specificity to predict safe driving. Driving simulators can be used to test fitness to drive. Several studies have found strong correlation between driving simulator performance and on-the-road driving. However, access to driving simulators is restricted to specialists and simulators are too expensive, large, and complex to allow easy access to older drivers or physicians advising them. An easily accessible, Web-based, cognitive screening test could offer a solution to this problem. The World Wide Web allows easy dissemination of the test software and implementation of the scoring algorithm on a central server, allowing generation of a dynamically growing database with normative values and ensures that all users have access to the same up-to-date normative values. Objective In this pilot study, we present the novel Web-based Bern Cognitive Screening Test (wBCST) and investigate whether it can predict poor simulated driving performance in healthy and cognitive-impaired participants. Methods The wBCST performance and simulated driving performance have been analyzed in 26 healthy younger and 44 healthy older participants as well as in 10 older participants with cognitive impairment. Correlations between the two tests were calculated. Also, simulated driving performance was used to group the participants into good performers (n=70) and poor performers (n=10). A receiver-operating characteristic analysis was calculated to determine sensitivity and specificity of the wBCST in predicting simulated driving performance. Results The mean wBCST score of the participants with poor simulated driving performance was reduced by 52%, compared to participants with good simulated driving performance (P

  2. Paraguayan Education Study: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Patricia

    A qualitative pilot study, guided by an ecological framework, illustrates the complexities involved in studying the unique linguistic situation in Paraguay between Spanish and the indigenous language of Guarani, and its relationship with education. The pilot study interviewing eight kindergarten children. Seventy five children have been…

  3. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot test in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate-reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been preferentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions or the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. Injection of nutrient stimulates the growth and metabolism of reservoir bacteria, which produces beneficial products to enhance oil recovery. Sometimes, chemical treatments are used to clean or condition injection water. Such a chemical treatment has been initiated by Sullivan and Company at the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit. The unit injection water was treated with a mixture of water, methanol, isopropyl alcohol, and three proprietary chemicals. To determine if the chemicals would have an impact on the pilot, it was important to determine the effects of the chemical additives on the growth and metabolism of the bacteria from wells in this field. Two types of media were used: a mineral salts medium with molasses and nitrate, and this medium with 25 ppm of the treatment chemicals added. Samples were collected anaerobically from each of two wells, 1A-9 and 7-2. A sample from each well was inoculated and cultured in the broth tubes of molasses-nitrate medium with and without the chemicals. Culturing temperature was 35{degrees}C. Absorbance, pressure and cell number were checked to determine if the chemicals affected the growth and metabolism of bacteria in the brine samples. 12 figs.

  4. A dynamic flow simulation code benchmark study addressing the highly heterogeneous properties of the Stuttgart formation at the Ketzin pilot site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; Class, Holger; Görke, Uwe-Jens; Norden, Ben; Kolditz, Olaf; Kühn, Michael; Walter, Lena; Wang, Wenqing; Zehner, Björn

    2013-04-01

    CO2 injection at the Ketzin pilot site located in Eastern Germany (Brandenburg) about 25 km west of Berlin is undertaken since June 2008 with a scheduled total amount of about 70,000 t CO2 to be injected into the saline aquifer represented by the Stuttgart Formation at a depth of 630 m to 650 m until the end of August 2013. The Stuttgart Formation is of fluvial origin determined by high-permeablity sandstone channels embedded in a floodplain facies of low permeability indicating a highly heterogeneous distribution of reservoir properties as facies distribution, porosity and permeability relevant for dynamic flow simulations. Following the dynamic modelling activities discussed by Kempka et al. (2010), a revised geological model allowed us to history match CO2 arrival times in the observation wells and reservoir pressure with a good agreement (Martens et al., 2012). Consequently, the validated reservoir model of the Stuttgart Formation at the Ketzin pilot site enabled us to predict the development of reservoir pressure and the CO2 plume migration in the storage formation by dynamic flow simulations. A benchmark study of industrial (ECLIPSE 100 as well as ECLIPSE 300 CO2STORE and GASWAT) and scientific dynamic flow simulations codes (TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N, OpenGeoSys and DuMuX) was initiated to address and compare the simulator capabilities considering a highly complex reservoir model. Hence, our dynamic flow simulations take into account different properties of the geological model such as significant variation of porosity and permeability in the Stuttgart Formation as well as structural geological features implemented in the geological model such as seven major faults located at the top of the Ketzin anticline. Integration of the geological model into reservoir models suitable for the different dynamic flow simulators applied demonstrated that a direct conversion of reservoir model discretization between Finite Volume and Finite Element flow simulators is not feasible

  5. A simulator investigation of the use of digital data link for pilot/ATC communications in a single pilot operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.; Lohr, Gary W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies have shown that radio communications between pilots and air traffic control contribute to high pilot workload and are subject to various errors. These errors result from congestion on the voice radio channel, and missed and misunderstood messages. The use of digital data link has been proposed as a means of reducing this workload and error rate. A critical factor, however, in determining the potential benefit of data link will be the interface between future data link systems and the operator of those systems, both in the air and on the ground. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the pilot interface with various levels of data link capability, in simulated general aviation, single-pilot instrument flight rule operations. Results show that the data link reduced demands on pilots' short-term memory, reduced the number of communication transmissions, and permitted the pilots to more easily allocate time to critical cockpit tasks while receiving air traffic control messages. The pilots who participated unanimously indicated a preference for data link communications over voice-only communications. There were, however, situations in which the pilot preferred the use of voice communications, and the ability for pilots to delay processing the data link messages, during high workload events, caused delays in the acknowledgement of messages to air traffic control.

  6. Evaluation of nickel flash smelting through piloting and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Varnas, S.R.; Koh, P.T.L.; Kemori, N.

    1998-12-01

    An extensive study of the nickel flash smelting process has been undertaken. It is aimed at the optimization of the burner design to improve the smelting performance and to increase the throughput of the rebuilt furnace. A design-based mathematical model was developed to simulate the operation of the four burners and the reaction shaft of the flash furnace at Western Mining Corporation Ltd.`s Kalgoorlie Nickel Smelter. A modified single burner version of the model was validated against data obtained from the pilot plant at the Pyrometallurgical Research Centre (PRC) of the Sumitomo Metal Mining Co.`s Toyo Smelter. The approach taken involved experimental measurements of key process parameters in the pilot plant and detailed numerical simulation of the fluid flow, heat transfer, and combustion in the entire burner-shaft complex. Several burner designs have been tested experimentally at the pilot plant and theoretically through computer simulation. The main outcome of the study was the development of an experimentally validated mathematical model of the flash smelter providing a new powerful design tool. The insight gained about the process from the application of this tool led to the design of a more efficient nickel flash smelting process.

  7. Centrifuge Study of Pilot Tolerance to Acceleration and the Effects of Acceleration on Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creer, Brent Y.; Smedal, Harald A.; Wingrove, Rodney C.

    1960-01-01

    A research program the general objective of which was to measure the effects of various sustained accelerations on the control performance of pilots, was carried out on the Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory centrifuge, U.S. Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, PA. The experimental setup consisted of a flight simulator with the centrifuge in the control loop. The pilot performed his control tasks while being subjected to acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a forward-facing pilot flying an atmosphere entry vehicle. The study was divided into three phases. In one phase of the program, the pilots were subjected to a variety of sustained linear acceleration forces while controlling vehicles with several different sets of longitudinal dynamics. Here, a randomly moving target was displayed to the pilot on a cathode-ray tube. For each combination of acceleration field and vehicle dynamics, pilot tracking accuracy was measured and pilot opinion of the stability and control characteristics was recorded. Thus, information was obtained on the combined effects of complexity of control task and magnitude and direction of acceleration forces on pilot performance. These tests showed that the pilot's tracking performance deteriorated markedly at accelerations greater than about 4g when controlling a lightly damped vehicle. The tentative conclusion was also reached that regardless of the airframe dynamics involved, the pilot feels that in order to have the same level of control over the vehicle, an increase in the vehicle dynamic stability was required with increases in the magnitudes of the acceleration impressed upon the pilot. In another phase, boundaries of human tolerance of acceleration were established for acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a pilot flying an orbital vehicle. A special pilot restraint system was developed to increase human tolerance to longitudinal decelerations. The results of the tests showed that human tolerance

  8. Occupational exposures to emissions from combustion of diesel and alternative fuels in underground mining--a simulated pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Eric A; Reed, Rustin J; Lee, Vivien S T; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2015-01-01

    Diesel fuel is commonly used for underground mining equipment, yet diesel engine exhaust is a known human carcinogen. Alternative fuels, including biodiesel, and a natural gas/diesel blend, offer the potential to reduce engine emissions and associated health effects. For this pilot study, exposure monitoring was performed in an underground mine during operation of a load-haul-dump vehicle. Use of low-sulfur diesel, 75% biodiesel/25% diesel blend (B75), and natural gas/diesel blend (GD) fuels were compared. Personal samples were collected for total and respirable diesel particulate matter (tDPM and rDPM, respectively) and total and respirable elemental and organic carbon (tEC, rEC, tOC, rOC, respectively), as well as carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, naphthalene, nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Compared to diesel, B75 use was associated with a 33% reduction in rDPM, reductions in rEC, tEC, and naphthalene, increased tDPM, tOC, and NO, and no change in rOC, CO, and NO2. Compared to diesel, GD was associated with a 66% reduction in rDPM and a reduction in all other exposures except CO. The alternative fuels tested both resulted in reduced rDPM, which is the basis for the current Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) occupational exposure standard. Although additional study is needed with a wider variety of equipment, use of alternative fuels have the promise of reducing exposures from vehicular exhaust in underground mining settings. PMID:25412337

  9. Occupational exposures to emissions from combustion of diesel and alternative fuels in underground mining--a simulated pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Eric A; Reed, Rustin J; Lee, Vivien S T; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2015-01-01

    Diesel fuel is commonly used for underground mining equipment, yet diesel engine exhaust is a known human carcinogen. Alternative fuels, including biodiesel, and a natural gas/diesel blend, offer the potential to reduce engine emissions and associated health effects. For this pilot study, exposure monitoring was performed in an underground mine during operation of a load-haul-dump vehicle. Use of low-sulfur diesel, 75% biodiesel/25% diesel blend (B75), and natural gas/diesel blend (GD) fuels were compared. Personal samples were collected for total and respirable diesel particulate matter (tDPM and rDPM, respectively) and total and respirable elemental and organic carbon (tEC, rEC, tOC, rOC, respectively), as well as carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, naphthalene, nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Compared to diesel, B75 use was associated with a 33% reduction in rDPM, reductions in rEC, tEC, and naphthalene, increased tDPM, tOC, and NO, and no change in rOC, CO, and NO2. Compared to diesel, GD was associated with a 66% reduction in rDPM and a reduction in all other exposures except CO. The alternative fuels tested both resulted in reduced rDPM, which is the basis for the current Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) occupational exposure standard. Although additional study is needed with a wider variety of equipment, use of alternative fuels have the promise of reducing exposures from vehicular exhaust in underground mining settings.

  10. Optimization of Pilot Point Locations for Conditional Simulation of Heterogeneous Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehne, J.; Nowak, W.

    2011-12-01

    Spatial variability of geological media in conjunction with scarce data introduces parameter and prediction uncertainties in simulations of flow and transport. Conditional simulation methods use the Monte Carlo framework combined with inverse modeling techniques to incorporate available field data and, thus, to reduce these uncertainties. The pilot point method is a wide-spread method that can be used for conditional simulation in order to condition multiple realizations of heterogeneous conductivity fields on available field data. Virtual direct measurements of conductivity, placed at so called pilot points, are introduced and their values are optimized until all available field data is honored. Adequate placement and numbers of pilot points are crucial both for accurate representation of heterogeneity and to control computational costs. Current placement methods for pilot points depend solely on the expertise and experience of the modeler or involve computationally costly sensitivity analyses. This study presents a new method for optimal pilot point placement. Ideas from geostatistical optimal design and ensemble Kalman filters are combined. The proposed method emulates the pilot point method at drastically reduced computational costs by avoiding the evaluation of sensitivity coefficients. A task-driven measure for optimal design of pilot point placement patterns is evaluated without carrying out the actual conditioning process. This makes it possible to efficiently compare a high number of possible patterns for pilot point placement. By formal optimization of this measure, pilot point placement schemes are found that are optimal in representing the data with minimal numbers of pilot points. Small synthetic test applications of the proposed method showed a promising computational performance and a geostatistically logical choice of pilot point locations. In comparison with a regularly spaced pilot point grid, equally good calibration results were achieved by a

  11. Using a Simulated Infobutton Linked to an Evidence-Based Resource to Research Drug-Drug Interactions: A Pilot Study with Third-Year Dental Students.

    PubMed

    Dragan, Irina F; Newman, Michael; Stark, Paul; Steffensen, Bjorn; Karimbux, Nadeem

    2015-11-01

    Many health professions students and clinicians are using evidence-based databases that allow for quicker and more accurate clinical decisions. The aims of this pilot study were to compare third-year dental students' speed and accuracy in researching questions about drug-drug interactions (DDI) when using two different methods: a simulated infobutton linked to the evidence-based clinical decision support resource UpToDate versus traditional Internet resources accessed through a computer or smart device. Students researched two simulated cases during two sessions. In the first session, half the students used the infobutton, while the other half used traditional electronic tools only. In the second session, ten days later, a cross-over took place. The sessions were timed, and after researching the case, students answered three questions on the use of antibiotics, analgesics, and local anesthetics. Of the 50 students who volunteered for the study, two were excluded, and 44 participated in both sessions and the exam. The results showed that the students took a similar amount of time to identify DDI whether they used the infobutton (mean=286.5 seconds) or traditional tools (265.2 seconds); the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.429). Their scores using the two research methods were similar in all three content areas: antibiotics (p=0.797), analgesics (p=0.850), and local anesthetics (p=0.850). In a post-intervention survey, students were generally favorable about infobutton and UpToDate, reporting the tool was easy to use (62.5%), provided the answer they were looking for (53.1%), was fast (50%), and they would use it again (68.8%). This pilot study found that the time and accuracy of these students conducting DDI research with the infobutton and UpToDate were about the same as using traditional Internet resources.

  12. Using a Simulated Infobutton Linked to an Evidence-Based Resource to Research Drug-Drug Interactions: A Pilot Study with Third-Year Dental Students.

    PubMed

    Dragan, Irina F; Newman, Michael; Stark, Paul; Steffensen, Bjorn; Karimbux, Nadeem

    2015-11-01

    Many health professions students and clinicians are using evidence-based databases that allow for quicker and more accurate clinical decisions. The aims of this pilot study were to compare third-year dental students' speed and accuracy in researching questions about drug-drug interactions (DDI) when using two different methods: a simulated infobutton linked to the evidence-based clinical decision support resource UpToDate versus traditional Internet resources accessed through a computer or smart device. Students researched two simulated cases during two sessions. In the first session, half the students used the infobutton, while the other half used traditional electronic tools only. In the second session, ten days later, a cross-over took place. The sessions were timed, and after researching the case, students answered three questions on the use of antibiotics, analgesics, and local anesthetics. Of the 50 students who volunteered for the study, two were excluded, and 44 participated in both sessions and the exam. The results showed that the students took a similar amount of time to identify DDI whether they used the infobutton (mean=286.5 seconds) or traditional tools (265.2 seconds); the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.429). Their scores using the two research methods were similar in all three content areas: antibiotics (p=0.797), analgesics (p=0.850), and local anesthetics (p=0.850). In a post-intervention survey, students were generally favorable about infobutton and UpToDate, reporting the tool was easy to use (62.5%), provided the answer they were looking for (53.1%), was fast (50%), and they would use it again (68.8%). This pilot study found that the time and accuracy of these students conducting DDI research with the infobutton and UpToDate were about the same as using traditional Internet resources. PMID:26522641

  13. 14 CFR 91.1089 - Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). 91.1089 Section 91.1089 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1089 Qualifications: Check...

  14. Framework for planning and conducting pilot studies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lisa Janette; Harrison, Margaret B

    2009-12-01

    Researchers working with partners in home care to plan a pragmatic multicenter community-based, randomized, controlled trial for leg ulcer compression treatment realized a smaller pilot study would be necessary. Because no framework for conducting pilot studies could be found, the authors developed a framework for pilot study methodology to inform the planning of such research. To this end, an integrative literature review was conducted, guided by an explicit search strategy, retrieval procedures, and appraisal process, to identify recognized pilot study aims, processes, and methodologies used in previously reported community pilot studies. Factors influencing study inclusion were recognized pilot study aims and purposes and a concise working definition of pilot study. Methodologies used in previously conducted community pilot studies were reviewed. Although relevant published research was limited, 11 pilot studies met the inclusion criteria for this review and contained suggestions to further develop or improve plans for larger definitive trials to enable a better fit of protocols within the delivery systems and scopes of practice. Pilot research processes could be divided into two stages: early planning and pilot trial. Direction for procedures and methods was gained relative to planning for an effective pilot study regarding eligibility, recruitment and data collection, management, and analysis. The results were used to develop an organizing framework for the authors' pilot study and named the Pilot Research Process (PReP) Framework. The process was instrumental in working with the authors' research team and clinical partners in the planning of their leg ulcer treatment pilot study. This framework may provide a foundation for others to analyze or develop a pilot study methodology in planning a large-scale study. PMID:20038790

  15. Pilot study: evaluation of the use of the convergent interview technique in understanding the perception of surgical design and simulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is important to understand the perceived value of surgical design and simulation (SDS) amongst surgeons, as this will influence its implementation in clinical settings. The purpose of the present study was to examine the application of the convergent interview technique in the field of surgical design and simulation and evaluate whether the technique would uncover new perceptions of virtual surgical planning (VSP) and medical models not discovered by other qualitative case-based techniques. Methods Five surgeons were asked to participate in the study. Each participant was interviewed following the convergent interview technique. After each interview, the interviewer interpreted the information by seeking agreements and disagreements among the interviewees in order to understand the key concepts in the field of SDS. Results Fifteen important issues were extracted from the convergent interviews. Conclusion In general, the convergent interview was an effective technique in collecting information about the perception of clinicians. The study identified three areas where the technique could be improved upon for future studies in the SDS field. PMID:23782771

  16. Modeling human pilot cue utilization with applications to simulator fidelity assessment.

    PubMed

    Zeyada, Y; Hess, R A

    2000-01-01

    An analytical investigation to model the manner in which pilots perceive and utilize visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular cues in a ground-based flight simulator was undertaken. Data from a NASA Ames Research Center vertical motion simulator study of a simple, single-degree-of-freedom rotorcraft bob-up/down maneuver were employed in the investigation. The study was part of a larger research effort that has the creation of a methodology for determining flight simulator fidelity requirements as its ultimate goal. The study utilized a closed-loop feedback structure of the pilot/simulator system that included the pilot, the cockpit inceptor, the dynamics of the simulated vehicle, and the motion system. With the exception of time delays that accrued in visual scene production in the simulator, visual scene effects were not included in this study. Pilot/vehicle analysis and fuzzy-inference identification were employed to study the changes in fidelity that occurred as the characteristics of the motion system were varied over five configurations. The data from three of the five pilots who participated in the experimental study were analyzed in the fuzzy-inference identification. Results indicate that both the analytical pilot/vehicle analysis and the fuzzy-inference identification can be used to identify changes in simulator fidelity for the task examined.

  17. Modeling human pilot cue utilization with applications to simulator fidelity assessment.

    PubMed

    Zeyada, Y; Hess, R A

    2000-01-01

    An analytical investigation to model the manner in which pilots perceive and utilize visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular cues in a ground-based flight simulator was undertaken. Data from a NASA Ames Research Center vertical motion simulator study of a simple, single-degree-of-freedom rotorcraft bob-up/down maneuver were employed in the investigation. The study was part of a larger research effort that has the creation of a methodology for determining flight simulator fidelity requirements as its ultimate goal. The study utilized a closed-loop feedback structure of the pilot/simulator system that included the pilot, the cockpit inceptor, the dynamics of the simulated vehicle, and the motion system. With the exception of time delays that accrued in visual scene production in the simulator, visual scene effects were not included in this study. Pilot/vehicle analysis and fuzzy-inference identification were employed to study the changes in fidelity that occurred as the characteristics of the motion system were varied over five configurations. The data from three of the five pilots who participated in the experimental study were analyzed in the fuzzy-inference identification. Results indicate that both the analytical pilot/vehicle analysis and the fuzzy-inference identification can be used to identify changes in simulator fidelity for the task examined. PMID:11762381

  18. Management of Maternal Cardiac Arrest in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy: A Simulation-Based Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jacquelyn; Cepeda Brito, Jose R.; Baker, Lauren; Hughes, Patrick G.; Gothard, M. David; Davis, Jocelyn; Silber, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate confidence, knowledge, and competence after a simulation-based curriculum on maternal cardiac arrest in an Obstetrics & Gynecologic (OBGYN) residency program. Methods. Four simulations with structured debriefing focusing on high yield causes and management of maternal cardiac arrest were executed. Pre- and post-individual knowledge tests (KT) and confidence surveys (CS) were collected along with group scores of critical performance steps evaluated by content experts for the first and final simulations. Results. Significant differences were noted in individual KT scores (pre: 58.9 ± 8.9 versus post: 72.8 ± 6.1, p = 0.01) and CS total scores (pre: 22.2 ± 6.4 versus post: 29.9 ± 3.4, p = 0.007). Significant differences were noted in airway management, p = 0.008; appropriate cycles of drug/shock-CPR, p = 0.008; left uterine displacement, p = 0.008; and identifying causes of cardiac arrest, p = 0.008. Nonsignificant differences were noted for administration of appropriate drugs/doses, p = 0.074; chest compressions, p = 0.074; bag-mask ventilation before intubation, p = 0.074; and return of spontaneous circulation identification, p = 0.074. Groups remained noncompetent in team leader tasks and considering therapeutic hypothermia. Conclusion. This study demonstrated improved OBGYN resident knowledge, confidence, and competence in the management of third trimester maternal cardiac arrest. Several skills, however, will likely require more longitudinal curricular exposure and training to develop and maintain proficiency. PMID:27555967

  19. Management of Maternal Cardiac Arrest in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy: A Simulation-Based Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jacquelyn; Cepeda Brito, Jose R; Baker, Lauren; Hughes, Patrick G; Gothard, M David; McCarroll, Michele L; Davis, Jocelyn; Silber, Angela; Ahmed, Rami A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate confidence, knowledge, and competence after a simulation-based curriculum on maternal cardiac arrest in an Obstetrics & Gynecologic (OBGYN) residency program. Methods. Four simulations with structured debriefing focusing on high yield causes and management of maternal cardiac arrest were executed. Pre- and post-individual knowledge tests (KT) and confidence surveys (CS) were collected along with group scores of critical performance steps evaluated by content experts for the first and final simulations. Results. Significant differences were noted in individual KT scores (pre: 58.9 ± 8.9 versus post: 72.8 ± 6.1, p = 0.01) and CS total scores (pre: 22.2 ± 6.4 versus post: 29.9 ± 3.4, p = 0.007). Significant differences were noted in airway management, p = 0.008; appropriate cycles of drug/shock-CPR, p = 0.008; left uterine displacement, p = 0.008; and identifying causes of cardiac arrest, p = 0.008. Nonsignificant differences were noted for administration of appropriate drugs/doses, p = 0.074; chest compressions, p = 0.074; bag-mask ventilation before intubation, p = 0.074; and return of spontaneous circulation identification, p = 0.074. Groups remained noncompetent in team leader tasks and considering therapeutic hypothermia. Conclusion. This study demonstrated improved OBGYN resident knowledge, confidence, and competence in the management of third trimester maternal cardiac arrest. Several skills, however, will likely require more longitudinal curricular exposure and training to develop and maintain proficiency. PMID:27555967

  20. The Results of a Simulator Study to Determine the Effects on Pilot Performance of Two Different Motion Cueing Algorithms and Various Delays, Compensated and Uncompensated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Li-Wen; Cardullo, Frank M.; Telban, Robert J.; Houck, Jacob A.; Kelly, Lon C.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted employing the Visual Motion Simulator (VMS) at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. This study compared two motion cueing algorithms, the NASA adaptive algorithm and a new optimal control based algorithm. Also, the study included the effects of transport delays and the compensation thereof. The delay compensation algorithm employed is one developed by Richard McFarland at NASA Ames Research Center. This paper reports on the analyses of the results of analyzing the experimental data collected from preliminary simulation tests. This series of tests was conducted to evaluate the protocols and the methodology of data analysis in preparation for more comprehensive tests which will be conducted during the spring of 2003. Therefore only three pilots were used. Nevertheless some useful results were obtained. The experimental conditions involved three maneuvers; a straight-in approach with a rotating wind vector, an offset approach with turbulence and gust, and a takeoff with and without an engine failure shortly after liftoff. For each of the maneuvers the two motion conditions were combined with four delay conditions (0, 50, 100 & 200ms), with and without compensation.

  1. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  2. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  3. The Utility of the Swine Model to Assess Biological Rhythms and Their Characteristics during Different Stages of Residence in a Simulated Intensive Care Unit: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Leyden, Katrina N.; Hanneman, Sandra K.; Padhye, Nikhil S.; Smolensky, Michael H.; Kang, Duck-Hee; Chow, Diana Shu-Lian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the utility of the mammalian swine model under simulated intensive care unit (sICU) conditions and mechanical ventilation for assessment of the trajectory of circadian rhythms of sedation requirement, core body temperature (CBT), pulmonary mechanics (PM), and gas exchange (GE). Data were collected prospectively with an observational time-series design to describe and compare circadian rhythms of selected study variables in four swine mechanically ventilated for up to 7 consecutive days. We derived the circadian (total variance explained by rhythms of τ between 20–28 h)/ultradian (total variance explained by rhythms of τ between 1 to <20 h) bandpower ratio to assess the robustness of circadian rhythms, and compare findings between the early (first 3 days) and late (subsequent days) sICU stay. All pigs exhibited statistically significant circadian rhythms (τ between 20–28 h) in CBT, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation, but circadian rhythms were detected less frequently for sedation requirement, spontaneous minute volume, arterial oxygen tension, arterial carbon dioxide tension, and arterial pH. Sedation did not appear to mask the circadian rhythms of CBT, PM, and GE. Individual subject observations were more informative than group data, and provided preliminary evidence that (a) circadian rhythms of multiple variables are lost or desynchronized in mechanically ventilated subjects, (b) robustness of circadian rhythm varies with subject morbidity, and (c) healthier pigs develop more robust circadian rhythm profiles over time in the sICU. Comparison of biological rhythm profiles among sICU subjects with similar severity of illness is needed to determine if the results of this pilot study are reproducible. Identification of consistent patterns may provide insight into subject morbidity and timing of such therapeutic interventions as weaning from mechanical ventilation. PMID:26204131

  4. The Utility of the Swine Model to Assess Biological Rhythms and Their Characteristics during Different Stages of Residence in a Simulated Intensive Care Unit: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Leyden, Katrina N; Hanneman, Sandra K; Padhye, Nikhil S; Smolensky, Michael H; Kang, Duck-Hee; Chow, Diana Shu-Lian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the utility of the mammalian swine model under simulated intensive care unit (sICU) conditions and mechanical ventilation (MV) for assessment of the trajectory of circadian rhythms of sedation requirement, core body temperature (CBT), pulmonary mechanics (PM) and gas exchange (GE). Data were collected prospectively with an observational time-series design to describe and compare circadian rhythms of selected study variables in four swine mechanically ventilated for up to seven consecutive days. We derived the circadian (total variance explained by rhythms of τ between 20 and 28 h)/ultradian (total variance explained by rhythms of τ between 1 and <20 h) bandpower ratio to assess the robustness of circadian rhythms, and compare findings between the early (first 3 days) and late (subsequent days) sICU stay. All pigs exhibited statistically significant circadian rhythms (τ between 20 and 28 h) in CBT, respiratory rate and peripheral oxygen saturation, but circadian rhythms were detected less frequently for sedation requirement, spontaneous minute volume, arterial oxygen tension, arterial carbon dioxide tension and arterial pH. Sedation did not appear to mask the circadian rhythms of CBT, PM and GE. Individual subject observations were more informative than group data, and provided preliminary evidence that (a) circadian rhythms of multiple variables are lost or desynchronized in mechanically ventilated subjects, (b) robustness of circadian rhythm varies with subject morbidity and (c) healthier pigs develop more robust circadian rhythm profiles over time in the sICU. Comparison of biological rhythm profiles among sICU subjects with similar severity of illness is needed to determine if the results of this pilot study are reproducible. Identification of consistent patterns may provide insight into subject morbidity and timing of such therapeutic interventions as weaning from MV. PMID:26204131

  5. Alkaline flood prediction studies, Ranger VII pilot, Wilmington Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, E.H.; Breit, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses: (1) The design of a simulator to model alkaline displacement mechanisms and the current state-of-the-art understanding of in-situ caustic consumption. (2) Assimilation of laboratory core flood and rock consumption data. Use of this data in 1-D and 2-D limited area simulations, and a 3-D model of the entire pilot project. (3) Simulation studies of alkaline flood behavior in a small 2-D area of the field for various concentrations, slug sizes, long term consumption functions and two relative permeability adjustment mechanisms. (4) Scale up of 2-D simulation results, and their use in a 271 acre 1.097 x 10/sup 6/m/sup 2/), 7 layered 3-D model of the pilot. (5) Comparison of 3-D simulator results with initial field alkaline flood performance. (6) Recommended additional application of the simulator methods developed in this pilot and in other alkaline floods. 10 refs.

  6. Measurement of human pilot dynamic characteristics in flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, James T.

    1987-01-01

    Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Least Square Error (LSE) estimation techniques were applied to the problem of identifying pilot-vehicle dynamic characteristics in flight simulation. A brief investigation of the effects of noise, input bandwidth and system delay upon the FFT and LSE techniques was undertaken using synthetic data. Data from a piloted simulation conducted at NASA Ames Research Center was then analyzed. The simulation was performed in the NASA Ames Research Center Variable Stability CH-47B helicopter operating in fixed-basis simulator mode. The piloting task consisted of maintaining the simulated vehicle over a moving hover pad whose motion was described by a random-appearing sum of sinusoids. The two test subjects used a head-down, color cathode ray tube (CRT) display for guidance and control information. Test configurations differed in the number of axes being controlled by the pilot (longitudinal only versus longitudinal and lateral), and in the presence or absence of an important display indicator called an 'acceleration ball'. A number of different pilot-vehicle transfer functions were measured, and where appropriate, qualitatively compared with theoretical pilot- vehicle models. Some indirect evidence suggesting pursuit behavior on the part of the test subjects is discussed.

  7. The marriage of surgical simulation and telementoring for damage-control surgical training of operational first responders: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Tien, Homer; LaPorta, Anthony T.; Lavell, Kit; Keillor, Jocelyn; Wright Beatty, Heather E.; McKee, Jessica Lynn; Brien, Susan; Roberts, Derek J.; Wong, Jonathan; Ball, Chad G.; Beckett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable posttraumatic death. Many such deaths may be potentially salvageable with remote damage-control surgical interventions. As recent innovations in information technology enable remote specialist support to point-of-care providers, advanced interventions, such as remote damage-control surgery, may be possible in remote settings. METHODS An anatomically realistic perfused surgical training mannequin with intrinsic fluid loss measurements (the “Cut Suit”) was used to study perihepatic packing with massive liver hemorrhage. The primary outcome was loss of simulated blood (water) during six stages, namely, incision, retraction, direction, identification, packing, and postpacking. Six fully credentialed surgeons performed the same task as 12 military medical technicians who were randomized to remotely telementored (RTM) (n = 7) or unmentored (UTM) (n=5) real-time guidance by a trauma surgeon. RESULTS There were no significant differences in fluid loss between the surgeons and the UTM group or between the UTM and RTM groups. However, when comparing the RTM group with the surgeons, there was significantly more total fluid loss (p = 0.001) and greater loss during the identification (p = 0.002), retraction (p = 0.035), direction (p = 0.014), and packing(p = 0.022) stages. There were no significant differences in fluid loss after packing between the groups despite differences in the number of sponges used; RTM group used more sponges than the surgeons and significantly more than the UTM group (p = 0.048). However, mentoring significantly increased self-assessed nonsurgeon procedural confidence (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION Perihepatic packing of an exsanguinating liver hemorrhage model was readily performed by military medical technicians after a focused briefing. While real-time telementoring did not improve fluid loss, it significantly increased nonsurgeon procedural confidence, which may augment the feasibility of the

  8. An Experimental Study of the Effect of Out-of-the-Window Cues on Training Novice Pilots on a Flight Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia; Heath, Bruce; Ali, Syed F.; Ward, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    The effects of out-of-the-window cues on learning a straight-in landing approach and a level 360deg turn by novice pilots on a flight simulator have been investigated. The treatments consisted of training with and without visual cues as well as density of visual cues. The performance of the participants was then evaluated through similar but more challenging tasks. It was observed that the participants in the landing study who trained with visual cues performed poorly than those who trained without the cues. However the performance of those who trained with a faded-cues sequence performed slightly better than those who trained without visual cues. In the level turn study it was observed that those who trained with the visual cues performed better than those who trained without visual cues. The study also showed that those participants who trained with a lower density of cues performed better than those who trained with a higher density of visual cues.

  9. 90% Compliance Pilot Studies Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    In early 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced an opportunity for states to participate in energy code compliance evaluation pilot studies. DOE worked with five Regional Energy Efficiency Organizations (REEOs, formerly referred to as Energy Efficiency Partnerships, or EEPs) to fund pilot studies covering nine states. This report details conclusions stated in individual state reports, as well as conclusions drawn by DOE based on their oversight of the pilot studies, and based on discussions held with the REEOs and representatives from the pilot study states and their contractors.

  10. Classroom acoustics: Three pilot studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaldino, Joseph J.

    2005-04-01

    This paper summarizes three related pilot projects designed to focus on the possible effects of classroom acoustics on fine auditory discrimination as it relates to language acquisition, especially English as a second language. The first study investigated the influence of improving the signal-to-noise ratio on the differentiation of English phonemes. The results showed better differentiation with better signal-to-noise ratio. The second studied speech perception in noise by young adults for whom English was a second language. The outcome indicated that the second language learners required a better signal-to-noise ratio to perform equally to the native language participants. The last study surveyed the acoustic conditions of preschool and day care classrooms, wherein first and second language learning occurs. The survey suggested an unfavorable acoustic environment for language learning.

  11. CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF INFLAMMATION BIOMARKERS DURING SIMULATED CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS USING A MICROFLUIDIC IMMUNOASSAY DEVICE – A PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Sasso, Lawrence A.; Aran, Kiana; Guan, Yulong; Ündar, Akif; Zahn, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    This work demonstrates the use of a continuous online monitoring system for tracking systemic inflammation biomarkers during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures. The ability to monitor inflammation biomarkers during CPB will allow surgical teams to actively treat inflammation and reduce harmful effects on postoperative morbidity and mortality, enabling improved patient outcomes. A microfluidic device has been designed which allows automation of the individual processing steps of a microbead immunoassay to allow continuous tracking of antigen concentrations. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated that the results produced by the micro-immunoassay are comparable to results produced from a standard ELISA (r=0.98). Additionally, integration of the assay with a simulated CPB circuit has been demonstrated with temporal tracking of C3a concentrations within blood continuously sampled from the circuit. The presented work describes the motivation, design challenges, and preliminary experimental results of this project. PMID:23305589

  12. A Piloted Simulator Evaluation of Transport Aircraft Rudder Pedal Force/Feel Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    A piloted simulation study has been conducted in a fixed-base research simulator to assess the directional handling qualities for various rudder pedal feel characteristics for commercial transport airplanes. That is, the effects of static pedal force at maximum pedal travel, breakout force, and maximum pedal travel on handling qualities were studied. An artificial maneuver with a severe lateral wind shear and requiring runway tracking at an altitude of 50 feet in a crosswind was used to fully exercise the rudder pedals. Twelve active airline pilots voluntarily participated in the study and flew approximately 500 maneuvers. The pilots rated the maneuver performance with various rudder pedal feel characteristics using the Cooper- Harper rating scale. The test matrix had 15 unique combinations of the 3 static pedal feel characteristics. A 10-term, second-order equation for the Cooper-Harper pilot rating as a function of the 3 independent pedal feel parameters was fit to the data. The test matrix utilized a Central Composite Design that is very efficient for fitting an equation of this form. The equation was used to produce contour plots of constant pilot ratings as a function of two of the parameters with the third parameter held constant. These contour plots showed regions of good handling qualities as well as regions of degraded handling qualities. In addition, a numerical equation solver was used to predict the optimum parameter values (those with the lowest pilot rating). Quantitative pilot performance data were also analyzed. This analysis found that the peak values of the cross power spectra of the pedal force and heading angle could be used to quantify the tendency toward directional pilot induced oscillations (PIO). Larger peak values of the cross power spectra were correlated with larger (degraded) Cooper-Harper pilot ratings. Thus, the subjective data (Cooper-Harper pilot ratings) were consistent with the objective data (peak values of the cross power

  13. 14 CFR 91.1093 - Initial and transition training and checking: Check pilots (aircraft), check pilots (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial and transition training and....1093 Initial and transition training and checking: Check pilots (aircraft), check pilots (simulator... person has satisfactorily completed initial or transition check pilot training; and (2) Within...

  14. Utilizing Human Patient Simulators (HPS) to Meet Learning Objectives across Concurrent Core Nursing Courses: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Charman L.; Leadingham, Camille; Vance, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) faculty are challenged by the monumental responsibility of preparing students to function as safe, professional nurses in a two year course of study. Advances in computer technology and emphasis on integrating technology and active learning strategies into existing course structures have prompted many nurse educators…

  15. Simulators for corporate pilot training and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treichel, Curt

    1992-01-01

    Corporate aviation relies heavily on simulation to meet training and evaluation requirements. It appreciates the savings in fuel, money, noise, and time, and the added safety it provides. Also, simulation provides opportunities to experience many emergencies that cannot be safely practiced in the aircraft. There is a need to focus on the advantages of simulator training over aircraft training and to provide appropriate changes in the regulations to allow the community to make it possible for users to take full advantage of simulation.

  16. Investigating pilot performance using mixed-modality simulated data link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Jeff A.

    Empirical studies of general aviation (GA) pilot performance are lacking, especially with respect to envisioned future requirements. Two research studies were conducted to evaluate human performance using new technologies. In the first study, ten participants completed the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) in an effort to compare the intelligibility of two text-to-speech (TTS) engines (DECtalk and AT&T's Natural Voices) as presented in 85 dB(A) aircraft cockpit engine noise. Results indicated significant differences in intelligibility (p ≤ 0.05) between the two speech synthesizers across the tested speech-to-noise ratios (S/N) (i.e., -5 dB, -8 dB, and -11 dB S/N) with the AT&T engine resulting in superior intelligibility in all of the S/N. The AT&T product was therefore selected as the TTS engine for the second study. In the second study, 16 visual flight rules (VFR) rated pilots were evaluated for their data link performance using a flight simulator (ELITE i-GATE) equipped with a mixed-modality simulated data link within one of two flight conditions. Data link modalities included textual, synthesized speech, digitized speech, and synthesized speech/textual combination. Flight conditions included VFR (unlimited ceiling, visibility) or marginal VFR (MVFR) flight conditions (clouds 2800 feet above ground level [AGL], three miles visibility). Evaluation focused on the time required accessing, understanding, and executing data link commands. Additional data were gathered to evaluate workload, situation awareness, and subjective preference. Results indicated significant differences in pilot performance, mental workload, and situation awareness across the data link modalities and between flight conditions. Textual data link resulted in decreased performance while the other three data link conditions did not differ in performance. Workload evaluation indicated increased workload in the textual data link condition. Situation awareness (SA) measures indicated differences in

  17. A Simulator Study of the Effectiveness of a Pilot's Indicator which Combined Angle of Attack and Rate of Change of Total Pressure as Applied to the Take-Off Rotation and Climbout of a Supersonic Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Albert W.; Harris, Jack E.

    1961-01-01

    A simulator study has been made to determine the effectiveness of a single instrument presentation as an aid to the pilot in controlling both rotation and climbout path in take-off. The instrument was basically an angle-of-attack indicator, biased with a total-pressure-rate input as a means of suppressing the phugoid oscillation. Linearized six-degree-of-freedom equations of motion were utilized in simulating a hypothetical supersonic transport as the test vehicle. Each of several experienced pilots performed a number of simulated take-offs, using conventional flight instruments and either an angle-of-attack instrument or the combined angle-of-attack and total-pressure-rate instrument. The pilots were able to rotate the airplane, with satisfactory precision, to the 15 deg. angle of attack required for lift-off when using either an angle-of-attack instrument or the instrument which combined total-pressure-rate with angle of attack. At least 4 to 6 second-S appeared to be required for rotation to prevent overshoot, particularly with the latter instrument. The flight paths resulting from take-offs with simulated engine failures were relatively smooth and repeatable within a reasonably narrow band when the combined angle-of-attack and total-pressure-rate instrument presentation was used. Some of the flight paths resulting from take-offs with the same engine-failure conditions were very oscillatory when conventional instruments and an angle-of-attack instrument were used. The pilots considered the combined angle-of-attack and total- pressure-rate instrument a very effective aid. Even though they could, with sufficient practice, perform satisfactory climbouts after simulated engine failure by monitoring the conventional instruments and making correction based on their readings, it was much easier to maintain a smooth flight path with the single combined angle-of-attack and total-pressure-rate instrument.

  18. Piloted simulation of a ground-based time-control concept for air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Thomas J.; Green, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    A concept for aiding air traffic controllers in efficiently spacing traffic and meeting scheduled arrival times at a metering fix was developed and tested in a real time simulation. The automation aid, referred to as the ground based 4-D descent advisor (DA), is based on accurate models of aircraft performance and weather conditions. The DA generates suggested clearances, including both top-of-descent-point and speed-profile data, for one or more aircraft in order to achieve specific time or distance separation objectives. The DA algorithm is used by the air traffic controller to resolve conflicts and issue advisories to arrival aircraft. A joint simulation was conducted using a piloted simulator and an advanced concept air traffic control simulation to study the acceptability and accuracy of the DA automation aid from both the pilot's and the air traffic controller's perspectives. The results of the piloted simulation are examined. In the piloted simulation, airline crews executed controller issued descent advisories along standard curved path arrival routes, and were able to achieve an arrival time precision of + or - 20 sec at the metering fix. An analysis of errors generated in turns resulted in further enhancements of the algorithm to improve the predictive accuracy. Evaluations by pilots indicate general support for the concept and provide specific recommendations for improvement.

  19. The use of total simulator training in transitioning air-carrier pilots: A field evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J., Jr.; Tanner, T. A.; Hamerman, J. A.; Showalter, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    A field study was conducted in which the performance of air carrier transitioning pilots who had landing training in a landing maneuver approved simulator was compared with the performance of pilots who had landing training in the aircraft. Forty-eight trainees transitioning to the B-727 aircraft and eighty-seven trainees transitioning to the DC-10 were included in the study. The study results in terms of both objectively measured performance indicants and observer and check-pilot ratings did not demonstrate a clear distinction between the two training groups. The results suggest that, for these highly skilled transitioning pilots, a separate training module in the aircraft may be of dubious value.

  20. Stress and Simulation in Pilot Training. Final Report, May 1977 Through December 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahenbuhl, Gary S.; And Others

    Research was conducted on pilot stress during simulated emergency flight conditions. Catecholamine (adrenaline and non-adrenaline) secretion for twenty United States Air Force student pilots and thirteen instructor pilots was determined during daily activities, during simulated flights performed in high realism simulators, and during actual…

  1. Kinesthetic control simulator. [for pilot training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, P. R.; Thomas, D. F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A kinesthetic control simulator is reported that has a flat base upon which rests a support structure having a lower spherical surface for rotation on the base plate with columns which support a platform above the support structure at a desired location with respect to the center of curvature of the spherical surface. A handrail is at approximately the elevation of the hips of the operator above the platform with a ring attached to the support structure which may be used to limit the angle of tilt. Five degree freedom-of-motion can be obtained by utilizing an air pad structure for support of the control simulator.

  2. BIMOMASS GASIFICATION PILOT PLANT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a gasification pilot program using two biomass feedstocks: bagasse pellets and wood chips. he object of the program was to determine the properties of biomass product gas and its suitability as a fuel for gas-turbine-based power generation cycles. he f...

  3. Simulator evaluation of a remotely piloted vehicle lateral landing task using a visual display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrafian, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    A simulator evaluation of a remotely piloted research vehicle was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility to determine the utility of a visual display when studying the influence of changes in the lateral-stick gearing gains during landing approaches. The test vehicle used in this study was a highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) aircraft, which is a 0.44-scale version of an envisioned small, single-seat fighter airplane. Handling qualities ratings and comments obtained from pilots using a simulated visual display of a runway scene and a simulated instrument landing system (ILS) display were compared with the results of actual flight tests. The visual display was found to provide an adequate representation of the test vehicle in a visual landing approach, and it improved the roll response cues provided to the pilot. The handling qualities ratings and comments for flight and simulation visual landing approaches correlated well. The ILS simulation results showed reduced correlation compared with the flight results for ILS approaches. Handling qualities criteria for remotely piloted research vehicles are also discussed in this paper.

  4. Use of a virtual reality physical ride-on sailing simulator as a rehabilitation tool for recreational sports and community reintegration: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Recio, Albert C; Becker, Daniel; Morgan, Marjorie; Saunders, Norman R; Schramm, Lawrence P; McDonald, John W

    2013-12-01

    Participation in sailing by people with disabilities, particularly in small sailboats, is widely regarded as having positive outcomes on self-esteem and general health for the participants. However, a major hurdle for people with no previous experience of sailing, even by those without disabilities, is the perception that sailing is elitist, expensive, and dangerous. Real-time "ride-on" sailing simulators have the potential to bridge the gap between dry-land and on-the-water sailing. These provide a realistic, safe, and easily supervised medium in which nonsailors can easily and systematically learn the required skills before venturing out on the water. The authors report a 12-wk pilot therapeutic sailing program using the VSail-Access sailing simulation system followed by on-water experience. After completion of the training, all subjects demonstrated the ability to navigate a simple course around marker buoys (triangular configuration) on the computer screen, the ability to sail independently in winds of moderate strength (up to 14 knots) on water, and measurable improvements in their psychologic health. In addition, the subjects were able to participate in a sports activity with their respective family members and experienced a sense of optimism about their future. PMID:24252935

  5. Use of a virtual reality physical ride-on sailing simulator as a rehabilitation tool for recreational sports and community reintegration: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Recio, Albert C; Becker, Daniel; Morgan, Marjorie; Saunders, Norman R; Schramm, Lawrence P; McDonald, John W

    2013-12-01

    Participation in sailing by people with disabilities, particularly in small sailboats, is widely regarded as having positive outcomes on self-esteem and general health for the participants. However, a major hurdle for people with no previous experience of sailing, even by those without disabilities, is the perception that sailing is elitist, expensive, and dangerous. Real-time "ride-on" sailing simulators have the potential to bridge the gap between dry-land and on-the-water sailing. These provide a realistic, safe, and easily supervised medium in which nonsailors can easily and systematically learn the required skills before venturing out on the water. The authors report a 12-wk pilot therapeutic sailing program using the VSail-Access sailing simulation system followed by on-water experience. After completion of the training, all subjects demonstrated the ability to navigate a simple course around marker buoys (triangular configuration) on the computer screen, the ability to sail independently in winds of moderate strength (up to 14 knots) on water, and measurable improvements in their psychologic health. In addition, the subjects were able to participate in a sports activity with their respective family members and experienced a sense of optimism about their future.

  6. Human in the Loop Simulation Measures of Pilot Response Delay in a Self-Separation Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Wilson, Sara R.; Sturdy, James; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Wing, David J.

    2010-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation experiment was conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to assess airline transport pilots performance and reported acceptance of the use of procedures relying on airborne separation assistance and trajectory management tools. This study was part of a larger effort involving two NASA centers that includes multiple HITL experiments planned over the next few years to evaluate the use of automated separation assurance (SA) tools by both air traffic controllers and pilots. This paper presents results of measured pilot response delay that subject pilots incurred when interacting with cockpit tools for SA and discusses possible implications for future concept and procedures design.

  7. Motion-Based Piloted Simulation Evaluation of a Control Allocation Technique to Recover from Pilot Induced Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craun, Robert W.; Acosta, Diana M.; Beard, Steven D.; Leonard, Michael W.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Weinstein, Michael; Yildiz, Yildiray

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the maturation of a control allocation technique designed to assist pilots in the recovery from pilot induced oscillations (PIOs). The Control Allocation technique to recover from Pilot Induced Oscillations (CAPIO) is designed to enable next generation high efficiency aircraft designs. Energy efficient next generation aircraft require feedback control strategies that will enable lowering the actuator rate limit requirements for optimal airframe design. One of the common issues flying with actuator rate limits is PIOs caused by the phase lag between the pilot inputs and control surface response. CAPIO utilizes real-time optimization for control allocation to eliminate phase lag in the system caused by control surface rate limiting. System impacts of the control allocator were assessed through a piloted simulation evaluation of a non-linear aircraft simulation in the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator. Results indicate that CAPIO helps reduce oscillatory behavior, including the severity and duration of PIOs, introduced by control surface rate limiting.

  8. Piloted Evaluation of a UH-60 Mixer Equivalent Turbulence Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lusardi, Jeff A.; Blanken, Chris L.; Tischeler, Mark B.

    2002-01-01

    A simulation study of a recently developed hover/low speed Mixer Equivalent Turbulence Simulation (METS) model for the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter was conducted in the NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS). The experiment was a continuation of previous work to develop a simple, but validated, turbulence model for hovering rotorcraft. To validate the METS model, two experienced test pilots replicated precision hover tasks that had been conducted in an instrumented UH-60 helicopter in turbulence. Objective simulation data were collected for comparison with flight test data, and subjective data were collected that included handling qualities ratings and pilot comments for increasing levels of turbulence. Analyses of the simulation results show good analytic agreement between the METS model and flight test data, with favorable pilot perception of the simulated turbulence. Precision hover tasks were also repeated using the more complex rotating-frame SORBET (Simulation Of Rotor Blade Element Turbulence) model to generate turbulence. Comparisons of the empirically derived METS model with the theoretical SORBET model show good agreement providing validation of the more complex blade element method of simulating turbulence.

  9. Pilot Biofeedback Training in the Cognitive Awareness Training Study (CATS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uenking, M.

    2000-01-01

    One of the ongoing problems that pilots face today is a diminished state of awareness such as boredom, sleepiness, or fatigue during cruise conditions that could result in various pilot errors. This study utilized a cognitive training exercise to sharpen the pilot's awareness during simulated flight thereby providing them with a means to overcome these diminished states of awareness. This study utilizes psychophysiological methods in an attempt to assess a pilot's state of awareness more directly. In turn, the pilots will be able to train themselves to recognize these states of awareness and be more mentally sharp during mundane tasks such as those experienced in cruise conditions. The use of these measurement tools may be beneficial for researchers working within the NASA Aviation Safety Program. This paper will provide the reader with some background information concerning the motivation for the study, a brief description of the experimental setup and design matrix, the dependent and independent variables that were employed, and some preliminary findings based on some of the subjective and objective data that was collected. These preliminary findings are of part of an ongoing study being conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.

  10. Alkaline flood prediction studies, Ranger VII pilot, Wilmington Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, E.H.; Breit, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a simulator to model alkaline displacement mechanisms, along with the current understanding of in-situ caustic consumption. Assimilation of laboratory coreflood and rock consumption data, and their use in one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) limited area simulations and in three-dimensional (3D) models of the entire pilot project are given. This paper also reports simulation studies of alkaline flood behavior in a small 2D area of a field for various concentrations, slug sizes, long-term consumption functions, and two relative-permeability adjustment mechanisms. The scale-up of 2D simulation results and their use in a 271-acre (1096.7-ha), seven-layered, 3D model of the pilot are also discussed and 3D simulator results are compared with initial field alkaline flood performance. Finally, recommended additional applications of the simulator methods developed in this pilot and in other alkaline floods are discussed.

  11. Pilot interaction with cockpit automation 2: An experimental study of pilots' model and awareness of the Flight Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarter, Nadine B.; Woods, David D.

    1994-01-01

    Technological developments have made it possible to automate more and more functions on the commercial aviation flight deck and in other dynamic high-consequence domains. This increase in the degrees of freedom in design has shifted questions away from narrow technological feasibility. Many concerned groups, from designers and operators to regulators and researchers, have begun to ask questions about how we should use the possibilities afforded by technology skillfully to support and expand human performance. In this article, we report on an experimental study that addressed these questions by examining pilot interaction with the current generation of flight deck automation. Previous results on pilot-automation interaction derived from pilot surveys, incident reports, and training observations have produced a corpus of features and contexts in which human-machine coordination is likely to break down (e.g., automation surprises). We used these data to design a simulated flight scenario that contained a variety of probes designed to reveal pilots' mental model of one major component of flight deck automation: the Flight Management System (FMS). The events within the scenario were also designed to probe pilots' ability to apply their knowledge and understanding in specific flight contexts and to examine their ability to track the status and behavior of the automated system (mode awareness). Although pilots were able to 'make the system work' in standard situations, the results reveal a variety of latent problems in pilot-FMS interaction that can affect pilot performance in nonnormal time critical situations.

  12. The DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; King, A.W.; Miller, M.A.; Springer, E.P.; Wesely, M.L.; Bashford, K.E.; Conrad, M.E.; Costigan, K.; Foster, P.N.; Gibbs, H.K.; Jin, J.; Klazura, J.; Lesht, B.M.; Machavaram, M.V.; Pan, F.; Song, J.; Troyan, D.; Washington-Allen, R.A.

    2003-09-20

    A Department of Energy (DOE) multi-laboratory Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) investigated components of the local water budget at the Walnut River Watershed in Kansas to study the relative importance of various processes and to determine the feasibility of observational water budget closure. An extensive database of local meteorological time series and land surface characteristics was compiled. Numerical simulations of water budget components were generated and, to the extent possible, validated for three nested domains within the Southern Great Plains; the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement/Cloud Atmospheric Radiation Testbed (ARM/CART), the Walnut River Watershed (WRW), and the Whitewater Watershed (WW), Kansas A 2-month Intensive Observation Period (IOP) was conducted to gather detailed observations relevant to specific details of the water budget, including fine-scale precipitation, streamflow, and soil moisture measurements not made routinely by other programs. Event and season al water isotope (delta 18O, delta D) sampling in rainwater, streams, soils, lakes, and wells provided a means of tracing sources and sinks within and external to the WW, WRW, and the ARM/CART domains. The WCPS measured changes in leaf area index for several vegetation types, deep groundwater variations at two wells, and meteorological variables at a number of sites in the WRW. Additional activities of the WCPS include code development toward a regional climate model with water isotope processes, soil moisture transect measurements, and water level measurements in ground water wells.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated RH TRU waste experiments: Data and interpretation pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M.A.; Argueello, G.J.; Beraun, R.

    1993-04-01

    The simulated, i.e., nonradioactive remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU) experiments being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were emplaced in mid-1986 and have been in heated test operation since 9/23/86. These experiments involve the in situ, waste package performance testing of eight full-size, reference RH TRU containers emplaced in horizontal, unlined test holes in the rock salt ribs (walls) of WIPP Room T. All of the test containers have internal electrical heaters; four of the test emplacements were filled with bentonite and silica sand backfill materials. We designed test conditions to be ``near-reference`` with respect to anticipated thermal outputs of RH TRU canisters and their geometrical spacing or layout in WIPP repository rooms, with RH TRU waste reference conditions current as of the start date of this test program. We also conducted some thermal overtest evaluations. This paper provides a: detailed test overview; comprehensive data update for the first 5 years of test operations; summary of experiment observations; initial data interpretations; and, several status; experimental objectives -- how these tests support WIPP TRU waste acceptance, performance assessment studies, underground operations, and the overall WIPP mission; and, in situ performance evaluations of RH TRU waste package materials plus design details and options. We provide instrument data and results for in situ waste container and borehole temperatures, pressures exerted on test containers through the backfill materials, and vertical and horizontal borehole-closure measurements and rates. The effects of heat on borehole closure, fracturing, and near-field materials (metals, backfills, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored and are summarized, as are assorted test observations. Predictive 3-dimensional thermal and structural modeling studies of borehole and room closures and temperature fields were also performed.

  14. Pilot Study on Conflict Management. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeigler, Harmon; And Others

    This extensive survey pretest utilized in-depth interviews with school superintendents and city managers in selected cities throughout Oregon and in Los Angeles. The purpose of the pilot study was to explore the similarities and differences in conflict management between the two professions. The study reveals that superintendents and city managers…

  15. PILOT STUDY: THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools for children in the age range of 1-5 years old. The pilot study focused on (a) simple, cost-...

  16. A Low Cost Simulation System to Demonstrate Pilot Induced Oscillation Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Syed Firasat

    1997-01-01

    A flight simulation system with graphics and software on Silicon Graphics computer workstations has been installed in the Flight Vehicle Design Laboratory at Tuskegee University. The system has F-15E flight simulation software from NASA Dryden which uses the graphics of SGI flight simulation demos. On the system, thus installed, a study of pilot induced oscillations is planned for future work. Preliminary research is conducted by obtaining two sets of straight level flights with pilot in the loop. In one set of flights no additional delay is used between the stick input and the appearance of airplane response on the computer monitor. In another set of flights, a 500 ms additional delay is used. The flight data is analyzed to find cross correlations between deflections of control surfaces and response of the airplane. The pilot dynamics features depicted from cross correlations of straight level flights are discussed in this report. The correlations presented here will serve as reference material for the corresponding correlations in a future study of pitch attitude tracking tasks involving pilot induced oscillations.

  17. Conducting a pilot study: case study of a novice researcher.

    PubMed

    Doody, Owen; Doody, Catriona M

    Pilot studies play a vital role in health research, but are often misused, mistreated and misrepresented. A well-conducted pilot study with clear aims and objectives within a formal framework ensures methodological rigour, can lead to higher-quality research and scientifically valid work that is publishable and can benefit patients and health service delivery. A pilot study contributes valuable information to assist researchers in the conduct of their study. Conducting a pilot study provides the researcher with the opportunity to develop and enhance the skills necessary before commencing the larger study. By conducting a pilot the researcher obtains preliminary data, can evaluate their data-analysis method and clarify the financial and human resources required. This article presents an overview of pilot studies, why they are conducted, what to consider when reporting pilot studies and the authors' experience of conducting a pilot study. To conduct a successful study, researchers need to develop their skills, choose the right methods and carefully plan for all aspects of the process. PMID:26618678

  18. Advanced Simulation in Undergraduate Pilot Training: Systems Integration. Final Report (February 1972-March 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, D. F.; Terry, C.

    The Advanced Simulator for Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT) was designed to investigate the role of simulation in the future Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT) program. The problem addressed in this report was one of integrating two unlike components into one synchronized system. These two components were the Basic T-37 Simulators and their…

  19. Measuring Pilot Workload in a Moving-base Simulator. Part 2: Building Levels of Workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantowitz, B. H.; Hart, S. G.; Bortolussi, M. R.; Shively, R. J.; Kantowitz, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    Pilot behavior in flight simulators often use a secondary task as an index of workload. His routine to regard flying as the primary task and some less complex task as the secondary task. While this assumption is quite reasonable for most secondary tasks used to study mental workload in aircraft, the treatment of flying a simulator through some carefully crafted flight scenario as a unitary task is less justified. The present research acknowledges that total mental workload depends upon the specific nature of the sub-tasks that a pilot must complete as a first approximation, flight tasks were divided into three levels of complexity. The simplest level (called the Base Level) requires elementary maneuvers that do not utilize all the degrees of freedom of which an aircraft, or a moving-base simulator; is capable. The second level (called the Paired Level) requires the pilot to simultaneously execute two Base Level tasks. The third level (called the Complex Level) imposes three simultaneous constraints upon the pilot.

  20. Tests of Reading Comprehension (TORCH) Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgon, J. R.

    A New Zealand pilot study examined Tests of Reading Comprehension (TORCH) scores compared to PAT: Reading Comprehension scores and compared with teacher ratings. TORCH is a reading test package published in 1987 by the Australian Council for Educational Research. It consists of 14 untimed passages intended to assess the extent to which readers in…

  1. Handwashing Programme in Kindergarten: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, W. H.; Suen, L. K. P.; Kwok, Y. L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured programme on handwashing which has taken into account of the developmental stage of children. Design/methodology/approach: This is a pilot study using a structured handwashing programme as intervention. The intervention group (n=15) receives the structured…

  2. Microbial field pilot study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m{sup 3}) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO{sub 2} content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  3. A flight investigation of simulated data link communications during single-pilot IFR flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, J. F.; Duffy, J. W.; Christensen, D. G.

    1983-10-01

    A Flight Data Console (FDC) was developed to allow simulation of a digital communications link to replace the current voice communication system used in air traffic control (ATC). The voice system requires manipulation of radio equipment, read-back of clearances, and mental storage of critical information items, all contributing to high workload, particularly during single-pilot operations. This was an inflight study to determine how a digital communications system might reduce cockpit workload, improve flight proficiency, and be accepted by general aviation pilots. Results show that instrument flight, including approach and landing, can be accomplished quite effectively using a digital data link system for ATC communications. All pilots expressed a need for a back-up voice channel. When included, this channel was used sparingly and principally to confirm any item of information about which there might be uncertainty.

  4. Computer simulation of a single pilot flying a modern high-performance helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipf, Mark E.; Vogt, William G.; Mickle, Marlin H.; Hoelzeman, Ronald G.; Kai, Fei; Mihaloew, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a computer simulation of a human response pilot model able to execute operational flight maneuvers and vehicle stabilization of a modern high-performance helicopter. Low-order, single-variable, human response mechanisms, integrated to form a multivariable pilot structure, provide a comprehensive operational control over the vehicle. Evaluations of the integrated pilot were performed by direct insertion into a nonlinear, total-force simulation environment provided by NASA Lewis. Comparisons between the integrated pilot structure and single-variable pilot mechanisms are presented. Static and dynamically alterable configurations of the pilot structure are introduced to simulate pilot activities during vehicle maneuvers. These configurations, in conjunction with higher level, decision-making processes, are considered for use where guidance and navigational procedures, operational mode transfers, and resource sharing are required.

  5. Development of a simulator to investigate pilot decision making in free flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scallen, Stephen F.; Smith, Kip; Hancock, Peter A.

    1996-06-01

    In response to the deterioration of ATC technology, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has initiated a program of study to determine the implications of a distributed control structure, 'free-flight', in which pilots would be given authority for navigation and routing decisions. This paper discusses a simulator developed to define constraints on safe and effective pilot decision-making in the proposed 'free-flight' structure. The simulator's design goals were the detailed reproduction of cockpit navigation displays, real-time updating of airspace information, and the flexibility to support dynamic manipulations of the environment. The simulator is housed in the fuselage of a single engine aircraft and supports modern glass-cockpit instrumentation including a primary flight display, a navigation display with proximity warning system, a flight management system display with keyboard input device, and numerous control switches. Unique software abilities includes data collection, data analysis, and data playback. A console control workstation also allows the dynamic manipulation of drone aircraft in simulated air traffic scenarios. At runtime the simulator captures pilot control actions and the location of all traffic.

  6. An Investigation of the Impact of Aerodynamic Model Fidelity on Close-In Combat Effectiveness Prediction in Piloted Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persing, T. Ray; Bellish, Christine A.; Brandon, Jay; Kenney, P. Sean; Carzoo, Susan; Buttrill, Catherine; Guenther, Arlene

    2005-01-01

    Several aircraft airframe modeling approaches are currently being used in the DoD community for acquisition, threat evaluation, training, and other purposes. To date there has been no clear empirical study of the impact of airframe simulation fidelity on piloted real-time aircraft simulation study results, or when use of a particular level of fidelity is indicated. This paper documents a series of piloted simulation studies using three different levels of airframe model fidelity. This study was conducted using the NASA Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator. Evaluations were conducted with three pilots for scenarios requiring extensive maneuvering of the airplanes during air combat. In many cases, a low-fidelity modified point-mass model may be sufficient to evaluate the combat effectiveness of the aircraft. However, in cases where high angle-of-attack flying qualities and aerodynamic performance are a factor or when precision tracking ability of the aircraft must be represented, use of high-fidelity models is indicated.

  7. Computer simulation of a pilot in V/STOL aircraft control loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, William G.; Mickle, Marlin H.; Zipf, Mark E.; Kucuk, Senol

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to develop a computerized adaptive pilot model for the computer model of the research aircraft, the Harrier II AV-8B V/STOL with special emphasis on propulsion control. In fact, two versions of the adaptive pilot are given. The first, simply called the Adaptive Control Model (ACM) of a pilot includes a parameter estimation algorithm for the parameters of the aircraft and an adaption scheme based on the root locus of the poles of the pilot controlled aircraft. The second, called the Optimal Control Model of the pilot (OCM), includes an adaption algorithm and an optimal control algorithm. These computer simulations were developed as a part of the ongoing research program in pilot model simulation supported by NASA Lewis from April 1, 1985 to August 30, 1986 under NASA Grant NAG 3-606 and from September 1, 1986 through November 30, 1988 under NASA Grant NAG 3-729. Once installed, these pilot models permitted the computer simulation of the pilot model to close all of the control loops normally closed by a pilot actually manipulating the control variables. The current version of this has permitted a baseline comparison of various qualitative and quantitative performance indices for propulsion control, the control loops and the work load on the pilot. Actual data for an aircraft flown by a human pilot furnished by NASA was compared to the outputs furnished by the computerized pilot and found to be favorable.

  8. A piloted simulator investigation of helicopter precision decelerating approaches to hover to determine single-pilot IFR /SPIFR/ requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phatak, A. V.; Peach, L. L., Jr.; Hess, R. A.; Ross, V. L.; Hall, G. W.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    The results of single-pilot instrument flight rules (SPIFR) experiments conducted on the NASA-Ames V/STOLAND simulator are presented. Several factors having a significant impact on requirements for helicopter SPIFR decelerating, steep approaches to landing are considered: (1) approach weather conditions, (2) flight path geometry, (3) deceleration guidance law, (4) level of stability and command augmentation, (5) cockpit display sophistication, (6) accuracy of navigation aids, and (7) helipad lighting and visual aids. Particular emphasis is placed on the relative effects of deceleration profile, control augmentation, and flight director parameters on pilot performance, workload, and opinion rating. Problems associated with the development of a pilot acceptance analytical methodology are outlined.

  9. Image processing of angiograms: A pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, L. E.; Evans, R. A.; Roehm, J. O., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The technology transfer application this report describes is the result of a pilot study of image-processing methods applied to the image enhancement, coding, and analysis of arteriograms. Angiography is a subspecialty of radiology that employs the introduction of media with high X-ray absorption into arteries in order to study vessel pathology as well as to infer disease of the organs supplied by the vessel in question.

  10. Force modification and deflection loss compensation to the pilot's controls in an aircraft simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    Control loader systems are used widely in flight simulator cockpits so that pilots may experience the correct forces while manipulating the flight controls. Two simulators at Ames Research Center the Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft (FSAA) and the Moving Cab Transport Simulator (MCTS) - contain control loader systems that exhibit small control deflection losses at high forces. These losses make force calibration and documentation difficult and also may cause losses in control authority of the simulated aircraft. The study of the deflection losses indicates that the major cause is a structural or mechanical distortion that is linear with applied force. Thus, the phenomena may be modeled and, subsequently, compensation for the losses may be made in the associated simulation computer.

  11. Measuring third year undergraduate nursing students' reflective thinking skills and critical reflection self-efficacy following high fidelity simulation: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tutticci, Naomi; Lewis, Peter A; Coyer, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Critical reflection underpins critical thinking, a highly desirable generic nursing graduate capability. To improve the likelihood of critical thinking transferring to clinical practice, reflective thinking needs to be measured within the learning space of simulation. This study was divided into two phases to address the reliability and validity measures of previously untested surveys. Phase One data was collected from individuals (n = 6) using a 'think aloud' approach and an expert panel to review content validity, and verbatim comment analysis was undertaken. The Reflective Thinking Instrument and Critical Reflection Self-Efficacy Visual Analogue Scale items were contextualised to simulation. The expert review confirmed these instruments exhibited content validity. Phase Two data was collected through an online survey (n = 58). Cronbach's alpha measured internal consistency and was demonstrated by all subscales and the Instrument as a whole (.849). There was a small to medium positive correlation between critical reflection self-efficacy and general self-efficacy (r = .324, n = 56, p = .048). Participant responses were positive regarding the simulation experience. The research findings demonstrated that the Reflective Thinking and Simulation Satisfaction survey is reliable. Further development of this survey to establish validity is recommended to make it viable. PMID:27235566

  12. Measuring third year undergraduate nursing students' reflective thinking skills and critical reflection self-efficacy following high fidelity simulation: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tutticci, Naomi; Lewis, Peter A; Coyer, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Critical reflection underpins critical thinking, a highly desirable generic nursing graduate capability. To improve the likelihood of critical thinking transferring to clinical practice, reflective thinking needs to be measured within the learning space of simulation. This study was divided into two phases to address the reliability and validity measures of previously untested surveys. Phase One data was collected from individuals (n = 6) using a 'think aloud' approach and an expert panel to review content validity, and verbatim comment analysis was undertaken. The Reflective Thinking Instrument and Critical Reflection Self-Efficacy Visual Analogue Scale items were contextualised to simulation. The expert review confirmed these instruments exhibited content validity. Phase Two data was collected through an online survey (n = 58). Cronbach's alpha measured internal consistency and was demonstrated by all subscales and the Instrument as a whole (.849). There was a small to medium positive correlation between critical reflection self-efficacy and general self-efficacy (r = .324, n = 56, p = .048). Participant responses were positive regarding the simulation experience. The research findings demonstrated that the Reflective Thinking and Simulation Satisfaction survey is reliable. Further development of this survey to establish validity is recommended to make it viable.

  13. Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Varner, J.

    2006-12-01

    The results of a pilot study to assess the risk from tsunamis for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon region will be presented. To determine the risk from tsunamis, it is first necessary to establish the hazard or probability that a tsunami of a particular magnitude will occur within a certain period of time. Tsunami inundation maps that provide 100-year and 500-year probabilistic tsunami wave height contours for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon, region were developed as part of an interagency Tsunami Pilot Study(1). These maps provided the probability of the tsunami hazard. The next step in determining risk is to determine the vulnerability or degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of tsunamis due to exposure and fragility. The tsunami vulnerability assessment methodology used in this study was developed by M. Papathoma and others(2). This model incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters related to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. Data provided with FEMA's HAZUS loss estimation software and Clatsop County, Oregon, tax assessment data were used as input to the model. The results, presented within a geographic information system, reveal the percentage of buildings in need of reinforcement and the population density in different inundation depth zones. These results can be used for tsunami mitigation, local planning, and for determining post-tsunami disaster response by emergency services. (1)Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study--Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps, Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2006, Final Draft. (2)Papathoma, M., D. Dominey-Howes, D.,Y. Zong, D. Smith, Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 377-389.

  14. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Providing a web-based digital information management system of information for scientists and the public, including a system that supports the work of those officials who must make decisions that affect the state of the bay. The Tampa Bay Study is in its sixth year and will continue through September 2007. This paper presents a non-inclusive summary of key findings associated with the six primary project components listed above. Component 4 (above) is described in detail in the following chapter 13. More information on the Tampa Bay Study is available from our on-line digital information system for the Tampa Bay Study at http://gulfsci.usgs.gov.

  15. Calibration and simulation of ASM2d at different temperatures in a phosphorus removal pilot plant.

    PubMed

    García-Usach, F; Ferrer, J; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

    2006-01-01

    In this work, an organic and nutrient removal pilot plant was used to study the temperature influence on phosphorus accumulating organisms. Three experiments were carried out at 13, 20 and 24.5 degrees C, achieving a high phosphorus removal percentage in all cases. The ASM2d model was calibrated at 13 and 20 degrees C and the Arrhenius equation constant was obtained for phosphorus removal processes showing that the temperature influences on the biological phosphorus removal subprocesses in a different degree. The 24.5 degrees C experiment was simulated using the model parameters obtained by means of the Arrhenius equation. The simulation results for the three experiments showed good correspondence with the experimental data, demonstrating that the model and the calibrated parameters were able to predict the pilot plant behaviour.

  16. 14 CFR 91.1089 - Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1089 Qualifications: Check pilots... satisfactorily completed the proficiency or competency checks that are required to serve as a pilot in command in... appropriate proficiency or competency checks that are required to serve as a pilot in command in...

  17. Piloted Simulation of a Model-Predictive Automated Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, James (Yuan); Litt, Jonathan; Sowers, T. Shane; Owens, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes a model-predictive automatic recovery system for aircraft on the verge of a loss-of-control situation. The system determines when it must intervene to prevent an imminent accident, resulting from a poor approach. It estimates the altitude loss that would result from a go-around maneuver at the current flight condition. If the loss is projected to violate a minimum altitude threshold, the maneuver is automatically triggered. The system deactivates to allow landing once several criteria are met. Piloted flight simulator evaluation showed the system to provide effective envelope protection during extremely unsafe landing attempts. The results demonstrate how flight and propulsion control can be integrated to recover control of the vehicle automatically and prevent a potential catastrophe.

  18. Learner Intonation -- A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Nancy

    This study is concerned with problems in language learners' intonation of English. Ten intonation problems were found in the learner speech of two adult Spanish-speaking males: (1) range of pitch, (2) initial rise, (3) final fall, (4) rise to final stressed syllable, (5) placement of prominence, (6) final rise for questions, (7) total question…

  19. Effects of helicopter noise and vibration on pilot performance (as measured in a fixed-base flight simulator)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stave, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of noise and vibration on pilot performance are described. Pilot subjects were required to fly VTOL commercial IFR schedules using the computer simulation facilities. The routes flown simulated closely metropolitan routes flown currently by a helicopter airline. The duration of simulator flights ranged from 3 to 8 hours. Subjects were exposed to noise sound pressure levels ranging from 74dB (ambient) to 100dB and 17 Hz vibration stimuli ranging from .1 g to .3 g measured at the floor directly beneath the pilot's seat. Despite subject reports of extreme fatigue in these long flights, performance did not degrade. A curve of performance shows a slow improvement for the first three hours of exposure and a slight loss in performance during the remainder of the flight. As environmental stress conditions (noise, vibration, and time in the simulator) increased, subject performance improved. Within the limits of this study, the higher the stress the better the performance.

  20. Ear identification: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, Roberto; DeAngelis, Danilo; Ferrante, Luigi

    2011-07-01

    Although several papers have recently been devoted to establishing the validity of identification using the ear, this part of the human body still remains underexploited in forensic science. The perfect overlap of two images of the same ear is not really possible, but photographs of the ears as a reliable means of inferring the identity of an individual are poorly treated in the literature. In this study, we illustrate a simple, reproducible method, which divides the photograph of an ear into four parts-helix, antihelix, concha, and lobe-by means of a suitable grid of four straight lines. Although the division does not follow exact anatomical features, their edges do join anatomical points which are more easily identifiable. Measurement of certain areas of these parts can be combined to produce a code allowing personal identification. This method produces false-positive identifications of <0.2%. Last, the repeatability and reproducibility aspects of the method are tested.

  1. Evaluation of the pseudo pilot effect on baseline controller study data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomb, Linda C.

    1988-01-01

    The Baseline Controller Study requires the support of pseudo pilots who input computer commands in response to air data in a simulated environment. Errors committed either by pseudo pilots, or by the computer's failure to accept commands, can result in data that is not representative of controller capabilities. Therefore, it became necessary to evaluate the actions of the pseudo pilots and determine what effect, if any, those actions had upon a given set of baseline data. The Pseudo Pilot Stations (PPS) associated with the Baseline Controller Study are user unfriendly. This fact, coupled with the human factor of the pilots themselves, required exploration of the degree the pseudo pilot's actions affected the subject air traffic controller actions during the collection of baseline data. Examination of the preliminary data collected by the Basline Controller Study subjectively determined that pseudo pilot actions do, indeed, affect the the research data. Further study is needed to quantify that affect and, perhaps, assign a value to the pseudo pilot factor rather than merely decide which simulations are valid and which are not.

  2. The effects of motion and g-seat cues on pilot simulator performance of three piloting tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Showalter, T. W.; Parris, B. L.

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented that show the effects of motion system cues, g-seat cues, and pilot experience on pilot performance during takeoffs with engine failures, during in-flight precision turns, and during landings with wind shear. Eight groups of USAF pilots flew a simulated KC-135 using four different cueing systems. The basic cueing system was a fixed-base type (no-motion cueing) with visual cueing. The other three systems were produced by the presence of either a motion system or a g-seat, or both. Extensive statistical analysis of the data was performed and representative performance means were examined. These data show that the addition of motion system cueing results in significant improvement in pilot performance for all three tasks; however, the use of g-seat cueing, either alone or in conjunction with the motion system, provides little if any performance improvement for these tasks and for this aircraft type.

  3. Comparison of flying qualities derived from in-flight and ground-based simulators for a jet-transport airplane for the approach and landing pilot tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective was to provide information to the flight controls/flying qualities engineer that will assist him in determining the incremental flying qualities and/or pilot-performance differences that may be expected between results obtained via ground-based simulation (and, in particular, the six-degree-of-freedom Langley Visual/Motion Simulator (VMS)) and flight tests. Pilot opinion and performance parameters derived from a ground-based simulator and an in-flight simulator are compared for a jet-transport airplane having 32 different longitudinal dynamic response characteristics. The primary pilot tasks were the approach and landing tasks with emphasis on the landing-flare task. The results indicate that, in general, flying qualities results obtained from the ground-based simulator may be considered conservative-especially when the pilot task requires tight pilot control as during the landing flare. The one exception to this, according to the present study, was that the pilots were more tolerant of large time delays in the airplane response on the ground-based simulator. The results also indicated that the ground-based simulator (particularly the Langley VMS) is not adequate for assessing pilot/vehicle performance capabilities (i.e., the sink rate performance for the landing-flare task when the pilot has little depth/height perception from the outside scene presentation).

  4. Simulation of Controller Pilot Data Link Communications over VHF Digital Link Mode 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretmersky, Steven C.; Murawski, Robert; Nguyen, Thanh C.; Raghavan, Rajesh S.

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has established an operational plan for the future Air Traffic Management (ATM) system, in which the Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) is envisioned to evolve into digital messaging that will take on an ever increasing role in controller to pilot communications, significantly changing the way the National Airspace System (NAS) is operating. According to FAA, CPDLC represents the first phase of the transition from the current analog voice system to an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) compliant system in which digital communication becomes the alternate and perhaps primary method of routine communication. The CPDLC application is an Air Traffic Service (ATS) application in which pilots and controllers exchange messages via an addressed data link. CPDLC includes a set of clearance, information, and request message elements that correspond to existing phraseology employed by current Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. These message elements encompass altitude assignments, crossing constraints, lateral deviations, route changes and clearances, speed assignments, radio frequency assignments, and various requests for information. The pilot is provided with the capability to respond to messages, to request clearances and information, to report information, and to declare/rescind an emergency. A 'free text' capability is also provided to exchange information not conforming to defined formats. This paper presents simulated results of the aeronautical telecommunication application Controller Pilot Data Link Communications over VHF Digital Link Mode 3 (VDL Mode 3). The objective of this simulation study was to determine the impact of CPDLC traffic loads, in terms of timely message delivery and capacity of the VDL Mode 3 subnetwork. The traffic model is based on and is used for generating air/ground messages with different priorities. Communication is modeled for the en route domain of the Cleveland

  5. Life and Microgravity Sciences Spacelab Mission: Human Research Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B. (Editor); Walker, Karen R. (Editor); Hargens, Alan (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Life Sciences, Microgravity Science and Spacelab Mission contains a number of human experiments directed toward identifying the functional, metabolic and neurological characteristics of muscle weakness and atrophy during space flight. To ensure the successful completion of the flight experiments, a ground-based pilot study, designed to mimic the flight protocols as closely as possible, was carried out in the head-down tilt bed rest model. This report records the rationales, procedures, preliminary results and estimated value of the pilot study, the first of its kind, for 12 of the 13 planned experiments in human research. The bed rest study was conducted in the Human Research Facility at Ames Research Center from July 11 - August 28, 1995. Eight healthy male volunteers performed the experiments before, during and after 17 days bed rest. The immediate purposes of this simulation were to integrate the experiments, provide data in a large enough sample for publication of results, enable investigators to review individual experiments in the framework of a multi-disciplinary study and relay the experience of the pilot study to the mission specialists prior to launch.

  6. Assessment of simulation fidelity using measurements of piloting technique in flight. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, S. W.; Clement, W. F.; Hoh, R. H.; Cleveland, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    Two components of the Vertical Motion Simulator (presently being used to assess the fidelity of UH-60A simulation) are evaluated: (1) the dash/quickstop Nap-of-the-earth (NOE) piloting task, and (2) the bop-up task. Data from these two flight test experiments are presented which provide information on the effect of reduced visual field of view, variation in scene content and texture, and the affect of pure time delay in the closed-loop pilot response. In comparison with task performance results obtained in flight tests, the results from the simulation indicate that the pilot's NOE task performance in the simulator is significantly degraded.

  7. Mechanical compaction of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, B.M. ); Thompson, T.W.; VanBuskirk, R.G.; Patti, N.C. )

    1991-06-01

    The investigation described in this report acquired experimental information about how materials simulating transuranic (TRU) waste compact under axial compressive stress, and used these data to define a model for use in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal room analyses. The first step was to determine compaction curves for various simultant materials characteristic of TRU waste. Stress-volume compaction curves for various combinations of these materials were than derived to represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories. Prediction of compaction response in this manner is considered essential for the WIPP program because of the difficulties inherent in working with real (radioactive) waste. Next, full-sized 55-gallon drums of simulated combustible, metallic, and sludge waste were axially compacted. These results provided data that can be directly applied to room consolidation and data for comparison with the predictions obtained in Part 1 of the investigation. Compaction curves, which represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories, were determined, and a curve for the averaged waste inventory of the entire repository was derived. 9 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Pilot Study of the Effects of Simulated Turbine Passage Pressure on Juvenile Chinook Salmon Acclimated with Access to Air at Absolute Pressures Greater than Atmospheric

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2005-04-28

    The impacts of pressure on juvenile salmon who pass through the turbines of hydroelectric dams while migrating downstream on the Columbia and Snake rivers has not been well understood, especially as these impacts relate to injury to the fish's swim bladder. The laboratory studies described here were conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Army Corps of Engineers Portland District at PNNL's fisheries research laboratories in 2004 to investigate the impacts of simulated turbine passage pressure on fish permitted to achieve neutral buoyancy at pressures corresponding to depths at which they are typically observed during downstream migration. Two sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon were tested, 80-100mm and 125-145mm total length. Test fish were acclimated for 22 to 24 hours in hyperbaric chambers at pressures simulating depths of 15, 30, or 60 ft, with access to a large air bubble. High rates of deflated swim bladders and mortality were observed. Our results while in conclusive show that juvenile salmon are capable of drawing additional air into their swimbladder to compensate for the excess mass of implanted telemetry devices. However they may pay a price in terms of increased susceptibility to injury, predation, and death for this additional air.

  9. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A pilot study of a spaceborne sidelooking radar is summarized. The results of the system trade studies are given along with the electrical parameters for the proposed subsystems. The mechanical aspects, packaging, thermal control and dynamics of the proposed design are presented. Details of the data processor are given. A system is described that allows the data from a pass over the U. S. to be in hard copy form within two hours. Also included are the proposed schedule, work breakdown structure, and cost estimate.

  10. Study of the use of a nonlinear, rate limited, filter on pilot control signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of a filter on the pilot's control output could improve the performance of the pilot-aircraft system. What is needed is a filter with a sharp high frequency cut-off, no resonance peak, and a minimum of lag at low frequencies. The present investigation studies the usefulness of a nonlinear, rate limited, filter in performing the needed function. The nonlinear filter is compared with a linear, first order filter, and no filter. An analytical study using pilot models and a simulation study using experienced test pilots was performed. The results showed that the nonlinear filter does promote quick, steady maneuvering. It is shown that the nonlinear filter attenuates the high frequency remnant and adds less phase lag to the low frequency signal than does the linear filter. It is also shown that the rate limit in the nonlinear filter can be set to be too restrictive, causing an unstable pilot-aircraft system response.

  11. Piloted Simulation Assessment of the Impact of Flexible Structures on Handling Qualities of Generic Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringer, Mary T.; Cowen, Brandon; Hoffler, Keith D.; Couch, Jesse C.; Ogburn, Marilyn E.; Diebler, Corey G.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center Cockpit Motion Facility (CMF) was used to conduct a piloted simulation assessment of the impact of flexible structures on flying qualities. The CMF was used because of its relatively high bandwidth, six degree-of-freedom motion capability. Previous studies assessed and attempted to mitigate the effects of multiple dynamic aeroservoelastic modes (DASE). Those results indicated problems existed, but the specific cause and effect was difficult to ascertain. The goal of this study was to identify specific DASE frequencies, damping ratios, and gains that cause degradation in handling qualities. A generic aircraft simulation was developed and designed to have Cooper-Harper Level 1 handling qualities when flown without DASE models. A test matrix of thirty-six DASE modes was implemented. The modes had frequencies ranging from 1 to 3.5 Hz and were applied to each axis independently. Each mode consisted of a single axis, frequency, damping, and gain, and was evaluated individually by six subject pilots with test pilot backgrounds. Analysis completed to date suggests that a number of the DASE models evaluated degrade the handling qualities of this class of aircraft to an uncontrollable condition.

  12. NORTHWEST ORGEON PILOT STUDY AREA (USA): THE USE OF LANDSCAPE SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northwest Oregon Pilot Study Area encompasses approximately 59,167 km2 and varies in elevation from sea level to 3,200 m. Annual precipitation varies with elevation and meridian and ranges from 25 - 460cm. The study area comprises a mixture of federal, state, and privately ow...

  13. PILOT STUDY: CCQM-P13 pilot study. Metals in artificial food digest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff Briche, C. S. J.

    2003-01-01

    The accuracy of elemental analyses in complex matrices is usually assessed by analysis of a suitable matrix reference material. The reference value is ascribed by consensus mean and by application of primary methods of analysis. However, the quality of this value will be affected by problems such as matrix-induced interferences, moisture corrections and heterogeneity. Pilot study CCQM-P13 was undertaken to assess the capabilities of National Metrology Institutes to analyse Ca, Cu and Cd in an acidic solution that simulates the digest of a food sample. This study filled the gap between the analysis of a gravimetrically prepared calibration solution and the analysis of an unknown in a complex matrix requiring extensive sample preparation. Having an independent reference value, with a small uncertainty, allowed a more rigorous estimation of the reliability of the institutes' analysis and uncertainty estimates, without including issues around sample digestion. The reference values were: 1.6617 +/- 0.0020 µmol/g for Ca, 7.037 +/- 0.012 nmol/g for Cu and 45.57 +/- 0.10 pmol/g for Cd (expanded uncertainties are quoted with coverage factor of 2). The other elements in the matrix were: Na (~25 µg/g), K (~90 µg/g), Cl (~120 µg/g), Fe (~100 ng/g), Mg (~5 µg/g), P (~5 µg/g), Sn (~80 ng/g) and Zn (~200 ng/g). Twelve international laboratories, representing eight countries, determined the amount content of the analytes. A range of techniques that include ID-ICP-MS (high resolution and collision cell), ICP-MS, ICP-OES, AAS, voltametry and potentiometry were used. The results for this pilot study averaged: 1.654 +/- 0.058 µmol/g for Ca (n = 10), 7.26 +/- 0.53 nmol/g for Cu (n = 12) and 45.2 +/- 5.1 pmol/g for Cd (n = 11) where the values associated with the averages are the standard deviations of n participants. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database

  14. Exfiltration from gravity sewers: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Vollertsen, J; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T

    2003-01-01

    Pilot-scale experiments were conducted on exfiltration of wastewater from gravity sewers. The effect of storm events, flushing of pipes and alternating infiltration/exfiltration were simulated. Exfiltration through different types of sewer leaks and into different soils were studied. It was found that the exfiltration rate became constant after some days of exfiltration. It stayed constant for the duration of the experiments, which typically spanned over some weeks. The exfiltration was governed by the development of a clogging zone at the sewer leak and could be characterized by a leakage factor. The leakage factor may then be used to estimate the risk of groundwater pollution from a sewer network.

  15. Nursing Students' Clinical Experience With Death: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Heise, Barbara A; Gilpin, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    Although debriefing in simulation settings is routine in nursing education, debriefing does not routinely take place in clinical settings with nursing students after a patient has died. This pilot study sought to explore nursing students' perceptions of their first experience with the death of a patient. Students reported emotional distress and feelings of inadequacy with regard to communicating with and supporting the family of the dying patient. Only half the students sampled reported debriefing by their clinical instructor or staff. Nurse educators must include debriefing and student support following a patient death in the clinical setting. PMID:27209870

  16. Effects of visual and motion simulation cueing systems on pilot performance during takeoffs with engine failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parris, B. L.; Cook, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    Data are presented that show the effects of visual and motion during cueing on pilot performance during takeoffs with engine failures. Four groups of USAF pilots flew a simulated KC-135 using four different cueing systems. The most basic of these systems was of the instrument-only type. Visual scene simulation and/or motion simulation was added to produce the other systems. Learning curves, mean performance, and subjective data are examined. The results show that the addition of visual cueing results in significant improvement in pilot performance, but the combined use of visual and motion cueing results in far better performance.

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Simulation-Based Teaching versus Traditional Instruction in Medicine: A Pilot Study among Clinical Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, James A.; Shaffer, David W.; Raemer, Daniel B.; Pawlowski, John; Hurford, William E.; Cooper, Jeffrey B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare simulator-based teaching with traditional instruction among clinical medical students. Methods: Randomized controlled trial with written pre-post testing. Third-year medical students (n = 38) received either a myocardial infarction (MI) simulation followed by a reactive airways disease (RAD) lecture, or a RAD simulation…

  18. Can Verbalisers Learn as well as Visualisers in Simulation-Based CAL with Predominantly Visual Representations? Preliminary Evidence from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tzu-Chien; Kinshuk; Lin, Yi-Chun; Wang, Ssu-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Simulation-based computer-assisted learning (CAL) is emerging as new technologies are finding a place in mainstream education. Dynamically linked multiple representations (DLMRs) is at the core of simulation-based CAL. DLMRs includes multiple visual representations, and it enables students to manipulate one representation and to immediately…

  19. Assessment of simulation fidelity using measurements of piloting technique in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, W. F.; Cleveland, W. B.; Key, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Army and NASA joined together on a project to conduct a systematic investigation and validation of a ground based piloted simulation of the Army/Sikorsky UH-60A helicopter. Flight testing was an integral part of the validation effort. Nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) piloting tasks which were investigated included the bob-up, the hover turn, the dash/quickstop, the sidestep, the dolphin, and the slalom. Results from the simulation indicate that the pilot's NOE task performance in the simulator is noticeably and quantifiably degraded when compared with the task performance results generated in flight test. The results of the flight test and ground based simulation experiments support a unique rationale for the assessment of simulation fidelity: flight simulation fidelity should be judged quantitatively by measuring pilot's control strategy and technique as induced by the simulator. A quantitative comparison is offered between the piloting technique observed in a flight simulator and that observed in flight test for the same tasks performed by the same pilots.

  20. Pilot simulation study using meat inspection data for syndromic surveillance: use of whole carcass condemnation of adult cattle to assess the performance of several algorithms for outbreak detection.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, C; Morignat, E; Dorea, F; Ducrot, C; Calavas, D; Gay, E

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the performance of several algorithms for outbreak detection based on weekly proportions of whole carcass condemnations. Data from one French slaughterhouse over the 2005-2009 period were used (177 098 slaughtered cattle, 0.97% of whole carcass condemnations). The method involved three steps: (i) preparation of an outbreak-free historical baseline over 5 years, (ii) simulation of over 100 years of baseline time series with injection of artificial outbreak signals with several shapes, durations and magnitudes, and (iii) assessment of the performance (sensitivity, specificity, outbreak detection precocity) of several algorithms to detect these artificial outbreak signals. The algorithms tested included the Shewart p chart, confidence interval of the negative binomial model, the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA); and cumulative sum (CUSUM). The highest sensitivity was obtained using a negative binomial algorithm and the highest specificity with CUSUM or EWMA. EWMA sensitivity was too low to select this algorithm for efficient outbreak detection. CUSUM's performance was complementary to the negative binomial algorithm. The use of both algorithms on real data for a prospective investigation of the whole carcass condemnation rate as a syndromic surveillance indicator could be relevant. Shewart could also be a good option considering its high sensitivity and simplicity of implementation.

  1. PFLOTRAN Simulation of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Single Waste Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H.; Hammond, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the deep geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. WIPP performance assessment (PA) calculations estimate the probability and consequence of potential radionuclide releases from the repository to the accessible environment arising from events and processes that could occur over the 10,000 year regulatory period. The conceptual model estimates three possible cases and the combinations of these cases: 1) undisturbed condition of the repository, 2) human borehole intrusion condition that penetrates the repository, and 3) human borehole intrusion that penetrates pressurized brine underlying the repository. To date, WIPP PA calculations have employed multiple two-dimensional (2D) numerical models requiring simplification of the mesh and processes including homogenization of materials and regions while maintaining volume aspect ratio. Introducing three-dimensional (3D) numerical models within WIPP PA enables increasingly realistic representations of the WIPP subsurface domain and improved flexibility for incorporating relevant features. PFLOTRAN is a state-of-art massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport code that will be implemented to enhance PA with more physically realistic 3D flow and transport models; eliminating the need for multiple related, but decoupled 2D models. This paper demonstrates PFLOTRAN simulation of a single waste panel of the WIPP undisturbed condition in 3D. The simulation also employs newly implemented WIPP specific functionalities to PFLOTRAN: 1) gas generation from the wastes, 2) creep closure of bedded salt formation, 3) fractures of marker beds near the excavation, 4) Klinkenberg effect on gas permeability in low-permeable materials, and 5) Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state for gas density.

  2. The Virtual Flier: The Link Trainer, Flight Simulation, and Pilot Identity.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Chihyung

    2015-01-01

    The Link Trainer is often described as the first successful attempt at what we now recognize as flight simulation and even virtual reality. Instead of asking how well the device simulated flight conditions, this article shows that what the Link Trainer simulated was not the conditions of the air, but rather the conditions of the cockpit that was gradually filled with flight instruments. The article also considers the Link Trainer as a cultural space in which shifting ideas about what it meant to be a pilot were manifested. A pilot in the Link Trainer was trained into a new category of flier-the virtual flier-who was an avid reader of instruments and an attentive listener to signals. This article suggests that, by situating the pilot within new spaces, protocols, and relationships, technologies of simulation have constituted the identity of the modern pilot and other operators of machines.

  3. The Virtual Flier: The Link Trainer, Flight Simulation, and Pilot Identity.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Chihyung

    2015-01-01

    The Link Trainer is often described as the first successful attempt at what we now recognize as flight simulation and even virtual reality. Instead of asking how well the device simulated flight conditions, this article shows that what the Link Trainer simulated was not the conditions of the air, but rather the conditions of the cockpit that was gradually filled with flight instruments. The article also considers the Link Trainer as a cultural space in which shifting ideas about what it meant to be a pilot were manifested. A pilot in the Link Trainer was trained into a new category of flier-the virtual flier-who was an avid reader of instruments and an attentive listener to signals. This article suggests that, by situating the pilot within new spaces, protocols, and relationships, technologies of simulation have constituted the identity of the modern pilot and other operators of machines. PMID:26334696

  4. A piloted simulation of the backup control system engagement for the YAH-64

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanken, C. L.; Aiken, E. W.; Merrill, R. K.; Ross, V. L.

    1981-01-01

    A piloted simulator experiment, designed to evaluate and optimize certain backup control system (BUCS) engagement parameters and to provide pilot familiarization with aircraft response prior to flight test of the BUCS in the YAH-64 Advanced Attack Helicopter, is described. Key elements of the simulation were the representation of a control system jam, the pilot's breaking of a shear pin in the jammed control, and the resultant BUCS engagement. To minimize the excursions in aircraft motion which could result from the pilot's control inputs after shear pin breakage, the BUCS control function is blended in gradually. The experiment's results indicate that optimum time to full control authority after shear pin breakage is three seconds in all axes for certain critical tasks. Special pilot training in the recovery from a control system jam may be necessary to minimize unacceptably large aircraft transients in the off-axis.

  5. T-4G Simulator and T-4 Ground Training Devices in USAF Undergraduate Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Robert R.; Smith, James F.

    The objective of the project was to investigate the utility of using an A/F37A-T4G T-37 flight simulator within the context of Air Force undergraduate pilot training. Twenty-one subjects, selected from three undergraduate pilot training classes, were given contact flight training in a TP4G/EPT simulator before going to T-37 aircraft for further…

  6. DU-AGG pilot plant design study

    SciTech Connect

    Lessing, P.A.; Gillman, H.

    1996-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is developing new methods to produce high-density aggregate (artificial rock) primarily consisting of depleted uranium oxide. The objective is to develop a low-cost method whereby uranium oxide powder (UO[sub 2], U[sub 3]O[sub ]8, or UO[sub 3]) can be processed to produce high-density aggregate pieces (DU-AGG) having physical properties suitable for disposal in low-level radioactive disposal facilities or for use as a component of high-density concrete used as shielding for radioactive materials. A commercial company, G-M Systems, conducted a design study for a manufacturing pilot plant to process DU-AGG. The results of that study are included and summarized in this report. Also explained are design considerations, equipment capacities, the equipment list, system operation, layout of equipment in the plant, cost estimates, and the proposed plan and schedule.

  7. Location Independent Professional Project: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, J.A.; Long, J.P.; Miller, M.M.

    1999-02-01

    This pilot study project explored the problem of providing access to the nomadic worker who desires to connect a computer through network access points at a number of different locations within the SNL/NM campus as well as outside the campus. The design and prototype development gathered knowledge that may allow a design to be developed that could be extended to a larger number of SNL/NM network drop boxes. The focus was to provide a capability for a worker to access the SNL IRN from a network drop box (e.g. in a conference room) as easily as when accessing the computer network from the office normally used by the worker. Additional study was done on new methods to authenticate the off campus worker, and protect and control access to data.

  8. Effect of caffeine on simulator flight performance in sleep-deprived military pilot students.

    PubMed

    Lohi, Jouni J; Huttunen, Kerttu H; Lahtinen, Taija M M; Kilpeläinen, Airi A; Muhli, Arto A; Leino, Tuomo K

    2007-09-01

    Caffeine has been suggested to act as a countermeasure against fatigue in military operations. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effect of caffeine on simulator flight performance was examined in 13 military pilots during 37 hours of sleep deprivation. Each subject performed a flight mission in simulator four times. The subjects received either a placebo (six subjects) or 200 mg of caffeine (seven subjects) 1 hour before the simulated flights. A moderate 200 mg intake of caffeine was associated with higher axillary temperatures, but it did not affect subjectively assessed sleepiness. Flight performance was similar in both groups during the four rounds flown under sleep deprivation. However, subjective evaluation of overall flight performance in the caffeine group tended to be too optimistic, indicating a potential flight safety problem. Based on our results, we do not recommend using caffeine pills in military flight operations.

  9. Effect of caffeine on simulator flight performance in sleep-deprived military pilot students.

    PubMed

    Lohi, Jouni J; Huttunen, Kerttu H; Lahtinen, Taija M M; Kilpeläinen, Airi A; Muhli, Arto A; Leino, Tuomo K

    2007-09-01

    Caffeine has been suggested to act as a countermeasure against fatigue in military operations. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effect of caffeine on simulator flight performance was examined in 13 military pilots during 37 hours of sleep deprivation. Each subject performed a flight mission in simulator four times. The subjects received either a placebo (six subjects) or 200 mg of caffeine (seven subjects) 1 hour before the simulated flights. A moderate 200 mg intake of caffeine was associated with higher axillary temperatures, but it did not affect subjectively assessed sleepiness. Flight performance was similar in both groups during the four rounds flown under sleep deprivation. However, subjective evaluation of overall flight performance in the caffeine group tended to be too optimistic, indicating a potential flight safety problem. Based on our results, we do not recommend using caffeine pills in military flight operations. PMID:17937364

  10. A mathematical model of a tilt-wing aircraft for piloted simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totah, Joseph J.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model of a tilt-wing aircraft that was used in a piloted, six-degree-of-freedom flight simulation application is described. Two types of control systems developed for the math model are discussed: a conventional, programmed-flap wing-tilt control system and a geared-flap wing-tilt control system. The primary objective was to develop the capability to study tilt-wing aircraft. Experienced Tilt-wing pilots subjectively evaluated the model using programmed-flap control to assess the quality of the simulation. The math model was then applied to study geared-flap control to investigate the possibility of eliminating the need for auxilary pitch-control devices (such as the horizontal tail rotor or tail jet used in earlier tilt-wing designs). This investigation was performed in the moving-base simulation environment, and the vehicle responses with programmed-flap and geared-flap control were compared. The results of the evaluation of the math model are discussed.

  11. A piloted simulation investigation of yaw dynamics requirements for turreted gun use in low-level helicopter air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Morris, Patrick M.; Williams, Jeffrey N.

    1988-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation study was conducted to investigate the handling qualities requirements for helicopter air-to-air combat using turreted guns in the near-terrain environment. The study used a version of the helicopter air combat system developed at NASA Ames Research Center for one-on-one air combat. The study focused on the potential trade-off between gun angular movement capability and required yaw axis response. Experimental variables included yaw axis response frequency and damping and the size of the gun-movement envelope. A helmet position and sighting system was used for pilot control of gun aim. Approximately 340 simulated air combat engagements were evaluated by pilots from the Army and industry. Results from the experiment indicate that a highly-damped, high frequency yaw response was desired for Level I handling qualities. Pilot preference for those characteristics became more pronounced as gun turret movement was restricted; however, a stable, slow-reacting platform could be used with a large turret envelope. Most pilots preferred to engage with the opponent near the own-ship centerline. Turret elevation restriction affected the engagement more than azimuth restrictions.

  12. Creating a Realistic Weather Environment for Motion-Based Piloted Flight Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.; Schaffner, Philip R.; Evans, Emory T.; Neece, Robert T.; Young, Steve D.

    2012-01-01

    A flight simulation environment is being enhanced to facilitate experiments that evaluate research prototypes of advanced onboard weather radar, hazard/integrity monitoring (HIM), and integrated alerting and notification (IAN) concepts in adverse weather conditions. The simulation environment uses weather data based on real weather events to support operational scenarios in a terminal area. A simulated atmospheric environment was realized by using numerical weather data sets. These were produced from the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model hosted and run by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To align with the planned flight simulation experiment requirements, several HRRR data sets were acquired courtesy of NOAA. These data sets coincided with severe weather events at the Memphis International Airport (MEM) in Memphis, TN. In addition, representative flight tracks for approaches and departures at MEM were generated and used to develop and test simulations of (1) what onboard sensors such as the weather radar would observe; (2) what datalinks of weather information would provide; and (3) what atmospheric conditions the aircraft would experience (e.g. turbulence, winds, and icing). The simulation includes a weather radar display that provides weather and turbulence modes, derived from the modeled weather along the flight track. The radar capabilities and the pilots controls simulate current-generation commercial weather radar systems. Appropriate data-linked weather advisories (e.g., SIGMET) were derived from the HRRR weather models and provided to the pilot consistent with NextGen concepts of use for Aeronautical Information Service (AIS) and Meteorological (MET) data link products. The net result of this simulation development was the creation of an environment that supports investigations of new flight deck information systems, methods for incorporation of better weather information, and pilot interface and operational improvements

  13. [Pilot study on compulsory vaccination coverage].

    PubMed

    Grandolfo, M E; Lauria, L; Medda, E; Bucciarelli, M; Andreozzi, S; Salinetti, S; Sitzia, G; Bernacchia, R

    1999-01-01

    The disappearance of diphtheria and poliomyelitis is the best evidence of the efficacy of the vaccination strategies adopted in Italy. The active offer of the prophylaxis, reinforced by law, has characterised the operational aspects of the strategy. The active surveillance system is the main tool to take under control the effectiveness of health services responsible for vaccination. This system could be more easily implemented if the health services will be given a specific software aiming to handle and evaluate vaccination registers. The present pilot study, performed in the regions Marche and Sardegna, is an example of active surveillance and it is based on the ARVA software produced by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. The results show a good level of coverage (> 95%) within the second year of life. Unsatisfactory results were obtained on the timing of vaccinations, as recommended by the vaccination schedule, mostly for the third doses.

  14. School Nurses' Support for Bereaved Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohan, Janet A.

    2006-01-01

    Children may have difficulty with schoolwork because of grief over the death of an important person in their lives. School nurses provide support to these children. This pilot study consisted of a Web-based survey completed by 6 school nurses in a 3-county area in Washington state. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the need for…

  15. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHODS DEVELOPMENT PILOTS FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are needed to link exposure with health effects. EPA began methods development pilot studies in 2000 to address general questions about exposures and outcome measures. Selected pilot studies are highlighted in this poster. The “Literature Re...

  16. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  17. Impact of a web based interactive simulation game (PULSE) on nursing students' experience and performance in life support training--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cook, Neal F; McAloon, Toni; O'Neill, Philip; Beggs, Richard

    2012-08-01

    The delivery of effective life support measures is highly associated with the quality, design and implementation of the education that underpins it. Effectively responding to a critical event is a requirement for all nurses illustrating the need for effective educational approaches from pre-registration training through to enhancing and maintaining life support skills after qualification. This paper reports the findings of utilising a web-based multimedia simulation game PULSE (Platform for Undergraduate Life Support Education). The platform was developed to enhance the student experience of life support education, to motivate on-going learning and engagement and to improve psychomotor skills associated with the provision of Intermediate Life Support (ILS) training. Pre training participants played PULSE and during life support training data was collected from an intervention and a control group of final year undergraduate nursing students (N=34). Quantitative analysis of performance took place and qualitative data was generated from a questionnaire assessing the learning experience. A statistically significant difference was found between the competence the groups displayed in the three skills sets of checking equipment, airway assessment and the safe/effective use of defibrillator at ILS level, and PULSE was positively evaluated as an educational tool when used alongside traditional life support training.

  18. Pilot Program Using Medical Simulation in Clinical Decision-Making Training for Internal Medicine Interns

    PubMed Central

    Miloslavsky, Eli M.; Hayden, Emily M.; Currier, Paul F.; Mathai, Susan K.; Contreras-Valdes, Fernando; Gordon, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of high-fidelity medical simulation in cognitive skills training within internal medicine residency programs remains largely unexplored. Objective To design a pilot study to introduce clinical decision-making training using simulation into a large internal medicine residency program, explore the practicability of using junior and senior residents as facilitators, and examine the feasibility of using the program to improve interns' clinical skills. Methods Interns on outpatient rotations participated in a simulation curriculum on a voluntary basis. The curriculum consisted of 8 cases focusing on acute clinical scenarios encountered on the wards. One-hour sessions were offered twice monthly from August 2010 to February 2011. Internal medicine residents and simulation faculty served as facilitators. Results A total of 36 of 75 total interns volunteered to participate in the program, with 42% attending multiple sessions. Of all participants, 88% rated the sessions as “excellent,” 97% felt that the program improved their ability to function as an intern and generate a plan, and 81% reported improvement in differential diagnosis skills. Conclusions Simulation training was well received by the learners and improved self-reported clinical skills. Using residents as facilitators, supervised by faculty, was well received by the learners and enabled the implementation of the curriculum in a large training program. Simulation can provide opportunities for deliberate practice, and learners perceive this modality to be effective. PMID:24294427

  19. Computer simulation of multiple pilots flying a modern high performance helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipf, Mark E.; Vogt, William G.; Mickle, Marlin H.; Hoelzeman, Ronald G.; Kai, Fei; Mihaloew, James R.

    1988-01-01

    A computer simulation of a human response pilot mechanism within the flight control loop of a high-performance modern helicopter is presented. A human response mechanism, implemented by a low order, linear transfer function, is used in a decoupled single variable configuration that exploits the dominant vehicle characteristics by associating cockpit controls and instrumentation with specific vehicle dynamics. Low order helicopter models obtained from evaluations of the time and frequency domain responses of a nonlinear simulation model, provided by NASA Lewis Research Center, are presented and considered in the discussion of the pilot development. Pilot responses and reactions to test maneuvers are presented and discussed. Higher level implementation, using the pilot mechanisms, are discussed and considered for their use in a comprehensive control structure.

  20. Pilot performance during a simulated standard instrument procedure turn with and without a predictor display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Wempe, T.

    1973-01-01

    A simulator study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of predictor information incorporated into a CRT display of a computer simulated aircraft's horizontal and vertical situation. Professional pilots served as subjects for the task of executing a standard instrument procedure turn at constant altitude in constant crosswinds with and without their predicted ground track displayed. The results showed that the display with the predicted ground track was markedly and significantly superior to the display without this information and that the subjects were generally satisfied with this type of information. Mean rms lateral path error was independent of the crosswind velocity with the predictor information, and increased without it and with increasing wind velocity. Rms stick activity decreased with the predictor display which also uncoupled aileron and elevator activity.

  1. Assessment of simulation fidelity using measurements of piloting technique in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, S. W.; Clement, W. F.; Cleveland, W. B.; Key, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Army and NASA have undertaken the systematic validation of a ground-based piloted simulator for the UH-60A helicopter. The results of previous handling quality and task performance flight tests for this helicopter have been used as a data base for evaluating the fidelity of the present simulation, which is being conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center's Vertical Motion Simulator. Such nap-of-the-earth piloting tasks as pop-up, hover turn, dash/quick stop, sidestep, dolphin, and slalom, have been investigated. It is noted that pilot simulator performance is significantly and quantifiable degraded by comparison with flight test results for the same tasks.

  2. The Effect of a Non-Simulation Game on College Students' Ability to Identify Selected Persuasion Techniques Employed in the Advertising of Health Products: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeakle, Myrna Anne

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of "The Propaganda Game" in teaching selected persuasion techniques which may be used in the advertising of health products or services. The sample included 224 students in an introductory personal health course at Eastern Michigan University. The subjects were randomly…

  3. Advanced Simulation in Undergraduate Pilot Training: Automatic Instructional System. Final Report for the Period March 1971-January 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faconti, Victor; Epps, Robert

    The Advanced Simulator for Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT) was designed to investigate the role of simulation in the future Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT) program. The Automated Instructional System designed for the ASUPT simulator was described in this report. The development of the Automated Instructional System for ASUPT was based upon…

  4. Pickup of visual information by the pilot during a ground control approach in a fighter aircraft simulator.

    PubMed

    Papin, J P; Naureils, P; Santucci, G

    1980-05-01

    Before providing the new single-seat fighter aircraft with selective visual information display systems, it is necessary to conduct new studies of the visual behavior of pilots flying these aircraft in order to determine the nature of information to be displayed. The authors describe a modified NAC Eye Mark recorder which can be used in tight spaces without any interfering light source and given an example of its use in an experiment conducted in a Mirage III R training simulator. The reported experiment was designed to analyse the visual behavior of 12 pilots of four different qualification levels who flew a ground control approach (GCA) test each day for five consecutive days. The results show that the pilot's visual behavior is stable, both on an intra- and inter-individual basis. In addition, it is possible to classify the control panel instruments as a function of the number of times and length of time they are checked.

  5. An experimental study of human pilot's scanning behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washizu, K.; Tanaka, K.; Osawa, T.

    1982-01-01

    The scanning behavior and the control behavior of the pilot who manually controls the two-variable system, which is the most basic one of multi-variable systems are investigated. Two control tasks which simulate the actual airplane attitude and airspeed control were set up. In order to simulate the change of the situation where the pilot is placed, such as changes of flight phase, mission and others, the subject was requested to vary the weightings, as his control strategy, upon each task. Changes of human control dynamics and his canning properties caused by the modification of the situation were investigated. By making use of the experimental results, the optimal model of the control behavior and the scanning behavior of the pilot in the two-variable system is proposed from the standpoint of making the performance index minimal.

  6. Validation of the MUFITS reservoir simulator against standard industrial simulation tools for CO2 storage at the Ketzin pilot site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Andrey; Kempka, Thomas; Kühn, Michael; Melnik, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    We give an overview of the reservoir simulator MUFITS capabilities for modelling underground carbon dioxide storage using the EOS-modules GASSTORE and BLACKOIL. The GASSTORE module covers three-phase solid-liquid-gas flows of water, carbon dioxide and salt components. The extended black-oil model is utilized in the BLACKOIL module, which can be applied in the CO2 storage scenarios to two-phase flows of CO2 and brine components. The modules allow comprehensive options including salt precipitation/dissolution, thermal processes, multiple properties regions, and complicated initial vertical equilibration. The PVT tables for the BLACKOIL module can be generated automatically from the GASSTORE module for a given reservoir temperature and brine salinity. We test the simulator against published benchmarking studies. We then consider an application case of CO2 storage at the Ketzin pilot site in Germany. For that purpose, we use a calibrated 3D geological reservoir model comprising a highly heterogeneous distribution of porosity and permeability in a fluvial geological setting. The simulation is conducted using the EOS-module BLACKOIL and the modelling results are in excellent agreement with the results of the industrial simulators applied in previous benchmarks. In particular, the bottom-hole pressure in the injection well, the total mass of dissolved CO2 and spatial CO2 distribution are identical with previously published results.

  7. Instructor and student pilots' subjective evaluation of a general aviation simulator with a terrain visual system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiteley, G. W.; Harris, R. L., Sr.

    1978-01-01

    Ten student pilots were given a 1 hour training session in the NASA Langley Research Center's General Aviation Simulator by a certified flight instructor and a follow-up flight evaluation was performed by the student's own flight instructor, who has also flown the simulator. The students and instructors generally felt that the simulator session had a positive effect on the students. They recommended that a simulator with a visual scene and a motion base would be useful in performing such maneuvers as: landing approaches, level flight, climbs, dives, turns, instrument work, and radio navigation, recommending that the simulator would be an efficient means of introducing the student to new maneuvers before doing them in flight. The students and instructors estimated that about 8 hours of simulator time could be profitably devoted to the private pilot training.

  8. 1999 ANNUAL REPORT NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This annual report present the proceedings of the second annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Belfast, UK in March 1999. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the research arena of clean products, clean processes, and pollution prevention tools.

  9. PILOT STUDY: CCQM-P32 pilot study. Anion calibration solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Michael; Wüthrich, Jürg

    2003-01-01

    In the CCQM-P32 pilot study two gravimetrically prepared anion calibration solutions of chloride and phosphate each of about 1 g/kg mass fraction were investigated. The comparison was an activity of the Inorganic Analysis Working Group of CCQM in 2002 and was piloted by the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA). The following institutes participated in this study (in alphabetical order): BAM (Germany), CENAM (Mexico), EMPA (Switzerland), GUM (Poland), KRISS (South Korea), LNE (France), NIST (United States of America), NMIJ (Japan), NRCCRM (China), PTB (Germany), SMU (Slovakia). For the chloride calibration solution 11 participants provided 16 results by the following analytical techniques: coulometry (7), titrimetry (5) and ion chromatography (4). The phosphate amount content was determined by 9 NMIs and 11 results were reported. Phosphate ion chromatography was the most applied technique (4), followed by titrimetry (2), ICP-OES (2), gravimetry (1) and ion-exchange coulometry (1). All results were found within a range of +/-0.5% with respect to the gravimetric value. The variability (RSD) of the results is 0.13% for chloride and 0.26% for phosphate. The reported results of all participants are also graphically displayed in this report. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM Working Group on Inorganic Analysis, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  10. Pilot-Induced Oscillation Prediction With Three Levels of Simulation Motion Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Jeffery A.; Chung, William W. Y.; Tran, Duc T.; Laforce, Soren; Bengford, Norman J.

    2001-01-01

    Simulator motion platform characteristics were examined to determine if the amount of motion affects pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) prediction. Five test pilots evaluated how susceptible 18 different sets of pitch dynamics were to PIOs with three different levels of simulation motion platform displacement: large, small, and none. The pitch dynamics were those of a previous in-flight experiment, some of which elicited PIOs These in-flight results served as truth data for the simulation. As such, the in-flight experiment was replicated as much as possible. Objective and subjective data were collected and analyzed With large motion, PIO and handling qualities ratings matched the flight data more closely than did small motion or no motion. Also, regardless of the aircraft dynamics, large motion increased pilot confidence in assigning handling qualifies ratings, reduced safety pilot trips, and lowered touchdown velocities. While both large and small motion provided a pitch rate cue of high fidelity, only large motion presented the pilot with a high fidelity vertical acceleration cue.

  11. Simulation verification techniques study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonmaker, P. B.; Wenglinski, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    Results are summarized of the simulation verification techniques study which consisted of two tasks: to develop techniques for simulator hardware checkout and to develop techniques for simulation performance verification (validation). The hardware verification task involved definition of simulation hardware (hardware units and integrated simulator configurations), survey of current hardware self-test techniques, and definition of hardware and software techniques for checkout of simulator subsystems. The performance verification task included definition of simulation performance parameters (and critical performance parameters), definition of methods for establishing standards of performance (sources of reference data or validation), and definition of methods for validating performance. Both major tasks included definition of verification software and assessment of verification data base impact. An annotated bibliography of all documents generated during this study is provided.

  12. Users guide: The LaRC human-operator-simulator-based pilot model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogart, E. H.; Waller, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    A Human Operator Simulator (HOS) based pilot model has been developed for use at NASA LaRC for analysis of flight management problems. The model is currently configured to simulate piloted flight of an advanced transport airplane. The generic HOS operator and machine model was originally developed under U.S. Navy sponsorship by Analytics, Inc. and through a contract with LaRC was configured to represent a pilot flying a transport airplane. A version of the HOS program runs in batch mode on LaRC's (60-bit-word) central computer system. This document provides a guide for using the program and describes in some detail the assortment of files used during its operation.

  13. Functional Allocation with Airborne Self-Separation Evaluated in a Piloted Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Chamberlain, James P.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Hoardley, Sherwood T.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Palmer, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation experiment was designed and conducted to evaluate an airborne self-separation concept. The activity supports the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) research focus on function allocation for separation assurance. The objectives of the experiment were twofold: (1) use experiment design features in common with a companion study of ground-based automated separation assurance to promote comparability, and (2) assess agility of self-separation operations in managing trajectory-changing events in high traffic density, en-route operations with arrival time constraints. This paper describes the experiment and presents initial results associated with subjective workload ratings and group discussion feedback obtained from the experiment s commercial transport pilot participants.

  14. A Pilot Opinion Study of Lateral Control Requirements for Fighter-Type Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creer, Brent Y.; Stewart, John D.; Merrick, Robert B.; Drinkwater, Fred J., III

    1959-01-01

    As part of a continuing NASA program of research on airplane handling qualities, a pilot opinion investigation has been made on the lateral control requirements of fighter aircraft flying in their combat speed range. The investigation was carried out using a stationary flight simulator and a moving flight simulator, and the flight simulator results were supplemented by research tests in actual flight. The flight simulator study was based on the presumption that the pilot rates the roll control of an airplane primarily on a single-degree-of-freedom basis; that is, control of angle of roll about the aircraft body axis being of first importance. From the assumption of a single degree of freedom system it follows that there are two fundamental parameters which govern the airplane roll response, namely the roll damping expressed as a time constant and roll control power in terms of roll acceleration. The simulator study resulted in a criterion in terms of these two parameters which defines satisfactory, unsatisfactory, and unacceptable roll performance from a pilot opinion standpoint. The moving simulator results were substantiated by the in-flight investigation. The derived criterion was compared with the roll performance criterion based upon wing tip helix angle and also with other roll performance concepts which currently influence the roll performance design of military fighter aircraft flying in their combat speed range.

  15. Near-real-time simulation and internet-based delivery of forecast-flood inundation maps using two-dimensional hydraulic modeling--A pilot study for the Snoqualmie River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joseph L.; Fulford, Janice M.; Voss, Frank D.

    2002-01-01

    interface programming should allow the technology developed in the pilot study to be applied to other river systems where NWS forecasts are provided routinely.

  16. Recommendations for planning pilot studies in clinical and translational research.

    PubMed

    Moore, Charity G; Carter, Rickey E; Nietert, Paul J; Stewart, Paul W

    2011-10-01

    Advances in clinical and translation science are facilitated by building on prior knowledge gained through experimentation and observation. In the context of drug development, preclinical studies are followed by a progression of phase I through phase IV clinical trials. At each step, the study design and statistical strategies are framed around research questions that are prerequisites for the next phase. In other types of biomedical research, pilot studies are used for gathering preliminary support for the next research step. However, the phrase "pilot study" is liberally applied to projects with little or no funding, characteristic of studies with poorly developed research proposals, and usually conducted with no detailed thought of the subsequent study. In this article, we present a rigorous definition of a pilot study, offer recommendations for the design, analysis and sample size justification of pilot studies in clinical and translational research, and emphasize the important role that well-designed pilot studies play in the advancement of science and scientific careers. PMID:22029804

  17. Ride qualities criteria validation/pilot performance study: Flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nardi, L. U.; Kawana, H. Y.; Greek, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Pilot performance during a terrain following flight was studied for ride quality criteria validation. Data from manual and automatic terrain following operations conducted during low level penetrations were analyzed to determine the effect of ride qualities on crew performance. The conditions analyzed included varying levels of turbulence, terrain roughness, and mission duration with a ride smoothing system on and off. Limited validation of the B-1 ride quality criteria and some of the first order interactions between ride qualities and pilot/vehicle performance are highlighted. An earlier B-1 flight simulation program correlated well with the flight test results.

  18. Differential activation of brain regions involved with error-feedback and imitation based motor simulation when observing self and an expert's actions in pilots and non-pilots on a complex glider landing task.

    PubMed

    Callan, Daniel E; Terzibas, Cengiz; Cassel, Daniel B; Callan, Akiko; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sato, Masa-Aki

    2013-05-15

    In this fMRI study we investigate neural processes related to the action observation network using a complex perceptual-motor task in pilots and non-pilots. The task involved landing a glider (using aileron, elevator, rudder, and dive brake) as close to a target as possible, passively observing a replay of one's own previous trial, passively observing a replay of an expert's trial, and a baseline do nothing condition. The objective of this study is to investigate two types of motor simulation processes used during observation of action: imitation based motor simulation and error-feedback based motor simulation. It has been proposed that the computational neurocircuitry of the cortex is well suited for unsupervised imitation based learning, whereas, the cerebellum is well suited for error-feedback based learning. Consistent with predictions, pilots (to a greater extent than non-pilots) showed significant differential activity when observing an expert landing the glider in brain regions involved with imitation based motor simulation (including premotor cortex PMC, inferior frontal gyrus IFG, anterior insula, parietal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, and middle temporal MT area) than when observing one's own previous trial which showed significant differential activity in the cerebellum (only for pilots) thought to be concerned with error-feedback based motor simulation. While there was some differential brain activity for pilots in regions involved with both Execution and Observation of the flying task (potential Mirror System sites including IFG, PMC, superior parietal lobule) the majority was adjacent to these areas (Observation Only Sites) (predominantly in PMC, IFG, and inferior parietal loblule). These regions showing greater activity for observation than for action may be involved with processes related to motor-based representational transforms that are not necessary when actually carrying out the task.

  19. Simulator sickness during driving simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Johnell O; Goodenough, Richard R; Crisler, Matthew C; Klein, Nathan D; Alley, Rebecca L; Koon, Beatrice L; Logan, William C; Ogle, Jennifer H; Tyrrell, Richard A; Wills, Rebekkah F

    2010-05-01

    While driving simulators are a valuable tool for assessing multiple dimensions of driving performance under relatively safe conditions, researchers and practitioners must be prepared for participants that suffer from simulator sickness. This paper describes multiple theories of motion sickness and presents a method for assessing and reacting to simulator sickness symptoms. Results showed that this method identified individuals who were unable to complete a driving simulator study due to simulator sickness with greater than 90% accuracy and that older participants had a greater likelihood of simulator sickness than younger participants. Possible explanations for increased symptoms experienced by older participants are discussed as well as implications for research ethics and simulator sickness prevention.

  20. THE EFFECT OF THERMAL ENVIRONMENT ON LEARNING, A PILOT STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PECCOLO, CHARLES

    THIS IS A REPORT OF A FIRST PILOT STUDY WHICH PRECEDES A SERIES OF STUDIES BEING CONDUCTED BY THE IOWA CENTER FOR RESEARCH IN SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION AND LENNOX INDUSTRIES INC., MARSHALLTOWN, IOWA. IT IS A DIGEST OF A THESIS BY DR. CHARLES PECCOLO WHO SERVED AS RESEARCHER ON THIS FIRST STUDY. THE STUDY AIMED AT MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF THERMAL…

  1. A piloted-simulation evaluation of two electronic display formats for approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinmetz, G. G.; Morello, S. A.; Knox, C. E.; Person, L. H., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a piloted-simulation evaluation of the benefits of adding runway symbology and track information to a baseline electronic-attitude-director-indicator (EADI) format for the approach-to-landing task were presented. The evaluation was conducted for the baseline format and for the baseline format with the added symbology during 3 deg straight-in approaches with calm, cross-wind, and turbulence conditions. Flight-path performance data and pilot subjective comments were examined with regard to the pilot's tracking performance and mental workload for both display formats. The results show that the addition of a perspective runway image and relative track information to a basic situation-information EADI format improve the tracking performance both laterally and vertically during an approach-to-landing task and that the mental workload required to assess the approach situation was thus reduced as a result of integration of information.

  2. [EEG-correlates of pilots' functional condition in simulated flight dynamics].

    PubMed

    Kiroy, V N; Aslanyan, E V; Bakhtin, O M; Minyaeva, N R; Lazurenko, D M

    2015-01-01

    The spectral characteristics of the EEG recorded on two professional pilots in the simulator TU-154 aircraft in flight dynamics, including takeoff, landing and horizontal flight (in particular during difficult conditions) were analyzed. EEG recording was made with frequency band 0.1-70 Hz continuously from 15 electrodes. The EEG recordings were evaluated using analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Statistical significant of the identified differences and the influence of the main factors and their interactions were evaluated using Greenhouse - Gaiser corrections. It was shown that the spectral characteristics of the EEG are highly informative features of the state of the pilots, reflecting the different flight phases. High validity ofthe differences including individual characteristic, indicates their non-random nature and the possibility of constructing a system of pilots' state control during all phases of flight, based on EEG features.

  3. Development and Utility of a Piloted Flight Simulator for Icing Effects Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Ranaudo, Richard J.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Dickes, Edward G.; Gingras, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A piloted flight simulator called the Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD), which uses low cost desktop components and a generic cockpit replication is being developed. The purpose of this device is to demonstrate the effectiveness of its use for training pilots to recognize and recover from aircraft handling anomalies that result from airframe ice formations. High-fidelity flight simulation models for various baseline (non-iced) and iced configurations were developed from wind tunnel tests of a subscale DeHavilland DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft model. These simulation models were validated with flight test data from the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft, which included the effects of ice on wing and tail stall characteristics. These simulation models are being implemented into an ICEFTD that will provide representative aircraft characteristics due to airframe icing. Scenario-based exercises are being constructed to give an operational-flavor to the simulation. Training pilots will learn to recognize iced aircraft characteristics from the baseline, and will practice and apply appropriate recovery procedures to a handling event.

  4. Automatic Generation of Test Oracles - From Pilot Studies to Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Smith, Ben

    1998-01-01

    There is a trend towards the increased use of automation in V&V. Automation can yield savings in time and effort. For critical systems, where thorough V&V is required, these savings can be substantial. We describe a progression from pilot studies to development and use of V&V automation. We used pilot studies to ascertain opportunities for, and suitability of, automating various analyses whose results would contribute to V&V. These studies culminated in the development of an automatic generator of automated test oracles. This was then applied and extended in the course of testing an Al planning system that is a key component of an autonomous spacecraft.

  5. Simulator Investigation of Pilot Aids for Helicopter Terminal Area Operations with One Engine Inoperative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iseler, Laura; Chen, Robert; Dearing, Munro; Decker, William; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Two recent piloted simulation experiments have investigated advanced display concepts applied to civil transport helicopter terminal area operations. Civil Category A helicopter operations apply to multi-engine helicopters wherein a safe recovery (land or fly out) is required in the event of a single engine failure. The investigation used the NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator, which has a full six degrees of freedom, to simulate the flight task as closely as possible. The goal of these experiments was to use advanced cockpit displays to improve flight safety and enhance the mission performance of Category A terminal area operations in confined areas. The first experiment investigated the use of military display formats to assist civil rotorcraft in performing a Category A takeoff in confined terminal areas. Specifically, it addressed how well a difficult hovering backup path could be followed using conventional instruments in comparison to panel mounted integrated displays. The hovering backup takeoff, which enables pilots to land back to the confined area pad in the event of an engine failure, was chosen since it is a difficult task to perform. Seven NASA and Army test pilots participated in the experiment. Evaluations, based on task performance and pilot workload, showed that an integrated display enabled the pilot to consistently achieve adequate or desired performance with reasonable pilot workload. Use of conventional instruments, however, frequently resulted in unacceptable performance (poor flight path tracking), higher pilot workload, and poor situational awareness. Although OEI landbacks were considered a visual task, the improved performance on the backup portion, in conjunction with increased situational awareness resulting from use of integrated displays, enabled the pilots to handle an engine failure and land back safely. In contrast, use of conventional instruments frequently led to excessive rates of sink at touchdown. A second

  6. Airline pilot scanning behavior during approaches and landing in a Boeing 737 simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spady, A. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A series of approaches using airline-rated Boeing 737 pilots in an FAA qualified simulator was conducted. The test matrices include both manual and coupled approaches for VFR, Category 1 and Category 2 conditions. A nonintrusive oculometer system was used to track the pilot's eye-point-of-regard throughout the approach. The results indicate that, in general, the pilots use a different scan technique for the manual and coupled (auto-pilot with manual throttle) conditions. For the manual approach 73 percent of the time was spent on the Flight Director and 13 percent on airspeed as opposed to 50 percent on Flight Director and 23 percent on airspeed for the coupled approaches. For the visual portion of approach from less than 100m to touchdown or when the touchdown point came into view, the pilots tend to fixate on their aim or touchdown area until the flare initiation, at which time they let their eye-point-of-regard move up the runway to use the centerline lights for rollout guidance.

  7. Piloting an online grocery store simulation to assess children's food choices.

    PubMed

    Heard, Amy M; Harris, Jennifer L; Liu, Sai; Schwartz, Marlene B; Li, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Public health interventions must address poor diet among U.S. children, but research is needed to better understand factors influencing children's food choices. Using an online grocery store simulation, this research piloted a novel method to assess children's snack selection in a controlled but naturalistic laboratory setting, evaluate predictors of choice, and experimentally test whether promotions on food packages altered choices. Children (7-12 years, N = 61) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: promotions on healthy products; promotions on unhealthy products; and no promotions (control). They selected from a variety of healthy and unhealthy foods and beverages and rated all products on healthfulness and taste. Promotions on food packaging did not affect snack selection in this study, but findings supported our other hypothesis that perceived taste would be the strongest predictor of food choice. Children accurately rated product healthfulness, but these ratings did not predict healthy snack choices or taste ratings for healthy or unhealthy snacks. These results suggest that interventions to improve children's food choices should focus on increasing availability of healthy options and identifying opportunities to enhance children's liking of healthy options. However, nutrition education alone is unlikely to improve children's diets. Further testing is required, but the simulated online grocery store method shows potential for measuring children's food choices. PMID:26409642

  8. Piloted Simulator Investigation of Techniques to Achieve Attitude Command Response with Limited Authority Servos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, David L.; Heffley, Robert K.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop generic design principles for obtaining attitude command response in moderate to aggressive maneuvers without increasing SCAS series servo authority from the existing +/- 10%. In particular, to develop a scheme that would work on the UH-60 helicopter so that it can be considered for incorporation in future upgrades. The basic math model was a UH-60A version of GENHEL. The simulation facility was the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS). Evaluation tasks were Hover, Acceleration-Deceleration, and Sidestep, as defined in ADS-33D-PRF for Degraded Visual Environment (DVE). The DVE was adjusted to provide a Usable Cue Environment (UCE) equal to two. The basic concept investigated was the extent to which the limited attitude command authority achievable by the series servo could be supplemented by a 10%/sec trim servo. The architecture used provided angular rate feedback to only the series servo, shared the attitude feedback between the series and trim servos, and when the series servo approached saturation the attitude feedback was slowly phased out. Results show that modest use of the trim servo does improve pilot ratings, especially in and around hover. This improvement can be achieved with little degradation in response predictability during moderately aggressive maneuvers.

  9. Development and validation of a piloted simulation of a helicopter and external sling load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, J. D.; Deaux, T. N.; Yenni, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    A generalized, real time, piloted, visual simulation of a single rotor helicopter, suspension system, and external load is described and validated for the full flight envelope of the U.S. Army CH-54 helicopter and cargo container as an example. The mathematical model described uses modified nonlinear classical rotor theory for both the main rotor and tail rotor, nonlinear fuselage aerodynamics, an elastic suspension system, nonlinear load aerodynamics, and a loadground contact model. The implementation of the mathematical model on a large digital computing system is described, and validation of the simulation is discussed. The mathematical model is validated by comparing measured flight data with simulated data, by comparing linearized system matrices, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors with manufacturers' data, and by the subjective comparison of handling characteristics by experienced pilots. A visual landing display system for use in simulation which generates the pilot's forward looking real world display was examined and a special head up, down looking load/landing zone display is described.

  10. A piloted simulation of helicopter air combat to investigate effects of variations in selected performance and control response characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michael S.; Mansur, M. Hossein; Chen, Robert T. N.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study investigating handling qualities and flight characteristics required for helicopter air to air combat is presented. The Helicopter Air Combat system was used to investigate this role for Army rotorcraft. Experimental variables were the maneuver envelope size (load factor and sideslip), directional axis handling qualities, and pitch and roll control-response type. Over 450 simulated, low altitude, one-on-one engagements were conducted. Results from the experiment indicate that a well damped directional response, low sideforce caused by sideslip, and some effective dihedral are all desirable for weapon system performance, good handling qualities, and low pilot workload. An angular rate command system was favored over the attitude type pitch and roll response for most applications, and an enhanced maneuver envelope size over that of current generation aircraft was found to be advantageous. Pilot technique, background, and experience are additional factors which had a significant effect on performance in the air combat tasks investigated. The implication of these results on design requirements for future helicopters is presented.

  11. Attitudes Toward Guarani and Spanish: A Pilot Study in Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Nancy C.

    This study analyzes the language attitudes of the Paraguayan people toward their two languages, Guarani and Spanish. To study the bilingual situation in the South American country, a pilot survey was carried out in the capital city addressing the major topics of language attitudes, language usage, and language varieties. The goals of the survey…

  12. Measuring the Immeasurable: A Pilot Study of Museum Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borun, Minda

    The report describes a one-year pilot study of museum effectiveness conducted at the Franklin Institute Science Museum and Planetarium in Philadelphia. The study was intended to develop models for testing visitor response, provide useable information to museum staff, and test the feasibility of a large-scale investigation of science museums.…

  13. Behavioral Activation for Depressed Teens: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritschel, Lorie A.; Ramirez, Cynthia L.; Jones, Meredith; Craighead, W. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) is a psychosocial intervention that has shown promising treatment outcome results with depressed adults. The current pilot study evaluated a version of BA adapted for depressed adolescents. Six teens (3 male, 3 female, ages 14-17) who met criteria for major depressive disorder participated in the study. Participants were…

  14. AFHRL/FT [Air Force Human Resources Laboratory/Flight Training] Capabilities in Undergraduate Pilot Training Simulation Research: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheny, W. G.; And Others

    The document presents a summary description of the Air Force Human Resource Laboratory's Flying Training Division (AFHRL/FT) research capabilities for undergraduate pilot training. One of the research devices investigated is the Advanced Simulator for Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT). The equipment includes the ASUPT, the instrumented T-37…

  15. Preventing Addiction Related Suicide: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Voss, William D.; Kaufman, Erin; O’Connor, Stephen S.; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Connor, Kenneth R.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Persons addicted to alcohol and drugs are at 5–10 times higher risk for suicide as compared to the general population. To address the need for improved suicide prevention strategies in this population, the Preventing Addiction Related Suicide (PARS) module was developed. Pilot testing of 78 patients demonstrated significant post-treatment changes in knowledge (t (66) = 12.07, p= .000) and attitudes (t (75) = 6.82, p = .000) toward suicide prevention issues. Significant gains were maintained at one-month follow-up for changes in knowledge (t (55) = 6.33, p= .000) and attitudes (t (61) = 3.37, p= .0001), with changes in positive help seeking behaviors in dealing with suicidal issues in friends (χ2 (1) =10.49, p = .007), family (χ2 (1) = 9.81, p = .015), and self (χ2 (1) = 19.62, p= .008) also observed. The PARS was also highly rated by treatment staff as feasible within their standard clinical practice. PMID:23375569

  16. Secondary task for full flight simulation incorporating tasks that commonly cause pilot error: Time estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosch, E.

    1975-01-01

    The task of time estimation, an activity occasionally performed by pilots during actual flight, was investigated with the objective of providing human factors investigators with an unobtrusive and minimally loading additional task that is sensitive to differences in flying conditions and flight instrumentation associated with the main task of piloting an aircraft simulator. Previous research indicated that the duration and consistency of time estimates is associated with the cognitive, perceptual, and motor loads imposed by concurrent simple tasks. The relationships between the length and variability of time estimates and concurrent task variables under a more complex situation involving simulated flight were clarified. The wrap-around effect with respect to baseline duration, a consequence of mode switching at intermediate levels of concurrent task distraction, should contribute substantially to estimate variability and have a complex effect on the shape of the resulting distribution of estimates.

  17. A Few Comments on Visual Systems of Ship Handling Simulator for Sea Pilot's Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Koji; Okazaki, Tadatsugi; Hayashi, Yuji

    We are using a ship handling simulator for sea pilot's training; however, in case of entering a port, it is not enough for a visual image around own ship. The general ship handling simulator does not have the visual image (screen) around own ship. We challenge to clear the effect of a visual system around own ship for entering a port. The training for entering a port is one of important training factor for a sea pilot. This paper describes characteristics of captain's visual observation area and the mental workload for ship handling when entering a port. The visual observation area comes from eye movement and the mental workload comes from heart rate variability (R-R interval), nasal temperature. The results show that the visual system around own ship gives their safe ship handling for entering a port based on eye movement.

  18. Flight simulator requirements for airline transport pilot training - An evaluation of motion system design alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. T.; Bussolari, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of motion platform systems on pilot behavior is considered with emphasis placed on civil aviation applications. A dynamic model for human spatial orientation based on the physiological structure and function of the human vestibular system is presented. Motion platform alternatives were evaluated on the basis of the following motion platform conditions: motion with six degrees-of-freedom required for Phase II simulators and two limited motion conditions. Consideration was given to engine flameout, airwork, and approach and landing scenarios.

  19. A Pilot Study of Abuse among Vietnamese Amerasians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Robert S.; Webb, John A.

    1995-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse, and current levels of psychological distress correlated with a history of abuse, in 102 Vietnamese Amerasian adults bound for the United States. A history of abuse was reported by 22% of males and 18% of females. Significant psychological distress was reported by abused…

  20. Elderly Homosexual Women and Men: Report on a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnigerode, Fred A.; Adelman, Marcy R.

    1978-01-01

    A pilot study is described in which four- to five-hour tape-recorded interviews were conducted with 11 homosexual women and men, 60-77 years of age. Areas examined included: physical change and physical health; work, retirement and leisure time; social behavior; psychological functioning; sexual behavior; and personal perspectives on the life…

  1. Human Exposures to PAHs: an Eastern United States Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure monitoring for select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed as part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Pilot Study in Baltimore, MD and in four surrounding counties (NHEXAS-Maryland). An objective of this effort was to esta...

  2. Job Rotation at Cardiff University Library Service: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earney, Sally; Martins, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents case study research of a job rotation pilot involving six library assistants in Cardiff University Library Service (ULS). Firstly, it investigates whether job rotation improves motivation and secondly, whether there is an improvement in skills, both technical and "soft". Following a review of the literature, semi-structured…

  3. Causes of Mortality among American College Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James C.; Leno, E. Victor; Keller, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study from self-selected institutions of higher education provides an estimate of the causes and rates of mortality among college students between the ages of 18 and 24 years old. One hundred fifty-seven 4-year colleges participated in an online survey of student deaths during one academic year. A total of 254 deaths were reported. The…

  4. Assessing Student Engagement: HSSSE Pilot Study with Independent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    NAIS and the NAIS Commission on Accreditation recently launched a three-year pilot study on the use of the High School Survey of Student Engagement (HSSSE) among independent schools. HSSSE, administered by Indiana University, is a survey designed to investigate the attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs of high school students about their work. This…

  5. Initial Scale Development: Sample Size for Pilot Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, George A.; Brooks, Gordon P.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot studies are often recommended by scholars and consultants to address a variety of issues, including preliminary scale or instrument development. Specific concerns such as item difficulty, item discrimination, internal consistency, response rates, and parameter estimation in general are all relevant. Unfortunately, there is little discussion…

  6. Tai Chi for People with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miszko, Tanya A.; Ramsey, Vincent K.; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the physical and psychological outcomes of a tai chi exercise program for eight adults with visual impairments. It found that after eight weeks of orientation and mobility training and tai chi practice, the participants' single leg-stance time and total knee flexion work and power improved, as did their frequency of,…

  7. Will More Diversified Staffs Diversify Newspaper Content? A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedler, Fred; and Others

    A pilot study asked 94 students enrolled in introductory newswriting classes at three separate universities to evaluate 18 news stories. About half the stories concerned topics that proponents of multiculturalism have suggested would receive more emphasis if newspapers employed more women and minorities: topics such as breast cancer, divorce,…

  8. Danish Health Professionals' Experiences of Being Coached: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammentorp, Jette; Jensen, Hanne Irene; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, coaching, as a supplement to professional development, has received increased attention, especially in nursing. Still, only little is known about how health professionals experience participating in coaching sessions. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe and analyze health professionals' experiences from…

  9. Outcome evaluation of a pilot study using "nudges"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Every school day, over 31 million U.S. children eat school lunches. Unfortunately, students often do not choose the healthy options in the school cafeteria. This paper describes outcome results of a pilot study using "nudges" to improve elementary school students' fruits and vegetables selections. A...

  10. Nutrition education program for food bank clients: A pilot study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many low income families depend on foods from food banks. The objective of the study was to determine program content and examine feasibility of a pilot nutrition education program for food bank clients. Formative research was conducted with staff at a local food bank and its pantries and adult clie...

  11. Consumer Understanding of Nutrition Marketing Terms: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroldson, Amber; Yen, Chih-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the validity of a questionnaire developed to assess adult consumer understanding of nutrition marketing terms and the resulting impact on consumer behavior. Participants (n = 40) completed an electronic questionnaire. Efforts to establish validity and reliability suggest that the questionnaire is a…

  12. The Effect of Background Music on Bullying: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Naomi; Dolev, Einat

    2013-01-01

    School bullying is a source of growing concern. A number of intervention programs emphasize the importance of a positive school climate in preventing bullying behavior. The aim of the presented pilot study was to examine whether calming background music, through its effect on arousal and mood, could create a pleasant atmosphere and reduce bullying…

  13. Minesweeper and Hypothetical Thinking Action Research & Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research project and Pilot Study was designed and implemented to improve students' hypothetical thinking abilities by exploring the possibility that learning and playing the computer game Minesweeper may inherently help improve hypothetical thinking. One objective was to use educational tools to make it easier for students to learn the…

  14. Assessing the Flipped Classroom in Operations Management: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prashar, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…

  15. [Treatment of spasticity with a transcutaneous neurostimulator. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, R; Jordt, M; Hansen, E

    1995-04-24

    In this pilot study the neurostimulator KDC 5000 is used with efficacy on seven out of 11 patients with spastic palsy, and treatment was given without any side-effects. No other treatment has sufficiently helped these patients, and we therefore conclude that such treatment with a neuro-stimulator could be beneficial for selected patients with spastic palsy of extremities. PMID:7762102

  16. CSO DISINFECTION PILOT STUDY: SPRING CREEK CSO STORAGE FACILITY UPGRADE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research summary presents the results of a pilot-scale disinfection study performed for the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) under a contract to Camp Dresser & McKee of Woodbury, New York. The main ob...

  17. Piloted simulation of one-on-one helicopter air combat at NOE flight levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. S.; Aiken, E. W.

    1985-01-01

    A piloted simulation designed to examine the effects of terrain proximity and control system design on helicopter performance during one-on-one air combat maneuvering (ACM) is discussed. The NASA Ames vertical motion simulator (VMS) and the computer generated imagery (CGI) systems were modified to allow two aircraft to be independently piloted on a single CGI data base. Engagements were begun with the blue aircraft already in a tail-chase position behind the red, and also with the two aircraft originating from positions unknown to each other. Maneuvering was very aggressive and safety requirements for minimum altitude, separation, and maximum bank angles typical of flight test were not used. Results indicate that the presence of terrain features adds an order of complexiaty to the task performed over clear air ACM and that mix of attitude and rate command-type stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) design may be desirable. The simulation system design, the flight paths flown, and the tactics used were compared favorably by the evaluation pilots to actual flight test experiments.

  18. Physiological Effects of Acceleration Observed During a Centrifuge Study of Pilot Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedal, Harald A.; Creer, Brent Y.; Wingrove, Rodney C.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Ames Research Center, and the Naval Air Development Center, Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory, to study the effects of acceleration on pilot performance and to obtain some meaningful data for use in establishing tolerance to acceleration levels. The flight simulator used in the study was the Johnsville centrifuge operated as a closed loop system. The pilot was required to perform a control task in various sustained acceleration fields typical of those that Might be encountered by a pilot flying an entry vehicle in which he is seated in a forward-facing position. A special restraint system was developed and designed to increase the pilot's tolerance to these accelerations. The results of this study demonstrated that a well-trained subject, such as a test pilot, can adequately carry out a control task during moderately high accelerations for prolonged periods of time. The maximum levels of acceleration tolerated were approximately 6 times that of gravity for approximately 6 minutes, and varied slightly with the acceleration direction. The tolerance runs were in each case terminated by the subject. In all but two instances, the cause was extreme fatigue. On two occasions the subject terminated the run when he "grayed out." Although there were subjective and objective findings involving the visual and cardiovascular systems, the respiratory system yielded the more critical limiting factors. It would appear that these limiting factors were less severe during the "eyeballs-out" accelerations when compared with the "eyeballs-in" accelerations. These findings are explained on the basis of the influence that the inertial forces of acceleration have on the mechanics of respiration. A condensed version of this report was presented at the Annual Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, Miami Beach, May 5-11, 1960, in a paper entitled "Ability of Pilots to Perform a Control Task in

  19. A study of decision-making behavior of aircraft pilots deviating from a planned flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flather, G. W., II; Giffin, W. C.; Rockwell, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper outlines an investigation into the worth structures of pilots facing a deviation from a planned flight. A 'paper and pencil' simulation was used to frame the situation into which pilots interjected their own decision making skills in a simple ranking of candidate diversion airports with varying locational, navigational aid, radar and weather attributes. Using the conjoint measurement technique, attribute worth functions of 30 pilots were constructed. It was discovered that systematic differences in the worth functions of the pilots did not occur as a result of dividing the pilot sample according to any measure of flight hour experience. However, differences were found when the pilot sample was grouped according to grade of pilot certificate, type of pilot training, and type of flying most commonly done.

  20. Interprofessional sepsis education module: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Han-Oh; Medina, Damien; Fox-Robichaud, Alison

    2016-03-01

    Although there is an increasing emphasis on interprofessional collaboration for safer health care systems, there remains a paucity of opportunities for postgraduate trainees to engage in formal interprofessional education (IPE). Current opportunities for interprofessional learning, such as simulation sessions, typically do not provide true IPE because they often utilize actors or confederates as support staff, making residents the only stakeholders in the education experience. Here, we describe a flexible educational module designed to provide genuine IPE for physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists. We outline how simulation, feedback, and group discussions can be used to teach interprofessional team communication, collaboration, and crew resource management skills-while, at the same time, also teaching a highly relevant medical topic (sepsis management) and thus resulting in learner engagement and motivation.

  1. 3D Unsteady Multiphase Simulation of Uranium Tetrafluoride Particle Fluorination in Fluidized Bed Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konan, N. A.; Neau, H.; Simonin, O.; Dupoizat, M.; Le Geaziou, T.

    This paper investigates Eulerian simulation approach of uranium hexafluoride production in fluidized bed pilot. Mass transfer is modeled by using the shrinking particle model. The model successfully predicts expected amount of uranium hexafluoride. As heat transfers with wall are neglected, temperature increases within the reactor and there is no gradient in wall-normal direction of reactor. External diffusion model of reactive gas around particle is developed. Effect of fluorine diffusion within nitrogen is found to be negligible under the simulation conditions. Moreover, inter-particle radiative heat transfer between particles of dense phase in the bed is investigated in the frame of Rosseland approximation.

  2. Piloted-simulation evaluation of escape guidance for microburst wind shear encounters. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Numerous air carrier accidents and incidents result from encounters with the atmospheric wind shear associated with microburst phenomena, in some cases resulting in heavy loss of life. An important issue in current wind shear research is how to best manage aircraft performance during an inadvertent wind shear encounter. The goals of this study were to: (1) develop techniques and guidance for maximizing an aircraft's ability to recover from microburst encounters following takeoff, (2) develop an understanding of how theoretical predictions of wind shear recovery performance might be achieved in actual use, and (3) gain insight into the piloting factors associated with recovery from microburst encounters. Three recovery strategies were implemented and tested in piloted simulation. Results show that a recovery strategy based on flying a flight path angle schedule produces improved performance over constant pitch attitude or acceleration-based recovery techniques. The best recovery technique was initially counterintuitive to the pilots who participated in the study. Evidence was found to indicate that the techniques required for flight through the turbulent vortex of a microburst may differ from the techniques being developed using classical, nonturbulent microburst models.

  3. Criminal recidivism in mentally ill offenders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Harris, V; Koepsell, T D

    1996-01-01

    Criminal recidivism in mentally ill offenders, In the context of a county jail, has not been extensively studied. This study compares the rate of criminal recidivism between those who suffered from a mental illness at the time of arrest and those who did not. In addition, the length of incarceration between these two groups was compared. Using survival analysis, a risk assessment model describing the key features involved in criminal recidivism among the mentally ill may be built. To our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind and will suggest areas of intervention that could prevent criminal recidivism among mentally ill offenders. Due to the lack of literature on the subject, this pilot study provides estimates of key parameters, such as types of crimes and frequency of incarceration, needed to undertake a definitive study. Furthermore, the pilot study provides an opportunity to develop and field test a data abstraction form and computer matching methods.

  4. Nursing Student Perceptions of Digital Textbooks: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Mennenga, Heidi A

    2016-01-01

    Digital textbooks are increasing in popularity, often resulting from the perception that students demand the use of technology in academics. However, few studies have been done on student perceptions of digital textbooks. A pilot study was conducted with students enrolled in a nursing research course; 123 nursing students participated. This study found that students overwhelmingly preferred print textbooks over digital textbooks. More research needs to be done before assuming students would prefer digital textbooks over print.

  5. Nursing Student Perceptions of Digital Textbooks: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Mennenga, Heidi A

    2016-01-01

    Digital textbooks are increasing in popularity, often resulting from the perception that students demand the use of technology in academics. However, few studies have been done on student perceptions of digital textbooks. A pilot study was conducted with students enrolled in a nursing research course; 123 nursing students participated. This study found that students overwhelmingly preferred print textbooks over digital textbooks. More research needs to be done before assuming students would prefer digital textbooks over print. PMID:27209871

  6. Piloted Simulator Tests of a Guidance System which Can Continously Predict Landing Point of a Low L/D Vehicle During Atmosphere Re-Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, Rodney C.; Coate, Robert E.

    1961-01-01

    The guidance system for maneuvering vehicles within a planetary atmosphere which was studied uses the concept of fast continuous prediction of the maximum maneuver capability from existing conditions rather than a stored-trajectory technique. used, desired touchdown points are compared with the maximum range capability and heating or acceleration limits, so that a proper decision and choice of control inputs can be made by the pilot. In the method of display and control a piloted fixed simulator was used t o demonstrate the feasibility od the concept and to study its application to control of lunar mission reentries and recoveries from aborts.

  7. Structural Differences in Gray Matter between Glider Pilots and Non-Pilots. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahamed, Tosif; Kawanabe, Motoaki; Ishii, Shin; Callan, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Glider flying is a unique skill that requires pilots to control an aircraft at high speeds in three dimensions and amidst frequent full-body rotations. In the present study, we investigated the neural correlates of flying a glider using voxel-based morphometry. The comparison between gray matter densities of 15 glider pilots and a control group of 15 non-pilots exhibited significant gray matter density increases in left ventral premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and the supplementary eye field. We posit that the identified regions might be associated with cognitive and motor processes related to flying, such as joystick control, visuo-vestibular interaction, and oculomotor control. PMID:25506339

  8. Direct spectral/hp element simulation of piloted jet non-premixed flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastase, Cristian R.

    2004-11-01

    The spectral/hp element method is used for direct numerical simulation (DNS) of piloted non premixed methane jet flames. This method combines the accuracy of spectral methods with versatility of finite element methods, and allows accurate simulations of complex flows on structured and unstructured grids. Here, the methodology is extended for simulation of multi-species, reactive flows using the discontinuous Galerkin formulation. Parallel computation is performed via MPI standards coupled with a domain decomposition methodology. The overall computational scheme allows for an efficient partitioning of the flow configuration. Tests performed with up to 64 processors show quasi-linear parallel performance and scalability. The flame configurations are similar to the piloted jet non-premixed flame considered at the Combustion Research Facility at the Sandia National Laboratories. For a momentum dominated flame, the simulated results portray many of the features observed experimentally. This pertains to both the spatial and the compositional structures of the flow. For a buoyancy controlled flame (at elevated gravity levels), the results indicate an increase in both the turbulence levels and flow acceleration. Departure from equilibrium, including localized extinction is observed on a significant portion of this flame.

  9. Farmers' loss due to Guinea worm disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Guyer, J

    1990-04-01

    Guinea worm disease has been blamed for much disability and loss of productivity among farmers in Africa and South Asia. Many studies have tried to equate days lost in illness to monetary values. These attempts often overlook the process of disability in relation to farming patterns. This pilot effort uses a qualitative case study approach to learn about how Guinea worm can cause loss to farmers. Twenty in-depth interviews with affected farmers showed that their losses are related to the time of year they are affected by Guinea worm. Some crops with flexible planting times, e.g. cassava, may not be as affected. Duration of disability is another determining factor. Insights from this pilot study can be used to design more appropriate large-scale survey instruments and guide development of longitudinal research.

  10. Support for Students Exposed to Trauma: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaycox, Lisa H.; Langley, Audra K.; Stein, Bradley D.; Wong, Marleen; Sharma, Priya; Scott, Molly; Schonlau, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    With high rates of trauma exposure among students, the need for intervention programs is clear. Delivery of such programs in the school setting eliminates key barriers to access, but there are few programs that demonstrate efficacy in this setting. Programs to date have been designed for delivery by clinicians, who are a scarce resource in many schools. This study describes preliminary feasibility and acceptability data from a pilot study of a new program, Support for Students Exposed to Trauma, adapted from the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) program. Because of its “pilot” nature, all results from the study should be viewed as preliminary. Results show that the program can be implemented successfully by teachers and school counselors, with good satisfaction among students and parents. Pilot data show small reductions in symptoms among the students in the SSET program, suggesting that this program shows promise that warrants a full evaluation of effectiveness. PMID:20811511

  11. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Greenbelt Homes, Inc. Pilot Retrofit Project

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc., (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. With the community upgrade fully funded by the cooperative through their membership without outside subsidies, this project presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects that include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy-savings benefits of improvements. Phase 1—baseline evaluation for a representative set of 28 homes sited in seven buildings; Phase 2—installation of the building envelope improvements and continued monitoring of the energy consumption for the heating season; Phase 3—energy simulations supporting recommendations for HVAC and water heating upgrades.

  12. Mapping tissue chromophore changes in cerebral ischemia: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abookasis, David; Mathews, Marlon S.; Lay, Christopher; Cuccia, David J.; Frostig, Ron D.; Linskey, Mark E.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2007-02-01

    We describe the projection of spatially modulated light for quantitatively mapping changes in oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and oxygen saturation in two pilot studies in the rat barrel cortex during both permanent and temporary cerebral ischemia. The approach is based on the projection of spatial modulation of white light onto the brain. The reflected light is captured on a CCD camera, which is then processed to obtain the concentration and distribution of chromophores over a wide field. Preliminary results confirm a measurable and quantifiable increase in tissue molecular concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin and decrease in hemoglobin oxygen concentration in both experimental settings. Our preliminary data from our pilot studies demonstrate that spatial modulation of light can provide quantitative chromophore mapping of the brain and has a potential role in monitoring the course and severity of cerebral ischemia in cerebrovascular disease patients.

  13. A pilot study of energy efficient air cleaning for ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara A.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Katsapov, Gregory Y.; Fisk, William J.

    2002-11-01

    A laboratory pilot study has been undertaken with the material that showed the most promise (high capacity and low pressure drop) based on the literature review and associated calculations. The best-performing air cleaner was a commercially available pleated filter that contained a thin layer of small activated carbon particles between two sheets of non-woven fibrous webbing. We will refer to this unit as the ''ozone filter'' although it is marketed for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile passenger compartments. This pilot study strongly suggests that ozone air cleaning can be practical in commercial air handling systems; however, further tests are needed to assess air cleaner performance under a wider range of conditions.

  14. [Toxoplasmosis in goats in the Netherlands: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Antonis, A F; van Knapen, F; Dercksen, D P; Jager, P M

    1998-10-01

    A pilot-study was carried out on ten Dutch goat farms to see whether there is a relationship between farm management factors and the occurrence of toxoplasmosis. Questionnaires were used to collect information about farm management factors and blood samples were taken to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis on these farms. The mean prevalence was 47% (range 5-90%). The presence of kittens on a farm was a risk factor for a higher prevalence of toxoplasmosis. PMID:9793169

  15. Risk factors for hidradenitis suppurativa: a pilot study*

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Bombonatto, Giovana; Martin, Manoela; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2012-01-01

    The hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic debilitating inflammatory disease whose etiology is not fully understood. We conducted a pilot case-control study matched by sex and age with other dermatological patients to analyze possible risk factors associated with this disease. We included 15 cases and 45 controls, 67% were women. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis identified significant association with smoking, higher body mass index and family history. The use of hormonal contraceptives was less frequent in women with hidradenitis. PMID:23197222

  16. Caution regarding the use of pilot studies to guide power calculations for study proposals.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Helena Chmura; Mintz, Jim; Noda, Art; Tinklenberg, Jared; Yesavage, Jerome A

    2006-05-01

    Clinical researchers often propose (or review committees demand) pilot studies to determine whether a study is worth performing and to guide power calculations. The most likely outcomes are that (1) studies worth performing are aborted and (2) studies that are not aborted are underpowered. There are many excellent reasons for performing pilot studies. The argument herein is not meant to discourage clinical researchers from performing pilot studies (or review committees from requiring them) but simply to caution against their use for the objective of guiding power calculations.

  17. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  18. Effects of motion base and g-seat cueing of simulator pilot performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, B. R.; Mckissick, B. T.; Parrish, R. V.

    1984-01-01

    In order to measure and analyze the effects of a motion plus g-seat cueing system, a manned-flight-simulation experiment was conducted utilizing a pursuit tracking task and an F-16 simulation model in the NASA Langley visual/motion simulator. This experiment provided the information necessary to determine whether motion and g-seat cues have an additive effect on the performance of this task. With respect to the lateral tracking error and roll-control stick force, the answer is affirmative. It is shown that presenting the two cues simultaneously caused significant reductions in lateral tracking error and that using the g-seat and motion base separately provided essentially equal reductions in the pilot's lateral tracking error.

  19. Motivation in the Classroom: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Deanna E.

    Purposes of this study were to (1) investigate the validity of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs as it applies to young children; (2) determine developmental shifts in expressed motivational needs; (3) gather information concerning the worries and fears of young children, particularly those of low socioeconomic status; and (4) gather data regarding…

  20. THE NORTH CAROLINA HERALD PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory



    The sampling design for the National Children's Study (NCS) calls for a population-based, multi-stage, clustered household sampling approach. The full sample is designed to be representative of both urban and rural births in the United States, 2007-2011. While other sur...

  1. Assessing Learning with Logo: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Jane; Ryba, Ken

    1986-01-01

    This study used the Model for Assessing Learning with Logo (Nolan and Ryba) to examine effects of Logo programming on junior high school students' thinking skills. The model addresses both student acquisition of Logo-related thinking skills and the extent to which they transfer skills to noncomputer problem solving tasks. (MBR)

  2. Educational Optimism among Parents: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räty, Hannu; Kasanen, Kati

    2016-01-01

    This study explored parents' (N = 351) educational optimism in terms of their trust in the possibilities of school to develop children's intelligence. It was found that educational optimism could be depicted as a bipolar factor with optimism and pessimism on the opposing ends of the same dimension. Optimistic parents indicated more satisfaction…

  3. Personalization in Science: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.; And Others

    Presented is a study of a science program for upper elementary and middle school children encouraging the development of logical thinking skills, describing variables, interpreting and criticizing experiments, and understanding experiment design. To provide a basis for the program, the students suggested projects to be done and developed…

  4. A piloted evaluation of an oblique-wing research aircraft motion simulation with decoupling control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Mcneill, Walter E.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Maine, Trindel A.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center developed an oblique-wing research plane from NASA's digital fly-by-wire airplane. Oblique-wing airplanes show large cross-coupling in control and dynamic behavior which is not present on conventional symmetric airplanes and must be compensated for to obtain acceptable handling qualities. The large vertical motion simulator at NASA Ames-Moffett was used in the piloted evaluation of a proposed flight control system designed to provide decoupled handling qualities. Five discrete flight conditions were evaluated ranging from low altitude subsonic Mach numbers to moderate altitude supersonic Mach numbers. The flight control system was effective in generally decoupling the airplane. However, all participating pilots objected to the high levels of lateral acceleration encountered in pitch maneuvers. In addition, the pilots were more critical of left turns (in the direction of the trailing wingtip when skewed) than they were of right turns due to the tendency to be rolled into the left turns and out of the right turns. Asymmetric side force as a function of angle of attack was the primary cause of lateral acceleration in pitch. Along with the lateral acceleration in pitch, variation of rolling and yawing moments as functions of angle of attack caused the tendency to roll into left turns and out of right turns.

  5. Commercial conspiracy theories: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to categorise conspiracy theories. In the present study, we examined individual and demographic predictors of beliefs in commercial conspiracy theories among a British sample of over 300 women and men. Results showed many people were cynical and sceptical with regard to advertising tricks, as well as the tactics of organisations like banks and alcohol, drug and tobacco companies. Beliefs sorted into four identifiable clusters, labelled sneakiness, manipulative, change-the-rules and suppression/prevention. The high alpha for the overall scale suggested general beliefs in commercial conspiracy. Regressions suggested that those people who were less religious, more left-wing, more pessimistic, less (self-defined as) wealthy, less Neurotic and less Open-to-Experience believed there was more commercial conspiracy. Overall the individual difference variables explained relatively little of the variance in these beliefs. The implications of these findings for the literature on conspiracy theories are discussed. Limitations of the study are also discussed. PMID:23818886

  6. Commercial conspiracy theories: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to categorise conspiracy theories. In the present study, we examined individual and demographic predictors of beliefs in commercial conspiracy theories among a British sample of over 300 women and men. Results showed many people were cynical and sceptical with regard to advertising tricks, as well as the tactics of organisations like banks and alcohol, drug and tobacco companies. Beliefs sorted into four identifiable clusters, labelled sneakiness, manipulative, change-the-rules and suppression/prevention. The high alpha for the overall scale suggested general beliefs in commercial conspiracy. Regressions suggested that those people who were less religious, more left-wing, more pessimistic, less (self-defined as) wealthy, less Neurotic and less Open-to-Experience believed there was more commercial conspiracy. Overall the individual difference variables explained relatively little of the variance in these beliefs. The implications of these findings for the literature on conspiracy theories are discussed. Limitations of the study are also discussed. PMID:23818886

  7. Structural dynamic model obtained from flight use with piloted simulation and handling qualities analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Bruce G.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to use flight data to determine an aircraft model with structural dynamic effects suitable for piloted simulation. and handling qualities analysis has been developed. This technique was demonstrated using SR-71 flight test data. For the SR-71 aircraft, the most significant structural response is the longitudinal first-bending mode. This mode was modeled as a second-order system, and the other higher order modes were modeled as a time delay. The distribution of the modal response at various fuselage locations was developed using a uniform beam solution, which can be calibrated using flight data. This approach was compared to the mode shape obtained from the ground vibration test, and the general form of the uniform beam solution was found to be a good representation of the mode shape in the areas of interest. To calibrate the solution, pitch-rate and normal-acceleration instrumentation is required for at least two locations. With the resulting structural model incorporated into the simulation, a good representation of the flight characteristics was provided for handling qualities analysis and piloted simulation.

  8. Cavity wounds management: a multicentre pilot study.

    PubMed

    Meaume, Sylvie; Facy, Olivier; Munoz-Bongrand, Nicolas; Ribemont, Annie-Claude; Sigal, Michele-Lea; Couffinhal, Jean-Claude; Trial, Chloe; Tacca, Olivier; Bohbot, Serge

    The objective of this study was to assess acceptability (based on pain at removal), efficacy and tolerance of an absorbent and cohesive rope(UrgoClean Rope, Laboratoires Urgo) in the local management of deep cavity wounds. This study was a prospective, multicentre (13), non comparative clinical study. Patients presenting with an acute or chronic non-infected cavity wound were followed up for four weeks and assessed weekly with a physical examination, in addition to volumetric,planimetric and photographic evaluations. Pain at removal was the primary criterion, assessed on a Visual Analogic Scale. The percentage of the wound surface area reduction and volumetric reduction were considered as secondary efficacy criteria. Forty three patients were included in this study. After one week of treatment dressing removal was painless and continued to be so throughout the period of the trial(four weeks). Median surface area at baseline was 7.74 cm2 and was reduced by 54.5% at week 4 (relative area reduction). Median wound volumetric value was noted 12 ml at baseline and was reduced by 72.7% by the end of treatment. The cohesiveness of the new rope was considered very good by health professionals. No residue was observed on the wound bed during the dressing change with the new rope. There were no adverse events related to the tested rope, during this trial.Pain-free removal associated with good efficacy and tolerance were observed with this new cohesive rope in the healing process of deep cavity wounds and could represent a therapeutic alternative to the usual ropes used in such indications. PMID:24180023

  9. Pilot Inter-Laboratory Studies for Evaluating Weathering-Induced Release of Carbon Nanotubes from Solid Matrices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanomaterials are increasingly being used in polymer composites to enhance the properties of these materials. Here we present results of a pilot inter-laboratory study to simulate the effects of weathering on the potential release of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) from thei...

  10. Pilot study of closing volume in byssinosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fairman, R P; Hankinson, J; Imbus, H; Lapp, N L; Morgan, W K

    1975-01-01

    A study of the relative sensitivities of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMF), and closing volume (CV) in the detection of subjects with byssinosis was carried out in a North Carolina cotton mill. Altogether 35 workers participated in the study. Of these, nine showed a decline in FEV1 of 10% or more during the first work shift that followed the weekend break. Twelve subjects showed a decrease in MMF of 15% or more. In contrast only six workers exhibited a 10% increase in closing capacity, while ten showed a 10% increase in CV. Recent evidence of the magnitude of variability in closing volume manoeuvres suggests that our chosen level of change was too low, A 40% change in CV would have identified only five subjects. CV is a more complex manoeuvre for the subject being tested and for the technician to perform, is more time consuming, and is subject to greater variation. To have any advantage over spirometry, CV would have to be appreciably more sensitive. Our study suggests that it is not. However, the MMF may prove to be more sensitive than the FEV1 in the detection of byssinosis. PMID:1156572

  11. Pilot study of closing volume in byssinosis.

    PubMed

    Fairman, R P; Hankinson, J; Imbus, H; Lapp, N L; Morgan, W K

    1975-08-01

    A study of the relative sensitivities of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMF), and closing volume (CV) in the detection of subjects with byssinosis was carried out in a North Carolina cotton mill. Altogether 35 workers participated in the study. Of these, nine showed a decline in FEV1 of 10% or more during the first work shift that followed the weekend break. Twelve subjects showed a decrease in MMF of 15% or more. In contrast only six workers exhibited a 10% increase in closing capacity, while ten showed a 10% increase in CV. Recent evidence of the magnitude of variability in closing volume manoeuvres suggests that our chosen level of change was too low, A 40% change in CV would have identified only five subjects. CV is a more complex manoeuvre for the subject being tested and for the technician to perform, is more time consuming, and is subject to greater variation. To have any advantage over spirometry, CV would have to be appreciably more sensitive. Our study suggests that it is not. However, the MMF may prove to be more sensitive than the FEV1 in the detection of byssinosis.

  12. Tri-county pilot study. [Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. A. (Principal Investigator); Austin, T. W.; Kerber, A. G.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An area inventory was performed for three southeast Texas counties (Montgomery, Walker, and San Jacinto) totaling 0.65 million hectares. The inventory was performed using a two level hierarchy. Level 1 was divided into forestland, rangeland, and other land. Forestland was separated into Level 2 categories: pine, hardwood, and mixed; rangeland was not separated further. Results consisted of area statistics for each county and for the entire study site for pine, hardwood, mixed, rangeland, and other land. Color coded county classification maps were produced for the May data set, and procedures were developed and tested.

  13. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  14. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  15. Pilot study of MK-462 in migraine.

    PubMed

    Cutler, N R; Claghorn, J; Sramek, J J; Block, G; Panebianco, D; Cheng, H; Olah, T V; Reines, S A

    1996-04-01

    MK-462 is a potent, selective 5HT1D receptor agonist which may be useful in treating acute migraine. We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled inpatient study to assess the preliminary efficacy and safety of oral doses of MK-462 20 mg (n = 8) and 40 mg (n = 36) vs placebo (n = 21), administered to 65 male and post-menopausal female migraine patients aged 22-51 with moderate or severe migraine headache. Headache severity and functional disability were measured at 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 h post-dose. The 20 mg dose was well tolerated and 4/8 patients obtained relief in headache severity at the 2 h time point. The 40 mg dose was well tolerated and was significantly (p < 0.05) superior to placebo at the 1.5 and 2 h time points (with 27/36 or 75% obtaining relief at 2 h compared to 7/21 or 33% for placebo). Adverse events occurred in 50% of patients on 20 mg MK-462, 72% of those on 40 mg MK-462, and in 52% of placebo-treated subjects. The most common adverse events associated with MK-462 were drowsiness (20 mg 12%; 40 mg 44%; placebo 24%), dry mouth (40 mg 36%; placebo 19%), and lightheadedness/dizziness (40 mg 17%; placebo 10%). Based on these preliminary results, MK-462 appears worthy of continued study for the treatment of acute migraine. PMID:8665577

  16. Marketing dentistry: a pilot study in Dudley.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R J; Morgan, J D

    1992-12-01

    This study was an attempt to persuade non-users or irregular users of dental services to change their behaviour and visit the dentist more regularly. The task was divided into two main parts. One was a promotion campaign undertaken in the Borough of Dudley in the West Midlands and the other a professional development programme for the dentists practising in the same area. The professional development campaign was designed to make the practitioners aware of the barriers to dental care which are perceived by patients. It was undertaken through a series of workshops on various aspects of practice development and promotion to which the staff of all the dental practices in Dudley were invited. Thirty-nine out of a total of forty-one accepted the invitation and attended some or all of the programme. In addition to the workshops members of the research team visited each of the participating practices regularly to discuss aspects of the programme and to record progress. The practitioners had varied attitudes to marketing and varied learning styles, and therefore they had different expectations of the nature and purpose of professional development. The majority attended solely to learn about the promotion campaign. There were also varying perceptions of patient recruitment and retention. None saw this as a serious problem. However, even before the new National Health Service contract for general dental practitioners there was the growing realisation that in the future there would be competition between practices and that this could be a reason for considering recruitment and the retention of patients more carefully. This was considered by many of the dentists, but not all, to be a problem of patient behaviour, linked with a degree of fatalism, and that nothing much could be done about it. There was a reluctance to change and the fear of the risks involved led a number of the general dental practitioners to identify and emphasise the difficulties in making new developments

  17. SERDP munition disposal source characterization pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R.C.; Couch, R.G.; Fried, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is supporting studies to develop and implement technologies for the safe, efficient, and environmentally sound disposal of obsolete munitions and propellants which are stored at various locations across the country. One proposed disposal technique is the open-air burning or detonation (OB/OD) of this material. Although OB/OD is viewed as an efficient and cost-effective method for reducing the inventory of unwanted munitions and propellants, questions regarding its safety and environmental impacts must be addressed. Since very large amounts of munitions and propellants must be consumed inexpensively in relatively short time periods and with the very restrictive Federal and State regulations on environmental issues, it is clear that traditional OB/OD procedures will not be acceptable and that it is necessary to develop modified or advanced OB/OD technology. The effectiveness and environmental impact of the OB/OD technology must be verified by experimental data and with validated numerical models for acceptance by Federal and State regulators. Specifically, technology must be developed and tested that minimizes toxic bum and detonation products the noise (peak pressure) and destructive effect (impulse) of the explosive blast generation and travel distance of shrapnel, and entrainment of dust. Three explosion attenuation scenarios are analyzed: Contained water, aqueous foams, and wet sand.

  18. Telemedicine and Plastic Surgery: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Denis Souto; Silveira Eifler, Luciano; Carvalho, Lauro Aita; Filho, Gustavo Azambuja Pereira; Ribeiro, Vinicius Weissheimer; Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Telemedicine can be defined as the use of electronic media for transmission of information and medical data from one site to another. The objective of this study is to demonstrate an experience of telemedicine in plastic surgery. Methods. 32 plastic surgeons received a link with password for real-time streaming of a surgery. At the end of the procedure, the surgeons attending the procedure by the Internet answered five questions. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results. 27 plastic surgeons attended the online procedure in real-time. 96.3% considered the access to the website as good or excellent and 3.7% considered it bad. 14.8% reported that the transmission was bad and 85.2% considered the quality of transmission as good or excellent. 96.3% classified the live broadcasting as a good or excellent learning experience and 3.7% considered it a bad experience. 92.6% reported feeling able to perform this surgery after watching the demo and 7.4% did not feel able. 100% of participants said they would like to participate in other surgical demonstrations over the Internet. Conclusion. We conclude that the use of telemedicine can provide more access to education and medical research, for plastic surgeons looking for medical education from distant regions. PMID:26609429

  19. The Pilot Training Study: A Cost-Estimating Model for Advanced Pilot Training (APT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knollmeyer, L. E.

    The Advanced Pilot Training Cost Model is a statement of relationships that may be used, given the necessary inputs, for estimating the resources required and the costs to train pilots in the Air Force formal flying training schools. Resources and costs are computed by weapon system on an annual basis for use in long-range planning or sensitivity…

  20. Underground tank vitrification: A pilot-scale in situ vitrification test of a tank containing a simulated mixed waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.E.; Powell, T.D.; Tixier, J.S.; Miller, M.C.; Owczarski, P.C.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents research on sludge vitrification. The first pilot scale in-situ vitrification test of a simulated underground tank was successfully completed by researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The vitrification process effectively immobilized the vast majority of radionuclides simulants and toxic metals were retained in the melt and uniformly distributed throughout the monolith.

  1. Enhancing pilot situation awareness by using an onboard taxi guidance system: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Biella, Markus; Jakobi, Joern

    2004-08-01

    This study supplements prior and concurrent field trials testing the operational benefit of an Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS). A-SMGCS comprises a range of new technologies for both the flight deck and the air traffic control tower enabling more efficient and safe airport surface movement. These technologies are expected to significantly increase the throughput at presently highly congested major airports without compromising safety. A flight deck A-SMGCS module is the onboard guidance system TARMAC-AS. This module consists of a controller pilot data link (DL) communication and an electronic moving map (EMM), which also displays airport surface traffic information to the pilot crew. TARMAC-AS is evaluated in an investigation involving twenty commercial pilots who performed a series of approach, landing and taxiing simulation trials that were completed in a fixed-base cockpit simulator. Evaluation was based on subjective questionnaires, effectiveness of taxi operation, and visual scanning strategies derived from eye-point-of-gaze measurements. Results support the notion that EMM + DL improve awareness of the global airport surface situation, particularly under conditions of low visibility, enabling more efficient and timely surface movements and avoidance of conflicting traffic. A potential negative impact of increased head-down times was not substantiated.

  2. Closeup of research pilot Neil Armstrong operating the Iron Cross Attitude Simulator reaction contro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    Famed astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, the first man to set foot on the moon during the historic Apollo 11 space mission in July 1969, served for seven years as a research pilot at the NACA-NASA High-Speed Flight Station, now the Dryden Flight Research Center, at Edwards, California, before he entered the space program. Armstrong joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory (later NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, and today the Glenn Research Center) in 1955. Later that year, he transferred to the High-Speed Flight Station at Edwards as an aeronautical research scientist and then as a pilot, a position he held until becoming an astronaut in 1962. He was one of nine NASA astronauts in the second class to be chosen. As a research pilot Armstrong served as project pilot on the F-100A and F-100C aircraft, F-101, and the F-104A. He also flew the X-1B, X-5, F-105, F-106, B-47, KC-135, and Paresev. He left Dryden with a total of over 2450 flying hours. He was a member of the USAF-NASA Dyna-Soar Pilot Consultant Group before the Dyna-Soar project was cancelled, and studied X-20 Dyna-Soar approaches and abort maneuvers through use of the F-102A and F5D jet aircraft. Armstrong was actively engaged in both piloting and engineering aspects of the X-15 program from its inception. He completed the first flight in the aircraft equipped with a new flow-direction sensor (ball nose) and the initial flight in an X-15 equipped with a self-adaptive flight control system. He worked closely with designers and engineers in development of the adaptive system, and made seven flights in the rocket plane from December 1960 until July 1962. During those fights he reached a peak altitude of 207,500 feet in the X-15-3, and a speed of 3,989 mph (Mach 5.74) in the X-15-1. Armstrong has a total of 8 days and 14 hours in space, including 2 hours and 48 minutes walking on the Moon. In March 1966 he was commander of the Gemini 8

  3. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow reservoir

  4. Experimental Studies Of Pilot Performance At Collision Avoidance During Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.; Hansman, R. John

    1997-01-01

    Efforts to increase airport capacity include studies of aircraft systems that would enable simultaneous approaches to closely spaced parallel runway in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The time-critical nature of a parallel approach results in key design issues for current and future collision avoidance systems. Two part-task flight simulator studies have examined the procedural and display issues inherent in such a time-critical task, the interaction of the pilot with a collision avoidance system, and the alerting criteria and avoidance maneuvers preferred by subjects.

  5. Piloted Simulation of Various Synthetic Vision Systems Terrain Portrayal and Guidance Symbology Concepts for Low Altitude En-Route Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takallu, M. A.; Glaab, L. J.; Hughes, M. F.; Wong, D. T.; Bartolone, A. P.

    2008-01-01

    In support of the NASA Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision Systems Project, a series of piloted simulations were conducted to explore and quantify the relationship between candidate Terrain Portrayal Concepts and Guidance Symbology Concepts, specific to General Aviation. The experiment scenario was based on a low altitude en route flight in Instrument Metrological Conditions in the central mountains of Alaska. A total of 18 general aviation pilots, with three levels of pilot experience, evaluated a test matrix of four terrain portrayal concepts and six guidance symbology concepts. Quantitative measures included various pilot/aircraft performance data, flight technical errors and flight control inputs. The qualitative measures included pilot comments and pilot responses to the structured questionnaires such as perceived workload, subjective situation awareness, pilot preferences, and the rare event recognition. There were statistically significant effects found from guidance symbology concepts and terrain portrayal concepts but no significant interactions between them. Lower flight technical errors and increased situation awareness were achieved using Synthetic Vision Systems displays, as compared to the baseline Pitch/Roll Flight Director and Blue Sky Brown Ground combination. Overall, those guidance symbology concepts that have both path based guidance cue and tunnel display performed better than the other guidance concepts.

  6. Piloted Simulation to Evaluate the Utility of a Real Time Envelope Protection System for Mitigating In-Flight Icing Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, Richard J.; Martos, Borja; Norton, Bill W.; Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The utility of the Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system for mitigating a potentially hazardous icing condition was evaluated by 29 pilots using the NASA Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD). ICEPro provides real time envelope protection cues and alerting messages on pilot displays. The pilots participating in this test were divided into two groups; a control group using baseline displays without ICEPro, and an experimental group using ICEPro driven display cueing. Each group flew identical precision approach and missed approach procedures with a simulated failure case icing condition. Pilot performance, workload, and survey questionnaires were collected for both groups of pilots. Results showed that real time assessment cues were effective in reducing the number of potentially hazardous upset events and in lessening exposure to loss of control following an incipient upset condition. Pilot workload with the added ICEPro displays was not measurably affected, but pilot opinion surveys showed that real time cueing greatly improved their situation awareness of a hazardous aircraft state.

  7. Simulating the gas hydrate production test at Mallik using the pilot scale pressure reservoir LARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeschen, Katja; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Priegnitz, Mike; Giese, Ronny; Luzi-Helbing, Manja

    2014-05-01

    LARS, the LArge Reservoir Simulator, allows for one of the few pilot scale simulations of gas hydrate formation and dissociation under controlled conditions with a high resolution sensor network to enable the detection of spatial variations. It was designed and built within the German project SUGAR (submarine gas hydrate reservoirs) for sediment samples with a diameter of 0.45 m and a length of 1.3 m. During the project, LARS already served for a number of experiments simulating the production of gas from hydrate-bearing sediments using thermal stimulation and/or depressurization. The latest test simulated the methane production test from gas hydrate-bearing sediments at the Mallik test site, Canada, in 2008 (Uddin et al., 2011). Thus, the starting conditions of 11.5 MPa and 11°C and environmental parameters were set to fit the Mallik test site. The experimental gas hydrate saturation of 90% of the total pore volume (70 l) was slightly higher than volumes found in gas hydrate-bearing formations in the field (70 - 80%). However, the resulting permeability of a few millidarcy was comparable. The depressurization driven gas production at Mallik was conducted in three steps at 7.0 MPa - 5.0 MPa - 4.2 MPa all of which were used in the laboratory experiments. In the lab the pressure was controlled using a back pressure regulator while the confining pressure was stable. All but one of the 12 temperature sensors showed a rapid decrease in temperature throughout the sediment sample, which accompanied the pressure changes as a result of gas hydrate dissociation. During step 1 and 2 they continued up to the point where gas hydrate stability was regained. The pressure decreases and gas hydrate dissociation led to highly variable two phase fluid flow throughout the duration of the simulated production test. The flow rates were measured continuously (gas) and discontinuously (liquid), respectively. Next to being discussed here, both rates were used to verify a model of gas

  8. Construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rafizul, Islam M; Howlader, Milon Kanti; Alamgir, Muhammed

    2012-11-01

    This research concentrates the design, construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter at KUET campus, Khulna, Bangladesh. Both the aerobic and anaerobic conditions having a base liner and two different types of cap liner were simulated. After the design of a reference cell, the construction of landfill lysimeter was started in January 2008 and completed in July 2008. In all construction process locally available civil construction materials were used. The municipal solid waste (MSW) of 2800-2985 kg having the total volume of 2.80 m(3) (height 1.6 m) and moisture content of 65% was deposited in each lysimeter by applying required compaction energy. In contrast, both the composition in terms of methane (CH(4)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and oxygen (O(2)) as well as the flow rate of landfill gas (LFG) generated from MSW in landfill lysimeter were measured and varied significantly in relation to the variation of lysimeter operational condition. Moreover, anaerobic lysimeter-C shows the highest composition of LFG in compare to the anaerobic lysimeter-B due to the providing of lower compaction of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-C. Here, it is interesting to note that in absence of compacted clay liner (CCL) and hence percolation of rainwater that facilitates rapid degradation of MSW in aerobic lysimeter-A has resulted in the highest settlement than that of anaerobic landfill lysimeter-B and C. Moreover, in case of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, the leachate generation was lower than that of aerobic lysimeter-A due to the providing of cap liner in anaerobic lysimeter-B and C, played an important role to reduce the percolation of rainwater. The study also reveals that the leachate pollution index (LPI) has decreased in relation to the increasing of elapsed period as well as the LPI for collection system of aerobic lysimeter-A was higher than that of the collection system of anaerobic lysimeter-B and C. Finally, it can be depicted that LPI for lysimeter

  9. Pilot Subjective Assessments During an Investigation of Separation Function Allocation Using a Human-In-The-Loop Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kelly A.; Wing, David J.; Lewis, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Two human-in-the-loop simulation experiments were conducted to investigate allocation of separation assurance functions between ground and air and between humans and automation. The experiments modeled a mixed-operations concept in which aircraft receiving ground-based separation services shared the airspace with aircraft providing their own separation service (i.e., self-separation). The two experiments, one pilot-focused and the other controller-focused, addressed selected key issues of mixed operations and modeling an emergence of NextGen technologies and procedures. This paper focuses on the results of the subjective assessments of pilots collected during the pilot-focused human-in-the-loop simulation, specifically workload and situation awareness. Generally the results revealed that across all conditions, pilots' perceived workload was low to medium, with the highest reported levels of workload occurring when the pilots experienced a loss of separation during the scenario. Furthermore, the results from the workload data and situation awareness data were complimentary such that when pilots reported lower levels of workload they also experienced higher levels of situation awareness.

  10. A high-fidelity batch simulation environment for integrated batch and piloted air combat simulation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Mcmanus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics and to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics, and databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. A Tactical Autopilot is implemented in the aircraft simulation model to convert guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft.

  11. Application of Piloted Simulation to High-Angle-of-Attack Flight-Dynamics Research for Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogburn, Marilyn E.; Foster, John V.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of piloted simulation at Langley Research Center as part of the NASA High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP), which was created to provide concepts and methods for the design of advanced fighter aircraft. A major research activity within this program is the development of the design processes required to take advantage of the benefits of advanced control concepts for high-angle-of-attack agility. Fundamental methodologies associated with the effective use of piloted simulation for this research are described, particularly those relating to the test techniques, validation of the test results, and design guideline/criteria development.

  12. Chest infection following head and neck surgery: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Morton, R P; Mellow, C G; Dorman, E B

    1990-08-01

    This paper reports the results of a pilot study which examined factors associated with chest infection following head and neck surgery. The overall rate of chest infection was 11%, but was 20% in those patients having a tracheotomy. No infection developed in patients with an intact airway. Other factors which emerged as possibly important were the duration of surgery and heavy regular alcohol intake. We recommend that prophylactic antibiotics be continued for at least 48 h in patients requiring a tracheotomy as part of their head and neck surgery. This is against the trend of shorter antibiotic regimens recommended for prevention of wound infections.

  13. A flight investigation of simulated data-link communications during single-pilot IFR flight. Volume 1: Experimental design and initial test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. F., Jr.; Duffy, J. W.; Christensen, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    A Flight Data Console simulation of a digital communication link to replace the current voice communication system used in air traffic control (ATC) was developed. The study determined how a digital communications system reduces cockpit workload, improve, flight proficiency, and is acceptable to general aviation pilots. It is shown that instrument flight, including approach and landing, can be accomplished by using a digital data link system for ATC communication.

  14. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.

    2011-05-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to resuspend the MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles so that they can be removed from the tank, and to suspend the MST so it can contact strontium and actinides. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5, B3, and B1). Previous testing showed that three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank, and to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST and CST that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 84% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (2) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST, CST, and simulated sludge that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 82% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (3) A contact time of 6-12 hours is needed for strontium sorption by MST in a jet mixed tank with cooling coils, which is consistent with bench-scale testing and actinide removal process (ARP) operation.

  15. Development of a Burn Escharotomy Assessment Tool: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ur, Rebecca; Holmes, James H; Johnson, James E; Molnar, Joseph A; Carter, Jeffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Severe burn injuries can require escharotomies which are urgent, infrequent, and relatively high-risk procedures necessary to preserve limb perfusion and sometimes ventilation. The American Burn Association Advanced Burn Life Support© course educates surgeons and emergency providers about escharotomy incisions but lacks a biomimetic trainer to demonstrate, practice, or provide assessment. The goal was to build an affordable biomimetic trainer with discrete points of failure and pilot a validation study. Fellowship-trained burn and plastic surgeons worked with special effect artists and anatomists to develop a biomimetic trainer with three discrete points of failure: median or ulnar nerve injury, fasciotomy, and failure to check distal pulse. Participants were divided between experienced and inexperienced, survey pre- and post-procedure on a biomimetic model while being timed. The trainer total cost per participant was less than $35. Eighteen participants were involved in the study. The inexperienced (0-1 prior escharotomies performed) had significantly more violations at the discrete points of failure relative to more experienced participants (P = .036). Face validity was assessed with 100% of participants agreement that the model appeared similar to real life and was valuable in their training. Given the advancements in biomimetic models and the need to train surgeons in how to perform infrequent, emergent surgical procedures, an escharotomy trainer is needed today. The authors developed an affordable model with a successful pilot study demonstrating discrimination between experienced and inexperienced surgeons. Additional research is needed to increase the reliability and assessment metrics.

  16. Astronauts Young and Duke study rock formations on simulated lunar traverse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronauts John W. Young, right, prime crew commander for Apollo 16, and Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, study rock formations along their simulated lunar traverse route. The prime and backup commanders and lunar module pilots for Apollo 16 took part in the two-day geology field trip and simulations in the Coso Range, near Ridgecrest, California. The training was conducted at the U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station.

  17. An investigation of motion base cueing and G-seat cueing on pilot performance in a simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckissick, B. T.; Ashworth, B. R.; Parrish, R. V.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of G-seat cueing (GSC) and motion-base cueing (MBC) on performance of a pursuit-tracking task is studied using the visual motion simulator (VMS) at Langley Research Center. The G-seat, the six-degree-of-freedom synergistic platform motion system, the visual display, the cockpit hardware, and the F-16 aircraft mathematical model are characterized. Each of 8 active F-15 pilots performed the 2-min-43-sec task 10 times for each experimental mode: no cue, GSC, MBC, and GSC + MBC; the results were analyzed statistically in terms of the RMS values of vertical and lateral tracking error. It is shown that lateral error is significantly reduced by either GSC or MBC, and that the combination of cues produces a further, significant decrease. Vertical error is significantly decreased by GSC with or without MBC, whereas MBC effects vary for different pilots. The pattern of these findings is roughly duplicated in measurements of stick force applied for roll and pitch correction.

  18. Piloted simulation of an air-ground profile negotiation process in a time-based Air Traffic Control environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Green, Steven M.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, development of airborne flight management systems (FMS) and ground-based air traffic control (ATC) systems has tended to focus on different objectives with little consideration for operational integration. A joint program, between NASA's Ames Research Center (Ames) and Langley Research Center (Langley), is underway to investigate the issues of, and develop systems for, the integration of ATC and airborne automation systems. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate a profile negotiation process (PNP) between the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) and an aircraft equipped with a four-dimensional flight management system (4D FMS). Prototype procedures were developed to support the functional implementation of this process. The PNP was designed to provide an arrival trajectory solution which satisfies the separation requirements of ATC while remaining as close as possible to the aircraft's preferred trajectory. Results from the experiment indicate the potential for successful incorporation of aircraft-preferred arrival trajectories in the CTAS automation environment. Fuel savings on the order of 2 percent to 8 percent, compared to fuel required for the baseline CTAS arrival speed strategy, were achieved in the test scenarios. The data link procedures and clearances developed for this experiment, while providing the necessary functionality, were found to be operationally unacceptable to the pilots. In particular, additional pilot control and understanding of the proposed aircraft-preferred trajectory, and a simplified clearance procedure were cited as necessary for operational implementation of the concept.

  19. Head-up transition behavior of pilots during simulated low-visibility approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Each of 13 commercial pilots from four airlines flew a total of 108 manual flight director approaches in a moving base simulation of a medium-sized turbojet (95,000 lb gross weight) which had a day and night Redifon external scene. Three levels of runway visual range (RVR) (1,600; 2,400; and greater than 8,000 ft), three wind-shear profiles, nine ceiling heights, and continuous and intermittent visibility after initial breakout were tested. The results indicated that: (1) mean decision time ranged from 2 to 4.6 sec for ceilings under 380 ft across the three RVR conditions; (2) mean vertical distance traveled during the visual-cue assessment period was a relatively constant proportion below the existing ceiling; (3) a significant three way interaction in mean decision time between wind shear, day-night, and ceiling RVR variables occurred; (4) mean number of head-up transitions to VFR conditions after breakout ranged from 4.6 to 13.4 and increased as a function of ceiling and severity of wind shear; the typical duration of fixation out the window was 1.5 sec; and (5) subjective pilot ratings of controllability and precision of control as well as amount of skill, attention, or effort required to make the landing were influenced significantly by the wind shear, night conditions, and low breakout ceiling conditions.

  20. Pilot walnut intervention study of urolithin bioavailability in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pfundstein, Beate; Haubner, Roswitha; Würtele, Gerd; Gehres, Nicole; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W

    2014-10-22

    A pilot intervention study was conducted in human volunteers (n = 4) to establish the bioavailability of urolithins, which are the terminal end-products of ellagitannin metabolism by the gastrointestinal microflora. Biospecimens (blood, feces, and urine) along with urolithins purified therefrom were analyzed for their antioxidant capacity in a range of in vitro assays. Urolithin metabolites were identified and quantitated in the biospecimens by negative ion mode HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. The data in this pilot study show that the metabolism of ellagitannins in the four volunteers gave rise to a diverse profile and a highly variable concentration of urolithins in urine. The concentration of glucuronidated urolithins in blood and urine did not correlate with antioxidant capacity. However, the antioxidant capacity of urine, but not plasma biospecimens, was highly correlated with uric acid concentration. The antioxidant capacity of fecal extracts correlated positively with the concentration of urolithin D in both the DPPH and FRAP assays, but not in the ORAC assay, which was entirely consistent with the in vitro assays for pure urolithin D.

  1. Quality assurance project plan: 1991 EMAP wetlands southeastern pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, E.M.; Lee, J.M.; Turner, R.E.

    1992-12-01

    The goal of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program - Wetlands (EMAP-Wetlands) Southeastern Pilot Study is to develop field indicators of salt marsh condition. These indicators are of four general types: (1) vegetation; (2) hydrology; (3) soil parameters; and (4) soil constituents. Field measurements and samples will be collected during late summer/early fall in 1991 and will be analyzed to identify which indicators and measurements best delineate salt marsh in good condition from that in impaired condition. Thus the project will involve field work, laboratory analysis, and data analysis. Results from this project will be used to establish criteria and parameters for long-term monitoring and assessment of salt marshes, particularly those parameters that may serve as indicators of healthy salt marsh and deteriorated salt marsh. Since EMAP-Wetlands-Southeastern is a pilot study, the measurement criteria will be evaluated as one of the project goals. Of concern will be how well the standardized sampling methods performed in actual field conditions, and which of these methods can be used to assess and characterize salt marshes.

  2. Feasibility Pilot Study: Training Soft Skills in Virtual Worlds.

    PubMed

    Abshier, Patricia

    2012-04-01

    In a world where funding is limited, training for healthcare professionals is turning more and more to distance learning in an effort to maintain a knowledgeable and skilled work force. In 2010, Cicatelli Associates, Inc. began exploring the feasibility of using games and virtual worlds as an alternative means to teach skills-training in a distance-learning environment. The pilot study was conducted with six individuals familiar with general counseling and communication skills used by the healthcare industry to promote behavior change. Participants reported that the venue, although challenging at first, showed great potential for use with healthcare providers, as it allowed for more interaction and activities than traditional Webinars. However, there are significant limitations that must be overcome in order for this healthcare training modality to be utilized on a large scale. These limitations included a lack of microgestures and issues regarding the technology being used. In spite of the limitations, however, the potential use of virtual worlds for the training of healthcare providers exists and should be researched further. This article discusses the need and intended benefits of virtual world training as well as the results and conclusions of the pilot study. PMID:26193192

  3. Feasibility Pilot Study: Training Soft Skills in Virtual Worlds.

    PubMed

    Abshier, Patricia

    2012-04-01

    In a world where funding is limited, training for healthcare professionals is turning more and more to distance learning in an effort to maintain a knowledgeable and skilled work force. In 2010, Cicatelli Associates, Inc. began exploring the feasibility of using games and virtual worlds as an alternative means to teach skills-training in a distance-learning environment. The pilot study was conducted with six individuals familiar with general counseling and communication skills used by the healthcare industry to promote behavior change. Participants reported that the venue, although challenging at first, showed great potential for use with healthcare providers, as it allowed for more interaction and activities than traditional Webinars. However, there are significant limitations that must be overcome in order for this healthcare training modality to be utilized on a large scale. These limitations included a lack of microgestures and issues regarding the technology being used. In spite of the limitations, however, the potential use of virtual worlds for the training of healthcare providers exists and should be researched further. This article discusses the need and intended benefits of virtual world training as well as the results and conclusions of the pilot study.

  4. Regaining Lost Separation in a Piloted Simulation of Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Eischeid, Todd M.; Palmer, Michael T.; Wing, David J.

    2002-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating a new concept of operations for the National Airspace System, designed to improve capacity while maintaining or improving current levels of safety. This concept, known as Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM), allows appropriately equipped autonomous aircraft to maneuver freely for flight optimization while resolving conflicts with other traffic and staying out of special use airspace and hazardous weather. While Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) tools would normally allow pilots to resolve conflicts before they become hazardous, evaluation of system performance in sudden, near-term conflicts is needed in order to determine concept feasibility. If an acceptable safety level can be demonstrated in these situations, then operations may be conducted with lower separation minimums. An experiment was conducted in NASA Langley s Air Traffic Operations Lab to address issues associated with resolving near-term conflicts and the potential use of lower separation minimums. Sixteen commercial airline pilots flew a total of 32 traffic scenarios that required them to use prototype ASAS tools to resolve close range pop-up conflicts. Required separation standards were set at either 3 or 5 NM lateral spacing, with 1000 ft vertical separation being used for both cases. Reducing the lateral separation from 5 to 3 NM did not appear to increase operational risk, as indicated by the proximity to the intruder aircraft. Pilots performed better when they followed tactical guidance cues provided by ASAS than when they didn't follow the guidance. As air-air separation concepts are evolved, further studies will consider integration issues between ASAS and existing Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS).These types of non-normal events will require the ASAS to provide effective alerts and resolutions prior to the time that an Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) would give a Resolution Advisory (RA). When an RA is issued, a

  5. Solvent extraction of methane from simulated geopressured-geothermal fluids: sub-pilot test results

    SciTech Connect

    Quong, R.; Otsuki, H.H.; Locke, F.E.

    1982-01-14

    The extraction of methane dissolved in 15 wt % sodium chloride solution at 150/sup 0/C and 1000 psi has been demonstrated using n-hexadecane as the solvent in a sub-pilot scale extraction column operated in a continuous, countercurrent flow mode. Greater than 90% recovery of methane was obtained with solvent/brine mass flow ratios in the range of .040 to .045. The height of an ideal stage in this experimental Elgin-type spray column is estimated to be 1.5 ft. Application of this process on actual geopressured fluids is technically feasible, and when combined with direct drive injection disposal is economically attractive. Design and operation of a methane saturated-brine supply system to provide simulated geopressured fluid continuously at 150/sup 0/C and 1000 psi are also described.

  6. A mathematical model of a single main rotor helicopter for piloted simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, P. D.; Tinling, B. E.; Decker, W. A.; Chen, R. T. N.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical model, suitable for piloted simulation of the flying qualities of helicopters, is a nonlinear, total force and moment model of a single main rotor helicopter. The model has ten degrees of freedom: six rigid body, three rotor flapping, and the rotor rotational degrees of freedom. The rotor model assumes rigid blades with rotor forces and moments radially integrated and summed about the azimuth. The fuselage aerodynamic model uses a detailed representation over a nominal angle of attack and sideslip range of + or - 15 deg., as well as a simplified curve fit at large angles of attack or sideslip. Stabilizing surface aerodynamics are modeled with a lift curve slope between stall limits and a general curve fit for large angles of attack. A generalized stability and control augmentation system is described. Additional computer subroutines provide options for a simplified engine/governor model, atmospheric turbulence, and a linearized six degree of freedom dynamic model for stability and control analysis.

  7. Wellbore simulation - case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Freeston, Derek; Gunn, Calum

    1993-01-28

    The use of a wellbore simulator, WELLSIM, to characterise the effects of multi-feed inflow on wellbore pressure-temperature characteristics, and diameter changes to a well on the deliverability curve, is discussed. Matching analyses are performed with the simulator on a well which has a number of two-phase and liquid infeeds, and it is demonstrated that good matches to both pressure and temperature profiles can be achieved. The significance of the reservoir/feed response curve for a steam well is illustrated, and the optimisation of wellbore diameter is shown to be related to whether the discharge is wellbore or reservoir controlled.

  8. Piloted Simulation Assessment of a High-Speed Civil Transport Configuration. [conducted with the Langley six-degree-of-freedom Visual Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Raney, David L.; Glaab, Louis J.; Derry, Stephen D.

    2002-01-01

    An assessment of a proposed configuration of a high-speed civil transport was conducted by using NASA and industry research pilots. The assessment was conducted to evaluate operational aspects of the configuration from a pilot's perspective, with the primary goal being to identify potential deficiencies in the configuration. The configuration was evaluated within and at the limits of the design operating envelope to determine the suitability of the configuration to maneuver in a typical mission as well as in emergency or envelope-limit conditions. The Cooper-Harper rating scale was used to evaluate the flying qualities of the configuration. A summary flying qualities metric was also calculated. The assessment was performed in the Langley six-degree-of-freedom Visual Motion Simulator. The effect of a restricted cockpit field-of-view due to obstruction by the vehicle nose was not included in this study. Tasks include landings, takeoffs, climbs, descents, overspeeds, coordinated turns, and recoveries from envelope limit excursions. Emergencies included engine failures, loss of stability augmentation, engine inlet unstarts, and emergency descents. Minimum control speeds and takeoff decision, rotation, and safety speeds were also determined.

  9. Connecting Primary Health Care: A Comprehensive Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudloo, Mehran; Abolhassani, Farid; Lotfibakhshaiesh, Nasrin

    2016-07-01

    The collection of data within the primary health care facilities in Iran is essentially paper-based. It is focused on family's health, monitoring of non-infectious and infectious diseases. Clearly due to the paper-based nature of the tasks, timely decision making at most can be difficult if not impossible. As part of an on-going electronic health record implementation project at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, for the first time in the region, based on a comprehensive pilot project, four urban healthcare facilities are connected to their headquarters and beyond, covering all aspects of primary health care, for the last four years. Without delving into the technical aspects of its software engineering processes, the progress of the implementation is reported, selection of summarized data is presented, and experience gained thus far are discussed. Four years passed and if time is any important reason to go by, then it is safe to accept that the software architecture and electronic health record structural model implemented are robust and yet extensible. Aims and duration of a pilot study should be clearly defined prior to start and managed till its completion. Resistance to change and particularly to information technology, apart from its technical aspects, is also based on human factors. PMID:27424015

  10. Using singing to nurture children's hearing? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Welch, Graham F; Saunders, Jo; Edwards, Sian; Palmer, Zoe; Himonides, Evangelos; Knight, Julian; Mahon, Merle; Griffin, Susanna; Vickers, Deborah A

    2015-09-01

    This article reports a pilot study of the potential benefits of a sustained programme of singing activities on the musical behaviours and hearing acuity of young children with hearing impairment (HI). Twenty-nine children (n=12 HI and n=17 NH) aged between 5 and 7 years from an inner-city primary school in London participated, following appropriate ethical approval. The predominantly classroom-based programme was designed by colleagues from the UCL Institute of Education and UCL Ear Institute in collaboration with a multi-arts charity Creative Futures and delivered by an experienced early years music specialist weekly across two school terms. There was a particular emphasis on building a repertoire of simple songs with actions and allied vocal exploration. Musical learning was also supported by activities that drew on visual imagery for sound and that included simple notation and physical gesture. An overall impact assessment of the pilot programme embraced pre- and post-intervention measures of pitch discrimination, speech perception in noise and singing competency. Subsequent statistical data analyses suggest that the programme had a positive impact on participant children's singing range, particularly (but not only) for HI children with hearing aids, and also in their singing skills. HI children's pitch perception also improved measurably over time. Findings imply that all children, including those with HI, can benefit from regular and sustained access to age-appropriate musical activities.

  11. Using singing to nurture children's hearing? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Welch, Graham F; Saunders, Jo; Edwards, Sian; Palmer, Zoe; Himonides, Evangelos; Knight, Julian; Mahon, Merle; Griffin, Susanna; Vickers, Deborah A

    2015-09-01

    This article reports a pilot study of the potential benefits of a sustained programme of singing activities on the musical behaviours and hearing acuity of young children with hearing impairment (HI). Twenty-nine children (n=12 HI and n=17 NH) aged between 5 and 7 years from an inner-city primary school in London participated, following appropriate ethical approval. The predominantly classroom-based programme was designed by colleagues from the UCL Institute of Education and UCL Ear Institute in collaboration with a multi-arts charity Creative Futures and delivered by an experienced early years music specialist weekly across two school terms. There was a particular emphasis on building a repertoire of simple songs with actions and allied vocal exploration. Musical learning was also supported by activities that drew on visual imagery for sound and that included simple notation and physical gesture. An overall impact assessment of the pilot programme embraced pre- and post-intervention measures of pitch discrimination, speech perception in noise and singing competency. Subsequent statistical data analyses suggest that the programme had a positive impact on participant children's singing range, particularly (but not only) for HI children with hearing aids, and also in their singing skills. HI children's pitch perception also improved measurably over time. Findings imply that all children, including those with HI, can benefit from regular and sustained access to age-appropriate musical activities. PMID:26561889

  12. Caffeine Awareness in Children: Insights from a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Thakre, Tushar P.; Deoras, Ketan; Griffin, Catherine; Vemana, Aarthi; Podmore, Petra; Krishna, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Caffeine, a commonly consumed psychoactive substance, can have significant effects on sleep. Caffeine intake among children is increasing, mainly in the form of sodas. However, adolescent caffeine consumers may lack knowledge about the caffeine content in common beverages. If true, this very fact may hamper the assessment of the effects of caffeine consumption on sleep in children if such assessments are a priori dependent on responders being able to reliably distinguish between caffeinated and noncaffeinated beverages. This preliminary study investigated adolescents' caffeine knowledge and intake at a Cleveland-area public middle school. Methods: Seventh- and eighth-grade students were surveyed using: (1) the Caffeine Literacy and Sleep Study (CLASS), a 15-question pilot instrument designed to assess caffeine knowledge and intake by type, quantity and timing, as well as sleep habits; and (2) the Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (CASQ), a validated survey measuring excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. These questionnaires were distributed and collected during a specified class period. Results: Of the 635 seventh- and eighth-grade students who attended school on the day of the study, 555 (87%) participated. Lack of knowledge about caffeine content of particular drinks was noted in seventh and eighth graders of both sexes with nearly 29% unaware that their favorite drinks contain caffeine and more than 50% unable to correctly identify the drinks with the most caffeine. A low percentage of students correctly identified light-colored sodas lacking caffeine: 7-Up (24.1%), Sierra Mist (38.9%), ginger ale (39.8%), Sprite (39.8%), and Fresca (53.7%). The percentages of students correctly identifying caffeinated light-colored beverages were: Arizona Green Tea (43.5%), Mello Yellow (50.9%), and A&W cream soda (67.6%). However, Mountain Dew was correctly identified by most (93.5%) as caffeinated. Conclusions: Students were not

  13. Experimental Study of Collision Detection Schema Used by Pilots During Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.; Hansman, R. John

    1996-01-01

    An experimental flight simulator study was conducted to examine the mental alerting logic and thresholds used by subjects to issue an alert and execute an avoidance maneuver. Subjects flew a series of autopilot landing approaches with traffic on a closely-spaced parallel approach; during some runs, the traffic would deviate towards the subject and the subject was to indicate the point when they recognized the potential traffic conflict, and then indicate a direction of flight for an avoidance maneuver. A variety of subjects, including graduate students, general aviation pilots and airline pilots, were tested. Five traffic displays were evaluated, with a moving map TCAS-type traffic display as a baseline. A side-task created both high and low workload situations. Subjects appeared to use the lateral deviation of the intruder aircraft from its approach path as the criteria for an alert regardless of the display available. However, with displays showing heading and/or trend information, their alerting thresholds were significantly lowered. This type of range-only schema still resulted in many near misses, as a high convergence rate was often established by the time of the subject's alert. Therefore, the properties of the intruder's trajectory had the greatest effect on the resultant near miss rate; no display system reliably caused alerts timely enough for certain collision avoidance. Subjects' performance dropped significantly on a side-task while they analyzed the need for an alert, showing alert generation can be a high workload situation at critical times. No variation was found between subjects with and with out piloting experience. These results suggest the design of automatic alerting systems should take into account the range-type alerting schema used by the human, such that the rationale for the automatic alert should be obvious to, and trusted by, the operator. Although careful display design may help generate pilot/automation trust, issues such as user non

  14. Enhancing Patient Safety Using Clinical Nursing Data: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeeyae; Choi, Jeungok E

    2016-01-01

    To enhance patient safety from falls, many hospital information systems have been implemented to collect clinical data from the bedside and have used the information to improve fall prevention care. However, most of them use administrative data not clinical nursing data. This necessitated the development of a web-based Nursing Practice and Research Information Management System (NPRIMS) that processes clinical nursing data to measure nurses' delivery of fall prevention care and its impact on patient outcomes. This pilot study developed computer algorithms based on a falls prevention protocol and programmed the prototype NPRIMS. It successfully measured the performance of nursing care delivered and its impact on patient outcomes using clinical nursing data from the study site. Results of the study revealed that NPRIMS has the potential to pinpoint components of nursing processes that are in need of improvement for preventing patient from falls. PMID:27332171

  15. Addressing Control Research Issues Leading to Piloted Simulations in Support of the IFCS F-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Napolitano, Marcello; Perhinschi, Mario; Campa, Giampiero; Seanor, Brad

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the research effort by a team of researchers at West Virginia University in support of the NASA Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) F-15 program. In particular, WVU researchers assisted NASA Dryden researchers in the following technical tasks leading to piloted simulation of the 'Gen_2' IFCS control laws. Task #1- Performance comparison of different neural network (NN) augmentation for the Dynamic Inversion (DI) -based VCAS 'Gen_2' control laws. Task #2- Development of safety monitor criteria for transition to research control laws with and without failure during flight test. Task #3- Fine-tuning of the 'Gen_2' control laws for cross-coupling reduction at post-failure conditions. Matlab/Simulink-based simulation codes were provided to the technical monitor on a regular basis throughout the duration of the project. Additional deliverables for the project were Power Point-based slides prepared for different project meetings. This document provides a description of the methodology and discusses the general conclusions from the simulation results.

  16. Pilot Evaluations of Runway Status Light System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steven D.; Wills, Robert W.; Smith, R. Marshall

    1996-01-01

    This study focuses on use of the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) Simulator at the Langley Research Center to obtain pilot opinion and input on the Federal Aviation Administration's Runway Status Light System (RWSL) prior to installation in an operational airport environment. The RWSL has been designed to reduce the likelihood of runway incursions by visually alerting pilots when a runway is occupied. Demonstrations of the RWSL in the TSRV Simulator allowed pilots to evaluate the system in a realistic cockpit environment.

  17. Motions Recognized through Visual Scene by Pilots and Flight Simulator Tests with Only Lateral-Directional Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Masahito; Kobayashi, Osamu

    A flight simulator must exactly simulate the aircraft motion. So, engineers check if the solution of equations of motion, the calculation of flight positions and attitudes, and then, the drawn-up of visual scenery from cockpit windows according to the calculated positions and attitudes are correct. This paper proposes an additional check if the aircraft motion perceived from visual scenery by pilot is same as the calculated motion. This opinion is applied to the simulation case that just lateral-directional flying qualities are evaluated, and it is found that the pitching motion rate (q) and Euler’s pitch attitude rate (Θ) should not be perfectly neglected (i.e. q=Θ=0) but (q and Θ) should be given assuming steady level turn flight should be given. The flight simulator test showed that the pilot felt more real flight motion and controlled some harder than in the condition of q=Θ=0.

  18. A human laboratory pilot study with baclofen in alcoholic individuals

    PubMed Central

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Zywiak, William H.; McGeary, John E.; Edwards, Steven; Fricchione, Samuel R.; Shoaff, Jessica R.; Addolorato, Giovanni; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies show that the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen may represent a pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence (AD). However, the mechanisms by which baclofen affects drinking are not well characterized; thus this pilot study investigated possible baclofen’s biobehavioral mechanisms. The design was a double-blind controlled randomized human laboratory pilot study. Fourteen non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent heavy drinking subjects received either baclofen 10 mg t.i.d. or an active placebo (cyproheptadine 2 mg t.i.d., to control for sedation) for a 7-day period. At day 8, participants performed an alcohol cue-reactivity (CR) followed by an alcohol self-administration (ASA). Additionally, we explored possible moderators that might guide future larger studies, i.e. anxiety, family history and onset of alcoholism, and D4 dopamine receptor (DRD4) and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms. The main results were a significant effect of baclofen for increasing stimulation (p=.001) and sedation (p<.01). Furthermore, when drinking during the ASA and the 2 days before was analyzed as a composite variable, there was a significant effect of baclofen to reduce alcohol consumption (p<.01). As for the exploratory analyses, baclofen’s effects to increase alcohol sedation and to reduce alcohol consumption were limited to those individuals with DRD4 ≥7 repeats (DRD4L). Yet, baclofen’s effects on alcohol consumption were also moderated by 5-HTTLPR LL genotype. In conclusion, baclofen’s ability to reduce alcohol drinking may be related to its effects on the biphasic effects of alcohol, but larger studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:23262301

  19. Pilot study on agricultural pesticide poisoning in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Mustapha; Ouedraogo, Richard; Ilboudo, Sylvain; Guissou, Pierre I.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic data related to agricultural pesticide poisoning cases in Burkina Faso were collected. The study was carried out using retrospective (from January 2002 to June 2010) surveys conducted among farmers and healthcare centers. One hundred and fifty-three (153) pest control products were recorded during the survey and 56 active ingredients were identified. Out of the 153 pest control products, 49 (i.e. 32%) were authorized for sale in Burkina Faso. The main risk factors are socio-demographic characteristics of farmers, their low education level, and some attitudes and practices on using agricultural pesticides. Pesticide poisonings are relatively frequent and their management was not always efficacious. Actions are needed to reduce pesticide poisoning as a global public health problem and to improve management of pesticide poisoning. To this purpose, advanced investigations should be carried out over a longer period of time to complement the present pilot study. PMID:24678256

  20. Physiologic Pressure and Flow Changes During Parabolic Flight (Pilot Study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantalos, George; Sharp, M. Keith; Mathias, John R.; Hargens, Alan R.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Buckey, Jay C.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain measurement of cutaneous tissue perfusion central and peripheral venous pressure, and esophageal and abdominal pressure in human test subjects during parabolic flight. Hemodynamic data recorded during SLS-I and SLS-2 missions have resulted in the paradoxical finding of increased cardiac stroke volume in the presence of a decreased central venous pressure (CVP) following entry in weightlessness. The investigators have proposed that in the absence of gravity, acceleration-induced peripheral vascular compression is relieved, increasing peripheral vascular capacity and flow while reducing central and peripheral venous pressure, This pilot study seeks to measure blood pressure and flow in human test subjects during parabolic flight for different postures.

  1. Frequency of Mia antigen: A pilot study among blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Chowdhry, Mohit; Rosamma, N.L.; Karna, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    The Miltenberger (Mi) classes represent a group of phenotypes for red cells that carry low frequency antigens associated with the MNSs blood group system. This pilot study was aimed at determining the Mia antigen positivity in the blood donor population in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. The study was performed between June to August 2014 on eligible blood donors willing to participate. Antigen typing was performed using monoclonal anti-Mia antiserum by tube technique. Only one of the 1000 blood donors (0.1%) tested was found to be Mia antigen positive. The Mia antigen can, therefore, be considered as being rare in the Indian blood donor population. PMID:27488007

  2. Initial Piloted Simulation Evaluation of the Reference-H High-Speed Civil Transport Design During Takeoff and Recovery From Limit Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.

    1999-01-01

    An initial assessment of a proposed High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) was conducted in the fall of 1995 at the NASA Langley Research Center. This configuration, known as the Industry Reference-H (Ref.-H), was designed by the Boeing Aircraft Company as part of their work in the High Speed Research program. It included a conventional tail, a cranked-arrow wing, four mixed-flow turbofan engines, and capacity for transporting approximately 300 passengers. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate and quantify operational aspects of the Reference-H configuration from a pilot's perspective with the additional goal of identifying design strengths as well as any potential configuration deficiencies. This study was aimed at evaluating the Ref.-H configuration at many points of the aircraft's envelope to determine the suitability of the vehicle to accomplish typical mission profiles as well as emergency or envelope-limit conditions. Pilot-provided Cooper-Harper ratings and comments constituted the primary vehicle evaluation metric. The analysis included simulated real-time piloted evaluations, performed in a 6 degree of freedom motion base NASA Langley Visual-Motion Simulator, combined with extensive bath analysis. The assessment was performed using the third major release of the simulation data base (known as Ref.-H cycle 2B).

  3. Study to determine the IFR operational profile and problems of the general aviation single pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weislogel, G. S.

    1983-01-01

    General aviation single pilot operating under instrument flight rules (GA SPIFR) was studied. The objectives of the study were to (1) develop a GA SPIFR operational profile, (2) identify problems experienced by the GA SPIFR pilot, and (3) identify research tasks which have the potential for eliminating or reducing the severity of the problems. To obtain the information necessary to accomplish these objectives, a mail questionnaire survey of instrument rated pilots was conducted. The general aviation IFR single pilot operational profile and selected data analysis examples are presented.

  4. Simulating Visual Attention Allocation of Pilots in an Advanced Cockpit Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frische, F.; Osterloh, J.-P.; Luedtke, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the results of experiments conducted with human line pilots and a cognitive pilot model during interaction with a new 40 Flight Management System (FMS). The aim of these experiments was to gather human pilot behavior data in order to calibrate the behavior of the model. Human behavior is mainly triggered by visual perception. Thus, the main aspect was to setup a profile of human pilots' visual attention allocation in a cockpit environment containing the new FMS. We first performed statistical analyses of eye tracker data and then compared our results to common results of familiar analyses in standard cockpit environments. The comparison has shown a significant influence of the new system on the visual performance of human pilots. Further on, analyses of the pilot models' visual performance have been performed. A comparison to human pilots' visual performance revealed important improvement potentials.

  5. A real time Pegasus propulsion system model for VSTOL piloted simulation evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, J. R.; Roth, S. P.; Creekmore, R.

    1981-01-01

    A real time propulsion system modeling technique suitable for use in man-in-the-loop simulator studies was developd. This technique provides the system accuracy, stability, and transient response required for integrated aircraft and propulsion control system studies. A Pegasus-Harrier propulsion system was selected as a baseline for developing mathematical modeling and simulation techniques for VSTOL. Initially, static and dynamic propulsion system characteristics were modeled in detail to form a nonlinear aerothermodynamic digital computer simulation of a Pegasus engine. From this high fidelity simulation, a real time propulsion model was formulated by applying a piece-wise linear state variable methodology. A hydromechanical and water injection control system was also simulated. The real time dynamic model includes the detail and flexibility required for the evaluation of critical control parameters and propulsion component limits over a limited flight envelope. The model was programmed for interfacing with a Harrier aircraft simulation. Typical propulsion system simulation results are presented.

  6. Social Media in Adolescent Health Literacy Education: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Carrie KW; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda SS

    2015-01-01

    Background While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual’s approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. Objective The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube - in supporting adolescents’ oral health literacy (OHL) education. Methods A random sample of 22 adolescents (aged 14-16 years) from an English-medium international school in Hong Kong provided informed consent. Sociodemographic information, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience were collected via a questionnaire. A pre- and post-test of OHL (REALD-30) was administered by two trained, calibrated examiners. Following pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three social media outlets: Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube. Participants received alerts posted daily for 5 consecutive days requiring online accessing of modified and original OHL education materials. One-way ANOVA ( analysis of variance) was used to compare the mean difference between the pre- and the post-test results among the three social media. Results No associations were found between the social media allocated and participants’ sociodemographics, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience. Of the three social media, significant differences in literacy assessment scores were evident for participants who received oral health education messages via Facebook (P=.02) and YouTube (P=.005). Conclusions Based on the results of the pilot study, Facebook and YouTube may be more efficient media outlets for OHL promotion and education among adolescent school children when compared to Twitter. Further

  7. Pilot study of a submerged membrane bioreactor for water reclamation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jian-Jun; Oo, Maung Htun; Tao, Guihe; Kekre, Kiran A; Hashimoto, Tomotaka

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the operational conditions of newly developed MBR modules for water reclamation under tropical conditions. MUDC-620A MBR modules with hollow fibre PVDF membranes from Asahi-Kasei Chemicals were used in the study. The pilot plant with capacity of 50 m(3)/d was operated continuously (24-hour) over four months on site of Ulu Pandan Water Reclamation Plant (UPWRP) in Singapore. During the study, the MLSS in membrane tank was in the range of 6,840 approximately 9,540 mg/L. Filtration operation mode of the membrane unit was 9 minutes on production and 1 minute backwash. The air scouring for the membranes was 0.18-0.30 Nm(3)/h per m(2) membrane area all of the time. Trials on different membrane fluxes were conducted to obtain the sustainable flux. The analytical results showed that COD, TOC, T-N and NH4-N of the treated water were <30 mg/L, 5-7 mg/L, <13 mg/L and <0.1 mg/L, respectively, which met the requirement of Industrial Water for reuse. TMP was in the range of 12-40 kPa and could be recovered after cleaning with 2,000 mg/L sodium hypochlorite solution. Sludge clogging could be a challenge for long-term operation with the current module design. It was concluded that it was feasible for MUDC-620A MBR to operate at a net flux of 25-29 LMH (or 0.6-0.7 m/d) for treating the municipal wastewater at UPWRP.

  8. Study Skills Analysis: A Pilot Study Linking a Success and Psychology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urciuoli, Jannette Alejandra; Bluestone, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    This study explored a concept that learning study skills in the context of the content area under study may transfer across courses, multiplying the benefits towards academic success. Methods that have been reported to influence academic growth at the community college level include success courses and applied study skills. In this pilot project…

  9. Fighter Pilot Ejection Study as an Educational Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Garry; Jovanoski, Zlatko

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we apply the well-known equations of projectile motion to the case of a fighter pilot ejecting from an aircraft, the aim being to establish under what conditions there is danger of impact with the rear vertical stabilizer. The drag force on the pilot after ejection is assumed to vary as the velocity squared and the aircraft motion…

  10. Shared Decision Making for Routine Infant Circumcision: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Teri M.; Beal, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is important that expectant parents receive accurate information about the benefits and risks of circumcision as well as the benefits and risks of having an intact foreskin when making a decision about routine infant circumcision (RIC). A pilot study was conducted using the shared decision making (SDM) conceptual model to guide expectant parents through a 3-phase decision-making program about RIC as part of their childbirth education class. The participants showed a high level of preparedness following each of the 3 phases. Preparedness score were highest for those who decided to keep their expected sons’ penises natural. This SDM program was an effective way of guiding expectant parents through the decision-making process for RIC. PMID:26834440

  11. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in anorexia nervosa: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van den Eynde, F; Guillaume, S; Broadbent, H; Campbell, I C; Schmidt, U

    2013-02-01

    The search for new treatments to improve outcome in people with anorexia nervosa continues. This pilot study investigated whether one session of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) delivered to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reduces eating disorder related symptoms following exposure to visual and real food stimuli. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Ten right-handed people with anorexia nervosa underwent one session of rTMS. Subjective experiences related to the eating disorder (e.g. urge to restrict, feeling full etc.) were assessed before and after rTMS. Non-parametric repeated measures tests were used. rTMS was safe and well-tolerated, and resulted in reduced levels of feeling full, feeling fat and feeling anxious. Thus, rTMS may reduce core symptoms of anorexia nervosa. Future research should establish the therapeutic potential of rTMS in anorexia nervosa. PMID:21880470

  12. Familial Paraphilia: A Pilot Study with the Construction of Genograms

    PubMed Central

    Labelle, Alain; Bourget, Dominique; Bradford, John M. W.; Alda, Martin; Tessier, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Biological factors are likely predisposing and modulating elements in sexually deviant behavior. The observation that paraphilic behavior tends to cluster in some families is intriguing and potentially raises questions as to whether shared genetic factors may play a role in the transmission of paraphilia. This pilot study introduces five families in which we found presence of paraphilia over generations. We constructed genograms on the basis of a standardized family history. Results document the aggregation of sexual deviations within the sample of families and support a clinical/phenomenological heterogeneity of sexual deviation. The concept of paraphilia in relation to phenotypic expressions and the likelihood of a spectrum of related disorders must be clarified before conclusions can be reached as to family aggregation of paraphilia based on biological factors. PMID:23738209

  13. A pilot binational study of health behaviors and immigration.

    PubMed

    Hennessy-Burt, Tamara E; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T; Meneses-González, Fernando; Schenker, Marc B

    2011-12-01

    In the US, Mexican immigrant women often have better health outcomes than non-Hispanic white women despite a greater health risk profile. This cross-sectional pilot study compared women living in Chavinda, Michoacán (n = 102) to women who had migrated from Mexico to Madera, California (n = 93). The interview gathered information on acculturation and risk behaviors including smoking, alcohol use and number of sexual partners. The results suggest that more acculturated women living in the US are more likely to consume alcohol. US residence and higher acculturation level was marginally associated with having more than one sexual partner. There were no differences between odds of smoking among Chavinda and Madera women. While results with acculturation are not consistently significant due to small sample sizes, the results are suggestive that acculturation among immigrant Hispanic women in the US may be associated with adverse health behaviors, and selective migration seems less likely to account for these differences.

  14. Impact of nutrition messages on children's food choice: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Katie; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2006-03-01

    This pilot study tested the influence of nutrition message framing on snack choice among kindergarteners. Three classrooms were randomly assigned to watch one of the following 60s videos: (a) a gain-framed nutrition message (i.e. the positive benefits of eating apples) (n=14); (b) a loss-framed message (i.e. the negative consequences of not eating apples) (n=18); or (c) a control scene (children playing a game) (n=18). Following this, the children were offered a choice between animal crackers and an apple for their snack. Among the children who saw one of the nutrition message videos, 56% chose apples rather than animal crackers; in the control condition only 33% chose apples. This difference was statistically significant (chi2=7.56, p<0.01). These results suggest that videos containing nutritional messages may have a positive influence on children's short-term food choices.

  15. Land use mapping in Erie County, Pennsylvania: A pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); May, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility of mapping land use in the Great Lakes Basin area utilizing ERTS-1 data. Small streams were clearly defined by the presence of trees along their length in predominantly agricultural country. Field patterns were easily differentiated from forested areas; dairy and beef farms were differentiated from other farmlands, but no attempt was made to identify crops. Large railroad lines and major highway systems were identified. The city of Erie and several smaller towns were identified, as well as residential areas between these towns, and docks along the shoreline in Erie. Marshes, forests, and beaches within Presque Isle State Park were correctly identified, using the DCLUS program. Bay water was differentiated from lake water, with a small amount of misclassification.

  16. Effects of aquajogging in obese adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Eveline J M; Van Nunen, Annemieke M A; Geenen, Rinie; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2010-01-01

    Aim and Method. To examine in obese people the potential effectiveness of a six-week, two times weekly aquajogging program on body composition, fitness, health-related quality of life, and exercise beliefs. Fifteen otherwise healthy obese persons participated in a pilot study. Results. Total fat mass and waist circumference decreased 1.4 kg (P = .03) and 3.1 cm (P = .005), respectively. The distance in the Six-Minute Walk Test increased 41 meters (P = .001). Three scales of the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite questionnaire improved: physical function (P = .008), self-esteem (P = .004), and public distress (P = .04). Increased perceived exercise benefits (P = .02) and decreased embarrassment (P = .03) were observed. Conclusions. Aquajogging was associated with reduced body fat and waist circumference and improved aerobic fitness and quality of life. These findings suggest the usefulness of conducting a randomized controlled trial with long-term outcome assessments.

  17. Hydro-mechanical simulations of well abandonment at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage verify wellbore system integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Victoria; Kempka, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In geological underground utilisation, operating and abandoned wells have been identified as a main potential leakage pathways for reservoir fluids. In the scope of the well abandonment procedure currently carried out at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage in Germany, a hydro-mechanical model was built to carry out a coupled analysis of the integrity in the entire wellbore system. The main aim of the present study was to assess the impacts of stress changes associated with CO2 injection as well as the cement backfill undertaken in the scope of well abandonment. A numerical model comprising cement sheaths, steel casings, tubing, multiple packers and wellbore annuli was implemented to enable a detailed representation of the entire wellbore system. The numerical model grid has a horizontal discretisation of 5 m x 5 m to focus on near wellbore effects, whereby element sizes increase with increasing distance from the wellbore. Vertical grid discretisation uses a tartan grid type over the entire model thickness of 1,500 m to ensure a sufficient discretisation of all wellbore system elements as well as of the reservoir unit. The total number of elements amounts to 210,672. Mechanical model parameters were taken from geological, drilling, logging and laboratory test data based on Ketzin pilot site-specific information as well as related literature (Kempka et al., 2014). The coupled calculations were performed using an elasto-plastic constitutive law, whereby an initial simulation run ensured a static mechanical equilibrium to represent the initial state before the start of CO2 injection. Thereto, gravitational load of the overburden rocks and pore pressure distribution following available well logs were integrated for initial model parameterisation including a normal faulting stress regime defined by a horizontal to vertical total stress ratio of 0.85. A correction accounting for the temperature and pressure dependent CO2 density was carried out in advance of each

  18. Pilot study of a compassion meditation intervention in chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Chapin, Heather L; Darnall, Beth D; Seppala, Emma M; Doty, James R; Hah, Jennifer M; Mackey, Sean C

    2016-01-01

    Background The emergence of anger as an important predictor of chronic pain outcomes suggests that treatments that target anger may be particularly useful within the context of chronic pain. Eastern traditions prescribe compassion cultivation to treat persistent anger. Compassion cultivation has been shown to influence emotional processing and reduce negativity bias in the contexts of emotional and physical discomfort, thus suggesting it may be beneficial as a dual treatment for pain and anger. Our objective was to conduct a pilot study of a 9-week group compassion cultivation intervention in chronic pain to examine its effect on pain severity, anger, pain acceptance and pain-related interference. We also aimed to describe observer ratings provided by patients’ significant others and secondary effects of the intervention. Methods Pilot clinical trial with repeated measures design that included a within-subjects wait-list control period. Twelve chronic pain patients completed the intervention (F= 10). Data were collected from patients at enrollment, treatment baseline and post-treatment; participant significant others contributed data at the enrollment and post-treatment time points. Results In this predominantly female sample, patients had significantly reduced pain severity and anger and increased pain acceptance at post-treatment compared to treatment baseline. Significant other qualitative data corroborated patient reports for reductions in pain severity and anger. Conclusions Compassion meditation may be a useful adjunctive treatment for reducing pain severity and anger, and for increasing chronic pain acceptance. Patient reported reductions in anger were corroborated by their significant others. The significant other corroborations offer a novel contribution to the literature and highlight the observable emotional and behavioral changes in the patient participants that occurred following the compassion intervention. Future studies may further examine how

  19. Tryptophan degradation in women with breast cancer: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Altered tryptophan metabolism and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity are linked to cancer development and progression. In addition, these biological factors have been associated with the development and severity of neuropsychiatric syndromes, including major depressive disorder. However, this biological mechanism associated with both poor disease outcomes and adverse neuropsychiatric symptoms has received little attention in women with breast cancer. Therefore, a pilot study was undertaken to compare levels of tryptophan and other proteins involved in tryptophan degradation in women with breast cancer to women without cancer, and secondarily, to examine levels in women with breast caner over the course of chemotherapy. Findings Blood samples were collected from women with a recent diagnosis of breast cancer (n = 33) before their first cycle of chemotherapy and after their last cycle of chemotherapy. The comparison group (n = 24) provided a blood sample prior to breast biopsy. Plasma concentrations of tryptophan, kynurenine, and tyrosine were determined. The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (KYN/TRP) was used to estimate indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. On average, the women with breast cancer had lower levels of tryptophan, elevated levels of kynurenine and tyrosine and an increased KYN/TRP ratio compared to women without breast cancer. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the KYN/TRP ratio (p = 0.036), which remained elevated in women with breast cancer throughout the treatment trajectory. Conclusions The findings of this pilot study suggest that increased tryptophan degradation may occur in women with early-stage breast cancer. Given the multifactorial consequences of increased tryptophan degradation in cancer outcomes and neuropsychiatric symptom manifestation, this biological mechanism deserves broader attention in women with breast cancer. PMID:21615916

  20. Pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fow, C.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; Hymas, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    Plans are underway at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to convert the low-level fraction of radioactive liquid wastes to a grout form for permanent disposal. Grout is a mixture of liquid waste and grout formers, including portland cement, fly ash, and clays. In the plan, the grout slurry is pumped to subsurface concrete vaults on the Hanford Site, where the grout will solidify into large monoliths, thereby immobilizing the waste. A similar disposal concept is being planned at the Savannah River Laboratory site. The underground disposal of grout was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1966 and 1984. Design and construction of grout processing and disposal facilities are underway. The Transportable Grout Facility (TGF), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) for the Department of Energy (DOE), is scheduled to grout Phosphate/Sulfate N Reactor Operations Waste (PSW) in FY 1988. Phosphate/Sulfate Waste is a blend of two low-level waste streams generated at Hanford's N Reactor. Other wastes are scheduled to be grouted in subsequent years. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is verifying that Hanford grouts can be safely and efficiently processed. To meet this objective, pilot-scale grout process equipment was installed. On July 29 and 30, 1986, PNL conducted a pilot-scale grout production test for Rockwell. During the test, 16,000 gallons of simulated nonradioactive PSW were mixed with grout formers to produce 22,000 gallons of PSW grout. The grout was pumped at a nominal rate of 15 gpm (about 25% of the nominal production rate planned for the TGF) to a lined and covered trench with a capacity of 30,000 gallons. Emplacement of grout in the trench will permit subsequent evaluation of homogeneity of grout in a large monolith. 12 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Integration of visual and motion cues for simulator requirements and ride quality investigation. [computerized simulation of aircraft landing, visual perception of aircraft pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary tests and evaluation are presented of pilot performance during landing (flight paths) using computer generated images (video tapes). Psychophysiological factors affecting pilot visual perception were measured. A turning flight maneuver (pitch and roll) was specifically studied using a training device, and the scaling laws involved were determined. Also presented are medical studies (abstracts) on human response to gravity variations without visual cues, acceleration stimuli effects on the semicircular canals, and neurons affecting eye movements, and vestibular tests.

  2. Initial Development and Pilot Study Design of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations for ASTRO 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwortz, Andria C.; French, D. A; Gutierrez, Joseph V; Sanchez, Richard L; Slater, Timothy F.; Tatge, Coty

    2014-06-01

    Interactive lecture demonstrations (ILDs) have repeatedly shown to be effective tools for improving student achievement in the context of learning physics. As a first step toward systematic development of interactive lecture demonstrations in ASTRO 101, the introductory astronomy survey course, a systematic review of education research, describing educational computer simulations (ECSs) reveals that initial development requires a targeted study of how ASTRO 101 students respond to ECSs in the non-science majoring undergraduate lecture setting. In this project we have adopted the process by which ILDs were designed, pilot-tested, and successfully implemented in the context of physics teaching (Sokoloff & Thornton, 1997; Sokoloff & Thornton, 2004). We have designed the initial pilot-test set of ASTRO 101 ILD instructional materials relying heavily on ECSs. Both an instructor’s manual and a preliminary classroom-ready student workbook have been developed, and we are implementing a pilot study to explore their effectiveness in communicating scientific content, and the extent to which they might enhance students’ knowledge of and perception about astronomy and science in general. The study design uses a pre-/post-test quasi-experimental study design measuring students’ normalized gain scores, calculated as per Hake (1998) and Prather (2009), using a slightly modified version of S. Slater’s (2011) Test Of Astronomy STandards TOAST combined with other instruments. The results of this initial study will guide the iterative development of ASTRO 101 ILDs that are intended to both be effective at enhancing student achievement and easy for instructors to successfully implement.

  3. Simulation Study of Impact of Aeroelastic Characteristics on Flying Qualities of a High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Buttrill, Carey S.

    2002-01-01

    A piloted simulation study conducted in NASA Langley Visual Motion Simulator addressed the impact of dynamic aero- servoelastic effects on flying qualities of a High Speed Civil Transport. The intent was to determine effectiveness of measures to reduce the impact of aircraft flexibility on piloting tasks. Potential solutions examined were increasing frequency of elastic modes through structural stiffening, increasing damping of elastic modes through active control, elimination of control effector excitation of the lowest frequency elastic modes, and elimination of visual cues associated with elastic modes. Six test pilots evaluated and performed simulated maneuver tasks, encountering incidents wherein cockpit vibrations due to elastic modes fed back into the control stick through involuntary vibrations of the pilots upper body and arm. Structural stiffening and compensation of the visual display were of little benefit in alleviating this impact, while increased damping and elimination of control effector excitation of the elastic modes both offered great improvements when applied in sufficient degree.

  4. The Internet and Some International Regulatory Issues Relating to Content: A Pilot Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Broadcasting Authority.

    In December 1996 UNESCO commissioned the Australian Broadcasting Authority to conduct a pilot study which considered a range of online issues; this report outlines the findings of the pilot study, based on data collected between February and May 1997 and updated in July 1997. The objective is to identify the main types of Internet content which…

  5. Comparison of long-term numerical simulations at the Ketzin pilot site using the Schlumberger ECLIPSE and LBNL TOUGH2 simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, T.; Norden, B.; Tillner, E.; Nakaten, B.; Kühn, M.

    2012-04-01

    Geological modelling and dynamic flow simulations were conducted at the Ketzin pilot site showing a good agreement of history matched geological models with CO2 arrival times in both observation wells and timely development of reservoir pressure determined in the injection well. Recently, a re-evaluation of the seismic 3D data enabled a refinement of the structural site model and the implementation of the fault system present at the top of the Ketzin anticline. The updated geological model (model size: 5 km x 5 km) shows a horizontal discretization of 5 x 5 m and consists of three vertical zones, with the finest discretization at the top (0.5 m). According to the revised seismic analysis, the facies modelling to simulate the channel and floodplain facies distribution at Ketzin was updated. Using a sequential Gaussian simulator for the distribution of total and effective porosities and an empiric porosity-permeability relationship based on site and literature data available, the structural model was parameterized. Based on this revised reservoir model of the Stuttgart formation, numerical simulations using the TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N and Schlumberger Information Services (SIS) ECLIPSE 100 black-oil simulators were undertaken in order to evaluate the long-term (up to 10,000 years) migration of the injected CO2 (about 57,000 t at the end of 2011) and the development of reservoir pressure over time. The simulation results enabled us to quantitatively compare both reservoir simulators based on current operational data considering the long-term effects of CO2 storage including CO2 dissolution in the formation fluid. While the integration of the static geological model developed in the SIS Petrel modelling package into the ECLIPSE simulator is relatively flawless, a work-flow allowing for the export of Petrel models into the TOUGH2-MP input file format had to be implemented within the scope of this study. The challenge in this task was mainly determined by the presence of a

  6. Comparisons of elastic and rigid blade-element rotor models using parallel processing technology for piloted simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gary; Duval, Ronald W.; Green, John A.; Huynh, Loc C.

    1991-01-01

    A piloted comparison of rigid and aeroelastic blade-element rotor models was conducted at the Crew Station Research and Development Facility (CSRDF) at Ames Research Center. A simulation development and analysis tool, FLIGHTLAB, was used to implement these models in real time using parallel processing technology. Pilot comments and quantitative analysis performed both on-line and off-line confirmed that elastic degrees of freedom significantly affect perceived handling qualities. Trim comparisons show improved correlation with flight test data when elastic modes are modeled. The results demonstrate the efficiency with which the mathematical modeling sophistication of existing simulation facilities can be upgraded using parallel processing, and the importance of these upgrades to simulation fidelity.

  7. An analysis of the pilot point methodology for automated calibration of an ensemble of conditionally simulated transmissivity fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the pilot point method for automated calibration of an ensemble of conditionally simulated transmissivity fields was conducted on the basis of the simplifying assumption that the flow model is a linear function of log transmissivity. The analysis shows that the pilot point and conditional simulation method of model calibration and uncertainty analysis can produce accurate uncertainty measures if it can be assumed that errors of unknown origin in the differences between observed and model-computed water pressures are small. When this assumption is not met, the method could yield significant errors from overparameterization and the neglect of potential sources of model inaccuracy. The conditional simulation part of the method is also shown to be a variant of the percentile bootstrap method, so that when applied to a nonlinear model, the method is subject to bootstrap errors. These sources of error must be considered when using the method.

  8. Electronic Problem-Solving Treatment: Description and Pilot Study of an Interactive Media Treatment for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Steven E; Buckey, Jay C; Sandoval, Luis; Hegel, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    Background Computer-automated depression interventions rely heavily on users reading text to receive the intervention. However, text-delivered interventions place a burden on persons with depression and convey only verbal content. Objective The primary aim of this project was to develop a computer-automated treatment for depression that is delivered via interactive media technology. By using branching video and audio, the program simulates the experience of being in therapy with a master clinician who provides six sessions of problem-solving therapy. A secondary objective was to conduct a pilot study of the program’s usability, acceptability, and credibility, and to obtain an initial estimate of its efficacy. Methods The program was produced in a professional multimedia production facility and incorporates video, audio, graphics, animation, and text. Failure analyses of patient data are conducted across sessions and across problems to identify ways to help the user improve his or her problem solving. A pilot study was conducted with persons who had minor depression. An experimental group (n = 7) used the program while a waitlist control group (n = 7) was provided with no treatment for 6 weeks. Results All of the experimental group participants completed the trial, whereas 1 from the control was lost to follow-up. Experimental group participants rated the program high on usability, acceptability, and credibility. The study was not powered to detect clinical improvement, although these pilot data are encouraging. Conclusions Although the study was not powered to detect treatment effects, participants did find the program highly usable, acceptable, and credible. This suggests that the highly interactive and immersive nature of the program is beneficial. Further clinical trials are warranted. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00906581; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00906581 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6A5Ni5HUp) PMID:23611902

  9. The effects of workload on respiratory variables in simulated flight: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Karavidas, Maria Katsamanis; Lehrer, Paul M; Lu, Shou-En; Vaschillo, Evgeny; Vaschillo, Bronya; Cheng, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    In this pilot study, we investigated respiratory activity and end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(et)CO(2)) during exposure to varying levels of work load in a simulated flight environment. Seven pilots (age: 34-60) participated in a one-session test on the Boeing 737-800 simulator. Physiological data were collected while pilots wore an ambulatory multi-channel recording device. Respiratory variables, including inductance plethysmography (respiratory pattern) and pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(et)CO(2)), were collected demonstrating change in CO(2) levels proportional to changes in flight task workload. Pilots performed a set of simulation flight tasks. Pilot performance was rated for each task by a test pilot; and self-report of workload was taken using the NASA-TLX scale. Mixed model analysis revealed that respiration rate and minute ventilation are significantly associated with workload levels and evaluator scores controlling for "vanilla baseline" condition. Hypocapnia exclusively occurred in tasks where pilots performed more poorly. This study was designed as a preliminary investigation in order to develop a psychophysiological assessment methodology, rather than to offer conclusive findings. The results show that the respiratory system is very reactive to high workload conditions in aviation and suggest that hypocapnia may pose a flight safety risk under some circumstances. PMID:20064581

  10. A flight investigation of simulated data-link communications during single-pilot IFR flight. Volume 2: Flight evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. F., Jr.; Duffy, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Key problems in single pilot instrument flight operations are in the management of flight data and the processing of cockpit information during conditions of heavy workload. A flight data console was developed to allow simulation of a digital data link to replace the current voice communications stem used in air traffic control. This is a human factors evaluation of a data link communications system to determine how such a system might reduce cockpit workload, improve flight proficiency, and be accepted by general aviation pilots. The need for a voice channel as backup to a digital link is examined. The evaluations cover both airport terminal area operations and full mission instrument flight. Results show that general aviation pilots operate well with a digital data link communications system. The findings indicate that a data link system for pilot/ATC communications, with a backup voice channel, is well accepted by general aviation pilots and is considered to be safer, more efficient, and result in less workload than the current voice system.

  11. Head-up transition behavior of pilots with and without head-up display in simulated low-visibility approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.; Fischer, E.; Price, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    To quantify head-up transition behavior with and without a flightpath type head-up display, eight rated B-727 pilots each flew 31 manual and coupled approaches in a simulator with B-727 dynamics and collimated model board external scene. Data were also obtained on the roll played by the head-up display in the coupled-to-manual transition. Various wind shears, low visibilities, and ceilings were tested along with unexpected misalignment between the runway and head-up display symbology. The symbolic format used was a conformal scene. Every pilot except one stayed head-up, flying with the display after descending below the ceiling. Without the display and as altitude decreased, the number of lookups from the instrument panel decreased and the duration of each one increased. No large differences in mean number or duration of transitions up or down were found during the head-up display runs comparing the no-misalignment with the lateral instrument landing system offset misalignment runs. The head-up display led to fewer transitions after the pilot made a decision to land or execute a missed approach. Without the display, pilots generally waited until they had descended below the ceiling to look outside the first time, but with it several pilots looked down at their panel at relatively high altitudes (if they looked down at all). Manual takeover of control was rapid and smooth both with and without the display which permitted smoother engine power changes.

  12. Conducting Simulation Studies in Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Rubright, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Simulation studies are fundamental to psychometric discourse and play a crucial role in operational and academic research. Yet, resources for psychometricians interested in conducting simulations are scarce. This Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement Series (ITEMS) module is meant to address this deficiency by providing a comprehensive…

  13. A simulator study on information requirements for precision hovering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, J. L.; Dukes, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    A fixed base simulator study of an advanced helicopter instrument display utilizing translational acceleration, velocity and position information is reported. The simulation involved piloting a heavy helicopter using the Integrated Trajectory Error Display (ITED) in a precision hover task. The test series explored two basic areas. The effect on hover accuracy of adding acceleration information was of primary concern. Also of interest was the operators' ability to use degraded information derived from less sophisticated sources. The addition of translational acceleration to a display containing velocity and position information did not appear to improve the hover performance significantly. However, displayed acceleration information seemed to increase the damping of the man machine system. Finally, the pilots could use translational information synthesized from attitude and angular acceleration as effectively as perfect acceleration.

  14. What to Consider Before Beginning Graduate Education: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Imus, F Scott; Burns, Shari

    2015-10-01

    The literature supports a general theme that college students lack metacognitive awareness about learning, which leads to poor examination performance and ultimately high attrition rates. However, the literature emphasizes that when college students receive instruction about learning, examination performance goes up and attrition goes down. This pilot study focused on a specific subset of learners: graduate students in a nurse anesthesia program. Given new evidence-based wellness approaches to learning, the nurse anesthesia program conducted a descriptive study aimed at exploring student perceptions. The study goals were to provide students with evidence-based information about wellness factors that influence learning. The book The New Science of Learning by Doyle and Zakrajsek (Stylus Publishing, 2013) was used to provide students with neuroscience evidence about learning that might assist their transition to graduate school. The book was mailed to 34 student registered nurse anesthetists before matriculation. An 8-item Likert-style online survey evaluated the students' perceptions of the book along with identifying any changes the students made in anticipation of starting the rigorous nurse anesthesia program. The study demonstrated that student registered nurse anesthetists could benefit from instruction about wellness approaches that enhance learning before matriculation. Additionally, the study provided the framework for future research. PMID:26638456

  15. Simulation in International Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists have long worked to replicate real-world phenomena in their research and teaching environments. Unlike our biophysical science colleagues, we are faced with an area of study that is not governed by the laws of physics and other more predictable relationships. As a result, social scientists, and international studies scholars more…

  16. The STEP model: Characterizing simultaneous time effects on practice for flight simulator performance among middle-aged and older pilots.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome; Lazzeroni, Laura C

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the possible effects of the number of practice sessions (practice) and time between practice sessions (interval) among middle-aged and older adults in real-world tasks has important implications for skill maintenance. Prior training and cognitive ability may impact practice and interval effects on real-world tasks. In this study, we took advantage of existing practice data from 5 simulated flights among 263 middle-aged and older pilots with varying levels of flight expertise (defined by U.S. Federal Aviation Administration proficiency ratings). We developed a new Simultaneous Time Effects on Practice (STEP) model: (a) to model the simultaneous effects of practice and interval on performance of the 5 flights, and (b) to examine the effects of selected covariates (i.e., age, flight expertise, and 3 composite measures of cognitive ability). The STEP model demonstrated consistent positive practice effects, negative interval effects, and predicted covariate effects. Age negatively moderated the beneficial effects of practice. Additionally, cognitive processing speed and intraindividual variability (IIV) in processing speed moderated the benefits of practice and/or the negative influence of interval for particular flight performance measures. Expertise did not interact with practice or interval. Results indicated that practice and interval effects occur in simulated flight tasks. However, processing speed and IIV may influence these effects, even among high-functioning adults. Results have implications for the design and assessment of training interventions targeted at middle-aged and older adults for complex real-world tasks. PMID:26280383

  17. The STEP model: Characterizing simultaneous time effects on practice for flight simulator performance among middle-aged and older pilots.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome; Lazzeroni, Laura C

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the possible effects of the number of practice sessions (practice) and time between practice sessions (interval) among middle-aged and older adults in real-world tasks has important implications for skill maintenance. Prior training and cognitive ability may impact practice and interval effects on real-world tasks. In this study, we took advantage of existing practice data from 5 simulated flights among 263 middle-aged and older pilots with varying levels of flight expertise (defined by U.S. Federal Aviation Administration proficiency ratings). We developed a new Simultaneous Time Effects on Practice (STEP) model: (a) to model the simultaneous effects of practice and interval on performance of the 5 flights, and (b) to examine the effects of selected covariates (i.e., age, flight expertise, and 3 composite measures of cognitive ability). The STEP model demonstrated consistent positive practice effects, negative interval effects, and predicted covariate effects. Age negatively moderated the beneficial effects of practice. Additionally, cognitive processing speed and intraindividual variability (IIV) in processing speed moderated the benefits of practice and/or the negative influence of interval for particular flight performance measures. Expertise did not interact with practice or interval. Results indicated that practice and interval effects occur in simulated flight tasks. However, processing speed and IIV may influence these effects, even among high-functioning adults. Results have implications for the design and assessment of training interventions targeted at middle-aged and older adults for complex real-world tasks.

  18. The STEP model: Characterizing simultaneous time effects on practice for flight simulator performance among middle-aged and older pilots

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome; Lazzeroni, Laura C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the possible effects of the number of practice sessions (practice) and time between practice sessions (interval) among middle-aged and older adults in real world tasks has important implications for skill maintenance. Prior training and cognitive ability may impact practice and interval effects on real world tasks. In this study, we took advantage of existing practice data from five simulated flights among 263 middle-aged and older pilots with varying levels of flight expertise (defined by FAA proficiency ratings). We developed a new STEP (Simultaneous Time Effects on Practice) model to: (1) model the simultaneous effects of practice and interval on performance of the five flights, and (2) examine the effects of selected covariates (age, flight expertise, and three composite measures of cognitive ability). The STEP model demonstrated consistent positive practice effects, negative interval effects, and predicted covariate effects. Age negatively moderated the beneficial effects of practice. Additionally, cognitive processing speed and intra-individual variability (IIV) in processing speed moderated the benefits of practice and/or the negative influence of interval for particular flight performance measures. Expertise did not interact with either practice or interval. Results indicate that practice and interval effects occur in simulated flight tasks. However, processing speed and IIV may influence these effects, even among high functioning adults. Results have implications for the design and assessment of training interventions targeted at middle-aged and older adults for complex real world tasks. PMID:26280383

  19. Long-term simulation of the activated sludge process at the Hanover-Gümmerwald pilot WWTP.

    PubMed

    Makinia, Jacek; Rosenwinkel, Karl-Heinz; Spering, Volker

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a validated model, consisting of the Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) and the EAWAG bio-P module, which could be used as a decision tool for estimating the maximum allowable peak flow to wastewater treatment plants during stormwater conditions. The databases used for simulations originated from the Hanover-Gummerwald pilot plant subjected to a series of controlled, short-term hydraulic shock loading experiments. The continuous influent wastewater composition was generated using on-line measurements of only three parameters (COD, N-NH4+, P-PO4 3-). Model predictions were compared with on-line data from different locations in the activated sludge system including the aerobic zone (concentrations of N-NH4+, N-NO3-) and secondary effluent (concentrations of P-PO4 3-). The simulations confirmed experimental results concerning the capabilities of the system for handling increased flows during stormwater events. No (or minor) peaks of N-NH4+ were predicted for the line with the double dry weather flowrate, whereas peaks of N-NH4+ at the line with the quadruple dry weather flowrate were normally exceeding 8 g Nm(-3) (similar to the observations).

  20. Mental Health Services in Pilot Study Areas: Report on a European Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a study to collect data on mental health resources of pilot areas within several European countries. This report presents data from the study and provides a detailed and reliable description of the development of mental health services within the WHO European Region. Part I of the report describes the…

  1. 77 FR 13343 - Pilot Program for Early Feasibility Study Investigational Device Exemption Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... November 10, 2011 (76 FR 70150), FDA announced the availability of a draft guidance entitled... Pilot Program (76 FR 70152, November 10, 2011) intended to collect ] information and experience on the... Study Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) Applications pilot program. This program allowed...

  2. Ancillary Pilot Study for the Educational Policy Research Center Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson Inst., Croton-on-Hudson, NY.

    The role of the Hudson Institute in the policy research center program was to build on and adapt current studies of the future for the purpose of assisting the Office of Education and its five pilot centers. Part 1 of this report comments briefly on some methodological and substantive issues that arose during the pilot phase and suggests how…

  3. Corrosion coupon studies at coal liquefaction pilot plants

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Baylor, V.B.; Howell, M.; Newsome, J.F.

    1983-09-01

    As part of the Fossil Energy Materials Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, we have supplied corrosion coupons to coal-liquefaction pilot plants for exposure in selected vessels. These vessels were chosen on the basis of previous corrosion experience, anticipated corrosion behavior (especially important when operating conditions were changed), accessibility, and availability. Alloys exposed were selected to give a series with a corrosion resistance ranging from less than to greater than that thought to be needed for each application. Corrosion rates calculated from weight changes of the exposed coupons provide information useful in selecting materials for coal-liquefaction plants. The results presented are from coupons exposed in the Wilsonville, Alabama, and Fort Lewis, Washington, Solvent Refined Coal pilot plants; the Catlettsburg, Kentucky, H-Coal Pilot Plant; and the Baytown, Texas, Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant.

  4. A Simulated Stream Ecology Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zampella, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simulated field experience to study stream ecology in the classroom. Secondary students determine the composition of the stream community, describe the distribution of the benthic invertebrates, and design a food web. (Author/MA)

  5. A pilot study on mindfulness based stress reduction for smokers

    PubMed Central

    Davis, James M; Fleming, Michael F; Bonus, Katherine A; Baker, Timothy B

    2007-01-01

    Background Mindfulness means paying attention in the present moment, non-judgmentally, without commentary or decision-making. We report results of a pilot study designed to test the feasibility of using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) (with minor modifications) as a smoking intervention. Methods MBSR instructors provided instructions in mindfulness in eight weekly group sessions. Subjects attempted smoking cessation during week seven without pharmacotherapy. Smoking abstinence was tested six weeks after the smoking quit day with carbon monoxide breath test and 7-day smoking calendars. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate changes in stress and affective distress. Results 18 subjects enrolled in the intervention with an average smoking history of 19.9 cigarettes per day for 26.4 years. At the 6-week post-quit visit, 10 of 18 subjects (56%) achieved biologically confirmed 7-day point-prevalent smoking abstinence. Compliance with meditation was positively associated with smoking abstinence and decreases in stress and affective distress. Discussions and conclusion The results of this study suggest that mindfulness training may show promise for smoking cessation and warrants additional study in a larger comparative trial. PMID:17254362

  6. Microcirculation and atherothrombotic parameters in prolactinoma patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Reuwer, Anne Q; Sondermeijer, Brigitte M; Battjes, Suzanne; van Zijderveld, Rogier; Stuijver, Danka J F; Bisschop, Peter H; Twickler, Marcel Th B; Meijers, Joost C M; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Stroes, Erik S

    2012-12-01

    Atherothrombosis is a multifactorial process, governed by an interaction between the vessel wall, hemodynamic factors and systemic atherothrombotic risk factors. Recent in vitro, human ex vivo and animal studies have implicated the hormone prolactin as an atherothrombotic mediator. To address this issue, we evaluated the anatomy and function of various microvascular beds as well as plasma atherothrombosis markers in patients with elevated prolactin levels. In this pilot study, involving 10 prolactinoma patients and 10 control subjects, sidestream dark field (SDF) imaging revealed a marked perturbation of the sublingual microcirculation in prolactinoma patients compared to control subjects, as attested to by significant changes in microvascular flow index (2.74 ± 0.12 vs. 2.91 ± 0.05, respectively; P = 0.0006), in heterogeneity index (0.28 [IQR 0.18-0.31] vs. 0.09 [IQR 0.08-0.17], respectively; P = 0.002) and lower proportion of perfused vessels (90 ± 4.0% vs. 95 ± 3.0%, respectively; P = 0.016). In the retina, fluorescein angiography (FAG) confirmed these data, since prolactinoma patients more often have dilatated perifoveal capillaries. In plasma, prolactinoma patients displayed several pro-atherogenic disturbances, including a higher endogenous thrombin potential and prothrombin levels as well as decreased HDL-cholesterol levels. Prolactinoma patients are characterized by microvascular dysfunction as well as plasma markers indicating a pro-atherothrombotic state. Further studies are required to assess if prolactin is causally involved in atherothrombotic disease.

  7. Endothelin-1 Levels in Scleroderma Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Cozzani, Emanuele; Javor, Sanja; Drosera, Massimo; Parodi, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor, which mediates vascular wall cells proliferation, fibrosis, and inflammation through two types of ET-1 receptors (ET-A and ET-B). In our retrospective study the serum levels of ET-1 in 18 systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with and without digital ulcers (DUs) were assessed to observe possible correlation between the levels of ET-1, the evolution of SSc, and the therapy with an ET-1 antagonist (bosentan). In all our patients, the levels of ET-1 were found higher than normal range and correlate with the severity of the disease. Furthermore we also observed that in patients without DUs the levels of ET-1 were higher and did not correlate with new DUs development. In conclusion, the levels of ET-1 in our studied patients do not correlate with the possible development of DUs. The reduction of ET-1 levels in DUs patients in therapy with bosentan confirms the efficacy of this molecule both for treatment and prevention of digital ulcers. The inhibition of ET-A receptor by its antagonist may activate the opposite ET-B receptors, with well-known function ET-1 degradation and reducing of ET-1 serum level as confirmed in our pilot study. PMID:23984086

  8. Prevention of Pleural Adhesions by Bioactive Polypeptides - A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Åkerberg, D.; Posaric-Bauden, M.; Isaksson, K.; Andersson, R.; Tingstedt, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Postoperative pleural adhesions lead to major problems in repeated thoracic surgery. To date, no antiadhesive product has been proven clinically effective. Previous studies of differently charged polypeptides, poly-L-lysine (PL) and poly-L-glutamate (PG) have shown promising results reducing postoperative abdominal adhesions in experimental settings. This pilot study examined the possible pleural adhesion prevention by using the PL+PG concept after pleural surgery and its possible effect on key parameters; plasmin activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue growth factor beta 1 (TGFb) in the fibrinolytic process. Methods: A total of 22 male rats were used in the study, one control group (n=10) and one experimental group (n=12). All animals underwent primary pleural surgery, the controls receiving saline in the pleural cavity and the experimental group the PL+PG solution administered by spray. The animals were evaluated on day 7. Macroscopic appearance of adhesions was evaluated by a scoring system. Histology slides of the adhesions and pleural biopsies for evaluation of PAI-1 and TGFb1 were taken on day 7. Results: A significant reduction of adhesions in the PL+PG group (p<0.05) was noted at day 7 both regarding the length and severity of adhesions. There were no significant differences in the concentration of PAI-1 and TGFb1 when comparing the two groups. Conclusions: PL+PG may be used to prevent pleural adhesions. The process of fibrinolysis, and fibrosis was though not affected after PLPG administration. PMID:24151443

  9. Role of the Controller in an Integrated Pilot-Controller Study for Parallel Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Savvy; Kozon, Thomas; Ballinger, Debbi; Lozito, Sandra; Subramanian, Shobana

    2011-01-01

    Closely spaced parallel runway operations have been found to increase capacity within the National Airspace System but poor visibility conditions reduce the use of these operations [1]. Previous research examined the concepts and procedures related to parallel runways [2][4][5]. However, there has been no investigation of the procedures associated with the strategic and tactical pairing of aircraft for these operations. This study developed and examined the pilot s and controller s procedures and information requirements for creating aircraft pairs for closely spaced parallel runway operations. The goal was to achieve aircraft pairing with a temporal separation of 15s (+/- 10s error) at a coupling point that was 12 nmi from the runway threshold. In this paper, the role of the controller, as examined in an integrated study of controllers and pilots, is presented. The controllers utilized a pairing scheduler and new pairing interfaces to help create and maintain aircraft pairs, in a high-fidelity, human-in-the loop simulation experiment. Results show that the controllers worked as a team to achieve pairing between aircraft and the level of inter-controller coordination increased when the aircraft in the pair belonged to different sectors. Controller feedback did not reveal over reliance on the automation nor complacency with the pairing automation or pairing procedures.

  10. Piloted Simulator Evaluation of Maneuvering Envelope Information for Flight Crew Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombaerts, Thomas; Schuet, Stefan; Acosta, Diana; Kaneshige, John; Shish, Kimberlee; Martin, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    The implementation and evaluation of an efficient method for estimating safe aircraft maneuvering envelopes are discussed. A Bayesian approach is used to produce a deterministic algorithm for estimating aerodynamic system parameters from existing noisy sensor measurements, which are then used to estimate the trim envelope through efficient high- fidelity model-based computations of attainable equilibrium sets. The safe maneuverability limitations are extended beyond the trim envelope through a robust reachability analysis derived from an optimal control formulation. The trim and maneuvering envelope limits are then conveyed to pilots through three axes on the primary flight display. To evaluate the new display features, commercial airline crews flew multiple challenging approach and landing scenarios in the full motion Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator at NASA Ames Research Center, as part of a larger research initiative to investigate the impact on the energy state awareness of the crew. Results show that the additional display features have the potential to significantly improve situational awareness of the flight crew.

  11. Pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whyatt, G.A.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) waste performed in November 1988, and the subsequent thermal behavior of the grout as it cured in a large, insulated vessel. The report was issued in draft form in April 1989 and comments were subsequently received; however, the report was not finalized until 1994. In finalizing this report, references or information gained after the report was drafted in April 1989 have not been incorporated to preserve the report`s historical perspective. This report makes use of criteria from Ridelle (1987) to establish formulation criteria. This document has since been superseded by a document prepared by Reibling and Fadeef (1991). However, the reference to Riddelle (1987) and any analysis based on its content have been maintained within this report. In addition, grout is no longer being considered as the waste form for disposal of Hanford`s low-level waste. However, grout disposal is being maintained as an option in case there is an emergency need to provide additional tank space. Current plans are to vitrify low-level wastes into a glass matrix.

  12. Design and piloted simulation evaluation of integrated flight/propulsion controls for STOVL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, James A.; Engelland, Shawn A.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated flight/propulsion control systems have been designed for operation of STOVL aircraft over the low speed powered-lift flight envelope. The control system employs command modes for attitude, flightpath angle and flightpath acceleration during transition, and translational velocity command for hover and vertical landing. The command modes and feedback control are implemented in the form of a state-rate feedback implicit model follower to achieve the desired flying qualities and to suppress the effects of external disturbances and variations in the aircraft characteristics over the low speed envelope. A nonlinear inverse system was used to translate the output from these commands and feedback control into commands for the various aerodynamic and propulsion control effectors that are employed in powered-lift flight. Piloted evaluations of these STOVL integrated control designs have been conducted on Ames Research Center's Vertical Motion Simulator to assess flying qualities over the low-speed flight envelope. Results indicate that Level 1 flying qualities are achieved with this control system concept for each of these low-speed operations over a wide range of wind, atmospheric turbulence, and visibility conditions.

  13. Results from simulated remote-handled transuranic waste experiments at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M A

    1992-01-01

    Multi-year, simulated remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU, nonradioactive) experiments are being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot-Plant (WIPP) facility. These experiments involve the near-reference (thermal and geometrical) testing of eight full size RH TRU test containers emplaced into horizontal, unlined rock salt boreholes. Half of the test emplacements are partially filled with bentonite/silica-sand backfill material. All test containers were electrically heated at about 115 W/each for three years, then raised to about 300 W/each for the remaining time. Each test borehole was instrumented with a selection of remote-reading thermocouples, pressure gages, borehole vertical-closure gages, and vertical and horizontal borehole-diameter closure gages. Each test emplacements was also periodically opened for visual inspections of brine intrusions and any interactions with waste package materials, materials sampling, manual closure measurements, and observations of borehole changes. Effects of heat on borehole closure rates and near-field materials (metals, backfill, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored as a function of time. This paper summarizes results for the first five years of in situ test operation with supporting instrumentation and laboratory data and interpretations. Some details of RH TRU waste package materials, designs, and assorted underground test observations are also discussed. Based on the results, the tested RH TRU waste packages, materials, and emplacement geometry in unlined salt boreholes appear to be quite adequate for initial WIPP repository-phase operations.

  14. Identification of pilot-vehicle dynamics from simulation and flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses an identification problem in which a basic feedback control structure, or pilot control strategy, is hypothesized. Identification algorithms are employed to determine the particular form of pilot equalization in each feedback loop. It was found that both frequency- and time-domain identification techniques provide useful information.

  15. Effect of cursor characteristics on pilots' tracking performance on a cathode-ray tube in dynamic simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junge, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of cursor configuration, size, and orientation on the performance of 11 commercial airline pilots were investigated in a difficult compensatory tracking task in a moving-base aircraft simulator. Three levels of congruent cab motion (0, 1, and 2 times the visual motion) were superimposed on the tracking task. Data analysis of the mean tracking error scores revealed no significant effects of cursor size, orientation, or configuration on pilots' tracking performance. Mean tracking error did not significantly differ between the three levels of motion for the conditions with a single dot as the cursor. However, for the dotted and solid line cursors, tracking error significantly decreased from the no motion condition to the motion conditions. The addition of simulator motion significantly reduced tracking error for large cursors, but not for small ones such as a single dot

  16. Patterns of federal Internet offenders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann W; Carretta, Carrie M; Burgess, Allen G

    2012-09-01

    Internet-facilitated sexual offending is receiving increased forensic and clinical attention. Two issues confront this field. First, studies are equivocal as to whether (or not) the possession of Internet pornography can escalate to contact sexual offenses against a child, and second, federal judges have been questioning the length of sentences for users only of child pornography. The findings of this pilot study of 101 federal Internet offenders revealed over half of the men at the time of arrest were employed, educated, were in (or had been in) a relationship, had children, and did not have a prior criminal offense, suggesting a changing profile of a convicted sex offender. Forensic and psychiatric nurses who evaluate users of child pornography contraband need to be knowledgeable of Internet file transfer technology and the various types of contraband viewed specifically for the age of the preferred child, extreme acts to the child (e.g., bondage, S&M), and whether the user prefers images of adults with children or images of children only. PMID:22925126

  17. Cognitive behavior therapy for night eating syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Lundgren, Jennifer D; Moore, Reneé H; O'Reardon, John P; Stunkard, Albert J

    2010-01-01

    Because no studies of psychotherapy treatments for night eating syndrome (NES) have been published, we conducted a pilot study of a 10-session cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for NES. Twenty-five patients (19 female, 6 male) were screened and comprehensively assessed before being enrolled. At each visit, patients completed the Night Eating Symptom Scale (NESS), were weighed, and number of awakenings and the number of nocturnal ingestions and daily caloric intake were calculated from weekly food and sleep records. Mixed model regression analyses [of the data] showed significant decreases in caloric intake after dinner (35.0% to 24.9%); number of nocturnal ingestions (8.7 to 2.6 per week); weight (82.5 to 79.4 kg); and NESS score (28.7 to 16.3; all p values <0.0001). Number of awakenings per week, depressed mood, and quality of life also improved significantly (p values <.02). This first clinical trial of CBT for NES shows significant improvements in the core aspects of NES and weight reduction, suggesting the need for a controlled treatment trial.

  18. Patterns of Sweet Taste Liking: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Asao, Keiko; Miller, Jason; Arcori, Leann; Lumeng, Julie C; Han-Markey, Theresa; Herman, William H

    2015-08-31

    Two distinct patterns of sweet taste liking have been described: one showing a peak liking response in the mid-range of sucrose concentrations and the other showing a monotonic liking response at progressively higher sucrose concentrations. Classification of these patterns has been somewhat arbitrary. In this report, we analyzed patterns of sweet taste liking in a pilot study with 26 adults including 14 women and 12 men, 32.6 ± 14.5 years of age with body mass index 26.4 ± 5.1 kg/m² (mean ± SD). Sweet taste liking was measured for 10 levels of sucrose solutions (0.035 M to 1.346 M). Participants rated their liking of each solution using a visual analog scale with 0 indicating strongly disliking and 100 strongly liking. The cluster analysis demonstrated two distinct groups: 13 liked relatively low sucrose concentrations and liked high sucrose concentrations less, and 13 liked high sucrose concentrations greatly. If we use the 0.598 M sucrose solution alone and a cutoff liking score of 50, we can distinguish the two clusters with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%). If validated in additional studies, this simple tool may help us to better understand eating behaviors and the impact of sweet taste liking on nutrition-related disorders.

  19. Cognitive behavior therapy for night eating syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Lundgren, Jennifer D; Moore, Reneé H; O'Reardon, John P; Stunkard, Albert J

    2010-01-01

    Because no studies of psychotherapy treatments for night eating syndrome (NES) have been published, we conducted a pilot study of a 10-session cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for NES. Twenty-five patients (19 female, 6 male) were screened and comprehensively assessed before being enrolled. At each visit, patients completed the Night Eating Symptom Scale (NESS), were weighed, and number of awakenings and the number of nocturnal ingestions and daily caloric intake were calculated from weekly food and sleep records. Mixed model regression analyses [of the data] showed significant decreases in caloric intake after dinner (35.0% to 24.9%); number of nocturnal ingestions (8.7 to 2.6 per week); weight (82.5 to 79.4 kg); and NESS score (28.7 to 16.3; all p values <0.0001). Number of awakenings per week, depressed mood, and quality of life also improved significantly (p values <.02). This first clinical trial of CBT for NES shows significant improvements in the core aspects of NES and weight reduction, suggesting the need for a controlled treatment trial. PMID:20405767

  20. Acupuncture and burning mouth syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sardella, Andrea; Lodi, Giovanni; Tarozzi, Marco; Varoni, Elena; Franchini, Roberto; Carrassi, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition most common in middle-aged and elderly women, with prevalence rates in the general population ranging from 0.5% to 5%. Defined by the International Headache Society as "an intraoral burning sensation for which no medical or dental cause can be found," BMS is considered a form of neuropathic pain. The management of BMS remains unsatisfactory. In this pilot study, we investigated the use of acupuncture in a small group of BMS patients. The study group, after 4 refusals, was composed of 10 BMS patients (9 females and 1 male; mean age, 65.2 years; range, from 48 to 80 years; mean duration of BMS, 2.6 years; SD ± 0.8 years). Oral pain/burning sensation (primary outcome) was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Health-related quality of life (secondary outcome) was measured using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Acupuncture treatment lasted 8 weeks and consisted of 20 sessions. Patients reported a mean reduction in pain of 0.99 points on the VAS (max 2.1-min 0.1), which, although slight, was statistically significant (Wilcoxon test P < 0.009). No significant improvement in the overall score for quality of life was observed, although subjects receiving acupuncture treatment seemed better able cope with their oral symptoms. PMID:23336607

  1. Daily personal exposure to black carbon: A pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ryan D.; Knibbs, Luke D.

    2016-05-01

    Continuous personal monitoring is the benchmark for air pollution exposure assessment. Black carbon (BC) is a strong marker of primary combustion like vehicle and biomass emissions. There have been few studies that quantified daily personal BC exposure and the contribution that different microenvironments make to it. In this pilot study, we used a portable aethalometer to measure BC concentrations in an individual's breathing zone at 30-s intervals while he performed his usual daily activities. We used a GPS and time-activity diary to track where he spent his time. We performed twenty 24-h measurements, and observed an arithmetic mean daily exposure concentration of 603 ng/m3. We estimated that changing commute modes from bus to train reduced the 24-h mean BC exposure concentration by 29%. Switching from open windows to closed windows and recirculated air in a car led to a reduction of 32%. Living in a home without a wood-fired heater caused a reduction of 50% compared with a wood-heated home. Our preliminary findings highlight the potential utility of simple approaches to reduce a person's daily BC exposure.

  2. A Pilot Study of Neurofeedback for Chronic PTSD.

    PubMed

    Gapen, Mark; van der Kolk, Bessel A; Hamlin, Ed; Hirshberg, Laurence; Suvak, Michael; Spinazzola, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    EEG Biofeedback (also known as neurofeedback) has been in use as a clinical intervention for well over 30 years; however, it has made very little impact on clinical care. One reason for this has been the difficulty in designing research to measure clinical change in the real world. While substantial evidence exists for its efficacy in treating attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, relatively little evidence exists for its utility in other disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study represents a "proof-of-concept" pilot for the use of neurofeedback with multiply-traumatized individuals with treatment-resistant PTSD. Participants completed 40 sessions of neurofeedback training two times per week with sensors randomly assigned (by the study coordinator, who was not blind to condition) to sensor placements of either T4-P4 or T3-T4. We found that neurofeedback significantly reduced PTSD symptoms (Davidson Trauma Scale scores averaged 69.14 at baseline to 49.26 at termination), and preceded gains in affect regulation (Inventory of Altered Self-Capacities-Affect Dysregulation scores averaged 23.63 at baseline to 17.20 at termination). We discuss a roadmap for future research. PMID:26782083

  3. TENS effects on salivary stress markers: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ortu, E; Pietropaoli, D; Mazzei, G; Cattaneo, R; Giannoni, M; Monaco, A

    2015-03-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is extensively used as pain relief through endorphins release. Moreover, recent findings showed a role in the activation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS); it was evidenced by modification in the heart rate variability and ANS-related marker. The objective of this pilot study is to evaluate salivary alpha amylase (sAA) as a marker of stress in two groups of healthy subjects, one receiving ultra-low frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ULF-TENS) and one without stimulation. Sixty healthy people were enrolled. The test group consisted of 30 participants (15 men, 15 women). The control group consisted of 30 participants (15 men, 15 women). Statistical analysis showed that sAA levels were statistically different between men and women independently from TENS; we hypothesize that treatment could influence sAA levels because it is thought to activate μ opioid receptors. The results of this study seem to indicate that the analysis of sAA, through a non-invasive saliva sample, could be an efficient aid for understanding the functions of the autonomic nervous system. PMID:25816413

  4. Thermoacoustic CT of the breast: pilot study observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, Robert A.; Kiser, William L., Jr.; Romilly, A. P.; Scmidt, Phyllis

    2001-06-01

    In order to assess the potential clinical utility of using thermoacoustic computer tomography (TCT) to image the breast, we conducted a retrospective pilot study of 78 patients. We recruited patients in three age groups (<40,40-50,>50 years). The study population was further segregated into normal and suspicious based on the results of the previous x-ray mammography and ultrasound. Image quality was evaluated qualitatively by consensus of two trained mammographers using a 4-point scale. The appearance of normal anatomy, cysts, benign disease and cancer was noted. Patients were also asked to rate the comfort of the TCT exam and to indicate a personal preference for x-ray mammography or TCT. Analysis of the data indicated that TCT image quality was dependent upon both patient age and breast density, improving with both increasing breast density and decreasing patient age. Fibrocystic disease was well seen, cysts appearing as areas of low RF absorption. Fibroadenomas did not demonstrate contrast enhancement with the exception of one patient with associated atypical hyperplasia. Cancer displayed higher RF absorption than surrounding tissues in 4/7 patients in whom cancer was confirmed, including one patient with a 7-mm ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

  5. Impact of healing touch on pediatric oncology outpatients: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Kathi J; Fletcher, Nancy B; Hamilton, Craig A; McLean, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Healing Touch (HT) is a biofield therapy used to enhance well-being. We conducted a pilot study to assess its effects in pediatric oncology patients. We enrolled patients in the continuation or consolidation phase of therapy. Patients or their parent completed simple visual analogue scales (VASs; 0-10) for relaxation, vitality, overall well-being, stress, anxiety, and depression before and after a 20-minute period of rest and a standardized HT treatment. Patients' heart rates were monitored and later analyzed for heart rate variability (HRV) characteristics. Of the nine patients, all completed VASs and six had usable HRV data. The average age was 9 years. VAS scores for stress decreased significantly more for HT treatment than for rest (HT: 4.4-1.7; rest: 2.3-2.3; p = .03). The HRV characteristic of total power was significantly lower during HT than for rest (HT 599 +/- 221; rest: 857 +/- 155; p = .048), and sympathetic activity was somewhat but not significantly lower (HT: 312 +/- 158; rest: 555 +/- 193; p = .06). HT is associated with lowered stress and changes in HRV. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of these effects in larger samples and to explore the impact on additional clinically relevant measures.

  6. Effect of caffeine on the vocal folds: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, S; Wood, G; Rubin, J S; O'Flynn, P E; Ratcliffe, P

    1999-04-01

    Caffeine is considered to be a dehydrating agent with detrimental effects on the quality of voice of persons ingesting it. This has led medical personnel dealing with voice disorders, especially in the case of professional voice users, to give advice against the use of caffeine. Yet this is an anecdotal truth as an extensive Medline literature search did not reveal any scientific evidence of caffeine being proven to have adverse effects on the vocal folds. We, therefore, initiated this pilot study to ascertain the connection between caffeine and voice quality on a laboratory basis. Two hundred and fifty mg of caffeine were provided to eight volunteers in tablet form, and blood levels along with laryngograph readings were recorded to document the changes produced. Analysing the irregularities of frequencies in a) free speech b) a reading passage and c) singing 'Happy Birthday', substantial changes were seen to authenticate the fact that caffeine does produce alterations in voice quality but these alterations have considerable intra-subject variability. A full study with wider parameters is to be performed on this subject as we consider it to be of importance in the management of voice disorders. PMID:10474669

  7. Patterns of Sweet Taste Liking: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Asao, Keiko; Miller, Jason; Arcori, Leann; Lumeng, Julie C.; Han-Markey, Theresa; Herman, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct patterns of sweet taste liking have been described: one showing a peak liking response in the mid-range of sucrose concentrations and the other showing a monotonic liking response at progressively higher sucrose concentrations. Classification of these patterns has been somewhat arbitrary. In this report, we analyzed patterns of sweet taste liking in a pilot study with 26 adults including 14 women and 12 men, 32.6 ± 14.5 years of age with body mass index 26.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2 (mean ± SD). Sweet taste liking was measured for 10 levels of sucrose solutions (0.035 M to 1.346 M). Participants rated their liking of each solution using a visual analog scale with 0 indicating strongly disliking and 100 strongly liking. The cluster analysis demonstrated two distinct groups: 13 liked relatively low sucrose concentrations and liked high sucrose concentrations less, and 13 liked high sucrose concentrations greatly. If we use the 0.598 M sucrose solution alone and a cutoff liking score of 50, we can distinguish the two clusters with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%). If validated in additional studies, this simple tool may help us to better understand eating behaviors and the impact of sweet taste liking on nutrition-related disorders. PMID:26404363

  8. Pre-training assessment tool (JPAT)--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chow, J; Bennett, L

    2001-01-01

    A tool for assessing the suitability of candidates for home dialysis (Jo-Pre-training Assessment Tool--JPAT) was developed. JPAT acts as a screening instrument to identify suitable candidates for the home dialysis programme, and therefore increases a patient's chance of learning to manage the programme. JPAT is in the form of an interview questionnaire consisting of 38 assessment items in six domains: physical stability, nutritional status, communication, ability to maintain self-care, psychological suitability and social support. A pilot study was conducted (n = 20, 1996-1997) using a descriptive study design, with subjects randomly selected from an existing dialysis programme. Pearson correlation and 2-tailed tests were employed to explore the relationship between the assessment outcome (i.e. the initial JPAT scores) and the follow up data (i.e. data collected within the seven days following the initial JPAT assessment). Many of the variables attained statistical significance (p < 0.05). The inter-rater reliability was calculated at an average Kappa value of 0.909. Overall, results suggest that JPAT is sufficiently reliable to be used as a tool for assessing patients who suffer from ESRD. PMID:12603073

  9. Nutrition education for postpartum women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Falciglia, Grace; Piazza, Julia; Ritcher, Erika; Reinerman, Christina; Lee, Seung Yeon

    2014-10-01

    This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a 4-month clinic-based dietary intervention emphasizing the intake of deep yellow and dark green vegetables versus usual care on improving diet quality in postpartum women. The intervention group (n = 31) received 1 face-to-face nutrition education session with a registered dietitian, 2 follow-up phone calls, and 3 pamphlets distributed by mail. The usual care group (n = 25) received handouts with guidelines on healthy eating. Dietary outcomes were assessed from 3-day food recalls and evaluated using paired and independent t tests. Intervention women exhibited a significant increase in total vegetable intake (P < .001) and in dark green and deep yellow vegetables (P < .001). In comparison, the control group increased the intake of total vegetables (P < .001), but did not increase the consumption of dark green and deep yellow vegetables. When comparing the change in intake between study groups for both types of vegetables, the difference was not significant. Furthermore, 61% of the intervention women met the goals for total vegetable intake compared with 12% for the usual care group (P < .001). The intervention group also had a greater percentage of women (25.8%) that met the goal for deep yellow and dark green vegetable intake when compared with the usual care group (8%; P < .08). These results suggest that postpartum women are receptive to nutrition education and that nutrition education can influence vegetable intake.

  10. Accessibility of outpatient healthcare providers for wheelchair users: Pilot study.

    PubMed

    Frost, Karen L; Bertocci, Gina; Stillman, Michael D; Smalley, Craig; Williams, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires full and equal access to healthcare services and facilities, yet studies indicate individuals with mobility disabilities receive less than thorough care as a result of ADA noncompliance. The objective of our pilot study was to assess ADA compliance within a convenience sample of healthcare clinics affiliated with a statewide healthcare network. Site assessments based on the ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities were performed at 30 primary care and specialty care clinics. Clinical managers completed a questionnaire on standard practices for examining and treating patients whose primary means of mobility is a wheelchair. We found a majority of restrooms (83%) and examination rooms (93%) were noncompliant with one or more ADA requirements. Seventy percent of clinical managers reported not owning a height-adjustable examination table or wheelchair accessible weight scale. Furthermore, patients were examined in their wheelchairs (70%-87%), asked to bring someone to assist with transfers (30%), or referred elsewhere due to an inaccessible clinic (6%). These methods of accommodation are not compliant with the ADA. We recommend clinics conduct ADA self-assessments and provide training for clinical staff on the ADA and requirements for accommodating individuals with mobility disabilities.

  11. A Pilot Study of Neurofeedback for Chronic PTSD.

    PubMed

    Gapen, Mark; van der Kolk, Bessel A; Hamlin, Ed; Hirshberg, Laurence; Suvak, Michael; Spinazzola, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    EEG Biofeedback (also known as neurofeedback) has been in use as a clinical intervention for well over 30 years; however, it has made very little impact on clinical care. One reason for this has been the difficulty in designing research to measure clinical change in the real world. While substantial evidence exists for its efficacy in treating attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, relatively little evidence exists for its utility in other disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study represents a "proof-of-concept" pilot for the use of neurofeedback with multiply-traumatized individuals with treatment-resistant PTSD. Participants completed 40 sessions of neurofeedback training two times per week with sensors randomly assigned (by the study coordinator, who was not blind to condition) to sensor placements of either T4-P4 or T3-T4. We found that neurofeedback significantly reduced PTSD symptoms (Davidson Trauma Scale scores averaged 69.14 at baseline to 49.26 at termination), and preceded gains in affect regulation (Inventory of Altered Self-Capacities-Affect Dysregulation scores averaged 23.63 at baseline to 17.20 at termination). We discuss a roadmap for future research.

  12. Patterns of federal Internet offenders: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann W; Carretta, Carrie M; Burgess, Allen G

    2012-09-01

    Internet-facilitated sexual offending is receiving increased forensic and clinical attention. Two issues confront this field. First, studies are equivocal as to whether (or not) the possession of Internet pornography can escalate to contact sexual offenses against a child, and second, federal judges have been questioning the length of sentences for users only of child pornography. The findings of this pilot study of 101 federal Internet offenders revealed over half of the men at the time of arrest were employed, educated, were in (or had been in) a relationship, had children, and did not have a prior criminal offense, suggesting a changing profile of a convicted sex offender. Forensic and psychiatric nurses who evaluate users of child pornography contraband need to be knowledgeable of Internet file transfer technology and the various types of contraband viewed specifically for the age of the preferred child, extreme acts to the child (e.g., bondage, S&M), and whether the user prefers images of adults with children or images of children only.

  13. Pre-training assessment tool (JPAT)--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chow, J; Bennett, L

    2001-01-01

    A tool for assessing the suitability of candidates for home dialysis (Jo-Pre-training Assessment Tool--JPAT) was developed. JPAT acts as a screening instrument to identify suitable candidates for the home dialysis programme, and therefore increases a patient's chance of learning to manage the programme. JPAT is in the form of an interview questionnaire consisting of 38 assessment items in six domains: physical stability, nutritional status, communication, ability to maintain self-care, psychological suitability and social support. A pilot study was conducted (n = 20, 1996-1997) using a descriptive study design, with subjects randomly selected from an existing dialysis programme. Pearson correlation and 2-tailed tests were employed to explore the relationship between the assessment outcome (i.e. the initial JPAT scores) and the follow up data (i.e. data collected within the seven days following the initial JPAT assessment). Many of the variables attained statistical significance (p < 0.05). The inter-rater reliability was calculated at an average Kappa value of 0.909. Overall, results suggest that JPAT is sufficiently reliable to be used as a tool for assessing patients who suffer from ESRD.

  14. A simple formula for the calculation of sample size in pilot studies.

    PubMed

    Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Smits, Luc; Kotz, Daniel; Budé, Luc; Spigt, Mark; Serroyen, Jan; Crutzen, Rik

    2015-11-01

    One of the goals of a pilot study is to identify unforeseen problems, such as ambiguous inclusion or exclusion criteria or misinterpretations of questionnaire items. Although sample size calculation methods for pilot studies have been proposed, none of them are directed at the goal of problem detection. In this article, we present a simple formula to calculate the sample size needed to be able to identify, with a chosen level of confidence, problems that may arise with a given probability. If a problem exists with 5% probability in a potential study participant, the problem will almost certainly be identified (with 95% confidence) in a pilot study including 59 participants. PMID:26146089

  15. Oral mucosal immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Suurna, Maria V.; Rochlin, Kate; Bremberg, Maria G.; Tropper, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sublingual mucosa has been used for many years to apply allergenic extracts for the purpose of specific immunotherapy (IT). Although sublingual IT (SLIT) is both safe and efficacious, the density of antigen-presenting cells is higher in other regions of the oral cavity and vestibule, which make them a potentially desirable target for IT. Objective: To present the concept of oral mucosal IT (OMIT) and to provide pilot data for this extended application of SLIT. Methods: An open-label, 12-month, prospective study was undertaken as a preliminary step before a full-scale clinical investigation. Twenty-four individuals with allergic rhinitis received IT by applying allergenic extracts daily to either the oral vestibule plus oral cavity mucosa by using a glycerin-based toothpaste or to the sublingual mucosa by using 50% glycerin liquid drops. Adverse events, adherence rates, total combined scores, rhinoconjunctivitis quality-of-life questionnaire scores, changes in skin reactivity, and changes in serum antibody levels were measured for each participant. Results: No severe adverse events occurred in either group. The adherence rate was 80% for the OMIT group and 62% for the SLIT group (p = 0.61). Decreased total combined scores were demonstrated for both the OMIT group (15.6%) and the SLIT group (22.3%), although this decrease did not reach statistical significance in either group. Both groups achieved a meaningful clinical improvement of at least 0.5 points on rhinoconjunctivitis quality-of-life questionnaire. A statistically significant rise in specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) was seen in both groups over the first 6 months of treatment. Conclusion: OMIT and SLIT demonstrated similar safety profiles and adherence rates. Measurements of clinical efficacy improved for both groups, but only changes in IgG4 achieved statistical significance. These pilot data provide enough evidence to proceed with a full-scale investigation to explore the role of OMIT in

  16. EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION NORTHWEST OREGON PILOT STUDY AREA DATA AND PRODUCT BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessme...

  17. EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION SOUTHERN ROCKIES PILOT STUDY AREA DATA AND PRODUCT BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessme...

  18. Health Care Delivery Meets Hospitality: A Pilot Study in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Steele, Joseph Rodgers; Jones, A Kyle; Clarke, Ryan K; Shoemaker, Stowe

    2015-06-01

    The patient experience has moved to the forefront of health care-delivery research. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Department of Diagnostic Radiology began collaborating in 2011 with the University of Houston Conrad N. Hilton College of Hotel and Restaurant Management, and in 2013 with the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, to explore the application of service science to improving the patient experience. A collaborative pilot study was undertaken by these 3 institutions to identify and rank the specific needs and expectations of patients undergoing imaging procedures in the MD Anderson Department of Diagnostic Radiology. We first conducted interviews with patients, providers, and staff to identify factors perceived to affect the patient experience. Next, to confirm these factors and determine their relative importance, we surveyed more than 6,000 patients by e-mail. All factors considered important in the interviews were confirmed as important in the surveys. The surveys showed that the most important factors were acknowledgment of the patient's concerns, being treated with respect, and being treated like a person, not a "number"; these factors were more important than privacy, short waiting times, being able to meet with a radiologist, and being approached by a staff member versus having one's name called out in the waiting room. Our work shows that it is possible to identify and rank factors affecting patient satisfaction using techniques employed by the hospitality industry. Such factors can be used to measure and improve the patient experience.

  19. Metastability in plyometric training on unstable surfaces: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past, plyometric training (PT) has been predominantly performed on stable surfaces. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine effects of a 7-week lower body PT on stable vs. unstable surfaces. This type of exercise condition may be denoted as metastable equilibrium. Methods Thirty-three physically active male sport science students (age: 24.1 ± 3.8 years) were randomly assigned to a PT group (n = 13) exercising on stable (STAB) and a PT group (n = 20) on unstable surfaces (INST). Both groups trained countermovement jumps, drop jumps, and practiced a hurdle jump course. In addition, high bar squats were performed. Physical fitness tests on stable surfaces (hexagonal obstacle test, countermovement jump, hurdle drop jump, left-right hop, dynamic and static balance tests, and leg extension strength) were used to examine the training effects. Results Significant main effects of time (ANOVA) were found for the countermovement jump, hurdle drop jump, hexagonal test, dynamic balance, and leg extension strength. A significant interaction of time and training mode was detected for the countermovement jump in favor of the INST group. No significant improvements were evident for either group in the left-right hop and in the static balance test. Conclusions These results show that lower body PT on unstable surfaces is a safe and efficient way to improve physical performance on stable surfaces. PMID:25089202

  20. Microwave Imaging of Human Forearms: Pilot Study and Image Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Colin; Zakaria, Amer; Pistorius, Stephen; LoVetri, Joe

    2013-01-01

    We present a pilot study using a microwave tomography system in which we image the forearms of 5 adult male and female volunteers between the ages of 30 and 48. Microwave scattering data were collected at 0.8 to 1.2 GHz with 24 transmitting and receiving antennas located in a matching fluid of deionized water and table salt. Inversion of the microwave data was performed with a balanced version of the multiplicative-regularized contrast source inversion algorithm formulated using the finite-element method (FEM-CSI). T1-weighted MRI images of each volunteer's forearm were also collected in the same plane as the microwave scattering experiment. Initial “blind” imaging results from the utilized inversion algorithm show that the image quality is dependent on the thickness of the arm's peripheral adipose tissue layer; thicker layers of adipose tissue lead to poorer overall image quality. Due to the exible nature of the FEM-CSI algorithm used, prior information can be readily incorporated into the microwave imaging inversion process. We show that by introducing prior information into the FEM-CSI algorithm the internal anatomical features of all the arms are resolved, significantly improving the images. The prior information was estimated manually from the blind inversions using an ad hoc procedure. PMID:24023539

  1. Adjustable recessions in horizontal comitant strabismus: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Siddharth; Singh, Vinita; Singh, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the surgical outcome of adjustable with the conventional recession in patients with horizontal comitant strabismus. Patients and Methods: A prospective comparative nonrandomized interventional pilot study was performed on patients with horizontal comitant strabismus. Fifty-four patients (27 in each group) were allocated into 2 groups to undergo either adjustable suture (AS) recession or non-AS (NAS) recession along with conventional resection. The patients were followed up for 6 months. A successful outcome was defined as deviation ±10 prism diopters at 6 months. The results were statistically analyzed by Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t-test. Results: A successful outcome was found in 24 (88.8%) patients in AS and 17 (62.9%) in NAS group (P = 0.02). The postoperative adjustment was done in 13 (48.1%) patients in AS group. There was one complication (tenon's cyst) in AS group. Conclusion: AS recession may be considered in all cooperative patients undergoing strabismus surgery for comitant deviations. PMID:26458480

  2. GLOBE Aerosol Field Campaign - U.S. Pilot Study 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, Margaret; Marentette, Christina; Bujosa, Robert; Taylor, Jessica; Lewis, Preston

    2016-01-01

    During the spring of 2016, from April 4 - May 27, sixteen GLOBE schools participated in the GLOBE Aerosol Field Campaign - U.S. Pilot Study. Thirteen teachers from these schools had previously participated in the NASA LEARN program (Long-term Experience in Authentic Research with NASA) where they were GLOBE trained in Atmosphere protocols, and engaged in 1-3 years of research under the mentorship of NASA scientists. Each school was loaned two aerosol instruments for the Campaign duration, either 2 GLOBE sun photometers, 2 Calitoo sun photometers, or 1 of each. This allowed for students to make measurements side-by-side and in the case of the Calitoos, to compare AOT results immediately with each other for better consistency in data collection. Additionally, as part of the Field Campaign evaluation, multiple instruments allow for an assessment of the ease of use of each instrument for grade level of students, whether in middle school or high school. Before the Campaign, all GLOBE and Calitoo instruments were 'checked out' against an AERONET, then checked again upon return after the Campaign. By examining all data, before, during and after the Campaign, this gives an indication of instrument performance and proficiency obtained by the students. Support was provided to each teacher and their students at the level requested, via email, phone or video conferencing.

  3. Skin and plasma autofluorescence during hemodialysis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Graaff, Reindert; Arsov, Stefan; Ramsauer, Bernd; Koetsier, Marten; Sundvall, Nils; Engels, Gerwin E; Sikole, Aleksandar; Lundberg, Lennart; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Stegmayr, Bernd

    2014-06-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) is related to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and is one of the strongest prognostic markers of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether changes in skin AF appear after a single HD session and if they might be related to changes in plasma AF. Skin and plasma AF were measured before and after HD in 35 patients on maintenance HD therapy (nine women and 26 men, median age 68 years, range 33-83). Median dialysis time was 4 h (range 3-5.5). Skin AF was measured noninvasively with an AGE Reader, and plasma AF was measured before and after HD at 460 nm after excitation at 370 nm. The HD patients had on average a 65% higher skin AF value than age-matched healthy persons (P < 0.001). Plasma AF was reduced by 14% (P < 0.001), whereas skin AF was not changed after a single HD treatment. No significant influence of the reduced plasma AF on skin AF levels was found. This suggests that the measurement of skin AF can be performed during the whole dialysis period and is not directly influenced by the changes in plasma AF during HD.

  4. Postnatal Foot Length to Determine Gestational Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wyk, Lizelle Van; Smith, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Gestational age is a critical factor in the management, decision-making, prognostication and follow-up of newborn infants. It is also essential for research and epidemiology. In the absence of an early assessment of fetal gestation by abdominal ultrasound, many neonatal units in developing countries determine gestational age by neonatal scores and last menstrual period-both of which are highly inaccurate. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether postnatal foot length measurement could accurately determine gestational age in a specified South African hospitalized neonatal population. Foot length was measured with a plastic Verniere's caliper. Foot length was shown to correlate well with gestational age (r = 0.919,p < 0.001). Intra-observer and inter-observer variability of foot length measurements was low. Foot length can therefore be used with high accuracy to determine the gestational age in a population where there is poor access to or utilization of antenatal sonar. PMID:26758249

  5. Health Care Delivery Meets Hospitality: A Pilot Study in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Steele, Joseph Rodgers; Jones, A Kyle; Clarke, Ryan K; Shoemaker, Stowe

    2015-06-01

    The patient experience has moved to the forefront of health care-delivery research. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Department of Diagnostic Radiology began collaborating in 2011 with the University of Houston Conrad N. Hilton College of Hotel and Restaurant Management, and in 2013 with the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, to explore the application of service science to improving the patient experience. A collaborative pilot study was undertaken by these 3 institutions to identify and rank the specific needs and expectations of patients undergoing imaging procedures in the MD Anderson Department of Diagnostic Radiology. We first conducted interviews with patients, providers, and staff to identify factors perceived to affect the patient experience. Next, to confirm these factors and determine their relative importance, we surveyed more than 6,000 patients by e-mail. All factors considered important in the interviews were confirmed as important in the surveys. The surveys showed that the most important factors were acknowledgment of the patient's concerns, being treated with respect, and being treated like a person, not a "number"; these factors were more important than privacy, short waiting times, being able to meet with a radiologist, and being approached by a staff member versus having one's name called out in the waiting room. Our work shows that it is possible to identify and rank factors affecting patient satisfaction using techniques employed by the hospitality industry. Such factors can be used to measure and improve the patient experience. PMID:25533732

  6. Skin and plasma autofluorescence during hemodialysis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Graaff, Reindert; Arsov, Stefan; Ramsauer, Bernd; Koetsier, Marten; Sundvall, Nils; Engels, Gerwin E; Sikole, Aleksandar; Lundberg, Lennart; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Stegmayr, Bernd

    2014-06-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) is related to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and is one of the strongest prognostic markers of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether changes in skin AF appear after a single HD session and if they might be related to changes in plasma AF. Skin and plasma AF were measured before and after HD in 35 patients on maintenance HD therapy (nine women and 26 men, median age 68 years, range 33-83). Median dialysis time was 4 h (range 3-5.5). Skin AF was measured noninvasively with an AGE Reader, and plasma AF was measured before and after HD at 460 nm after excitation at 370 nm. The HD patients had on average a 65% higher skin AF value than age-matched healthy persons (P < 0.001). Plasma AF was reduced by 14% (P < 0.001), whereas skin AF was not changed after a single HD treatment. No significant influence of the reduced plasma AF on skin AF levels was found. This suggests that the measurement of skin AF can be performed during the whole dialysis period and is not directly influenced by the changes in plasma AF during HD. PMID:24164288

  7. Postnatal Foot Length to Determine Gestational Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wyk, Lizelle Van; Smith, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Gestational age is a critical factor in the management, decision-making, prognostication and follow-up of newborn infants. It is also essential for research and epidemiology. In the absence of an early assessment of fetal gestation by abdominal ultrasound, many neonatal units in developing countries determine gestational age by neonatal scores and last menstrual period-both of which are highly inaccurate. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether postnatal foot length measurement could accurately determine gestational age in a specified South African hospitalized neonatal population. Foot length was measured with a plastic Verniere's caliper. Foot length was shown to correlate well with gestational age (r = 0.919,p < 0.001). Intra-observer and inter-observer variability of foot length measurements was low. Foot length can therefore be used with high accuracy to determine the gestational age in a population where there is poor access to or utilization of antenatal sonar.

  8. Fertility after Intrauterine Device Removal: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Amy M.; Xu, Hanna; Madden, Tessa; Allsworth, Jenifer E.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite high efficacy, only 7.7% of women in the United States currently using contraception use an IUD. There is little published contemporary data about fertility rates after IUD use, especially in nulliparous women and women using the hormonal IUD. Study Design We recruited sexually active women 18–35 years of age enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project who had discontinued a contraceptive method and desired pregnancy. Results In this pilot project, we enrolled 69 former IUD users (50 copper and 19 levonorgestrel) and 42 former non-IUD users. Pregnancy rates at 12-months were similar between the two groups; 81% of IUD users became pregnant compared to 70% of non-IUD users (p=0.18). In the Cox model, there was no difference in the time to pregnancy in IUD users compared to non-IUD users (HRadj 1.19, 95% CI 0.74–1.92). African American race was the only variable associated with reduced fertility (HRadj 0.40, 95% CI 0.24–0.67). Conclusions We found no difference in 12-month pregnancy rates or time to pregnancy between former IUD users and users of other contraceptive methods. However, there was a clinically and statistically significant reduction in fertility in African American women. PMID:25751567

  9. Ambulance clinical placements – A pilot study of students' experience

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Malcolm J; Williams, Brett; Cooper, Jennifer; Adams, Bridget; Alford, Kassie

    2008-01-01

    Background Undergraduate paramedic students undertake clinical placements in a variety of locations. These placements are considered an essential element for paramedic pre-employment education. However, anecdotal evidence suggests some students have not had positive experiences on their emergency ambulance placements. The objective of this study was to identify the type of experiences had by students during ambulance clinical placements and to provide feedback to the ambulance services. Methods In this pilot study we employed a cross-sectional study methodology, using a convenience sample of undergraduate paramedic students available in semester one of 2007 to ascertain the students' views on their reception by on-road paramedics and their overall experience on emergency ambulance clinical placements. Ethics approval was granted. Results There were 77 students who participated in the survey, 64% were females, with 92% of students < 25 years of age and 55% < 65 Kg in weight. There was a statistically significant difference in average height between the genders (Male 179 cm vs Female 168 cm, p < 0.001). Clinical instructors were available to 44% of students with 30% of students excluded from patient management. Thirty percent of students felt there was a lot of unproductive down time during the placement. Paramedics remarked to 40% of students that they doubted their ability to perform the physical role of a paramedic, of this group 36% were advised this more than once. Conclusion This study demonstrates that for a small group of students, emergency ambulance clinical placements were not a positive experience clinically or educationally. Some qualified paramedics doubt if a number of female students can perform the physical role of a paramedic. PMID:18400111

  10. Defining Feasibility and Pilot Studies in Preparation for Randomised Controlled Trials: Development of a Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Sandra M; Lancaster, Gillian A; Campbell, Michael J; Thabane, Lehana; Hopewell, Sally; Coleman, Claire L; Bond, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    We describe a framework for defining pilot and feasibility studies focusing on studies conducted in preparation for a randomised controlled trial. To develop the framework, we undertook a Delphi survey; ran an open meeting at a trial methodology conference; conducted a review of definitions outside the health research context; consulted experts at an international consensus meeting; and reviewed 27 empirical pilot or feasibility studies. We initially adopted mutually exclusive definitions of pilot and feasibility studies. However, some Delphi survey respondents and the majority of open meeting attendees disagreed with the idea of mutually exclusive definitions. Their viewpoint was supported by definitions outside the health research context, the use of the terms 'pilot' and 'feasibility' in the literature, and participants at the international consensus meeting. In our framework, pilot studies are a subset of feasibility studies, rather than the two being mutually exclusive. A feasibility study asks whether something can be done, should we proceed with it, and if so, how. A pilot study asks the same questions but also has a specific design feature: in a pilot study a future study, or part of a future study, is conducted on a smaller scale. We suggest that to facilitate their identification, these studies should be clearly identified using the terms 'feasibility' or 'pilot' as appropriate. This should include feasibility studies that are largely qualitative; we found these difficult to identify in electronic searches because researchers rarely used the term 'feasibility' in the title or abstract of such studies. Investigators should also report appropriate objectives and methods related to feasibility; and give clear confirmation that their study is in preparation for a future randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effect of an intervention.

  11. Learning the 'SMART' way... results from a pilot study evaluating an interprofessional acute care study day.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Robin

    2011-01-01

    A significant number of patients requiring critical care are now being managed outside of critical care facilities. There is evidence that staff looking after these patients lack the necessary knowledge and skills to care for them safely, and that effective pre-registration education can play a significant role in addressing these shortfalls in nurses' knowledge and skills. A team from Sheffield Hallam University, in collaboration with the University of Sheffield, developed a pilot one day interprofessional acute illness programme which was called SMART® (Student Management of Acute illness - Recognition and Treatment). To evaluate the pilot programme, 16 student doctors and 72 student nurses were recruited. A pre- and post-course questionnaire based on the Featherstone et al. (2005) evaluation of ALERT was used to ascertain the students' general level of knowledge of the deteriorating patient, their experiences of and confidence in caring for an acutely unwell patient, and their level of comfort with interprofessional working. The results from the pilot study indicate that the students' levels of knowledge, their levels of confidence and their comfort with interprofessional working all rose after undertaking the programme. The pilot study has a number of implications for the future teaching and learning of acute care clinical skills, within a theoretically based curriculum.

  12. UV disinfection pilot plant study at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Huffines, R.L.; Beavers, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    An ultraviolet light disinfection system pilot plant was operated at the Savannah River Site Central Shops sanitary wastewater treatment package plant July 14, 1992 through August 13, 1992. The purpose was to determine the effectiveness of ultraviolet light disinfection on the effluent from the small package-type wastewater treatment plants currently used on-site. This pilot plant consisted of a rack of UV lights suspended in a stainless steel channel through which a sidestream of effluent from the treatment plant clarifier was pumped. Fecal coliform analyses were performed on the influent to and effluent from the pilot unit to verify the disinfection process. UV disinfection was highly effective in reducing fecal coliform colonies within NPDES permit limitations even under process upset conditions. The average fecal coliform reduction exceeded 99.7% using ultraviolet light disinfection under normal operating conditions at the package treatment plants.

  13. UV disinfection pilot plant study at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Huffines, R.L.; Beavers, B.A.

    1993-05-01

    An ultraviolet light disinfection system pilot plant was operated at the Savannah River Site Central Shops sanitary wastewater treatment package plant July 14, 1992 through August 13, 1992. The purpose was to determine the effectiveness of ultraviolet light disinfection on the effluent from the small package-type wastewater treatment plants currently used on-site. This pilot plant consisted of a rack of UV lights suspended in a stainless steel channel through which a sidestream of effluent from the treatment plant clarifier was pumped. Fecal coliform analyses were performed on the influent to and effluent from the pilot unit to verify the disinfection process. UV disinfection was highly effective in reducing fecal coliform colonies within NPDES permit limitations even under process upset conditions. The average fecal coliform reduction exceeded 99.7% using ultraviolet light disinfection under normal operating conditions at the package treatment plants.

  14. Intramedullary cement osteosynthesis (IMCO): a pilot study in sheep.

    PubMed

    Mirzasadeghi, Alireza; Narayanan, Sri Subanesh; Ng, Min Hwei; Sanaei, Reza; Cheng, Chen Hui; Bajuri, Mohd Yazid; Shukur, Mohammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The application of bone substitutes and cements has a long standing history in augmenting fractures as a complement to routine fracture fixation techniques. Nevertheless, such use is almost always in conjunction with definite means of fracture fixation such as intramedullary pins or bone plates. The idea of using biomaterials as the primary fixation bears the possibility of simultaneous fixation and bone enhancement. Intramedullary recruitment of bone cements is suggested in this study to achieve this goal. However, as the method needs primary testings in animal models before human implementation, and since the degree of ambulation is not predictable in animals, this pilot study only evaluates the outcomes regarding the feasibility and safety of this method in the presence of primary bone fixators. A number of two sheep were used in this study. Tibial transverse osteotomies were performed in both animals followed by external skeletal fixation. The medullary canals, which have already been prepared by removing the marrow through proximal and distal drill holes, were then injected with calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The outcomes were evaluated postoperatively by standard survey radiographs, morphology, histology and biomechanical testings. Healing processes appeared uncomplicated until week four where one bone fracture recurred due to external fixator failure. The results showed 56% and 48% cortical thickening, compared to the opposite site, in the fracture site and proximal and distal diaphyses respectively. This bone augmentative effect resulted in 264% increase in bending strength of the fracture site and 148% increase of the same value in the adjacent areas of diaphyses. In conclusion, IMCO, using CPC in tibia of sheep, is safe and biocompatible with bone physiology and healing. It possibly can carry the osteopromotive effect of the CPCs to provide a sustained source of bone augmentation throughout the diaphysis. Although the results must be considered

  15. Piloted Evaluation of Modernized Limited Authority Control Laws in the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahasrabudhe, Vineet; Melkers, Edgar; Faynberg, Alexander; Blanken, Chris L.

    2003-01-01

    The UH-60 BLACK HAWK was designed in the 1970s, when the US Army primarily operated during the day in good visual conditions. Subsequently, the introduction of night-vision goggles increased the BLACK HAWK'S mission effectiveness, but the accident rate also increased. The increased accident rate is strongly tied to increased pilot workload as a result of a degradation in visual cues. Over twenty years of research in helicopter flight control and handling qualities has shown that these degraded handling qualities can be recovered by modifying the response type of the helicopter in low speed flight. Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation initiated a project under the National Rotorcraft Technology Center (NRTC) to develop modern flight control laws while utilizing the existing partial authority Stability Augmentation System (SAS) of the BLACK HAWK. This effort resulted in a set of Modernized Control Laws (MCLAWS) that incorporate rate command and attitude command response types. Sikorsky and the US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) conducted a piloted simulation on the NASA-Ames Vertical h4otion Simulator, to assess potential handling qualities and to reduce the risk of subsequent implementation and flight test of these modern control laws on AFDD's EH-60L helicopter. The simulation showed that Attitude Command Attitude Hold control laws in pitch and roll improve handling qualities in the low speed flight regime. These improvements are consistent across a range of mission task elements and for both good and degraded visual environments. The MCLAWS perform better than the baseline UH-60A control laws in the presence of wind and turbulence. Finally, while the improved handling qualities in the pitch and roll axis allow the pilot to pay more attention to the vertical axis and hence altitude performance also improves, it is clear from pilot comments and altitude excursions that the addition of an Altitude Hold function would further reduce workload and improve overall

  16. Improving Aviation Safety with information Visualization: A Flight Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Hearst, Marti

    2005-01-01

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with invisible airflow hazards. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real-time. With this influx of data comes the need to study how best to present it to the pilot - a cognitively overloaded user focused on a primary task other than that of information visualization. In this paper, we present the results of a usability study of an airflow hazard visualization system that significantly reduced the crash rate among experienced helicopter pilots flying a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic fixed-base rotorcraft flight simulator into hazardous conditions. We focus on one particular aviation application, but the results may be relevant to user interfaces in other operationally stressful environments.

  17. Managing ethical issues in sexual violence research using a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Duma, S E; Khanyile, T D; Daniels, F

    2009-03-01

    Conducting research in the area of sexual violence has complex ethical and practical challenges for the researcher. Managing ethical issues in sexual violence is important and can be achieved through the use of pilot studies. The primary purpose of the pilot study was to identify and manage potential ethical and practical problems that could jeopardise the main study or violate the ethical and human rights of participants in the main study on women's journey of recovery from sexual assault. The secondary purpose was to collect preliminary data in order to determine the human, financial and time resources needed for a planned study. The methods and processes used in conducting the pilot study in the study on women's journey of recovery are discussed according to each of the objectives of the pilot study, methods used to achieve the objective, observations or findings made during the pilot study, and implications for the main study. This article aims to demonstrate how a pilot study was used to manage identified potential ethical and practical research issues during the recruitment of participants and data collection for the research that was conducted by the first author to investigate women's journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first week following sexual assault.

  18. Practises to identify and prevent adverse aircraft-and-rotorcraft-pilot couplings-A ground simulator perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Marilena D.; Jump, Michael; Masarati, Pierangelo; Zaichik, Larisa; Dang-Vu, Binh; Smaili, Hafid; Quaranta, Giuseppe; Stroosma, Olaf; Yilmaz, Deniz; Johnes, Michael; Gennaretti, Massimmo; Ionita, Achim

    2015-08-01

    The aviation community relies heavily on flight simulators as a fundamental tool for research, pilot training and development of any new aircraft design. The goal of the present paper is to provide a review on how effective ground simulation is as an assessment tool for unmasking adverse Aircraft-and-Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings (APC/RPC). Although it is generally believed that simulators are not reliable in revealing the existence of A/RPC tendencies, the paper demonstrates that a proper selection of high-gain tasks combined with appropriate motion and visual cueing can reveal negative features of a particular aircraft that may lead to A/RPC. The paper discusses new methods for real-time A/RPC detection that can be used as a tool for unmasking adverse A/RPC. Although flight simulators will not achieve the level of reality of in-flight testing, exposing A/RPC tendencies in the simulator may be the only convenient safe place to evaluate the wide range of conditions that could produce hazardous A/RPC events.

  19. Development and pilot study findings of the Delta Garden Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to explore how school–based gardening programs can affect health and related behaviors and to assess how such programs can be sustainable over time and replicated to more settings. Across the world, there has been a recent revitalization and reinvention of gardening eff...

  20. A pilot study of a wearable apnoea detection device

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther; Chen, Gwangwei; Radcliffe, Jeremy; Duncan, John

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Current techniques for monitoring patients for apnoea suffer from significant limitations. These include insufficient availability to meet diagnostic needs, cost, accuracy of results in the presence of artefacts and difficulty of use in unsupervised conditions. Objectives We created and clinically tested a novel miniature medical device that targets overcoming these limitations. Methods We studied 20 healthy control participants and 10 patients who had been referred for sleep apnoea diagnosis. The performances of the new system and also of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved SOMNO clinical system, conventionally used for sleep apnoea diagnosis were evaluated under the same conditions. Both systems were tested during a normal night of sleep in controls and patients. Their performances were quantified in terms of detection of apnoea and hypopnoea in individual 10 s epochs, which were compared with scoring of signals by a blinded clinician. Main results For spontaneous apnoeas during natural sleep and considering the clinician scorer as the gold standard, the new wearable apnoea detection device had 88.6% sensitivity and 99.6% specificity. In comparison the SOMNO system had 14.3% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity. The novel device had been specifically designed to detect apnoea, but if apnoea and hypopnoea during sleep were both considered in the assessment, the sensitivity and specificity were 77.1% and 99.7%, respectively, versus 54% and 98.5%, respectively, for the SOMNO. Conclusions The performance of the novel device compares very well to the scoring by an experienced clinician even in the presence of breathing artefacts, in this small pilot study. This can potentially make it a real solution for apnoea home monitoring. PMID:25280802

  1. Changing mothers' perception of infant emotion: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Carnegie, R; Shepherd, C; Pearson, R.M.; Button, K. S; Munafò, M. R; Evans, J; Penton-Voak, I.S.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) techniques, which experimentally retrain abnormal processing of affective stimuli, are becoming established for various psychiatric disorders. Such techniques have not yet been applied to maternal processing of infant emotion, which is affected by various psychiatric disorders. Materials and Methods In a pilot study, mothers of children under 3 years old (n = 32) were recruited and randomly allocated to one of three training exercises, aiming either to increase or decrease their threshold of perceiving distress in a morphed continuum of 15 infant facial images. Differences between pre- and post-training threshold were analysed between and within subjects. Results Compared to baseline thresholds, the threshold for perceiving infant distress decreased in the lowered threshold group (mean difference -1.7 frames, 95% confidence intervals (CI) -3.1 to -0.3 p=0.02), increased in the raised threshold group (1.3 frames, 95% CI 0.6 to 2.1 p<0.01), and was unchanged in the control group (0.1 frames, 95% CI -0.8 to 1.1 p=0.80). Between group differences were similarly robust in regression models, and were not attenuated by potential confounders. Conclusions The findings suggest that it is possible to change the threshold at which mothers perceive ambiguous infant faces as distressed, either to increase or decrease sensitivity to distress. This small study was intended to provide proof of concept (i.e., that it is possible to alter a mother’s perception of infant distress.) Questions remain as to whether the effects persist beyond the immediate experimental session, have an impact on maternal behaviour, and could be used in clinical samples to improve maternal sensitivity and child outcomes. PMID:26260038

  2. Feasibility of the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Demographic ageing will lead to increasing pressure on visual rehabilitation services, which need to be efficiently organised in the near future. The Dutch ICF Activity Inventory (D-AI) was developed to assess the rehabilitation needs of visually impaired persons. This pilot study tests the feasibility of the D-AI using a computer-assisted telephone interview. Methods In addition to the regular intake, the first version of the D-AI was assessed in 20 patients. Subsequently, patients and intake assessors were asked to fill in an evaluation form. Based on these evaluations, a new version of the D-AI was developed. Results Mean administration time of the D-AI was 88.8 (± 41.0) minutes. Overall, patients and assessors were positive about the D-AI assessment. However, professionals and 60% of the patients found the administration time to be too long. All included items were considered relevant and only minor adjustments were recommended. Conclusion The systematic character of the revised D-AI will prevent topics from being overlooked and indicate which needs have the highest priority from a patient-centred perspective. Moreover, ongoing assessment of the D-AI will enhance evaluation of the rehabilitation process. To decrease administration time, in the revised D-AI only the top priority goals will be fully assessed. Using the D-AI, a rehabilitation plan based on individual needs can be developed for each patient. Moreover, it enables better evaluation of the effects of rehabilitation. A larger validation study is planned. PMID:21110871

  3. Problematic internet usage in US college students: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Internet addiction among US college students remains a concern, but robust estimates of its prevalence are lacking. Methods We conducted a pilot survey of 307 college students at two US universities. Participants completed the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) as well as the Patient Health Questionnaire. Both are validated measures of problematic Internet usage and depression, respectively. We assessed the association between problematic Internet usage and moderate to severe depression using a modified Poisson regression approach. In addition, we examined the associations between individual items in the IAT and depression. Results A total of 224 eligible respondents completed the survey (73% response rate). Overall, 4% of students scored in the occasionally problematic or addicted range on the IAT, and 12% had moderate to severe depression. Endorsement of individual problematic usage items ranged from 1% to 70%. In the regression analysis, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with several individual items. Relative risk could not be estimated for three of the twenty items because of small cell sizes. Of the remaining 17 items, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with 13 of them, and three others had P values less than 0.10. There was also a significant association between problematic Internet usage overall and moderate to severe depression (relative risk 24.07, 95% confidence interval 3.95 to 146.69; P = 0.001). Conclusion The prevalence of problematic Internet usage among US college students is a cause for concern, and potentially requires intervention and treatment amongst the most vulnerable groups. The prevalence reported in this study is lower than that which has been reported in other studies, however the at-risk population is very high and preventative measures are also recommended. PMID:21696582

  4. Results from simulated contact-handled transuranic waste experiments at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M.A.; Sorensen, N.R.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    We conducted in situ experiments with nonradioactive, contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste drums at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility for about four years. We performed these tests in two rooms in rock salt, at WIPP, with drums surrounded by crushed salt or 70 wt % salt/30 wt % bentonite clay backfills, or partially submerged in a NaCl brine pool. Air and brine temperatures were maintained at {approximately}40C. These full-scale (210-L drum) experiments provided in situ data on: backfill material moisture-sorption and physical properties in the presence of brine; waste container corrosion adequacy; and, migration of chemical tracers (nonradioactive actinide and fission product simulants) in the near-field vicinity, all as a function of time. Individual drums, backfill, and brine samples were removed periodically for laboratory evaluations. Waste container testing in the presence of brine and brine-moistened backfill materials served as a severe overtest of long-term conditions that could be anticipated in an actual salt waste repository. We also obtained relevant operational-test emplacement and retrieval experience. All test results are intended to support both the acceptance of actual TRU wastes at the WIPP and performance assessment data needs. We provide an overview and technical data summary focusing on the WIPP CH TRU envirorunental overtests involving 174 waste drums in the presence of backfill materials and the brine pool, with posttest laboratory materials analyses of backfill sorbed-moisture content, CH TRU drum corrosion, tracer migration, and associated test observations.

  5. Study of Adaptive Mathematical Models for Deriving Automated Pilot Performance Measurement Techniques. Volume I. Model Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, Edward A.; And Others

    A new approach to deriving human performance measures and criteria for use in automatically evaluating trainee performance is documented in this report. The ultimate application of the research is to provide methods for automatically measuring pilot performance in a flight simulator or from recorded in-flight data. An efficient method of…

  6. Airborne Conflict Management within Confined Airspace in a Piloted Simulation of DAG-TM Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan; Johnson, Edward; Wing, David J.; Barhydt, Richard

    2003-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was performed at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the feasibility of Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained airspace. The airspace was constrained by a pair of special use airspace (SUA) regions on either side of the pilot s planned route. The available airspace was further varied by changing the separation standard for lateral separation between 3 nm and 5 nm. The pilot had to maneuver through the corridor between the SUA s, avoid other traffic and meet flow management constraints. Traffic flow management (TFM) constraints were imposed as a required time of arrival and crossing altitude at an en route fix. This is a follow-up study to work presented at the 4th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar in December 2001. Nearly all of the pilots were able to meet their TFM constraints while maintaining adequate separation from other traffic. In only 3 out of 59 runs were the pilots unable to meet their required time of arrival. Two loss of separation cases are studied and it is found that the pilots need conflict prevention information presented in a clearer manner. No degradation of performance or safety was seen between the wide and narrow corridors. Although this was not a thorough study of the consequences of reducing the en route lateral separation, nothing was found that would refute the feasibility of reducing the separation requirement from 5 nm to 3 nm. The creation of additional, second-generation conflicts is also investigated. Two resolution methods were offered to the pilots: strategic and tactical. The strategic method is a closed-loop alteration to the Flight Management System (FMS) active route that considers other traffic as well as TFM constraints. The tactical resolutions are short-term resolutions that leave avoiding other traffic conflicts and meeting the TFM constraints to the pilot. Those that made use of the strategic tools avoided

  7. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  8. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY - CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed objective of the NATO/CCMS Pilot on clean products and processes is to facilitate further gains in pollution prevention, waste minimization, and design for the environment. It is anticipated that the free exchange of knowledge, experience, data, and models will fost...

  9. Research Note-Testing for Gerontological Competencies: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Colleen; Curl, Angela L.; Woodbury, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the pilot delivery of an evaluation method to gauge student learning of gerontological competencies. Using a pretest and posttest design, data were collected on 46 students over 3 classes. Results indicated significant improvement in how students rated or perceived their competencies skill level between pretest and posttest…

  10. Pilot Study of Extraneous Paperwork in a Parole/Probation Field Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Herbert R.; Libonate, DeAnna

    1990-01-01

    Discusses history of parole and probation and the special problems surrounding its paperwork. Presents results of a pilot study that measured extraneous paperwork of a parole/probation field office with preliminary recommendations. (Author/ABL)

  11. PILOT STUDY OF TARGETING ELEVATED BLOOD-LEVEL LEVELS IN CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    THIS PILOT STUDY SEEKS TO DEVELOP STATISTICAL MODELS TO PREDICT RISK OF CHILDHOOD LEAD POISONING WITHIN SPECIFIED GEOGRAPHIC AREAS BASED ON A COMBINATION OF DEMOGRAPHIC, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND PROGRAMMATIC INFORMATION SOURCES.

  12. A PILOT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S TOTAL EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENT PESTICIDES AND OTHER PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (CTEPP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pilot Study of Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) investigated the aggregate exposures of 257 preschool children and their primary adult caregivers to pollutants commonly detected in their everyday environments. ...

  13. Circadian Rhythms in Acute Intermittent Porphyria—a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Larion, Sebastian; Caballes, F. Ryan; Hwang, Sun-Il; Lee, Jin-Gyun; Rossman, Whitney Ellefson; Parsons, Judy; Steuerwald, Nury; Li, Ting; Maddukuri, Vinaya; Groseclose, Gale; Finkielstein, Carla V.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.

    2013-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an inherited disorder of heme synthesis wherein a partial deficiency of porphobilinogen [PBG] deaminase [PBGD], with other factors may give rise to biochemical and clinical manifestations of disease. The biochemical hallmarks of active AIP are relative hepatic heme deficiency and uncontrolled up-regulation of hepatic 5-aminolevulinic acid [ALA] synthase-1 [ALAS1] with overproduction of ALA and PBG. The treatment of choice is intravenous heme, which restores the deficient regulatory heme pool of the liver and represses ALAS1. Recently, heme has been shown to influence circadian rhythms by controlling their negative feedback loops. We evaluated whether subjects with AIP exhibited an altered circadian profile. Over a 21 h period, we measured levels of serum cortisol, melatonin, ALA, PBG, and mRNA levels [in peripheral blood mononuclear cells] of selected clock-controlled genes and genes involved in heme synthesis in 10 Caucasian [European-American] women who were either post-menopausal or had been receiving female hormone therapy, 6 of whom have AIP and 4 do not and are considered controls. Four AIP subjects with biochemical activity exhibited higher levels of PBG and lower levels and dampened oscillation of serum cortisol, and a trend for lower levels of serum melatonin, than controls or AIP subjects without biochemical activity. Levels of clock-controlled gene mRNAs showed significant increases over baseline in all subjects at 5 am and 11 pm, whereas mRNA levels of ALAS1, ALAS2, and PBGD were increased only at 11 pm in subjects with active AIP. This pilot study provides evidence for disturbances of circadian markers in women with active AIP that may trigger or sustain some common clinical features of AIP. PMID:23650938

  14. Pilot Study: A Pediatric Pedestrian Safety Curriculum for Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Bovis, Stephanie E; Harden, Taijha; Hotz, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate and implement the WalkSafe Pre-Kindergarten Pedestrian Safety Curriculum. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design without a control group was used to measure children's pedestrian safety knowledge. Knowledge assessments consisting of multiple-choice and short-answer questions were administered pre- and post-curriculum implementation by classroom teachers. Knowledge assessments gauged prekindergarten students' knowledge of pedestrian safety activities prior to safety curriculum implementation and, again, after the students received the curriculum. A total of 605 children (aged 3- to 5-year) from 38 prekindergarten classrooms in 16 randomly selected elementary schools participated in the pedestrian safety education pilot program. Subjects were of multiethnic and diverse backgrounds from the Miami-Dade County Public School District. Of the 605 educated subjects, 454 children completed both pre- and posttests. A statistically significant difference was found between pretest knowledge (M = 5.49, SD = 1.54) and posttest knowledge (M = 6.64, SD = 1.35) assessment scores across all 454 subjects, t(452) = -16.22, p < .001, 95% CI [-1.29, -1.01]. Previous studies have shown that classroom-based training of children as young as 4 years old can yield significant improvements in traffic safety knowledge. The statistical findings of the WalkSafe Pre-Kindergarten Pedestrian Safety Curriculum revealed statistically significant improvements in pedestrian safety knowledge of these young children. Future research efforts will focus on longitudinal behavioral changes in these students and an increase in pedestrian safety behaviors (e.g., utilization of crosswalks or sidewalks). PMID:27618373

  15. Hydrogen generation by metal corrosion in simulated Waste Isolation Pilot Plant environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Telander, M.R.; Westerman, R.E.

    1997-03-01

    The corrosion and gas-generation characteristics of four material types: low-carbon steel (the current waste packaging material for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), Cu-base and Ti-base (alternative packaging) materials, and Al-base (simulated waste) materials were determined in both the liquid and vapor phase of Brine A, a brine representative of an intergranular Salado Formation brine. Test environments consisted primarily of anoxic brine with overpressures of N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and H{sub 2}. Limited tests of low-carbon steel were also performed in simulated-backfill environments and in brine environments with pH values ranging from 3 to 11. Low-carbon steel reacted at a slow, measurable rate with anoxic brine, liberating H{sub 2} on an equimolar basis with Fe reacted. Presence of CO{sub 2} caused the initial reaction to proceed more rapidly, but CO{sub 2}-induced passivation stopped the reaction if the CO{sub 2} were present in sufficient quantities. Addition of H{sub 2}S to a CO{sub 2}-passivated system caused reversal of the passivation. Low-carbon steel immersed in brine with H{sub 2}S showed no reaction, apparently because of passivation of the steel by formation of FeS. Addition of CO{sub 2} to an H{sub 2}S-passivated system did not reverse the passivation. Cu- and Ti-base materials showed essentially no corrosion when exposed to brine and overpressures of N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}S except for the rapid and complete reaction between Cu-base materials and H{sub 2}S. The Al-base materials reacted at approximately the same rate as low-carbon steel when immersed in anoxic Brine A; considerably more rapidly in the presence of CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}S; and much more rapidly when iron was present in the system as a brine contaminant. High-purity Al was much more susceptible to corrosion than the 6061 alloy. No significant reaction took place on any material in any environment in the vapor-phase exposures.

  16. Piloted Simulation Investigation of a Supersonic Transport Configuration (LaRC.4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce; Martinez, Debbie; Derry, Stephen D.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains a description of the test facilities and software utilized during a joint NASA/aerospace industry study of improved control laws and desired inceptor characteristics for a candidate supersonic transport air-craft design. Details concerning the characteristics of the simulation cockpit, image generator and display systems, and motion platform are described. Depictions of the various display formats are included. The test schedule, session log, and flight cards describing the maneuvers performed is included. A brief summary of high-lights of the study is given. Modifications made to the industry-provided simulation model are described. This report is intended to serve as a reference document for industry researchers.

  17. New registered nurses' personal responses to professional practice: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Kathleen S

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study employed a qualitative description design to inquire into new registered nurses' (RNs') personal responses to being a "new nurse." Six new RNs participated in semistructured interviews. The findings of this pilot study can be used to guide educational activities for nurse leaders and others who work with new RNs. Several strategies are discussed, which may ease new RNs' transition into professional practice.

  18. Pilot Study on the Detection of Simulated Lesions Using a 2D and 3D Digital Full-Field Mammography System with a Newly Developed High Resolution Detector Based on Two Shifts of a-Se.

    PubMed

    Schulz-Wendtland, R; Bani, M; Lux, M P; Schwab, S; Loehberg, C R; Jud, S M; Rauh, C; Bayer, C M; Beckmann, M W; Uder, M; Fasching, P A; Adamietz, B; Meier-Meitinger, M

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Experimental study of a new system for digital 2D and 3D full-field mammography (FFDM) using a high resolution detector based on two shifts of a-Se. Material and Methods: Images were acquired using the new FFDM system Amulet® (FujiFilm, Tokio, Japan), an a-Se detector (receptor 24 × 30 cm(2), pixel size 50 µm, memory depth 12 bit, spatial resolution 10 lp/mm, DQE > 0.50). Integrated in the detector is a new method for data transfer, based on optical switch technology. The object of investigation was the Wisconsin Mammographic Random Phantom, Model 152A (Radiation Measurement Inc., Middleton, WI, USA) and the same parameters and exposure data (Tungsten, 100 mAs, 30 kV) were consistently used. We acquired 3 different pairs of images in the c-c and ml planes (2D) and in the c-c and c-c planes with an angle of 4 degrees (3D). Five radiologists experienced in mammography (experience ranging from 3 months to more than 5 years) analyzed the images (monitoring) which had been randomly encoded (random generator) with regard to the recognition of details such as specks of aluminum oxide (200-740 µm), nylon fibers (0.4-1.6 mm) and round lesions/masses (diameters 5-14 mm), using special linear glasses for 3D visualization, and compared the results. Results: A total of 225 correct positive decisions could be detected: we found 222 (98.7 %) correct positive results for 2D and 3D visualization in each case. Conclusion: The results of this phantom study showed the same detection rates for both 2D and 3D imaging using full field digital mammography. Our results must be confirmed in further clinical trials.

  19. PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-08-02

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

  20. Teacher Planning: A Simulation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Susan Levy

    The purpose of this study was to describe the preactive decisions made by a group of elementary teachers as they plan reading instruction for ten unfamiliar children as though it were the beginning of a new school year. Participants in this simulation were provided with a complete profile on each child's school and family background. Resulting…

  1. Contextualization and validation of the interprofessional collaborator assessment rubric (ICAR) through simulation: Pilot investigation

    PubMed Central

    Keshmiri, Fatemeh; Ponzer, Sari; Sohrabpour, AmirAli; Farahmand, Shervin; Shahi, Farhad; Bagheri-Hariri, Shahram; Soltani-Arabshahi, Kamran; Shirazi, Mandana; Masiello, Italo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Simulation can be used for educating, evaluating and assessing psychometric properties of an instrument. The aim of this study was to contextualize and assess the validity and reliability of the Interprofessional Collaborative Assessment tool (ICAR) in an Iranian context using simulation. Methods: In this descriptive study, contextualization of the ICAR was assessed through several steps. Firstly, validity assessment was approved through expert panels and Delphi rounds. Secondly, reliability assessment was done by arranging a simulation video and assessing reproducibility, test-retest (ICC), internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha) and inter-rater reliability (Kappa).The participants included 26 experts, 27 students and 6 staff of the Standardized Simulation Office of Teheran University of Medical Sciences. Results: Contextualization and validity of the ICAR were approved in an Iranian context. The reliability of the tool was computed to be 0.71 according to Cronbach´s Alpha. The test-retest was calculated to be 0.76. Conclusion: The Iranian ICAR can be a useful tool for evaluating interprofessional collaborative competencies. The development of the instrument through a simulation scenario has been a positive prospect for researchers.

  2. Contextualization and validation of the interprofessional collaborator assessment rubric (ICAR) through simulation: Pilot investigation

    PubMed Central

    Keshmiri, Fatemeh; Ponzer, Sari; Sohrabpour, AmirAli; Farahmand, Shervin; Shahi, Farhad; Bagheri-Hariri, Shahram; Soltani-Arabshahi, Kamran; Shirazi, Mandana; Masiello, Italo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Simulation can be used for educating, evaluating and assessing psychometric properties of an instrument. The aim of this study was to contextualize and assess the validity and reliability of the Interprofessional Collaborative Assessment tool (ICAR) in an Iranian context using simulation. Methods: In this descriptive study, contextualization of the ICAR was assessed through several steps. Firstly, validity assessment was approved through expert panels and Delphi rounds. Secondly, reliability assessment was done by arranging a simulation video and assessing reproducibility, test-retest (ICC), internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha) and inter-rater reliability (Kappa).The participants included 26 experts, 27 students and 6 staff of the Standardized Simulation Office of Teheran University of Medical Sciences. Results: Contextualization and validity of the ICAR were approved in an Iranian context. The reliability of the tool was computed to be 0.71 according to Cronbach´s Alpha. The test-retest was calculated to be 0.76. Conclusion: The Iranian ICAR can be a useful tool for evaluating interprofessional collaborative competencies. The development of the instrument through a simulation scenario has been a positive prospect for researchers. PMID:27683644

  3. A Pilot Study of Bar Codes in a Canadian Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Brisseau, Lionel; Chiveri, Andrei; Lebel, Denis; Bussières, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Background: In 2004, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a new rule requiring most prescription and some over-the-counter pharmaceutical products to carry bar codes down to the level of individual doses, with the intent of reducing the number of medication errors. Despite these regulatory changes in the United States, Health Canada has not yet adopted any mandatory bar-coding of drugs. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of using commercial bar codes for receipt and preparation of drug products and to evaluate the readability of the bar codes printed on various levels of drug packaging. Methods: This cross-sectional observational pilot study was conducted in the Pharmacy Department of a Canadian mother–child university hospital centre in July 2010. For the purposes of the study, research drugs and cytotoxic drugs in various storage areas, as well as locally compounded medications with bar codes generated in house, were excluded. For all other drug products, the presence or absence of bar codes was documented for each level of packaging, along with the trade and generic names, content (i.e., drug product), quantity of doses or level of packaging, therapeutic class (if applicable), type of bar code (1- or 2-dimensional symbology), alphanumeric value contained in the bar code, standard of reference used to generate the alphanumeric value (Universal Product Code [UPC], Global Trade Item Number [GTIN], or unknown), and readability of the bar codes by 2 scanners. Results: Only 33 (1.9%) of the 1734 products evaluated had no bar codes on any level of packaging. Of the 2875 levels of packaging evaluated, 2021 (70.3%) had at least one bar code. Of the 2384 bar codes evaluated, 2353 (98.7%) were linear (1-dimensional) and 31 (1.3%) were 2-dimensional. Well over three-quarters (2112 or 88.6%) of the evaluated bar codes were readable by at least 1 of the 2 scanners used in the study. Conclusions: On the basis of these results, bar-coding could be used for receipt

  4. Using Smartphones to Monitor Bipolar Disorder Symptoms: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kindermann, Sally; Maier, Andreas; Kerl, Christopher; Moock, Jörn; Barbian, Guido; Rössler, Wulf

    2016-01-01

    Background Relapse prevention in bipolar disorder can be improved by monitoring symptoms in patients' daily life. Smartphone apps are easy-to-use, low-cost tools that can be used to assess this information. To date, few studies have examined the usefulness of smartphone data for monitoring symptoms in bipolar disorder. Objective We present results from a pilot test of a smartphone-based monitoring system, Social Information Monitoring for Patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder (SIMBA), that tracked daily mood, physical activity, and social communication in 13 patients. The objective of this study was to investigate whether smartphone measurements predicted clinical symptoms levels and clinical symptom change. The hypotheses that smartphone measurements are (1) negatively related to clinical depressive symptoms and (2) positively related to clinical manic symptoms were tested. Methods Clinical rating scales were administered to assess clinical depressive and manic symptoms. Patients used a smartphone with the monitoring app for up to 12 months. Random-coefficient multilevel models were computed to analyze the relationship between smartphone data and externally rated manic and depressive symptoms. Overall clinical symptom levels and clinical symptom changes were predicted by separating between-patient and within-patient effects. Using established clinical thresholds from the literature, marginal effect plots displayed clinical relevance of smartphone data. Results Overall symptom levels and change in clinical symptoms were related to smartphone measures. Higher overall levels of clinical depressive symptoms were predicted by lower self-reported mood measured by the smartphone (beta=-.56, P<.001). An increase in clinical depressive symptoms was predicted by a decline in social communication (ie, outgoing text messages: beta=-.28, P<.001) and a decline in physical activity as measured by the smartphone (ie, cell tower movements: beta=-.11, P=.03). Higher overall

  5. Measuring pilot workload in a moving-base simulator. I Asynchronous secondary choice-reaction task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantowitz, B. H.; Hart, S. G.; Bortolussi, M. R.

    1983-01-01

    The de facto method for measuring airplane pilot workload is based upon subjective ratings. While researchers agree that such subjective data should be bolstered by using objective behavioral measures, results to date have been mixed. No clear objective technique has surfaced as the metric of choice. It is believed that this difficulty is in part due to neglect of theoretical work in psychology that predicts some of the difficulties that are inherent in a futile search for 'the one and only' best secondary task to measure workload. An initial study that used both subjective ratings and an asynchronous choice-reaction secondary task was conducted to determine if such a secondary task could indeed meet the methodological constraints imposed by current theories of attention. Two variants of a flight scenario were combined with two levels of the secondary task. Appropriate single-task control conditions were also included. Results give grounds for cautious optimism but indicate that future research should use synchronous secondary tasks where possible.

  6. Bilingual Text4Walking Food Service Employee Intervention Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Diana; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis; Sandi, Giselle; Moss, Angela; Ocampo, Edith V

    2016-01-01

    Background Half of all adults in the United States do not meet the level of recommended aerobic physical activity. Physical activity interventions are now being conducted in the workplace. Accessible technology, in the form of widespread usage of cell phones and text messaging, is available for promoting physical activity. Objective The purposes of this study, which was conducted in the workplace, were to determine (1) the feasibility of implementing a bilingual 12-week Text4Walking intervention and (2) the effect of the Text4Walking intervention on change in physical activity and health status in a food service employee population. Methods Before conducting the study reported here, the Text4Walking research team developed a database of motivational physical activity text messages in English. Because Hispanic or Latino adults compose one-quarter of all adults employed in the food service industry, the Text4Walking team translated the physical activity text messages into Spanish. This pilot study was guided by the Physical Activity Health Promotion Framework and used a 1-group 12-week pre- and posttest design with food service employees who self-reported as being sedentary. The aim of the study was to increase the number of daily steps over the baseline by 3000 steps. Three physical activity text messages were delivered weekly. In addition, participants received 3 motivational calls during the study. Results SPSS version 19.0 and R 3.0 were used to perform the data analysis. There were 33 employees who participated in the study (57.6% female), with a mean age of 43.7 years (SD 8.4). The study included 11 Hispanic or Latino participants, 8 of whom requested that the study be delivered in Spanish. There was a 100% retention rate in the study. At baseline, the participants walked 102 (SD 138) minutes/day (per self-report). This rate increased significantly (P=.008) to 182 (SD 219) minutes/day over the course of the study. The participants had a baseline mean of 10

  7. Flight Simulator Visual-Display Delay Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, D. Francis

    1981-01-01

    A piloted aircraft can be viewed as a closed-loop man-machine control system. When a simulator pilot is performing a precision maneuver, a delay in the visual display of aircraft response to pilot-control input decreases the stability of the pilot-aircraft system. The less stable system is more difficult to control precisely. Pilot dynamic response and performance change as the pilot attempts to compensate for the decrease in system stability. The changes in pilot dynamic response and performance bias the simulation results by influencing the pilot's rating of the handling qualities of the simulated aircraft. The study reported here evaluated an approach to visual-display delay compensation. The objective of the compensation was to minimize delay-induced change in pilot performance and workload, The compensation was effective. Because the compensation design approach is based on well-established control-system design principles, prospects are favorable for successful application of the approach in other simulations.

  8. The development of WIPPVENT, a windows based interactive mine ventilation simulation software program at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, K.H.; Wallace, K.G. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    An interactive mine ventilation simulation software program (WIPPVENT) was developed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The WIPP is a US Department of Energy (DOE) research and development project located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The facility is designed to provide a permanent, safe underground disposal of US defense generated transuranic waste in bedded salt. In addition to it`s regular functions, the underground ventilation system is engineered to prevent the uncontrolled spread of radioactive materials in the unlikely event of a release. To enhance the operability system, Westinghouse Electric Corporation has developed an interactive mine ventilation simulation software program (WIPPVENT). While WIPPVENT includes most of the functions of the commercially available simulation program VNETPC ({copyright} 1991 Mine Ventilation Services, Inc.), the user interface has been completely rewritten as a Windows{reg_sign} application and screen graphics have been added. WIPPVENT is designed to interact with the WIPP ventilation monitoring systems through the site wide Central Monitoring System.

  9. Coal resources available for development; a methodology and pilot study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleston, Jane R.; Carter, M. Devereux; Cobb, James C.

    1990-01-01

    Coal accounts for a major portion of our Nation's energy supply in projections for the future. A demonstrated reserve base of more than 475 billion short tons, as the Department of Energy currently estimates, indicates that, on the basis of today's rate of consumption, the United States has enough coal to meet projected energy needs for almost 200 years. However, the traditional procedures used for estimating the demonstrated reserve base do not account for many environmental and technological restrictions placed on coal mining. A new methodology has been developed to determine the quantity of coal that might actually be available for mining under current and foreseeable conditions. This methodology is unique in its approach, because it applies restrictions to the coal resource before it is mined. Previous methodologies incorporated restrictions into the recovery factor (a percentage), which was then globally applied to the reserve (minable coal) tonnage to derive a recoverable coal tonnage. None of the previous methodologies define the restrictions and their area and amount of impact specifically. Because these restrictions and their impacts are defined in this new methodology, it is possible to achieve more accurate and specific assessments of available resources. This methodology has been tested in a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kentucky Geological Survey on the Matewan 7.5-minute quadrangle in eastern Kentucky. Pertinent geologic, mining, land-use, and technological data were collected, assimilated, and plotted. The National Coal Resources Data System was used as the repository for data, and its geographic information system software was applied to these data to eliminate restricted coal and quantify that which is available for mining. This methodology does not consider recovery factors or the economic factors that would be considered by a company before mining. Results of the pilot study indicate that, of the estimated

  10. Pilot Study of Exercise Therapy on Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Min; D’Silva, Linda; Martin, Katherine; Sharma, Neena; Pasnoor, Mamatha; LeMaster, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Objective Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes. While the beneficial effect of exercise on diabetes is well established, its effect specifically on painful DPN has not been thoroughly explored. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise on pain in people with DPN. Methods Fourteen sedentary individuals (mean age 57±5.11 years) with painful DPN were enrolled in a 16-week, supervised aerobic exercise program. The Brief Pain Inventory-Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (BPI-DPN) was used to assess pain intensity (worst, least, average, now) and pain interference with daily life (activity, mood, walk, normal work, relationship, sleep, enjoyment of life) pre- and post -intervention. Body mass index (BMI), maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and blood pressure were also measured pre-and post-intervention as secondary outcomes of interest. Results Significant reductions in pain interference were observed with walking (4.93±3.03 pre to 3.29±2.89 post, p=0.016), normal work (5.39±3.32 pre to 3.79±3.04 post, p=0.032), relationship with others (3.96±3.53 pre to 1.29±1.27 post, p=0.006), sleep (5.11±3.04 pre to 3.5±3.03 post, p=0.02), and the overall pain interference (4.65±2.70 pre to 2.97±2.22 post, p=0.013) following the intervention; however, there was no change in pain intensity. VO2max increased significantly post-intervention (16.02±3.84ml/kg/min pre to 17.18±4.19ml/kg/min, p=0.028), while BMI, HbA1c, and blood pressure remained unchanged. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that perceived pain interference may be reduced following an aerobic exercise intervention among people with painful DPN, without a change in pain intensity. Further validation by a RCT is needed. PMID:25800666

  11. An exploratory simulation study of a head-up display for general aviation lightplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. L., Sr.; Hewes, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The concept of a simplified head-up display referred to as a landing-site indicator (LASI) for use in lightplanes is discussed. Results of a fixed-base simulation study exploring the feasibility of the LASI concept are presented in terms of measurements of pilot performance, control-activity parameters, and subjective comments of four test subjects. These subjects, all of whom had various degrees of piloting experience in this type aircraft, performed a series of simulated landings both with and without the LASI starting from different initial conditions in the final approach leg of the landing maneuver.

  12. [Functional Neuroimaging Pilot Study of Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescents].

    PubMed

    LeBoeuf, Amélie; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Labelle, Réal; Luck, David

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is being increasingly recognized by clinicians working with adolescents, and the reliability and validity of the diagnosis have been established in the adolescent population. Adolescence is known to be a period of high risk for BPD development as most patients identify the onset of their symptoms to be in the adolescent period. As with other mental health disorders, personality disorder, are thought to result from the interaction between biological and environmental factors. Functional neuroimaging studies are reporting an increasing amount of data on abnormal neuronal functions in BPD adult patients. However, no functional neuroimaging studies have been conducted in adolescents with BPD.Objectives This pilot project aims to evaluate the feasibility of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study coupled with clinical and psychological measures in adolescent girls with a diagnosis of BPD. It also aims to identify neuronal regions of interest (ROI) for the study of BPD in adolescent girls.Method Six female adolescents meeting DSM-IV criteria for BPD and 6 female adolescents without psychiatric disorder were recruited. Both groups were evaluated for BPD symptoms, depressive symptoms, impulsivity, affective lability, and other potential psychiatric comorbidities. We used fMRI to compare patterns of regional brain activation between these two groups as they viewed 20 positive, 20 negative and 20 neutral emotion-inducing pictures, which were presented in random order.Results Participants were recruited over a period of 22 months. The protocol was well tolerated by participants. Mean age of the BPD group and control group was 15.8 ± 0.9 years-old and 15.5 ± 1.2 years-old respectively. Psychiatric comorbidity and use of medication was common among participants in the BPD group. This group showed higher impulsivity and affective lability scores. For the fMRI task, BPD patients demonstrated greater differences in activation

  13. Candidate gene polymorphisms and risk of psoriasis: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    VILLARREAL-MARTÍNEZ, ALEJANDRA; GALLARDO-BLANCO, HUGO; CERDA-FLORES, RICARDO; TORRES-MUÑOZ, IRIS; GÓMEZ-FLORES, MINERVA; SALAS-ALANÍS, JULIO; OCAMPO-CANDIANI, JORGE; MARTÍNEZ-GARZA, LAURA

    2016-01-01

    6125829 (allele G: OR 1.98). Fisher's exact test detected statistical significance; however, following false discovery rate and Bonferroni correction, this association was no longer significant (threshold for genome-wide significance, P<1.56×10−3). SNPs that were associated with an increased risk of psoriasis in the present study have previously been associated with psoriasis in European, American, and Asian populations. In order to establish genome-wide significance, future studies must analyze a greater sample size. To the best of our knowledge, the present pilot study is the first to investigate the association between these 32 SNPs and psoriasis in a Mexican Mestizo population. PMID:27073425

  14. Avionic technology testing by using a cognitive neurometric index: A study with professional helicopter pilots.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Gianluca; Aricò, Pietro; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Salinari, Serenella; Colosimo, Alfredo; Bonelli, Stefano; Napoletano, Linda; Ferreira, Ana; Babiloni, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the possibility to evaluate the impact of different avionic technologies on the mental workload of helicopter's pilots by measuring their brain activity with the EEG during a series of simulated missions carried out at AgustaWestland facilities in Yeovil (UK). The tested avionic technologies were: i) Head-Up Display (HUD); ii) Head-Mounted Display (HMD); iii) Full Conformal symbology (FC); iv) Flight Guidance (FG) symbology; v) Synthetic Vision System (SVS); and vi) Radar Obstacles (RO) detection system. It has been already demonstrated that in cognitive tasks, when the cerebral workload increases the EEG power spectral density (PSD) in theta band over frontal areas increases, and the EEG PSD in alpha band decreases over parietal areas. A mental workload index (MWL) has been here defined as the ratio between the frontal theta and parietal alpha EEG PSD values. Such index has been used for testing and comparing the different avionic technologies. Results suggested that the HUD provided a significant (p<;.05) workload reduction across all the flight scenarios with respect to the other technologies. In addition, the simultaneous use of FC and FG technologies (FC+FG) produced a significant decrement of the workload (p<;.01) with respect to the use of only the FC. Moreover, the use of the SVS technology provided on Head Down Display (HDD) with the simultaneous use of FC+FG and the RO seemed to produce a lower cerebral workload when compared with the use of only the FC. Interestingly, the workload estimation by means of subjective measures, provided by pilots through a NASA-TLX questionnaire, did not provide any significant differences among the different flight scenarios. These results suggested that the proposed MWL cognitive neurometrics could be used as a reliable measure of the user's mental workload, being a valid indicator for the comparison and the test of different avionic technologies. PMID:26737704

  15. Avionic technology testing by using a cognitive neurometric index: A study with professional helicopter pilots.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Gianluca; Aricò, Pietro; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Salinari, Serenella; Colosimo, Alfredo; Bonelli, Stefano; Napoletano, Linda; Ferreira, Ana; Babiloni, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the possibility to evaluate the impact of different avionic technologies on the mental workload of helicopter's pilots by measuring their brain activity with the EEG during a series of simulated missions carried out at AgustaWestland facilities in Yeovil (UK). The tested avionic technologies were: i) Head-Up Display (HUD); ii) Head-Mounted Display (HMD); iii) Full Conformal symbology (FC); iv) Flight Guidance (FG) symbology; v) Synthetic Vision System (SVS); and vi) Radar Obstacles (RO) detection system. It has been already demonstrated that in cognitive tasks, when the cerebral workload increases the EEG power spectral density (PSD) in theta band over frontal areas increases, and the EEG PSD in alpha band decreases over parietal areas. A mental workload index (MWL) has been here defined as the ratio between the frontal theta and parietal alpha EEG PSD values. Such index has been used for testing and comparing the different avionic technologies. Results suggested that the HUD provided a significant (p<;.05) workload reduction across all the flight scenarios with respect to the other technologies. In addition, the simultaneous use of FC and FG technologies (FC+FG) produced a significant decrement of the workload (p<;.01) with respect to the use of only the FC. Moreover, the use of the SVS technology provided on Head Down Display (HDD) with the simultaneous use of FC+FG and the RO seemed to produce a lower cerebral workload when compared with the use of only the FC. Interestingly, the workload estimation by means of subjective measures, provided by pilots through a NASA-TLX questionnaire, did not provide any significant differences among the different flight scenarios. These results suggested that the proposed MWL cognitive neurometrics could be used as a reliable measure of the user's mental workload, being a valid indicator for the comparison and the test of different avionic technologies.

  16. Evaluating priority setting success in healthcare: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In healthcare today, decisions are made in the face of serious resource constraints. Healthcare managers are struggling to provide high quality care, manage resources effectively, and meet changing patient needs. Healthcare managers who are constantly making difficult resource decisions desire a way to improve their priority setting processes. Despite the wealth of existing priority setting literature (for example, program budgeting and marginal analysis, accountability for reasonableness, the 'describe-evaluate-improve' strategy) there are still no tools to evaluate how healthcare resources are prioritised. This paper describes the development and piloting of a process to evaluate priority setting in health institutions. The evaluation process was designed to examine the procedural and substantive dimensions of priority setting using a multi-methods approach, including a staff survey, decision-maker interviews, and document analysis. Methods The evaluation process was piloted in a mid-size community hospital in Ontario, Canada while its leaders worked through their annual budgeting process. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyze the data. Results The evaluation process was both applicable to the context and it captured the budgeting process. In general, the pilot test provided support for our evaluation process and our definition of success, (i.e., our conceptual framework). Conclusions The purpose of the evaluation process is to provide a simple, practical way for an organization to better understand what it means to achieve success in its priority setting activities and identify areas for improvement. In order for the process to be used by healthcare managers today, modification and contextualization of the process are anticipated. As the evaluation process is applied in more health care organizations or applied repeatedly in an organization, it may become more streamlined. PMID:20482843

  17. Defining Feasibility and Pilot Studies in Preparation for Randomised Controlled Trials: Development of a Conceptual Framework

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Sandra M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.; Campbell, Michael J.; Thabane, Lehana; Hopewell, Sally; Coleman, Claire L.; Bond, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a framework for defining pilot and feasibility studies focusing on studies conducted in preparation for a randomised controlled trial. To develop the framework, we undertook a Delphi survey; ran an open meeting at a trial methodology conference; conducted a review of definitions outside the health research context; consulted experts at an international consensus meeting; and reviewed 27 empirical pilot or feasibility studies. We initially adopted mutually exclusive definitions of pilot and feasibility studies. However, some Delphi survey respondents and the majority of open meeting attendees disagreed with the idea of mutually exclusive definitions. Their viewpoint was supported by definitions outside the health research context, the use of the terms ‘pilot’ and ‘feasibility’ in the literature, and participants at the international consensus meeting. In our framework, pilot studies are a subset of feasibility studies, rather than the two being mutually exclusive. A feasibility study asks whether something can be done, should we proceed with it, and if so, how. A pilot study asks the same questions but also has a specific design feature: in a pilot study a future study, or part of a future study, is conducted on a smaller scale. We suggest that to facilitate their identification, these studies should be clearly identified using the terms ‘feasibility’ or ‘pilot’ as appropriate. This should include feasibility studies that are largely qualitative; we found these difficult to identify in electronic searches because researchers rarely used the term ‘feasibility’ in the title or abstract of such studies. Investigators should also report appropriate objectives and methods related to feasibility; and give clear confirmation that their study is in preparation for a future randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effect of an intervention. PMID:26978655

  18. Combining Simulated Patients and Simulators: Pilot Study of Hybrid Simulation in Teaching Cardiac Auscultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friederichs, Hendrik; Weissenstein, Anne; Ligges, Sandra; Möller, David; Becker, Jan C.; Marschall, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Auscultation torsos are widely used to teach position-dependent heart sounds and murmurs. To provide a more realistic teaching experience, both whole body auscultation mannequins and torsos have been used in clinical examination skills training at the Medical Faculty of the University of Muenster since the winter term of 2008-2009. This training…

  19. Simulation studies of air transport operational problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauber, J. K.; Billings, C. E.; Stevenson, J. E.; Ruffell-Smith, H. P.; Cooper, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of the monitored approach procedure for conducting low visibility instrument approaches is described. Four airline crews each flew 16 approaches using the monitored procedure and 16 using a modified standard procedure in a DC-10 simulator under various conditions of visibility, wind shear and turbulence, and radar vectoring scenarios. In terms of system measures of aircrew performance, no major differences were found. Pilot opinion data indicate that there are some desirable characteristics of the monitored procedure, particularly with reference to the increased role of the flight engineer in conducting low visibility approaches. Rationale for developing approach procedures is discussed.

  20. Letter report: Pre-conceptual design study for a pilot-scale Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.A.; Morrissey, M.F.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a pre-conceptual design study for a Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste, Pilot-Scale Vitrification System. This pilot plant would support the development of a full-scale LLW Vitrification Facility and would ensure that the full-scale facility can meet its programmatic objectives. Use of the pilot facility will allow verification of process flowsheets, provide data for ensuring product quality, assist in scaling to full scale, and support full-scale start-up. The facility will vitrify simulated non-radioactive LLW in a manner functionally prototypic to the full-scale facility. This pre-conceptual design study does not fully define the LLW Pilot-Scale Vitrification System; rather, it estimates the funding required to build such a facility. This study includes identifying all equipment necessary. to prepare feed, deliver it into the melter, convert the feed to glass, prepare emissions for atmospheric release, and discharge and handle the glass. The conceived pilot facility includes support services and a structure to contain process equipment.

  1. CYCLE pilot: a protocol for a pilot randomised study of early cycle ergometry versus routine physiotherapy in mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Alexander J; Clarke, France; Herridge, Margaret S; Koo, Karen K Y; Rudkowski, Jill; Seely, Andrew J E; Pellizzari, Joseph R; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Mourtzakis, Marina; Karachi, Timothy; Cook, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early exercise with in-bed cycling as part of an intensive care unit (ICU) rehabilitation programme has the potential to improve physical and functional outcomes following critical illness. The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of enrolling adults in a multicentre pilot randomised clinical trial (RCT) of early in-bed cycling versus routine physiotherapy to inform a larger RCT. Methods and analysis 60-patient parallel group pilot RCT in 7 Canadian medical-surgical ICUs. We will include all previously ambulatory adult patients within the first 0–4 days of mechanical ventilation, without exclusion criteria. After informed consent, patients will be randomised using a web-based, centralised electronic system, to 30 min of in-bed leg cycling in addition to routine physiotherapy, 5 days per week, for the duration of their ICU stay (28 days maximum) or routine physiotherapy alone. We will measure patients' muscle strength (Medical Research Council Sum Score, quadriceps force) and function (Physical Function in ICU Test (scored), 30 s sit-to-stand, 2 min walk test) at ICU awakening, ICU discharge and hospital discharge. Our 4 feasibility outcomes are: (1) patient accrual of 1–2 patients per month per centre, (2) protocol violation rate <20%, (3) outcome measure ascertainment >80% at the 3 time points and (4) blinded outcomes ascertainment >80% at hospital discharge. Hospital outcome assessors are blinded to group assignment, whereas participants, ICU physiotherapists, ICU caregivers, research coordinators and ICU outcome assessors are not blinded to group assignment. We will analyse feasibility outcomes with descriptive statistics. Ethics and dissemination Each participating centre will obtain local ethics approval, and results of the study will be published to inform the design and conduct of a future multicentre RCT of in-bed cycling to improve physical outcomes in ICU survivors. Trial registration number NCT02377830; Pre

  2. A Pilot Study Assesing Climate Change Impacts on Cereals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topcu, Sevilay; Sen, Burak; Turkes, Murat

    2010-05-01

    The spatial and temporal impacts of climate change on the growth and yield of major cereals (first and second-crop corn) as well as wheat grown in Cukurova Region in the southern Turkey have been assessed, by combining the outputs from a regional climate model with a crop growth simulation model. With its 1.1 million ha of agricultural land, the Cukurova Region is one of the major agricultural production regions in Turkey. Wheat dominates in rain-fed areas while corn crops are grown in more than 50 % of the irrigated land in the region. Thus, the Region is providing half of the country's total cereal production. Since the region has a typical Mediterranean climate with almost no rain and high temperatures during the summer months, agricultural production is vulnerable to changes in climate in terms of decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures and consequently shortage of water resources. To predict the future climate for the period 2070-2100, the regional climate model RegCM3 conditions was performed using IPCC's SRESS-A2 scenario, and climatic parameter such as daily mean, maximum and minimum temperatures, radiation as well as total annual precipitation were selected for the simulation study. Data for the period 1961 to 1990 were used as historical reference. The WOFOST model was used to simulate cereal growths and yields for two different water availability senarios: 1) potential production and 2) water-limited production conditions. Potential growth represents the conditions where no limiting factor such as water and nutrients is present, however due to the water-limited production situation, water for irrigation is limited as a consequence of water shortage. The detailed results of previous field experiments carried out with three cereal crops in different locations with different regional soil and climate conditions were used for the verification of the WOFOST model. According to the verification results, the model simulated the yield with less than 5

  3. TF Inner Leg Space Allocation for Pilot Plant Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peter H. Titus and Ali Zolfaghari

    2012-09-06

    A critical design feature of any tokamak is the space taken up by the inner leg of the toroidal field (TF) coil. The radial build needed for the TF inner leg, along with shield thickness , size of the central solenoid and plasma minor radius set the major radius of the machine. The cost of the tokamak core roughly scales with the cube of the major radius. Small reductions in the TF build can have a big impact on the overall cost of the reactor. The cross section of the TF inner leg must structurally support the centering force and that portion of the vertical separating force that is not supported by the outer structures. In this paper, the TF inner leg equatorial plane cross sections are considered. Out-of- Plane (OOP) forces must also be supported, but these are largest away from the equatorial plane, in the inner upper and lower corners and outboard sections of the TF coil. OOP forces are taken by structures that are not closely coupled with the radial build of the central column at the equatorial plane. The "Vertical Access AT Pilot Plant" currently under consideration at PPPL is used as a starting point for the structural, field and current requirements. Other TF structural concepts are considered. Most are drawn from existing designs such as ITER's circular conduits in radial plates bearing on a heavy nose section, and TPX's square conduits in a case, Each of these concepts can rely on full wedging, or partial wedging. Vaulted TF coils are considered as are those with some component of bucking against a central solenoid or bucking post. With the expectation that the pilot plant will be a steady state machine, a static stress criteria is used for all the concepts. The coils are assumed to be superconducting, with the superconductor not contributing to the structural strength. Limit analysis is employed to assess the degree of conservatism in the static criteria as it is applied to a linear elastic stress analysis. TF concepts, and in particular the PPPL AT

  4. Use of sodium hypochlorite for skin antisepsis before inserting a peripheral venous catheter: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forni, Cristiana; Sabattini, Tania; D'Alessandro, Fabio; Fiorani, Ambra; Gamberini, Simonetta; Maso, Alessandra; Curci, Rosa; Zanotti, Enrichetta; Chiari, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Although it can be prevented, catheter-related bacteremia is common and dangerous. The antiseptics most widely used during insertion of peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) include povidone iodine, alcohol, and chlorhexidine. Another widely used antiseptic is a solution of 0.057 g sodium hypochlorite. This pilot study explored the contamination rate of the PVC tip inserted after skin decontamination with sodium hypochlorite. Culture analysis of the tips of the PVCs inserted into the 42 participants showed 7 (16.7%) colonized catheters. The results of this pilot study suggest taking into serious consideration the assessment of this antiseptic in randomized experimental studies.

  5. Quality assurance results from a breast screening pilot study.

    PubMed

    Thiele, D L

    1991-09-01

    A mammography quality assurance programme has been established as part of the breast cancer screening pilot project based in south-east Queensland. Prospective radiology clinics are required to participate in the quality assurance programme as part of the project's accreditation requirements. The programme follows the ACPSEM position paper on quality assurance in mammography and is divided into radiographer and physicist tests. Radiographer tests include film processor sensitometry (daily), image quality (weekly) and focal spot measurements (monthly). Physicist tests occur annually. The programme has been running successfully for 12 months on 17 machines from 6 manufacturers. Of the radiographer tests, sensitometry has proved the most beneficial with a number of chemistry problems detected early. Physicist tests have found x-ray/light field misalignment and poor automatic exposure control performance as the most common machine problems. Results also show that our kVp measuring system requires recalibration. PMID:1953503

  6. A pilot study to evaluate runoff quantity from green roofs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Young; Lee, Min Jung; Han, Mooyoung

    2015-04-01

    The use of green roofs is gaining increased recognition in many countries as a solution that can be used to improve environmental quality and reduce runoff quantity. To achieve these goals, pilot-scale green roof assemblies have been constructed and operated in an urban setting. From a stormwater management perspective, green roofs are 42.8-60.8% effective in reducing runoff for 200 mm soil depth and 13.8-34.4% effective in reducing runoff for 150 mm soil depth. By using Spearman rank correlation analysis, high rainfall intensity was shown to have a negative relationship with delayed occurrence time, demonstrating that the soil media in green roofs do not efficiently retain rainwater. Increasing the number of antecedent dry days can help to improve water retention capacity and delay occurrence time. From the viewpoint of runoff water quality, green roofs are regarded as the best management practice by filtration and adsorption through growth media (soil).

  7. Maintenance Model of Integrated Psychosocial Treatment in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: A Pilot Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Amy E.; Henry, David B.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The chronic and refractory course of pediatric bipolar disorder merits the study of adjunctive psychosocial interventions designed to facilitate long-term improvements. The objective of this study is to conduct a pilot study of a maintenance model of the child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy program (CFF-CBT), which…

  8. RESULTS FROM EXPOSURE MONITORING PERFORMED DURING THE 1997 BALTIMORE PM PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An eighteen day winter-time ambient and personal exposure monitoring study of particulate matter (PM) was conducted as part of an.integrated epidemiological-exposure pilot study of an aged population. Goals of the study were to determine the feasibility of performing active per...

  9. Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.; Olivotto, C.; Boese, A.; Spiero, F.; Galoforo, G.; Niihori, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut is an international educational challenge focusing on fitness and nutrition as we encourage students to "train like an astronaut." Teams of students (aged 8-12) learn principles of healthy eating and exercise, compete for points by finishing training modules, and get excited about their future as "fit explorers." The 18 core exercises (targeting strength, endurance, coordination, balance, spatial awareness, and more) involve the same types of skills that astronauts learn in their training and use in spaceflight. This first-of-its-kind cooperative outreach program has allowed 14 space agencies and various partner institutions to work together to address quality health/fitness education, challenge students to be more physically active, increase awareness of the importance of lifelong health and fitness, teach students how fitness plays a vital role in human performance for exploration, and inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in STEM fields. The project was initiated in 2009 in response to a request by the International Space Life Sciences Working Group. USA, Netherlands, Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Colombia, Spain, and United Kingdom hosted teams for the pilot this past spring, and Japan held a modified version of the challenge. Several more agencies provided input into the preparations. Competing on 131 teams, more than 3700 students from 40 cities worldwide participated in the first round of Mission X. OUTCOMES AND BEST PRACTICES Members of the Mission X core team will highlight the outcomes of this international educational outreach pilot project, show video highlights of the challenge, provide the working group s initial assessment of the project and discuss the future potential of the effort. The team will also discuss ideas and best practices for international partnership in education outreach efforts from various agency perspectives and experiences

  10. Google Earth Views of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis Pilot Study, Seaside, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, F. L.; Venturato, A. J.; Geist, E. L.

    2006-12-01

    Virtual globes such as Google Earth provide immediate geographic context for research data for coastal hazard planning. We present Google Earth views of data from a Tsunami Pilot Study conducted within and near Seaside and Gearhart, Oregon, as part of FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map Modernization Program (Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006). Two goals of the pilot study were to develop probabilistic 100- year and 500-year tsunami inundation maps using Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) and to provide recommendations for improved tsunami hazard assessment guidelines. The Seaside area was chosen because it is typical of many coastal communities along the Cascadia subduction zone that extends from Cape Mendocino, California, to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. State and local stakeholders also expressed considerable interest in mapping the tsunami threat to this area. The study was an interagency effort by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, and FEMA, in collaboration with the University of Southern California, Middle East Technical University, Portland State University, Horning Geoscience, Northwest Hydraulics Consultants, and the Oregon Department of Geological and Mineral Industries. The pilot study report will be augmented by a separate geographic information systems (GIS) data publication that provides model data and results. In addition to traditional GIS data formats, Google Earth kmz files are available to provide rapid visualization of the data against the rich base map provided by the interface. The data include verbal and geologic observations of historic tsunami events, newly constructed DEMs, historic shorelines, earthquake sources, models of tsunami wave heights, and maps of the estimated 100- and 500-year probabilistic floods. Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study - Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 2006

  11. F-8 DFBW simulating STS contro l system - Pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) on landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    From 1972 to 1985 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center conducted flight research with an F-8C employing the first digital fly-by-wire flight control system without a mechanical back up. The decision to replace all mechanical control linkages to rudder, ailerons, and other flight control surfaces was made for two reasons. First, it forced the research engineers to focus on the technology and issues that were truly critical for a production fly-by-wire aircraft. Secondly, it would give industry the confidence it needed to apply the technology--confidence it would not have had if the experimental system relied on a mechanical back up. In the first few decades of flight, pilots had controlled aircraft through direct force--moving control sticks and rudder pedals linked to cables and pushrods that pivoted control surfaces on the wings and tails. As engine power and speeds increased, more force was needed and hydraulically boosted controls emerged. Soon, all high-performance and large aircraft had hydraulic-mechanical flight-control systems. These conventional flight control systems restricted designers in the configuration and design of aircraft because of the need for flight stability. As the electronic era grew in the 1960s, so did the idea of aircraft with electronic flight-control systems. Wires replacing mechanical devices would give designers greater flexibility in configuration and in the size and placement of components such as tail surfaces and wings. A fly-by-wire system also would be smaller, more reliable, and in military aircraft, much less vulnerable to battle damage. A fly-by-wire aircraft would also be much more responsive to pilot control inputs. The result would be more efficient, safer aircraft with improved performance and design. The Aircraft By the late 1960s, engineers at Dryden began discussing how to modify an aircraft and create a fly-by-wire testbed. Support for the concept at NASA Headquarters came from Neil Armstrong, former research pilot

  12. Studies of planning behavior of aircraft pilots in normal, abnormal, and emergency situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.; Hillmann, K.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for the study of human planning behavior in complex dynamic systems is presented and applied to the study of aircraft pilot behavior in normal, abnormal and emergency situations. The method measures the depth of planning, that is the level of detail employed with respect to a specific task, according to responses to a verbal questionnaire, and compares planning depth with variables relating to time, task criticality and the probability of increased task difficulty. In two series of experiments, depth of planning was measured on a five- or ten-point scale during various phases of flight in a HFB-320 simulator under normal flight conditions, abnormal scenarios involving temporary runway closure due to snow removal or temporary CAT-III conditions due to a dense fog, and emergency scenarios involving engine shut-down or hydraulic pressure loss. Results reveal a dichotomy between event-driven and time-driven planning, different effects of automation in abnormal and emergency scenarios and a low correlation between depth of planning and workload or flight performance.

  13. [The motor activity study segment as pilot study of The Child and Adolescent Health Survey].

    PubMed

    Kahl, H; Emmel, J

    2002-12-01

    In the Health Survey for Children and Adolescents the examination of motor activity is one aspect of physical health covered by the study. This underlines the importance of physical activity for physical development in early years. This first representative child and adolescent study for Germany intends to obtain data on motor activity and to allow for the implementation of specific intervention programmes encouraging physical activity. The specific general conditions under which the survey is conducted restrict the selection and scope of possible instruments to a minimal programme, including fitness tests, strength in combination with endurance and coordinative skills as well as flexibility. In a pilot study the suitability, feasibility and the obtained evidence of selected single motor tests were tested. This article explains the choice of instruments and methods used in the examination of physical fitness. It also discusses methodological difficulties which affect the standardisation of tests and the requirements regarding personnel. A major concern of the pilot study was the evaluation of tested instruments with regard to gender and age differences. For the main survey the following tests are recommended: coordination (balancing backwards, one-leg-footing, sideway jumping), perseverance (sit-ups, push-ups), and flexibility (trunk bending).

  14. Environmental readiness pilot study at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, D.; Bhinge, D.; Patel, J.; Jones-Bateman, L.; Resnick, E.

    1994-12-31

    The Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) has been on standby status since the mid-1970s, prior to the enactment of the majority of Federal environmental regulations. As a result, BAAP is unprepared to begin production without the implementation of pollution prevention and treatment measures. The Army contracted SAIC to conduct a pilot study to develop an environmental readiness plan for BAAP in the event that the plant is reactivated to produce explosives and propellants for ammunition requirements during mobilization. This paper describes the process developed by SAIC to conduct this pilot study at BAAP and the relationship between this effort and the Army`s overall environmental mission.

  15. Treating skin tears in nursing home residents: a pilot study comparing four types of dressings.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H; Gaskill, D; Nash, R

    1998-03-01

    A pilot study was conducted to compare four types of dressings used to treat skin tears in nursing home residents. Wounds treated with a non-occlusive dressing healed more quickly than those dressed with occlusive dressings. The results suggest that ease of use and product wastage are important considerations when treating skin tears. The pilot study also highlights the need for further research into skin tear management and the need for ongoing education for nurses regarding skin integrity risk assessment and product information.

  16. Quantifying lifetime exposure to ultraviolet radiation in the epidemiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, C.S.; Selvin, S. . Dept. of Biomedical and Environmental Health Sciences Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA ); Buffler, P.A. . Dept. of Biomedical and Environmental Health Sciences); Scotto, J. . Biostatistics Branch); Berwick, M. (Cancer Pre

    1992-10-01

    This pilot study uses a unique method to calculate cumulative lifetime exposure to, ultraviolet radiation-b to determine if this refined method would indicate differences in lifetime cumulative UVB exposure between age and sex matched controls. Forty-four age and sex matched cases and controls demonstrated no significant difference in mean cumulative lifetime UVB exposure based on the duration and location of residence. This pilot study suggests that further analysis of the dataset should be conducted to determine if the cumulative lifetime exposure hypothesis is of primary importance regarding the association between UVB exposure and development of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

  17. Resource Allocation Support System (RASS): Summary report of the 1992 pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Buehring, W.A.; Whitfield, R.G.; Wolsko, T.D.; Kier, P.H.; Absil, M.J.G.; Jusko, M.J.; Sapinski, P.F.

    1993-02-01

    The Resource Allocation Support System (RASS) is a decision-aiding system being developed to assist the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Waste Management in program and budget decision making. Four pilot studies were conducted at DOE field offices in summer 1992 to evaluate and improve the RASS design. This report summarizes the combined results of the individual field office pilot studies. Results are presented from different perspectives to illustrate the type of information that would be available from RASS. Lessons learned and directions for future RASS developments are also presented.

  18. First annual post-liming monitoring report for the Western Maryland watershed liming pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.M.; Keating, R.W.; Morgan, R.P.

    1993-07-01

    The Western Maryland Watershed Liming Pilot Study was initiated in 1989 to determine whether watershed liming was an appropriate, feasible, and cost-effective strategy to mitigate streams in western Maryland that were chronically acidified by acid deposition. The watershed liming method used in this pilot study involved applying limestone to the soils in ground water discharge areas located adjacent to the stream. The natural flow of water within the watershed was then relied upon to aid in dissolving the limestone and transporting it neutralizing effects to the stream.

  19. Case studies of energy efficiency financing in the original five pilot states, 1993-1996

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B C; Collins, N E; Walsh, R W

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to document progress in state-level programs in energy efficiency financing programs that are linked with home energy rating systems. Case studies are presented of programs in five states using a federal pilot program to amortize the costs of home energy improvements. The case studies present background information, describe the states` program, list preliminary evaluation data and findings, and discuss problems and solution encountered in the programs. A comparison of experiences in pilot states will be used to provide guidelines for program implementers, federal agencies, and Congress. 5 refs.

  20. The effects of bed rest on crew performance during simulated shuttle reentry. Volume 1: Study overview and physiological results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, A.; Vykukal, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    A centrifuge study was carried out to measure physiological stress and control task performance during simulated space shuttle orbiter reentry. Jet pilots were tested with, and without, anti-g-suit protection. The pilots were exposed to simulated space shuttle reentry acceleration profiles before, and after, ten days of complete bed rest, which produced physiological deconditioning similar to that resulting from prolonged exposure to orbital zero g. Pilot performance in selected control tasks was determined during simulated reentry, and before and after each simulation. Physiological stress during reentry was determined by monitoring heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration rate. Study results indicate: (1) heart rate increased during the simulated reentry when no g protection was given, and remained at or below pre-bed rest values when g-suits were used; (2) pilots preferred the use of g-suits to muscular contraction for control of vision tunneling and grayout during reentry; (3) prolonged bed rest did not alter blood pressure or respiration rate during reentry, but the peak reentry acceleration level did; and (4) pilot performance was not affected by prolonged bed rest or simulated reentry.